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Sample records for characterization antioxidant properties

  1. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. Methods For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Results Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. Conclusion These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile. PMID:24330337

  2. Characterization and antioxidative properties of oligomeric proanthocyanidin from prunes, dried fruit of Prunus domestica L.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Ito, Hideyuki; Kawaji, Miyuki; Ikami, Takao; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    A prune extract was separated by an antioxidant-guided assay to obtain an oligomeric proanthocyanidin fraction. The antioxidative oligomer was characterized as a procyanidin oligomer with an average polymerization degree of five and composed of epicatechin and catechin units. The antioxidative activity of the oligomer showed greater potency than chlorogenic acid which is known as an antioxidative component in prunes. PMID:18540093

  3. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Ademosun, A O

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had significantly higher (P < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability than the bound phenolic extracts, except in orange peels where the bound phenolic extracts had significantly higher (P < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability. Bound phenolics from orange peels had the highest ABTS* scavenging ability (6.09 mmol./TEAC g) and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) (71.99 mg/GAE 100 g), while bound phenolics from shaddock peels had the least ABTS* scavenging ability (1.35 mmol./TEAC g) and FRAP (2.58 mg/GAE 100 g) . Bound phenolics from grapefruit peels had the highest OH* scavenging ability (EC50 = 3.8 mg/ml), while bound phenolics from shaddock peels had the least (EC50 = 16.1 mg/ml). The phenolics chelated Fe(2+) and inhibited malondialdehyde production in rat's pancreas in a dose-dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of the free and bound phenolics could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the peels; therefore, the high antioxidant properties of the free and bound phenolic extracts from orange peels could be harness in the formulation of nutraceuticals and food preservatives. PMID:24293692

  4. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant property of chitosan from cuttlebone Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885).

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-03-01

    Chitin was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis and chitosan was prepared through deacetylation. The chitosan was characterized for its structural, physical and thermal (CHN, DDA, FT-IR, NMR, XRD, Viscometric analysis, SEM and DSC) properties. Further, the chitosan exhibited the antioxidant activity of 50.68-74.36% at 1-10 mg ml(-1) and it also showed the reducing power of 0.28% at 1 mg ml(-1). At 10 mg ml(-1), the chitosan exhibited the scavenging ability of 46.17%, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, 23.38-73.70% on superoxide radicals at 0.05-1.6 mg ml(-1) and 18.34% to 62.39% (0.1-3.2 mg ml(-1)) on hydroxyl radicals; whereas at 1-10 mg ml(-1) the chelating ability on ferrous ions was calculated as 49.74-73.59%. Based on the potential antioxidant activity, scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating abilities on ferrous ions, the chitosan from the cuttlebone of S. kobiensis may not only be used as a potent natural antioxidant but also as a possible food quality enhancer ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24333227

  5. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it. PMID:26396378

  6. Chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant properties of aa fruits (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Andr; Cruz, Ana Paula Gil; Cabral, Lourdes Maria Corra; de Freitas, Sidina Cordeiro; Taxi, Cristina Maria Araujo Dib; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Andrade Mattietto, Rafaella; Friedrich, Mirko; da Matta, Virgnia Martins; Marx, Friedhelm

    2012-07-15

    Consumption of aa fruits has been linked to positive health effects due to its phenolic content and nutritive value. The objective of this study was to characterize aa fruits chemically and to determine the antioxidant capacity at three different maturity stages. With the exception of fat, amounts of macronutrients, minerals and titratable acids decreased during the ripening process. The same trend was observed for most of the phenolic constituents identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. A consistent decline was shown for flavones and hydroxycinnamic acids. The concentration of the anthocyanins increased in the course of ripening. In accordance with the total amount of the identified phenolic compounds, the antioxidant capacity, measured by TEAC and TOSC, also decreased. However, the contribution of the main phenolic compounds to the overall antioxidant capacity evaluated by TOSC was estimated to be low. PMID:25683393

  7. Fullerene-derivatized amino acids: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant properties, and solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianzhong; Alemany, Lawrence B; Driver, Jonathan; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D; Barron, Andrew R

    2007-01-01

    A series of [60]fullerene-substituted phenylalanine (Baa) and lysine derivatives have been prepared by the condensation of 1,2-(4'-oxocyclohexano)fullerene with the appropriately protected (4-amino)phenylalanine and lysine, respectively. Conversion of the imine to the corresponding amine is achieved by di-acid catalyzed hydroboration. The reduction of the imine is not accompanied by hydroboration of the fullerene cage. The [70]fullerene phenylalanine derivative has also been prepared as have the di-amino acid derivatives. The compounds were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy allowed the observation of diastereomers. Fullerene-substituted peptides may be synthesized on relatively large scale by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The presence of the C60-substituted amino acid in a peptide has a significant effect on the secondary structures and self-assembly properties of peptides as compared to the native peptide. The antioxidant assay of Baa and a Baa-derived anionic peptide was determined to be significantly more potent than Trolox. PMID:17236230

  8. Carboxymethylation of polysaccharide from Cyclocarya paliurus and their characterization and antioxidant properties evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Jian-Hua; Shen, Ming-Yue; Tang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-01-20

    In this study, three chemically carboxymethyl polysaccharides (CM-CPs) were derived from Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharides. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity in vitro of carboxymethyl derivatives were determined. The results of degree of substitution and FT-IR analysis showed the carboxymethylation of polysaccharides were successful. Compared with unmodified polysaccharides, the contents of carbohydrate and protein were decreased while CM-CP3 with highest DS value had more uronic acid. The carboxymethyl derivatives was mainly composed of Ara, Gal, Glc, Man, GalA, with a molecular weight (Mw) of 1.03-1.08 × 10(6)Da. Compared with the native polysaccharide, the CM-CP3 with highest DS and Mw exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid assay. However, the superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were decreased by CM-CPs. These results demonstrated appropriate carboxymethylation modification could enhance the potential of C. paliurus polysaccharide as oxidation inhibitor. PMID:26572438

  9. Characterization of selenium-enriched mycelia of Catathelasma ventricosum and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuntao; Li, Caiming; Luo, Xiaohu; Han, Guoquan; Xu, Shude; Niu, Fuge; Hu, Xinjie; Wu, Hejun; Zhang, Huimin

    2015-01-21

    This is the first report concerning the selenium enrichment of Catathelasma ventricosum mycelia. The selenium-containing proteins present in selenium-enriched mycelia (Se-MC) were identified using size-exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). The selenium-containing amino acids liberated by hydrolysis of these proteins were identified using anion exchange-ICP-MS. Se-MC was found to contain selenoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 1.7 to 60.5 kDa. The main selenium-containing amino acids within them were selenomethionine and selenocysteine. Furthermore, Se-MC possessed excellent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties. Se-MC normalized biochemical parameters like insulin level, blood glucose level, body weight, and antioxidant enzyme activity in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. It also inhibited the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities present in in vitro gastric and intestinal models. In conclusion, Se-MC has the potential to serve as a dietary supplement of selenium, an antioxidant, or an ingredient for the formulation of nutraceuticals. PMID:25536291

  10. Characterization and comparison of antioxidant properties and bioactive components of virginia soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun; Hogan, Shelly; Zhang, Lei; Rainey, Katy; Zhou, Kequan

    2008-12-10

    Nine Virginia soybeans grown in a single location were evaluated and compared for their antioxidant properties and isoflavone profiles. The total phenolic content (TPC) in the soybean extracts was significantly different among different genotypes. The V01-4937, V03-1144, and MFS-511 soybeans had the highest TPC values of 3.89, 3.63, and 3.53 mg of gallic acid equiv/g of seeds, respectively. The isoflavone composition was also different among the different soybean varieties. Malonylgenistin was the major isoflavone in all soybean seeds, accounting for 75-83% of the total measured isoflavones. The V01-4937 variety had the highest total isoflavones and malonylgenistin content followed by the V03-5794. The antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts were also significantly different. V01-4937 and Teejay showed the strongest ORAC values, which were 70% higher than that of the V00-3493 soybean, which had the lowest ORAC value (115.7 micromol of Trolox equiv/g of seeds). However, their ORAC values were correlated with neither TPC nor total isoflavone content. The MFS-511, V01-4937, and Teejay soybeans had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activities of 4.94, 4.78, and 4.64 micromol of Trolox equiv/g of seeds. Overall, the V01-4937 soybean stood out among the tested Virginia soybeans with regard to having the highest TPC, ORAC value, and isoflavone content as well as the second highest DPPH scavenging activity. PMID:19007126

  11. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Abad, Lucille

    2015-07-01

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265-280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000-600 cm-1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan.

  12. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Kladar, Neboja V; Ana?kov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Sr?enovi?, Branislava U; Gruji?, Nevena N; efer, Emilia I; Boin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the Folin?Ciocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and ?-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity. PMID:25766915

  13. Antioxidant properties of HDL

    PubMed Central

    Soran, Handrean; Schofield, Jonathan D.; Durrington, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) provides a pathway for the passage of lipid peroxides and lysophospholipids to the liver via hepatic scavenger receptors. Perhaps more importantly, HDL actually metabolizes lipid hydroperoxides preventing their accumulation on low-density lipoprotein (LDL), thus impeding its atherogenic structural modification. A number of candidates have been suggested to be responsible for HDL's antioxidant function, with paraoxonase-1 (PON1) perhaps the most prominent. Here we review the evidence for HDL anti-oxidative function and the potential contributions of apolipoproteins, lipid transfer proteins, paraoxonases and other enzymes associated with HDL. PMID:26528181

  14. Preliminary Characterization, Antioxidant Properties and Production of Chrysolaminarin from Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Song; Gao, Baoyan; Li, Aifen; Xiong, Jihai; Ao, Ziqiang; Zhang, Chengwu

    2014-01-01

    A new chrysolaminarin, named CL2, with a molecular mass of 7.75 kDa, was purified from the marine diatom, Odontella aurita, using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel-filtration chromatography. The monosaccharide and structural analysis revealed that CL2 was a glucan mainly composed of glucose, which was linked by the ?-d-(1?3) (main chain) and ?-d-(1?6) (side chain) glycosidic bond, demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The antioxidant activity tests revealed that the CL2 presented stronger hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with increasing concentrations, but less was effective on reducing power analysis and scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The influences of nitrogen concentration and light intensity on chrysolaminarin production of O. aurita were further investigated in a glass column photobioreactor, and a record high chrysolaminarin productivity of 306 mg L?1 day?1 was achieved. In conclusion, the chrysolaminarin CL2 from O. aurita may be explored as a natural antioxidant agent for application in aquaculture, food and pharmaceutical areas. PMID:25251034

  15. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  16. Production and Characterization of Antioxidant Properties of Exopolysaccharide(s) from Peanibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Tseng, Shih-Chun; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides have received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Although most microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) use sugars as the major carbon source, such as glucose or sucrose, in this study, EPSs were induced from a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Paenibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum EPS yield (14.8 g/L) was obtained. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of an EPS fraction purified by gel filtration revealed two mass peaks with molecular weights of ∼1.05 × 104 and ∼1.35 × 104 Da, respectively. The analysis of the hydrolysates of TKU032 EPS with cellulase, pectinase or α-amylase indicated that the glycosidic bond of TKU032 EPS is most likely an α-1,4 glycosidic bond and the hydrolysates are similar to those of starch. In addition, the purified EPS demonstrated strong antioxidant abilities. PMID:26907304

  17. Production and Characterization of Antioxidant Properties of Exopolysaccharide(s) from Peanibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Tseng, Shih-Chun; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides have received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Although most microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) use sugars as the major carbon source, such as glucose or sucrose, in this study, EPSs were induced from a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Paenibacillus mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum EPS yield (14.8 g/L) was obtained. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of an EPS fraction purified by gel filtration revealed two mass peaks with molecular weights of ∼1.05 × 10⁴ and ∼1.35 × 10⁴ Da, respectively. The analysis of the hydrolysates of TKU032 EPS with cellulase, pectinase or α-amylase indicated that the glycosidic bond of TKU032 EPS is most likely an α-1,4 glycosidic bond and the hydrolysates are similar to those of starch. In addition, the purified EPS demonstrated strong antioxidant abilities. PMID:26907304

  18. Structural characterization, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic properties of seagrass, Cymodocea serrulata (R.Br.) Asch. & Magnus mediated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chanthini, Abdhul Basheer; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Balakumaran, Manickam Dakshinamoorthi; Kalaichelvan, Pudhupalayam Thangavelu; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-12-01

    The present study pertains to the synthesis, structural elucidation, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from marine angiosperm, Cymodocea serrulata aqueous extract (CSAE). The characterization was made through UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), zeta potential and dynamic light scanning (DLS) analyses. The UV-Vis spectrum resulted in a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 430nm. The average crystalline size of the AgNPs was predicted through XRD peaks that indicated the 2 theta values of 37.84°, 44.06°, 64.42° and 77.74° for Bragg's refraction index. The functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction of Ag(+) into Ag(0) were focused through FTIR spectrum. The FESEM images showed that the C. serrulata mediated AgNPs (CS-AgNPs) were spherical in shape. DPPH assay revealed the higher free radical scavenging activity in CS-AgNPs, when compared to CSAE. The cytotoxicity assay on the cervical cancer (HeLa) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells upon treatment with CSAE: 107.7 & 124.3μgml(-1) and CS-AgNPs: 34.5 & 61.24μgml(-1), respectively showed good inhibition rate. These findings highlight the fact that C. serrulata could be a potential source for developing potent drugs and further studies are needed. PMID:26409094

  19. Comparison of the preliminary characterizations and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuo-fa; Lv, Guo-ying; Song, Ting-ting; Jin, Qun-li; Huang, Jian-bo; Fan, Lei-fa; Cai, Wei-ming

    2015-11-01

    Three polysaccharides (PPB-MB, PPB-MW and PPB-MM) were obtained from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates (mulberry branches, mixed wood sawdust and an equal combination of the two materials) and their chemical composition was investigated. PPB-MM contained the highest contents of neutral sugar (66.59%) and uronic acid (23.38%), followed by PPB-MW and PPB-MB, with PPB-MW having the highest protein content. The three polysaccharides were all composed of six kinds of monosaccharides, namely fucose, mannose, glactose, xylose, arabinose and glucose. The antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides were determined using lipid peroxidant inhibition, ABTS radical scavenging, and Fe(2+)-chelating assay. Results showed that PPB-MM exhibited the highest antioxidant properties in all the assays. As a result, an equal combination of mulberry branches and mixed wood sawdust serves as a good culture substrate for producing such antioxidant polysaccharides. PMID:26256363

  20. Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Snia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florncio, M

    2009-03-01

    Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

  1. Characterization of phenolic substances and antioxidant properties of food soybeans grown in the North Dakota-Minnesota region.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-10-01

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of a total of 30 soybean samples, including 27 grown in the North Dakota-Minnesota region and three soybeans from the other regions, were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, and isoflavones were quantified. Antioxidant properties of soybean extracts were assessed using 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. Results showed that black soybean cultivars possessed significantly higher TPC, TFC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values than all yellow soybean cultivars. However, black soybean cultivars did not exhibit significantly higher individual phenolic contents (except for anthocyanins), such as phenolic acids and isoflavones, than the yellow soybean cultivars. The isoflavone profiles of North Dakota soybean cultivars were similar to those of South Dakota, but average values of total isoflavone (TI) contents were higher than soybeans grown in the other states and Korea and Japan according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Iowa State University Database on the isoflavone contents of foods. Correlation assays showed that TPC, TI, total phenolic acids, daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, daidzein, genistein, and trans-cinnamic acid significantly ( r = 0.73, 0.62, 0.49, 0.68, 0.59, 0.59, 0.56, 0.47, and 0.76, respectively, p < 0.0001) correlated with ORAC values of yellow soybeans. Both isoflavones and phenolic acids contributed to the ORAC values of yellow soybeans. These data suggest that some selected soybean cultivars may be used as high-quality food-grade soybeans for providing high phenolic phytochemicals and antioxidant activities. PMID:18781761

  2. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  3. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  4. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Stojkovi?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; ?iri?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Sokovi?, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

  5. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Gder, Ayta; Korkmaz, Halil; Gkce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingl; Alpaslan, Gkhan

    2014-12-10

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, ?-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data. PMID:24967544

  6. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin-hexoside (Dp-Hex), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (C-3-Gal), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C-3-Glu), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3-Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3-Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside-gallate (M-DH-G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-Gal), quercetin-3- O-glucoside (Q-3-Glu), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Q-3-Rha), kaempferol-3-O-galactoside (K-3-Gal) and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (K-3-Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  7. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex), cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal), cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu), pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal), quercetin-3–O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu), quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha), kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal) and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  8. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boukraâ, Laïd; Benhanifia, Mokhtar; Islam, Asiful; Islam, Nazmul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants. PMID:22996344

  9. Characterization of main primary and secondary metabolites and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties in the mesocarp of three biotypes of Pouteria lucuma.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Claudia; Gálvez, Lena; Cobos, Ariel; Olaeta, José Antonio; Defilippi, Bruno G; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Pedreschi, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Pouteria lucuma is an Andean fruit from pre-Incas' times highly appreciated due to its characteristic flavor and taste in its homeland. We characterized the primary (e.g., sugars and organic acids), and secondary (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Rosalia, Montero and Leiva 1 lucuma biotypes. Significant differences were found in these metabolites and functional properties related to biotype and ripeness stage. Results showed significant amounts of sugars (119.4-344 mg total sugars g(-1)DW) and organic acids (44.4-30.0 mg g(-1)DW) and functional associated compounds such as ascorbic acid (0.35-1.07 mg g(-1)DW), total phenolics (0.7-61.6 mg GAE g(-1)DW) and total carotenoids (0.22-0.50 mg β-carotene g(-1)DW). Important in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties were found and provide the base for the standardization of lucuma harvest and postharvest focused not only on the enhancement of sensory but functional properties. PMID:26212989

  10. Purification, characterization and antioxidant properties of low molecular weight collagenous polypeptide (37 kDa) prepared from whale shark cartilage (Rhincodon typus).

    PubMed

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Zhang, Jingyi; Hong, Shaotong; Wu, Wenhui

    2015-10-01

    A low molecular weight type-II collagenous polypeptide (CIIp) from whale shark (WS) cartilage was prepared by thermolysin digestion; and examined for their physico-functional and antioxidant properties. The purified collagen was composed of an identical (?1)3 chains and was characterized as type-II. After hydrolysis with thermolysin, the ?-chain of the WS collagen was degraded into smaller peptides with molecular weight ranging from 70 to 20KDa. CIIp was successfully separated from the hydrolysates with molecular weight of approximately 37kDa. Amino acid analysis of CII, and CIIp indicated imino acid contents of 155 and 121 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CII and CIIp were observed, which suggested that the hydrolysis process by thermolysin affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of CII (34C) was higher than that of CIIp. Low content of glycoprotein was observed in CII than CIIp due to removal of some polypeptides by thermolysin digestion. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIp was greater than that of CII. The results proposed that the purified CIIp from WS cartilage with excellent antioxidant activities could be the suitable biomaterial for therapeutic applications. PMID:26396376

  11. Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucales Characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Approaches to Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Capacity and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valento, Patrcia

    2012-01-01

    Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process. PMID:23222802

  12. Phlorotannin extracts from fucales characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: approaches to hyaluronidase inhibitory capacity and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valento, Patrcia

    2012-12-01

    Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC?? = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC?? = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC?? = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC?? = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process. PMID:23222802

  13. Characterization of microalgal carotenoids by mass spectrometry and their bioavailability and antioxidant properties elucidated in rat model.

    PubMed

    Ranga Rao, A; Raghunath Reddy, R L; Baskaran, V; Sarada, R; Ravishankar, G A

    2010-08-11

    Of the total carotenoids in respective algal samples, beta-carotene in Spirulina platensis was 69.5%, astaxanthin and its esters in Haematococcus pluvialis was 81.38%, and lutein in Botryococcus braunii was 74.6%. The carotenoids were characterized by mass spectrometry. A time-course study of carotenoids in rats after administration of microalgal biomass showed peak levels in plasma, liver, and eyes at 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively. Beta-carotene accumulation in Spirulina-fed rats was maximum in eye tissues at 6 h. Similarly, levels of astaxanthin and lutein in Haematococcus- and Botryococcus-fed rats were also maximal in eye tissues. Astaxanthin from H. pluvialis showed better bioavailability than beta-carotene and lutein. The antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and TBARS were significantly high in plasma at 2 h and in liver at 4 h, evidently offering protection from free radicals. This study implies that microalgae can be a good source of carotenoids of high bioavailability and nutraceutical value. PMID:20681642

  14. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-?-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1?, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  15. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  16. Structural characterization, antioxidant and anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract(decoction)of Antigonon leptopus Hook. &Arn.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Pazhanimuthu, Annamalai; Natarajan, Thillainathan; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-04-01

    Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring boiling water over alleviated leaves of the tea plant. Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus has been traditionally used as remedy for cold, diabetes and pain in many countries. The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) synthesized from powdered leaf extract (decoction) of A. leptopus were characterized by UVvisible spectroscopy (UVvis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses to define the formation of Au NPs. Further, the synthesized Au NPs were well characterized based on their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR), crystalline nature, functional groups, size and dispersed shapes, purity and Bragg's reflections of face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic gold. The Au NPs showed higher free radical scavenging property when compared to the effect of leaf extract. Cytotoxicity study of synthesized Au NPs exhibited the growth inhibitory property at the concentration (GI50) of 257.8 ?g/mL in human adenocarcinoma breast cancer (MCF-7) cells after 48 h. Thus, the Au NPs synthesized from the Mexican creeper, A. leptopus revealed the important biological properties: as a free radical as well as anticancer agent. We conclude that the A. leptopus derived biological materials have promising potential as a source for the development of anticancer drug in future. PMID:25432487

  17. Antioxidant contents and antioxidative properties of traditional rye breads.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Anna; Ceglinska, Alicja; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Piskula, Mariusz Konrad; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Zielinski, Henryk

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to find out the effect of flour extraction rate on the antioxidative properties of traditional rye bread and then to compare the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant properties of rye breads with commercial wheat roll. Four types of rye flour with different extraction rates of 100 (whole meal dark flour), 95 (brown flour), 90 (brown flour), and 70% (light flour) originated from Warko rye cultivar were used for traditional bread baking with sourdough fermentation. Four types of the respective rye breads were analyzed for their potentially beneficial components, including tocopherols and tocotrienols, total phenolics and flavonoids, reduced glutathione, and inositol hexaphosphates. Moreover, the phenolic acids profile was provided. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the breads was evaluated using free radical scavenging activities of 80% methanol extracts against ABTS*+ radical cation (ABTS radical cation decolorization method) whereas radical scavenging activity (RSA) was determined against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*). The superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity) was evaluated as free radical scavenging activities of PBS extracts against superoxide anion radicals (O2*-). The results were compared to whole meal rye bread as well as to wheat roll taken as representative example of wheat based bakery product. The studies showed that flour extraction rates strongly affected the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidative properties of traditionally baked rye breads. The incorporation of the rye flours with extraction rates from 100 down to 70% in the formulation caused decrease in tocopherol (T), tocotrienol (T3), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), and phenolic compound (TPC) contents in rye breads. No changes in reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were noted between each type of rye bread. A significant decrease in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and radical DDPH scavenging activity was also found in bread formulated on flour with an extraction rate of 70% in comparison to the breads formulated on flour with extraction rates from 100 to 90%. The highest SOD-like activity was noted for rye bread formulated on flour with an extraction rate of 70%. The four types of rye breads showed better antioxidative properties and higher antioxidant contents when compared to wheat roll with one exception made to tocopherols and tocotrienols. PMID:17263468

  18. Pectic polysaccharide from the green fruits of Momordica charantia (Karela): structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Panda, Bibhash C; Mondal, Soumitra; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Khatua, Somanjana; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2015-01-12

    A water soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the aqueous extract of the green fruits of Momordica charantia contains D-galactose and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of nearly 1:4. It showed splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations. Moreover, it exhibited potent antioxidant activities. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and 1D and 2D NMR studies, the structure of the repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [Formula: see text]. PMID:25464078

  19. Preparation and characterization of antioxidant nanospheres from multiple alpha-lipoic acid-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Seop; Yuan, Xiangpeng; Xu, Qijin; McLafferty, Fred S; Petersen, Brian A; Collette, Jeremy C; Black, Keith L; Yu, John S

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize antioxidant nanospheres composed of multiple alpha-lipoic acid-containing compounds (mALAs). It was found that the nanospheres were remarkably stable under physiologic conditions, maintained the antioxidant property of alpha-lipoic acid, and could be destabilized oxidatively and enzymatically. The preparations were simple and highly reproducible providing a new strategy for the development of nanometer-sized antioxidant biomaterials. The nanospheres may find applications as antioxidant therapeutics and oxidation-responsive antioxidant nanocontainers in drug delivery for pathological conditions characterized by oxidative stress including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19231184

  20. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products. PMID:26152044

  1. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05) and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging. PMID:25335109

  2. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Cri?an, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Cri?an, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and ?-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  3. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  4. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kequan; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted. PMID:22919383

  5. Tunisian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by-products: Characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Souissi, Nabil; Salem, Marwa Ben; Ayadi, M A; Nasri, Moncef; Azabou, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Three Tunisian date varieties, Deglet Nour, Kentichi and Allig, served to produce syrups and powders, which were then examined for their physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties. Different proportions of these sweetening-like agents were incorporated to produce nine different formulations of dairy desserts, with lower amount of added sugars to avoid any artificial flavoring or coloring agents. Sensory and color evaluation data revealed that incorporating Deglet Nour and Kentichi syrup offers the most desirable formulation. Furthermore, syrup polysaccharides and fibers contribute to better maintain the final product texture. In addition, date by-products create a good source of natural thickening agents, involved in enhancing apparent viscosity and spontaneous exudation. Thanks to their high content in phenolic compounds, date by-products considerably improve antioxidant activities of the formulated desserts. Therefore, they could be valued as natural ingredients in the formulation of novel dairy products with high nutritional-properties. PMID:26041157

  6. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of dendritic polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Cheong, Jae Eun; Nelson, Julie L

    2009-11-15

    Three dendritic polyphenols (generation 1) were synthesized: a syringaldehyde-based dendrimer (1), a vanillin-based dendrimer (2), and an iodinated vanillin-based dendrimer (3). They all showed strong antioxidant activity according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The syringaldehyde dendrimer was twice and 10 times stronger than quercetin and Trolox, respectively. The vanillin-based dendrimer and its more hydrophobic iodinated derivative were also more potent antioxidants than quercetin and Trolox. The DPPH order of potency was 1>2, 3>quercetin>Trolox. All three dendrimers also protected human LDL from free radical attack in a dose-dependent manner. Their order of free radical scavenging was 1>3>2>quercetin>Trolox. The increased hydrophobic nature of the iodinated derivative may have contributed to its better LDL protection than 2. Protection of linoleic acid oxidation was studied by the beta-carotene-linoleate assay. Dendrimer 1 was clearly superior to the other antioxidants in protecting the fatty acid. In case of DNA protection against free radical damage, the order of activity was 1>quercetin>2>3, Trolox. Pro-oxidant effect on copper-induced DNA oxidation showed the following order: quercetin, Trolox>1>2>3. Results of the study show that dendritic antioxidants, even at the generation 1 level, provide promising antioxidant properties for their potential use as drug candidates for diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:19822425

  7. Acidotropic properties of synthetic hexahydropyridoindole antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ra?kov, Lucia; Kuniakov, Marcela

    2015-10-01

    In acidic intracellular organelles, sequestration via a proton-trapping mechanism is observed for many amine-containing drugs. It may be related to several adverse effects of a drug, yet accumulation of amines bearing antioxidant functionality may provide efficient protection of these compartments. In the present study, a possible proton-trapping mechanism of the novel antioxidant reference stobadine (STO) and its selected derivatives was investigated also with regard to their antioxidant properties, using BV-2 microglia. Unlike its 2-ethoxycarbonyl-8-methoxy derivative EC-STO (pKa1 4.95, pKa2 -3.58), STO, bearing weakly basic piperidine moiety (pKa2 9.03), induced vacuolar response in the cells. EC-STO, compared to STO, failed to provide better protection against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP), and that in spite of its predicted improved bioavailability and antioxidant properties. However, disruption of the lysosomal proton gradient abolished the efficacy of STO in suppressing oxidants generation and injury of the cells. NT-STO, the 6-nitro derivative of stobadine, lacking antiradical efficacy, showed a lower effect in protecting the cells against BHP. In conclusion, our study suggests that weakly basic hexahydropyridoindoles may act as lysosomotropic compounds. Furthermore, their weakly basic characteristics may contribute to their improved efficacy in suppressing peroxidative processes within lysosomes, and thus possibly combating ageing-related pathologies. PMID:26221744

  8. Antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Andr; Arajo, Paula; Azevedo, Joana; Cruz, Lus; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-02-01

    The study of the antioxidant properties of six deoxyanthocyanidins (deoxypeonidin, deoxymalvidin, luteolinidin, apigeninidin, guaiacylcatechinpyrylium and syringylcatechinpyrylium) and an anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) was carried out. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between the structure and the antioxidant properties of individual deoxyanthocyanidins, compared to a common anthocyanin derivative, cyanidin-3-glucoside. The ability of these compounds to inhibit lipid peroxidation in a liposome membrane system was examined by monitoring oxygen consumption and the antiradical and reducing capacities were determined using the DPPH and FRAP assay, respectively. The results showed that all the compounds tested presented antioxidant properties. Cyanidin-3-glucoside presented higher antiradical and reducing activities in the DPPH and FRAP assay, although in the liposome model, the guaiacylcatechinpyrylium was more effective inhibiting lipid peroxyl radicals. Additionally, the anti-proliferative effects of deoxyanthocyanidins, have been evaluated against two cancer cell lines from stomach (AGS, MKN-28) and one colon cancer cell (Caco-2), and compared with the effect of the respective anthocyanins. Considering the antiproliferative activity, all compounds were active against Caco-2 cell line, being the ones with glucose moiety and oaklin Scp the most active. Deoxyanthocyanidins, and in particular, guaiacylcatechinpyrylium may be regarded as potential food colorants. PMID:26304331

  9. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Ak, Tuba; Glin, Ilhami

    2008-07-10

    Curcumin (diferuoyl methane) is a phenolic compound and a major component of Curcuma longa L. In the present paper, we determined the antioxidant activity of curcumin by employing various in vitro antioxidant assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH*) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, total reducing ability determination by the Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation method, superoxide anion radical scavenging by the riboflavin/methionine/illuminate system, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Curcumin inhibited 97.3% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 15 microg/mL concentration (20 mM). On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, 123 mM), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 102 mM), alpha-tocopherol (51 mM) and trolox (90 mM) as standard antioxidants indicated inhibition of 95.4, 99.7, 84.6 and 95.6% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 45 microg/mL concentration, respectively. In addition, curcumin had an effective DPPH* scavenging, ABTS*(+) scavenging, DMPD*(+) scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Also, BHA, BHT, alpha-tocopherol and trolox, were used as the reference antioxidant and radical scavenger compounds. According to the present study, curcumin can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties. PMID:18547552

  10. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O(2) (-)) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O(2) (-) was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O(2) (-). They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (()OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H(2)O(2) induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge ()OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O(2) (-) and ()OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant.The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  11. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits are considered excellent functional foods because they contain high levels of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants can act as free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synergists. Therefore, antioxidants can delay or prev...

  12. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of poplar bud (Populus nigra) extract: individual antioxidant contribution of phenolics and transcriptional effect on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Dudonn, Stphanie; Poupard, Pascal; Coutire, Philippe; Woillez, Marion; Richard, Tristan; Mrillon, Jean-Michel; Vitrac, Xavier

    2011-05-11

    The Populus species possess great potential for therapeutical applications, especially for their known anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant properties of propolis, a hive product collected by honey bees mainly from poplar bud exudates, suggest that poplar buds also possess antioxidant properties. Here is reported the characterization of the antioxidant properties of an aqueous poplar bud (Populus nigra) extract. It presented a high total phenolic content, and moderate antioxidant properties as determined by ORAC assay. The main phenolic compounds identified were phenolic acids and flavonoid aglycons. These phenolic compounds were analyzed by ORAC assay for their individual antioxidant activity, in order to determine the major contributors to the total antioxidant activity of the extract. Thanks to their high antioxidant activity, caffeic and p-coumaric acids were identified as the major antioxidant components. Representing only 3.5% of its dry weight, these compounds represented together about 50% of the total antioxidant activity of the extract. The antioxidant properties of poplar bud extract and the phenolic compounds identified were also analyzed by cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), which was weakly correlated with ORAC assay. The transcriptional effect of poplar bud extract on skin aging was evaluated in vitro on a replicative senescence model of normal human dermal fibroblasts, using a customized DNA macroarray specifically designed to investigate skin aging markers. Among the detected genes, poplar bud extract significantly regulated genes involved in antioxidant defenses, inflammatory response and cell renewal. The collective antioxidant properties and transcriptional effect of this extract suggest potential antiaging properties which could be utilized in cosmetic and nutraceutical formulations. PMID:21425781

  13. Innovative phytosynthesized silver nanoarchitectures with enhanced antifungal and antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortan, Alina; Fierascu, Irina; Ungureanu, Camelia; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Dumitrescu, Ovidiu; Dinu-Pirvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-12-01

    While in the early era of nanotechnology, nanoparticles of noble metals were obtained through expensive methods, using toxic chemical reagents, in the last decade attempts are made to obtain the desired chemical composition, size, morphology, and other properties by eco and green synthesis, using plants. The aim of this paper is to compare two extraction methods (hydroalcoholic extraction and microwave extraction) used to phytosynthesize silver nanoparticles, in terms of nanoparticle (NP) morphology, antioxidant, and antifungal action, using an European native plant, Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. The extracts and the obtained NPs were characterized by modern analytical techniques (GC-MS, UV-Vis, SEM, TEM) and by phytochemical assays (total flavonoids, total terpenoids and total phenolic content). The antifungal activity (evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer method, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium hirsutum) and the antioxidant activity (determined by the DPPH assay and a chemiluminescence assay) revealed notable differences between the samples, differences due to the extraction procedure followed. Also, preliminary studies regarding the stability and the toxicity of the nanoparticles are presented. By using the microwave-assisted extraction, not only smaller particles (less than 10 nm) were obtained, but also with better antifungal and antioxidant properties than the ones obtained by classical extraction.

  14. ?-Glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant properties of Streptomyces sp.: in vitro.

    PubMed

    Praveen Kumar, P; Preetam Raj, J P; Nimal Christhudas, I V S; Sagaya Jansi, R; Narbert Raj, M; Agastian, P

    2014-02-01

    Streptomyces strain isolated from the soil sediment was studied for its in vitro ?-glucosidase and antioxidant properties. Morphological characterization and 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing were carried out to confirm that the strain Loyola AR1 belongs to genus Streptomyces sp. Modified nutrient glucose broth was used as the basal medium for growth and metabolites production. Ethyl acetate extract of Loyola AR1 (EA-Loyola AR1) showed 50% ?-glucosidase inhibition at the concentration of 860.50 2.68 ?g/ml. Antioxidant properties such as total phenolic content of EA-Loyola AR1 was 176.83 1.17 mg of catechol equivalents/g extracts. EA-Loyola AR1 showed significant scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (50% inhibition (IC??), 750.50 1.61 ?g/ml), hydroxyl (IC??, 690.20 2.38 ?g/ml), nitric oxide (IC??, 850.50 1.77 ?g/ml), and superoxide (IC??, 880.08 1.80 ?g/ml) radicals, as well as reducing power. EA-Loyola AR1 showed strong suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation (IC??, 670.50 2.52 ?g/ml). Antioxidants of ?-carotene linoleate model system reveals significantly lower than butylated hydroxyanisole. PMID:24242165

  15. Morphological and genetic characterization of a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis fungus and its polysaccharide component possessing antioxidant property in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaping; Zhang, Weiyun; Lu, Tingting; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Kong, Lingdong

    2006-05-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, one of the most precious traditional Chinese medicines, possesses the antitumor activity, antioxidant activity and the capability of modulating the immune system. In the present study, a fungus strain G1 isolated from wild C. sinensis was identified and initially characterized. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of related fungi. The analysis of ITS sequence showed that fungus G1 was clustered together with C. sinensis, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum and Tolypocladium inflatum in the phylogenetic tree. Both the morphological character and the ITS sequence analysis establish that fungus G1 is one of the anamorph strains of C. sinensis and belongs to Tolypocladium genus. Furthermore, the polysaccharide (PS) extracted from fungus G1 and its antioxidant activity on H22-bearing mice was investigated. H22 cells were hypodermically injected into the right oxter of each mouse after the ICR mice were treated with PS by means of gavage for 7 days. Then the same administration process continued for 9 days. At the end of the experiments, the tumor weight of each mouse was measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in mouse liver, brain and serum, as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in mouse liver and brain were assayed. The results showed that the H22 tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PS. Moreover, PS significantly enhanced SOD activity of liver, brain and serum as well as GSH-Px activity of liver and brain in tumor-bearing mice. PS also significantly reduced the level of MDA in liver and brain of tumor-bearing mice. PMID:16492382

  16. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of partridgeberry polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-02-01

    Partridgeberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a polyphenol-rich berry of the Ericaceous family, grown in Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada. The aims of this study were to identify extraction solvents for the maximum recovery of polyphenols, to establish fractionation technique for isolation of major sub-classes of polyphenols, and to evaluate antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of the partridgeberry polyphenol preparations. The acidified 70% acetone was identified as the ideal solvent for the maximum recovery of polyphenols from partridgeberry. Further, aqueous two-phase extraction, column chromatography and UPLC-MS/MS were employed to produce three partridgeberry polyphenol fractions, rich in either, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols or flavonols. All the three PPF were potent antioxidants and displayed cytoprotective activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of cellular death. The current study suggests that partridgeberry has numerous potential health implications in both prevention and amelioration of various diseases involving oxidative stress. PMID:25172753

  17. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Ma?gorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and ?-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

  18. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2•−) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2•− was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2•−. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge •OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2•− and •OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant capacity of naringenin-oxime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trkkan, Baki; zyrek, Mustafa; Bener, Mustafa; Gl, Kubilay; Apak, Re?at

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of the benefits of polyphenolic antioxidants is eliciting increasing interest in the search for new polyphenolic derivatives with improved antioxidant activity. Since naringenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone) (NG) is one of the most abundant citrus and grapefruit polyphenolics and flavanone oximes were used in the synthesis of anticancer and radioprotector compounds having antiradical activity, the corresponding oxime of NG, naringenin oxime (NG-Ox), was synthesized and investigated. The structure of NG-Ox was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, and the synthesized compound was screened for its antioxidant capacity by using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of NG-Ox was measured to be higher than that of the parent compound, NG. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on rad OH, O 2rad -, and H 2O 2) of NG-Ox were also determined.

  20. Characterization of antioxidants and change of antioxidant levels during storage of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Shih Peng; Leong, Lai Peng

    2004-12-29

    Antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables play an important role via their protective effects against the onset of aging-related chronic diseases. Our previous research has indicated that unripe ciku fruits (Manilkara zapota L.) are an excellent source of antioxidants, with over 3000 mg of L-ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) per 100 g of fresh sample. In this study, 24 antioxidants in an extract of ciku king were characterized through a free radical spiking test. Their chemical structures were proposed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and tandem MS (HPLC/MSn). The antioxidant capacity of ciku king fruits was mainly attributed to polyphenolics with basic blocks of gallocatechin or catechin or both. The changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolics content (TPC) of ciku king fruits with storage time were also investigated. It was found that the TAC and TPC decreased significantly as the fruits gradually changed from the unripe to the overripe stage. The best time for one to consume ciku king fruits at a flavorful stage with high amounts of antioxidants with AEAC values ranging from 600 to 1200 mg per 100 g fresh sample is suggested. The change of the content of major antioxidant peaks was also consistent with changes of antioxidant levels during storage. PMID:15612764

  1. Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Chang, Q; Zhu, M; Huang, Y; Ho, W K.K.; Chen, Z -Y.

    2001-03-01

    Hawthorn fruit extract has been shown to have many health benefits including being cardiovascular protective, hypotensive and hypocholesterolemic. The present study was carried out to characterize further the antioxidants of hawthorn fruit and their effect on the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and alpha-tocopherol. The dry hawthorn fruit was extracted successively with ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The ethyl acetate fraction was only effective in inhibition of Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. The column chromatographic separation led to isolation of eight pure compounds; namely, ursolic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin and protocatechuic acid. All of these phenolic compounds, except ursolic acid, were protective to human LDL from Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. They were also effective in preventing the peroxy free radical-induced oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in human LDL. The inhibitory effect of these compounds on oxidation of LDL and alpha-tocopherol was dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 M. In addition, supplementation of 2% hawthorn fruit powder significantly elevated serum alpha-tocopherol by 18-20% in rats fed a 30% polyunsaturated canola oil diet, as compared with the control. The present results suggest that part of the mechanism for cardiovascular protective effects of hawthorn fruit might also involve the direct protection to human LDL from oxidation or indirect protection via maintaining the concentration of alpha-tocopherol in human LDL. PMID:11257463

  2. Chemical properties and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Slovenian propolis.

    PubMed

    Mavri, Ana; Abramovič, Helena; Polak, Tomaž; Bertoncelj, Jasna; Jamnik, Polona; Smole Možina, Sonja; Jeršek, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    The chemical composition as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two EtOH extracts of propolis (PEEs) from Slovenia were determined. EtOH was used as extracting solvent at 70 and 96%, providing the extracts PEE70 and PEE96, respectively. The extraction with 70% EtOH was more efficient than that with 96% EtOH, as the PEE70 was richer in total phenolic compounds than the PEE96. The Slovenian propolis was characterized by different phenolic acids and flavonoids. The PEE96 was slightly richer in three specific compounds, i.e., caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and luteolin, while all other substances detected showed higher contents in the PEE70. The PEE70 showed a stronger reducing power and ability to scavenge free radicals and metal ions than the PEE96. Both PEEs were in the main more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli, with the exception of Campylobacter. The PEE96 decreased the intracellular oxidation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner. The antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties were related to the total phenolic contents. The two PEEs have the potential for use as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in foods. PMID:22899615

  3. Orange Peel Extracts: Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant, Antioxidative Burst, and Phytotoxic Activities.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Iqbal Chaudhary, M; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Shukralla, Ahmed; Muhammad, Aliyu; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Elemo, Gloria N

    2016-09-01

    The search for novel drugs and alternative medicine has led to increased research in medicinal plants. Among such plants is the orange fruit. Its peels have been utilized for long as an active ingredient in most traditional medicines. This study aims at investigating the chemical properties of the hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of orange peel as well as their biological potentials. Blended peels were extracted with n-hexane and n-dichloromethane, respectively. The resulting extracts were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) characterization. The extracts were also assayed for free radical scavenging ability against 1,1 -diphenyl -2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidative burst via measuring luminol -amplified chemiluminescence response in human blood, and phytotoxicity against lemna minor. GCMS analysis revealed a predominance of fatty acid methyl esters in the hexane extract, while the DCM extract had more ketone metabolites. The DCM extract had significant (p < .05) higher free radical scavenging and antioxidative burst activities compared to the hexane. Both extracts revealed a significantly (p < .05) high phytotoxicity activity. Results from this study indicated that solvent type played a vital a role in the extraction of secondary metabolites, which are responsible for the observed biological activities. The higher activities by the DCM extract can be attributed to its constituents as revealed by GCMS analysis. There is great need to explore the phytotoxicity potentials of both extracts as natural herbicides. PMID:26930349

  4. Antioxidant and pasting properties of oat ß-glucan hydrocolloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four oat ß-glucan enriched hydrocolloids (Nutrim10, C-Trim20, C-Trim30, C-Trim50), oat bran concentrate (OBC), and ß-Glucan95 were investigated for antioxidant and pasting properties. C-Trim30 had the highest soluble phenolic content, followed by C-Trim20. The trend of antioxidant activity was sim...

  5. In vitro antioxidant properties of mangosteen peel extract.

    PubMed

    Suttirak, Weerayuth; Manurakchinakorn, Supranee

    2014-12-01

    The growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on the screening of plant-derived raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. The special attention of research today is focused on inexpensive or residual sources from agricultural industries. Fruit peels as sources of powerful natural antioxidants are often the waste parts of various fruits from consumption and food industry. Among the fruit peels, mangosteen peel is an important source of natural phenolic antioxidants. The mangosteen peel contains various bioactive substances, i.e., phenolic acids and flavonoids, which possess biological and medicinal properties, especially antioxidant properties. The aim of this review, after presenting analytical techniques for determining in vitro antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, is to summarize available data on the factors affecting antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, the bioactive compounds identified from mangosteen peel extract and their antioxidant activity are presented. Potential applications of the mangosteen peel extract in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products are also discussed. PMID:25477623

  6. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries. PMID:26008718

  7. Correlation among Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Hemolytic, and Antiproliferative Properties of Leiothrix spiralis Leaves Extract

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Hilário, Felipe; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena; Bauab, Tais Maria

    2012-01-01

    The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the biological activities tested and the antioxidant properties. In this study, the total flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic extract of Leitothrix spiralis leaves were evaluated. The extract showed a total flavonoid content of 19.26% and the chemical characterization by HPLC-PAD confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary metabolite compounds. Significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.743 μg/mL ± 0.063) was demonstrated and was effective against Gram-negative organisms and all Candida strains tested, and showed an ability to inhibit hyphal formation. Non-hemolytic and antiproliferative activity could be demonstrated. PMID:22942765

  8. Enzymatic Glycosylation of Phenolic Antioxidants: Phosphorylase-Mediated Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Karel; Dewitte, Griet; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E; De Laet, Sylvie; Pelantov, Helena; K?en, Vladimr; Desmet, Tom

    2015-11-25

    Although numerous biologically active molecules exist as glycosides in nature, information on the activity, stability, and solubility of glycosylated antioxidants is rather limited to date. In this work, a wide variety of antioxidants were glycosylated using different phosphorylase enzymes. The resulting antioxidant library, containing ?/?-glucosides, different regioisomers, cellobiosides, and cellotriosides, was then characterized. Glycosylation was found to significantly increase the solubility and stability of all evaluated compounds. Despite decreased radical-scavenging abilities, most glycosides were identified to be potent antioxidants, outperforming the commonly used 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol (BHT). Moreover, the point of attachment, the anomeric configuration, and the glycosidic chain length were found to influence the properties of these phenolic glycosides. PMID:26540621

  9. Antioxidant properties of kilned and roasted malts.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Thomas S; Camburn, Philip A; Chandra, Sachin X; Gordon, Michael H; Ames, Jennifer M

    2005-10-01

    Compounds possessing antioxidant activity play a crucial role in delaying or preventing lipid oxidation in foods and beverages during processing and storage. Such reactions lead to loss of product quality, especially as a consequence of off-flavor formation. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of kilned (standard) and roasted (speciality) malts in relation to phenolic compounds, sugars, amino acids, and color [assessed as European Brewing Convention units (degrees EBC) and absorbance at 420 nm]. The concentrations of sugars and amino acids decreased with the intensity of the applied heat treatment, and this was attributed to the extent of the Maillard reaction, as well as sugar caramelization, in the highly roasted malts. Proline, followed by glutamine, was the most abundant free amino/imino acid in the malt samples, except those that were highly roasted, and maltose was the most abundant sugar in all malts. Levels of total phenolic compounds decreased with heat treatment. Catechin and ferulic acid were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the majority of the malts, and amounts were highest in the kilned samples. In highly roasted malts, degradation products of ferulic acid were identified. Antioxidant activity increased with the intensity of heating, in parallel with color formation, and was significantly higher for roasted malts compared to kilned malts. In kilned malts, phenolic compounds were the main identified contributors to antioxidant activity, with Maillard reaction products also playing a role. In roasted malts, Maillard reaction products were responsible for the majority of the antioxidant activity. PMID:16190672

  10. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  11. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  12. Antioxidant characterization of some Sicilian edible wild greens.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Sara; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brenna, Oreste V; Del Rio, Daniele; Frasca, Graziella; Brighenti, Furio; Tumino, Rosario

    2005-11-30

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that many antioxidants and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet may protect against cancers and cardiovascular disease. Common fruits and vegetables are good sources of antioxidants, although in some Mediterranean areas traditional wild greens are responsible for a significant percentage of total dietary antioxidant intake. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of Ragusa (Sicily), a high number of subjects were found to frequently eat wild greens, including Sinapis incana and Sinapis nigra, Diplotaxis erucoides, Cichorium intybus, Asparagus acutifolius, and Borrago officinalis. On the basis of these observations, detailed characterization of single antioxidant components (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and ascorbic acid) and the TAC of these edible wild traditional plants was performed. The wild plants examined were found to be very rich in antioxidants, such as flavonoids and carotenoids, with high TAC values, suggesting that the importance of these vegetables, not only in the traditional but even in the contemporary diet, needs to be emphasized. PMID:16302763

  13. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products. PMID:26041224

  14. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health. PMID:26784174

  15. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health. PMID:26784174

  16. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of luteolin-phospholipid complex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Keyong; Liu, Benguo; Ma, Yuxiang; Du, Jiquan; Li, Guanglei; Gao, Han; Zhang, Yuan; Ning, Zhengxiang

    2009-01-01

    A luteolin and phospholipid complex was prepared to improve the lipophilic properties of luteolin. The physicochemical properties of the complex were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV), infrared spectrometry (IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that luteolin and phospholipid in the complex were joined by non-covalent-bonds and did not form a new compound. It was found that the complex was an effective scavenger of DPPH radicals, with an IC(50) value of 28.33 microg/mL. In the Rancimat antioxidant test using lard oil as substrate, the complex also showed the strong antioxidant activity. PMID:19783938

  17. Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications. PMID:20674287

  18. [Antioxidant properties of some sulfur-containing substances].

    PubMed

    Iudin, M A; Ardab'eva, T V; Chepur, S V; Bykov, V N; Nikiforov, A S

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of sulfur-containing substances have been experimentally studied in vitro. Unithiol exhibits a wide spectrum us radicals. For this reason, unithiol can be considered, along with ascorbic acid, as a universal drug for the reduction of free radical reactions. PMID:21894766

  19. Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Capacity of Strawberry Tree Fruit (Arbutus unedo)

    PubMed Central

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Luclia; Pimpo, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M.; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Santos, Cludia N.

    2010-01-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a health promoting food. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  20. Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective capacity of strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo).

    PubMed

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Luclia; Pimpo, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cludia N

    2010-02-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a "health promoting food". The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model. PMID:22254017

  1. Bioavailability, antioxidant and immune-enhancing properties of zinc methionine.

    PubMed

    Chien, Xiaoming Xu; Zafra-Stone, Shirley; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of transition metals and cations remarkably induce oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA, the trace element zinc acts as a novel dietary supplement and an essential micronutrient, and serves a wide range of biological functions in human and animal health. Zinc promotes antioxidant and immune functions, stabilizes and maintains the structural integrity of biological membranes, and plays a pivotal role in skin and connective tissue metabolism and repair. Zinc is an integral constituent of a large number of enzymes including antioxidant enzymes, and hormones including glucagon, insulin, growth hormone, and sex hormones. High concentrations of zinc are found in the prostate gland and choroids of the eye. Zinc deficiency leads to biochemical abnormalities including the impairments of growth, dermal, gastrointestinal, neurologic and immunologic systems. Given its superior bioavailability, antioxidant and immune-enhancing properties, zinc methionine may serve as a novel dietary supplement to promote health benefits in humans and animals. PMID:17012778

  2. Angiomodulatory properties of Rhodiola spp. and other natural antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopiński, Piotr; Bałan, Barbara J.; Białoszewska, Agata; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Rokicki, Dariusz; Borecka, Anna; Hevelke, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of angiogenesis and oxidative stress can lead to many serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. Substances neutralizing oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. They can affect angiogenesis process also, and thus, they modulate therapy results. Antioxidants become more and more frequently used in order to maintain homeostasis of the organism and diminish the risk of disease. Herein, we introduce some antioxidant preparations of natural plant origin (Rhodiola, Aloe vera, Resveratrol, Echinacea, Plumbagin) and antioxidant supplements (Padma 28, Reumaherb, Resvega). Analyses of their angiogenic properties, their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis as well as medical application are within the scope of this review. Most of presented preparations down regulate neovascularization. They can be safely administered to patients with abnormally high angiogenesis. Rhodiola modulates, and Echinacea, Aloe vera and Plumbagin inhibit tumour-related angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (animal models). Resveratrol and Resvega reduce neovascularization in the eye and may be applicable in eye disorders. Padma 28 preparation exhibits angioregulatory activity, decreasing high angiogenesis of cancer cells and increasing physiological angiogenesis, therefore can be used in therapy of patients with various disturbances of angiogenesis. Antioxidant application in the case of angiogenesis-related diseases should take into consideration angiogenic status of the patient. PMID:26557041

  3. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 M Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 M TE/g DW and 212.18 M TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  5. Angiomodulatory properties of Rhodiola spp. and other natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Skopiński, Piotr; Bałan, Barbara J; Białoszewska, Agata; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Rokicki, Dariusz; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Borecka, Anna; Hevelke, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of angiogenesis and oxidative stress can lead to many serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. Substances neutralizing oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. They can affect angiogenesis process also, and thus, they modulate therapy results. Antioxidants become more and more frequently used in order to maintain homeostasis of the organism and diminish the risk of disease. Herein, we introduce some antioxidant preparations of natural plant origin (Rhodiola, Aloe vera, Resveratrol, Echinacea, Plumbagin) and antioxidant supplements (Padma 28, Reumaherb, Resvega). Analyses of their angiogenic properties, their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis as well as medical application are within the scope of this review. Most of presented preparations down regulate neovascularization. They can be safely administered to patients with abnormally high angiogenesis. Rhodiola modulates, and Echinacea, Aloe vera and Plumbagin inhibit tumour-related angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (animal models). Resveratrol and Resvega reduce neovascularization in the eye and may be applicable in eye disorders. Padma 28 preparation exhibits angioregulatory activity, decreasing high angiogenesis of cancer cells and increasing physiological angiogenesis, therefore can be used in therapy of patients with various disturbances of angiogenesis. Antioxidant application in the case of angiogenesis-related diseases should take into consideration angiogenic status of the patient. PMID:26557041

  6. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Protein Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Cui; Zhang, Chu Shu; Yu, Li Na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Shao Fang; Yang, Qing Li

    2012-01-01

    Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2–12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2–5 g/100 ml) than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive. PMID:22693580

  7. Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Properties of Anthocyanins from Defatted Dabai Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Nurulhuda, M. Halid; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir; Roowi, Suri

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine anthocyanins and their antioxidative and cardioprotective properties in defatted dabai parts. Anthocyanins in crude extracts and extract fractions of defatted dabai peel and pericarp were quantified using UHPLC, while their antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress inhibition ability were evaluated by using DPPH and CUPRAC assays as well as linoleic acid oxidation system, hemoglobin oxidation, and PARP-1 inhibition ELISA. Cardioprotective effect of the defatted dabai peel extract was evaluated using hypercholesterolemic-induced New Zealand white rabbits. Six anthocyanins were detected in the defatted dabai peel, with the highest antioxidant capacities and oxidative stress inhibition effect compared to the other part. The defatted dabai peel extract has also inhibited lipid peroxidation (plasma MDA) and elevated cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) in the tested animal model. Major anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) and other anthocyanins (pelargonidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) detected in the defatted dabai peel are potential future nutraceuticals with promising medicinal properties. PMID:24368926

  8. Antioxidative and cardioprotective properties of anthocyanins from defatted dabai extracts.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Nurulhuda, M Halid; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir; Roowi, Suri

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine anthocyanins and their antioxidative and cardioprotective properties in defatted dabai parts. Anthocyanins in crude extracts and extract fractions of defatted dabai peel and pericarp were quantified using UHPLC, while their antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress inhibition ability were evaluated by using DPPH and CUPRAC assays as well as linoleic acid oxidation system, hemoglobin oxidation, and PARP-1 inhibition ELISA. Cardioprotective effect of the defatted dabai peel extract was evaluated using hypercholesterolemic-induced New Zealand white rabbits. Six anthocyanins were detected in the defatted dabai peel, with the highest antioxidant capacities and oxidative stress inhibition effect compared to the other part. The defatted dabai peel extract has also inhibited lipid peroxidation (plasma MDA) and elevated cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) in the tested animal model. Major anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) and other anthocyanins (pelargonidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) detected in the defatted dabai peel are potential future nutraceuticals with promising medicinal properties. PMID:24368926

  9. Antioxidant properties and sensory profiles of breads containing barley flour.

    PubMed

    Holtekjlen, A K; Bvre, A B; Rdbotten, M; Berg, H; Knutsen, S H

    2008-09-15

    Breads were made by replacing 40% of wheat flour with barley flour. The incorporation of barley increased the antioxidant properties of the breads compared to the control bread. Furthermore, these properties proved to be dependent on the variety of barley as well as the extraction rate of the flour. The amount of free phenolics (TPC-S) decreased during the baking process, while the amount of bound phenolics increased (TPC-IS). At the same time, the measured antioxidant activities (FRAP-S and FRAP-IS) were relatively stable during the baking process. A sensory evaluation showed differences in sensory attributes, depending on the barley variety, and there was a good consistency between the sensory evaluation and the amount of phenolics. The present study showed that utilization of barley in breads has a beneficial health potential. However this will largely depend on the barley variety. PMID:26049234

  10. Antioxidant properties of macrophages toward low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Baoutina, A; Dean, R T; Jessup, W

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Intensive scientific efforts over the last two decades have focused on the elucidation of the mechanisms by which LDL is oxidized in vivo. A wealth of in vitro studies has demonstrated that the cell types present in atherosclerotic lesions, including monocyte/macrophages, quantitatively one of the most important cell types in plaque development, promote LDL oxidation. The mechanisms of cellular prooxidant activities have been extensively investigated. Fewer studies have addressed possible protective properties of the cells in LDL oxidation. This review summarizes recent observations of antioxidant, and potentially antiatherogenic, activities of macrophages toward LDL, including macrophage-mediated detoxification of lipid and protein hydroperoxides, metal sequestration and the generation of compounds with antioxidant properties. These activities could contribute to the net effect of macrophages on deleterious LDL oxidation and to the complex role of these cells in lesion development. PMID:11413045

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of monofloral bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Fatrcov-ramkov, Katarna; Nkov, Janka; Ka?niov, Miroslava; Mrissyov, Magda; Rovn, Katarna; Stri?k, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity of monofloral bee pollen samples to pathogenic bacteria. These samples were collected in different localities in Slovakia. The antioxidant properties of examined plant species were different and decreasing in the following order: Brassica napus subsp. napus L > Papaver somniferum L. > Helianthus annuus L. The antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested by using the agar well diffusion method. The methanol (99.9% and 70%) and the ethanol (96% and 70%) were used for extraction. In this study, five different strains of bacteria were tested: Listeria monocytogenes CCM 4699; Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus CCM 3953; Salmonella enterica CCM 4420; and Escherichia coli CCM 3988. The most sensitive bacteria of the poppy pollen ethanolic extract was Staphylococcus aureus was (70%) The most sensitive bacteria of rape bee pollen methanolic extract (70%) and sunflower ethanolic extract (70%) was Salmonella enterica. PMID:23305281

  12. [Anti-ischemic properties of the novel antioxidant enoxifol].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Kosolapov, V A; Ostrovski?, O V; Drozd, V V; Vereshchagin, V K; Sen'chukov, I D; Anisimova, V A

    2003-01-01

    The antiischemic properties of the new antioxidant drug enoxifol, representing a derivative of N9-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole, was studied in rats on the models of a double-vessel occlusion of common carotid arteries under normal conditions and on the background of irradiation. In addition, we studied the effect of enoxifol on the rehabilitation of experimental animals in the early reperfusion period after total brain ischemia. PMID:14558345

  13. [Antihypoxic and antioxidative properties of bemitil].

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, M B; Saratikov, A S; Plotnikova, T M; Khazanov, V A; Panina, O P

    1989-05-01

    The authors discovered antihypoxic properties of the bemitil (pretreatment injections 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in the experiments on rats with the circulatory or hypoxic hypoxia. There was limitation of pO decrease and diene conjugates and Schiff bases production increase with the drug in the circulatory hypoxia conditions. Bemitil restricted malondialdehyde accumulation in the rat brain homogenate under the activation of free radicals processes. In the mitochondrial suspension incubation similar effect of the medicine was accompanied with limitation of organelle degradation. Bemitil showed no antiradical activity. PMID:2736293

  14. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of novel bromophenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Öztaşkın, Necla; Çetinkaya, Yasin; Taslimi, Parham; Göksu, Süleyman; Gülçin, İlhami

    2015-06-01

    In this study, series of novel bromophenol derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their antioxidant and AChE inhibition properties. Novel brominated diarylmethanones were obtained from the acylation reactions of benzoic acids with substituted benzenes. One of the bromodiarylmethanone was synthesized from the bromination of diarylmethanone with molecular bromine. All diarylmethanones were converted into their bromophenol derivatives with BBr3. The antioxidant activities of all synthesized compounds were elucidated by using various bioanalytical assays. Radical scavenging activities of compounds 10-24 were evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS(+) scavenging activities. In addition, reducing ability of 10-24 were determined by Fe(3+), Cu(2+), and [Fe(3+)-(TPTZ)2](3) reducing activities. α-Tocopherol, trolox, BHA, and BHT were used as positive antioxidant and radical scavenger molecules. On the other hand, IC50 values were calculated for DPPH, ABTS(+) scavenging, and AChE inhibition effects of novel compounds. The results obtained from the current studies clearly show that novel bromophenol derivatives 20-24 have considerable antioxidant, antiradical, and AChE inhibition effects. PMID:25956827

  15. Structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant property of a novel polysaccharide isolated from the aqueous extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica variety APK2.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kousik; Kar Mandal, Eshita; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Das, Debsankar; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-03-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of somatic hybrid PCH9FB, obtained through intergeneric protoplast fusion between the strains Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, the polysaccharide was found to contain galactose, fucose, and glucose in a molar ratio of nearly 2:1:2. Methylation analysis and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) showed that the structure of the repeating unit present in the polysaccharide was This molecule showed macrophage, splenocyte, thymocyte activation as well as antioxidant property. PMID:21145916

  16. Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits.

    PubMed

    Shrikanta, Akshatha; Kumar, Anbarasu; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits such as Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Mulberry (Morus rubra) were investigated keeping Grape (Vitis vinifera) as a reference. Ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) extracts of different parts of fruit samples including skin, pulp and seeds were analyzed by HPLC and MS for the quantification of resveratrol. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Among the samples analyzed, mulberry fruit (whole) showed highest resveratrol content (50.61 μg g(-1) dry weight) followed by jamun seed (34.87 μg g(-1) dry weight), jamun pulp (13.70 μg g(-1) dry weight) and skin of jamun (11.19 μg g(-1) dry weight). Jamun seed extract exhibited the highest polyphenol content (55.54 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight) and highest antioxidant property (IC50 value-0.40 mg ml(-1)). The results suggest that underutilized fruits high in resveratrol and other polyphenols can be used as functional beverages. PMID:25593373

  17. From genotype to apricot fruit quality: the antioxidant properties contribution.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Annamaria; Bartolini, Susanna; Viti, Raffaella

    2012-12-01

    Apricot fruit (Prunus armeniaca L.) quality strictly relates to the eating quality of fresh produce. Since consumers are more and more interested in healthy food, and apricot germplasm shows a wide choice of new selections and cultivars, apricot nutraceutical properties are under evaluation in order to select outstanding genotypes, which may link breeding and marketing. In the present study, 18 apricot genotypes of the Italian and international germplasm were evaluated over three years according to pomological, total antioxidant and total phenols attributes using principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. The antioxidant capacity ranged from 1.24 to 11.47 μmolTE gFW⁻¹ and total phenols from 0.22 to 1.58 mgGAE gFW⁻¹. Four outstanding genotypes stood out as healthy food for fresh consumption which may also be introduced in breeding programs to produce new cultivars with improved nutraceutical values in addition to fruit qualitative attributes. PMID:23054392

  18. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    PubMed

    Gm?ay, zlem Aktrk; Borazan, Alev Akp?nar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties. PMID:25466007

  19. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains and products have gained popularity in contributing to healthy eating behavior because of their antioxidant properties associated with protection against chronic diseases. In this review, notable studies on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereal grains are summarized. Cereals contain phytochemicals or certain minor components with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant potential of cereals depends on their bioaccessibility, absorption in the gastrointestinal and their bioavailability utilization in vivo. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of cereals increased their antioxidant potentials which are significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents. Most studies performed in vivo have been concerned with the antioxidant properties of colored rice, wheat bran and rye products. There are inadequate in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative potentials of fermented versus unfermented cereals. Therefore, further studies are necessary to maximize possible health benefits of cereal antioxidative phytochemicals. PMID:26593469

  20. Eleucine indica Possesses Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubairi, Adel S.; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Peng, Chew Yuan; Mohan, Syam; Elhassan, Manal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine is increasing rapidly. Eleucine indica (EI) is traditionally used in ailments associated with liver and kidneys. The therapeutic benefit of the medicinal plants is often attributed to their antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen the hexane, dicholoromethane, ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol extracts (MeTH) of EI for their antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-cancer effects using total phenolic contents (TPCs) and DPPH, disc diffusion method and MTT cytotoxicity assays, respectively. The MeTH was showed to have the highest TPC and scavenging activity (77.7%) on DPPH assay, followed by EA (64.5%), hexane (47.19%) and DCM (40.83%) extracts, whereas the MeTH showed no inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria strains. However, the EA extract exhibited a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria except Bacillus subtilis, in which this bacterium was found to be resistant to all EI extracts. Meanwhile, hexane extract was demonstrated to have a remarkable antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the dicholoromethane extract did not exhibit significant activity against P. aeruginosa. None of the extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, HT-29 and CEM-SS human cancer cell lines after 72?h incubation time (IC50 > 30??g/ml). These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from the EI possesses antioxidant activity in vitro in addition to antibacterial properties. Further investigations are needed to verify the antioxidant effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19617201

  1. Biotransformation of Indigo Pigment by Indigenously Isolated Pseudomonas sp. HAV-1 and Assessment of Its Antioxidant Property

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Chemical synthesis of indigo poses harsh environmental hazards and adverse human health effects. This necessitates an environment-friendly and producer-friendly approach for indigo production. The present study was thus significant as it reports an indigenously isolated potential indigo pigment producing culture identified as Pseudomonas sp. HAV-1 with noteworthy antioxidant property. The bioindigo pigment was characterized using various analytical techniques. The pigment production was enhanced from 412 μg mL−1 to 700 μg mL−1 by optimizing the growth parameters. Furthermore, the antioxidant property of indigo pigment is hitherto unexplored. This property can significantly append to its therapeutic potential. The bioindigo pigment produced by Pseudomonas sp. HAV-1 depicted 2.2 μM ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant property. More to the point, the present work addresses a footstep towards green production of indigo. PMID:25485156

  2. Production, characterization and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides from submerged culture of Morchella crassipes.

    PubMed

    He, Peixin; Geng, Lujing; Mao, Duobin; Xu, Chunping

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the fermentation optimization, molecular characterization, and antioxidant activity in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Morchella crassipes in submerged culture. Firstly, an optimal medium for EPS production was obtained by single-factor experiment and central composite design as follows: maltose 44.79g/L and tryptone 4.21g/L. Then, one fraction of EPS was obtained from the culture filtrates by size exclusion chromatography and the molecular characteristics were examined by a multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector system. The weight-average molar mass and the polydispersity ratio of the EPS fraction were revealed to be 1.961נ10(4)g/mol and 1.838, respectively. FT-IR spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the purified EPS fraction. Finally, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated and the relationship with molecular properties was discussed as well. PMID:22415552

  3. Partial structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a phenolic-xylan from Castanea sativa hardwood.

    PubMed

    Renault, Emmanuel; Barbat-Rogeon, Aline; Chaleix, Vincent; Calliste, Claude-Alain; Colas, Cyril; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    4-O-Methylglucuronoxylans (MGX) were isolated from chestnut wood sawdust using two different procedures: chlorite delignification followed by the classical alkaline extraction step, and an unusual green chemistry process of delignification using phthalocyanine/H2O2 followed by a simple extraction with hot water. Antioxidant properties of both MGX were evaluated against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by electronic spin resonance (ESR). IC50 of water-extracted MGX was found to be less than 225 μg mL(-1), in contrast with alkali-extracted MGX for which no radical scavenging was observed. Characterization of extracts by colorimetric assay, GC, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy provided some clues to understanding structure-function relationships of MGX in connection with their antioxidant activity. PMID:25043130

  4. Effect of the incorporation of antimicrobial/antioxidant proteins on the properties of potato starch films.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Olga; Atars, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2015-11-20

    Glycerol plasticized potato starch films containing bioactive proteins (lactoferrin (LF) and/or lysozyme (LZ), at 0.1 and 0.2 ratio with respect to starch) were obtained by casting method and characterized as to their microstructural, thermal and physical (water content, mechanical, water and oxygen barrier, optical) properties. The bioactive properties, named antioxidant and antimicrobial, of the proteins and the films were also characterized. The incorporation of proteins affected the structural and physical properties of potato starch films, while modifying their thermal behavior and increasing the glass transition temperature. Both proteins showed a certain degree of compatibility with starch chains through the bond formations (increase in Tg), while a part is separated and migrates to the film surface. Their incorporation, especially that of lactoferrin, greatly increased the film's brittleness, regardless of the films water content, although they enhance the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties, whatever the age of the film. Protein also reduced the film's transparency and gloss, while lactoferrin induced color changes. The thermal degradation of blend films and isolated proteins occurred at temperatures of over 250C, which means that blend starch films can be thermoprocessed, according to their thermoplastic properties and following the usual practices of the plastics industries. A synergistic antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli and coliforms was observed when both LZ and LF were simultaneously applied. Both of these exhibited antioxidant capacity. PMID:26344291

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties of Caesalpinia Echinata Extracts

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Gomes, Elisangela Christhianne Barbosa; Jimenez, George Chaves; da Silva, Luis Claudio Nascimento; de Sá, Fabrício Bezerra; de Souza, Karen Pena Cavalcanti; Paiva, Gerson S.; de Souza, Ivone Antônia

    2014-01-01

    Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was tested using two methods (DPPH inhibition and sequestration of nitric oxide). The antiangiogenic properties were evaluated using the inflammatory angiogenesis model in the corneas of rats. The extract of C. echinata demonstrated a high capacity to inhibit free radicals, with IC50 equal to 42.404 µg/mL for the DPPH test and 234.2 µg/mL for nitric oxide. Moreover, it showed itself capable of inhibiting the inflammatory angiogenic response by 77.49%. These data suggest that biochemical components belonging to the extract of C. echinata interfere in mechanisms that control the angiogenic process, mediated by substrates belonging to the arachidonic acid cascade, although the data described above also suggest that the NO buffer may contribute to some extent to the reduction in the angiogenic response. PMID:24563668

  6. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties.

  7. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  8. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

  9. Identification and characterization of antioxidant peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Contreras, Mara del Mar; Recio, Isidra; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress due to the excess of radical oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of different diseases. The use of antioxidants may prevent the development of these diseases by counteracting ROS levels. There is an increasing interest in natural antioxidants as they are safer for consumers than synthetic antioxidants. In this work, reducing power, free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant activities of chickpea peptides fractions have been investigated. Peptide sequences included in fractions with antioxidant activity were identified. Main sequences, ALEPDHR, TETWNPNHPEL, FVPH and SAEHGSLH, corresponded to legumin, the main seed protein. Most peptides contained histidine, which has shown antioxidant activity. Two peptides also included tryptophan and phenylalanine, in which the phenolic group could also serve as hydrogen donor. These results show that legumin is a source of antioxidant peptides of high interest for food and pharmaceutical industries to develop new nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:25766818

  10. Antioxidants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin ... in some cases. For example, high doses of beta-carotene may increase the risk of lung cancer in ...

  11. Chemistry and pharmacological properties of some natural and synthetic antioxidants for heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J S; Shrivastava, Rupal; Mittal, Megha

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to cause oxidative deterioration of bio-molecules by initiating free radical mediated chain reaction resulting in lipid per-oxidation, protein oxidation and oxidation of nucleic acid like DNA and RNA. The development of effective dual functioning antioxidants, possessing both metal-chelating and free radical-scavenging properties should bring into play. Administration of natural and synthetic antioxidants like, quercetin, catechin, taurine, captopril, gallic acid, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, α- lipoic acid and others have been recognized in the disease prevention and clinical recovery against heavy metal intoxication. These antioxidants affect biological systems not only through direct quenching of free radicals but also via chelation of toxic metal(s). These antioxidants also, have the capacity to enhance cellular antioxidant defense mechanism by regenerating endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione and vitamin C and E. They also influence cellular signaling and trigger redox sensitive regulatory pathways. The reactivity of antioxidants in protecting against heavy metal induced oxidative stress depends upon their structural properties, their partitioning abilities between hydrophilic and lipophilic environment and their hydrogen donation antioxidant properties. Herein, we review the structural, biochemical and pharmacological properties of selected antioxidants with particular reference to their ability to (i) chelate heavy metals from its complex (ii) ameliorate free radical (iii) terminate heavy metal induced free radical chain reaction (iv) regenerate endogenous antioxidants and, (v) excretion of metal without its redistribution. PMID:24206124

  12. Theoretical study of the antioxidant properties of pyridoxine.

    PubMed

    Matxain, Jon M; Ristil, Mikael; Strid, Ake; Eriksson, Leif A

    2006-12-01

    Molecules acting as antioxidants capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) are of utmost importance in the living cell. The antioxidative properties of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) have recently been discovered. In this study, we have analyzed the reactivity of pyridoxine toward the ROS (.-)OH, (.-)OOH, and (.-)O(2)- at the density functional theory level (functionals B3LYP and MPW1B95). Two reaction types have been studied as follows: addition to the aromatic ring atoms and hydrogen/proton abstraction. Our results show that (.-)OH is the most reactive species, while (.-)OOH displays low reactivity and (.-)O2(-) does not react at all with pyridoxine. The most exergonic reactions are those where (.-)H is removed from the CH(2)OH groups or the ring-bound OH group and range from -33 to -39 kcal/mol. The most exergonic addition reactions occur by attacking the carbon atoms bonded to nitrogen but with an energy gain of only 6 kcal/mol. PMID:17134167

  13. Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1?-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

  14. Antioxidant Characterization of Oak Extracts Combining Spectrophotometric Assays and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Boris M.; Štajner, Dubravka; Orlović, Saša; Galić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant characteristics of leaves, twigs, and acorns from two Serbian oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea L. from Vojvodina province (northern Serbia) were investigated. 80% ethanol (in water) extracts were used for antiradical power (ARP) determinations against DPPH•, •NO, and O2•− radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenol, tannin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents. Permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity (PRAC) was determined using water extracts. Beside, mentioned parameters, soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation (LP), pigments and proline contents were also determined. The data of different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). PCA found that investigated organs of two different oak tree species possess similar antioxidant characteristics. The superior antioxidant characteristics showed oak leaves over twigs and acorns and seem to be promising source of antioxidants with possible use in industry and pharmacy. PMID:24453789

  15. Antioxidant characterization of oak extracts combining spectrophotometric assays and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Popovi?, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Zdero, Ruica; Orlovi?, Saa; Gali?, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant characteristics of leaves, twigs, and acorns from two Serbian oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea L. from Vojvodina province (northern Serbia) were investigated. 80% ethanol (in water) extracts were used for antiradical power (ARP) determinations against DPPH(), ()NO, and O2 (-) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenol, tannin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents. Permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity (PRAC) was determined using water extracts. Beside, mentioned parameters, soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation (LP), pigments and proline contents were also determined. The data of different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). PCA found that investigated organs of two different oak tree species possess similar antioxidant characteristics. The superior antioxidant characteristics showed oak leaves over twigs and acorns and seem to be promising source of antioxidants with possible use in industry and pharmacy. PMID:24453789

  16. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Temperini, Andrea; Azzini, Elena; Venneria, Eugenia; Lucarini, Massimo; Finotti, Enrico; Maiani, Gianluca; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds. PMID:26787623

  17. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Temperini, Andrea; Azzini, Elena; Venneria, Eugenia; Lucarini, Massimo; Finotti, Enrico; Maiani, Gianluca; Crin, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds. PMID:26787623

  18. Characterization of antioxidant-antimicrobial ?-carrageenan films containing Satureja hortensis essential oil.

    PubMed

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Ojagh, Seyed Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing biodegradable composite kappa-carrageenan films incorporated with Satureja hortensis (SEO) in terms of their physical, optical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties. Also, in a comparative study, we sought to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of these films against five pathogens. The films' water vapor barrier properties were found to improve considerably upon the addition of SEO. Carrageenan composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss than the control film. These results can be explained by the film's microstructure, which was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The films incorporating SEO showed good antioxidant properties; this effect was greatly improved when the proportion of added SEO was 3%. Films with SEO effectively inhibited the five microorganisms tested. The results of the present study suggest that SEO as a natural antibacterial agent can potentially be used in packaging a wide range of food products, particularly those that are highly oxidative and microbial sensitive. PMID:22959956

  19. The non-opioid receptor, antioxidant properties of morphine and the opioid peptide analog biphalin.

    PubMed

    Garbuz, Olga; Gulea, Aurelian; Dyniewicz, Jolanta; Zablocka, Barbara; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2015-01-01

    Opioids participate in a broad spectrum of regulatory effects. The discovery of the opioid receptor system led to the initial belief that all of the observed effects in this system were associated with receptor activation. However, it must be considered that certain opioid properties are the result of the properties of other chemicals and their distribution. The presence of a tyramine moiety in opioids is suggestive of their potential antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the antioxidant properties of opioids that are not related to opioid receptor activation. The morphine antioxidant capacity (IC50=81?M) was 2.8 times lower than that of the reference ascorbic acid (IC50=29?M). Surprisingly, the biphalin antioxidant capacity (IC50=8?M) was 3.6 times higher than that of ascorbic acid and over 10 times higher than that of morphine. This unexpectedly high biphalin antioxidant capacity correlates with its neuroprotective properties. PMID:25453981

  20. New p-Substituted Salicylaldehyde Phenylhydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yorur-Goreci, Cigdem; Altas-Kiymaz, Nilay; Peksel, Aysegul; Bilgin-Eran, Belkis; Sonmez, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of new p-nitrophenylhydrazone derivatives 3af were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their antioxidant activities. These compounds have been synthesized by refluxing (p-nitrophenyl)hydrazine with 4-sub-stituted salicylaldehydes. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS data. The antioxidant activities (free radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating activity, and total anti-oxidant activity) of the hydrazone compounds were evaluated. All of the compounds exhibited significant activities, while compound 3a, with the shortest chain, showed the highest antioxidant activity in all of the tests. PMID:26279974

  1. Antioxidant property and [Formula: see text]-glucosidase, [Formula: see text]-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alakolanga, A G A W; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits. The EtOAc extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value of 66.2 ppm. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the fruits also exhibited inhibitory activities toward α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase enzymes with IC50values ranging from 549 to 710 ppm, 1021 to 1949 ppm and 1290 to 2096 ppm, respectively. The active principle for the enzyme inhibition was isolated through activity-guided fractionation and was characterized as (S)-malic acid. The results of this study indicate that F. inermis fruits have the potential to be used in health foods and in nutritional supplements. PMID:26604419

  2. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    PubMed

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents. PMID:20821824

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides from Fermented Goat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goat placenta was fermented by Bacillus subtilis and the optimal fermentation parameters of strongest antioxidant capacity of peptides were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of fermentation time, initial pH value and glucose content on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of the goat peptides were well fitted to a quadric equation with high determination coefficients. According to the data analysis of design expert, the strongest DPPH radical scavenging capacity value was obtained with the following conditions: content of glucose was 2.23%, initial pH value was 7.00 and fermentation time was 32.15 h. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity commonly referring antioxidant activity showed a concentration dependency and increased with increasing peptide concentration. The effects of temperature and pH were assessed to determine the stability of antioxidant peptides prepared from goat placenta. Antioxidant peptides showed good stabilities when temperature was lower than 70℃. However, the antioxidant peptides lost antioxidant activities rapidly under alkaline and excessive acid condition. Ultrafiltration technique was performed to separate fermentation broth with different Mw (molecular weight). It was found that peptides in the range of < 3 KDa mainly accounted for the antioxidant activities. PMID:26761673

  4. "Synthesis, characterization and studies on antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles using Elephantopus scaber leaf extract".

    PubMed

    Kharat, Sopan N; Mendhulkar, Vijay D

    2016-05-01

    The simple, eco-friendly and cost effective method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticle in the leaf extract of medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber L. is illustrated in the present work. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized with UV-Vis-spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The UV-spectra show maximum absorbance at 435nm, NTA analysis shows 78nm average sizes of nanoparticles, TEM analysis indicates spherical shape of the nanoparticles with the average diameter of 50nm. The XRD peaks at 2θ range of 30-80° correspond to (111), (200), (220), (311) reflection planes that indicate the structure of metallic silver. FTIR analysis reveals surface capping of phenolic groups. Existence of peaks in the range of 1611 to 1400cm(-1) indicates the presence of aromatic rings in the leaf extract. The peak at 1109cm(-1) is due to the presence of OH groups. The antioxidant activity of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated performing DPPH assay and it is observed that the photosynthesized nanoparticle also possesses antioxidant potentials. Thus, it can be used as potential free radical scavenger. Silver particles have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this context, the surface coating of plant metabolite constituents has great potentials. Therefore, the present work has been undertaken to synthesize the AgNPs using leaf extract of medicinal plant, E. scaber, to characterize and access their antioxidant properties. PMID:26952477

  5. Antioxidant and antimelanogenic properties of chestnut flower extract.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Kumar; Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Seung; Choi, Han-Suk; Chun, Hong-Sung; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antioxidant and antimelanogenic properties of a variety of solvent extracts of pre-bloom and full-bloom chestnut flowers. Among the solvent extracts, a pre-bloom methanol extract (preM) and an ethanol extract (preE) showed the highest amounts of phenolics (467.92+/-0.45 and 456.24+/-5.88 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of extract) and flavonoids (60.96+/-1.86 and 41.59+/-8.57 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of extract). These extracts exhibited the highest DPPH radical and reducing activities, as well as the greatest mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. In addition, preE effectively protected the skin against ultraviolet (UV) rays. Further, extracts were tested for cytotoxicity on human melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2), and we observed that all the extracts were non-cytotoxic for the cells. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory action were further assessed, and we found that all the extracts reduced the tyrosinase activity and melanin formation of SK-MEL-2 cells as effectively as arbutin. Moreover, the protein level expression of tyrosinase decreased dramatically. However, the protein levels of the other melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), were not altered significantly. Therefore, the antimelanogenic effects of chestnut flower extracts were attributable to their inhibitory effects on tyrosinase via their anti-oxidative action, making them a strong candidate for use in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:20699587

  6. Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Susan; Tai, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Constituents in rosemary have shown a variety of pharmacological activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy in in vitro and in vivo models. In order to further explore the chemopreventive properties of crude extracts of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L), we studied its anti-proliferative property on several human cancer cell lines and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro in a mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage/monocyte cell line. Our study shows that crude ethanolic rosemary extract (RO) has differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was estimated at 1/700, 1/400, 1/150 and 1/500 dilutions, for the HL60, K562, MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells, respectively. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of RO at 1/1000 dilution minimally induced HL60 cell differentiation into granulocyte lineage at 9.5+/-2.2% compared to 2.8+/-0.8% in the untreated control (p<0.001), and did not induce HL60 cell differentiation into monocyte/macrophage lineage. The 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalent antioxidant capacity assay showed that RO has substantial antioxidant activity with RO at 1/10 and 1/5 dilutions having 8.1 and 12.6 microM Trolox equivalents, respectively. RO at non-cytotoxic 1/2000 and 1/1000 dilutions did not affect nitric oxide (NO) production by non-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. However, at the same dilutions RO significantly reduced NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated cells in a dose-dependent manner from 32.6+/-2.3 microM in the LPS-activated cells to 19.2+/-2.2 microM (p<0.01), and 7.7+/-1.2 microM (p<0.001), respectively. RT-PCR analyses showed that RAW 264.7 cells treated with 1/1000 and 1/500 dilutions for 5 h did not affect TNFalpha, IL-1beta, iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in these cells when compared to the untreated controls, nor did the 1/1000 dilution of RO affect TNFalpha, IL-1beta, iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in the LPS-activated cells. At 1/500 dilution, RO significantly reduced IL-1beta (p<0.01) and COX-2 (p<0.05) mRNA expression and non-significantly reduced TNFalpha and iNOS mRNA expression in the LPS-activated cells. In view of the chemopreventive potentials, further studies are needed to explore other biological properties of this popular spice used by many cultures in the world. PMID:17487414

  7. Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Ming-Yeou; Chang, Yu-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as evidenced by low EC50 values (<10 mg/mL). Total flavonoid is mainly found in hot water extracts; however, total phenol is rich in methanol and hot water extracts from mycelia. Ascorbic acid and total phenol contents are well correlated with the reducing power and the scavenging effect on superoxide anions. Total flavonoid content is dependent on the antioxidant activity and the chelating effect on ferrous ions. Total antioxidant component contents are closely related to the antioxidant activity and the scavenging superoxide anion ability. Results confirm that extracts with good antioxidant properties from fermenting products by A. mellea are potential good substitutes for synthetic antioxidants and can be applied to antioxidant-related functional food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22072892

  8. Antioxidant properties of taurine in rat alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Castranova, V.; Banks, M.A.; Porter, D.W.; Martin, W.G. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown )

    1990-02-26

    Isolated rat alveolar macrophages (RAM) which had taken-up and accumulated extracellular (0-500 {mu}M) taurine (TAU) were exposed to 0.45 {plus minus} 0.05 ppm ozone for 30 minutes in a modified tissue culture flask containing TAU-supplemented medium. Recovered cells were assayed for oxidant damage and media analyzed for leakage of intracellular components. Cell viability significantly increased, while recovery of cells decreased (possibly due to increased adherence) with increasing TAU. At 100 {mu}M (rat plasma TAU level), TAU protected against the ozone-induced increase in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence, diminished leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein into the medium, and partially restored the ozone-inactivated Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity of RAM. Efflux of oxidized glutathione was maximized and K{sup +} leakage was minimized by the addition of 250 {mu}M TAU. At 250-500 {mu}M TAU, leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein were enhanced, while the intracellular TAU content dramatically increased. These results indicate that TAU has both direct and indirect antioxidant properties at low levels and pro-oxidant properties at high levels in RAM.

  9. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  10. Effect of incorporation of antioxidants on the chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of probiotic petit suisse cheese.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E P R; Cavalcanti, R N; Esmerino, E A; Silva, R; Guerreiro, L R M; Cunha, R L; Bolini, H M A; Meireles, M A; Faria, J A F; Cruz, A G

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of the addition of different antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glucose oxidase, cysteine, and jabuticaba extract) on the rheological and sensorial properties of the probiotic petit suisse cheese. Absence of influence of the antioxidants at the physico-chemical characteristics of the petit suisse cheese was observed. Overall, the petit suisse cheeses presented weak gel characteristics and behaved as pseudoplastic material, except for control. All treatments exhibited a thixotropic non-Newtonian behavior; however, higher hysteresis area was obtained for control sample, which indicates that antioxidants incorporated to petit suisse had a protective effect on the typical thixotropic behavior of the Quark gel. The commercial sample presented higher scores for all aspects by consumers, whereas the probiotic petit suisse samples presented opposite behavior. Projective mapping was able to generate a vocabulary where the sample containing jabuticaba skin extract obtained by supercritical extraction was characterized by the panelists as presenting grape flavor and purple color. PMID:26805976

  11. Antioxidant properties of wheat as affected by pearling.

    PubMed

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika; Dexter, Jim; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-08-23

    The effects of pearling on the content of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of two Canadian wheat classes, namely, Canada Western Amber Durum; Triticum turgidum L. var. durum; CWAD) and Canada Western Red Spring; Triticum aestivum L.; CWRS) were examined. The antioxidant activity of wheat phenolics was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of photochemiluminescence (PCL), Rancimat method, inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, and DNA. The phenolic composition of wheat extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity of both pearled grains and byproducts significantly decreased as the degree of pearling increased. Among grains, the unprocessed whole grains demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity. The byproducts always demonstrated higher antioxidant capacity compared to the pearled grains, regardless of the wheat class. The resultant byproducts from 10-20% pearling possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. Processing of cereals may thus exert a significant effect on their antioxidant activity. The concentration of grain antioxidants is drastically reduced during the refining process. As phenolic compounds are concentrated in the outermost layers, the bran fractions resulting from pearling may be used as a natural source of antioxidants and as value-added products in the preparation of functional food ingredients or for enrichment of certain products. PMID:16910705

  12. Antioxidant Property Enhancement of Sweet Potato Flour under Simulated Gastrointestinal pH

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M. H.; Iqbal, Shahid; Umar, Imam Mustapha; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions (p < 0.05). Also elevated significantly were the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of SPF (p < 0.05). In summary, the antioxidant properties of SPF were enhanced under gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process. PMID:22942747

  13. A study of the antioxidant properties of beers using electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Stanimirova, Ivana

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant properties of various kinds of beers were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This was possible by measuring the changes in the intensity of the EPR spectrum that resulted from the interaction of the stable radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) with the antioxidants found in a beer sample. The antioxidant capacity was then presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g. μM trolox in a beer sample of 100ml. The influence of the type, colour, the content of the extract and alcohol on the antioxidant activities of commercial beer samples was investigated using two-way hierarchical clustering and analysis of variance. The results showed that all of the beers investigated exhibit antioxidant properties. By performing an analysis of variance, it was found that the value of the antioxidant capacity significantly (0.05 level of significance) depends on the content of the extract and the colour of the beer. It seems that additives also influence the antioxidant properties to some extent, but neither the alcohol content nor the kind of fermentation affects the antioxidant properties of beer. PMID:23871057

  14. Plum pomaces as a potential source of dietary fibre: composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Sójka, Michał; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Zbrzeźniak, Monika; Markowski, Jarosław

    2013-10-01

    Plums because of their composition, especially of dietary fibre, sorbitol and polyphenols content, have positive influence on human health. Generally growing interest in cloudy juices production due to their prevalence compared to clear ones resulted in the appearance of plum cloudy juices on the market. Cloudy plum juice may be the attractive plum product, however during juice production some pomace appears, which is discarded or used for feeding animals most of all. This by product might be a source of valuable health-promoting compounds. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and properties of pomaces of three cultivars obtained in pilot plant scale. The influence of drying parameters and cultivar on bioactive components and antioxidant activity were measured. Plum pomaces were characterized by 38-49% of total dietary fibre in d. m., with the share of soluble fraction from 7 to 13%. Energy value was from 202 to 240 kcal 100 g(-1) d.m. Antioxidant activity was from 10 to 17.4 mikroM TEAC g(-1) d.m. Cultivar and technology of drying had significant influence on polyphenols content of investigated plum pomaces. Considering their health-beneficial components: dietary fiber and polyphenols, plum pomaces can be used for production of dietary fiber preparations. PMID:24426011

  15. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results substantiate the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. cerasus extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect bearing significant fluctuation with biochemical properties. Since many of those molecules are known to have immuno-biochemical constituencies, antioxidant compounds in sour cherries may have putative antiinflammatory potential and applications in medicinal chemistry, corroborating the observation of regulating and attenuating the growth of microorganisms of medical importance in vitro. PMID:23651230

  16. Antioxidant properties of prepared blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana; Oliveira, Joana; Neves, Patrcia; Gameiro, Paula; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; de Freitas, Victor; Mateus, Nuno

    2005-08-24

    A blueberry extract (A) and two anthocyanin-derived extracts (B and C) were prepared. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and anthocyanin-derived pigments of the extracts were determined for the first time. The pigment profile of blueberry extract A corresponded to 15 anthocyanins, whereas extract B was mainly composed of anthocyanin-pyruvic acid adducts of the blueberry original anthocyanins and extract C was mainly composed of the respective vinylpyranoanthocyanin-catechins (portisins). The extracts' abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation, induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-methyl-propanimidamide) dihydrochloride in a liposomal membrane system were examined. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated through monitoring oxygen consumption and by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes. All of the extracts provided protection of membranes against peroxyl radicals by increasing the induction time of oxidation. This effect increased with the polyphenol content and with the structural complexity of the anthocyanin-derived pigments of the extracts. The pigments present in extract C seemed to induce a higher protection of the liposome membranes toward oxidation. In addition, the antiradical properties and the reducing power of the extracts were determined by using DPPH and FRAP methods, respectively. The results from these assays were in agreement with those obtained with the liposome membranes. PMID:16104817

  17. Antioxidant properties of biohybrids based on liposomes and sage silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Iordache, Stefan Marian; Badea, Nicoleta; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2013-03-01

    This paper is aimed to describe a simple and rapid eco-friendly bottom-up approach for the preparation of antioxidant silver bionanostructures using a leaf extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The bioreduction property of sage in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-VIS and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. During their preparation, the particle size analysis was performed by using Dynamic Light Scattering technique. Ultrasonic irradiation was used to obtain sage silver nanoparticles. The morphology (size and shape) of the herbal silver nanoparticles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy that revealed the formation of spherical phytonanoparticles with size less than 80 nm. In order to increase their stability and their biocompatibility, the sage silver nanoparticles were introduced in two types of liposomes: soybean lecithin- and Chla-DPPC-lipid vesicles which were prepared by thin film hydration method. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis confirmed the silver presence in liposomes/sage-AgNPs biohybrids. The stability of liposomes/herbal AgNPs bioconstructs was checked by zeta potential measurements. The most stable biohybrids: Chla-DPPC/sage-AgNPs with zeta potential value of -34.2 mV, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing the spherical and quasi-spherical shaped profiles of these nanobiohybrids with size less than 96 nm. The antioxidant activity of the silver bionanostructures was evaluated using chemiluminescence assay. The developed eco-friendly silver phytonanostructures based on lipid membranes, nanosilver and sage extract, manifest strong antioxidant properties (between 86.5% and 98.6%). PMID:23755645

  18. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, M. D.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M.; Bhagwat, Shalini S.; Hegde, Harsha V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 28.31?M; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 23.89 ?M) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 29.53 ?M; AEAC: 600.67 30.03 ?M). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2?-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS+ antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 43.92 ?M; AEAC 968.44 48.42 ?M). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (?M) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants. PMID:25878460

  19. Production, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Fucoxanthin from the Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Song; Wang, Ke; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-01-01

    The production, characterization, and antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid fucoxanthin from the marine diatom Odontella aurita were investigated. The results showed that low light and nitrogen-replete culture medium enhanced the biosynthesis of fucoxanthin. The maximum biomass concentration of 6.36 g L?1 and maximum fucoxanthin concentration of 18.47 mg g?1 were obtained in cultures grown in a bubble column photobioreactor ( 3.0 cm inner diameter), resulting in a fucoxanthin volumetric productivity of 7.96 mg L?1 day?1. A slight reduction in biomass production was observed in the scaling up of O. aurita culture in a flat plate photobioreactor, yet yielded a comparable fucoxanthin volumetric productivity. A rapid method was developed for extraction and purification of fucoxanthin. The purified fucoxanthin was identified as all-trans-fucoxanthin, which exhibited strong antioxidant properties, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC50) of 1,1-dihpenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2?-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical being 0.14 and 0.03 mg mL?1, respectively. Our results suggested that O. aurita can be a natural source of fucoxanthin for human health and nutrition. PMID:23880936

  20. Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME. PMID:20041791

  1. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar 74-x had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar Hanzhong purple; the bulbs of cultivar Gailiang had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of Hanzhong purple also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar 74-x had highest protection capability, following by cultivar Hanzhong purple, and the bulbs of cultivar No. 105 from Korea had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  2. Antioxidant properties of wax from Yugoslavian oakmoss (Evernia prunastri).

    PubMed

    Racine, P; Hartmann, V E; D'Audiffret, Y T

    1980-12-01

    Synopsis Wax from Yugoslavian oakmoss resulting from the industrial benzene extraction of the vegetable matter was extracted by solvents of different polarities. The wax and the extracts were tested for antioxidant activities using (+) limonene as peroxidizable test substrate and were found to have such activity. The extracts are more active than the wax itself. Although not directly usable because of still too low activity, the wax and the extracts contain a small amount of substance with antioxidant activity comparable to that of the usual synthetic antioxidants. PMID:19467105

  3. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; ?it, Latif?ah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  4. Antioxidant properties and stability of aegle marmelos leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vanitha P; Urooj, Asna

    2013-02-01

    Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves were extracted with methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and analyzed for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power and in vitro inhibition by Fenton's reagent-induced oxidation of lipid system. Stability of extracts to pH (4, 7 and 9) and temperature (100C, 15min.) was studied. The three extracts showed varying degree of efficacy in each assay in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition of MDA formation in Linseed oil by EE (47%) was significantly (P?antioxidant activity of EE at pH 4 was significantly higher (P?antioxidant activity of all the three extracts remained unchanged. Data indicates that potential exists for the utilization of Aegle marmelos as a natural antioxidant. PMID:24425898

  5. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect bearing significant biochemical properties of a variety of extraction methods. Further studies are currently investigating the effect of specific antioxidants of P. avium on microbial growth in vitro per se. Since many of the aforementioned molecules hold immunobiochemical constituencies, antioxidant compounds in sweet cherries may have putative anti-inflammatory potential in medicinal chemistry, corroborating the observation of regulating/attenuating the growth of microorganisms of medical importance in vitro. PMID:23531198

  6. Antioxidant properties of prunes (Prunus domestica L.) and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Shin-ichi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Yamada, Naoko Fukutsuka; Aoki, Asuka; Kasamatsu, Kumi; Yamasaki, Yuka; Ikami, Takao; Suzuki, Tomoo; Mitani, Takahiko; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2004-01-01

    Prunes contain large amounts of phenolics and show high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to clarify the contents of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, and to estimate the contribution of these isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes. Furthermore, structural elucidation and evaluation of antioxidant activity of prune components were also performed. CQA isomers in prunes were quantified by HPLC analysis, and it has become apparent that prunes contain relatively high amount of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The contribution of CQA isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes was revealed to be 28.4% on the basis of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); hence, it was indicated that residual ORAC is dependent on unknown antioxidant components. Total 28 compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. Four abscisic acid related compounds, a chromanon, and a bipyrrole were novel. Each CQA isomer in prunes showed high antioxidant activities when measured by the oil stability index (OSI) method, O2- scavenging activity, and ORAC. Other isolated compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acids, benzoic acids, coumarins, lignans, and flavonoid showed high ORAC values. Furthermore, a novel chromanon indicated a remarkable synergistic effect on ORAC of CQA isomers. PMID:15630217

  7. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Brucea javanica Seed

    PubMed Central

    Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Arya, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase ? (GP?) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GP? (IC50 = 0.75?mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125?mg/kg?bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30?min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05) of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90?min) compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GP? inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP? inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GP? inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins. PMID:24688431

  8. Antioxidant properties of MitoTEMPOL and its hydroxylamine

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Jan; Blaikie, Frances H.; Logan, Angela; Smith, Robin A. J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Piperidine nitroxides such as TEMPOL have been widely used as antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. MitoTEMPOL is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of TEMPOL designed to protect mitochondria from the oxidative damage that they accumulate, but once there is rapidly reduced to its hydroxylamine, MitoTEMPOL-H. As little is known about the antioxidant efficacy of hydroxylamines, this study has assessed the antioxidant activity of both MitoTEMPOL and MitoTEMPOL-H. The hydroxylamine was more effective at preventing lipid-peroxidation than MitoTEMPOL and decreased oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by menadione. In contrast to MitoTEMPOL, MitoTEMPOL-H has no superoxide dismutase activity and its antioxidant actions are likely to be mediated by hydrogen atom donation. Therefore, even though MitoTEMPOL is rapidly reduced to MitoTEMPOL-H in cells, it remains an effective antioxidant. Furthermore, as TEMPOL is also reduced to a hydroxylamine in vivo, many of its antioxidant effects may also be mediated by its hydroxylamine. PMID:19058062

  9. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Nayara Simon Gonzalez; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Cazarin, Cinthia Ba Betim; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  10. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice)

    PubMed Central

    Simon Gonzalez Schumacher, Nayara; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Baú Betim Cazarin, Cinthia; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Molina Meletti, Laura Maria; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  11. Production and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysate from Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel).

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2014-09-01

    Fishery waste and by-products are valuable sources of raw material for recovery of antioxidant and bioactive peptides. Due to the increased demand for protein hydrolysates with antioxidative properties by various sectors of consumable food, health care and pharmaceutical industries, the present study focused in the production of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic digestion from the backbone of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluated its antioxidant potential. The observed results of the degree of hydrolysis suggest that the rapid phase of proteolytic cleavage was occurred in the first 60 minutes of incubation and during this period, the rate of hydrolysis was found to be increased with increasing ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration. The result of the antioxidant properties clearly indicates that the 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficacy of FPH was similar to that of synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The FPH also exhibited significant reducing power ability and great potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in equivalence with that of synthetic and natural antioxidants such as BHT and ?-tocopherol respectively. The overall findings of the study reveal that, FPH produced by tryptic digestion has considerable amount of bioactive peptides with potent antioxidant properties. The synthesized FPH is a good candidate for further development into a commercial food additive. PMID:25176365

  12. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time. PMID:25694698

  13. Antioxidant properties of natural compounds used in popular medicine for gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Repetto, M G; Llesuy, S F

    2002-05-01

    There is evidence concerning the participation of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and physiopathology of human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies, and digestive system disorders such as gastrointestinal inflammation and gastric ulcer. The role of these reactive oxygen species in several diseases and the potential antioxidant protective effect of natural compounds on affected tissues are topics of high current interest. To consider a natural compound or a drug as an antioxidant substance it is necessary to investigate its antioxidant properties in vitro and then to evaluate its antioxidant functions in biological systems. In this review article, we shall consider the role of natural antioxidants derived from popular plants to reduce or prevent the oxidative stress in gastric ulcer induced by ethanol. PMID:12011936

  14. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.

    PubMed

    Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:19425185

  15. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Menichini, Francesco; Xiao, Jianbo; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-03-30

    Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry. PMID:26270801

  16. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO–Ppy/CS and ITO–Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

  17. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO-Ppy/CS and ITO-Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

  18. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity evaluation of lignins from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Salanti, Anika; Zoia, Luca; Orlandi, Marco; Zanini, Fabiana; Elegir, Graziano

    2010-09-22

    In recent years, lignin and extractives from herbaceous plants and crops are receiving increasing attention for their renewability and large annual biomass stock. It is worth noting that only a few studies deal with the chemical characterization of rice husk, a side product of one of the most important crops with regard to human nutrition. Thus, in this study lignin from rice husk was isolated and characterized. Two different extraction procedures were optimized and tested: acidolysis and alkaline enzymatic (AE). The different lignins isolated were fully characterized by means of gravimetric, chromatographic (GPC), and spectroscopic (31P NMR, 2D-HSQC-NMR) analyses with the aim to compare yields, sample purity, and chemical properties, recognized as key parameters for future development. Notwithstanding the extraction procedure, the results highlighted that rice husk lignin is mainly formed by guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenyl units. The acidolytic approach showed an appreciable lignin recovery and high purity, whereas the AE lignin sample was found to be rich in residual polysaccharides and oxidized functionalities. Moreover, different rice husk extracts, along with acidolysis lignin and AE lignin specimens, were assayed for their antioxidant activity by means of a DPPH radical scavenging test. PMID:20735133

  19. Isolation and characterization of stelladerol, a new antioxidant naphthalene glycoside, and other antioxidant glycosides from edible daylily (hemerocallis) flowers.

    PubMed

    Cichewicz, Robert H; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2002-01-01

    Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) flowers are utilized as an important ingredient in traditional Asian cuisine and are also valued for their reputed medicinal effects. In studies of the bioactive methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of lyophilized Hemerocallis cv. Stella de Oro flowers, kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glycosides (1-9), phenethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), orcinol beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), phloretin 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), phloretin 2'-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), a new naphthalene glycoside, stelladerol (14), and an amino acid (longitubanine A) (15) have been isolated. All of these compounds were tested for their antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities. Stelladerol was found to possess strong antioxidant properties, inhibiting lipid oxidation by 94.6% +/- 1.4 at 10 microM in an in vitro assay. Several of the flavonol 3-O-glycoside isolates also demonstrated modest antioxidant activities at 10 microM. None of the isolates inhibited cyclooxygenase activity at 100 microM. PMID:11754548

  20. Screening of antioxidant properties of seven Umbelliferae fruits from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Bahman; Abolhasani, Farideh Al-Sadat

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activities (IC(50)) of ethanol extracts from seven Umbelliferae fruits (Bunium persicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum and Trachyspermum copticum) have been studied by the DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test. All the studied extracts showed antioxidant capability and P. anisum extract exhibited the strongest activity. The scavenging activity of the extracts in decreasing order was: P. anisum> T. copticum> C. cyminum> F. vulgare > or = B. persicum > or = C. sativum> H. persicum. The extracts were also investigated regarding their total flavonoid contents by the AlCl3 technique. The decreasing order of the flavonoid content of the extracts was: C. cyminum > T. copticum> P. anisum > or = H. persicum > or = B. persicum > or = F. vulgare > or = C. sativum. However, a favorable correlation was not found between the antioxidant activity and the total flavonoid content of the extracts. As well, the most active extract (i.e. P. anisum) was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to yield three organic fractions together with the remaining aqueous fraction. The antioxidative activities (IP%) and flavonoid contents of the fractions were also determined. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest activity and content. A positive correlation was found between the antioxidant potency and flavonoid content of the fractions. PMID:19168417

  1. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum

    PubMed Central

    Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  2. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125?g/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125?g/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5?g/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500?g/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  3. Characterization of antioxidant system parameters in four freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Esin G; Eroglu, Ali; Canli, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The potential use of antioxidant system parameters has gained considerable interest due to their pivotal role of detoxification mechanisms in environmental studies and culture fish point of view. Fish with different ecological needs may have different antioxidant capacity and response to environmental contaminants. Thus, the optimal working conditions and specific enzyme activities (Vmax and Km) of antioxidant system parameters (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Catalase, CAT; Glutathione peroxidase, GPX; Glutathione reductase, GR and Glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in four commonly cultured freshwater fish species (tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, carp; Cyprinus carpio, trout; Onchorhynchus mykiss and catfish; Clarias garipienus). Data showed that optimal concentrations of different buffers, pH and specific chemicals for each enzyme and GSH were similar in most cases for all fish species, except a few differences. The highest Vmax and Km values were found in carp for GPX and GST, though these values were the highest in tilapia, catfish and trout for CAT, SOD and GR, respectively. As a conclusion, optimization assays of these parameters in different bioindicator organisms based on their physiological and ecological differences may be useful for the aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring studies and also present fundamental data for utilization in aquaculture. PMID:26707186

  4. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). PMID:11052738

  5. Grape seed and apple tannins: emulsifying and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay. PMID:25704681

  6. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion. PMID:25863633

  7. Effect of microfluidisation on antioxidant properties of corn bran.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yingdong; Sun, Xiuhua; Raddatz, Julia; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Chen, Guibing

    2014-01-01

    The microfluidisation process was used to reduce the particle size and loosen the tight microstructure of corn bran. This process significantly increased corn bran's antioxidant activity exhibited through a surface reaction phenomenon and the extractability of phenolic compounds after alkaline and acid hydrolysis. For corn bran microfluidised through an 87 μm interaction chamber for 5 passes, the two most largely increased phenolic acids released after alkaline hydrolysis were p-coumaric acid (51.1%) and ferulic acid (45.1%). On the other hand, high shear stress during microfluidisation caused partial dispersion or dissolution of free phenolic compounds in water which was lost after the process. It was also found that bran residues after alkaline and acid hydrolysis still exhibited strong antioxidant activity via a surface reaction phenomenon, probably indicating the conventional method based on solvent extraction and relatively mild alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis underestimates the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of corn bran. PMID:24444904

  8. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  9. Effect of Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin and Glycosides on the Antioxidant Properties in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wuyang; Zhu, Yunming; Li, Chunyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to survey the antioxidant functional role of the main anthocyanins of blueberries in endothelial cells. Changes on the reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase-1 (XO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells of malvidin and the two glycosides were investigated. The results showed that these anthocyanins decreased the levels of ROS and XO-1 but increased the levels of SOD and HO-1. Glycosides improved the antioxidant capacity of malvidin to a great extent. The changes in the antioxidant properties of malvidin-3-glucoside were more pronounced than malvidin-3-galactoside. Variation in levels of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside had a significant impact on antioxidant properties to different extents. It indicates that blueberries are a good resource of anthocyanins, which can protect cells from oxidative deterioration and use blueberry as a potential functional food to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on antioxidant properties of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana) fruit.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, C; Kuna, Aparna; Supraja, T; Sagar, S Blessy; Padmavathi, T V N; Prabhakar, Neeraja

    2015-05-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation (0.25 to 1.0kGy) on antioxidant properties of ber fruit was studied. Antioxidant properties of ber fruits were determined by Scavenging DPPH radical activity, reducing power assay, super oxide anion radical activity, TBARS, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. Gamma irradiation treatment up to 1.0kGy elevated the Scavenging DPPH radical activity (9 %), super oxide anion radical activity (26 %) and total flavonoid content (208 %) compared to fresh ber fruit. On the other hand it brought down the reducing power activity (65 %) and total phenolic content (18 %) as compared to raw fruit. The TBARS activity statistically increased upon irradiation of ber fruit. It indicated that total antioxidant activity decreased as TBARS value increased. Therefore 0.25 to 0.5kGy is better dose to retain the natural antioxidant in fruit. PMID:25892819

  11. Microwave absorption and antioxidation properties of flaky carbonyl iron passivated with carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Chunlei; Fan, Junmei; Bai, Liuyang; Ding, Fei; Yuan, Fangli

    2013-08-01

    Carbonyl iron particle is a typical magnetic microwave absorbing material. Because of the effect of particle shape, the flaky carbonyl iron has large values of microwave permeability and can be an excellent super-thin absorber. However, the flaky carbonyl iron prepared by high-energy ball milling has high activity and is apt to be oxidized. Based on a reverse reaction of the blast furnace iron-making process, this work developed a facile passivation method with carbon dioxide to improve the antioxidation property of the flaky carbonyl iron. The antioxidation property of the passivated carbonyl iron was improved greatly while the excellent microwave absorption property maintained.

  12. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides of Chuanminshen violaceum.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmin; Zhang, Qing; Li, Yu; Li, Lu; Lan, Weijie; He, Jingliu; Li, Huiyan; Xiong, Yabo; Qin, Wen

    2016-05-01

    A single factor experiment and Box-Behnken design were applied to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (CVPs). The CVPs yield was 34.59±0.51%, which was in accordance with the predicted value of 35.54%, under the following optimum conditions: microwave power of 466W, extraction temperature of 64.5°C, extraction time of 15min, and water-raw material ratio of 40mL/g. Two CVPs fractions (CVPs-I and CVPs-II) were obtained via stepwise ethanol precipitation. CVPs-II was further purified using DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography to obtain the major fraction of CVPs-IIa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and GC-MS analysis revealed that crude CVPs, CVPs-I, and CVPs-II were neutral polysaccharides and were mainly composed of glucose and galactose. The molecular weights of CVPs-I and CVPs-IIa were 233.69 and 11.02kDa, respectively. Furthermore, all samples exhibited certain antioxidant activity or reducing power to scavenge the DPPH and ABTS radicals, among which CVPs-II was the strongest. In conclusion, MAE is an efficient method for extracting CVPs of C. violaceum, and this plant root has the potential to be explored as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:26806648

  13. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of 17 commercial Moroccan honeys.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graa

    2014-06-01

    In this study, 17 commercial honey samples from Morocco were analyzed. Four samples did not meet the international physicochemical standards due to high hydroxymethylfurfural content and low diastase activity. Phenol content varied from 163.82?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg in citrus honey to 923.70?mg (GAE)/kg in thyme honey from Rachidia; flavonoid content ranged from 4.26?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/kg in citrus honey to 139.62?mg QE/kg in black cumin honey. Black cumin honey had the highest peroxyl scavenging activity; oregano (from Zaraphyt) and thyme honeys (from Rachidia) had the highest ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) scavenging activity; and thyme honey (Saouira) had the highest NO scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Moroccan honeys was correlated with the phenol, flavonoid, and melanoidin contents. Dark honeys had higher antioxidant activity than light honeys. Samples with high sodium levels had lower free radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, calcium and magnesium increased the ABTS and peroxyl scavenging capacity, respectively, of honey samples. According to cluster and discriminant analyses, the honey samples were grouped in three clusters with respect to the phenol, flavonoid, melanoidin, proline, mineral and sugar contents, and free radical scavenging capacity. PMID:24438231

  14. Characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharide purified from Rana chensinensis skin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo investigation of the polysaccharide fraction named as RCSP II, which was extracted from Rana chensinensis skin, were performed. Results indicated that RCSP II comprised glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 87.82:2.77:1.54 with a molecular weight of 12.8 kDa. Antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that RCSP II exhibited 75.2% scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals at the concentration of 2500 mg/L and 85.1% against chelated ferrous ion at 4000 mg/L. Antioxidant activity assay in vivo further showed that RCSP II increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the levels of malondialodehyde, and enhanced total antioxidant capabilities in livers and sera of d-galactose induced mice. These results suggested that RCSP II could have potential antioxidant applications as medicine or functional food. PMID:25933517

  15. Bovine serum albumin binding, antioxidant and anticancer properties of an oxidovanadium(IV) complex with luteolin.

    PubMed

    Naso, Luciana G; Lezama, Luis; Valcarcel, María; Salado, Clarisa; Villacé, Patricia; Kortazar, Danel; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy using metal coordination compounds for cancer treatment is the work of the ongoing research. Continuing our research on the improvement of the anticancer activity of natural flavonoids by metal complexation, a coordination compound of the natural antioxidant flavone luteolin (lut) and the oxidovanadium(IV) cation has been synthesized and characterized. Using different physicochemical measurements some structural aspects of [VO(lut)(H2O)2]Na·3H2O (VOlut) were determined. The metal coordinated to two cis-deprotonated oxygen atoms (ArO(-)) of the ligand and two H2O molecules. Magnetic measurements in solid state indicated the presence of an effective exchange pathway between adjacent vanadium ions. VOlut improved the antioxidant capacity of luteolin only against hydroxyl radical. The antitumoral effects were evaluated on MDAMB231 breast cancer and A549 lung cancer cell lines. VOlut exhibited higher viability inhibition (IC50=17μM) than the ligand on MDAMB231 cells but they have the same behavior on A549 cells (ca. IC50=60μM). At least oxidative stress processes were active during cancer cell-killing. When metals chelated through the carbonyl group and one adjacent OH group of the flavonoid an effective improvement of the biological properties has been observed. In VOlut the different coordination may be the cause of the small improvement of some of the tested properties of the flavonoid. Luteolin and VOlut could be distributed and transported in vivo. Luteolin interacted in the microenvironment of the tryptophan group of the serum binding protein, BSA, by means of electrostatic forces and its complex bind the protein by H bonding and van der Waals interactions. PMID:26828287

  16. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  17. Physical properties of whey protein coating solutions and films containing antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Krochta, J M

    2007-06-01

    Antioxidants (ascorbyl palmitate and alpha-tocopherol) were incorporated into 10% (w/w) whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution containing 6.67% (w/w) glycerol (WPI:glycerol = 6:4). Before incorporation, the antioxidants were mixed using either powder blending (Process 1) or ethanol solvent-mixing (Process 2). After the antioxidant mixtures were incorporated into heat-denatured WPI solution, viscosity and turbidity of the WPI solutions were determined. The WPI solutions were dried on a flat surface to produce WPI films. The WPI films were examined to determine transparency and oxygen-barrier properties (permeability, diffusivity, and solubility). WPI solution containing antioxidants produced by Process 1 and Process 2 did not show any difference in viscosity and turbidity, but viscosity was greater for the WPI solution with rather than without antioxidants. WPI films produced by Process 2 were more transparent than the films produced by Process 1. Oxygen permeability of Process 1 film was lower than Process 2 film. However, both the diffusivity and solubility of oxygen were statistically the same in Process 1 and Process 2 films. Both control WPI films and antioxidant-containing WPI films had very low oxygen solubility, comparable to polyethylene terephthalate films. Permeability of antioxidant-incorporated films was not enhanced compared to control WPI films. PMID:17995731

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Schmidt, Erich

    2006-08-23

    The antioxidant activity of a commercial rectified clove leaf essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and its main constituent eugenol was tested. This essential oil comprises in total 23 identified constituents, among them eugenol (76.8%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (17.4%), alpha-humulene (2.1%), and eugenyl acetate (1.2%) as the main components. The essential oil from clove demonstrated scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydracyl (DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This essential oil also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and acted as an iron chelator. With respect to the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil determined using a linoleic acid emulsion system indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard BHT. PMID:16910723

  19. LC-MS-MS characterization of curry leaf flavonols and antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curry leaf is a commonly used flavoring agent whose flavonol constituents have potential health benefits. This study characterized the curry leaf flavonol profile and antioxidant activity. Flavonols were extracted using ethanol, methanol, or acetone prior to identification and quantification using l...

  20. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  1. Antioxidant properties of melatonin--an emerging mystery.

    PubMed

    Beyer, C E; Steketee, J D; Saphier, D

    1998-11-15

    Over three centuries ago, the French philosopher René Descartes described the pineal gland as "the seat of the soul." However, it was not until the late 1950s that the chemical identity and biosynthesis of melatonin, the principal hormone secreted by the pineal body, were revealed. Melatonin, named from the Greek melanos, meaning black, and tonos, meaning color, is a biogenic amine with structural similarities to serotonin. The mechanisms mediating the synthesis of melatonin are transcriptionally regulated by the photoperiodic environment. Once synthesized, the neurohormone is a biologic modulator of mood, sleep, sexual behavior, reproductive alterations, immunologic function, and circadian rhythms. Moreover, melatonin exerts its regulatory roles through high-affinity, pertussis toxin-sensitive, G-protein (or guanine nucleotide binding protein) coupled receptors that reside primarily in the eye, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, and brain. Additional evidence also indicates a role for melatonin in aging and age-related diseases, probably related to its efficient free radical scavenger (or antioxidant) activity. The potential clinical benefit of melatonin as an antioxidant is remarkable, suggesting that it may be of use in the treatment of many pathophysiological disease states including various cancers, hypertension, pulmonary diseases, and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the biosynthesis of melatonin and its many endocrine and physiological functions, including its therapeutic potential in human disease states. Emphasis is placed on the recent speculations indicating that this pineal hormone serves as an endogenous antioxidant agent with proficient free radical scavenging activity. PMID:9825724

  2. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds) were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.442.6%), carvacrol (7.652.3%), and ?-terpinene (311.4%). Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging and ?-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas has most antioxidant activity in ?-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1 0.1??g/mL and 96.1 0.8% inhibition rate, resp.). PMID:21876714

  3. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant properties of Xanthosoma violaceum leaves.

    PubMed

    Picerno, Patrizia; Mencherini, Teresa; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Francesco; Aquino, Rita

    2003-10-22

    An extract of Xanthosoma violaceum leaves was subjected to a polyphenol profile determination, including total polyphenols, and antioxidant activity evaluation. Analysis of the extract resulted in the isolation of a new flavone C-glycoside, apigenin 6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-apiofuranoside (1), as well as known flavone C-glycosides, including vitexin (2), isovitexin (3), isovitexin 4'-O-rhamnopyranoside (4), apigenin 6-C-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (5), and apigenin 6,8-diC-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6). The antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by means of two different in vitro tests: bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test) and peroxidation induced by the water-soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride, on mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/linoleic acid unilamellar vesicles (LP-LUV test). In both tests used, the extract and a fraction II showed a significant antioxidant/free-radical scavenging effect (fraction II, EC(50) = 11.6 microg/mL) in comparison to alpha-tocopherol (EC(50) = 10.1 microg/mL). PMID:14558757

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity copper-quercetin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, S. Birjees; Memon, Shahabuddin; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Bhanger, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids, has been investigated in the presence of Cu(II) in methanol. The spectroscopic studies (UV-vis, 1H NMR and IR) were useful to assess the relevant interaction of Quercetin with Cu(II) ions, the chelation sites and dependence of the complex structure from the metal/ligand ratio. A 1:2 (L:M) complex was indicated by Job's method of continuous variation, which was applied to ascertain the stoichiometric composition of the complex. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were evaluated by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The complexed flavonoid was much more effective free radical scavengers than the free flavonoids.

  5. Characterization of Indian beers: chemical composition and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Pai, Tapasya V; Sawant, Siddhi Y; Ghatak, Arindam A; Chaturvedi, Palak A; Gupte, Arpita M; Desai, Neetin S

    2015-03-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and corresponding lipid preoxidation of Indian commercial beers were evaluated. The presence of polyphenolic compounds such as tannic acid, gallic acid, catechol, vanillin, caffeic acid, quercetin, p-coumaric acid and rutin was quantified using LC-MS while the organic acids including tartaric, malic, acetic, citric and succinic acids were analysed using HPLC. Beer sample B8 had the greatest concentration of phenolic and flavonoid components (0.620 ± 0.084 mg/mL and 0.379 ± 0.020 mg/mL respectively) among the beer samples studied. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in the range of 68.34 ± 0.85 % to 89.90 ± 0.71 % and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity was in the range of 59.75 ± 0.20 % to 76.22 ± 0.50 %. Percent protection in lipid peroxidation was quantified to be maximum (54.45 ± 3.39 %) in sample B5. Total phenolic content positively correlates with antioxidant assays, DPPH and ABTS (r = 0.35 and r = 0.58 respectively) with p < 0.001 and also with lipid peroxidation (r = 0.04) with p < 0.001. Negative correlation was observed between total flavonoid content with ABTS and lipid peroxidation (r = -0.1 and r = -0.05) respectively. The process of brewing warrants additional research to determine how the concentration of selected phenolic compounds can be increased. PMID:25745209

  6. Antioxidant properties of hydroxycinnamic acids: a review of structure- activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi-Asl, N; Garrido, J; Khazraei, H; Borges, F; Firuzi, O

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are important phytochemicals possessing significant biological properties. Several investigators have studied in vitro antioxidant activity of HCAs in detail. In this review, we have gathered the studies focused on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these compounds that have used medicinal chemistry to generate more potent antioxidant molecules. Most of the reports indicated that the presence of an unsaturated bond on the side chain of HCAs is vital to their activity. The structural features that were reported to be of importance to the antioxidant activity were categorized as follows: modifications of the aromatic ring, which include alterations in the number and position of hydroxy groups and insertion of electron donating or withdrawing moieties as well as modifications of the carboxylic function that include esterification and amidation process. Furthermore, reports that have addressed the influence of physicochemical properties including redox potential, lipid solubility and dissociation constant on the antioxidant activity were also summarized. Finally, the pro-oxidant effect of HCAs in some test systems was addressed. Most of the investigations concluded that the presence of ortho-dihydroxy phenyl group (catechol moiety) is of significant importance to the antioxidant activity, while, the presence of three hydroxy groups does not necessarily improve the activity. Optimization of the structure of molecular leads is an important task of modern medicinal chemistry and its accomplishment relies on the careful assessment of SARs. SAR studies on HCAs can identify the most successful antioxidants that could be useful for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:23834166

  7. Impact of gamma-irradiation on the antioxidative properties of sage, thyme, and oregano.

    PubMed

    Brandstetter, S; Berthold, C; Isnardy, B; Solar, S; Elmadfa, I

    2009-09-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. The Salmonella typhimurium (TA102) reverse mutation assay, co-incubated with t-BOOH and H(2)O(2), was used to assess the effects of gamma-irradiation (dose: 10kGy) on the antioxidant properties of sage, thyme, and oregano in chloroform and methanol extracts as well as in their mixture. In addition, measurements of the trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC), total polyphenol content (TPC), and tocopherol equivalent (TE) were performed. For the methanol and mixed extracts, antioxidative properties in the S. typhimurium reverse mutation assay were only found when using an exogenous metabolic activation system. Generally, the greatest inhibition of mutagenicity was observed in the chloroform fractions of irradiated and of non-irradiated herbs. The relative antioxidant activities for the different herbs were as follows: TA102/t-BOOH, TEAC, TPC: thyme approximately oregano>sage. TA102/H(2)O(2): thyme approximately oregano approximately sage. TE: sage>thyme>oregano. For the majority of the investigated samples the impact of irradiation was insignificant. Therefore, gamma-irradiation at the doses tested seems to have little, if any, effect on the antioxidative capacity of the tested herbs. PMID:19520134

  8. Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Abdul Karim, Fifilyana; Saib, Syazlina

    2014-01-01

    Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), anthocyanin (TAC) and carotenoid (TCC) contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts (i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed) and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. PMID:26785068

  9. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Antioxidant Properties of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Guk; Shin, Young Jee; Lee, Seongeung; Lee, Junsoo; Yoo, Seon Mi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stir-frying, and roasting) and three cooking times (5, 10, and 15 min) on the antioxidant properties of red pepper. Raw and cooked peppers were measured for proximate composition, ascorbic acid (AsA) content, total carotenoid content (TCC), total polyphenol content (TP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Results showed that the proximate composition, AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activities were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the cooking procedure; the loss rate varied among individual compounds. Boiling and steaming significantly reduced AsA content (24.3~66.5%), TP (13.9~ 54.9%), and antioxidant activity (21.7~60.5%) in red pepper, while stir-frying and roasting slightly reduced AsA content (2.7~25.9%), TP (1.8~4.9%), and antioxidant activity (4.9~17.9%). The highest loss was observed after boiling, followed by steaming, roasting, and stir-frying. Stir-frying and roasting better preserved AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, dry-heat cooking methods such as stir-frying and roasting may be preferred to retain the nutrient compositions and antioxidant properties of red pepper. PMID:24471098

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441

  11. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Siqun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics. PMID:25628774

  12. Antioxidant properties of bran extracts from Trego wheat grown at different locations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kequan; Yu, Liangli

    2004-03-10

    The effects of growing conditions during the grain-filling period, including high temperature stress, total solar radiation, and average daily solar radiation, on the antioxidant properties of Trego wheat were evaluated. Bran extracts were prepared from Trego wheat, grown at four nonirrigated and one irrigated location in Colorado, and compared for their radical scavenging activities against ABTS*+ and DPPH*, Fe(2+) chelating capacities, and total phenolic contents. Significant differences in radical scavenging activities, chelating capacities, and total phenolic contents were detected among Trego bran samples grown at different locations, suggesting that growing conditions may influence the antioxidant properties of wheat. The bran sample obtained from Fort Collins had the strongest scavenging activity against either ABTS*+ or DPPH* radicals and the greatest chelating activity, whereas the highest total phenolic content was detected in bran samples from Walsh, indicating that each antioxidant activity may respond to the environmental changes differently. Positive correlations were detected between the DPPH* scavenging activity and either total solar radiation (r = 0.97, p = 0.03) or average daily solar radiation (r = 0.97, p = 0.03). In addition, HPLC analysis detected the presence of ferulic, syringic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and coumaric acids in wheat bran. Additional research is needed to further investigate the effects of environmental conditions and the interactions between genotype and environmental factors on the antioxidant properties of wheat to promote the production of wheat with improved antioxidant properties by optimizing the growing conditions for a selected genotype. PMID:14995107

  13. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested. PMID:25514224

  14. Antioxidant property of quercetin-Cr(III) complex: The role of Cr(III) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weijun; Sun, Shaofang; cao, Wei; Liang, Yan; Song, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoid-metal complex is reported to exhibit a higher antioxidant activity than parent flavonoid. In this paper, experimental and theoretical methods are applied to study the antioxidant properties of quercetin and quercetin-Cr(III) complex, to find out the antioxidant activity variation and the role of Cr(III) ion on the antioxidant activity of the complex. Bond dissociation energy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) of quercetin and the complex are calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. The experimental results show that the complex has a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than quercetin. The calculated results show that the complex displays lower BDE and IP than quercetin. The IP of the complex declines obviously, indicating that the Cr (III) ion has more impact on the electron donating ability than on the hydrogen atom transferring ability of the complex.

  15. Properties of Bread Dough with Added Fiber Polysaccharides and Phenolic Antioxidants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-01-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking. PMID:21535512

  16. Effects of ?-irradiation on phenolics content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of whole grainrice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yafang; Tang, Fufu; Xu, Feifei; Wang, Yuefei; Bao, Jinsong

    2013-04-01

    Three rice genotypes with different color were gamma irradiated at a dose of 2, 4, 6, 8and 10 kGy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity, as well as physicochemical properties of whole grain rice. The bound phenolics content in all the genotypes were significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation. Gamma irradiation at high dose significantly increased the free, bound and total antioxidant activities of three rice genotypes except for the free antioxidant activities of red rice. Though the color parameters were slightly changed, these changes could not be visibly identified. Rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) viscosities and gel hardness decreased continuously with the increase of the irradiation doses. It is suggested that gamma irradiation enhanced the antioxidant potential and eating quality of whole grainrice.

  17. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62% over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  18. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-01-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24979271

  19. The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mamalis, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

    2013-07-01

    The number of skin cancers continues to rise, accounting for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals are linked to skin cancer and aging. Therefore, it is important for us to identify agents that have anti-oxidant properties to protect skin against free radical damage. The purpose of this research is to investigate the anti-oxidant properties of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin that are components from chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria, respectively. We measured the ability of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we demonstrated that varying concentrations of these natural components were able to inhibit upregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our results indicate components of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria exhibit anti-oxidant capabilities and warrant further study in clinical trials to characterize their anti-cancer and anti-aging capabilities. PMID:23884490

  20. Simulated Gastrointestinal pH Condition Improves Antioxidant Properties of Wheat and Rice Flours

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M. H.; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions. PMID:22837707

  1. Simulated gastrointestinal pH condition improves antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions. PMID:22837707

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions

    PubMed Central

    ?ahin, Saliha

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature) were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I). The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III) and blackberry (I), respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts.

  3. Characterization of polyphenols and evaluation of antioxidant capacity in grape pomace of the cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel R; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2015-07-01

    Low molecular weight polyphenols (LMW-PPs) and anthocyanins, along with the antioxidant capacity, were assessed in grape pomace extract (GPE) of red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec. Twenty-six phenolics (13 LMW-PPs and 13 anthocyanins) were characterized and quantified by HPLC-MWD and UPLC-ESI-MS. The maximum concentrations of LMW-PPs corresponded to the flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas malvidin-3-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. Piceatannol, a stilbene analogue to resveratrol with higher antioxidant activity, was firstly identified and quantified in GPE of the cv. Malbec. The antioxidant activity for Malbec GPE determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was 2,756 μmol TEg(-1) GPE. Therefore, the data reported sustain the use of winemaking by-products as a cheap source of phenolic compounds suitable for biotechnological applications, as a strategy for sustainable oenology. PMID:25704698

  4. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eric W.C.; Soh, Eu Ying; Tie, Pei Pei; Law, Yon Peng

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Results: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70–81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1–11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Conclusion: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas. PMID:22224051

  5. A magnetically drivable nanovehicle for curcumin with antioxidant capacity and MRI relaxation properties.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, René; Baratella, Davide; Lima, Giuseppina; Holà, Katerina; Divoky, Clemens; Stollberger, Rudolf; Malina, Ondrej; Aparicio, Claudia; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zbořil, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin possesses wide-ranging anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and its biological activity can be linked to its potent antioxidant capacity. Superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ), called surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) were surface-modified with curcumin molecules, due to the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) atoms on the nanoparticle surface. The so-obtained curcumin-modified SAMNs (SAMN@curcumin) had a mean size of 13±4 nm. SAMN@curcumin was characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, UV/Vis, FTIR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, bulk susceptibility (SQUID), and relaxometry measurements (MRI imaging). The high negative contrast proclivity of SAMN@curcumin to act as potential contrast agent in MRI screenings was also tested. Moreover, the redox properties of bound curcumin were probed by electrochemistry. SAMN@curcumin was studied in the presence of different electroactive molecules, namely hydroquinone, NADH and ferrocyanide, to assess its redox behavior. Finally, SAMN@curcumin was electrochemically probed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, demonstrating the stability and reactivity of bound curcumin. PMID:25079005

  6. Novel EPR characterization of the antioxidant activity of tea leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, M. A.; Khaled, M. M.

    2002-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is utilized to investigate several categories of green and black tea: Twining green tea (TGT), Chinese green tea (CGT), Red-labels black tea (RBT). Basically, two EPR signals from all the studied samples are observed: One of them is a very weak sharp EPR signal with ? Hpp?10 G and g-factor=2.00023 superimposed on the other broad signal with ? Hpp?550 G and g-factor=2.02489. The broad signal is a characteristic one of manganese(II) complex, while the sharp signal is related to a stable radical of aromatic origin exist in a powder condition. The feature of the manganese EPR signal is attributed to manganese(II) complex and reflected the molecular behavior of Mn(II) in the protein system of the natural leaves. The sharp signal, which is most probably due to a semiquinones radicals, is observed at room temperature and its intensity is remarkably affected by photo degradation of the studied samples. The intensity of manganese(II) EPR signal is found to be related to ageing and disintegration of the tea leaves. Moreover, direct relation between the relative intensity of the semiquinones radical signal and antioxidant activity of the studied samples was also correlated.

  7. Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian C; Herbach, Kirsten M; Mosshammer, Markus R; Carle, Reinhold; Yi, Weiguang; Sellappan, Subramani; Akoh, Casimir C; Bunch, Ron; Felker, Peter

    2005-01-26

    Total phenolics, ascorbic acid, and betalain contents of differently colored cactus pear clones (nine Opuntia ficus-indica [L.] Mill. clones and one O. robusta Wendl. clone) were investigated and related to their respective antioxidant potential assessed by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TEAC and ORAC values were very highly correlated with each other and also with values for total phenolics, betalain contents, and ascorbic acid concentrations. Total phenolics had the greatest contribution to ORAC and TEAC values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements of cactus pear juices permitted the differentiation of the clones based on variations in pigment patterns and betalain concentrations. The red and yellow betalains were absent in lime green colored cactus fruits. The ratio and concentration of these pigments were responsible for the yellow, orange, red, and purple colors in the other clones. Progeny of purple and lime green colored parents were characterized by 12% and 88% of plants bearing lime green and purple fruit, respectively. This implies that the genes for betalain production were lacking in the lime green fruits but could be provided by a parent with a complete set of genes, that is, purple fruits. Besides known pigments typical of Cactaceae, two unexpected betalains were identified. Whereas gomphrenin I was found for the first time in tissues of cactus plants, methionine-betaxanthin has never been described before as a genuine betalain. In addition to their alleged health-promoting properties, various combinations of yellow betaxanthins and red-purple betacyanins may allow the development of new food products without using artificial colorants. PMID:15656686

  8. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of -22mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. PMID:26952391

  9. Characterization and antioxidant activities of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Fomitopsis pinicola.

    PubMed

    Hao, Limin; Sheng, Zhicun; Lu, Jike; Tao, Ruyu; Jia, Shiru

    2016-05-01

    Fomitopsis pinicola (F. pinicola) is a kind of medicinal fungi, and few studies has been carried out on F. pinicola polysaccharides from liquid submerged cultivation. The characterization and antioxidant activities of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) isolated from F. pinicola were investigated. The results showed that the molecular weight of EPS was 2.30×10(4)Da, and EPS was composed of mannose, rhamnose, xylose and galactose with the molar ratio of 0.1:1.0:0.3:0.5. The molecular weight of IPS was 4.07×10(5)Da, and the monosaccharide compositions included glucose, mannose, rhamnose, xylose and galactose with the molar ratio of 1.0:0.9:0.9:0.8:1.1. Antioxidant activities of both EPS and IPS including in vitro scavenging activities on 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, cellular protective effects on yeast cells from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and H2O2 oxidative damage were tested. Both EPS and IPS showed antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner, and IPS had higher antioxidant activity than EPS. So EPS and IPS could be potential novel antioxidants for functional food. PMID:26876995

  10. Antioxidant properties of soybean isoflavone extract and tofu in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiabin; Chang, Sam K C; Wiesenborn, Dennis

    2005-03-23

    Isoflavones in soybean were extracted in the crude form using 80% food-grade ethanol at 80 degrees C for 6 h and followed by concentration and dehydration. The soy extract contained isoflavones primarily in the forms of glucosides. In vitro antioxidant activities of the soy extract containing 20-500 ppm isoflavones were conducted using a Rancimat method. The results showed that soy isoflavone extract had strong in vitro antioxidant activity. There was a dose-dependent response for the in vitro antioxidant activity at the lower concentrations but not at the higher concentrations. In vivo antioxidant property was determined by measuring the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in various organs of rats that were fed with diets containing partially oxidized oil and various levels of isoflavones for up to 24 weeks. Neither short-term (8 weeks) feeding nor low isoflavone content (50 ppm) induced changes in superoxide dismutase or catalase activities in rats. Only diets containing high isoflavone contents (150 and 250 ppm) showed obvious elevated enzymatic levels in various organs. In addition, a laboratory-prepared tofu containing approximately 50 ppm isoflavones had better effects than the soy extract with the 250 ppm isoflavone group, which indicated that molecules other than isoflavones may have a synergistic effect on in vivo antioxidant enzyme inductions of tofu. PMID:15769177

  11. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea. PMID:26613545

  12. Antioxidant properties of Urtica pilulifera root, seed, flower, and leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik; Cll, Zeynep; Korkmaz, Halil

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative properties of hydroalcoholic (80%) extracts from different parts of Urtica pilulifera L. (Family Urticaceae), including leaf (UPL), flower (UPF), seed (UPS), and root (UPR). Antioxidative activity of the extracts was measured using the ferric thiocyanate method, thiobarbituric acid method, reductive potential, metal chelating, free radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In addition, the results were compared with antioxidants such as tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ?-tocopherol. Total antioxidant activities of UPS, UPF, UPL, UPR, BHA, BHT, and ?-tocopherol were 88.79%, 85.13%, 86.72%, 78.46%, 81.31%, 76.12%, and 46.28%, respectively. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power and the superoxide anion radical and free radical scavenging activities of UPL, UPF, UPS, and UPR are concentration dependent. A correlation between higher antioxidant activity and the amount of total phenolics was found in the extracts. PMID:20828318

  13. Oxidative Stress Type Influences the Properties of Antioxidants Containing Polyphenols in RINm5F Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Bietiger, William; Seyfritz, Elodie; Peluso, Jean; Muller, Christian; Zhao, Minjie; Marchioni, Eric; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro methods currently used to screen bioactive compounds focus on the use of a single model of oxidative stress. However, this simplistic view may lead to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of two natural extracts (a mix of red wine polyphenols (RWPs) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) with three models of oxidative stress induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a mixture of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase (HX/XO), or streptozotocin (STZ) in RINm5F beta cells. We employed multiple approaches to validate their potential as therapeutic treatment options, including cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidant enzymes expression. All three oxidative stresses induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis, whereas the level of ROS production was variable depending on the type of stress. The highest level of ROS was found for the HX/XO-induced stress, an increase that was reflected by higher expression antioxidant enzymes. Further, both antioxidant compounds presented beneficial effects during oxidative stress, but EGCG appeared to be a more efficient antioxidant. These data indicate that the efficiency of natural antioxidants is dependent on both the nature of the compound and the type of oxidative stress generated. PMID:26508986

  14. Acethylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and antioxidant properties of pyrogallol.

    PubMed

    Ozturk Sarikaya, S Beyza

    2015-01-01

    Pyrogallol is found naturally in crops and fruits of many plants. It is also an active ingredient of many pharmaceuticals. For this reason, we employed different in vitro antioxidant assays such as cupric ion Cu(2+) reducing power, Fe(3+) reducing power, total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, ABTS radical scavenging, DMPD radical scavenging, DPPH scavenging, Fe(2+) chelating, [Formula: see text] scavenging and H(2)O(2) scavenging activities of pyrogallol. Pyrogallol inhibited 77.95% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 30??g/mL concentration. BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and trolox exhibited inhibitions of 89.88, 89.97, 83.82 and 91.85% against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, pyrogallol was an effective of all the scavenging and reducing power results. In this study, pyrogallol was also evaluated as potential inhibitor for acethycholinesterse enzyme. The results showed that pyrogallol exhibited potent acetylcholinesteras inhibitory activity with IC(50) and K(I) values 10.2 and 8.6??M, respectively. PMID:25297710

  15. Transdermal microemulsions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.: characterization, stability and evaluation of antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Dina M; Ammar, Nagwa M; Abd El-Alim, Sameh H; El-anssary, Amira A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to formulate Glycyrrhiza glabra root and rhizome aqueous ethanolic extract in microemulsion carrier systems intended for transdermal delivery of incorporated antioxidant actives, flavonoids and polyphenols. The results obtained reveal that the microemulsion system ME3 possesses optimum properties regarding drug content (flavonoids and polyphenols), viscosity, pH, particle size and polydispersity index, zeta potential, stability, permeation of actives and hence possesses high in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant efficacy. These results indicate also that this microemulsion shows approximately 13-fold higher ex vivo antioxidant capacity compared with the liquorice extract solution. In addition, the proposed microemulsion is simple to dispense, cost effective and provides high patient compliance and convenience because of simple topical application and avoidance of non-comfortable oral or parenteral administration. PMID:24028295

  16. Biochemical characterization and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different Ganoderma collections.

    PubMed

    Saltarelli, Roberta; Ceccaroli, Paola; Buffalini, Michele; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Iotti, Mirco; Badalyan, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular and biochemical characterization and to compare the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of four Ganoderma isolates belonging to Ganoderma lucidum (Gl-4, Gl-5) and Ganoderma resinaceum (F-1, F-2) species. The molecular identification was performed by ITS and IGS sequence analyses and the biochemical characterization by enzymatic and proteomic approaches. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts was compared by three different methods and their flavonoid contents were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antiproliferative effect on U937 cells was determined by MTT assay. The studied mycelia differ both in the enzymatic activities and protein content. The highest content in total phenol and the highest antioxidant activity for DPPH free radical scavenging and chelating activity on Fe(2+) were observed with the Gl-4 isolate of G. lucidum. The presence of quercetin, rutin, myricetin, and morin as major flavonoids with effective antioxidant activity was detected. The ethanolic extracts from mycelia of G. lucidum isolates possess a substantial antiproliferative activity against U937 cells in contrast to G. resinaceum in which the antiproliferative effects were insignificant. This study provides a comparison between G. lucidum and G. resinaceum mycelial strains, and shows that G. resinaceum could be utilized to obtain several bioactive compounds. PMID:25662590

  17. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Vladimir-Kneevi?, Sanda; Blaekovi?, Biljana; Kindl, Marija; Vladi?, Jelena; Lower-Nedza, Agnieszka D; Brantner, Adelheid H

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman's colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC) and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's and other related diseases. PMID:24413832

  18. Effect of biotic elicitors on enrichment of antioxidant properties and induced isoflavones in soybean.

    PubMed

    Boué, S M; Shih, F F; Shih, B Y; Daigle, K W; Carter-Wientjes, C H; Cleveland, T E

    2008-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from soybean obtained with germination, wounding, and application of biotic elicitors were evaluated. Also, the relationship between observed antioxidant properties and compositional changes in isoflavone content was determined. The 2 biotic elicitors used in this study were the food-grade fungus Aspergillus sojae and A. sojae cell wall extract. Isoflavone content was determined by C(18) reverse phase high-performance chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and beta-carotene cooxidation in a linoleate system. Higher antioxidant activities were observed in wounded and elicitor-treated extracts when compared with nonwounded control extracts. In addition, the phenolic content was higher in extracts from wounded and elicitor-treated soybean. Germination for 3 d slightly decreased total isoflavone content (-4.3%); however, wounding increased total isoflavone content (25.8%). The soybean extracts from seeds treated with A. sojae biotic elicitors had the highest total isoflavone contents (9.8 to 11.6 mg/g extract) and displayed the highest antioxidant activities in both the DPPH and beta-carotene assays. Also identified in the wounded and elicitor-treated extracts were the induced isoflavones glyceollins that contributed to the higher isoflavone contents observed. PMID:18460129

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  20. Production of Bioactive Compounds by Actinomycetes and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Viswanath, Buddolla; Saigopal, D. V. R.; Narasimha, Golla

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as “(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione.” PMID:24790761

  1. Evaluation on antioxidant properties of sixteen plant species from Jeju Island in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koa, Eun-Yi; Kim, Daekyung; Roh, Seong Woon; Yoonc, Weon-Jong; Jeon, You-Jin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Kil-Nam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of 80 % ethanol extracts of 16 species of plants from Jeju Island in Korea were evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including the DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, superoxide scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Among the 16 plant extracts tested, CN-13 showed strong antioxidant properties in the DPPH radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging tests. The CN-13 ethanol extract was thus selected to be used for further experiments, and was separated into various fractions using four different organic solvents (n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate and butanol). The ethyl acetate fraction of CN-13 extract evidenced strong DPPH radical scavenging properties as compared to the other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction also strongly inhibited DNA-damage induced by hydrogen peroxide-oxidative damage in a mouse lymphoma (L5178Y-R) cell line. Moreover, a correlation between the total phenolic content of the extract, and its antioxidant property was reported. PMID:26417356

  2. Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Extract of Roasted Hulled Barley in Bulk Oil or Oil-in-Water Emulsion Matrix.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sumi; Kim, Mi-Ja; Park, Kye Won; Lee, Jae Hwan

    2015-11-01

    Antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts of hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that had been roasted at 210 C for 20 min were determined in bulk oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. Bulk oils were heated at 60, 100, and 180 C, and O/W emulsions were oxidized under riboflavin photosensitization. The content of phenolic compounds was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and in vitro antioxidant assays were also conducted. The major phenolics contained in the aqueous extract of roasted hulled barley (AERB) were p-coumaric, ferulic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids. Depending on the concentration and oxidation temperature, AERB had antioxidant or prooxidant properties in bulk oil. At 60 C, AERB at a concentration of 0.5% acted as a prooxidant, whereas at 1.0% it acted as an antioxidant. At 100 C, AERB acted as an antioxidant irrespective of concentration. In 180 C conditions, 0.5% AERB acted as a prooxidant, whereas other concentrations of AERB acted as antioxidants. In the case of riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions, AERB showed antioxidant properties irrespective of concentration. Antioxidant abilities of AERB are affected by the food matrix, including bulk oil and O/W emulsions, and concentrations of AERB, even though diverse phenolic compounds may display high antioxidant properties in in vitro assays. PMID:26408834

  3. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, Franois

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems. PMID:17705148

  4. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Calpurnia aurea

    PubMed Central

    Adedapo, Adeolu A; Jimoh, Florence O; Koduru, Srinivas; Afolayan, Anthony J; Masika, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    Background In South Africa, Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth is used to destroy lice and to relieve itches, to destroy maggots and to treat allergic rashes, particularly those caused by caterpillars. Antioxidants play an important role protecting against damage by reactive oxygen species. Plants containing flavonoids have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Calpurnia aurea were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, and FRAP methods were higher than that of the leaves. On the other hand, the leaf extract of the plant has higher level of total flavonols and proanthocyanidins. The leaf extract also has higher radical scavenging activity as shown in 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2¿-azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The leaf extract showed activity against seven of the bacterial organisms. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of Calpurnia aurea possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger or, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Although, the antibacterial properties of Calpurnia aurea are not as effective as the standard drugs- Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin, they still possess some activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Calpurnia aurea may therefore be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutical plant-based products. PMID:18803865

  5. Antioxidant properties of xanthones extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen): A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Quang, Duong Tuan; Bui, Ngoc Hoa Thi; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical study on antioxidant properties of fourteen xanthones extracted from the pericarp of G. Mangostana has been performed. Three main reaction mechanisms are investigated: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer-proton transfer (SETPT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer energy (ETE) parameters were computed in gas phase and water. The results show that HAT would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining antioxidant activity of xanthones in gas phase, whereas the SPLET mechanism is thermodynamically favored in water.

  6. Influence of extraction methods on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Thymua danesis subsp. Lancifolius.

    PubMed

    Tavakolpour, Yousef; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Haghighi-Manesh, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    The essential oil (EO) from dried ground powder leaves and stems of Thymua danesis was extracted using hydrodistillation (HD), ohmic extraction (OE), ultrasound-assisted HD and ultrasound-assisted OE methods. Then, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and sensory properties of the EO were investigated both in vitro and in food systems. Thyme EO extracted by ultrasound-assisted HD method had promising antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and had the best antioxidant properties when tested in vitro. In food systems, higher concentrations of the EO were needed to exert similar antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Furthermore, thyme EO added yogurt and drink yogurt revealed better sensory properties than the control and fresh samples. Essential oil from Thymua danesis has a good potential to be used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and flavoring agent in food systems and the extraction method effects on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the thyme extract. PMID:27004106

  7. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant study of N,N'-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausiah, Syadza; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2015-09-01

    N,N'-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine was synthesized from 2-chlorobenzoylisothiocyanate and hydrazine in acetone. The compound was characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopies. X-ray crystallography study showed the molecule adopt trans configuration at both N-N and C-N bonds. The compound showed high antioxidant activity, EC50 of 374.89 M, compared to ascorbic acid (EC50 of 561.36 M).

  8. Structure, physical property and antioxidant activity of catechin grafted Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Meng, Chen-Guang; Yan, Ye-Hua; Shan, Ya-Na; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, structural characterization, physical property and antioxidant activity of catechin grafted Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (catechin-g-TPS) were investigated. Crude polysaccharides were isolated from the fruit bodies of T. fuciformis and further purified on DEAE-52 and Sepharose CL-4B chromatography to afford a main purified fraction (named TPS). The molecular weight of TPS was determined as 5.8210(5)Da by HPLC. Then, the free radical mediated grafting of catechin onto TPS was achieved by using a redox system. As compared with the unmodified TPS, catechin-g-TPS showed new bands within the range of 1300-1600cm(-1) in FT-IR spectrum, and exhibited new signals at around ? 6.00 and 6.80ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the thermal stability of catechin-g-TPS was higher than TPS. X-ray diffraction spectrum of catechin-g-TPS exhibited two sharp narrow diffraction peaks at 14.2 and 32.1, corresponding to the crystalline peaks of catechin. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed the surface of TPS was smooth, whereas the surface of catechin-g-TPS was much rough. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of catechin onto TPS. Moreover, catechin-g-TPS had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power as compared to TPS. PMID:26589582

  9. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. PMID:26775954

  10. Antioxidative properties of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf extracts in accelerated oxidation and deep frying studies.

    PubMed

    Nor, Fatihanim Mohd; Mohamed, Suhaila; Idris, Nor Aini; Ismail, Razali

    2008-09-15

    The potential uses of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf extract as a natural antioxidant were evaluated in refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein, using accelerated oxidation and deep frying studies at 180C from 0 to 40h. The extracts (optimum concentration 0.2%) significantly retarded oil oxidation and deterioration (P<0.05), comparably to 0.02% BHT in tests such as peroxide value, anisidine value, iodine value, free fatty acid, oxidative stability index (OSI), polar and polymer compound contents. In sensory evaluation studies, different batches of French fries were not significantly different (P<0.05) from one another for oiliness, crispiness, taste and overall acceptability when the same oil was used for up to the 40th hour of frying. P. amaryllifolius leaf extract, which had a polyphenol content of 102mg/g, exhibited an excellent heat-stable antioxidant property and may be a good natural alternative to existing synthetic antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:26049222

  11. Structural and antioxidant properties of gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Park, Hyun Jin; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon

    2008-08-15

    Hyaluronic acid (Hyaluronan, HA) was depolymerised by gamma irradiation and its structural changes and antioxidant activities were investigated. The structural changes of gamma irradiated HA were studied by gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), viscosity, pH, Hunter colour measurement, UV spectrophotometry, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that gamma irradiation decreased molecular weight size, viscosity and pH of the hyaluronic acid and its colour turned to intense yellow. UV spectra of the irradiated HA showed a change at 265nm, which indicates the formation of double bonds. Differences in the height and shape of certain absorption bonds of FT-IR spectra in the range 1700-1750cm(-1) were also observed, which is associated with the formation of carboxylic acid. From these structural changes of the HA, gamma irradiation may have a role in the formation of pyrancarboxylic acid rings. DPPH radical scavenging ability and the reducing power of gamma irradiated HA were significantly higher than that of non-irradiated HA. However, non-irradiated and irradiated HA did not show significant differences in the Rancimat test. PMID:26049989

  12. Antioxidant, pro-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of parsley.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Lantto, Tiina A; Raasmaja, Atso; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2011-06-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40-60) petrol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using a battery of in vitro assays, viz., iron(iii) reduction, iron(ii) chelation and free radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of the pro-oxidant activity of the extract was based upon its effects upon DNA fragmentation and protein carbonylation. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of the extract were determined in non-cancerous CV1-P fibroblast and cancerous A375 melanoma cells using MTT and LDH tests and caspase 3-like activity assay. The highest concentration, 2.0 mg ml(-1), decreased the viability of both cell lines, however, the cancerous melanoma cells were slightly susceptible to the effects. The observed cytotoxicity was not due to the caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, the toxicity might be explained by the pro-oxidative activity of components within the extract against proteins and/or DNA but it is not related to caspase 3-dependent apoptosis within cells. PMID:21779571

  13. Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1μg/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress. PMID:24176374

  14. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  15. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry “antioxidant” (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of “antioxidant” in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:26787624

  16. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  17. Characterization and antioxidant activity of ?-carotene loaded chitosan-graft-poly(lactide) nanomicelles.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wenjiao; Li, Dong; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Shijie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-03-01

    ?-Carotene (?-C) is a well-established natural antioxidant agent, but its poor water-solubility, low chemical stability and low bioavailability limit its application in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries. Thus it is critical to develop an efficient method to improve the water solubility and stability of ?-C. In this research, amphiphilic chitosan-graft-poly (lactide) (CS-g-PLA) copolymer was synthesized via a homogeneous ring-opening polymerization (ROP) in ionic liquid. The obtained CS-g-PLA copolymer was able to self-assemble into about 14 nm micelles in water at low concentration, and ?-C loaded micelles (?-C/M) had low ?-C degradation after 15 days. The antioxidant properties of the ?-C/M were investigated by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method, respectively. Significantly improved antioxidant activity was observed for ?-C/M in compare with free ?-C. The aqueous dispersion of ?-C/M has potential to be applied in the field of functional food and cosmetics. PMID:25498622

  18. Release property and antioxidant effectiveness of tocopherol-incorporated LDPE/PP blend films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Lee, D S; Yam, K L

    2012-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polypropylene (PP) blend films in various blending ratios containing 3000?mg??kg? of tocopherol were manufactured by an extrusion process. Tocopherol release properties were characterised and correlated with antioxidant effectiveness in retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid contacting the films at 40C. The conditions without tocopherol (control) and with instant tocopherol addition corresponding to the amount included in the films were also prepared and compared with the film-contacting solutions. The effect of tocopherol inclusion and the blending ratio on their physical properties was also examined. A wide range of tocopherol diffusivity in 6.6??10??-4.6??10??m?s? were obtained by blend films. As PP content increases, the diffusivity decreased sharply at the beginning and levelled off later. The slower release of tocopherol in LDPE/PP blend films corresponding to lower tocopherol diffusivity retained the higher tocopherol concentration in the linoleic acid system providing better antioxidant effectiveness of the extended induction period in oxidation. The tocopherol inclusion reduced tensile strength and transparency significantly in an affordable range with higher tensile strength given by a higher PP ratio. LDPE/PP blending can be a useful tool to modulate the release profile of tocopherol and thus the antioxidant effectiveness of the tocopherol-incorporated antioxidant packaging film. PMID:22257167

  19. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40% CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5% glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26396397

  20. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties. PMID:26784470

  1. Divalent Amino-Acid-Based Amphiphilic Antioxidants: Synthesis, Self-Assembling Properties, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosselin, Marie; Meyer, Grégory; Guillet, Pierre; Cheviet, Thomas; Walther, Guillaume; Meister, Annette; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Durand, Grégory

    2016-03-16

    We report herein the synthesis of a divalent amphiphilic carrier onto which α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) antioxidants were grafted to give the divalent derivative called FATxPBN. The divalent carrier consists of two lysine amino acids as a scaffold upon which the antioxidant moieties are grafted, a perfluorinated chain that supplies hydrophobicity, and a sugar-based polar headgroup that ensures water solubility. For the sake of comparison, a divalent PBN derivative called FADiPBN was also synthesized. The self-aggregation properties of FATxPBN and FADiPBN were studied by means of surface tension, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and showed they form small micelles (i.e., 12 and 6 nm diameter, respectively) at submillimolar concentrations (i.e., 0.01 and 0.05 mM, respectively), in agreement with partition coefficient values. The superior antioxidant properties of FATxPBN over FADiPBN and the parent compounds PBN and Trolox were demonstrated using in vitro ABTS(•+) reduction (98%) and soybean lipoxygenase inhibition (94%) assays. Finally, FATxPBN was found to significantly inhibit hyperglycemia-induced toxicity on an ex-vivo rat model, demonstrating its potency as a bioactive antioxidant against oxidative stress-induced damage. PMID:26850367

  2. Hydrophobicity and antioxidant activity acting together for the beneficial health properties of nordihydroguaiaretic acid.

    PubMed

    Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto; de Faria, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Quinello, Camila; Renn, Camila; Palmeira, Patrcia; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2015-06-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and rosmarinic acid (RA), phenolic compounds found in various plants and functional foods, have known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we comparatively investigated the importance of hydrophobicity and oxidisability of NDGA and RA, regarding their antioxidant and pharmacological activities. Using a panel of cell-free antioxidant protocols, including electrochemical measurements, we demonstrated that the anti-radical capacities of RA and NDGA were similar. However, the relative capacity of NDGA as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (ex vivo assays) was significantly higher compared to RA. The inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase was not related to simple scavengers of superoxide anions, as confirmed by oxygen consumption by the activated neutrophils. The higher hydrophobicity of NDGA was also a determinant for the higher efficacy of NDGA regarding the inhibition of the release of hypochlorous acid by PMA-activated neutrophil and cytokine (TNF-? and IL-10) production by Staphylococcus aureus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In conclusion, although there have been extensive studies about the pharmacological properties of NDGA, our study showed, for the first time, the importance not only of its antioxidant activity, but also its hydrophobicity as a crucial factor for pharmacological action. PMID:25927268

  3. Antioxidant, electrochemical, thermal, antimicrobial and alkane oxidation properties of tridentate Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Gkhan; elik, Cumali; Uru?, Serhan; Demirta?, ?brahim; Elmasta?, Mahfuz; Tmer, Mehmet

    2011-10-15

    In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL(1) and HL(2)) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated. PMID:21752697

  4. Antioxidant, electrochemical, thermal, antimicrobial and alkane oxidation properties of tridentate Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Gökhan; Çelik, Cumali; Uruş, Serhan; Demirtaş, İbrahim; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Tümer, Mehmet

    2011-10-01

    In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL 1 and HL 2) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as Gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated.

  5. Methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera leaves, fruits and roots possess antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi. PMID:23039061

  6. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of vanadium encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R S; Reshmi, R; Jomon, S; Antu, K A; Riya, M P; Raghu, K G

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant potential of guar gum macroparticles (GGMs), vanadium oxide sulphate (VS) encapsulated guar gum macroparticles (GVMs), guar gum nanoparticles (GGNs), VS encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles (GVNs) and VS. GGNs and GVNs prepared by nanoprecipitation were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and particle size analysis to confirm the nanostructure of the particles. Particle size analysis revealed that GVNs possess a size of 239 nm, about 148 nm larger than that of GGNs. TEM imaging and EDAX data also confirmed the formation of fine spherical nanoparticles with vanadium incorporation. In addition the larger size of GVNs also confirmed the vanadium incorporation. MTT assay showed that concentrations up to 100 nM of GVNs for 24 h exposure did not induce significant toxicity when VS was toxic (16%) at 100 nM. Various in vitro antioxidant assays (total reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) revealed significantly high antioxidant potential of GVNs compared to GGNs, VS, GGMs and GVMs. The IC50 of GVNs was 23.21 2.1 ?g mL(-1), 33.0 2.93 ?g mL(-1), 21 1.98 ?g mL(-1) and 22.79 2.12 ?g mL(-1) for DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide anion scavenging activity assays respectively. The cell line based assay also proved that the GVN was more effective in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging than VS against tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cell lines. The overall results indicated that vanadium in combination with nano guar gum exhibits significantly high antioxidant potential. PMID:24463743

  7. Structural characterization of lignin: a potential source of antioxidants guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol.

    PubMed

    Azadfar, Mohammadali; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh V; Chen, Shulin

    2015-04-01

    The structure of lignin obtained from the ozone and soaking aqueous ammonia pretreatment of wheat straw has been characterized utilizing chemical analytical methods in order to reveal its antioxidant characteristics, including attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), pyrolysis/tetramethylammonium hydroxide-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py/TMAH-GC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant evaluation assay. The results demonstrated that the isolated lignin is a ?-hydroxyphenyl- guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with S/G ratio of 0.35 and significant amounts of phenol 2-methoxy (guaiacol) and phenol 2-methoxy-4-vinyl (4-vinylguaiacol). The Py-GC/MS and Py/TMAH-GC/MS pyrograms indicated that the major units in this lignin are derived from hydroxycinnamic acids. The GPC results revealed the molecular weight of the lignin was considerably low and also the FTIR analysis showed that the lignin possessed hydroxyl and methoxy functional groups; the factors led to the extracted lignin having a comparable antioxidant activity to that of currently used commercial antioxidants. The UV-vis and DPPH antioxidant assay results suggested a percentage of inhibition of the DPPH radicals in the following order: guaiacol (103.6 1.36)>butylated hydroxytoluene (103.3 1)>ferulic acid (102.6 0.79)>pretreated lignin (86.9 0.34). PMID:25603142

  8. Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of the cladodes of Opuntia macrorhiza (Engelm.) and Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.).

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, Joo C M; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-09-01

    The genus Opuntia (Cactaceae) includes different plants well adapted to arid and semi-arid zones. These species are cultivated under restricted growth conditions, not suitable for the growth of other fruits/vegetables. The cactus pear is a well-known example inside Opuntia genus. Its young cladodes, also known as nopalitos, are frequently consumed and used in folk medicine due to their beneficial effects and phytochemical composition. Herein, hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts from cladodes of Opuntia microdasys and Opuntia macrorhiza were characterized. Furthermore, their antioxidant properties were compared to the corresponding phytochemical profile. Despite the phylogenetic proximity and similar geographical origin O. microdasys and O. macrorhiza showed significant differences in sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles. In particular, O. microdasys distinguished for having high contents in fructose, glucose, C6:0, C8:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C16:0, C18:3, C20:0, C22:0, C23:0, C24:0, SFA and tocopherols, and also for its higher DPPH EC50 values. O. microdasys by its side proved to have significantly higher amounts of trehalose, organic acids, C13:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:1, C20:2 and MUFA. The obtained phytochemical profiles might be considered as useful information to select the best Opuntia species regarding a determined application of its natural extracts/isolated compounds. PMID:25007233

  9. Antioxidant properties of cerium oxide nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Soo; Song, Wensi; Cho, Minjung; Puppala, Hema L; Nguyen, Phuc; Zhu, Huiguang; Segatori, Laura; Colvin, Vicki L

    2013-11-26

    This work examines the effect of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating on the reactivity of cerium oxide nanocrystals with H2O2 both in chemical solutions and in cells. Monodisperse nanocrystals were formed in organic solvents from the decomposition of cerium precursors, and subsequently phase transferred into water using amphiphiles as nanoparticle coatings. Quantitative analysis of the antioxidant capacity of CeO2-x using gas chromatography and a luminol test revealed that 2 mol of H2O2 reacted with every mole of cerium(III), suggesting that the reaction proceeds via a Fenton-type mechanism. Smaller diameter nanocrystals containing more cerium(III) were found to be more reactive toward H2O2. Additionally, the presence of a surface coating did not preclude the reaction between the nanocrystal surface cerium(III) and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, the most reactive nanoparticles were the smallest (e.g., 3.8 nm diameter) with the thinnest surface coating (e.g., oleic acid). Moreover, a benchmark test of their antioxidant capacity revealed these materials were 9 times more reactive than commercial antioxidants such as Trolox. A unique feature of these antioxidant nanocrystals is that they can be applied multiple times: over weeks, cerium(IV) rich particles slowly return to their starting cerium(III) content. In nearly all cases, the particles remain colloidally stable (e.g., nonaggregated) and could be applied multiple times as antioxidants. These chemical properties were also observed in cell culture, where the materials were able to reduce oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2 with efficiency comparable to their solution phase reactivity. These data suggest that organic coatings on cerium oxide nanocrystals do not limit the antioxidant behavior of the nanocrystals, and that their redox cycling behavior can be preserved even when stabilized. PMID:24079896

  10. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 ?g GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 ?g QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 5.77 ?g butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

  11. Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

  12. Effect of processing methods on the nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) extracts.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S R; Guha, Manisha

    2011-06-15

    The effect of germination, steaming and roasting on the nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) was investigated. The nutraceutical properties were determined by evaluating the total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents while the antioxidant properties were studied by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the iron reducing power assay. The results showed that the total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of processed little millet increased by 21.2, 25.5 and 18.9mg/100g, respectively, compared to native sample. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and the iron reducing power of roasted millet extract were the highest compared to the other processed millet. Fractionation of phenolic extracts by HPLC showed that the analytes were derivatives of benzoic acid (gallic acid, proto-catechuic acid and vanillic acid), aromatic carboxylic acid (gentisic acid) and cinnamic acid (syringic acid and ferulic acid). The results indicate that processing has significant effects on the nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of little millet phenolic extracts. PMID:25213939

  13. Molecular characterization and its antioxidant activity of a newly isolated Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01 from mangrove soil

    PubMed Central

    Raghava Rao, Kothagorla Venkata; Raghava Rao, Tamanam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the biologically active strain of Streptomyces species from mangrove soil of Visakhapatnam region. Materials and methods Actinomycetes are isolated by using starch casein agar media and four potential strains were selected to evaluate the antioxidant activity by using the standard methods DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity. Further, significant antioxidant activity strain characterized by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Results 20 actinomycetes strains were isolated, among them four active isolates designated as BC 01, BC 02, BC 03 and BC 04 were studied for antioxidant activities. Of these four isolates, BC 01 showed a potent antioxidant activity when compared with other isolates. The morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the active isolate BC 01 belongs to the genus Streptomyces species. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and nucleotide blast in search indicated that the strain is 99.7% similarity with Streptomyces coelicoflavus. Conclusion The results of the present investigation proven that actinomycetes isolated from mangroves are potent source of antioxidants. The strain BC 01 exhibited a potential invitro antioxidant activity; studies of actinomycetes from mangrove soil can be useful in discovery of novel species to get novel drugs. PMID:24563589

  14. Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Elham; Andalib, Sasan; Abed, Alireza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Vaseghi, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Results: Salvia Reuterana possesses neurological, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties. Conclusions: Salvia Reuterana can be used as an alternative for treatment of several disorders. PMID:25767752

  15. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items. PMID:26783841

  16. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items. PMID:26783841

  17. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and antioxidant effect of Mexican oregano-soy based edible films.

    PubMed

    Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernndez, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godnez, L A; Mendoza, S

    2008-08-01

    Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion. PMID:19241539

  18. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB. PMID:26471674

  19. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (p<0.05). Generally, oils containing ascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration. PMID:25624237

  20. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposome formulations for topical use.

    PubMed

    Viriyaroj, Amornrat; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare the gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes and investigate their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity intended for cosmetic applications. Liposomes, Composing phosphatidylCholine (PC) and Cholesterol (Chol), CHAPS or sodium taurocholate (NaTC) were prepared by sonication method. Gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes were prepared by using 3, 5 and 10% gamma-oryzanol as an initial concentration. The formulation factors in a particular type and composition of lipid and initial drug loading on the physicochemical properties (i.e., particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release) and antioxidant activity were studied. The particle sizes of bare liposomes were in nanometer range. The gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes in formulations of PC/CHAPS and PC/NaTC liposomes were smaller than PC/Chol liposomes. The incorporation efficiency of 10% gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/Chol liposomes was less than gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/CHAPS liposomes and PC/NaTC liposomes allowing higher in vitro release rate due to higher free gamma-oryzanol in buffer solution. The antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol-loaded liposomes was not different from pure gamma-oryzanol. Both gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/CHAPS liposomes and PC/NaTC liposomes were showed to enhance the antioxidant activity in NHF cells. gamma-oryzanol-loaded PC/Chol liposomes demonstrated the lowest cytotoxicity in NHF cells. It was conceivably concluded that liposomes prepared in this study are suitable for gamma-oryzanol incorporation without loss of antioxidant activity. PMID:19883256

  1. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe2+. α-Pinene, β-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of the Ligand Based on Benzimidazole and Its Copper Complex: DNA Binding and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huilu; Kou, Fan; Jia, Fei; Liu, Bin; Yuan, Jingkun; Bai, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A new copper(II) complex with formulae of [Cu(buobb)2](pic)2, where buobb stands for the ligand of 1,3-bis(1- butylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxopropane and pic represents 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, IR, UV-Vis spectra measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. The crystal structure of the copper(II) complex has been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The coordination environment around each copper(II) atom can be described as a distorted octahedral geometry. The ?-? stacking interactions link the copper(II) complex into a 1D infinite network. The interactions of the ligand and the copper(II) complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) are investigated by using electronic absorption titration, ethidium bromide-DNA displacement experiments, and viscosity measurements. Additionally, the copper(II) complex's antioxidant properties have been investigated in vitro. PMID:22162669

  3. Effect of γ-irradiation on antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of oat β-glucan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F. A.; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine effect of γ-rays on the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of β-glucan isolated from oats. Irradiation doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy were given to extracted β-glucan. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Gel permeation chromatography and quantitative estimation by (1-3) (1-4) β-D-Glucan assay kit (Megazyme). The average molecular weight of non-irradiated β-glucan was 199 kDa that decreased to 70 kDa at 10 kGy. Both FT-IR spectrum and chemical analysis revealed that the extracted β-glucan was pure having minor impurities. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, metal chelating ability and oxidative DNA damage assays. Results revealed increased antioxidant activity of β-glucan with the increase in irradiation dose. Irradiated β-glucan also exhibited dose dependent cancer cell growth inhibition with irradiation doses. The study revealed that the low molecular weight β-glucan with increased antioxidant and antiproliferative activities can be produced by irradiation treatment.

  4. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.

    PubMed

    Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor

    2010-03-01

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods. PMID:20492235

  5. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods. Method Two fruit varieties of F. deltoidea (var. angustifolia (SF) and var. kunstleri (BF)) were extracted separately using double-distilled water. The resulting aqueous extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate to obtain the ethyl acetate and water fractions. The crude aqueous extracts and the corresponding fractions were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, sugar and protein contents. Protein profiling of the extracts and fractions were also carried out by means of SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF MS. Antidiabetic activities were assessed based on the ability of the samples to inhibit yeast and mammalian ?-glucosidase as well as ?-amylase. Antioxidant capacities were examined by measuring the ability of the samples to reduce ferric ions and to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals. Results The crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal ?-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic ?-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed the highest percentage of ?-glucosidase inhibition while having the highest amount of protein (73.33??4.99 ?g/mg fraction). All the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with SF crude extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic content (121.62??4.86 mg/g extract). Fractionation of the crude extracts resulted in loss of antioxidant activities. There was no positive correlation between phenolic and flavonoid content with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. However, phenolic content correlated well with antioxidant activities of the crude extracts but not with the fractions. Conclusions The antioxidant activities of the fruits of F. deltoidea might be asserted by the phenolic content but other polar plant components were possibly involved in the antidiabetic properties. The study of these compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:23718315

  6. Identification of phenolic compounds in polyphenols-rich extract of Malaysian cocoa powder using the HPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS and probing their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Faisal; Ranneh, Yazan; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant components of cocoa powder, which is rich in polyphenols, were isolated using column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenolic compounds were then characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/Ultraviolet and electronspray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-/ESI-MS-MS). As a result, five phenolic compounds were detected. In this study we also investigated scavenging or the total antioxidant capacity (%) of cocoa polyphenol (CP) fractionated from cocoa powder extract. 114.0 mg/g of gallic acid -equivalent phenolics and 94.3 mg/g catechin- equivalent flavonoids were quantified in this extract. Their free radical-scavenging activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay, β-carotene bleaching test, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (OX). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was further assessed against the myoglobin-induced oxidation of 6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (ABTS) and expressed as Trolox equivalent. A high correlation between TAC and phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds from cocoa were a major contributor of antioxidant activity (0.967 ≤ r ≤ 1.00). CP extract had significantly (P < 0.05) potential antioxidant activities with various concentrations. These results suggest that Polyphenols-rich cocoa extract possess prominent medical properties and can be exploited as natural drug to treat free radical associated diseases. PMID:25829590

  7. The antioxidant properties of salicylate derivatives: A possible new mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Borges, Rosivaldo S; Castle, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis and antioxidant evaluation by DPPH scavenging of a series of salicylic acid derivatives is described. Gentisic acid and its ester, amide, and amino analogs possess more radical scavenging capacity than salicylic acid and other salicylate derivatives. This property can possibly provide an additional pathway for anti-inflammatory activity through either single electron or hydrogen atom transfer, leading to a new strategy for the design of anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26183083

  8. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samplesacacia, pineapple and borneo honeyand compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 0.64 ?M Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of all the Malaysian honeys. Conclusion Although Malaysian honeys are of good quality, tualang honey contains the strongest antioxidant properties by far. PMID:23433009

  9. Characterization, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of a water-insoluble polysaccharides from Dictyophora indusiata.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Haitian; Chen, Jinghua; Xu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    The present study described the characterization and biological properties of water?soluble sulfated polysaccharides prepared from water?insoluble polysaccharide (DIP), which were extracted from Dictyophora indusiata. The sulfation of DIP was performed using the chlorosulfonic acid?pyridine method. The water solubilities of the sulfated derivatives were measured at room temperature according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and 1,1?diphenyl?2?picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as determined, together with the reduction ability of the sulfated polysaccharides. The cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of DIP and the sulfated derivatives on MCF?7 and B16 cells were then determined using an MTT assay. The substitution degrees of the sulfated polysaccharides were 0.584 (S1?DIP), 0.989 (S2?DIP) and 1.549 (S3?DIP) according to barium chloride?gelatin nephelometry. Infrared spectroscopy and 13C?nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the substitution of S?DIP occurred mainly at the C?6 position, followed by the C?4 and C?2 positions. A significant increase was noted in the antioxidant activity of the sulfated derivatives compared with that of DIP. In addition, the S?DIPs exhibited a more marked reducing capacity and clearing activity of hydroxyl radicals and DPPH. This indicated that the antioxidant capacity of the polysaccharides was significantly higher following sulfation. Furthermore, in in vitro cell investigations, DIP exhibited no inhibitory effects on the growth of the B16 or MCF?7 tumor cells. However, the sulfated derivatives exerted marked inhibitory effects on these cell lines. Sulfate modification may therefore contribute to an improvement in water solubility and in the antioxidant and antitumor activities of natural DIP. PMID:25484243

  10. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Gra?yna; Pogo?, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Berna?, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10% canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14% RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1% RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100g dry weight 164,601mg total polyphenols, 19-87mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031mg ?-carotene, 0.325-0.456mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw. PMID:26604366

  11. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Mitra; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-01

    The tree Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica, namely Bene, is widely distributed in Iranian mountains. Recent studies revealed that the oil of Bene was stable, even more stable than sesame oil, with antioxidant properties. This can give versatile applications for the oil. The volatile composition of this oil has not chemically been investigated so far. In this study, sixty three compounds were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Bene hull. The major components were determined to be α-pinene (20.8 %), camphene (8.4 %), β-myrcene (8.2 %) and limonene (8 %). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Bene hull were evaluated by using 2,2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), β-carotene bleaching test, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and Rancimat assays. The Bene essential oil exhibited significant antioxidant activities in FRAP and TBARS assays as compared with positive controls. In addition, the oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. It showed significant antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 6 and 12.5 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26396430

  12. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region. PMID:22097293

  13. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products. PMID:22672352

  14. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content. PMID:24106692

  15. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content. PMID:24106692

  16. Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees) Torrend: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pui-Mun; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2013-01-01

    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131) from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE), its hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AF) fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders. PMID:24371454

  17. The investigation of some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna Jacq)

    PubMed Central

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra; Yilmaz, Ökkes; Turkoglu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers, and ripened fruits. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH•, ABTS•+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin—Cioacalteu’s reagent. Results: The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography in the hawthorn extract. Conclusion: It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed the highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In addition, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. PMID:26401347

  18. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  19. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75?wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  20. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Tofu (Curdle Soymilk) against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Ndatsu; Oboh, Ganiyu; Olalekan, Amuzat Aliyu

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of tofu using acetaminophen to induce liver damage in albino rats were evaluated. Tofus were prepared using calcium chloride, alum, and steep water as coagulants. The polyphenols of tofu were extracted and their antioxidant properties were determined. The weight gain and feed intake of the rats were measured. The analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, cholesterol, and bilirubin were analyzed. The result reveals that the antioxidant property of both soluble and bound polyphenolic extracts was significantly higher in all tofus, but the steep water coagulated tofu was recorded higher. Rats fed with various tofus and acetaminophen had their serum ALP, ALT, AST, and LDH activities; total cholesterol; and bilirubin levels significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, and total protein and albumin concentrations increased when compared with basal diet and acetaminophen administered group. Therefore, all tofus curdled with various coagulants could be used to prevent liver damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:23533782

  1. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (?s1-, ?-, ?-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. PMID:25200788

  2. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    PubMed Central

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  3. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Fullerene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuerle, Florian; Lebovitz, Russell; Hirsch, Andreas

    Due to their inherent electronic properties, fullerenes are considered as radical sponges being capable of effectively quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS). The most promising candidates for potential pharmaceutical applications are therefore water-soluble fullerene derivatives, since they provide reasonable biological availability. In light of these considerations, we give an overview over the most recent concepts for designing and synthesizing real water-soluble fullerene compounds. Several studies concerning the quenching activities against ROS-like Superoxide radical anion of some of these novel compounds are reviewed. We finally present first promising investigations about cytoprotective and neuroprotective activities of several carboxyfullerenes in zebrafish embroys as a mammalian model system. By comparing the activities for different addition patterns and other structural changes some first conclusions concerning a structure-function relationship can be drawn.

  4. Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The root of Brassica rapa L. has been traditionally used as a Uyghur folk medicine to cure cough and asthma by Uyghur nationality in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In the present study, therefore, extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from the root of B. rapa L. (BRP) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.480.41% for crude BRP were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 93C, extraction time 4.3h and ratio of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 75mL/g. The crude BRP was purified by chromatographic columns of DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100, affording three purified fractions of BRP-1-1, BRP-2-1 and BRP-2-2 with average molecular weight of 1510, 1110 and 838kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that BRP-1-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, BRP-2-1 was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose, and BRP-2-2 was composed of rhamnose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 1.27: 54.92. Furthermore, the crude BRP exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity in vitro than purified fractions; hence, it could be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines. PMID:26499088

  5. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Mingxia; Xie, Minhao; Dai, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1 (PHMPs) were investigated. As results, the optimal parameters for extraction of PHMPs were obtained by a Box-Behnken design as follows: extraction temperature 92C, extracting time 190min and ratio of water to material 43mL/g. The analysis of monosaccharide composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that PHMPs was composed of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in molar ratio of 46.07:0.59:2.25:1.29:1.42:18.82:26.17:1.13:2.26, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PHMPs had a significant protective effect against oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in mice, as evident by higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and level of total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower levels of malondialdehyde in serums and livers compared to the d-galactose-treated group. These results suggested that PHMPs could be explored as promising natural antioxidant. PMID:26686161

  6. Phytochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antioxidant Potential of Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) Extracts.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Geisiany M; Politi, Flávio A S; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M; Moreira, Raquel R D; Cardoso, Cássia R P; Santos, Lourdes C; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2015-07-01

    Equisetum hyemale species is considered a medicinal plant used in the form of infusions to combat infectious or inflammation diseases and also diuretic effects, presenting several compounds related to these actions. In previous studies different species of Equisetum showed several phenolic compounds. The objective of this study was, for the first time, based on phytochemistry analysis to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The 70% ethanolic and methanolic extracts of E. hyemale were characterized by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector analyses, as well as its antioxidant potential based on the scavenger activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). In addition was verified the antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution technique against bacteria and fungi. The extracts showed phytochemical similarity, which demonstrated the presence of phenolic compounds, the scavenging activity for free radicals was about 30% and was observed better antifungal activity against dermatophyte fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.62 mg/mL to Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The extracts exhibits great potential to therapeutic applications or product development, since both possess antifungal activity and antioxidant action associated with little difference in their phytochemical composition. PMID:25587637

  7. Extraction, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from black soybean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Zhang, Xue-qing; Pu, Hui-min; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of extraction conditions, preliminary characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from black soybean (BSPS) were investigated. The results of Box-Behnken design showed that the optimal extraction conditions for BSPS were as follows: ratio of water to material of 20 ml/g, extraction time of 6.4h and extraction temperature of 92 °C, with a corresponding yield of 2.56%. The crude BSPS were further fractionated on DEAE-52 and Sepharose CL-4B chromatography to afford three purified fractions (BSPS-1, BSPS-2 and BSPS-3). Chemical analysis showed that the three purified fractions were mainly composed of carbohydrate and uronic acid. In addition, BSPS-1 was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose and mannose in the molar ratio of 1.79:1.00:2.59:26.54:1.01. BSPS-2 was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, galactose and mannose in the molar ratio of 8.10:4.80:9.15:13.38:1.00. BSPS-3 was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and mannose in the molar ratio of 16.80:3.60:33.66:1.00. The results of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the characteristic polysaccharide structures of the three purified fractions. Moreover, antioxidant assays showed crude BSPS and its purified fractions had potential superoxide anion and DPPH radical scavenging activities, and their antioxidant activity decreased in the order of crude BSPS > BSPS-3 > BSPS-2 > BSPS-1. PMID:25256548

  8. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    PubMed

    Gder, Ayta; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and ?-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 ?g/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 ?g/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and ?-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24250519

  9. DNA profiling, telomere analysis and antioxidant properties as tools for monitoring ex situ seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Donà, M.; Balestrazzi, A.; Mondoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Ventura, L.; Buttafava, A.; Macovei, A.; Sabatini, M. E.; Valassi, A.; Carbonera, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The germination test currently represents the most used method to assess seed viability in germplasm banks, despite the difficulties caused by the occurrence of seed dormancy. Furthermore, seed longevity can vary considerably across species and populations from different environments, and studies related to the eco-physiological processes underlying such variations are still limited in their depth. The aim of the present work was the identification of reliable molecular markers that might help in monitoring seed deterioration. Methods Dry seeds were subjected to artificial ageing and collected at different time points for molecular/biochemical analyses. DNA damage was measured using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) approach while the seed antioxidant profile was obtained using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provided profiles of free radicals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profiles of the antioxidant genes MT2 (type 2 metallothionein) and SOD (superoxide dismutase). A modified QRT-PCR protocol was used to determine telomere length. Key Results The RAPD profiles highlighted different capacities of the two Silene species to overcome DNA damage induced by artificial ageing. The antioxidant profiles of dry and rehydrated seeds revealed that the high-altitude taxon Silene acaulis was characterized by a lower antioxidant specific activity. Significant upregulation of the MT2 and SOD genes was observed only in the rehydrated seeds of the low-altitude species. Rehydration resulted in telomere lengthening in both Silene species. Conclusions Different seed viability markers have been selected for plant species showing inherent variation of seed longevity. RAPD analysis, quantification of redox activity of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and gene expression profiling provide deeper insights to study seed viability during storage. Telomere lengthening is a promising tool to discriminate between short- and long-lived species. PMID:23532044

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Antioxidant Collagen Peptides from Scales of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yu-Mei; Chi, Chang-Feng; Luo, Hong-Yu; Deng, Shang-Gui; Ma, Jian-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH) was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin), and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3) were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1), GPAGPAG (ACH-P2), and GFPSG (ACH-P3). ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively), DPPH radical (IC50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively), superoxide radical (IC50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively), and ABTS radical (IC50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively). ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage. PMID:24284428

  11. Isolation and characterization of collagen and antioxidant collagen peptides from scales of croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yu-Mei; Chi, Chang-Feng; Luo, Hong-Yu; Deng, Shang-Gui; Ma, Jian-Yin

    2013-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH) was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin), and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3) were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1), GPAGPAG (ACH-P2), and GFPSG (ACH-P3). ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively), DPPH radical (IC?? 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively), superoxide radical (IC?? 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively), and ABTS radical (IC?? 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively). ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage. PMID:24284428

  12. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and investigation of antioxidant activity of cobalt quercetin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjees Bukhari, S.; Memon, Shahabuddin; Mahroof Tahir, M.; Bhanger, M. I.

    2008-12-01

    This article describes a novel synthesis of cobalt and quercetin2H 2O complex in methanol, characterized by using elemental analysis, UV-visible, 1H NMR, TGA, DSC and IR spectrometric techniques. The formation of complex is deduced from the UV-visible spectra which shows that the successive formation of cobalt-quercetin complex occurs in a ratio of 2:1 (metal/ligand) stoichiometrically. The antioxidant activity of the complex was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. In this work, we have shown that the metal complexed flavonoids are much more effective free radical scavengers than the free flavonoids.

  14. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Benjamin; Vuong, Quan V.; Chalmers, Anita C.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract’s antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26783950

  15. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens.

    PubMed

    Agbafor, K N; Nwachukwu, N

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water) were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl(4)) treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250?mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5?mL/kg body weight) of CCl(4). Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P > .05) from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P < .05) in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased (P < .05) relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants. PMID:21547085

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens

    PubMed Central

    Agbafor, K. N.; Nwachukwu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water) were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4) treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250?mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5?mL/kg body weight) of CCl4. Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P > .05) from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P < .05) in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased (P < .05) relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants. PMID:21547085

  17. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts.

    PubMed

    Munro, Benjamin; Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Goldsmith, Chloe D; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract's antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26783950

  18. Antioxidant Properties of the Extracts of Talinum Triangulare and its Effect on Antioxidant enzymes in Tissue Homogenate of Swiss Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Afolabi, Olakunle Bamikole; Oloyede, Omotade Ibidun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to put into consideration both the in vitro and in vivo investigations on Talinum triangulare (Tt), an herbaceous perennial plant that is a native of tropical America and one of the most important vegetables in Nigeria. Methods: Total phenolic contents in (mg GAE/100 g), flavonoid contents, the ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability (OH-) and iron chelating ability were carried out in vivo using standard described methods while GSH, GPx, catalase and SOD were determined in vivo using standard described methods. Results: In the three different solvents extraction of T. triangulare that were studied in vitro, it was noted that ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of T. triangulare showed potent antioxidant activity against DPPH and iron chelating property with high phenolic content except Hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability that showed highest value in the aqueous extract, while the Reduced GSH indicated the highest in the parameter determined in vivo. Conclusion: The antioxidant properties showed in this solvent extractable component probably could have been the basis for the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes at very lower dose in the examined tissue homogenates. Therefore, T. triangulare can thereby serve as a means of Preventing some of major degenerative diseases challenging Humans PMID:25948971

  19. Effect of Supplementation with Wheat Bran Aqueous Extracts Obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Technologies on the Sensory Properties and the Antioxidant Activity of Dry Pasta.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Delvecchio, Laura Nunzia; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Laddomada, Barbara; Urso, Valeria; Mazzaglia, Agata; Ruisi, Paolo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties and activate endogenous detoxification defense systems able to scavenge the reactive species of oxygen. The external layers of wheat caryopsis, largely constituting by-products of the milling industry such as bran and various middlings, contain relevant amounts of phenolic compounds. The aim of the research has been to evaluate the effect of supplementation with wheat bran aqueous extracts, obtained by ultrasound-assisted technologies, on the sensory properties and antioxidant activity of dry pasta. The HPLC-DAD characterization of the extract evidenced the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids. The supplemented pasta showed significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the control, coupled to good overall sensory judgment. In addition, two different pasta drying diagrams were adopted, and the comparison of the corresponding end-products allowed it to be pointed out that the processing technology has to be carefully set up to prevent possible detrimental effects on the antioxidant activity. The proposed utilization of bran might add value to a milling by-product that, otherwise, is mostly employed in animal feeding. PMID:26669115

  20. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  1. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  2. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and insecticidal properties of essential oils from five Moroccan aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, Ayoub; Alaoui Jamali, Chaima; Bekkouche, Khalid; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija, Thymus satureioides, Achillea ageratum, Cotula cinerea and Salvia officinalis widely used in Morocco as flavorings, food additives and preservatives. Sixty seven components were identified accounting for more than 95.0 % of the total oils. M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil had as main components menthone and pulegone. A. ageratum oil was particularly rich in artemisyl acetate and yomogi alcohol. The essential oil of T. satureioides was characterized by high contents of carvacrol and borneol. C. cinerea oil contained trans-thujone and cis-verbenyl acetate as major constituents, whereas S. officinalis oil was characterized by trans-thujone and camphor. Antioxidant activities were examined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS radical tests. In all assays, the highest antioxidant potency was observed in T. satureioides EO with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 ± 0.36 μg mL(-1) to 0.23 ± 0.67 μg mL(-1) across the four assays. The in vitro evaluation of the insecticidal activity showed that M. suaveolens subsp. timija EO present the highest insecticidal efficiency against adults of Tribolium castaneum with LD50 and LD90 values of 0.17 μL cm(-2) and 0.26 μL cm(-2), respectively and LT50, LT90 values ranged from 44.19 h to 2.98 h and 98.14 h to 6.02 h, respectively. Our data support the possible use of T. satureioides oil as potential antioxidant agent, while M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil can be developed as a new natural bio-insecticide. PMID:25829614

  3. [The physiological characteristics of the antioxidant properties of Lipin in bronchial asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Tymchenko, O H; Seredenko, M M; Portnychenko, V I; Babko, S O; Velychko, M I; Tsvietkova, K V

    1996-01-01

    In children of 4-7 years old with bronchial asthma (BA) has been studied the values of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and some others in blood plasma and erythrocytes without and with the use of new drug Lipin. It was shown that in children with BA the malondialdehyde concentration increased, the superoxydedismutase activity decreased, the NAD concentration increased, and the ratio of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde greatly decreased in comparison with normal children. The use of Lipin led to diminuation of lipid peroxidation, to marked increase of superoxidedismutase activity, to decrease of NAD concentration, and to significant increase of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde ratio. These results were indicated on the expressed antioxidant properties of Lipin in children's with BA. PMID:8991715

  4. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Satureja Montana L. and S. Subspicata Vis. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kremer, Dario; Koir, Iztok Joe; Kon?i?, Marijana Zovko; ?erenak, Andreja; Poto?nik, Tanja; Sre?ec, Sinia; Randi?, Marko; Kosalec, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Satureja montanaL. and S. subspicata Vis. (Lamiaceae) are used for centuries in traditional medicine of Balcanic people in the healing of the lymphatic nodule and respiratory system inflammation. In this paper the amount of total phenols and flavonoids (analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry), phenolic compounds profile (analyzed by HPLC), antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were studied in samples collected in seven per species populations of S. montanaand S. subspicatain Croatia. Eight phenolic compounds (rutin, quercetin, caffeic, p-coumaric, ellagic, protocatehuic, rosmarinic, and syringic acid) were identified and quantified using HPLC in methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Results showed that both species contained polyphenolics and other antioxidant compounds with chelating and radical-scavenging properties. The extracts prepared from both species showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity on in vitrotested microbial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and Microsporum gypseum). PMID:25642718

  5. Antioxidative properties of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and a phenylpropanoid glycoside. A pulse radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weizhen; Navaratnam, Suppiah; Yao, Side; Lin, Nianyun

    1998-10-01

    Spectral and redox properties of the phenoxyl radicals from hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and one selected component of phenylpropanoid glycosides, verbascoside, were studied using pulse radiolysis techniques. On the basis of the pH dependence of phenoxyl radical absorptions, the p Ka values for deprotonation of sinapic acid radical and ferulic acid radical are 4.9 and 5.2. The rate constants of one electron oxidation of those antioxidants by azide radical and bromide radical ion were determined at pH 7. The redox potentials of those antioxidants were determined as 0.59-0.71 V vs NHE at pH 7 with reference standard 4-methoxyphenol and resorcinol.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of wine byproducts and their potential uses in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Garca-Lomillo, Javier; Gonzlez-SanJos, M Luisa; Del Pino-Garca, Raquel; Rivero-Prez, M Dolores; Muiz-Rodrguez, Pilar

    2014-12-31

    Wine pomace (WP) is one of the agricultural byproducts that has received most attention from food scientists due to the wide range of interesting compounds that remain after the winemaking process. Different powdered products rich in phenolic compounds, with interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were obtained from WP by applying processes that are both environmentally friendly and economically affordable for the food industry. The products obtained showed high global antioxidant activities (ABTS assay), successfully delayed the onset of lipid oxidation in the Rancimat test, and showed different antimicrobial properties. Products derived from seed-free WP showed bactericidal effects against total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and inhibited Enterobacteriaceae growth completely. The product derived from whole WP presented bacteriostatic activity against the three microorganism groups tested, whereas the product obtained from grape seed promoted TAMB and LAB growth but delayed Enterobacteriaceae proliferation. PMID:25493389

  7. Physical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films Containing Carvacrol and Pomegranate Peel Extract.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Lv, Hua; Yang, Bingjie; Chen, Xiaoe; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-based active films were developed by incorporation of carvacrol (10 g/L), pomegranate peel extract (PPE, 10 g/L) and carvacrol + PPE (10 g/L of each) and their physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Incorporation of carvacrol and carvacrol + PPE into the films significantly decreased the water vapor permeability, tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break. Incorporation of carvacrol, PPE and carvacrol + PPE into the films decreased the transparency, but significantly increased the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. All the films, with the exception of PPE-incorporated film, exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of the film incorporated with carvacrol + PPE was moderately higher than that incorporated with carvacrol or PPE alone, suggesting a synergistic action between carvacrol and PPE. PMID:26083037

  8. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22769046

  9. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of −13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning” flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

  10. Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of kojic dipalmitate loaded w/o/w multiple emulsions intended for skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Gonalez, Mara Lima; Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corra, Marcos Antonio; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of -13?mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ''shear thinning" flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

  11. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous cyanophyta extract derived from Arthrospira platensis: contribution to bioactivities by the non-phycocyanin aqueous fraction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Attridge, Victoria L; Beaman, Joni L; Guthrie, Jesse; Ehmann, Axel; Benson, Kathleen F

    2015-05-01

    The goal for this work was to characterize basic biological properties of a novel Arthrospira platensis-based aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), enriched in the known anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor phycocyanin (PC), but also containing a high level of non-PC bioactive compounds. Antioxidant properties were tested in parallel in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (chemical antioxidant capacity) and in the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay, where both the PC and the non-PC fractions contributed to the antioxidant capacity and CAP of ACE. In contrast to the COX-2 inhibition seen in the presence of PC, the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the inflammatory mediator Lipoxygenase was associated specifically with the non-PC fraction of ACE. Inhibition of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using polymorphonuclear cells from healthy human donors. The inhibition of ROS formation was seen for both the PC and non-PC fractions, with ACE showing the most robust effect. The effects of PC, non-PC, and ACE on clotting and clot lysing was tested using a modified Euglobulin fibrinolytic assay in vitro. In the presence of PC, non-PC, and ACE, the time for clot formation and lysis was not affected; however, the clots were significantly more robust. This effect was statistically significant (p<.05) at doses between 125-500 ?g/mL, and returned to baseline at lower doses. Both PC and the non-PC fraction contributed to the antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory effects, without a negative impact on blood clotting in vitro. This suggests a potential benefit for the consumable ACE extract in assisting the reduction of inflammatory conditions. PMID:25764268

  12. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of an Aqueous Cyanophyta Extract Derived from Arthrospira Platensis: Contribution to Bioactivities by the Non-Phycocyanin Aqueous Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S.; Attridge, Victoria L.; Beaman, Joni L.; Guthrie, Jesse; Ehmann, Axel; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goal for this work was to characterize basic biological properties of a novel Arthrospira platensis-based aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), enriched in the known anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor phycocyanin (PC), but also containing a high level of non-PC bioactive compounds. Antioxidant properties were tested in parallel in the FolinCiocalteu assay (chemical antioxidant capacity) and in the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay, where both the PC and the non-PC fractions contributed to the antioxidant capacity and CAP of ACE. In contrast to the COX-2 inhibition seen in the presence of PC, the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the inflammatory mediator Lipoxygenase was associated specifically with the non-PC fraction of ACE. Inhibition of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using polymorphonuclear cells from healthy human donors. The inhibition of ROS formation was seen for both the PC and non-PC fractions, with ACE showing the most robust effect. The effects of PC, non-PC, and ACE on clotting and clot lysing was tested using a modified Euglobulin fibrinolytic assay in vitro. In the presence of PC, non-PC, and ACE, the time for clot formation and lysis was not affected; however, the clots were significantly more robust. This effect was statistically significant (p<.05) at doses between 125500 ?g/mL, and returned to baseline at lower doses. Both PC and the non-PC fraction contributed to the antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory effects, without a negative impact on blood clotting in vitro. This suggests a potential benefit for the consumable ACE extract in assisting the reduction of inflammatory conditions. PMID:25764268

  13. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  14. The potential pitfalls of using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl to characterize antioxidants in mixed water solvents.

    PubMed

    Stasko, Andrej; Brezov, Vlasta; Biskupic, Stanislav; Misk, Vladimr

    2007-04-01

    Approaching living systems, aqueous solutions are appropriate to characterize antioxidants, whereas the frequently used standard 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is insoluble in water. Therefore, mixed water-ethanol solvents were investigated using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Two forms of DPPH were identified: at higher ethanol ratios a quintet spectrum characteristic of solutions, and at lower ratios, a singlet spectrum typical for solid DPPH, were found. Mixed solvents with 0-50% (v/v) water reproduced the same antioxidant equivalent points well and the reaction rate between DPPH and the antioxidant may increase considerably with increasing water ratios, as demonstrated using vitamin E as an antioxidant. But at still higher water ratios (70-90% (v/v)) the antioxidant activities dropped, since a part of the DPPH in the aggregated form does not react sufficiently with the antioxidants. Characteristics of the most common antioxidants were determined in ethanol or its 50% (v/v) aqueous solution. PMID:17454120

  15. Antioxidant activity of indole-based melatonin analogues in erythrocytes and their voltammetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Suzen, Sibel; Tekiner-Gulbas, Betul; Shirinzadeh, Hanif; Uslu, Duysal; Gurer-Orhan, Hande; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel Aysil

    2013-12-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is a strong free-radical scavenger, which protects the body from the effects of oxidants. In recent years, MLT have been described resulting in much attention in the development of synthetic compounds possessing. As a part of our ongoing study a series of indole-based MLT analogue hydrazide/hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox sensitive fluorescent probe. Membrane stabilizing effect of all compounds was also investigated by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay. Furthermore voltammetric methods have been applied to the synthesized compounds to characterize oxidation potentials to get insight into their metabolism owing to the oxidation mechanisms taking place at the electrode and in the body share similar principles. PMID:22994658

  16. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vzquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, Csar; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Snchez, Miguel ngel

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24287993

  17. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-Eantioxidant activities. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction yield of PCP-M by implementing the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimized conditions, the PCP-M yield was 9.95%, which was well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. Overall, the microwave-assisted extraction was an effective and mild method for obtaining antioxidant polysaccharides from P. cocos Wolf. PMID:26601761

  18. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:24274540

  19. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 g/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 g/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 g/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 g/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  20. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement in isoflavones, total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant properties of varying seed coat colored soybean.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Amit Kumar; Bhatnagar, Deepti; Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Manjaya, J G; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2010-04-14

    Three Indian soybean genotypes, namely, Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow colored seed coat respectively were gamma irradiated at a dose of 0.5, 2.0, and 5.0 kGy. The total isoflavones and total phenol content (TPC) in all the genotypes increased significantly at a dose of 0.5 and 2 kGy respectively. The anthocyanin content was high in Kalitur, while other genotypes showed no detectable amounts of it. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) and total antioxidant power (TAP) were highest in Kalitur with black seed coat color. However, maximum enhancement in antioxidant properties was found in NRC37 with yellow followed by Hara soya with green seed coat color at a dose of 0.5 and 2.0 kGy. It was also observed that the 3 soybean genotypes showed an increase in antioxidant constituents and antioxidative properties at lower doses of 0.5 and 2.0 kGy while, the antioxidant effects of soy seeds were either decreased or remained constant at a higher dose of 5.0 kGy. It is suggested that mild gamma irradiation enhanced the antioxidant constituents and, hence, antioxidant potential of soybean seeds. PMID:20218609

  1. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

  2. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice. PMID:25977035

  3. Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The presence of specific peptides with antioxidant properties released during carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysis by human/porcine digestive enzymes, respectively, was examined. Based on the results of the in silico data analysis, antioxidant peptides were selected for subsequent identification in the digests/hydrolysates. Carp proteins were more resistant to hydrolysis by porcine enzymes than by human digestive juices. The sarcoplasmic proteins were hydrolyzed faster than the myofibrillar ones by both human/porcine enzymes. The in vitro myofibrillar protein hydrolysate showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging activity (∼232.3 TEAC, μM Trolox/g), whereas the ex vivo hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (∼88μM/g) and reducing power. Five antioxidant peptides were identified in carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates: FIKK, HL, IY, PW, VY. The peptide HL from myofibrillar proteins was identified only in the ex vivo hydrolysate, whereas the peptide PW from sarcoplasmic proteins was identified only in the in vitro hydrolysate. PMID:26471617

  4. Antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of Isatis floribunda Boiss. ex Bornm. extracts

    PubMed Central

    Karakoca, Kubra; Ozusaglam, Meltem Asan; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Erkul, Seher Karaman

    2013-01-01

    The Isatis species has antibacterial, anticancer and antiviral properties and these important endemic plants grow widely in various parts of Anatolian-Turkey. In the present study, the antioxidant activities of Isatis floribunda Boiss. ex Bornm. flower and root extracts were determined with total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also examined for the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were investigated by using the disc diffusion and microdilution-broth methods against human and fish pathogen microorganisms. The phenolic composition of I. floribunda root methanolic extract was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The major component in the extract was cholorogenic acid (1980.20 g/g). The cytotoxic effect of the methanolic root extract was also tested on human breast cell (MCF12A). The results showed that I. floribunda could be used as a natural source in the food and feed industry and clinical and food chemistry, and that the antimicrobial agents could be used against human and fish pathogens. PMID:26417224

  5. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of breeding lines between the white and black rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Shao, Yafang; Bao, Jinsong; Beta, Trust

    2015-04-01

    Advanced breeding lines made from the cross between the black and white rice as parents were collected to evaluate phenolic levels and antioxidant properties. No free phenolic acid was found in the soluble fraction, while p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and vanillic acid were identified in insoluble bound fractions. Of noteworthy, is isoferulic acid which has rarely been reported to occur in cereal grains. Phenolic dehydrodimers were only observed in the insoluble bound fractions, which mainly consisted of 8-5'-coupled diferulic acids and 5-5'-coupled diferulic acids. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin occurred in black and some light-purple rice samples. The breeding line YF53 has the highest total phenolic content (23.3mg ferulic acid equiv./g), total anthocyanin content (2.07 mg cyanidin-3-glu equiv./g), and antioxidant activities. The results indicate that it is possible to develop advanced breeding lines for improvement of the phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacity with high yield. PMID:25442600

  6. Polyphenol oxidase activity and antioxidant properties of Yomra apple (Malus communis L.) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Dincer, Barbaros; Sahin, Huseyin; Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, firstly, antioxidant and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) properties of Yomra apple were investigated. Seventeen phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic compounds (TPCs), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities were performed to measure antioxidant capacity. Some kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax), and inhibition behaviors against five different substrates were measured in the crude extract. Catechin and chlorogenic acid were found as the major components in the methanolic extract, while ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were small quantities. Km values ranged from 0.70 to 10.10 mM in the substrates, and also 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) and L-DOPA showed the highest affinity. The inhibition constant of Ki were ranged from 0.05 to 14.90 mM against sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid, sodium azide and benzoic acid, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite were the best inhibitors. PMID:24246090

  7. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martnez, Mara Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santilln, Eduardo; Garca-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cario-Corts, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alans-Garca, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH. PMID:22072899

  8. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  9. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of pomace extracts from four Virginia-grown grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yixiang; Burton, Sheanell; Kim, Chyer; Sismour, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Grape pomace is a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of pomace extracts from four Virginia-grown grape varieties were investigated. White grape pomaces had higher (P<0.05) solvent extraction yield than red varieties. Concentrations of total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), total anthocyanin (TAC), tannins, condensed tannins (CT), as well as antioxidant capacities (DPPH and ABTS+free radical scavenging) differed (P<0.05) among four pomace extracts. ABTS+ scavenging capacity was positively correlated with TPC, TFC, tannins, and CT (P<0.05), whereas DPPH capacity was positively correlated with TAC (P<0.05). Nine flavonoid compounds were identified, of which catechin and epicatechin were the two most abundant. Antibacterial activity was observed against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, but not against Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 3510 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028. L. monocytogenes was more susceptible than S. aureus. PMID:26788319

  10. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of citrus phenolics limonene and naringin.

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, Merve; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic compounds not only contribute to the sensory qualities of fruits and vegetables but also exhibit several health protective properties. Limonene and naringin are the most popular phenolics found in Citrus plants. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacities of limonene and naringin by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in Chinese hamster fibroblast (V79) cells. The genotoxic potentials of limonene and naringin were evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and alkaline COMET assays in human lymphocytes and V79 cells. Limonene and naringin, were found to have antioxidant activities at concentrations of 2-2000 µM and 5-2000 µM respectively. IC50 values of limonene and naringin were found to be 1265 µM and 9026 µM, respectively. Limonene at the concentrations below 10,000 µM and naringin at the all concentrations studied, have not exerted genotoxic effects in lymphocytes and in V79 cells. Limonene and naringin at all concentrations revealed a reduction in the frequency of MN and DNA damage induced by H2O2. PMID:25896273

  11. Antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria edulis lesson and Stichopus horrens Selenka.

    PubMed

    Althunibat, O Y; Ridzwan, B H; Taher, M; Daud, J M; Jauhari Arief Ichwan, S; Qaralleh, H

    2013-03-01

    Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates of the phylum of Echinodermata that have been used in Asian traditional medicine since ancient times. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous and organic extracts from two sea cucumber species, Holothuria edulis Lesson (Holothuriidae) and Stichopus horrens Selenka (Stichopodidae). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH and ?-carotene bleaching assays, while MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of the extracts against two human cancer cell lines, non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549) and esophageal cancer cells (TE1). The results showed that both aqueous and organic extracts of H. edulis were able to scavenge DPH radical (IC50 at 2.04 mg/ml and 8.73 mg/ml, respectively). Aqueous and organic extracts of S. horrens inhibited 79.62% and 46.66% of ?-carotene oxidation by linoleate free radical. On the other hand, the organic extract of S. horrens exhibited the highest cytotoxic effects against A549 and TE1 cancer cells giving IC50 at 15.5 and 4.0 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the present study revealed that H. edulis and S. horrens contain promising levels of antioxidant and cytotoxic natural products that might be used for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:23567827

  12. Compositional characteristics and antioxidant properties of fresh and processed sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ying; Khan, Muhammad Ahmad; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2007-02-21

    The antioxidant activity of fresh and rehydrated sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa) samples with/without internal organs was evaluated for the first time. In addition, their proximate, amino acid, and fatty acid compositions were examined. Rehydrated sea cucumber samples in distilled water were prepared from oven-dried products. All samples contained 83-90% moisture, but showed a significant difference among groups in their protein and lipid contents. Glutamic acid was the predominant amino acid in sea cucumber, followed by glycine and aspartic acid. Essential amino acids such as leucine and lysine were also present at high levels. The trend for free amino acid was different from that of total amino acids and varied among groups. Lipids in sea cucumber were dominated by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), ranging from 43.2 to 56.7% of the total fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) was present at a much lower concentration of 2.0-5.8%. All sea cucumber samples exhibited radical scavenging property against 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, with rehydrated samples, especially those with internal organs, possessing higher antioxidant activity than their fresh counterparts. No correlation existed between radical scavenging capacity and total phenolics content, suggesting that other components, in addition to phenolic compounds, contribute to the antioxidant activity of sea cucumber. PMID:17243707

  13. Petit suisse from black soybean: bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties during development process.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Filho, Marsilvio Lima; Hirozawa, Sabrina Satie; Prudencio, Sandra Helena; Ida, Elza Iouko; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties, bioactive compounds and other physico-chemical parameters from black soybean and its derivatives over 30 days under refrigeration at 4 °C and develop a probiotic petit suisse produced from black soybean. The soymilk showed the highest levels of isoflavones (109 mg/100 g), total phenolics (600 mg/100 g) and total anthocyanins (388 mg/100 g) with the highest response in the tests with DPPH• and ABTS+• on a dry basis. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in antioxidant activity during storage due to the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in soymilk sample, having a strong linear correlation between the concentration of isoflavone aglycones and the antioxidant activity for ABTS+• (R = 0.9437, 0.9624 and 0.9992) and DPPH• (R = 0.9865, 0.9978 and 0.9911), respectively, for soymilk, quark and petit suisse. The conversion of isoflavone was influenced directly by the characteristics of each sample, inhibiting or promoting the action of the enzyme. The petit suisse developed is an alternative for consumers, providing isoflavones and anthocyanins, possessing probiotic average counts (10⁸ CFU g⁻¹) during storage. PMID:24467602

  14. Polyphenols from different agricultural residues: extraction, identification and their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural residues like sugarcane bagasse (SCB), corn husk (CH), peanut husk (PNH), coffee cherry husk (CCH), rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) are low-value byproducts of agriculture. They have been shown to contain significant levels of phenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant properties. In this study, the effects of two types of solvent extraction methods: solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and hot water extraction on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agricultural residues were investigated to optimize the extraction conditions based on total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). Methanol (50 %) was found to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics with higher DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power activity, followed by ethanol and water. The phenolic compounds of methanolic extracts (50 %) were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography; in addition gallic acid became the major phenolic acid present in all the agricultural residues whereas ferulic acid, epicatechin, catechin, quercitin and kampferol present in lesser amounts. The present investigation suggested that agricultural residues are potent antioxidants. The overall results of this research demonstrated the potential of agricultural residues to be an abundant source of natural antioxidants suitable for further development into dietary supplements and various food additives. PMID:25892773

  15. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  16. Antioxidant and ?-Amylase Inhibitory Property of Phyllanthus virgatus L.: An In Vitro and Molecular Interaction Study

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Arshya; Khan, M. Salman; Khan, Mohd. Sajid; Baig, Mohd. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present study on Phyllanthus virgatus, known traditionally for its remedial potential, for the first time provides descriptions of the antioxidant and inhibition of ?-amylase enzyme activity first by in vitro analyses, followed by a confirmatory in silico study to create a stronger biochemical rationale. Our results illustrated that P. virgatus methanol extract exhibited strong antioxidant and oxidative DNA damage protective activity than other extracts, which was well correlated with its total phenolic content. In addition, P. virgatus methanol extract strongly inhibited the ?-amylase activity (IC50 33.20 0.556??g/mL), in a noncompetitive manner, than acarbose (IC50 76.88 0.277??g/mL), which showed competitive inhibition. Moreover, this extract stimulated the glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells and also showed a good correlation between antioxidant and ?-amylase activities. The molecular docking studies of the major bioactive compounds (9,12-octadecadienoic acid, asarone, 11-octadecenoic acid, and acrylic acid) revealed via GC-MS analysis from this extract mechanistically suggested that the inhibitory property may be due to the synergistic effect of these bioactive compounds. These results provide substantial basis for the future use of P. virgatus methanol extract and its bioactive compound in in vivo system for the treatment and management of diabetes as well as in the related condition of oxidative stress. PMID:23957001

  17. Processed tomato products as a source of dietary lycopene: bioavailability and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Rao, A Venket

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major contributors to increased risk of chronic diseases. A diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has been found to protect against these chronic diseases by mitigating oxidative damage. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a long-term tomato-rich diet, consisting of various processed tomato products, on bioavailability and antioxidant properties of lycopene. Seventeen healthy human subjects (ten men, seven non-pregnant women) participated in the study. Following a two-week washout period during which subjects avoided foods containing lycopene, all subjects consumed test tomato products including tomato juice, tomato sauce, tomato paste, ketchup, spaghetti sauce, and ready-to-serve tomato soup providing 30 mg of lycopene a day for four weeks. At the end of treatment, serum lycopene level increased significantly (p <0.05), from 181.79 +/- 31.25 to 684.7 +/- 113.91 nmol/L. Similarly, total antioxidant potential increased significantly (p <0.05), from 2.26 +/- 0.015 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 mmol/L Trolox equivalent. Lipid and protein oxidation was reduced significantly (p <0.05). The results suggest that a tomato-rich diet containing different sources of lycopene can increase serum lycopene levels and reduce oxidative stress effectively. PMID:15596034

  18. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  19. In vitro evaluation of tectoridin, tectorigenin and tectorigenin sodium sulfonate on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Ting; Cheng, Gang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hong; Hu, Yu-Tao; Huang, Wen

    2012-02-01

    Tectoridin (4',5,7-thrihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside) isolated from the flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana is reported to have less hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antiallergic and anaphylaxis inhibitory activity than its aglycone form tectorigenin. To obtain tectorigenin, tectoridin was hydrolyzed in the current study. However, practical limitations of tectorigenin do exist due to its poor water-solubility. To increase its water-solubility, tectorigenin was sulfonated with sulfuric acid (98wt.%) and mixed with saturated salt water to produce tectorigenin sodium sulfonate. Tectoridin and the two transfer products were identified by UV, IR, HPLC-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR, and the solubility of tectorigenin sodium sulfonate was increased about 9-fold than tectorigenin. Antioxidant experiments of tectoridin, tectorigenin and modified tectorigenin in vitro including reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and anti-lipid peroxidation were carried on comparing with ascorbic acid (Vc) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The results suggested that the antioxidant activity in all the experimental systems exhibited the same order as follows: tectorigenin sodium sulfonate>tectorigenin>tectoridin. Due to the high water-solubility and good antioxidant properties with tectorigenin sodium sulfonate, appropriate chemical modifications could greatly improve the biological activities of the naturally occurring products. PMID:22079309

  20. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  1. Preliminary assessment of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties of Pistacia integerrima fruit.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Nazir, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    Present study was focused on the evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties in hydrophilic and lipophilic solvents extracts of Pistacia integerrima fruit, collected from Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Standard analytical methods were followed to estimate the proximate composition of nutrients, trace metals and phytochemical contents including phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and ascorbic acid. The free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and acetone extracts were carried out against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferrous ion chelation, ferric ion reduction, and phosphomolybdenium complex assay. Comparatively highest value of cultural importance index was determined for Margalla hills than other study sites. Crude fibers contents (33.65%) were found highest among nutrients, while in minerals utmost level was measured for K (947.3 mg/kg, FW), followed by Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Acetone extract exhibited highest total phenolics contents (113.7 mg GAE/100g, FW) and antioxidant potential for ferric ion reduction (107.3 μM GAE/100g, FW), phosphomolybdenum complex assay (99.32 μM AAE/100g, FW) and DPPH radical scavenging (91.89%). Fruit of P. integerrima was found an excellent source of nutrients, minerals and antioxidants. Crude extracts exhibited noteworthy potential against free radicals and could be of immense significance in the prevention of different diseases related to free radicals. Present data could be an effectual tool for propagation programs intended to enhance the antioxidant and other phytochemical components in foods. PMID:26142500

  2. Impact of dehulling and germination on nutrients, antinutrients, and antioxidant properties in horsegram.

    PubMed

    Pal, R S; Bhartiya, Anuradha; ArunKumar, R; Kant, Lakshmi; Aditya, J P; Bisht, J K

    2016-01-01

    The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and minerals content of horse gram seed after dehulling and germination of 12 advance lines were investigated. Dehulled samples had a higher protein content compared with the raw and germinated. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after dehulling (29.31 %) and germination (98.73 %) whereas, the total lipids increased (10.98 %) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after dehulling and decreased (36.41 %) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after germination. Dehulling and germination significantly decreased the amount of phytic acid (PA), tannin (TN) and oxalic acid (OA). Trypsin inhibitor units decreased (26.79 %) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after germination. The minerals (Ca, Fe and Cu) composition of the germinated horsegram flour samples was significantly higher than the raw and dehulled flour. The functional properties of flours were studied and found that the bulk density (11.85 %) and oil absorption capacity (18.92 %) significantly increased after germination. Raw samples followed by germinated samples showed the highest concentrations of phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity and also the antioxidant capacities. principal component analysis revealed that in case of dehulled samples; TN, polyphenols, DPPH and ABTS radical inhibition, TSS, total antioxidant, OA, protein, FRAP value, Ca and Zn had positive correlation among themselves while in case of germinated samples, protein, oil absorption capacity, FRAP value, OA, total flavonoids, DPPH radical inhibition, Ca and Cu had positive correlation among themselves. Present study suggest that germination combined with dehulling process improved quality of horsegram by enhancing the nutritive value and reducing the antinutrients. PMID:26787953

  3. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  4. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ali; Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50-10kDa, 10-1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50-10kDa and 10-1kDa peptide fractions showed good radical scavenging activity and reducing power at a concentration of 0.5mg protein/ml. All the fractions demonstrated low iron chelating activity and did not inhibit oxidation in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome model system. However all the fractions were to some extent able to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10-50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products. PMID:24001848

  5. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  6. Nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach leaf.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Rahul; Nivedhini, V; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

    2013-01-01

    The leaf of C. dipsaceus was evaluated for its nutritional and antioxidant properties. From the present investigation, significant amount of almost all essential amino acids and important minerals were quantified. Low levels of trypsin inhibitory units, phenolics, and tannins content were found as antinutritional content. Further, hot water extract of C. dipsaceus showed good activity especially in ABTS(+), metal chelating, nitric oxide, and DPPH assays. Hence, the results conclude that C. dipsaceus could be a valuable nutraceutical supplement to the human diet. PMID:24288509

  7. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. ex Spach Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Rahul; Nivedhini, V.; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

    2013-01-01

    The leaf of C. dipsaceus was evaluated for its nutritional and antioxidant properties. From the present investigation, significant amount of almost all essential amino acids and important minerals were quantified. Low levels of trypsin inhibitory units, phenolics, and tannins content were found as antinutritional content. Further, hot water extract of C. dipsaceus showed good activity especially in ABTS+, metal chelating, nitric oxide, and DPPH assays. Hence, the results conclude that C. dipsaceus could be a valuable nutraceutical supplement to the human diet. PMID:24288509

  8. Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) - their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Prusinowska, Renata; ?migielski, Krzysztof; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Kunicka-Styczy?ska, Alina

    2016-02-01

    It was shown that the method for obtaining hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) influences the content of active compounds and the aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the hydrolates. The content of volatile organic compounds ranged from 9.12 to 97.23mg/100mL of hydrolate. Lavender hydrolate variants showed low antimicrobial activity (from 0% to 0.05%). The radical scavenging activity of DPPH was from 3.60.5% to 3.80.6% and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACFL) results were from 0 to 266?M Trolox equivalent, depending on the hydrolate variant. PMID:25738904

  9. Effect of puffing on physical and antioxidant properties of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Maqbool

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of puffing process on the physical, antioxidant properties and mineral composition of brown rice. Bulk density significantly varied (P<0.05) among the puffing stages and was lowest in expanded rice. From Hunter colour analysis, the lowest L(?) value and highest a(?) and b(?) values were observed for parboiled rice (P<0.05). A-type of diffraction pattern, observed in raw rice was altered by puffing process and led to the formation of B- and V-type patterns. Raman spectrum showed the intense peaks in raw rice and the intensity of those peaks was decreased during the puffing process. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a highly porous structure of expanded rice kernel. Significant decrease in the antioxidant properties was observed upon puffing process as compared to raw rice samples. Hence the present study demonstrates that the puffing process leads to the significant changes in the properties of brown rice. PMID:26258713

  10. Gamma irradiation induced modification of bean polysaccharides: impact on physicochemical, morphological and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Peerzada R; Wani, Idrees A; Suradkar, Prashant P; Dar, Mohd A

    2014-09-22

    In the present study starches from four bean varieties viz. red, yellow, black and white, were gamma irradiated in the dose range of 5-25 kGy to investigate the effect of radiation processing on physicochemical, morphological and antioxidant properties. Studies revealed positive correlation between gamma irradiation and solubility (r=0.91), irradiation and water absorption capacity (r=0.82) and negative correlations between irradiation and swelling power (r=-0.92), irradiation and pasting properties (r=-0.91) and irradiation and thermal properties (r=-0.89). Microscopic observation under scanning electron microscope indicated the development of surface cracking and fractures on the surface of starch granules with increase in dose. X-ray diffractometry revealed no significant change in diffraction patterns between control and irradiated starches, except a decrease in relative crystallinity. Irradiation increased the proportions of both rapidly digestible starch and enzyme resistant starch of bean starches and significantly prevented the retrogradation of bean starches during storage. Results of the DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power indicated significant (p?0.05) increase in antioxidant activity of all irradiated bean starches with increase in dose. PMID:24906745

  11. Development of naturally activated edible films with antioxidant properties prepared from red seaweed Porphyra columbina biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Cian, Ral E; Salgado, Pablo R; Drago, Silvina R; Gonzlez, Rolando J; Mauri, Adriana N

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of phycobiliproteins-phycocolloids-based films, obtained from mixtures of two aqueous fractions extracted from Porphyra columbina red seaweed, one enriched in phycocolloids (PcF) and the other in phycobiliproteins (PF). Films with different ratios of PF:PcF (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% [w/w]) and without plasticizer addition were prepared by casting. PcF films had excellent mechanical properties (tensile strength ?50MPa, elongation at break ?3% and an elastic modulus ?17.5MPa). The addition of PF to formulations exerted a plasticizing effect on the PcF matrix, which was manifested in moisture content, water solubility and mechanical properties of the resulting films but not in its water vapour permeability. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the PcF films was significantly increased by the addition of PF and a direct relationship between TEAC and the total phenolic compounds (r(2)=0.9998) and R-phycoerythrin (r(2)=0.9942) was observed. PMID:24176306

  12. Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe.

    PubMed

    Intarasirisawat, Rossawan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Wu, Jianping

    2012-12-15

    Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe, hydrolysed by Alcalase 2.4 L (RPH) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) at various concentrations were examined. As DH increased, the reduction of DPPH, ABTS radicals scavenging activities and reducing power were noticeable (p<0.05). The increases in metal chelating activity and superoxide scavenging activity were attained with increasing DH (p<0.05). However, chelating activity gradually decreased at DH above 30%. All activities except superoxide anion radical scavenging activity increased as the concentration of hydrolysate increased (p<0.05). Hydrolysis using Alcalase could increase protein solubility to above 80% over a wide pH range (2-10). The highest emulsion ability index (EAI) and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were observed at low DH (5%) (p<0.05). Concentrations of hydrolysates determined interfacial properties differently, depending on DH. The molecular weight distribution of RPH with 5%DH (RPH5) was determined using Sephadex G-75 column. Two major peaks with the molecular weight of 57.8 and 5.5kDa were obtained. Fraction with MW of 5.5 had the strongest metal chelating activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The results reveal that protein hydrolysates from defatted skipjack roe could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:22980906

  13. Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels.

    PubMed

    Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Chaari, Fatma; Maktouf, Sameh; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouz

    2016-08-15

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from potato peel waste (PPW). The structure of the polysaccharides from PPW (PPPW) was examined by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the extracted polysaccharides form a semi-crystalline polymer constituted essentially of the functional groups CO, CH and OH. Acid hydrolysis of this polymer yielded glucose (76.25%) as the dominant sugar functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) of this polymer were studied. The PPPW showed interesting water-holding and fat-binding capacities which were 4.097±0.537g/g and 4.398±0.04g/g, respectively. In addition, it presented good foaming and emulsion properties. The antioxidant activity of this polymer was also studied and revealed that the polysaccharides showed interesting 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 PPPW=11.578mg/mL), reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activities, and also a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 PPPW=2mg/mL). Overall, the results suggest that the polysaccharide is a promising source of natural antioxidants and can be used as additive in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:27006219

  14. Preparation and characterization of bionanoemulsions for improving and modulating the antioxidant efficacy of natural phenolic antioxidant curcumin.

    PubMed

    Malik, Parth; Ameta, R K; Singh, Man

    2014-08-01

    An attempt to augment the antioxidant ability of curcumin, a natural phenolic compound via encapsulation in nontoxic nanoemulsions, has been made. Ethanol and glycerol catalyzed curcumin encapsulated nanoemulsions using cottonseed oil with mild cationic, anionic and nonionic surfactants have been prepared. The prepared bionanoemulsions were found to possess characteristic particle diameter between 100 and 900nm. The curcumin encased bionanoemulsions have been further screened for antioxidant efficacy with free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl that enabled a radical scavenging activity of more than 90% as compared to pure curcumin. Alongside, the reduced surface tension and increased viscosity of curcumin encapsulated bionanoemulsions within 38.37-52.85mN/m and 0.7947-1.042mPa-s have quantitatively verified curcumin dispersion and interaction within the continuous medium, enabled via thermodynamic shift. PMID:25110318

  15. Functional, antioxidant and film-forming properties of tuna-skin gelatin with a brown algae extract.

    PubMed

    Haddar, Anissa; Sellimi, Sabrine; Ghannouchi, Raouia; Alvarez, Oscar Martinez; Nasri, Moncef; Bougatef, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Characteristics and functional properties of gelatin from skin of Atlantic Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) were investigated. The gelatin was extracted by an acid-swelling process in the presence of different concentrations of commercial pepsin, followed by subsequent heating. The extraction yield was higher when increasing concentrations of pepsin were used during the swelling process. Emulsion activity index, foam formation ability and foam stability of gelatin increased with the increase of gelatin concentration. Antioxidant properties (ferric-reducing ability and DPPH-radical-scavenging capacity) of gelatin-based edible films containing aqueous or methanolic extracts of brown algae (Cystoseira barbata) were also assessed. For comparative purposes, tuna-skin gelatin edible film with BHA was studied. Antioxidant properties of the films were increased significantly when natural extracts were added. Extracts of brown algae could be useful additives to obtain edible films from tuna-skin gelatin with interesting functional and antioxidant properties. PMID:22721871

  16. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiuying; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Li, Haibing; Li, Xiaoyue; Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Weijie; Fan, Wenbo

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a fraction (AAP-2A) of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus (AAP) were investigated. Characteriztion assay showed that AAP-2A had molecular weight (Mw), root-mean square (RMS) radius and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of 2.25210(3)kDa, 28.4nm and 1.038, respectively. There were infrared characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides in FT-IR spectroscopy. AAP-2A was composed of rhamnose (Rha), galactose (Gal), arabinose (Ara) and glucose (Glc) with a molar ratio of 1:2.13:3.22:6.18 in GC analysis. Methylation analysis combined with NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that a preliminary structure of AAP-2A was proposed as follows: 1,3-linked Rhap, 1,3-linked Galp, 1,3-linked Araf, 1,5-linked Araf, 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Glcp and 1,4,6-linked Glcp interspersed with terminal Glcp. AAP-2A exhibited a surface with a sheet-like appearance in scanning electron microscope and stronger antioxidant capacity compared with AAP. PMID:26686116

  17. Characterization of pressurized hot water extracts of grape pomace: chemical and biological antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Salinas, J R; Vergara, Mauricio; Altamirano, Claudia; Gonzalez, lvaro; Prez-Correa, J R

    2015-03-15

    Pressurized hot water extracts obtained at different temperatures possess different compositions and antioxidant activities and, consequently, different bioactivities. We characterized two pressurized hot water extracts from grape pomace obtained at 100C (GPE100) and 200C (GPE200) in terms of antioxidant activity and composition, as well as protective effect on cell growth and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in a HL-60 cell culture under oxidative conditions. GPE100 extracts were richer in polyphenols and poorer in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) than were GPE200 extracts. Moreover, hydroxymethylfurfural was detected only in GPE200. Both extracts exhibited similar protective effects on cell growth (comparable to the effect of trolox). In addition, GPE100 strongly decreased the ??m loss, reaching values even lower than those of the control culture. This protective effect may be related to its high polyphenols content. At the highest concentration assessed, both extracts showed strong cytotoxicity, especially GPE200. This cytotoxicity could be related to their MRPs content. PMID:25308643

  18. Identification and characterization of antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of duck meat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Sha; Huang, Ji-Chao; Chen, Yu-Lian; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare antioxidant peptides from duck meat hydrolysate (DMH) using Protamex. The DPPH() scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical (()OH) scavenging activity, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of DMH were investigated. DMH was separated into three groups, MWCO-1 (69.57%), MWCO-2 (9.53%), and MWCO-3 (8.21%), by ultrafiltration. MWCO-3 exhibited the highest DPPH() scavenging activity (83.17 0.73%) and was subsequently fractionated by using gel filtration chromatography to obtain fraction B (40.90%). Fraction B5 (6.71%) obtained from ion exchange chromatography exhibited the highest DPPH() scavenging activity (93.63 0.13%) and contained seven peptides which were characterized by LC-MS/MS. Among these peptides, LQAEVEELRAALE showed the highest DPPH() scavenging activity (93.36 0.53%) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability (87.13 0.47%) and IEDPFDQDDWGAWKK exhibited the highest ()OH scavenging activity (46.51 0.16%). The results presented here indicated that DMH could serve as a suitable source of antioxidant peptides. PMID:25700149

  19. Characterization, antioxidative and bifidogenic effects of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii after heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-15

    Polysaccharides were extracted from freeze-dried-, oven-dried- and boiling-treated Pleurotus eryngii (FDPEPS, ODPEPS and BTPEPS). Yield of FDPEPS and its total carbohydrates, total polysaccharides, reducing sugars, phenolics and protein content were higher than ODPEPS and BTPEPS. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified that FDPEPS, ODPEPS, and BTPEPS were composed of mannose (5.75%, 5.52%, 6.97%), glucose (88.90%, 89.31%, 87.68%) and galactose (5.34%, 5.17%, 5.35%). All three polysaccharides showed typical saccharic absorption bands in FT-IR. The FDPEPS showed the highest antioxidant activities in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging tests. Denser aggregates and larger serum pores were observed in confocal micrographs of soymilk added with ODPEPS. Viability of Bifidobacterium longum in soymilk added with polysaccharides was significantly higher (p<0.01) than those without polysaccharides during fermentation. Heat treatments applied before extraction affected the properties, composition and microstructures of FDPEPS, ODPEPS and BTPEPS. PMID:26616946

  20. Purification and Characterization of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Correlation between Their Structure and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Dongmei; Yang, Lina; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Jingfang

    2014-01-01

    Nine flavonoids were isolated and characterized from the leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques as quercetin (1), afzelin (2), quercitrin (3), trifolin (4), quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside (5), isorhamnetin 3-O-?-L-rhamnoside (6), hyperoside (7), vitexin (8) and rutin (9). All compounds were isolated from the leaves of Z. bungeanum for the first time. Five compounds (2, 4, 5, 6 and 8) were found for the first time in the genus Zanthoxylum. To learn the mechanisms underlying its health benefits, in vitro (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays) and in vivo (protective effect on Escherichia coli under peroxide stress) antioxidant activities of the nine flavonoids were measured. Quercetin and quercetin glycosides (compounds 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) showed the highest antioxidant activity. Structure-activity relationships indicated that the -OH in 4? position on the B ring and the -OH in 7 position on the A ring possessed high antioxidant activity; B ring and/or A ring with adjacent -OH groups could greatly increase their antioxidant ability. Also, due to the different structures of various flavonoids, they will certainly exhibit different antioxidant capacity when the reactions occur in solution or in oil-in-water emulsion. These findings suggest that Z. bungeanum leaves may have health benefits when consumed. It could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products and functional food ingredients in both nutraceutical and food industries as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25157400

  1. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zahra S; Abozed, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes' residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker's formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

  2. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra S.; Abozed, Safaa S.

    2014-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

  3. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Møller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source. PMID:26690454

  4. Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols Contribute to the Antioxidative Properties of Some Microalgae Species Grown on Industrial Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Safafar, Hamed; van Wagenen, Jonathan; Mller, Per; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential of microalgae species grown on industrial waste water as a new source of natural antioxidants. Six microalgae from different classes, including Phaeodactylum sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorella sp., Dunaniella sp., and Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), were screened for their antioxidant properties using different in vitro assays. Natural antioxidants, including pigments, phenolics, and tocopherols, were measured in methanolic extracts of microalgae biomass. Highest and lowest concentrations of pigments, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols were found in Desmodesmus sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornuotom microalgae species, respectively. The results of each assay were correlated to the content of natural antioxidants in microalgae biomass. Phenolic compounds were found as major contributors to the antioxidant activity in all antioxidant tests while carotenoids were found to contribute to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous reduction power (FRAP), and ABTS-radical scavenging capacity activity. Desmodesmus sp. biomass represented a potentially rich source of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids (lutein), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds when cultivated on industrial waste water as the main nutrient source. PMID:26690454

  5. Synthesis of Cr(III)-Morin Complex: Characterization and Antioxidant Study

    PubMed Central

    Panhwar, Qadeer K.; Memon, Shahabuddin

    2014-01-01

    The complex formation between Cr(III) and morin was carried out in methanol and confirmed by analytical characterization using UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, and TG-DTA. UV-Vis shows significant bathochromic shift in benzoyl upon coordination as well as IR well illustrates the peak shift of C=O group and formation of a OCr(III) bond. Likewise, 1H NMR studies clarify that Cr(III) metal ion replaces the 5OH proton hence; 5-hydroxy-4-keto site is employed by morin in chelation to form six-membered stable ring system out of three available chelating sites. In addition, TG-DTA denotes the presence of coordinated and crystalline water molecules. The melting point of the complex was found to be 389C by DSC. In addition, Cr(III)-morin complex was found to be a more potent antioxidant than morin as evaluated by DPPH and FRAP methods. PMID:24688439

  6. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    PubMed

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs. PMID:23775704

  7. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile. PMID:21699688

  8. Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on Vitamin C and Its Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S.; Brennan, Margaret; Han, Zhong; Xiong, Xia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments and their effects on the structure of vitamin C (VIT-C) were estimated by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the relative content of VIT-C was measured by HPLC and the antioxidant properties of treated VIT-C by DPPH radical scavenging as well as reducing power tests. The fluorescence intensity of treated VIT-C increased slightly compared to the untreated VIT-C. Moreover, the effect of PEF on the structure of VIT-C was observed using the FT-IR spectra. These phenomena indicated that the PEF affected the conformation of VIT-C, which promoted the VIT-C isomer transformed enol-form into keto-form. In addition, the PEF treatments did not suffer the damage to VIT-C and could slow down the oxidation process in involving of experimental conditions by HPLC. The antioxidant properties of the treated VIT-C were enhanced, which was proved by radical scavenging and also the reducing power tests. PMID:26473846

  9. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of 1,2,4-oxadiazole analogs of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Gobec, Martina; Tomai?, Tihomir; Markovi?, Tijana; Mlinari?-Ra?an, Irena; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jakopin, iga

    2015-10-01

    The chemopreventive properties of resveratrol are ascribed mostly to its antioxidant activity, in particular its scavenging ability for reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to the inhibition of NF-?B pathway which has also been suggested as an important underlying mechanism of its reported properties. In present study, a small library of nine 1,2,4-oxadiazole-based structural analogs of resveratrol were assayed for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Several compounds showed significant inhibitory activities against NF-?B and/or ROS production. Compound 2, incorporating two para-hydroxyphenyl moieties connected by the 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring, was the most active, its potency in inhibiting activation of NF-?B and ROS scavenging abilities surpassing that of resveratrol. Additionally, we elucidated the mechanisms underlying the NF-?B inhibitory activity of compound 2. Finally, in contrast to resveratrol, compound 2 significantly reduced the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating its prominent anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:26335192

  10. Laccase-mediated synthesis of a phenoxazine compound with antioxidative and dyeing properties - the optimisation process.

    PubMed

    Polak, Jolanta; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna; Szałapata, Katarzyna; Grąz, Marcin; Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika

    2016-03-25

    This study demonstrates the optimisation of the main parameters of the laccase-mediated biosynthesis of high-intensity-coloured orange phenoxazine compound, 2-amino-3-oxo-3H-phenoxazine-8-sulfonic acid, and the antioxidative and dyeing properties. Among optimised parameters were the pH value, the activity of laccase, and the high concentration of the precursor as the necessary step in terms of dye synthesis scale-up. The high concentration of the precursor of ca. 10g/L can be transformed totally by laccase at the activity of 30U/g during 12hours, in an optimised and standardised process in nearly 100% yield of synthesis. The obtained dye exhibited good dyeing properties determined according to the ISO standards. Antioxidative activities were detected for phenoxazinone dye using two independent methods, the chemiluminescence assay and the ABTS free radical-scavenging test, with the values of EC50 for the tested phenoxazine dye amounting 189.8μg/mL and 1428μg/mL, respectively. Despite the presence of the phenoxazine core in the structure of this dye, no antibacterial capacity was noted. PMID:26493406

  11. Optimization and prediction of antioxidant properties of a tea-ginger extract

    PubMed Central

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Sanni, David Morakinyo

    2015-01-01

    A response surface approach was used to investigate the effects of temperature, concentration, and time on the antioxidant properties (total flavonoid (TF), total phenol (TP), peroxide scavenging activity (PS), iron chelating activity (IC), DPPH radical-scavenging ability (DPPH), ABTS assay (ABTS)) of aqueous extract of tea-ginger (2:1) powder. Color indices, pH, and redox potential of the tea-ginger powder were also measured and used as independent variables for the prediction of antioxidant properties of the extract using ordinary least square (OLSR), principal component (PCR), and partial least square (PLSR) regression. The R2 values for TP, TF, ABTS, and PS response surface models were 0.8873, 0.9639, 0.6485, and 0.5721, respectively. The OLSR, PCR, and PLSR were able to provide predictive models for DPPH, TP, and TF of the tea-ginger extract (P<0.05). The PLSR gave the most parsimonious model with an R2 of 0.851, 0.736, and 0.905 for DPPH, TP, and TF, respectively. PMID:26405530

  12. Optimization and prediction of antioxidant properties of a tea-ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Sanni, David Morakinyo

    2015-09-01

    A response surface approach was used to investigate the effects of temperature, concentration, and time on the antioxidant properties (total flavonoid (TF), total phenol (TP), peroxide scavenging activity (PS), iron chelating activity (IC), DPPH radical-scavenging ability (DPPH), ABTS assay (ABTS)) of aqueous extract of tea-ginger (2:1) powder. Color indices, pH, and redox potential of the tea-ginger powder were also measured and used as independent variables for the prediction of antioxidant properties of the extract using ordinary least square (OLSR), principal component (PCR), and partial least square (PLSR) regression. The R (2) values for TP, TF, ABTS, and PS response surface models were 0.8873, 0.9639, 0.6485, and 0.5721, respectively. The OLSR, PCR, and PLSR were able to provide predictive models for DPPH, TP, and TF of the tea-ginger extract (P<0.05). The PLSR gave the most parsimonious model with an R (2) of 0.851, 0.736, and 0.905 for DPPH, TP, and TF, respectively. PMID:26405530

  13. Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on Vitamin C and Its Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S; Brennan, Margaret; Han, Zhong; Xiong, Xia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments and their effects on the structure of vitamin C (VIT-C) were estimated by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the relative content of VIT-C was measured by HPLC and the antioxidant properties of treated VIT-C by DPPH radical scavenging as well as reducing power tests. The fluorescence intensity of treated VIT-C increased slightly compared to the untreated VIT-C. Moreover, the effect of PEF on the structure of VIT-C was observed using the FT-IR spectra. These phenomena indicated that the PEF affected the conformation of VIT-C, which promoted the VIT-C isomer transformed enol-form into keto-form. In addition, the PEF treatments did not suffer the damage to VIT-C and could slow down the oxidation process in involving of experimental conditions by HPLC. The antioxidant properties of the treated VIT-C were enhanced, which was proved by radical scavenging and also the reducing power tests. PMID:26473846

  14. THIOCYANATE: A potentially useful therapeutic agent with host defense and antioxidant properties?

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Joshua D.; Day, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Thiocyanate (SCN) functions in host defense as part of the secreted lactoperoxidase (LPO) microbicidal pathway. SCN is the preferred substrate for LPO-driven catalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) forming hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN). HOSCN is selectively generated by many peroxidase enzymes that can utilize SCN including: eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), gastric peroxidase (GPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), salivary peroxidase (SPO), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO). These enzymes generate HOSCN through a two-electron halogenation reaction. HOSCN is a potent microbicidal agent that kills or nullifies invading pathogens but is better tolerated by host tissue. Some controversy exists as to whether physiologic levels of HOSCN are non-toxic to host tissue, but the disagreement appears to be based on results of enzymatic generation (yielding moderate steady-state exposure) versus direct high level acute exposure in mammalian cell lines. This apparent duality is also true of other endogenous oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and relates to the difference between physiologically relevant oxidant production versus supra-physiologic bolus dosing approaches. SCN has antioxidant properties that include the ability to protect cells against oxidizing agents such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and repair protein chloramines. SCN is an important endogenous molecule that has the potential to interact in complex and elegant ways with its host environment and foreign organisms. SCNs diverse properties as both host defense and antioxidant agent make it a potentially useful therapeutic. PMID:22968041

  15. Use of food and packaging model matrices to investigate the antioxidant properties of biorefinery grass lignins.

    PubMed

    Agui-Bghin, Vronique; Foulon, Laurence; Soto, Paola; Crnier, David; Corti, Elena; Lege, Frdric; Czard, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Maillard, Marie-Nolle; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Baumberger, Stphanie

    2015-11-18

    The antioxidant properties of grass lignins recovered from an alkaline industrial process and from different ethanol organosolv pretreatment processes were compared using two types of tests: (i) classical radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()) scavenging tests in dioxane/water or ethanol and (ii) tests involving multiphasic systems (lipid dispersion in water or cellulose film suspended in ethanol). These multiphasic systems were representative of food and packaging matrices in view of high-value applications. All lignins, in solution or in the film, effectively scavenged radicals. Moreover, they were competitive with a food commercial rosemary extract to protect linoleic acid against oxidation. Whereas the DPPH() test in dioxane was not discriminant, differences appeared between lignins when the test was performed in ethanol or with the multiphasic systems. Moreover, radical scavenging activity was preserved in the film even after its immersion in ethanol. Structural analysis of lignins revealed that low-molar-mass phenolics, namely p-hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin depolymerization products, governed lignin antioxidant properties in the multiphasic systems. PMID:26477864

  16. Structural, thermal, functional, antioxidant & antimicrobial properties of β-d-glucan extracted from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cereviseae)-Effect of γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asma Ashraf; Gani, Adil; Masoodi, F A; Amin, Furheen; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad; Gani, Asir

    2016-04-20

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of γ-irradiation (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 & 50kGy) on the structural, functional, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of yeast β-d-glucan. The samples were characterized by ATR-FTIR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the thermal properties were studied using DSC. There was a decrease in the average molecular weight of β-d-glucan as the irradiation dose increased. The functional properties of irradiated yeast β-d-glucan were largely influenced by the action of gamma radiation like swelling power and viscosity decreases with increase in the irradiation dose while as fat binding capacity, emulsifying properties, foaming properties and bile acid binding capacity shows an increasing trend. All the antioxidant properties carried out using six different assays increased significantly (p≤0.05) in a dose dependent manner. The antibacterial activity of yeast β-d-glucan also showed an increasing trend with increase in the irradiation dose from 5 to 50kDa. PMID:26876872

  17. Single-step green synthesis and characterization of gold-conjugated polyphenol nanoparticles with antioxidant and biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Dessì, Giuseppina; Manconi, Paola; Mariani, Alberto; Dedola, Sonia; Rassu, Mauro; Crosio, Claudia; Iaccarino, Ciro; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are likely to provide an attractive platform for combining a variety of biophysicochemical properties into a unified nanodevice with great therapeutic potential. In this study we investigated the capabilities of three different natural polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol (RSV), and fisetin (FS), to allow synergistic chemical reduction of gold salts to GNPs and stabilization in a single-step green process. Moreover, antioxidant properties of the nanosystems, as well as preliminary antiproliferative activity and apoptotic process investigation of model EGCG-GNPs on stable clones of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing CFP-DEVD-YFP reporter, were examined. Methods The GNPs were characterized by physicochemical techniques, polyphenol content, and in vitro stability. The antioxidant activity of the GNPs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation (ABTS) radical-scavenging assays. Stable clones of neuronal SH-SY5Y-CFP-DEVD-YFP were generated and characterized, and cell viability after treatment with EGCG-GNPs was assessed after 72 hours through a 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. Activation of the apoptotic pathways was also investigated by Western blot analysis. Results With a diameter in the size range of 10–25 nm, the obtained nanoparticles (NPs) were found to contain 2.71%, 3.23%, and 5.47% of EGCG, RSV, and FS, respectively. Nanoprototypes exhibited remarkable in vitro stability in various media, suggesting that NP surface coating with phytochemicals prevents aggregation in different simulated physiological conditions. The scavenging activities for DPPH and ABTS were highly correlated with EGCG, RSV, and FS content. Moreover, high correlation coefficients between the ABTS and DPPH values were found for the prepared nanosystems. EGCG-GNPs induce a dose-dependent reduction on SH-SY5Y-CFP-DEVD-YFP cell viability that is likely to involve the activation of the apoptotic pathways, similarly to free EGCG, as suggested by the processing of the CFP-DEVD-YFP reporter. Conclusion These results prompted us to propose the ecofriendly synthesized EGCG-, RSV-, and FS-based nanogold conjugates as suitable carriers for bioactive polyphenols to be used for the treatment of disorders associated with oxidative stress, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PMID:25364251

  18. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(?)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. PMID:24262566

  19. [Influence of vermiculite particles on antioxidant properties of cultural medium of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023].

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, I A; Kudrish, I K

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in the process of cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 in the medium with vermiculite (1.5-5.0 g/l) one can observe the oppressing of some indexes of antioxidant properties of cultural medium of bacteria. In particular, a decline of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in the Fenton reaction by 2.8-11.6%, ability to inhibit formation of malondialdehyde - by 4.4-13.1% and inactivation of 2,2'-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical - by 3.1-8.5% were observed. Thus oxidant activity increased substantially. Besides oppressing influence of particles of vermiculite on protector properties of the cultural medium of bacilli it is found out that with the increase of the content of dispersible material in the nutrient medium the reducing power of cultural medium of these bacteria increased. PMID:25509184

  20. Extremophilic polysaccharide nanoparticles for cancer nanotherapy and evaluation of antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sreejith; Palaninathan, Vivekanandan; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Fukuda, Takahiro; Iwai, Seiki; Higashi, Toshiaki; Mizuki, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Mohanan, P V; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D Sakthi

    2015-05-01

    Polysaccharides that show finest bioactivities and physicochemical properties are always promising for bionanoscience applications. Mauran is such a macromolecule extracted from halophilic bacterium, Halomonas maura for biotechnology and nanoscience applications. Antioxidant properties of MR/CH nanoparticles were studied using biochemical assays to prove the versatility of these test nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Here, we demonstrate the prospects of extremophilic polysaccharide, mauran based nanoparticles for scavenging reactive oxygen species in both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. 5-fluorouracil loaded MR/CH nanoparticles were tested for anticancer proliferation and compared their therapeutic efficiency using breast adenocarcinoma and glioma cells. Fluorescently labeled nanoparticles were employed to show the cellular uptake of these nanocarriers using confocal microscopic imaging and flow cytometry. PMID:25749105

  1. Antioxidants and its Properties as Affected by Extrusion Process: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wani, Sajad A; Kumar, Pradyuman

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants are important for plant and animal's life or health. These are the substances that protect them from the damage produced by unstable molecules called as free radicals. There are various types of antioxidants to be reported both natural as well as synthetic such as melatonin, Vitamin C, glutathione, tocopherols and tocotrienols, BHA and BHT, etc. A new antioxidant 5-O-[6?-(3- hydroxy-3methyl glutarate) ?-D-glucodise was found while studying bioactive antioxidants from plant foods for nutraceutical product development. Antioxidants have been used for increasing shelf life of various food products including extruded product. Antioxidants, their beneficial advantages and the effect of extrusion on antioxidants were reviewed and found to be effective in increasing the shelf life. This review article discusses recent patents, presents importance of antioxidant, phytochemicals and effect of process of extrusion on antioxidants. PMID:26152136

  2. Permanent culture of macrophages at physiological oxygen attenuates the antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of dimethyl fumarate.

    PubMed

    Haas, Benjamin; Chrusciel, Sandra; Fayad-Kobeissi, Sarah; Dubois-Rand, Jean-Luc; Azuaje, Francisco; Boczkowski, Jorge; Motterlini, Roberto; Foresti, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that O2 tension influences the redox state and the immunomodulatory responses of inflammatory cells to dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an activator of the nuclear factor Nrf2 that controls antioxidant genes expression. This concept was investigated in macrophages permanently cultured at either physiological (5% O2) or atmospheric (20% O2) oxygen levels and then treated with DMF or challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. RAW 264.7 macrophages cultured at 20% O2 exhibited a pro-oxidant phenotype, reflected by a lower content of reduced glutathione, higher oxidized glutathione and increased production of reactive oxygen species when compared to macrophages continuously grown at 5% O2. At 20% O2, DMF induced a stronger antioxidant response compared to 5% O2 as evidenced by a higher expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxydoreductase-1 and superoxide dismutase-2. After challenge of macrophages with LPS, several pro-inflammatory (iNOS, TNF-?, MMP-2, MMP-9), anti-inflammatory (arginase-1, IL-10) and pro-angiogenic (VEGF-A) mediators were evaluated in the presence or absence of DMF. All markers, with few interesting exceptions, were significantly reduced at 5% O2. This study brings new insights on the effects of O2 in the cellular adaptation to oxidative and inflammatory stimuli and highlights the importance of characterizing the effects of chemicals and drugs at physiologically relevant O2 tension. Our results demonstrate that the common practice of culturing cells at atmospheric O2 drives the endogenous cellular environment towards an oxidative stress phenotype, affecting inflammation and the expression of antioxidant pathways by exogenous modulators. PMID:25303683

  3. Antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic extract of Combretum duarteanum in rodents.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Marcos G S; Xavier, Maria A; Barreto, André S; Gelain, Daniel P; Santos, João P A; Araújo, Adriano A S; Silva, Francilene A; Quintans, Jullyana S; Agra, Maria F; Cabral, Analúcia G S; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2011-11-01

    The antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Combretum duarteanum (EEC) were assessed in rodents through in vitro tests. The antioxidant activity was investigated by using thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), hydroxyl radical-scavenging, and scavenging activity of nitric oxide assays. The antinociceptive activity was investigated by using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in rats by using the carrageenan-induced hind-paw edema test and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema test. EEC possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the TBARS, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays; it also presented scavenger activity in all in vitro tests. After intraperitoneal injection, EEC (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of writhes (38.1%, 90.6%, and 97.8%, respectively) in a writhing test and the number of paw licks during phase 1 (30.5% and 69.5%, higher doses) and phase 2 (38.1%, 90.6%, and 97.8%, all doses) of a formalin test when compared with the control group. Naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) antagonized the antinociceptive action of EEC (400 mg/kg), and this finding suggests participation of the opioid system. Administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of EEC exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenin test, which was based on interference with prostaglandin synthesis. This finding was confirmed by the arachidonic acid test. Together, these results indicate that properties of EEC might be further explored in the search for newer tools to treat painful inflammatory conditions, including those related to pro-oxidant states. PMID:21663477

  4. Anti-lipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, Mxico.

    PubMed

    Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vsquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernndez, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jimnez, Martha G; Cruz-Durn, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, Mxico. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties. PMID:23959013

  5. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05) during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%). Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05) decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05) increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread. PMID:26343616

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  7. Redox properties of the nitronyl nitroxide antioxidants studied via their reactions with nitroxyl and ferrocyanide.

    PubMed

    Bobko, A A; Khramtsov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Nitronyl nitroxides (NNs) are the paramagnetic probes that are capable of scavenging physiologically relevant reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, namely superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), and nitroxyl (HNO). NNs are increasingly considered as potent antioxidants and potential therapeutic agents. Understanding redox chemistry of the NNs is important for their use as antioxidants and as paramagnetic probes for discriminative detection of NO and HNO by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Here we investigated the redox properties of the two most commonly used NNs, including determination of the equilibrium and rate constants of their reduction by HNO and ferrocyanide, and reduction potential of the couple NN/hydroxylamine of nitronyl nitroxide (hNN). The rate constants of the reaction of the NNs with HNO were found to be equal to (1-2) 10(4) M(-1)s(- 1) being close to the rate constants of scavenging superoxide and NO by NNs. The reduction potential of the NNs and iminonitroxides (INs, product of NNs reaction with NO) were calculated based on their reaction constants with ferrocyanide. The obtained values of the reduction potential for NN/hNN (E'0 ? 285 mV) and IN/hIN (E' ? 495 mV) are close to the corresponding values for vitamin C and vitamin E, correspondingly. The "balanced" scavenging rates of the NNs towards superoxide, NO, and HNO, and their low reduction potential being thermodynamically close to the bottom of the pecking order of oxidizing radicals, might be important factors contributing into their antioxidant activity. PMID:25789760

  8. Evolution of availability of curcumin inside poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: impact on antioxidant and antinitrosant properties

    PubMed Central

    Betbeder, Didier; Lipka, Emmanuelle; Howsam, Mike; Carpentier, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin exhibits antioxidant properties potentially beneficial for human health; however, its use in clinical applications is limited by its poor solubility and relative instability. Nanoparticles exhibit interesting features for the efficient distribution and delivery of curcumin into cells, and could also increase curcumin stability in biological systems. There is a paucity of information regarding the evolution of the antioxidant properties of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin. Method We described a simple method of curcumin encapsulation in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles without the use of detergent. We assessed, in epithelial cells and in an acellular model, the evolution of direct antioxidant and antinitrosant properties of free versus PLGA-encapsulated curcumin after storage under different conditions (light vs darkness, 4C vs 25C vs 37C). Results In epithelial cells, endocytosis and efflux pump inhibitors showed that the increased antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin relied on bypassing the efflux pump system. Acellular assays showed that the antioxidant effect of curcumin was greater when loaded in PLGA nanoparticles. Furthermore, we observed that light decreased, though heat restored, antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin, probably by modulating the accessibility of curcumin to reactive oxygen species, an observation supported by results from quenching experiments. Moreover, we demonstrated a direct antinitrosant activity of curcumin, enhanced by PLGA encapsulation, which was increased by light exposure. Conclusion These results suggest that the antioxidant and antinitrosant activities of encapsulated curcumin are light sensitive and that nanoparticle modifications over time and with temperature may facilitate curcumin contact with reactive oxygen species. These results highlight the importance of understanding effects of nanoparticle maturation on an encapsulated drugs activity. PMID:26345627

  9. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimares, Rafaela; Barreira, Joo C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Mushroom Mycelia Obtained by Batch Cultivation and Tocopherol Content Affected by Extraction Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r2 = 0.7665–0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products. PMID:25110715

  11. Boswellia serrata has beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in a model of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Fillmann, Henrique Sarubbi; Martins, Maria Isabel Morgan; Meurer, Luise; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2014-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease that involves only the colon and rectum, being characterized by leukocyte infiltrate and superficial ulcers in the intestinal mucosa. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extract from the Boswellia serrata plant in an experimental rat model of acute ulcerative colitis induced by the administration of acetic acid (AA). An extract of B. serrata (34.2?mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage for 2?days before and after the induction of colitis with 4?mL of 4% AA. The anal sphincter pressure in the colitis group showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control groups (p?antioxidant effects that inhibit inflammatory mediators in acute experimental colitis. PMID:24619538

  12. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  13. Effect of roasting on physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Gani, Adil; Tariq, Aanisa; Sharma, Paras; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Haroon Maqbool

    2016-04-15

    Arrowhead tubers with protein, lipid and ash content of 4.60%, 2.27% and 6.15%, respectively were subjected to pan and microwave roasting, converted to flour and studied for physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties. The lightness 'L' of flour decreased significantly (p⩽0.05) from 83.01 to 72.21 while significant increase in 'a' and 'b' color values was observed from -0.27 to 2.49 and 15.49 to 25.35 on roasting. Light transmittance decreased significantly upon roasting and the lowest value (0.80) was showed by pan roasted sample. Significant decrease in pasting properties like peak (963.0-147.7 cP), setback (172.0-97.67 cP) and final viscosity (861.67-202.66 cP) was also recorded on roasting. However, roasting led to increase in pasting temperature from 78.53 to 95.23°C. The water (1.49-2.03 g/g) and oil (1.65-1.85 g/g) absorption capacity increased, while significant decrease was observed in foaming and emulsion properties upon roasting. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and reducing power enhanced upon pan and microwave roasting from 1.02 to 2.42 mg/g (GAE); 44.30% to 46.61%; 74.59% to 76.23%, respectively. Thermal parameters like onset temperature (To) and ΔH decreased while peak temperature (Tp) increased on roasting. PMID:26616959

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the volatile oil and methanol extract of Xenophyllum poposum.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, Ana M; Tracanna, Mara I; Amani, Sara M; Schuff, Carola; Poch, Miguel J; Bach, Horacio; Cataln, Csar A N

    2012-12-01

    The essential oil and methanol extract of northwestern Argentina medicinal plant Xenophyllum poposum, collected in Catamarca province, were investigated. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil identified 56 compounds accounting for 92.9%. The main components of the oil were delta-cadinene (16.5%), 6-hydroxytremetone (14.7%), epi-alpha-cadinol (12.0%), alpha-cadinol (8.8%), gamma-cadinene (7.5%), 1-epi-cubenol (4.2%) and alpha-muurolene (3.0%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activities against five pathogenic strains as well as antifungal activities against two pathogenic fungi. The methanol extract showed antibacterial activity against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus and two pathogenic fungal strains. The main components isolated from the methanol extract were the antifungal 4-hydroxy-3-(isopenten-2-yl)-acetophenone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and tremetone. 6-Hydroxytremetone showed activity against all the fungal strains and one of the S. aureus strains assayed. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties of the methanol extract and essential oil were determined using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) test. The methanol extract and the essential oil showed, respectively, moderate and weak antioxidant activity when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. PMID:23413577

  15. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Antoniou, John; Li, Yue; Yi, Jiang; Yokoyama, Wallace; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2015-04-22

    Gelatin films incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles in various free/encapsulated tea polyphenol (TP) ratios were prepared in order to investigate the influence of different ratios on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of films. The TP-containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking chitosan hydrochloride (CSH) with sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin sodium (SBE-?-CD) at three different encapsulation efficiencies (EE; ?50%, ?80%, and ?100%) of TP. The stability of TP-loaded nanoparticles was maintained during the film drying process from the analysis of free TP content in the redissolved film solutions. Composite films showed no significant difference in visual aspects, while the light transmittance (250-550 nm) was decreased with incorporation of TP. Nanoparticles appeared to be homogeneously dispersed within the film matrix by microstructure analysis (SEM and AFM). TP-loaded films had ferric reducing and DPPH radical scavenging power that corresponded to the EEs. Sunflower oil packaged in bags made of gelatin films embedded with nanoparticles of 80% EE showed the best oxidation inhibitory effect, followed by 100% EE, 50% EE, and free TP, over 6 weeks of storage. However, when the gelatin film was placed over the headspace and was not in contact with the oil, the free TP showed the best effect. The results indicate that sustained release of TP in the contacting surface can ensure the protective effects, which vary with free/encapsulated mass ratios, thus improving antioxidant activities instead of increasing the dosage. PMID:25826241

  16. Direct and indirect antioxidant properties of ?-lipoic acid and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Luc; Ghibu, Stliana; Richard, Carole; Zeller, Marianne; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a major threat to worldwide health. The exact mechanisms underlying the disease are unknown; however, there is growing evidence that the excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with hyperglycemia, causes oxidative stress in a variety of tissues. In this context, various natural compounds with pleiotropic actions like ?-lipoic acid (LA) are of interest, especially in metabolic diseases such as diabetes. LA, either as a dietary supplement or a therapeutic agent, modulates redox potential because of its ability to match the redox status between different subcellular compartments as well as extracellularly. Both the oxidized (disulfide) and reduced (di-thiol: dihydro-lipoic acid, DHLA) forms of LA show antioxidant properties. LA exerts antioxidant effects in biological systems through ROS quenching but also via an action on transition metal chelation. Dietary supplementation with LA has been successfully employed in a variety of in vivo models of disease associated with an imbalance of redox status: diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The complex and intimate association between increased oxidative stress and increased inflammation in related disorders such as diabetes, makes it difficult to establish the temporal sequence of the relationship. PMID:23293044

  17. Nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of the sim fruit (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Lai, Thi Ngoc Ha; Andr, Christelle; Rogez, Herv; Mignolet, Eric; Nguyen, Thi Bich Thuy; Larondelle, Yvan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, detailed chemical properties of sim (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk.) fruit including nutritional composition, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined for the first time. A 150g serving of sim fruit contained high levels of dietary fibre (69.94-87.43% of Recommended Daily Intake (RDI)), ?-tocopherol (38.90-51.87% RDI), manganese (>100% RDI), and copper (44.44% RDI) but low levels of protein (2.63% RDI), lipid (1.59-3.5% RDI), and sugars (5.65% RDI). The predominant fatty acid in the sim fruit sample was linoleic acid (75.36% of total fatty acids). Interestingly, total phenolics (49.210.35mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW)) were particularly high and resulted in a high antioxidant capacity (431.1714.56?mol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g DW). These results, together with our recent discovery of high amount of piceatannol, a stilbene with potent biological activities, highlight the potential of sim, an under-utilised plant species from South-East Asia, as a new source of health-promoting compounds including dietary fibres, essential fatty acids, and phenolic compounds. PMID:25172728

  18. LED lighting and seasonality effects antioxidant properties of baby leaf lettuce.

    PubMed

    Samuolien?, Giedr?; Sirtautas, Ram?nas; Brazaityt?, Aura; Duchovskis, Pavelas

    2012-10-01

    We report on the application of supplementary light-emitting diode (LED) lighting within a greenhouse for cultivation of red, green and light green leaf baby lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under natural illumination and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (16-h; PPFD-170 ?mol m(-2)s(-1)) during different growing season. Supplementary lighting from blue 455/470 nm and green 505/530 nm LEDs was applied (16-h; PPFD-30 ?mol m(-2)s(-1)). Our results showed that to achieve solely a positive effect is complicated, because metabolism of antioxidant properties in lettuce depended on multicomponent exposure of variety, light quality or seasonality. The general trend of a greater positive effect of supplemental LED components on the vitamin C and tocopherol contents was in order: 535>505>455>470 nm; on the total phenol content: 505>535=470>455 nm; on the DPPH free-radical scavenging capacity: 535=470>505>455 nm; on the total anthocyanins: 505>455>470>535 nm. Further investigations are needed for understanding the mechanism and interaction between antioxidants and light signal transduction pathways. PMID:25005972

  19. Antioxidant and biological properties of bioactive phenolic compounds from Quercus suber L.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana; Fernandes, Iva; Cruz, Lus; Mateus, Nuno; Cabral, Miguel; de Freitas, Victor

    2009-12-01

    Phenolic compounds, namely, hydrolyzable tannins and low molecular weight phenolic compounds, were isolated and purified from Portuguese cork from Quercus suber L. Some of these compounds were studied to evaluate their antioxidant activity, including free-radical scavenging capacity (DPPH method) and reducing capacity (FRAP method). All compounds tested showed significant antioxidant activity, namely, antiradical and reducing properties. The antiradical capacity seemed to increase with the presence of galloyl groups. Regarding the reducing capacity, this structure-activity relationship was not so clear. These compounds were also studied to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect on the estrogen responsive human breast cancer cell line (ER+) MCF-7 and two other colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29). Generally, all the compounds tested exhibited, after a continuous exposure during a 48 h period, a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Relative inhibitory activity was primarily related to the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (galloyl and HHDP moieties) found in the active structures, with more groups generally conferring increased effects, except for HHDP-di-galloyl-glucose. Mongolicain B showed a greater potential to inhibit the growth of the three cell lines tested, identical to the effect observed with castalagin. Since these compounds are structurally related with each other, this activity might be based within the C-glycosidic ellagitannin moiety. PMID:19888728

  20. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  1. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. PMID:25466036

  2. Physical, barrier and antioxidant properties of a novel plasticized edible film from quince seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as a new source for preparation of edible films and determined the physical, mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, microstructural and thermal properties. QSM films were prepared by incorporation of three levels of glycerol (25-50%, w/w). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (O2P), elongation at break (EB), water solubility and moisture content of QSM films increased while, tensile strength (TS), density and surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly. The measurement of color values showed that by the increasing of the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix, the b and L values increased while ?E value decreased. Microscopic views indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without obvious cracks, breaks, or openings on the surfaces after the incorporation of glycerol as a plasticizer. The results of the present study suggest that QSM as a new antioxidant edible film with interesting specifications can potentially be used for packaging of a wide range of food products. PMID:24076197

  3. A Study of the Preparation and Properties of Antioxidative Copper Inks with High Electrical Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Yang; Chang, Wei-Chen; Chen, Guan-Lin; Chung, Cheng-Huan; Liang, Jun-Xiang; Ma, Wei-Yang; Yang, Tsun-Neng

    2015-12-01

    Conductive ink using copper nanoparticles has attracted much attention in the printed electronics industry because of its low cost and high electrical conductivity. However, the problem of easy oxidation under heat and humidity conditions for copper material limits the wide applications. In this study, antioxidative copper inks were prepared by dispersing the nanoparticles in the solution, and then conductive copper films can be obtained after calcining the copper ink at 250 °C in nitrogen atmosphere for 30 min. A low sheet resistance of 47.6 mΩ/□ for the copper film was measured by using the four-point probe method. Importantly, we experimentally demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of copper films can be improved by increasing the calcination temperature. In addition, these highly conductive copper films can be placed in an atmospheric environment for more than 6 months without the oxidation phenomenon, which was verified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). These observations strongly show that our conductive copper ink features high antioxidant properties and long-term stability and has a great potential for many printed electronics applications, such as flexible display systems, sensors, photovoltaic cells, and radio frequency identification. PMID:26370132

  4. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity. PMID:23692751

  5. Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

  6. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of the Methanolic Extract of the Stem Bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mokale Kognou, Aristide Laurel; Ngono Ngane, Rosalie Annie; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Koanga Mogtomo, Martin Luther; Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Biyiti, Lucie; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri

    2011-01-01

    Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae) is used in Cameroon and West Africa folk medicine for the treatment of various microbial infections (measles, chickenpox, and sexually transmitted diseases). The antibacterial properties of the methanolic extract and fractions from stem bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron were tested against three Gram-positive bacteria and eight Gram-negative bacteria using Agar-well diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract and fractions were investigated by DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The methanolic extract and some fractions exhibited antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (ID = 0.0025.00?mm; MIC = 78112500??g/mL and 0.241000??g/mL). The activity of the crude extract is, however, very weak compared to the reference antibiotics (MIC = 0.125128??g/mL). Two fractions (FE and FF) showed significant activity (MIC = 0.97??g/mL) while S. aureus ATCC 25922 was almost resistant to all the tested fractions. In addition, the crude extract and some fractions showed good antioxidant potential with inhibition values ranging from 17.53 to 98.79%. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as some of the fractions in the treatment of infectious diseases and oxidative stress. PMID:22312549

  7. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Resveratrol in Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lançon, Allan; Frazzi, Raffaele; Latruffe, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5 trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is one of the best known phytophenols with pleiotropic properties. It is a phytoalexin produced by vine and it leads to the stimulation of natural plant defenses but also exhibits many beneficial effects in animals and humans by acting on a wide range of organs and tissues. These include the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, anti-cancer potential, neuroprotective effects, homeostasia maintenance, aging delay and a decrease in inflammation. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main causes of deterioration of vision in adults in developed countries This review deals with resveratrol and ophthalmology by focusing on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic effects of this molecule. The literature reports that resveratrol is able to act on various cell types of the eye by increasing the level of natural antioxidant enzymatic and molecular defenses. Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effects are due to its capacity to limit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukins and prostaglandins, and also to decrease the chemo-attraction and recruitment of immune cells to the inflammatory site. In addition to this, resveratrol was shown to possess anti-VEGF effects and to inhibit the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Resveratrol has the potential to be used in a range of human ocular diseases and conditions, based on animal models and in vitro experiments. PMID:26950104

  8. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  9. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Chemoprotective Properties of Acacia catechu Heartwood Extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu heartwood are rich source of catechin and epicatechin (gallic acid derivatives), with smaller amounts of flavonoids. Extracts have also been prepared with ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol, and the properties of these extracts have been studied and are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This antioxidant activity is believed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory, tissue protectant, antineoplastic, and analgesic activities that have been demonstrated and clearly established in animal and cell culture systems. Furthermore, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities have been demonstrated in animal studies. No adverse effects have been observed in animal or human studies or in cell culture systems. In spite of the fact that Acacia products have been used for many years and the general safety of catechins and epicatechins is well documented, few human studies have ever been conducted on the efficacy or safety of A.?catechu heartwood extracts. Several studies have shown that a two-ingredient combination product containing A.?catechu extract exhibited no adverse effects when administered daily for up to 12?weeks while exhibiting significant anti-inflammatory activity in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a need for additional human clinical studies with regard to efficacy and safety. PMID:25802170

  10. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant properties in jam. Conclusions The retention of bioactive compounds and jam color stability were strongly dependent on the pectin type and dosage. By a proper selection of pectin type and dose could be limited the losses recorded in response to processing and storage. PMID:23856382

  11. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  12. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  13. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and 2.5–10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

  14. Anti-aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Richard A

    2008-03-01

    Resveratrol, an antioxidant polyphenol from red wine, has been the subject of intense interest in recent years due to a range of unique anti-aging properties. These include cardiovascular benefits via increased nitric oxide production, down-regulation of vasoactive peptides, lowered levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and cyclooxygenase inhibition; possible benefits on Alzheimer's disease by breakdown of beta-amyloid and direct effects on neural tissues; phytohormonal actions; anticancer properties via modulation of signal transduction, which translates into anti-initiation, antipromotion, and antiprogression effects; antimicrobial effects; and sirtuin activation, which is believed to be involved in the caloric restriction-longevity effect. Here we report a resveratrol-based skin care formulation, with 17 times greater antioxidant activity than idebenone. The role of resveratrol in prevention of photoaging is reviewed and compared with other antioxidants used in skin care products. PMID:18254804

  15. Effect of incorporating hydrothermal, kilned and defatted oats on antioxidant and chapatti making properties of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Paras; Gill, Balmeet Singh; Kaur, Sumandeep

    2013-06-01

    Oats were subjected to treatments like defatting, hydrothermal cooking and kilning, milled into flour and then the control and treated flours were incorporated into wheat flour at 25% and 50% levels and chapatti making behaviour and antioxidant properties were studied. The treatments significantly affected the antioxidant properties of oats. Incorporating oat flours to wheat increased total phenolic content but lowered the antioxidant activity however both were decreased significantly upon baking. The reducing power of the oat blended flour was higher than the wheat flours and ranged from 8.0 to 15.5 ?mol AAE/g and was further increased upon baking. The metal chelating activity of flour blends varied from 62.0% to 73.8% and further increased upon baking. After baking the total flavonoid content was lowered and ranged from 308 to 389 ?g CE/g. The non-enzymatic browning index significantly increased up to 27.6% upon baking. PMID:23411260

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice dreg protein: effects of enzyme type on the functional properties and antioxidant activities of recovered proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Xiong, Hua; Selomulya, Cordelia; Chen, Xiao Dong; Zhong, Honglan; Wang, Shenqi; Sun, Wenjing; Zhou, Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The effects of various proteases on the formation and characteristics of rice dreg protein hydrolysates (RDPHs) were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of often under-utilised rice dreg protein (RDP) with different enzymes studied here was found to significantly improve protein content and solubility. RDPHs prepared by alkaline protease showed better protein recovery, producing higher protein content with much smaller peptides, while hydrolysates generated by Protamex showed the highest antioxidant activities with more than 80% solubility over a wide pH range. The results indicated that the type of protease greatly influenced the molecular weight and amino acid residue composition of RDPH. The enzyme type also determined the functional properties and antioxidant activity of the recovered proteins. It was found that an optimum allocation of alkaline protease in addition to the Neutrase enzyme could be an appropriate strategy to produce RDPH with desirable functionalities, antioxidant properties, and low salt content. PMID:25005954

  17. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect. PMID:26449220

  18. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane for cardiac tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Yeganeh, Hamid; Ai, Jafar; Gharibi, Reza; Azami, Mahmoud; Faghihi, Faezeh

    2014-11-01

    There has been a growing trend towards applying conducting polymers for electrically excitable cells to increase electrical signal propagation within the cell-loaded substrates. A novel biodegradable electroactive polyurethane containing aniline pentamer (AP-PU) was synthesized and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. To tune the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility, the AP-PU was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL). The presence of electroactive moieties and the electroactivity behavior of the prepared films were confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A conventional four probe analysis demonstrated the electrical conductivity of the films in the semiconductor range (~10(-5)S/cm). MTT assays using L929 mouse fibroblast and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) showed that the prepared blend (PB) displayed more cytocompatibility compared with AP-PU due to the introduction of a biocompatible PCL moiety. The in vitro cell culture also confirmed that PB was as supportive as tissue culture plate. The antioxidant activity of the AP-PU was proved using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-vis spectroscopy. In vitro degradation tests conducted in phosphate-buffered saline, pH7.4 and pH5.5, proved that the films were also biodegradable. The results of this study have highlighted the potential application of this bioelectroactive polyurethane as a platform substrate to study the effect of electrical signals on cell activities and to direct desirable cell function for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25280676

  19. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sourwood and other Malaysian honeys: a comparison with manuka honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of four Malaysian monofloral types of honey (gelam, longan, rubber tree and sourwood honeys) compared to manuka honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content, were measured. A number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The mean pH, moisture content, EC and TDS of Malaysian honey were 3.90??0.12, 17.01??3.07%, 0.59??0.17 mS/cm and 294.87??81.96ppm, respectively. The mean color and HMF level was 102.07??41.77mm Pfund and 49.51??0.12mg/kg, respectively. Sourwood honey contained the highest contents of phenolics (580.03??0.38 mggalic acid/kg) and flavonoids (156.82??0.47 mgcatechin/kg) with high DPPH radical scavenging activity (59.26??3.77%) as well as ferric reducing power [648.25??0.90?M Fe (II)/100g]. Sourwood honey also exhibited the highest color intensity. Several strong positive correlations were observed amongst the different antioxidant parameters and the various antioxidant tests. Conclusion This is the first time that the antioxidant potential of both sourwood and rubber tree honeys have been reported. Our results indicated that Malaysian honey (specifically sourwood honey and longan honey) is a good source of antioxidants compared to Manuka honey. PMID:23938192

  20. Effect of citric acid deamidation on in vitro digestibility and antioxidant properties of wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Sun, Weizheng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-12-01

    The effects of citric acid deamidation on the physiochemical properties of wheat gluten were investigated. In vitro digestion was carried out to determine changes of molecular weight distribution, amino acids composition and antioxidant efficacy of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Results indicated that citric acid deamidation significantly increased gluten solubility and surface hydrophobicity, at a neutral pH. Deamidation induced molecular weight distribution change of gluten with little proteolysis. Results from FTIR indicated that the ?-helix and ?-turn of deamidated gluten increased accompanied by a decrease of the ?-sheet structure. After deamidation, in vitro pepsin digestibility of wheat gluten decreased, while in vitro pancreatin digestibility increased. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activity of the in vitro digests decreased with increase of deamidation time. The high Lys and total essential AAs amounts in the final digests suggested that the nutritional values of wheat gluten after deamidation might be enhanced. PMID:23871023

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of a novel resveratrol-salicylate hybrid analog.

    PubMed

    Aldawsari, Fahad S; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Aljuhani, Naif; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Medina-Franco, Jos L; Siraki, Arno G; Velzquez-Martnez, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound with a plethora of activities as well as limitations. We recently reported a series of resveratrol-salicylate analogs with potential chemopreventive activity. Herein, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of these resveratrol derivatives. Using an in vitro COX inhibition assay, and two in vivo protocols (carrageenan-induced peritonitis and paw edema), we identified a novel compound (C10) as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. The enhanced potency of C10 was associated with the ability of C10 to decrease the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme at 10mg/kg, whereas resveratrol and it's natural analog (TMS) did not exert the same effect. Additionally, C10 significantly reduced the concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Because of the proven association between cancer, inflammation, and oxidative stress, we believe that C10 is a promising chemopreventive molecule. PMID:26850006

  2. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition. PMID:26299814

  3. Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed ( Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions.

    PubMed

    Pownall, Trisha L; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2010-04-28

    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions obtained from HPLC separation of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) were studied. Thermolysin hydrolysis of pea protein isolate and ultrafiltration (3 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane) yielded a PPH that was separated into five fractions (F1-F5) on a C(18) reverse phase HPLC column. The fractions that eluted later from the column (F3-F5) contained higher contents hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids when compared to fractions that eluted early or the original PPH. Fractions F3-F5 also exhibited the strongest radical scavenging and metal chelating activities; however, hydrophobic character did not seem to contribute to reducing power of the peptides. In comparison to glutathione, the peptide fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation and chelate metals. In contrast, glutathione had significantly higher (p < 0.05) free radical scavenging properties than the peptide fractions. PMID:20359226

  4. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Adriana; Vuong, Quan V.

    2015-01-01

    The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C), time (min), and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL), and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC), flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity. PMID:26783954

  5. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Adriana; Vuong, Quan V

    2015-01-01

    The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C), time (min), and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL), and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC), flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity. PMID:26783954

  6. Biochemical and antioxidant properties of peptidic fraction of carotenoproteins generated from shrimp by-products by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sila, Assad; Sayari, Nadhem; Balti, Rafik; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Moncef, Nasri; Bougatef, Ali

    2014-04-01

    The composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidative activity of the peptidic fraction of carotenoproteins from shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) by-products generated by enzymatic treatment with Alcalase was evaluated. The peptidic fraction of carotenoproteins (PFCP) contained 80.8 0.21% protein, 2.74 0.3% lipid, 14.4 0.14% ash, 1.13 0.08% chitin and 1.08 0.02 ?g total carotenoid/g of sample. The amino acid profile of PFCP showed a high percentage of essential amino acids, such as arginine, lysine, histidine and leucine. Therefore, PFCP had a high nutritional value and could be used as a supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins. PFCP showed an excellent solubility and possessed interfacial properties, which were governed by their concentrations. The antioxidant activities of PFCP at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, reducing power, chelating effects assay and ?-carotene bleaching. The antioxidant activity of PFCP, based on their protection of supercoiled DNA strand from scission by peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals into the nicked circular form was also investigated. Results from this study suggest that the peptidic fraction of carotenoproteins is a good source of natural antioxidants and peptides with interesting functionalities. PMID:24262581

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil constituents encapsulated in zein nanoparticles prepared by liquid-liquid dispersion method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thymol and carvacrol, two isomeric terpenoids found in the essential oil of thyme, were encapsulated in nanoparticles of the corn protein zein using a liquid-liquid dispersion method. The morphology, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activity were determined for nanaparticles formed under ac...

  8. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    H??, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Grecka, Danuta; Dro?d?y?ska, Agnieszka; Gujska, El?bieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber. PMID:24938316

  9. Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Yu, Lu; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Liu, Linwei; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-11-15

    Ten soft wheat varieties grown in Maryland were compared for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities. Free radical scavenging capacities were examined against DPPH(·), oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS(·+) radicals. Significant radical scavenging capacities were detected in all wheat flour extracts. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.66 to 2.01 mg of GAE/g wheat flour. The wheat flours contained 172.91-297.55 μg/g insoluble bound ferulic acid, contributing 89.74-94.29% of total ferulic acid on a per weight basis. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were 0.27-0.46 and 0.08-0.13 μg/g, respectively. In addition, the wheat flours had 0.30-0.59 and 0.07-0.29 μg/g α- and δ-tocopherols, respectively. Four wheat flour extracts were further examined for their antiproliferative activities. The Jamestown wheat flour showed significant antiproliferative activity against both HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells at the initial treatment concentration of 50 mg flour equivalents/ml, while USG3555 flour showed inhibitive effect only in HT-29 cancer cells, suggesting the different and possible selective antiproliferative property of the wheat flours. These results may be used to direct the breeding effects to produce soft winter wheat varieties with improved health properties. PMID:22868094

  10. Chemical composition of 13 commercial soybean samples and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Gao, Boyan; Shi, Haiming; Slavin, Margaret; Huang, Haiqiu; Whent, Monica; Sheng, Yi; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-10-10

    A total of 13 commercial soybean samples were investigated and compared for their tocopherol and carotenoid compositions, fatty acid profile, total phenolic content (TPC), isoflavone and sterol compositions, and free radical scavenging properties. Free radical scavenging activities were estimated against peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(•) (+) radicals. The commercial soybean samples differed in their chemical compositions and health properties. Among the tested samples, CN-DB soybean showed the highest TPC and antioxidant activities and the greatest amount of total isoflavones and lutein and tocopherol contents. In addition, four of the soybean samples were further tested for their potential anti-inflammatory activity. The four samples behaved differently in suppressing the IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA expressions, suggesting their different potential of anti-inflammatory activities. The results from this study suggested a need of improved quality control and measurement system to better reflect the health properties of commercial soybeans for general consumers and food manufacturers to improve the use of this important food ingredient. PMID:22978480

  11. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and

  12. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  13. Evaluation of the nutraceutical, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of ripe pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) hulls.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Every year tons of pistachio hulls are separated and eliminated, as waste products, from pistachio seeds. In this study the hulls of ripe pistachios were extracted with two organic solvents (ethanol and methanol) and characterized for phenolic composition, antioxidant power and cytoprotective activity. RP-HPLC-DAD-FLU separation enabled us to identify 20 derivatives, including and by far the most abundant gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, naringin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and catechin. Methanol extraction gave the highest yields for all classes of compounds and presented a higher scavenging activity in all the antioxidant assays performed. The same was found for cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. These findings highlight the strong antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of the extract components, and illustrate how a waste product can be used as a source of nutraceuticals to employ in manufacturing industry. PMID:26593519

  14. Honeybee-collected pollen from five Portuguese Natural Parks: palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Morais, Margarida; Moreira, Leandro; Fes, Xess; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of pollen from five Portuguese Natural-Parks [Parque Nacional Peneda Gers (PNPG); Parque Natural do Montesinho (PNM); Parque Natural do Alvo (PNA); Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela (PNSE) and Parque Natural do Douro Internacional (PNDI)]. Eight families were found in the mixture of bee pollen: Rosaceae, Cistaceae, Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, Fagaceae, Ericaeae, Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. The phenolic compounds content, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied between 10.5 and 16.8 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract (mg GAE/g) found in bee pollen from PNM and PNDI, respectively. The free radical scavenging measured showed the highest effective extract - PNM with EC(50) 2.16, followed by PND with 2.24 mg/mL. In the ?-carotene bleaching assay the same behaviour as in the DPPH method was verified. We also verified that the presence of pollen differentially affected the growth of bacteria Gram-positive, Gram-negative and yeasts under study, depending this on the microorganism and the pollen used. This is an important study since, as far we know, it is the first time that Portuguese bee pollen from Natural Parks was studied, and their characterization can increase their economic value. PMID:21291944

  15. Quantitative electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis of antioxidative properties using the acetaldehyde/xanthine oxidase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchard, J.-P.; Nepveu, F.

    1998-05-01

    We present a method for the quantitative ESR analysis of the antioxidant properties of drugs using the acetaldhehyde/xanthine oxidase (AC/XOD) superoxide generating system and 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as spin trap. In stoichiometric conditions (AC/XOD, 60 mM/0.018 U), the resulting paramagnetic DMPO adduct disappeared with superoxide dismutase and remained when catalase or DMSO were used. That adduct was dependent only on superoxide and resulted from the trapping of a carboxyl radical by DMPO (aN = 15.2 G, aH = 18.9 G). Similar results were obtained using 4-pyridyl-l-oxide-N-t-butyl nitrone (POBN) as spin trap. The ESR signal of the DMPO-CO2- adduct was very stable and allowed quantitative analysis of the antioxidative activity of redox molecules from an IC{50} value representing the concentration causing 50% inhibition of its intensity. Among the tested compounds, manganese(II), complexes were the most effective, 25 times as active as ascorbic acid or (+)catechin and 500-fold more antioxidative than Trolox^R. Nous prsentons une mthode d'analyse quantitative de l'activit antioxydante de composs d'intrt pharmaceutique base sur le systme actaldhyde/xanthine oxydase (AC/XOD), l'utilisation de la RPE et du pigeage de spin avec le 5,5-dimthyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxyde (DMPO). Dans les conditions stoechiomtriques {AC/XOD, 60 mM/0,018 U/ml}, l'adduit radicalaire rsultant de ce systme disparat en prsence de superoxyde dismutase et persiste en prsence de catalase ou de DMSO. Cet adduit ne dpend que de la prsence de l'anion superoxyde et provient du pigeage d'un radical carboxyle CO2- sur le DMPO (aN = 15.2 G, aH = 18.9 G). Des rsultats similaires ont t obtenus avec le pigeur de spin 4-pyridyl-l-oxyde-N-t-butyl nitrone (POBN). Le signal RPE de l'adduit DMPO-CO2- est trs stable et permet la quantification de l'activit antioxydante de pharmacophores redox par la dtermination de la CI{50}, concentration qui diminue de 50 % son intensit. Parmi les composs tests, les complexes du manganse sont les plus antioxydants, 25 fois plus actifs que la vitamine C ou la catchine(+), 500 fois plus antioxydants que le Trolox^R.

  16. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  17. Characterization of Intrinsic Properties of Promoters.

    PubMed

    Rudge, Timothy J; Brown, James R; Federici, Fernan; Dalchau, Neil; Phillips, Andrew; Ajioka, James W; Haseloff, Jim

    2016-01-15

    Accurate characterization of promoter behavior is essential for the rational design of functional synthetic transcription networks such as logic gates and oscillators. However, transcription rates observed from promoters can vary significantly depending on the growth rate of host cells and the experimental and genetic contexts of the measurement. Furthermore, in vivo measurement methods must accommodate variation in translation, protein folding, and maturation rates of reporter proteins, as well as metabolic load. The external factors affecting transcription activity may be considered to be extrinsic, and the goal of characterization should be to obtain quantitative measures of the intrinsic characteristics of promoters. We have developed a promoter characterization method that is based on a mathematical model for cell growth and reporter gene expression and exploits multiple in vivo measurements to compensate for variation due to extrinsic factors. First, we used optical density and fluorescent reporter gene measurements to account for the effect of differing cell growth rates. Second, we compared the output of reporter genes to that of a control promoter using concurrent dual-channel fluorescence measurements. This allowed us to derive a quantitative promoter characteristic (?) that provides a robust measure of the intrinsic properties of a promoter, relative to the control. We imposed different extrinsic factors on growing cells, altering carbon source and adding bacteriostatic agents, and demonstrated that the use of ? values reduced the fraction of variance due to extrinsic factors from 78% to less than 4%. This is a simple and reliable method to quantitatively describe promoter properties. PMID:26436725

  18. Antioxidation Properties and Surface Interactions of Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Capped Zerovalent Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized in Supercritical Water.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Takuya; Takesue, Masafumi; Hayashi, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Masaru; Smith, Richard L

    2016-01-27

    Zerovalent copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) (diameter, 26.5 ± 9 nm) capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized in supercritical water at 400 °C and 30 MPa with a continuous flow reactor. The PVP-capped CuNPs were dispersed in distilled water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, butanol, and their mixed solvents to study their long-term stability. Temporal variation of UV-vis spectra and surface plasmon resonance were measured and showed that ethanol, the propanols, and butanol solvents provided varying degrees of oxidative protection for Cu(0). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that PVP adsorbed onto the surface of the CuNPs with a pyrrolidone ring of PVP even if the CuNPs were oxidized. Intrinsic viscosities of PVP were higher for solvents that provided antioxidation protection than those that give oxidized CuNPs. In solvents that provided Cu(0) with good oxidative protection (ethanol, the propanols, and butanol), PVP polymer chains formed large radii of gyration and coil-like conformations in the solvents so that they were arranged uniformly and orderly on the surface of the CuNPs and could provide protection of the Cu(0) surface against dissolved oxygen. In solvents that provided poor oxidative protection for Cu(0) (water, alcohol-water mixed solvents with 30% water), PVP polymer chains had globular-like conformations due to their relatively high hydrogen-bonding interactions and sparse adsorption onto the CuNP surface. Antioxidative properties of PVP-capped CuNPs in a solvent can be ascribed to the conformation of PVP polymer chains on the Cu(0) particle surface that originates from the interaction between polymer chains and its interaction with the solvent. PMID:26716468

  19. Effect of dietary turmeric on antioxidant properties of thigh meat in broiler chickens after slaughter.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, Mohsen

    2012-08-01

    Two hundred and fifty-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used to investigate the dietary supplementation effects of different levels of 0.0 turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) (free TRP, F.TRP), 0.25 (low TRP, L.TRP), 0.5 (medium TRP, M.TRP) and 0.75% TRP (high TRP, H.TRP) or 50 mg/kg vitamin E (VE) on antioxidant properties of thigh meat in broiler chickens after slaughter. No effect of treatment was observed for the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in thigh meat (P > 0.05) but all were reduced over time (P < 0.0001). A significant treatment*time interaction was observed for thigh meat GPX activity (P = 0.02). Significant effects of treatment and time were observed for malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the treatments for thigh meat MDA content at slaughter (P > 0.05). Three days after refrigerator storage, MDA content in thigh meat of M.TRP birds was lower than that of F.TRP birds (P < 0.05). Both the M.TRP and VE birds showed a lower MDA content in thigh meat as compared with F.TRP birds 7 days after storage (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of 5 mg/kg TRP can increases the thigh meat shelf-life storage and quality in broiler chickens after slaughter. PMID:22862930

  20. Coagulants modulate the antioxidant properties & hypocholesterolemic effect of tofu (curdled soymilk).

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Ekperigin, M M; Akindahunsi, A A

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase in Soymilk and tofu (coagulated soymilk) consumption especially in Western Country is due to the recognition of the health benefits of soy foods; consumption of soybean would prevent heart diseases. In Nigeria Calcium salt, alum and steep water from pap production are usually used as coagulant in tofu production. The effect of those coagulants on the antioxidant properties of tofu and serum cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level of albino rats fed tofu for 14 days is been assessed. The result of the study revealed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the tofu yield (17.6-18.3%), however steep water coagulated tofu had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) total phenol (12.0 g/kg) content, reducing power (0.6 OD700) and DPPH free radical scavenging ability (69.1%) than tofu produced using other coagulants. Furthermore, feeding albino rats with tofu and water ad libitum for 14 days caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the serum cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins when compared with the control, while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the average daily feed intake of the rats. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum high-density lipoproteins when compared with the control. However, rats fed steep water coagulated tofu had the lowest serum level of cholesterol and LDL level followed by those fed CaCl2 and alum coagulated tofu respectively, while those fed with calcium chloride coagulated tofu had the highest serum HDL level, and closely followed by those fed steep water coagulated tofu. It was therefore concluded that of all the coagulant, steep water appeared to be the most promising coagulant with regard to the production of tofu with higher antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:18087868

  1. Multivariate calibration by near infrared spectroscopy for the determination of the vitamin E and the antioxidant properties of quinoa.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Guillermo Wells; Gonzlez Martn, Ma Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Fischer, Susana; Mguez, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal that is grown mainly in the Andes. It is a functional food supplement and ingredient in the preparation of highly nutritious food. In this paper we evaluate the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for the determination of vitamin E and antioxidant capacity in the quinoa as total phenol content (TPC), radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). For recording NIR a fiber optic remote reflectance probe applied directly on the quinoa samples without treatment was used. The regression method used was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The multiple correlation coefficients (RSQ) and the standard prediction error corrected (SEP(C)) were for the vitamin E (0.841 and 1.70 mg 100 g(-1)) and for the antioxidants TPC (0.947 and 0.08 mg GAE g(-1)), DPPH radical (0.952 and 0.23 mg GAE g(-1)) and CUPRAC ( 0.623 and 0.21 mg GAE g(-1)), respectively. The prediction capacity of the model developed measured by the ratio performance deviation (RPD) for vitamin E (2.51), antioxidants TPC (4.33), DPPH radical (4.55) and CUPRAC (1.55) indicated that NIRS with a fiber optic probe provides an alternative for the determination of vitamin E and antioxidant properties of the quinoa, with a lower cost, higher speed and results comparable with the chemical methods. PMID:24148374

  2. Effect of genotype, environment, and their interaction on phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of soft winter wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Whent, Monica; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-05-01

    The effect of genotype (G), growing environment (E), and their interaction (G×E) on the antioxidant properties and chemical compositions were investigated using the flour samples of 10 wheat varieties grown in four different locations in Maryland. Lutein content of wheat flour ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 μg/g, and α-tocopherol ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 μg/g. Total carotenoids were primarily affected by E (45.7%), while G×E interaction had a larger effect on the level of total tocopherols (71.6%). E had the largest effect on antioxidant activity against oxygen, hydroxyl, and ABTS(·+) radicals. G had the least influence on the measured phytochemicals and antioxidant activity assays. Total carotenoids had a significant correlation with average low air temperature (r=0.359, p<0.01) as well as precipitation level (r=0.214, p<0.01). ABTS(·+) radical scavenging capacity had a positive correlation with average air temperature (r=0.705, p<0.01), while hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity had a negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.269. p<0.01). These results show that environment, genotype, and their interaction could influence the levels of lipophilic antioxidants and antioxidant activities of wheat flour. PMID:23265511

  3. Phloroglucinol: antioxidant properties and effects on cellular oxidative markers in human HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Quguineur, Benot; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Martn, Maria Angeles; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Phloroglucinol is an ubiquitous secondary metabolite encountered in a free state or polymerised as phlorotannins in brown macroalgae, and present in higher plants. FRAP and TEAC assays measured the antioxidant properties of phloroglucinol in non-biological conditions. Additionally, the biological effects of phloroglucinol (4-400 ?M) were scrutinised using cellular oxidative stress markers, such as the generation of ROS, antioxidant defences (concentration of GSH and activities of GPx, GR and GST), and levels of MDA as a marker for lipid peroxidation. The direct effect was assessed immediately after an incubation period, whereas for the protective effect, the incubation period was followed by 3-h treatment with the pro-oxidant t-BOOH. The results indicated that despite having a higher radical scavenging capacity than Trolox after 30 min, phloroglucinol was not a suitable antioxidant standard for phlorotannins. Regarding the biological effects, phloroglucinol had no impact on cell viability, reduced levels of ROS and increased antioxidant defences in the direct treatment for most concentrations. The results of the protective effect were mitigated as phloroglucinol failed to protect from ROS generation but evoked a significant recovery of the stress-altered cellular antioxidant defences to restful conditions. Additionally, MDA levels were greatly reduced, preventing a radical chain oxidation. PMID:22617350

  4. Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of total saponins extracted from traditional Chinese medicine used to treat diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Xi, Miaomiao; Hai, Chunxu; Tang, Haifeng; Chen, Mingsheng; Fang, Kunquan; Liang, Xin

    2008-02-01

    Eleven antidiabetic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) extracts rich in saponins were examined for their antioxidant and antiglycation activities. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were evaluated by studying the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by ascorbate/Fe2+, cumine hydroperoxide (CHP) or CCl4/reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The antioxidant capacities were also evaluated by studying the scavenging of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The antiglycation activities of these extracts were evaluated by hemoglobin-delta-gluconolactone (delta-Glu) assay, bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose assay and N-acetyl-glycyl-lysine methyl ester (GK peptide)-ribose assay. Aralia taibaiensis outperformed other extracts in most of the assays except inhibition of early glycation products formation, where Acanthopanax senticosus showed higher activity. Aralia taibaiensis was particularly potent in inhibiting the late glycation and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on proteins. The antioxidant and antiglycation activities of most extracts were correlated with the saponin content. The results demonstrate that the antidiabetic activities of most extracts could be explained, at least in part, by their combined antioxidant and antiglycation properties. PMID:17886226

  5. Valorization of Pomace Powder Obtained from Native Mexican Apple (Malus domestica var. rayada): Chemical, Techno-functional and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Tapia, Anglica; Prez-Chabela, Mara de Lourdes; Prez-lvarez, Jos ngel; Fernndez-Lpez, Juana; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the work were to determine the chemical, techno-functional and antioxidant properties of native Mexican apple pomace powder (MAPP) obtained from cider industry. The proximate composition and the total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre content were determined, as well as the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), swelling (SWC) capacities and the polyphenolic profile. For antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (DPPH, FIC and FRAP). The total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber content of MAPP was 70.91, 48.43 and 22.48 g/100 g, respectively. MAPP had a WHC, OHC and SWC of 4.2 g water/g sample, 1.69 g oil/g sample and 3.2 mL/g sample, respectively. Polyphenolic profile showed 10 flavonoid compounds identified mainly quercetin glycosides. MAPP showed good antioxidant activity with high correlation between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The results obtained showed that MAPP could be considered a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant activity. PMID:26130115

  6. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate.

    PubMed

    Martnez, Ruth; Torres, Paulina; Meneses, Miguel A; Figueroa, Jorge G; Prez-lvarez, Jos A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity. PMID:22953888

  7. NMR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    C.T. Philip Chang; Changho Choi; Jeromy T. Hollenshead; Rudi Michalak; Jack Phan; Ramon Saavedra; John C. Slattery; Jinsoo Uh; Randi Valestrand; A. Ted Watson; Song Xue

    2005-01-01

    A critical and long-standing need within the petroleum industry is the specification of suitable petrophysical properties for mathematical simulation of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterization). The development of accurate reservoir characterizations is extremely challenging. Property variations may be described on many scales, and the information available from measurements reflect different scales. In fact, experiments on laboratory core samples, well-log data, well-test data, and reservoir-production data all represent information potentially valuable to reservoir characterization, yet they all reflect information about spatial variations of properties at different scales. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) provide enormous potential for developing new descriptions and understandings of heterogeneous media. NMR has the rare capability to probe permeable media non-invasively, with spatial resolution, and it provides unique information about molecular motions and interactions that are sensitive to morphology. NMR well-logging provides the best opportunity ever to resolve permeability distributions within petroleum reservoirs. We develop MRI methods to determine, for the first time, spatially resolved distributions of porosity and permeability within permeable media samples that approach the intrinsic scale: the finest resolution of these macroscopic properties possible. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the permeability is actually resolved at a scale smaller than the sample. In order to do this, we have developed a robust method to determine of relaxation distributions from NMR experiments and a novel implementation and analysis of MRI experiments to determine the amount of fluid corresponding to imaging regions, which are in turn used to determine porosity and saturation distributions. We have developed a novel MRI experiment to determine velocity distributions within flowing experiments, and developed methodology using that data to determine spatially resolved permeability distributions. We investigate the use of intrinsic properties for developing improved correlations for predicting permeability from NMR well-logging data and for obtaining more accurate estimates of multiphase flow properties--the relative permeability and capillary pressure--from displacement experiments. We demonstrate the use of MRI measurements of saturation and relaxation for prediction wetting-phase relative permeability for unstable experiments. Finally, we developed an improved method for determining surface relaxivity with NMR experiments, which can provide better descriptions of permeable media microstructures and improved correlations for permeability predictions.

  8. Putative mechanism for apoptosis-inducing properties of crude saponin isolated from sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota) as an antioxidant compound

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Marine organisms are known as a potential source of natural products, which contain bioactive substances with therapeutic properties. Sea cucumbers are prominent among marine organisms because of their dietary and therapeutic applications. In addition, they have capacity of synthesizing saponins molecules and other metabolites with therapeutic properties such as antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and pro-apoptotic effects of sea cucumber saponins (SCS) isolated from Holothuria leucospilota species. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of antioxidant activity of SCS was carried out by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), power reducing and total antioxidant assays. The anti-proliferative effect was studied by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Mechanisms leading to apoptosis were also evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and real time PCR. Results: The results showed that the DPPH and ABTS activities increased in a dose dependent manner. The reducing capacity enhanced with increasing concentration of the saponin extract (0 to 2 mg/ml). The SCS exhibited moderate total antioxidant activity. Evaluation of anti-proliferative effect revealed that SCS with IC50 of about 6 μg/ml, can display a good cytotoxic activity in a dose dependent manner. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Sea cucumber saponin was also found to exert a pro-apoptotic effect by increasing the expression of Bax and decreasing the expression of Bcl2. Conclusion: These results indicate that the SCS may act as a natural antioxidant and antitumor agent. PMID:25810893

  9. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds. PMID:22898269

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Proanthocyanidins Attenuate Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)–Induced Steatosis and Liver Injury in Rats via CYP2E1 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuan; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Hui-Fang; Dai, Mu-Gen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Liver steatosis is characterized by lipid dysregulation and fat accumulation in the liver and can lead to oxidative stress in liver. Since proanthocyanidins are present in plant-based foods and have powerful antioxidant properties, we investigated whether proanthocyanidins can prevent oxidative stress and subsequent liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment can cause steatosis in rats that models both alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. We pre-treated rats by oral administration of proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds 7 days prior to intragastrically administering CCl4. Proanthocyanidin treatment continued for an additional 2 weeks, after which time liver and serum were harvested, and mediators of liver injury, oxidative stress, and histological features were evaluated. CCl4-treated rats exhibited significant increases in the following parameters as compared to non-treated rats: fat droplets in the liver, liver injury (ALT, AST), and DNA damage (8-OHdG). Additionally, CCl4 treatment decreased antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH, GPX, and CAT in the liver due to their rapid depletion after battling against oxidative stress. Compared to CCl4-treated rats, treatment with proanthocyanidins effectively suppressed lipid accumulation, liver injury, DNA damage, as well as restored antioxidant enzyme levels. Further investigation revealed that proanthocyanidins treatment also inhibited expression of CYP2E1 in liver, which prevented the initial step of generating free radicals from CCl4. The data presented here show that treatment with orally administered proanthocyanidins prevented liver injury in the CCl4-induced steatosis model, likely through exerting antioxidant actions to suppress oxidative stress and inhibiting the free radical–generating CYP2E1 enzyme. PMID:24712752

  11. Thiol antioxidant-functionalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: Synthesis, Characterization, Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Mortensen, Luke J.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing industry with wide ranging applications in consumer product and technology development. In the biomedical field, nanoparticles are finding increasing use as imaging agents for biomolecular labeling and tumor targeting. The nanoparticle physiochemical properties must be tailored for the specific application but chemical and physical stability in the biological milieu (no oxidation, aggregation, agglomeration or toxicity) are often required. Nanoparticles used for biomolecular fluorescent imaging should also have high quantum yield (QY). The aim of this paper is to examine the QY, stability, and cell toxicity of a series of positive, negative and neutral surface charge quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. Simple protocols are described to prepare water soluble QDs by modifying the surface with thiol containing antioxidant ligands and polymers keeping the QD core/shell composition constant. The ligands used to produce negatively charged QDs include glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), tiopronin (TP), bucilliamine (BUC), and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA). Ligands used to produce positively charged QDs include cysteamine (CYS) and polyethylenimine (PEI). Dithiothreitol (DTT) was used to produce neutral charged QDs. Commercially available nonaqueous octadecylamine (ODA) capped QDs served as the starting material. Our results suggest that QD uptake and cytotoxicity are both dependent on surface ligand coating composition. The negative charged GSH coated QDs show superior performance exhibiting low cytotoxicity, high stability, high QY and therefore are best suited for bioimaging applications. PEI coated QD also show superior performance exhibiting high QY and stability. However, they are considerably more cytotoxic due to their high positive charge which is an advantageous property that can be exploited for gene transfection and/or tumor targeting applications. The synthetic procedures described are straightforward and can be easily adapted in most laboratory settings. PMID:23620993

  12. Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Ko?ar, Mberra; Kahlos, Kirsti; Holm, Yvonne; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2003-07-30

    Water-soluble extracts from the Mentha species M. aquatica L. and M. haplocalyx Briq., the hybrids M. x dalmatica L. and M. x verticillata L., the varieties M. arvensis var. japanensis [M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Holmes ex Christ] and M. spicata L. var. crispa Benth, and M. x piperita L. "Frantsila", M. "Morocco", and M. "Native Wilmet" cultivars were screened for potential antioxidative properties. These properties included iron(III) reduction, iron(II) chelation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and the ability to inhibit iron(III)-ascorbate-catalyzed hydroxyl radical-mediated brain phospholipid peroxidation. Total phenol content and qualitative and quantitative compositional analyses of each extract were also made. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in each assay, with the M. x piperita "Frantsila" extract being better than the other extracts, except for ferrous iron chelation. With the exception of iron chelation, it appeared that the level of activity identified was strongly associated with the phenolic content. PMID:14705878

  13. Physical, structural, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-chitosan composite edible films.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Hajji, Sawssan; Ayed, Hanen Ben; Lassoued, Imen; Mbarek, Acha; Kammoun, Maher; Souissi, Nabil; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-06-01

    Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin (G), chitosan (C) from shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) and composite films (G75/C25, G50/C50, G25/C75) plasticized with glycerol were investigated. The results indicated that chitosan film had higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break when compared with the other films. Composite films show no significant difference in tensile strength (TS), thickness and transparency. The structural properties evaluated by FTIR and DSC showed total miscibility between both polymers. DSC scans showed that the increase of chitosan content in the composite films increases the transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy (?Hg) of films. The morphology study of gelatin, chitosan and composite films showed a compact and homogenous structure. In addition, gelatin and G75/C25 films demonstrated a high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical-scavenging and reducing power activities, while films contained chitosan exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24709012

  14. Exploring the antioxidant property of bioflavonoid quercetin in preventing DNA glycation: A calorimetric and spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Bidisa . E-mail: bidisa@fy.chalmers.se; Uematsu, Takashi; Jacobsson, Per; Swenson, Jan

    2006-01-06

    Reducing sugars for example glucose, fructose, etc., and their phosphate derivatives non-enzymatically glycate biological macromolecules (e.g., proteins, DNA and lipids) and is related to the production of free radicals. Here we present a novel study, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) along with UV/Vis absorption and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), on normal and glycated human placenta DNA and have explored the antioxidant property of the naturally occurring polyhydroxy flavone quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) in preventing the glycation. The decrease in the absorption intensity of DNA in presence of sugars clearly indicates the existence of sugar molecules between the two bases of a base pair in the duplex DNA molecule. Variations were perceptible in the PCS relaxation profiles of normal and glycated DNA. The melting temperature of placenta DNA was decreased when glycated suggesting a decrease in the structural stability of the double-stranded glycated DNA. Our DSC and PCS data showed, for the first time, that the dramatic changes in the structural properties of glycated DNA can be prevented to a significant extent by adding quercetin. This study provides valuable insights regarding the structure, function, and dynamics of normal and glycated DNA molecules, underlying the manifestation of free radical mediated diseases, and their prevention using therapeutically active naturally occurring flavonoid quercetin.

  15. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  16. Effect of extrusion cooking on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch, phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of green banana flour.

    PubMed

    Sarawong, Chonthira; Schoenlechner, Regine; Sekiguchi, Ken; Berghofer, Emmerich; Ng, Perry K W

    2014-01-15

    Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with constant barrel temperature. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of extrusion cooking variables (feed moisture, FM, 20% and 50%; screw speed, SS, 200 and 400rpm) and storing of the extruded flours at 4C for 24h on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch (RS), pasting properties and antioxidant capacities. Extrusion cooking at higher FM and lower SS increased the amylose content, which was expressed in highest RS content. Water adsorption index (WAI) and pasting properties were increased, while water solubility index (WSI), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (FRAP, ABTS(+), DPPH) in free and bound phenolics were decreased compared to the other extruded samples. Storing the extruded flours at 4C for 24h prior to oven drying was the main factor leading to a further increase in the content of amylose, RS, TPC and WSI values, as well as pasting properties - in particular peak viscosity. Compared to native banana flour, extrusion cooking caused significant changes in all studied properties of the extruded flours, except for soluble DF and antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+) and DPPH) of bound phenolics. PMID:24054209

  17. Gamma irradiation of air-dried olive leaves: Effective decontamination and impact on the antioxidative properties and on phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Aouidi, Fathia; Ayari, Samia; Ferhi, Hana; Roussos, Sevastianos; Hamdi, Moktar

    2011-08-01

    Olive leaves are commercialized for their antioxidative value due to their valuable phenolic compounds. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, on antioxidative properties and on phenolic compounds of air-dried olive leaves. Irradiation was applied up to 25kGy (5kGy intervals) to powdered and intact samples. Total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and lactic acid bacteria were counted after gamma irradiation. Decontamination was obtained at 20kGy. The radioresistance of microbial population was high with D10 values between 9.74 and 25.12kGy. Besides, gamma irradiation up to 25kGy was found to maintain the antioxidant capacity, molecular mass distribution of polyphenolics, total phenolics, ortho-diphenols, flavonoids, oleuropein, verbascoside and rutin contents. To conclude, the improvement of the microbial quality of air-dried olive leaves, without affecting phenolic composition and antioxidative properties, can be successively achieved by the application of gamma irradiation treatment. PMID:25214102

  18. Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Foh, Mohamed Beva Kelfala; Amadou, Issoufou; Foh, Betty Mabel; Kamara, Mohamed Tabita; Xia, Wenshui

    2010-01-01

    Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 3-(2-pyridyl) 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine), radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU) for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes <3,000 Da were more predominant in FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, while in hydrolysed by Flav and Neut they were >8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%). They have ‘U’ shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients. PMID:20480046

  19. Purification and characterization of high antioxidant peptides from duck egg white protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yao; Wu, Hui; Li, Xiaofeng; Lai, Furao; Xiao, Xinglong

    2014-10-01

    The hydrolysate from duck egg white protein (DEWP) prepared by "SEEP-Alcalase" at degree of hydrolysis (DH) value of 21% (namely HSA21) exhibited high antioxidant capacity in different oxidation systems. A consecutive chromatographic method was then developed for separation and purification of HSA21, including ion-exchange chromatography, macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) and gel filter chromatography. The final peptides "P21-3-75-B" were obtained with significantly enhanced antioxidant activity (p<0.05). It was further confirmed that the product mainly consisted of five oligopeptides (Mr: 202.1, 294.1, 382.1, 426.3, and 514.4Da). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of P21-3-75-B kept stable after in vitro digestive simulation. Antioxidant capacity of the purified peptides was closely related to the molecular mass, hydrophobic amino acid residues, acidic amino acid and some antioxidant amino acids. This research provided a valuable route for producing new natural-source peptides with strong antioxidant capacity and high nutritious value for our daily intake. PMID:25181341

  20. An archaeal antioxidant: characterization of a Dps-like protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Wiedenheft, Blake; Mosolf, Jesse; Willits, Deborah; Yeager, Mark; Dryden, Kelly A; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-07-26

    Evolution of an oxygenic atmosphere required primordial life to accommodate the toxicity associated with reactive oxygen species. We have characterized an archaeal antioxidant from the hyperthermophilic acidophile Sulfolobus solfataricus. The amino acid sequence of this approximately 22-kDa protein shares little sequence similarity with proteins with known function. However, the protein shares high sequence similarity with hypothetical proteins in other archaeal and bacterial genomes. Nine of these hypothetical proteins form a monophyletic cluster within the broad superfamily of ferritin-like diiron-carboxylate proteins. Higher order structural predictions and image reconstructions indicate that the S. solfataricus protein is structurally related to a class of DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps). The recombinant protein self assembles into a hollow dodecameric protein cage having tetrahedral symmetry (SsDps). The outer shell diameter is approximately 10 nm, and the interior diameter is approximately 5 nm. Dps proteins have been shown to protect nucleic acids by physically shielding DNA against oxidative damage and by consuming constituents involved in Fenton chemistry. In vitro, the assembled archaeal protein efficiently uses H2O2 to oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and stores the oxide as a mineral core on the interior surface of the protein cage. The ssdps gene is up-regulated in S. solfataricus cultures grown in iron-depleted media and upon H2O2 stress, but is not induced by other stresses. SsDps-mediated reduction of hydrogen peroxide and possible DNA-binding capabilities of this archaeal Dps protein are mechanisms by which S. solfataricus mitigates oxidative damage. PMID:16024730

  1. Antioxidant/antiradical properties of microwave-assisted extracts of three wild edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Özyürek, Mustafa; Bener, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2014-08-15

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) process for polyphenols from three wild edible mushrooms was studied. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be methanol concentration of 80%, extraction temperature of 80 °C, and extraction time of 5 min. Different antioxidant assays (i.e., total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC)) were utilized to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, Boletus edulis, and Lactarius volemus. The reactive species scavenging activities of these extracts were also investigated in vitro. High contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds may be the major contributors to the observed high antioxidant activities of these extracts. B. edulis showed the higher TAC and TPC; highest inhibitory effect on DPPH and on other studied reactive oxygen species (ROS). MAE showed obvious advantages of high extraction efficiency with lower solvent consumption in terms of high antioxidant capacity/activity of extracts achieved within the shortest time. PMID:24679787

  2. Inverse strategies for characterization of material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilo, Miguel Alejandro

    The imaging of constitutive parameters is of interest in many science and engineering fields. Indeed, non-invasive and nondestructive techniques are used to characterize key properties of a system given its response due to an external excitation. Then, assuming a priori a given model of the system, the measured response and an inverse approach are used to identify material properties. This work was undertaken in the context of identification of spatially-varying elastic and viscoelastic parameters of solids using vibroacoustics based techniques. Two optimization approaches, nongradient and gradient-based optimization, were investigated in this work. Initially, nongradient-based algorithms were preferred over gradient-based algorithms because of there ability to find global minima irrespective of initial guesses. For instance, Gaussian radial basis functions were used to construct a finite-dimensional representation of the elastic moduli. Then, an inverse approach was used to approximate the spatiallyvarying elastic moduli through the system response induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. The inverse problem was cast as an optimization problem in which a least-square error functional that quantified the misfit between the experimental and finite element representation system response is minimized by searching over a space of admissible vectors that best describe the spatial distribution of the elastic moduli. Subsequently, gradient-based optimization was preferred over nongradient-based optimization as the number of design variables increased due to the increment in computational cost. Two inverse approaches, L2-adjoint and concept of error in constitutive equation, were investigated in the context of gradient-based optimization. First, the L2-adjoint inverse approach was used to characterize spatially-varying viscoelastic properties because of its advantage to efficiently calculate the gradient of the error functional with respect to the design variables by solving the corresponding adjoint equations. The inverse problem was cast as an optimization problem in which a least-square error functional that quantified the misfit between the experimental and the finite element representation system response is minimized by searching over a space of admissible functions that best describe the spatially-varying viscoelastic properties. Given that the least-square error functional is non-convex, an inverse approach based on the concept of error in constitutive equation was investigated. The convexity property of the error in constitutive equation functionals, shown extensively for elliptic boundary value problems, reduce the sensitivity of the inverse solution to parameter initialization. The inverse problem was cast as an optimization problem in which an error in constitutive equation functional that quantified the misfit between the kinematically and dynamically admissible stress fields is minimized by searching over a space of admissible functions that best describe the spatially-varying viscoelastic properties. Contrary to the L2-adjoint inverse approach, the gradient equation is easily derived by taking the direct derivative of the error in constitutive equation functional with respect to the design variables. The feasibility of the proposed inverse approaches is demonstrated through a series of numerical and physical experiments. Results show that the proposed inverse approaches have the potential to characterize spatially-varying elastic and viscoelastic properties of solids in realistic settings. Furthermore, it will be shown that the inverse approach based on the concept of error in constitutive equation outperformed the L2-adjoint inverse approach.

  3. Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from the methanolic extract of ripe fruits.

    PubMed

    Piccolella, Simona; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-03-26

    Many edible plant metabolites are known to be useful as cellular antioxidants. In the search for antioxidative chemicals from native fruits of the Campania region of Italy, Prunus cerasus L., an acidic cherry widely used for culinary purposes, has been studied. Fruit crude extracts (MeOH, EtOAc, and hexane) were submitted to an antioxidative screening using specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive radical species (DPPH*, ABTS*+, O2*-, NO) or lipoperoxidation markers. The reducing power of the samples was also determined. It was observed that the most polar extracts in MeOH and EtOAc were able to exercise a massive and dose-increasing antioxidative capacity. The peculiar efficacy of the same extracts was revealed by investigating their protein and deoxyribose oxidation capacity. A preliminary analysis of total phenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents together with biological screening data put the basis on P. cerasus fruit phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract. Twenty secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic (especially 1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol-1,2-bis-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol-1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (4), epicatechin-3-malate (14), and epicatechin-3-(1''-methyl)malate (15) were isolated for the first time. All of the compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity on DPPH*, O2*-, and NO. Flavonoids and quinic acid derivatives were found to be the more antioxidative substances. PMID:18303821

  4. Antioxidant properties, phytochemical composition, and antiproliferative activity of Maryland-grown soybeans with colored seed coats.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Margaret; Kenworthy, William; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterized and compared 18 colored seed coat soybeans for the isoflavone, total phenolic, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glc) contents of their flour extracts and the fatty acid composition and carotenoid and alpha-tocopherol contents of their oils. Antioxidant assays also assessed activity of the flour extracts against peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radicals. Black seed coat soybeans had the highest TPC, ORAC, HOSC, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging values, in addition to the highest isoflavone content, and were the only color to contain Cy-3-glc. Five soybeans (two black and one each brown, yellow, and green) were selected to test their effects on HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell growth. The effects of the hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed extracts were compared to an aglycone isoflavone standard mixture of the same total molar concentration as the highest soybean concentration of 15 mg of seed flour equiv/mL of treatment media. All high doses of hydrolyzed soybean treatments except the green genotype significantly reduced cell number compared to control at 3 h of treatment time, whereas the high dose of isoflavone standard treatment took 72 h to show a significant reduction (P < 0.05). PMID:19950996

  5. Neutral serine protease from Penicillium italicum. Purification, biochemical characterization, and use for antioxidative peptide preparation from Scorpaena notata muscle.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Ferid; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertl, Thomas; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, purification and properties of an extracellular neutral serine protease from the fungus Penicillium italicum and its potential application as an antioxidant peptides producer are reported. The protease was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration, diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-Sepharose ion exchange chromatography, and TSK-HPLC gel filtration with a 10.2-fold increase in specific activity and 25.8 % recovery. The purified enzyme appeared as single protein band with a molecular mass of 24 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum pH and temperature for the proteolytic activity were pH 7.0 and 50 C, respectively. The enzyme was stable in the pH range of 6.0-9.0. The protease was activated by divalent cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Complete inhibition of the purified enzyme by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride confirmed that the protease was of serine-type. The purified enzyme revealed high stability and relatively broad specificity. Scorpaena notata muscle protein hydrolysates prepared using purified serine protease (protease from P. italicum (Prot-Pen)) showed good in vitro antioxidative activities. The antioxidant activities of Scorpaena muscle protein hydrolyzed by Prot-Pen (SMPH-PP) were evaluated using various antioxidant assays: 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous chelating activity, and DNA nicking assay. SMPH-PP showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity and almost the same strongest protection against hydroxyl radical induced DNA breakage. PMID:25035105

  6. Mechanical Properties Characterization at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Hanson; Sopp, Jeffery; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2001-05-01

    Nanoindentation is an unique technique that characterizes mechanical properties of materials down to the nanometer scale. With a force range from nanoNewtons to milliNewtons, unique properties of surface structures and thin films in the mesoscale can be routinely quantifieds. With technology continually pushing toward smaller feature size in electronic and mechanical devices as well as biomaterials applications, nanoindentation has become an invaluable method to measure these characteristic features. Here, we report its application in the study the biological hard tissues. For example, using engineered metallic indentation tips, the elastic properties of the 20 nm protein layer in the biocomposite of the abalone shell was measured. The elastic modulus was found to be exceptionally high compared to most synthetic polymers. With the combination of AFM imaging nanoindentation, we were able to measure the difference in deformation behavior at the mesoscale between normal and genetically altered mouse enamel. These measurements were complementary in determining the growth defects resulting from genetically modified enamel proteins. Details of these results and future prospects will be discussed.

  7. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Zhen-Liang; Jia, Ai-Rong; Shi, Ya-Ping; Li, Rui-Hong; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP). The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products. PMID:25226538

  8. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Antioxidants: An Electrochemical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, José; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E. Manuela; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (such as ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) are a group of compounds highly abundant in food that may account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids have gained an increasing interest in health because they are known to be potent antioxidants. These compounds have been described as chain-breaking antioxidants acting through radical scavenging activity, that is related to their hydrogen or electron donating capacity and to the ability to delocalize/stabilize the resulting phenoxyl radical within their structure. The free radical scavenger ability of antioxidants can be predicted from standard one-electron potentials. Thus, voltammetric methods have often been applied to characterize a diversity of natural and synthetic antioxidants essentially to get an insight into their mechanism and also as an important tool for the rational design of new and potent antioxidants. The structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) correlations already established for this type of compounds suggest that redox potentials could be considered a good measure of antioxidant activity and an accurate guideline on the drug discovery and development process. Due to its magnitude in the antioxidant field, the electrochemistry of hydroxycinnamic acid-based antioxidants is reviewed highlighting the structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) obtained so far. PMID:23956973

  9. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Bachmayer, Oliver; Kosar, Mberra; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2004-02-25

    Water-soluble extracts from black thyme (Thymbra spicata L.), savory (Satureja cuneifolia Ten.), Spanish oregano (Coridothymus capitatus (L.) Reichb. f.), sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), Syrian oregano (Origanum syriacum L.), Toka oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz et P. H. Davis), and Turkish oregano (Origanum onites L.) were screened for antioxidant properties in a battery of six in vitro assays. Total phenol content and qualitative-quantitative compositional analyses were also carried out. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in each screen. The savory extract was the most effective at reducing iron(III), scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, inhibiting ascorbate-iron(III)-catalyzed hydroxyl radical-mediated brain phospholipid peroxidation, and site-specific hydroxyl radical-mediated 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation. The Syrian oregano extract was the most effective chelator of iron(II), while Spanish and Turkish oregano extracts were the most effective inhibitors of nonsite-specific hydroxyl radical-mediated 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation. All the extracts contained Folin-Ciocalteu reagent-reactive substances, which was confirmed by the presence of polar phenolic analytes (i.e., hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonoids). PMID:14969528

  10. Bioactive properties of commercialised pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice: antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibiting activities.

    PubMed

    Les, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M; Arbons-Mainar, Jose Miguel; Valero, Marta Sofa; Lpez, Vctor

    2015-06-01

    Pomegranate juice and related products have long been used either in traditional medicine or as nutritional supplements claiming beneficial effects. Although there are several studies on this food plant, only a few studies have been performed with pomegranate juice or marketed products. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice on cellular models using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent or DPPH and superoxide radicals in cell free systems. The antiproliferative effects of the juice were measured on HeLa and PC-3 cells by the MTT assay and pharmacologically relevant enzymes (cyclooxygenases, xanthine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase A) were selected for enzymatic inhibition assays. Pomegranate juice showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in the Artemia salina and HepG2 models; these effects may be attributed to radical scavenging properties of pomegranate as the juice was able to reduce DPPH and superoxide radicals. Moderate antiproliferative activities in HeLa and PC-3 cancer cells were observed. However, pomegranate juice was also able to inhibit COX-2 and MAO-A enzymes. This study reveals some mechanisms by which pomegranate juice may have interesting and beneficial effects in human health. PMID:26030005

  11. Important nutritional constituents, flavour components, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Pleurotus sajor-caju.

    PubMed

    Gogavekar, Shweta S; Rokade, Shilpa A; Ranveer, Rahul C; Ghosh, Jai S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Sahoo, Akshaya K

    2014-08-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivated in the laboratory was studied for nutritional constituents, flavor components, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Nutritional constituents estimated per 100g dry weight (d.w.) include protein (29.3g), carbohydrate (62.97g), crude fat (0.91g), ash (6.82g) and crude fiber (12.3g). Energy value of this mushroom was about 297.5kcal/100g?d.w. Major mineral components estimated include Ca, Fe, and Mg with highest level of 505.0, 109.5 and 108.7mg/100g respectively. Methanolic extract containing significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids showed free radical scavenging potential and antibacterial activities against various spp. of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Compounds responsible for antibacterial activities analyzed by GC-MS include ?- Sistosterol, Cholestanol, 1,5-Dibenzoylnaphthalene and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid. Flavor components extracted by hot extraction method were found to be higher in number and concentration than the cold extraction method. The characteristic flavor component of mushroom i.e. 1-Octen-3-ol was better extracted by hot than the cold. PMID:25114338

  12. Variations of Antioxidant Properties and NO Scavenging Abilities during Fermentation of Tea

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Li, Chun-Jie; Lin, Xue-Zhen; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is known as one of the most popular beverages in the world, which is believed to be beneficial for health. The main components in tea will change a lot depending on the different processes of fermentation, and thus the effects of different teas on human health may differ. The aim of this study is to explore the varied abilities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging during the fermentation of tea. In this study, we conducted the in vitro experiments which involved some reaction systems indicating the abilities of scavenging ROS and NO. We also investigated the effects of tea and their components (catechins, theabrownins, caffeine) on the intracellular levels of ROS and NO, using Raw 264.7 cells as the model. We found that regardless of whether it was out of cell system or in Raw 264.7 cells, the abilities of scavenging ROS would decrease during the fermentation of tea. Further, the post-fermented pu-erh tea showed the best effect on inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO. These findings indicated that the fermentation process caused a change of the components which might be due to the changes of their antioxidant properties and NO scavenging abilities. PMID:21845097

  13. The relationship of physicochemical properties to the antioxidative activity of free amino acids in Fenton system.

    PubMed

    Mili?, Sonja; Bogdanovi? Pristov, Jelena; Mutavdi?, Dragosav; Savi?, Aleksandar; Spasi?, Mihajlo; Spasojevi?, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Herein we compared antioxidative activities (AA) of 25 free L-amino acids (FAA) against Fenton system-mediated hydroxyl radical (HO()) production in aqueous solution, and examined the relation between AA and a set of physicochemical properties. The rank order according to AA was: Trp > norleucine > Phe, Leu > Ile > His >3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, Arg > Val > Lys, Tyr, Pro > hydroxyproline > ?-aminobutyric acid > Gln, Thr, Ser > Glu, Ala, Gly, Asn, Asp. Sulfur-containing FAA generated different secondary reactive products, which were discriminated by the means of electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy. AA showed a general positive correlation with hydrophobicity. However, when taken separately, uncharged FAA exhibited strong positive correlation of AA with hydrophobicity whereas charged FAA showed negative or no significant correlation depending on the scale applied. A general strong negative correlation was found between AA and polarity. Steric parameters and hydration numbers correlated positively with AA of nonpolar side-chain FAA. In addition, a decrease of temperature which promotes hydrophobic hydration resulted in increased AA. This implies that HO()-provoked oxidation of FAA is strongly affected by hydrophobic hydration. Our findings are important for the understanding of oxidation processes in natural and waste waters. PMID:25764263

  14. Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Athukorala, Yasantha; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeon, You-Jin

    2006-07-01

    The potential antiproliferative and antiradical activities of an enzymatic extract of Ecklonia cava together with its crude polysaccharide (CpoF) and crude polyphenolic fractions (CphF) were evaluated in vitro. Tested extracts showed strong selective cell proliferation inhibition on all cancer cell lines tested, especially CphF extract, containing high polyphenol amount, showed 5.1 microg/ml of IC(50) value on murine colon cancer (CT-26) cell line. According to the nuclear staining experiment, antiproliferative effect of CphF was associated with apoptotic cell demise in CT-26. In addition, The CphF at 5 microg/ml scavenged 70% of DPPH radical, which is much higher than those of BHA and BHT at same concentration. Further more CphF exhibited interesting antiradical properties, expressed by its capacity to scavenge superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (OH()). In reducing power assay, CphF extract at 5 microg/ml was found to be as high as that of BHT at same concentration. Also, in total antioxidant assay the effect of CphF at 50 microg/ml was equivalent or slightly higher than those of commercial counterparts at 5 microg/ml concentration. Taken together, the CphF may be a promising alternative to synthetic substances as natural compound with high antiproliferative and antiradical activity. PMID:16516367

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory and antioxidative properties of milk protein-derived dipeptides and hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Selected synthetic dipeptides and milk protein hydrolysates were evaluated for their dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties, and their superoxide (SO) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. DPP-IV inhibition was seen with eight out of the twelve dipeptides and 5 of the twelve hydrolysates studied. Trp-Val inhibited DPP-IV, however, inhibition was not observed with the reverse peptide Val-Trp. The most potent hydrolysate inhibitors were generated from casein (CasH2) and lactoferrin (LFH1). Two Trp containing dipeptides, Trp-Val and Val-Trp, and three lactoferrin hydrolysates scavenged DPPH. The dipeptides had higher SO EC(50) values compared to the milk protein hydrolysates (arising from three lactoferrin and one whey protein hydrolysates). Higher molecular mass fractions of the milk protein hydrolysates were associated with the SO scavenging activity. Trp-Val and one lactoferrin hydrolysate (LFH1) were multifunctional displaying both DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidant (SO and DPPH scavenging) activities. These compounds may have potential as dietary ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes by virtue of their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and to extend the half-life of incretin molecules. PMID:23219487

  16. Antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties of edible starch-chitosan composite film containing Thymus kotschyanus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Tooraj; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdol Rassol

    2012-01-01

    Thyme Essential oils (EO) with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industry. It is also used for flavoring and preservation of several foods. Nowadays, packaging research is receiving a considerable attention due to the development of eco-friendly materials made from natural polymers such as starch and chitosan. In this study Thymus kotschyanus EO concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.0%, incorporated in starch-chitosan composite (S-CH) film were used. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties significantly increased with the incorporation of EO (p < 0.05). Incorporating EO, increased total color differences (DE), yellowness index (YI) and whiteness index (WI) which were significantly higher than control and its transparency was reduced. Our results pointed out that the incorporation of Thymus kotschyanus EO as a natural antibacterial agent has potential for using the developed film as an active packaging. PMID:25610564

  17. Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.

    PubMed

    Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D

    2013-12-01

    Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 ?mol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties. PMID:23871007

  18. Antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties of edible starch-chitosan composite film containing Thymus kotschyanus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, Tooraj; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdol Rassol

    2012-01-01

    Thyme Essential oils (EO) with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industry. It is also used for flavoring and preservation of several foods. Nowadays, packaging research is receiving a considerable attention due to the development of eco-friendly materials made from natural polymers such as starch and chitosan. In this study Thymus kotschyanus EO concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.0%, incorporated in starch-chitosan composite (S-CH) film were used. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties significantly increased with the incorporation of EO (p < 0.05). Incorporating EO, increased total color differences (DE), yellowness index (YI) and whiteness index (WI) which were significantly higher than control and its transparency was reduced. Our results pointed out that the incorporation of Thymus kotschyanus EO as a natural antibacterial agent has potential for using the developed film as an active packaging. PMID:25610564

  19. Antioxidant and sensory properties of protein hydrolysate derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by one- and two-step hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Kishimura, Hideki

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant and sensory properties of Nile tilapia protein hydrolysates prepared by one- and two-step hydrolysis using commercial proteases were investigated. Hydrolysates prepared using single protease including Alcalase (HA), Flavourzyme (HF), Protamex (HPr) and papain (HPa) had increases in antioxidant activities as the degree of hydrolysis (DH) increased up to 40% (P?antioxidant activities. When HA was further hydrolysed by papain, the resulting hydrolysate (HAPa) exhibited the highest antioxidant activities for all assays tested (P?antioxidant properties and reduced bitterness, which could serve as the functional supplement. PMID:26028714

  20. Phenolic Compounds in Chilean Mistletoe (Quintral, Tristerix tetrandus) Analyzed by UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS and Its Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Quispe, Cristina; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a method of choice to characterize bioactive compounds in biological samples because of its sensitivity and selectivity. Hybrid ultra-HPLC hyphenated with Orbitrap mass analyzer is an innovative state of the art technology that allows fast and accurate metabolomic analyses. In this work the metabolites of a Chilean mistletoe endemic to the VIII region of Chile were investigated for the first time using UHPLC mass analysis (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-Orbitrap MS(n)). The anthocyanins, together with the non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Six anthocyanins were identified, and among them, the 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were the major ones. In addition, several phenolic acids (including feruloylquinic acid, feruloyl glucose, chlorogenic acid) and several flavonols (luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, isorhamnetin and glycoside derivatives) were also identified. The mistletoe leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by the DPPH radical bleaching, ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity tests (13.38 ± 0.47 µg/mL, 125.32 ± 5.96 µmolTE/g DW and 84.06 ± 4.59 at 100 µg/mL, respectively). PMID:26907248