This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics\\u000a were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had
G. Oboh; A. O. Ademosun
In order to investigate the antioxidant properties of the polysaccharides from the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, the crude polysaccharides from S. fusiforme (SFPS) were extracted in hot water, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition assay exhibited that SFPS possessed a potential antioxidant activity. Hence, two purely polymeric fractions, SFPS-1 and SFPS-2 were isolated by the column of DEAE (2-diethylaminoethanol)-Sepharose Fast Flow, with their molecular weights of 51.4 and 30.3 kDa determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). They were preliminarily characterized using chemical analysis in combination of infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and found to contain large amounts of uronic acids and ?-glycosidical linkages. The antioxidant activities of these two SFPS fractions were evaluated using superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The results show that the antioxidant ability of SFPS-2 was higher than that of SFPS-1, probably correlating with the molecular weight and uronic acid content.
Zhou, Jing; Hu, Nan; Wu, Ya-lin; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Sun, Cui-rong
In order to investigate the antioxidant properties of the polysaccharides from the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, the crude polysaccharides from S. fusiforme (SFPS) were extracted in hot water, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition assay exhibited that SFPS possessed a potential antioxidant activity. Hence, two purely polymeric fractions, SFPS-1 and SFPS-2 were isolated by the column of DEAE (2-diethylaminoethanol)-Sepharose Fast Flow, with their molecular weights of 51.4 and 30.3 kDa determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). They were preliminarily characterized using chemical analysis in combination of infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and found to contain large amounts of uronic acids and beta-glycosidical linkages. The antioxidant activities of these two SFPS fractions were evaluated using superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The results show that the antioxidant ability of SFPS-2 was higher than that of SFPS-1, probably correlating with the molecular weight and uronic acid content. PMID:18763305
Zhou, Jing; Hu, Nan; Wu, Ya-lin; Pan, Yuan-jiang; Sun, Cui-rong
Purpose: Nearly all of flavonoids are good metal chelators and can chelate many metal ions to form different complexes. This article describes a synthesis of Quercetin–Tb(III) in methanol, characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–visible and evaluation of its antioxidant properties. Methods: The formation of complexes is realized from the UV–visible spectra which shows that the successive formation of Quercetin–Tb(III) occurs. To find out the antioxidant activity variation and the role of Tb(III) ion on the antioxidant activity of the complexes different radical scavenging methods such as: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2?-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) were used. Results: The results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods showed that Quercetin and Quercetin–Tb(III) complex are capable of donating electron or hydrogen atom, and consequently could react with free radicals or terminate chain reactions in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: This study showed that the chelation of metal ions by Quercetin decrease the redox potential of Quercetin-metal complex.
Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Ghareghoran, Seyed Morteza; Dehghan, Gholamreza
This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Free phenolic extracts had significantly higher (P?0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability than the bound phenolic extracts, except in orange peels where the bound phenolic extracts had significantly higher (P?0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability. Bound phenolics from orange peels had the highest ABTS* scavenging ability (6.09 mmol./TEAC g) and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) (71.99 mg/GAE 100 g), while bound phenolics from shaddock peels had the least ABTS* scavenging ability (1.35 mmol./TEAC g) and FRAP (2.58 mg/GAE 100 g) . Bound phenolics from grapefruit peels had the highest OH* scavenging ability (EC50?=?3.8 mg/ml), while bound phenolics from shaddock peels had the least (EC50?=?16.1 mg/ml). The phenolics chelated Fe(2+) and inhibited malondialdehyde production in rat's pancreas in a dose-dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of the free and bound phenolics could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the peels; therefore, the high antioxidant properties of the free and bound phenolic extracts from orange peels could be harness in the formulation of nutraceuticals and food preservatives. PMID:24293692
Oboh, G; Ademosun, A O
Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using ?, ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment. PMID:22071643
Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy; Siong, Julius Yong Fu; Syamsumir, Desy Fitrya
Antioxidative properties of extracts from six types of cocoa by-products have been studied. Seven different solvents differing in polarity were used to extract the antioxidants from cocoa by-products. Out of 42 different extracts tested, twelve extracts from cocoa powder, natural cocoa powder, cocoa nib and cocoa shell exhibited strong antioxidant activities using a diene conjugation formation method. The characterization studies
A. H Azizah; N. M Nik Ruslawati; T Swee Tee
Defatted peanut meal hydrolysate (DPMH) was purified using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. A tripeptide with strong oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was isolated and identified as Tyr-Gly-Ser by ESI-MS/MS. It was then synthesized to measure its antioxidant properties in different systems. The ORAC value of Tyr-Gly-Ser was 3-fold higher than that of glutathione (GSH), and it displayed a stronger protective effect on linoleic acid peroxidation and H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative injury in rat pheochromocytoma line PC12 cells than GSH (p < 0.05). However, Tyr-Gly-Ser showed negligible DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and no metal chelating ability. The results suggested that Tyr-Gly-Ser displayed antioxidant activity via the hydrogen atom transfer mechanism, and the Tyr at the N-terminal was the hydrogen donor. The ORAC assay was recommended as a reliable and effective method to measure the antioxidant activity in the course of antioxidant peptide isolation. PMID:22577732
Zheng, Lin; Su, Guowan; Ren, Jiaoyan; Gu, Longjian; You, Lijun; Zhao, Mouming
Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196
Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M
Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt.
Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564
Stojkovi?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Ciri?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Sokovi?, Marina
Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions.
In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, ?-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data. PMID:24967544
Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan
Antioxidant properties of five Aristolochiaceae species namely Aristolochia brasiliensis Mart. and Zucc., Aristolochia bracteolata Retz., Aristolochia indica Linn., Apama siliquosa Lamk. and Aristolochia tagala Cham. were investigated. Antioxidant and 2,2-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, reducing powers, and the amount of total phenolic compounds of the extracts were studied. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by A. tagala and the
R. Thirugnanasampandan; G. Mahendran; V. Narmatha Bai
The pharmacological action of salicylates has been historically related to their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenases, thereby blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane A2. On the other hand, several studies have suggested that salicylates have a multitude of cyclooxygenase-independent actions specially related with their antioxidant properties, which might contribute to the overall salutary effects of these compounds. Although salicylates are well-known antioxidants through their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radical, their antioxidant mechanisms of action have not been fully compiled and characterized. In this context, several mechanisms of action have been suggested, namely i) scavenging of hydroxyl radical and chelation of transition metals; ii) upregulation of nitric oxide; iii) increased synthesis of lipoxins; iv) inhibition of neutrophil oxidative burst; v) inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 protein kinases; and vii) inhibiton of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1. The newly discovered acetyl salicylic acid-triggered lipoxins probably play a key role in the maintenance of the oxidative stress balance. Furthermore, salicylates have shown to protect low-density lipoprotein from oxidation and elicit an inhibitory effect on the expression of lectin-like receptors on endothelial cells. This review aims to provide an overview of the various proposed antioxidant mechanisms of salicylates. PMID:21671857
Baltazar, M T; Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Duarte, J A; Bastos, M L; Carvalho, F
The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants. PMID:22996344
Khalil, Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boukraâ, Laïd; Benhanifia, Mokhtar; Islam, Asiful; Islam, Nazmul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua
Organic nitrates are among the oldest and yet most commonly employed drugs in the chronic therapy of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. While they have long been used in clinical practise, our understanding of their mechanism of action and of their side effects remains incomplete. To date, the most commonly employed nitrates are isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and nitroglycerin (GTN). Another nitrate, pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), has long been employed in eastern European countries and is currently being reintroduced also in western countries. So far, PETN is the only organic nitrate in clinical use, which is devoid of induction of oxidative stress and related side-effects such as endothelial dysfunction and nitrate tolerance. Some of these effects are related to special pharmacokinetics of PETN, but upon chronic administration, PETN also induces antioxidative pathways at the genomic level, resulting in increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ferritin, both possessing highly protective properties. There is good experimental evidence that at least part of the beneficial profile of long-term PETN treatment is based on activation of the heme oxygenase-1/ferritin system. PMID:20072927
Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas
Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process.
Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valentao, Patricia
Of the total carotenoids in respective algal samples, beta-carotene in Spirulina platensis was 69.5%, astaxanthin and its esters in Haematococcus pluvialis was 81.38%, and lutein in Botryococcus braunii was 74.6%. The carotenoids were characterized by mass spectrometry. A time-course study of carotenoids in rats after administration of microalgal biomass showed peak levels in plasma, liver, and eyes at 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively. Beta-carotene accumulation in Spirulina-fed rats was maximum in eye tissues at 6 h. Similarly, levels of astaxanthin and lutein in Haematococcus- and Botryococcus-fed rats were also maximal in eye tissues. Astaxanthin from H. pluvialis showed better bioavailability than beta-carotene and lutein. The antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and TBARS were significantly high in plasma at 2 h and in liver at 4 h, evidently offering protection from free radicals. This study implies that microalgae can be a good source of carotenoids of high bioavailability and nutraceutical value. PMID:20681642
Ranga Rao, A; Raghunath Reddy, R L; Baskaran, V; Sarada, R; Ravishankar, G A
Oxidative metabolism of blood-borne fuels provides myocardium the energy required to sustain its contractile performance. Recent research has revealed that, in addition to supplying energy, certain fuels are able to detoxify harmful oxidants and bolster the myocardium's endogenous antioxidant defenses. These antioxidant capabilities could potentially protect the myocardium from the ravages of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates generated upon reperfusion
Robert T. Mallet; Jie Sun
Antioxidants solubilized in micellar solutions can change micellar properties like the size and shape of micelles, critical micellar concentration (cmc) and viscosity. Interactions arising between antioxidants and the surfactant determine the locations of antioxidants and vice versa. The location and interaction are dependent on the type of both the antioxidant and surfactant. Influences of various antioxidants on the physical and
Anja Heins; Vasil M. Garamus; Bernd Steffen; Heiko Stöckmann; Karin Schwarz
Four specialty mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these specialty mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities at 1.2 mg ml?1 were in the order of basket stinkhorn>lion's mane>maitake>white matsutake. Basket stinkhorn showed an excellent
Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Si-Fu Song
Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Tainung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were obtained commercially and methanolic extracts were prepared from these mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities by the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate to high at 1.2 mg ml?1. Reducing powers were excellent (and higher than 1.28
Joan-Hwa Yang; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jeng-Leun Mau
Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1mg\\/ml). At 20mg\\/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia
Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Joan-Hwa Yang; Jeng-Leun Mau
The antioxidant and membranoprotective properties of trolox have been studied in vitro. It is established that trolox possesses antioxidant properties, inhibiting ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of liver homogenates and Fe(2+)-induced lipid chemiluminescence of egg-yolk lipids. In addition, trolox exhibits a broad spectrum of antiradical activity and interacts with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical so as to reduce the generation of luminol radicals and reactive oxygen species and to bind peroxy radicals. Trolox also possessed membranoprotective properties, being capable of reducing the oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes. PMID:19441730
Tibir'kova, E V; Kosolapov, V A; Spasov, A A
Cordyceps sinensis, one of the most precious traditional Chinese medicines, possesses the antitumor activity, antioxidant activity and the capability of modulating the immune system. In the present study, a fungus strain G1 isolated from wild C. sinensis was identified and initially characterized. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of related
Jiaping Chen; Weiyun Zhang; Tingting Lu; Jing Li; Yi Zheng; Lingdong Kong
Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.
Zhou, Kequan; Raffoul, Julian J.
The physico-chemical properties of grape waste were characterized to evaluate its potential to support the fungal growth of\\u000a four Aspergillus and three Penicillium strains under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions for the production of phenolic antioxidants. In addition, the free\\u000a radical-scavenging potential of DPPH? and ABTS?+ radical solutions and lipid oxidation inhibition by linoleic acid peroxidation of extracts from fermented and
Guillermo Cristian Martínez-Ávila; Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbó; Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar
Human serum albumin (HSA) has been used for a long time as a resuscitation fluid in critically ill patients. It is known to exert several important physiological and pharmacological functions. Among them, the antioxidant properties seem to be of paramount importance as they may be implied in the potential beneficial effects that have been observed in the critical care and hepatological settings. The specific antioxidant functions of the protein are closely related to its structure. Indeed, they are due to its multiple ligand-binding capacities and free radical-trapping properties. The HSA molecule can undergo various structural changes modifying its conformation and hence its binding properties and redox state. Such chemical modifications can occur during bioprocesses and storage conditions of the commercial HSA solutions, resulting in heterogeneous solutions for infusion. In this review, we explore the mechanisms that are responsible for the specific antioxidant properties of HSA in its native form, chemically modified forms, and commercial formulations. To conclude, we discuss the implication of this recent literature for future clinical trials using albumin as a drug and for elucidating the effects of HSA infusion in critically ill patients.
Curcumin (diferuoyl methane) is a phenolic compound and a major component of Curcuma longa L. In the present paper, we determined the antioxidant activity of curcumin by employing various in vitro antioxidant assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH*) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, total reducing ability determination by the Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation method, superoxide anion radical scavenging by the riboflavin/methionine/illuminate system, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Curcumin inhibited 97.3% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 15 microg/mL concentration (20 mM). On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, 123 mM), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 102 mM), alpha-tocopherol (51 mM) and trolox (90 mM) as standard antioxidants indicated inhibition of 95.4, 99.7, 84.6 and 95.6% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 45 microg/mL concentration, respectively. In addition, curcumin had an effective DPPH* scavenging, ABTS*(+) scavenging, DMPD*(+) scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Also, BHA, BHT, alpha-tocopherol and trolox, were used as the reference antioxidant and radical scavenger compounds. According to the present study, curcumin can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties. PMID:18547552
Ak, Tuba; Gülçin, Ilhami
Streptomyces strain isolated from the soil sediment was studied for its in vitro ?-glucosidase and antioxidant properties. Morphological characterization and 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing were carried out to confirm that the strain Loyola AR1 belongs to genus Streptomyces sp. Modified nutrient glucose broth was used as the basal medium for growth and metabolites production. Ethyl acetate extract of Loyola AR1 (EA-Loyola AR1) showed 50% ?-glucosidase inhibition at the concentration of 860.50 ± 2.68 ?g/ml. Antioxidant properties such as total phenolic content of EA-Loyola AR1 was 176.83 ± 1.17 mg of catechol equivalents/g extracts. EA-Loyola AR1 showed significant scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (50% inhibition (IC??), 750.50 ± 1.61 ?g/ml), hydroxyl (IC??, 690.20 ± 2.38 ?g/ml), nitric oxide (IC??, 850.50 ± 1.77 ?g/ml), and superoxide (IC??, 880.08 ± 1.80 ?g/ml) radicals, as well as reducing power. EA-Loyola AR1 showed strong suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation (IC??, 670.50 ± 2.52 ?g/ml). Antioxidants of ?-carotene linoleate model system reveals significantly lower than butylated hydroxyanisole. PMID:24242165
Praveen Kumar, P; Preetam Raj, J P; Nimal Christhudas, I V S; Sagaya Jansi, R; Narbert Raj, M; Agastian, P
Summary and Conclusions The antioxidant properties of octyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl gallates in lard substrate were determined\\u000a by the active oxygen method. The order of their effectiveness was about the same as that of the more active antioxidants,\\u000a nordihydroguariaretic acid and gallic acid, that have been reported. The carry-over of the antioxidant properties into baked\\u000a goods was determined by
Steward G. Morris; Lillian A. Kraekel; Dorothy Hammer; J. S. Myers; R. W. Riemenschneider
Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of a series of 2-[4-(substituted piperazin-/piperidin-1-ylcarbonyl)phenyl]-1H-benzimidazole derivatives were examined. Free radical scavenging properties of compounds 11-30 and 33 were evaluated for the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion radical. In addition the inhibitory effects on the NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation levels were determined by measuring the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using rat liver microsomes. Compound 33 which has a p-fluorobenzyl substitutent at position 1 exhibited the strongest inhibition (83%) of lipid peroxidation at a concentration of 10(-3) M, while the nonsubstituted analogue 13 caused 57% inhibition. This result is fairly consistent with the antimicrobial activity results against both Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. PMID:21138053
Ku?, Canan; Sözüdönmez, Fatma; Can-Eke, Benay; Coban, Tülay
The choleretic, hepatoprotective and detoxifying activities of the inflorescence of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench (everlasting, immortelle: Asteraceae-Helichrysi flos syn. Stoechados flos) have been known for a long time from herbal medicine in Hungary. Antioxidant properties of its main phenolics, flavonoids, are supposed to be responsible for these effects. The aim of this study is to verify the antioxidant properties of
E Czinner; K Hagymási; A Blázovics; Á Kéry; É Sz?ke; É Lemberkovics
Cordyceps sinensis, one of the most precious traditional Chinese medicines, possesses the antitumor activity, antioxidant activity and the capability of modulating the immune system. In the present study, a fungus strain G1 isolated from wild C. sinensis was identified and initially characterized. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of related fungi. The analysis of ITS sequence showed that fungus G1 was clustered together with C. sinensis, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum and Tolypocladium inflatum in the phylogenetic tree. Both the morphological character and the ITS sequence analysis establish that fungus G1 is one of the anamorph strains of C. sinensis and belongs to Tolypocladium genus. Furthermore, the polysaccharide (PS) extracted from fungus G1 and its antioxidant activity on H22-bearing mice was investigated. H22 cells were hypodermically injected into the right oxter of each mouse after the ICR mice were treated with PS by means of gavage for 7 days. Then the same administration process continued for 9 days. At the end of the experiments, the tumor weight of each mouse was measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in mouse liver, brain and serum, as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in mouse liver and brain were assayed. The results showed that the H22 tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PS. Moreover, PS significantly enhanced SOD activity of liver, brain and serum as well as GSH-Px activity of liver and brain in tumor-bearing mice. PS also significantly reduced the level of MDA in liver and brain of tumor-bearing mice. PMID:16492382
Chen, Jiaping; Zhang, Weiyun; Lu, Tingting; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Kong, Lingdong
Morphine is implicated in diverse functions, from development to immune modulation in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has also been used extensively in the clinical management of pain due to its potent analgesic effect. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of morphine using different antioxidant tests, including total antioxidant activity, reducing power, free
?lhami Gülç?n; ?ükrü Beydem?r; H. Ahmet Alici; Mahfuz Elmasta?; M. Emin Büyükokuro?lu
An initial 5% (w/v), followed thereafter with replacement aliquots of 3% (w/v), whey protein isolate (WPI) (ca. 86.98% Kjeldahl N x 6.38), was hydrolyzed using Protease N Amano G (IUB 184.108.40.206, Bacillus subtilis) in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) fitted with either a 10 or 3 kDa nominal molecular weight cutoff (NMWCO) tangential flow filter (TFF) membrane. The hydrolysates were desalted by adsorption onto a styrene-based macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) and washed with deionized water to remove the alkali, and the peptides were desorbed with 25, 50, and 95% (v/v) ethyl alcohol. The desalted hydrolysates were analyzed for antibody binding, free radical scavenging, and molecular mass analysis as well as total and free amino acids (FAA). For the first time a quantity called IC50, the concentration of peptides causing 50% inhibition of the available antibody, is introduced to quantify inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data reduction. The hydrolysate molecular mass provided the most prominent influence (PC1 = 57.35%), followed by inhibition ELISA (PC2 = 18.90%) and the antioxidant properties (PC3 = 10.43%). Ash was significantly reduced in the desalted fractions; the protein adsorption recoveries were high, whereas desorption with alcohol was prominently influenced by the hydrophobic/ hydrophilic amino acid balance. After hydrolysis, some hydrolysates showed increased ELISA reactivity compared with the native WPI. PMID:17432869
Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Wang, Zhang; Xu, Shi-Ying
Despite repeated suggestions that antioxidant activity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a collective of conjugated dienoic\\u000a isomers of linoleic acid, underlies its reported anticarcinogenic and antiatherosclerotic effects, the antioxidant properties\\u000a of CLA remain ill-defined. Therefore, this study was undertaken to gain more insight into the mechanism of potential CLA antioxidant\\u000a activity. It was tested whether CLA could protect membranes composed
Nancy E. Cook; Diane L. Tribble
The antioxidant properties of some commonly consumed [cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)] and underutilized [pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and African yam bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa)] legumes were assessed with regard to their Vitamin C, total phenol, and phytate content, as well as antioxidant activity as typified by their reducing power and free radical scavenging ability. The Vitamin C content of the cowpeas ranged
Much work has been carried out in recent years on the beneficial effect of phenolic compounds which act as natural antioxidants and help to neutralize free radicals. We analysed the antioxidant activity of the rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosyl glucoside) using different assays including: total antioxidant activity and reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay
Jianxiong Yang; Juan Guo; Jiangfeng Yuan
We studied antioxidant activity of new derivative of pyrrolo[1,2-?]benzimidazole RU-792 and compared its effects on free radical processes with those of the reference antioxidant Trolox in four model free-radical systems. RU-792 had high antioxidant activity determined by its intrinsic antiradical properties. RU-792 was superior to Trolox by antioxidant activity in the models of Fe(2+)-induced chemiluminescence of lipids with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), but less effective in the model of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. PMID:24143368
Kosolapov, V A; Eltsova, L V; Spasov, A A; Anisimova, V A
Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ?-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of ?-carotene, ?-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, ?-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. PMID:23265504
Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong
The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the biological activities tested and the antioxidant properties. In this study, the total flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic extract of Leitothrix spiralis leaves were evaluated. The extract showed a total flavonoid content of 19.26% and the chemical characterization by HPLC-PAD confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary metabolite compounds. Significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.743 ?g/mL ± 0.063) was demonstrated and was effective against Gram-negative organisms and all Candida strains tested, and showed an ability to inhibit hyphal formation. Non-hemolytic and antiproliferative activity could be demonstrated.
de Freitas Araujo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Hilario, Felipe; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenco; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena; Bauab, Tais Maria
A novel antioxidant polysaccharide (APC) was isolated and characterized from pine needles of Cedrus deodara with the evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity. According to gel filtration chromatography, high performance size exclusion chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, partial acid hydrolysis, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation and methylation analysis, APC was observed to be an acidic heteropolysaccharide (composed of glucose, arabinose, mannose and xylose in a molar ratio of 45.84:1:2.35:1.73) with the molecular weight of 1.53×10(4)Da, and the backbone was mainly composed by glucose, mannose and xylose in the form of (1?4) linked. Meanwhile, APC exhibited the remarkable antioxidant activity to scavenge free radicals and inhibit the oxidative injury of DNA and cells. The present results suggested that APC could be a potential antioxidant agent for preparing functional foods and nutraceuticals applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24751247
Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Jia, Li-Rong
This study investigated the fucoxanthin content of New Zealand (NZ) Undaria pinnatifida harvested from two locations in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand across its growing season. Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant properties of processed New Zealand U. pinnatifida and commercial wakame from Japan and Korea were further compared. Results showed that U. pinnatifida harvested from Port Underwood had higher fucoxanthin content in the blade compared to Pelorus Sound. The sporophyll also contained a significant amount of fucoxanthin throughout the harvest season, although lower than in the blade. Two antioxidant measurement methods, DPPH and CUPRAC, were utilised to measure antioxidant activities. Processed NZ U. pinnatifida had a lower fucoxanthin content and antioxidant activity than freeze-dried Undaria. Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant activities of NZ processed U. pinnatifida were not significantly different from other commercial samples from Japan and Korea. In conclusion, U. pinnatifida in New Zealand has a great potential to be a food and nutraceutical resource. PMID:23122162
Fung, Adah; Hamid, Nazimah; Lu, Jun
Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracts were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Hot water extracts from mature and baby Ling chih showed high antioxidant activities (78.5% and 78.2%) at 20mg\\/ml, and had EC50 values of 7.25 and 5.89mgextract\\/ml,
Jeng-Leun Mau; Shu-Yao Tsai; Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Shih-Jeng Huang
Recent data on the antioxidant properties of melatonin are reviewed. The possible direct scavenging capacity of melatonin\\u000a with regard to superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite\\u000a anions is discussed. Data on the regulation of antioxidant enzymes by melatonin and the participation of hormone metabolites\\u000a (AMK, AFMK, and 6-OHM) in protection against oxidative stress are
A. Yu. Bespyatykh; O. V. Burlakova; V. A. Golichenkov
Aromatic edible root of D. hamiltonii was subjected to the extraction of the antioxidant rich fraction. Different parts of root namely whole tuber, peel, tuber without peel and medullary portion were extracted with dichloromethane (European Patent No. W02005063272). The extract was found to contain flavor compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4MB), which was identified by TLC and GC. Medullary portion was found to be rich in 2H4MB, (73.73 mg g(-1) dry tissue) followed by peel, containing 68.34 mg g(-1) 2H4MB. Different concentration of dichloromethane extracts were subjected for antioxidant assay by DPPH (1,1 dihydroxy 2-picryl hydrazyl) method, this has shown 44, 46.7% radical scavenging activity in case of medullary, peel extracts and 67.3% in case of pure 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde at 100 ppm concentration, whereas ascorbic acid used as standard showed 94.3% activity. In beta-carotene linoleate model system (b-CLAMS) 43.46 and 45.7% antioxidant activity was observed in medullary and peel extracts at 100 ppm concentrations respectively, whereas standard 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde exhibited 69.64% at 100 ppm and BHA (butylated hydroxyl anisole) 90.1% activity also at 100-ppm level. Similarly hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was found to be 48.36, 46.86, 48.26 and 73.60% in whole tuber, medullary, peel and standard 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde respectively at 100 ppm levels. This is the first report on the antioxidant activity of D. hamiltonii. Results have shown that 2H4MB is one of the major constituents responsible for antioxidant activity. Hence the extract of D. hamiltonii can be utilized for the production of antioxidant rich fractions required for various health benefits. PMID:17131914
Murthy, K N Chidambara; Rajasekaran, T; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A
Summary and Conclusions Sesamol possesses marked antioxidant activity in lard and also exhibits a pronounced protection for vegetable oils, especially\\u000a for sesame oil.\\u000a \\u000a The antioxidant activity of sesamol strengthens the assumption that free sesamol is responsible for the unusual stability\\u000a of hydrogenated sesame oil, a subject which has been reported in another article in this series.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The use of sesamol as
Currants and sultanas (Vitis vinifera L., Family Vitaceae) are dried vine products produced in Greece and used widely in the Mediterranean diet. We investigated the polar methanol extracts from the raisins for the antiradical activity, polyphenol content, cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, total glutathione (GSH) levels, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Extracts exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and inhibited tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cytotoxicity, GSH decrease, and LDL oxidation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the characteristic apoptotic patterns with tBHP and inhibition with the extracts. Elevated levels of total GSH and unaltered levels of GSSG with extract treatment demonstrated the induction of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The antioxidant activity was correlated to the polyphenolic content. Greek currants and sultanas are suggested as antioxidant components of the Mediterranean basin. PMID:20041785
Kaliora, Andriana C; Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Karathanos, Vaios T
A series of novel pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives (17 compounds) with adrenolytic properties was evaluated for antiarrhythmic, electrocardiographic and antioxidant activity. Some of them displayed antiarrhythmic activity in barium chloride-induced arrhythmia and in the rat coronary artery ligation-reperfusion model, and slightly decreased the heart rate, prolonged P–Q, Q–T intervals and QRS complex. Among them, compound EP-40 (1-[2-hydroxy-3-[4-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl]pyrrolidin-2-one showed excellent antiarrhythmic activity. This compound had significantly antioxidant effect, too. The present results suggest that the antiarrhythmic effect of compound EP-40 is related to their adrenolytic and antioxidant properties. A biological activity prediction using the PASS software shows that compound EP-35 and EP-40 can be characterized by antiischemic activity; whereas, compound EP-68, EP-70, EP-71 could be good tachycardia agents.
Nowaczyk, Alicja; Kulig, Katarzyna
The effects of chromium (chromium picolinate, CrPic) and zinc (ZnSO4H2O) supplementation on serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) (an indicator of lipid peroxidation) and serum status\\u000a of some antioxidant vitamins and minerals of laying hens (Hy-Line) reared at a low ambient temperature (6.8°C) were evaluated.\\u000a One hundred twenty laying hens (Hy-Line; 32 wk old) were divided into 4 groups, 30 hens
Muhittin Onderci; Nurhan Sahin; Kazim Sahin; Nermin Kilic
Five new monomeric antioxidants containing hindered phenol have been synthesised by direct addition of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy methyl phenol (DBHMP) to m-isopropenyl-?,?-dimethyl isocyanate (TMI) or allyl isocyanate (AI), and by controlled isocyanation in two steps, in which methacrylic acid (MAA) or acrylic acid (AA) reacts with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) in 1 to 1 mole ratio at 60°C, and this
Jiang-Qing Pan; N. C Liu; Wayne W. Y Lau
There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases.
Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.
Biodegradable and antioxidant films based on methylcellulose (MC) and ?-tocopherol nanocapsule suspension (NCs) were developed. MC and NCs films were prepared by a casting method in three different proportions. The mechanical, wettability, colour, light transmission, antioxidant and release characteristics of the films were studied. The addition of NCs to MC films decreased the tensile strength (TS) and the elastic modulus (EM) (p<0.05) but increased the percentage elongation at break (%E) and thickness (p<0.05). NCs films showed a higher hydrophobicity when compared to that of film control. Lightness and yellowish color were intensified in the NCs films which, in their turn, demonstrated high antioxidant activity and excellent barrier properties against UV and visible light. A burst and prolonged release of ?-tocopherol to food simulant was also reported. PMID:24767092
Noronha, Carolina Montanheiro; de Carvalho, Sabrina Matos; Lino, Renata Calegari; Barreto, Pedro Luiz Manique
The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH* radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol. PMID:19719054
The antioxidant properties of sulfur-containing substances have been experimentally studied in vitro. Unithiol exhibits a wide spectrum us radicals. For this reason, unithiol can be considered, along with ascorbic acid, as a universal drug for the reduction of free radical reactions. PMID:21894766
Iudin, M A; Ardab'eva, T V; Chepur, S V; Bykov, V N; Nikiforov, A S
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs) prepared from alginate, by alginate lyase-mediated depolymerization, were structurally characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. Studies of their antioxidant activities revealed that AOs were able to completely (100%) inhibit lipid oxidation in emulsions, superiorly to ascorbic acid (89% inhibition). AOs showed radical scavenging activity towards ABTS?, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals, which might explain their excellent antioxidant activity. The radical scavenging activity is suggested to originate mainly from the presence of the conjugated alkene acid structure formed during enzymatic depolymerization. According to the resonance hybrid theory, the parent radicals of AOs are delocalized through allylic rearrangement, and as a consequence, the reactive intermediates are stabilized. AOs were weak ferrous ion chelators. This work demonstrated that AOs obtained from a facile enzymatic treatment of abundant alginate is an excellent natural antioxidant, which may find applications in the food industry. PMID:24996323
Falkeborg, Mia; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Gianfico, Carlo; Sztukiel, Katarzyna Magdalena; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng
The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. PMID:24583325
Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzi?ska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik
Honey has been used since ancient times for its nutritional as well as curative properties. Tualang honey is collected from wild honey bees' hives on Tualang trees found in the Malaysian rain forest. It has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, where its therapeutic value has partly been related to its antioxidant properties. This study therefore assessed the colour intensity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antiradical activity of gamma irradiated Tualang Honey. The colour intensity at ABS??? was 489.5 ± 1.7 mAU, total phenolic content was 251.7 ± 7.9 mg (gallic acid) /Kg honey, total antioxidant activity by FRAP assay was 322.1 ± 9.7 (µM Fe(II)) and the antiradical activity by DPPH assay was 41.30 ± 0.78 (% inhibition). The data confirms that the antioxidant properties of gamma irradiated Tualang honey are similar to other types of honeys reported in the literature. PMID:21304614
Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sirajudeen, Kns; Swamy, M; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah
Five kinds of ear mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears. Methanolic extracts were prepared from these ear mushrooms, and their antioxidant properties were studied. For all methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms, the antioxidant activities in the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate (38.6 approximately 74.6%) at 1.0-5.0 mg/mL. Methanolic extracts from red, jin, and snow ears showed excellent antioxidant activities in the conjugated diene method at 5.0 mg/mL. At 5.0 mg/mL, reducing powers of methanolic extracts were in the descending order of snow > black approximately red approximately jin > silver ears. The scavenging effect of methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was excellent except for that from silver ears. Ear mushroom extracts were not good scavengers for hydroxyl free radicals but were good chelators for ferrous ions. Naturally occurring antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and total phenols, were found in the methanolic extracts. However, beta-carotene was not detected. Total antioxidant components were 15.69, 30.09, 27.83, 49.17, and 31.70 mg/g for black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears, respectively. PMID:11714344
Mau, J L; Chao, G R; Wu, K T
The lichen species namely Usnea ghattensis, Heterodermia podocarpa, Arthothelium awasthii and Parmotrema tinctorum have been cultured in vitro and were screened for their antioxidant and antibacterial potential using different assay systems. The methanol extract of lichens showed antioxidant and antibacterial activities according to the order U. ghattensis>A. awasthii>H. podocarpa>P. tinctorum. The IC(50) values for the antioxidant activities of U. ghattensis and A. awasthii are less or equivalent to that of standard antioxidants. The methanolic extracts of the mycobiont and photobiont cultures of lichenU. ghattensis and A. awasthii were effective against Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was found between 5 and 10microg extract/ml. The results suggested that the extract of mycobiont and photobiont cultures of lichen U. ghattensis and A. awasthii could be of use as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial properties for the possible food supplement or in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17363243
Behera, B C; Verma, Neeraj; Sonone, Anjali; Makhija, Urmila
The aim of the present study is conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential and toxicity effect of polysaccharide-fucoidan from the brown seaweed Sargassum tenerrimum. Fucoidan-a sulphated polysaccharide contains fucose and sulphate as major compounds. Interestingly, various studies reported that the presence of sulphate content of the sample plays a significant role in pharmacological activities. In this study, fucoidan was fractionated by Ion exchange chromatography method and it major chemical constituent sulphate and fucose was determined by the biochemical methods. The toxicity effect of fucoidan was analyzed by the brine shrimp toxicity assay. Three fucoidan fractions (F1, F2 and F3) were obtained from Intact Fucoidan (IF) through anion-exchange column chromatography. In vitro antioxidant capability was analyzed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical scavenging and total antioxidant assays and intact fucoidan showed the maximum activity 83.66 +/- 0.35, 81.73 +/- 0.35% and 41.6 +/- 0.43 mg g(-1), respectively. The finding of the present study was confirmed that the antioxidant property of fucoidan was depending upon the sulphate content of the fraction and these studies proved that fucoidan have non toxicity effect. Hence, fucoidan have the scope of being used as natural antioxidants in treating many human diseases. PMID:24897795
Marudhupandi, T; Kumar, T T Ajith; Senthil, S Lakshmana; Devi, K Nanthini
Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2–12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2–5 g/100 ml) than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.
Zhang, Hui Cui; Zhang, Chu Shu; Yu, Li Na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Shao Fang; Yang, Qing Li
Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a well known drug in Ayurveda system of medicine. In the present study, antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of H. indicus root bark was evaluated in several in vitro and ex vivo models. Further, preliminary phytochemical analysis and TLC fingerprint profile of the extract was established to characterize the extract which showed antioxidant properties. The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant potential of root bark of H. indicus was evaluated in different systems viz. radical scavenging activity by DPPH reduction, superoxide radical scavenging activity in riboflavin/light/NBT system, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity in sodium nitroprusside/Greiss reagent system and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by iron-ADP-ascorbate in liver homogenate and phenylhydrazine induced haemolysis in erythrocyte membrane stabilization study. The extract was found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the models tested. In scavenging DPPH and superoxide radicals, its activity was intense (EC50 = 18.87 and 19.9 microg/ml respectively) while in scavenging NO radical, it was moderate. It also inhibited lipid peroxidation of liver homogenate (EC50 = 43.8 microg/ml) and the haemolysis induced by phenylhydrazine (EC50 = 9.74 microg/ml) confirming the membrane stabilization activity. The free radical scavenging property may be one of the mechanisms by which this drug is effective in several free radical mediated disease conditions. PMID:11995949
Ravishankara, M N; Shrivastava, Neeta; Padh, Harish; Rajani, M
Grifola frondosa is an edible mushroom currently available in Taiwan. Ethanolic, cold-water and hot-water extracts were prepared and their antioxidant properties were investigated. At 1 mg/mL, G. frondosa T1 and T2 cold-water extracts showed high reducing powers of 1.02 and 0.50, respectively. Chelating abilities on ferrous ions of G. frondosa T1 and T2 were higher for cold-water extracts than for ethanolic and hot-water extracts. For the scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, G. frondosa T1 and T2 extracts were effective in the following order: ethanolic > hot-water > cold-water. The G. frondosa hot-water extract showed high scavenging ability on superoxide anions. Total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and ?-tocopherol are the major antioxidant components found in the various G. frondosa extracts. Based on EC(50) values (<20 mg/mL) obtained, the various extracts from G. frondosa investigated in this study display potent antioxidative properties. PMID:21499220
Yeh, Jan-Ying; Hsieh, Li-Hui; Wu, Kaun-Tzer; Tsai, Cheng-Fang
The main aim of this study was to determine antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity of monofloral bee pollen samples to pathogenic bacteria. These samples were collected in different localities in Slovakia. The antioxidant properties of examined plant species were different and decreasing in the following order: Brassica napus subsp. napus L > Papaver somniferum L. > Helianthus annuus L. The antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested by using the agar well diffusion method. The methanol (99.9% and 70%) and the ethanol (96% and 70%) were used for extraction. In this study, five different strains of bacteria were tested: Listeria monocytogenes CCM 4699; Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus CCM 3953; Salmonella enterica CCM 4420; and Escherichia coli CCM 3988. The most sensitive bacteria of the poppy pollen ethanolic extract was Staphylococcus aureus was (70%) The most sensitive bacteria of rape bee pollen methanolic extract (70%) and sunflower ethanolic extract (70%) was Salmonella enterica. PMID:23305281
Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Máriássyová, Magda; Rovná, Katarína; Stri?ík, Michal
Fullerene derivatives have exhibited fascinating properties in biological systems. Several antioxidative hindered phenol units\\u000a were connected to C60 called radical sponge, resulting in its excellent solubility in polar solvents. The stable radical scavenging experiments\\u000a were performed with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate that both samples show desirable efficiency\\u000a in eliminating free radicals.
Zhiqiang Shi; Yuliang Li; Shu Wang; Hongjuan Fang; Daoben Zhu
Quantum chemical calculations at the DFT\\/B3LYP, HF, and AM1 and PM3 semiempirical levels were employed to calculate a set of molecular properties for 41 phenol compounds with antioxidant activity. The significant molecular descriptors related to the compounds were the vertical ionization potentials (IPvs) and the charge on oxygen atom 7. The IPv has been calculated using Koopman's theorem IPv=??HOMO(DFT), IPv=??HOMO(HF)
Mauro Reis; Benedito Lobato; Jeronimo Lameira; Alberdan S. Santos; Cláudio N. Alves
The aim of this study was to obtain new information on antioxidant compounds in white wines. For this purpose, white wine degradation was promoted by a forced aged protocol, and six normally aged white wines from different vintages were analyzed. Both normal and forced aged wines were sequentially extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate. Apolar antioxidants were removed using hexane, and polar antioxidants were extracted with ethyl acetate. This last residue was subject to partial re-extraction with hexane and acetone. The antioxidant capacity of the wines and of each fraction was evaluated by two free radical methods, ABTS and DPPH. Normal aging provides a decrease in the total antioxidant capacity of wines. The antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate/acetone extracts was approximately 95% higher than that found for the hexane extracts. Concerning the forced aged wines, results showed that the wine submitted to a temperature of 60 degrees C for 21 days had higher antioxidant activity than that submitted to a temperature of 20 degrees C. With regard to the ethyl acetate/acetone extracts, oxygen and temperature treatment leads to a decrease in their antioxidant activity. NMR analysis was performed in the highest antioxidant capacity organic fractions (ethyl acetate/acetone extracts) and in the aqueous fraction of the control wine (T = 20 degrees C), in order to attempt the characterization of species involved in oxygen protection. Possible structures of antioxidant compounds in white wines were proposed. Two of these are tyrosol-like structures. This molecule is a well-known phenolic compound in wine, and it is reported to have antioxidative effects. PMID:18828596
Oliveira, Carla M; Ferreira, António C S; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Silva, Artur M S
Phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of the crude and fractionated plant extracts of Anoectochilus formosanus were evaluated using five different assay systems. An acid-treatment (2 N HCl in 95% ethanol) was employed to treat a butanol fraction (BuOH), creating an acid-hydrolyzed BuOH fraction. The IC(50) values for DPPH radicals in the BuOH and acid-hydrolyzed BuOH fractions were 0.521 and 0.021 mg/mL, respectively. The acid-hydrolyzed BuOH exhibited approximately 5-fold higher activity in scavenging superoxide anion than catechin. The acid-hydrolyzed BuOH fraction also effectively protected phi x174 supercoiled DNA against strand cleavage induced by H(2)O(2) and reduced oxidative stress in HL-60 cells. Metabolite profiling showed that the aglycones of flavonoid glycosides in BuOH were produced after acid hydrolytic treatment, and this resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activities of acid-hydrolyzed BuOH. One new diarylpentanoid, kinsenone, and three known flavonoid glycosides and their derivatives were identified for the first time from A. formosanus, with strong antioxidant properties. PMID:11902924
Wang, Sheng-Yang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chang, Hsing-Ning; Kang, Pei-Ling; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Lin, Ku-Feng; Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen
Antioxidants are widely used by humans, both as dietary supplements and as additives to different types of products. The desired properties of an antioxidant often include a balance between the antioxidizing capacity, stability, and solubility. This review focuses on flavonoids, which are naturally occurring antioxidants, and different common substituent groups on flavonoids and how these affect the properties of the molecules in vitro. Hydroxyl groups on flavonoids are both important for the antioxidizing capacity and key points for further modification resulting in O-methylation, -glycosylation, -sulfation, or -acylation. The effects of O-glycosylation and acylation are discussed as these types of substitutions have been most explored in vitro concerning antioxidizing properties as well as stability and solubility. Possibilities to control the properties by enzymatic acylation and glycosylation are also reviewed, showing that depending on the choice of enzyme and substrate, regioselective results can be obtained, introducing possibilities for more targeted production of antioxidants with predesigned properties. PMID:24650232
Plaza, Merichel; Pozzo, Tania; Liu, Jiayin; Gulshan Ara, Kazi Zubaida; Turner, Charlotta; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva
Hispidulin (6-methoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone) and eupafolin (6-methoxy-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), are flavonoids found in the leaves of Eupatorium litoralle. They have recognized antioxidant and antineoplastic properties, although their action mechanisms have not been previously described. We now report the effects of hispidulin on the oxidative metabolism of isolated rat liver mitochondria (Mit) and have also investigated the prooxidant and antioxidant capacity of both flavonoids. Hispidulin (0.05-0.2 mM) decreased the respiratory rate in state III and stimulated it in state IV, when glutamate or succinate was used as oxidizable substrate. Hispidulin inhibited enzymatic activities between complexes I and III of the respiratory chain. In broken Mit hispidulin (0.2 mM) slightly inhibited ATPase activity (25%). However, when intact Mit were used, the flavonoid stimulated this activity by 100%. Substrate energized mitochondrial swelling was markedly inhibited by hispidulin. Both hispidulin and eupafolin were able to promote iron release from ferritin, this effect being more accentuated with eupafolin with the suggestion of a possible involvement of H2O2 in the process. Hispidulin was incapable of donating electrons to the stable free radical DPPH, while eupafolin reacted with it in a similar way to ascorbic acid. The results indicate that hispidulin as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, is able to release iron from ferritin, but has distinct prooxidant and antioxidant properties when compared to eupafolin. PMID:16298860
Dabaghi-Barbosa, Priscila; Mariante Rocha, Andreia; Franco da Cruz Lima, Anderson; Heleno de Oliveira, Brás; Benigna Martinelli de Oliveira, Maria; Gunilla Skare Carnieri, Eva; Cadena, Sílvia M S C; Eliane Merlin Rocha, Maria
Violacein, a violet pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has attracted much attention in recent literature due to its pharmacological properties. In this work, the antioxidant properties of violacein were investigated. The reactivity with oxygen and nitrogen reactive species and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical, was evaluated. EPR studies were carried out to evaluate the reactivity with the hydroxyl radical. The action of violacein against lipid peroxidation in three models of lipid membranes, including rat liver microsomes, Egg and Soy bean phosphathidylcholine liposomes were also evaluated. The compound reacted with DPPH (IC(50)=30microM), nitric oxide (IC(50)=21microM), superoxide radicals (IC(50)=125microM) and decreased the hydroxyl radical EPR signal. The compound protected the studied membranes against peroxidation induced by reactive species in the micromolar range. The reconstitution of violacein into the membranes increased its antioxidant effect. These results indicate that the compound has strong antioxidant potential. Based on these results we suggest violacein plays an important role with the microorganism membrane in defense against oxidative stress. PMID:17011197
Konzen, Marlon; De Marco, Daniela; Cordova, Clarissa A S; Vieira, Tiago O; Antônio, Regina V; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B
The in vitro antioxidant and photo-oxidant activity of dipyridamole was studied by its effect on superoxide- and singlet oxygen-mediated photohemolysis and viability of neutrophils. Dipyridamole was found to be phototoxic when examined by the photohemolysis on human erythrocytes and on linoleic acid as lipid peroxidation model at concentrations above 3.0 x 10(-5) M. On the contrary, when lower concentrations (1.0 x 10(-5) to 1.0 x 10(-6) M) were used, dipyridamole showed a protector action against singlet oxygen-mediated photohemolysis by other phototoxic compounds like triamterene. This antioxidant property is proposed to result from quenching of triamterene mediated by fluorescence energy transfer. Auto-oxidation and fluorescence-energy transfer is clearly an important mechanism for protection for this drug. PMID:11797818
Vargas, F; Cheng, A T; Velutini, G; Marcano, E; Sánchez, Y; Fraile, G; Velásquez, M
The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205
Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A
The effect of germination, steaming and roasting on the nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) was investigated. The nutraceutical properties were determined by evaluating the total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents while the antioxidant properties were studied by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the iron reducing power assay. The results showed that the total phenolic,
S. R. Pradeep; Manisha Guha
The hydroalcoholic extract of Maytenus krukovii bark was investigated for its in vitro mutageno-protective activities by means of the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. The extract showed an inhibitory effect in both T98 and T100 strains against the mutagenic activity of promutagen 2-aminoanthracene but was not protective against directly acting mutagens sodium azide and 2-nitrofluorene. When tested as a radical scavenger and antioxidant it produced a dose-dependent inhibition. The extract did not show significant antibacterial properties, and was weakly active against dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi, but inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Pithyum ultimum. PMID:16963198
Bruni, Renato; Rossi, Damiano; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Romagnoli, Carlo; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Besco, Elena; Choquecillo, Fritz; Peralta, Katia; Lora, William Schmitt; Sacchetti, Gianni
Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was tested using two methods (DPPH inhibition and sequestration of nitric oxide). The antiangiogenic properties were evaluated using the inflammatory angiogenesis model in the corneas of rats. The extract of C. echinata demonstrated a high capacity to inhibit free radicals, with IC50 equal to 42.404 µg/mL for the DPPH test and 234.2 µg/mL for nitric oxide. Moreover, it showed itself capable of inhibiting the inflammatory angiogenic response by 77.49%. These data suggest that biochemical components belonging to the extract of C. echinata interfere in mechanisms that control the angiogenic process, mediated by substrates belonging to the arachidonic acid cascade, although the data described above also suggest that the NO buffer may contribute to some extent to the reduction in the angiogenic response.
da Silva Gomes, Elisangela Christhianne Barbosa; Jimenez, George Chaves; da Silva, Luis Claudio Nascimento; de Sa, Fabricio Bezerra; de Souza, Karen Pena Cavalcanti; Paiva, Gerson S.; de Souza, Ivone Antonia
An ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) was assessed to determine the mechanism(s) of its antioxidant activity. The ethanol extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a thiocyanate assay system. In addition, the OFS extract showed dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals, superoxide anions (O(2)(*-)), and hydroxyl radicals (*OH), using different assay systems. The OFS ethanol extract was also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton's reaction mixture. Furthermore, the extract showed significant (p < 0.01) dose-dependent protection of mouse splenocytes against glucose oxidase-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, the OFS extract was characterized as containing a high amount of phenolics (180.3 mg/g), which might be the active compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the OFS extract. PMID:12381138
Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Kim, Ju; Jang, Yong-Suk
The effects of phenolic constituents in red cranberry extracts (RCE) and white cranberry extracts (WCE) on the endothelial cell function were investigated. Peonidin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside were the predominant anthocyanins characterized, whereas a procyanidin tetramer was the predominant proanthocyanidin identified. The antioxidant properties of RCE and WCE were not significantly different regardless of antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, and TEAC) used. Both RCE and WCE induced the phosphorylation of Akt in vitro in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC), resulting in the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, cell migration, and tube formation. The enhanced phosphorylation of PI3/Akt kinase in HUVEC, endothelial cell wound healing, and tube formation elicited by RCE and WCE suggest that overall phenolic constituents rather than individual phenolic compounds within the cranberry matrix may be responsible for these biological effects. PMID:24679816
Tulio, Artemio Z; Jablonski, Joseph E; Jackson, Lauren S; Chang, Claire; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt
The antioxidant activities and scavenging effects on free radicals of extracts from Ganoderma were investigated. The methanolic extracts of Ganoderma tsugae (MEGT) showed the strongest antioxidant activity of five species of Ganoderma tested. MEGT exhibited substantial antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid and rat liver microsome peroxidation systems. The antioxidant activity of MEGT was stronger than ?-tocopherol. MEGT had a
Gow-Chin Yen; Jun-Yi Wu
The anti-ulcer properties of astaxanthin fractions such as total carotenoid and astaxanthin esters from Haematococcus pluvialis were evaluated in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Since oxygen radical release is a pathogenic factor of ethanol-induced gastric damage, astaxanthin - a free radical scavenger, was investigated as a potential ulcer preventive agent. Astaxanthin fractions - total carotenoid and astaxanthin esters were orally administered to experimental rats at 100, 250 and 500 microg/kg b.w. prior to ulcer induction. Alcian blue binding assay indicates that, total carotenoid and astaxanthin esters at 500 microg/kg b.w could protect gastric mucin approximately 40% and 67% respectively. Pre-treatment with astaxanthin esters, also resulted in significant increase in antioxidant enzyme levels - catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in stomach homogenate. Histopathological examination substantiated the protective effect of astaxanthin in pre-treated rats. The increased antioxidant potencies such as free radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) of approximately 8 microg/ml and reducing power abilities (59 x 10(3) U/g) in vitro, reveal that H. pluvialis astaxanthin may protect gastric mucosal injury by antioxidative mechanism. In addition, approximately 23 fold increased lipoxygenase-inhibitory property, in comparison with standard astaxanthin and significant H(+), K(+)-ATPase-inhibitory activity of astaxanthin esters, in comparison with known proton pump blocking anti-ulcer drug - omeprazole, may envisage the potential gastroprotective effect by regulating the gastric mucosal injury and gastric acid secretion by the gastric cell during ulcer disease. PMID:18602387
Kamath, Burde Sandesh; Srikanta, Belagihally Manjegowda; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah; Sarada, Ravi; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana
The pathophysiology of hypertension or stroke is associated with an excess of ROS generation in the vascular system, and results in induction of various pathological cascades of cerebrovascular damage. We have demonstrated that electron spin resonance methods using a spin trap or spin probe will be useful for understanding redox status under conditions of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat or stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. We have used electron spin resonance imaging and noninvasive L-band electron spin resonance to characterize the higher degree of brain oxidative stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the Wistar-Kyoto rat brain, and the lower extent of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat than in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat brain. Indeed, we may be able to confirm propofol medium-chain triglyceride/long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) as neuroprotective anesthesia and crocetin as antioxidant food factor against human stroke after screening for antioxidant properties in stroke models such as stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. Thus, our electron spin resonance biomedical application suggests that it could be used to assess antioxidant effects on oxidative stress in the brain using spontaneously hypertensive rat and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. We hope that further advances in the instrumentation used for electron spin resonance imaging and the development of optimized nontoxic spin probes will make this technology even more promising for novel clinical prediction or noninvasive diagnosis of human stroke. After screening drugs or foods for antioxidant property using in vitro or in vivo electron spin resonance assessment, it will be possible to find and develop novel drugs or food factors with such properties for the prevention of stroke in the near future.
Extraction and characterization of antioxidative compositions from the extracts of fermented Xisha Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice were studied. The antioxidative constituents of 184.6 g freeze-dried extracts of naturally fermented Xisha Noni juice were isolated successfully by petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH solvents, and the antioxidative effects were measured according to scavenging activity against hydroxyl generated in Fenton reaction system
Chang-hong LIU; Ya-rong XUE; Yong-hang YE; Feng-feng YUAN; Jun-yan LIU; Jing-lei SHUANG
Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and\\u000a determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total\\u000a phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging\\u000a activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power of gelatin–OTA. Incorporation of OLA into gelatin (OLA-to-free amino group\\u000a molar ratio of
Tanong Aewsiri; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Peter A. Wierenga; Harry Gruppen
Different in vitro assays characterise most of the essential oils and phenolic compounds as antioxidants. These molecules can be found in a variety of aromatic plants and have been related to their bioactive properties. For the first time, a comparative study between the antioxidant properties of essential oils and phenolic extracts from Cistus ladanifer leaves, Citrus latifolia fruit peels, Cupressus
Rafaela Guimarães; Maria João Sousa; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
A North American ginseng extract (NAGE) containing known principle ginsenosides for Panax quinquefolius was assayed for metal chelation, affinity to scavenge DPPH-stable free radical, and peroxyl (LOO*) and hydroxyl (*OH) free radicals for the purpose of characterizing mechanisms of antioxidant activity. Dissociation constants (Kd) for NAGE to bind transition metals were in the order of Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Fe3+ and corresponded to the affinity to inhibit metal induced lipid peroxidation. In a metal-free linoleic acid emulsion, NAGE exhibited a significant (p < or = 0.05) concentration (0.01-10 mg/mL) dependent mitigation of lipid oxidation as assessed by the ammonium thiocyanate method. Similar results were obtained when NAGE was incubated in a methyl linoleate emulsion containing haemoglobin catalyst and assessed by an oxygen electrode. NAGE also showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activity up to a concentration of 1.6 mg/mL (r2 = 0.996). Similar results were obtained for scavenging of both site-specific and non site-specific *OH, using the deoxyribose assay method. Moreover, NAGE effectively inhibited the non site-specific DNA strand breakage caused by Fenton agents, and suppressed the Fenton induced oxidation of a 66 Kd soluble protein obtained from mouse brain over a concentration range of 2-40 mg/mL. These results indicate that NAGE exhibits effective antioxidant activity in both lipid and aqueous mediums by both chelation of metal ions and scavenging of free radicals. PMID:10724326
Kitts, D D; Wijewickreme, A N; Hu, C
In the present study, the antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts of 16 Ballota species belonging to the Lamiaceae family and growing in Turkey on superoxide anion formation and lipid peroxidation were investigated. All extracts inhibited superoxide anion formation but to different extents. The extracts of Ballota antalyense, Ballota macrodonta, Ballota glandulosissima, Ballota larendana, Ballota pseudodictamnus, Ballota nigra subsp. anatolica, Ballota saxatilis subsp. saxatilis, Ballota rotundifolia, and Ballota saxatilis subsp. brachyodonta exhibited remarkable anti-superoxide anion formation with IC(50) values from 0.50 to 0.87 mg/ml. The extracts of Ballota antalyense, Ballota macrodonta and Ballota glandulosissima have the lowest IC(50) values (0.50, 0.51 and 0.51 mg/ml, respectively) which were rather close to the well-known superoxide anion scavenger alpha-tocopherol (IC(50): 0.22 mg/ml). The extracts of Ballota inaequidens, Ballota glandulosissima, Ballota saxatilis subsp. saxatilis, Ballota macrodonta and Ballota antalyense inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC(50) values from 12 to 20 mg/ml. The extracts of Ballota inaequidens (IC(50): 12 mg/ml) and Ballota glandulosissima (IC(50): 15 mg/ml) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation compared with alpha-tocopherol (IC(50): 3 mg/ml). The results show that Ballota glandulosissima is the best antioxidant source among these 16 Ballota species. PMID:15138012
Cito?lu, G Saltan; Coban, T; Sever, B; I?can, M
The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1?-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom.
Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou
The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760
Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou
Because of increased safety concerns about synthetic antioxidants, exploitation of cheaper and safer sources of antioxidants based on natural origin is the focus of research nowadays. Rhazya stricta is a medicinally important plant native to South Asia. Extraction of antioxidants was carried out in different solvent systems, i.e., water, 80% methanol, 70% ethanol, and diethyl ether. The methanolic extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content among the extracts; therefore for further studies the methanolic extract was employed. Antioxidant activity measurement in the linoleic acid system, metal chelating activity, reducing power, scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity were taken as the parameters for assessment of antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts. Results were compared with alpha-tocopherol and the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole. The antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts of R. stricta leaves was comparable with previously exploited potent antioxidants and is strongly concentration dependent. PMID:16822215
Iqbal, Shahid; Bhanger, M I; Akhtar, Mubeena; Anwar, Farooq; Ahmed, Khawaja Raees; Anwer, Tabraz
Methods for the characterization of antioxidants are presented and illustrated by their application to commercial garlic and ginger preparations, since it has been widely speculated that garlic and ginger might be beneficial to human health because they exert ‘antioxidant activity’. The sample of commercial ginger powder, tested at concentrations up to 5 mg\\/ml, inhibited the peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes, but
Okezie I. Aruoma; Jeremy P. E. Spencer; Donna Warren; Peter Jenner; John Butler; Barry Halliwell
This study aimed to investigate for the first time the chemical composition, the antioxidant properties and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Cordia gilletii De Wild (Boraginaceae). The essential oil, characterized by 23 constituents (90.1% of the total oil), was constituted by terpene derivatives (25.6%) and non-terpene derivatives (64.5%), among which aldehydes, fatty acids and alkanes were present with the percentage of 16.5%, 18.8% and 23.1%, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. gilletii essential oil was screened by two in vitro tests: DPPH and beta-carotene bleaching test. The essential oil revealed antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 75.0 and 129.9 microg/mL on DPPH radical and beta-carotene decoloration tests, respectively. Moreover, C. gilletii inhibited AChE enzyme with an IC50 value of 105.6 microg/mL. PMID:21425688
Bonesi, Marco; Okusa, Philippe N; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Menichini, Federica; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco
The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183
Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath
Background Coumarin derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological properties including promising antioxidant activity. Furthermore, microwave-assisted organic synthesis has delivered rapid routes to N- and O-containing heterocycles, including coumarins and thiazoles. Combining these features, the use of microwave-assisted processes will provide rapid access to a targeted coumarin library bearing a hydrazino pharmacophore for evaluation of antioxidant properties Results Microwave irradiation promoted 3 of the 4 steps in a rapid, convergent synthesis of a small library of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarin derivatives, all of which exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of the natural antioxidant quercetin, as established by DPPH and ABTS radical assays Conclusions Microwave dielectric heating provides a rapid and expedient route to a series of hydrazinyl thiazolyl coumarins to investigate their radical scavenging properties. Given their favourable properties, in comparison with known antioxidants, these coumarin derivatives are promising leads for further development and optimization.
The subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) and the closely-related Periplocoideae are sources of many indigenous Indian medicinal plants. We surveyed antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 15 samples, representing 12 Indian medicinal plant species from these subfamilies. Total antioxidant assay was performed using the 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured using
Siddharthan Surveswaran; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun
Isotorachrysone inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation with an IC50 value of 1.64 +/- 0.08 microM in rat brain homogenates, and was comparable in potency to butylated hydroxytoluene and was more potent than alpha-tocopherol or desferrioxamine. The mechanism of antioxidant properties were then examined. Isotorachrysone could scavenge the stable free radical diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl. And it was an efficient direct scavenger of water-soluble peroxyl radicals with stoichiometry factor of 0.53 +/- 0.05 in the aqueous phase and also toward lipid-soluble peroxyl radicals in tissue homogenates. The oxygen consumption during peroxidation induced by radicals on human erythrocyte ghosts was suppressed by isotorachrysone. Furthermore, it was reactive towards superoxide anion with a second-order rate constant of 5.06 +/- 0.65 x 10(5) M-1 S-1. But it did not react with hydrogen peroxide detected within the sensitivity limit of our assay. Using ascorbate/iron ion/H2O2 as a hydroxyl radical generating system and deoxyribose as a probe, isotorachrysone was effective with hydroxyl radicals with a second-order rate constant of 3.88 +/- 0.54 x 10(11) M-1 S-1 under stimulation by iron-EDTA. On the other hand, isotorachrysone retarded the peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) initiated by both aqueous and lipophilic peroxyl radicals. And it also suppressed copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation, as measured by fluorescence intensity, electrophoretic mobility, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results show that isotorachrysone is potentially an effective and versatile antioxidant, and can help protecting LDL against oxidation. PMID:8948496
Hsiao, G; Ko, F N; Lin, C N; Teng, C M
The antioxidant potency of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as ?-Carotene bleaching, reducing power, DPPH\\/superoxide\\/hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelation and lipid peroxidation. On the basis of in vitro antioxidant properties polyphenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaves (MOEF) was chosen as the potent fraction and used for the DNA
Arti R. Verma; M. Vijayakumar; Chandra S. Mathela; Chandana V. Rao
The program objective was to determine if typical antioxidants used in JP-5 turbine fuel could exhibit harmful effects on fuel system elastomers as a consequence of chemical change of the antioxidants during the inhibition process. One stable and one unstable fuel (relative to peroxidation tendency), with and without an antioxidant, were stored at 43C in contact with 14 elastomer materials. Storage periods ranged from 7 to 270 days. Post-storage elastomer results indicated no deleterious effect attributable to the antioxidants. Significant changes in elastomer properties were confined to the uninhibited, unstable fuel which developed appreciable levels of peroxides over the course of the study.
Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as "bitter kola", plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245
Farombi, Ebenezer O; Owoeye, Olatunde
Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors.
Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde
Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834
Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu
Organic material is stabilized against oxidative degradation by the addition of a small amount of an antioxidant compound or mixture of compounds containing a central segment of one to about ten divalent o-hydrocarbyl phenol groups (e.g., O-tertbutylphenol) bonded to each other through a methylene group and having terminal 3,5-dihydrocarbyl-4-hydroxybenzyl groups at each end. They are made by first condensing o-hydrocarbyl phenol with formaldehyde and then reacting the intermediate with 2,6dihydrocarbyl phenol and formaldehyde.
Organic material is stabilized against oxidative degradation by the addition of a small amount of an antioxidant compound or mixture of compounds containing a central segment of one to about ten divalent o-hydrocarbyl phenyl groups (e.g. O-tertbutylphenol) bonded to each other through a methylene group and having terminal 3,5-dihydrocarbyl-4-hydroxybenzyl groups at each end. They are made by first condensing o-hydrocarbyl phenol with formaldehyde and then reacting the intermediate with 2,6-dihydrocarbyl phenol and formaldehyde.
Reactive free oxygen radicals are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or cystic fibrosis (CF). They can originate from endogenous processes or can be part of exogenous exposures (e.g. ozone, cigarette smoke, asbestos fibres). Consequently, therapeutic enhancement of anti-oxidant defence mechanisms in these lung disorders seems a rational approach. In this regard, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and ambroxol have both been frequently investigated. Because of its SH group, NAC scavenges H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), .OH (hydroxol radical), and HOCl (hypochlorous acid). Furthermore, NAC can easily be deacetylated to cysteine, an important precursor of cellular glutathione synthesis, and thus stimulate the cellular glutathione system. This is most evident in pulmonary diseases characterized by low glutathione levels and high oxidant production by inflammatory cells (e.g. in IPF and ARDS). NAC is an effective drug in the treatment of paracetamol intoxication and may even be protective against side-effects of mutagenic agents. In addition NAC reduces cellular production of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-alpha, IL-1). Also, ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexane hydrochloride] scavenges oxidants (e.g. .OH, HOCl). Moreover, ambroxol reduces bronchial hyperreactivity, and it is known to stimulate cellular surfactant production. In addition, ambroxol has anti-inflammatory properties owing to its inhibitory effect on the production of cellular cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites. For both substances effective anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory function has been validated when used in micromolar concentrations. These levels are attainable in vivo in humans. This paper gives an up-to-date overview about the current knowledge of the hypothesis that oxidant-induced cellular damage underlies the pathogenesis of many human pulmonary diseases, and it discusses the feasibility of anti-oxidant augmentation therapy to the lung by using NAC or ambroxol. PMID:9659525
Gillissen, A; Nowak, D
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME. PMID:20041791
Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon
The production, characterization, and antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid fucoxanthin from the marine diatom Odontella aurita were investigated. The results showed that low light and nitrogen-replete culture medium enhanced the biosynthesis of fucoxanthin. The maximum biomass concentration of 6.36 g L-1 and maximum fucoxanthin concentration of 18.47 mg g-1 were obtained in cultures grown in a bubble column photobioreactor (Ø 3.0 cm inner diameter), resulting in a fucoxanthin volumetric productivity of 7.96 mg L-1 day-1. A slight reduction in biomass production was observed in the scaling up of O. aurita culture in a flat plate photobioreactor, yet yielded a comparable fucoxanthin volumetric productivity. A rapid method was developed for extraction and purification of fucoxanthin. The purified fucoxanthin was identified as all-trans-fucoxanthin, which exhibited strong antioxidant properties, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC50) of 1,1-dihpenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical being 0.14 and 0.03 mg mL-1, respectively. Our results suggested that O. aurita can be a natural source of fucoxanthin for human health and nutrition. PMID:23880936
Xia, Song; Wang, Ke; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Chengwu
Terpinolene (TPO) is a natural monoterpene present in essential oils of many aromatic plant species. Although various biological activities of TPO have been demonstrated, its neurotoxicity has never been explored. In this in vitro study we investigated TPO's antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic properties using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, genotoxic damage potential using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and oxidative effects through total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) in cultured primary rat neurons and N2a neuroblastoma cells. Dose-dependent effects of TPO (at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), 50 mg L(-1), 100 mg L(-1), 200 mg L(-1), and 400 mg L(-1)) were tested in both cell types. Significant (P<0.05) decrease in cell proliferation were observed in cultured primary rat neurons starting with the dose of 100 mg L(-1) and in N2a neuroblastoma cells starting with 50 mg L(-1). TPO was not genotoxic in either cell type. In addition, TPO treatment at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), and 50 mg L(-1) increased TAC in primary rat neurons, but not in N2a cells. However, at concentrations above 50 mg L(-1) it increased TOS in both cell types. Our findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied. PMID:24084350
Aydin, Elanur; Türkez, Hasan; Ta?demir, Sener
Enzymatic hydrolysates were prepared from lees produced during sake making using fugu muscle and fin. The antioxidant properties of these hydrolysates were measured using four different methods: autoxidation test, superoxide anion radical, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging test. The yields of enzymatic hydrolysates were around 8.0% and their protein average content 0.66 mg\\/mg. The lees had remarkable antioxidant properties
Objective: Phycocyanin is a pigment found in blue-green algae which contains open chain tetrapyrroles with possible scavenging properties. We have studied its antioxidant properties.¶Materials and methods: Phycocyanin was evaluated as a putative antioxidant in vitro by using: a) luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) generated by three different radical species (Oф, OH, RO) and by zymosan activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), b) deoxyribose
C. Romay; J. Armesto; D. Remirez; R. González; N. Ledon; I. García
Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications. PMID:24887941
Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) shows an antioxidant activity, and we have been engaging to determine the structures of more than 50 antioxidants isolated from the rhizomes of ginger. The isolated antioxidants are divided into two groups; gingerol related compounds and diarylheptanoids. In this study, structure-activity relationship of gingerol related compounds was evaluated. Gingerol related compounds substituted with an alkyl group bearing 10-, 12- or 14-carbon chain length were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of rhizomes using repeated chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated by the following measurements; 1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2) inhibitory effect on oxidation of methyl linoleate under aeration and heating by the Oil Stability Index (OSI) method, and 3) inhibitory effect on oxidation of liposome induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH). These results suggested that the substituents on the alkyl chain might contribute to both radical scavenging effect and inhibitory effect of autoxidation of oils, while inhibitory effects against the AAPH-induced peroxidation of liposome was somewhat influenced by the alkyl chain length; the antioxidant activity might be due to not only radical scavenging activity of antioxidants but also their affinity of the antioxidants to the substrates. PMID:15630214
Masuda, Yuki; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Nakatani, Nobuji
Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants. PMID:22613128
Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Sit, Latif?ah
Studies suggest that consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries ( Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases such as cancer. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds, which are thought to contribute to their biological properties. Comprehensive profiling of phenolics from strawberries was previously reported using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) detection. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of 10 phenolic compounds from strawberry extracts using a combination of Amberlite XAD16-resin and C18 columns, HPLC-UV, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods. The phenolics were cyanidin-3-glucoside ( 1), pelargonidin (2), pelargonidin-3-glucoside (3), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (4), kaempferol (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol-3-(6'-coumaroyl)glucoside) (7), 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-acrylic acid (8), glucose ester of ( E)- p-coumaric acid (9), and ellagic acid . Strawberry crude extracts and purified compounds 1- 10 were evaluated for antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative activities by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and luminescent ATP cell viability assays, respectively. Among the pure compounds, the anthocyanins 1 (7156 microM Trolox/mg), 2 (4922 microM Trolox/mg), and 4 (5514 microM Trolox/mg) were the most potent antioxidants. Crude extracts (250 microg/mL) and pure compounds (100 microg/mL) inhibited the growth of human oral (CAL-27, KB), colon (HT29, HCT-116), and prostate (LNCaP, DU145) cancer cells with different sensitivities observed between cell lines. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of berry fruit phenolics and their potential impact on human health. PMID:18211028
Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Lee, Rupo; Feng, Lydia; Heber, David
Piperidine nitroxides such as TEMPOL have been widely used as antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. MitoTEMPOL is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of TEMPOL designed to protect mitochondria from the oxidative damage that they accumulate, but once there is rapidly reduced to its hydroxylamine, MitoTEMPOL-H. As little is known about the antioxidant efficacy of hydroxylamines, this study has assessed the antioxidant activity of both MitoTEMPOL and MitoTEMPOL-H. The hydroxylamine was more effective at preventing lipid-peroxidation than MitoTEMPOL and decreased oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by menadione. In contrast to MitoTEMPOL, MitoTEMPOL-H has no superoxide dismutase activity and its antioxidant actions are likely to be mediated by hydrogen atom donation. Therefore, even though MitoTEMPOL is rapidly reduced to MitoTEMPOL-H in cells, it remains an effective antioxidant. Furthermore, as TEMPOL is also reduced to a hydroxylamine in vivo, many of its antioxidant effects may also be mediated by its hydroxylamine.
Trnka, Jan; Blaikie, Frances H.; Logan, Angela; Smith, Robin A. J.; Murphy, Michael P.
The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase ? (GP?) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GP? (IC50 = 0.75?mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125?mg/kg?bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30?min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05) of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90?min) compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GP? inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP? inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GP? inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.
Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Arya, Aditya
The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase ? (GP?) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GP? (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05) of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min) compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GP? inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP ? inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GP? inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins. PMID:24688431
Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah; Shilpi, Jamil A; Arya, Aditya
There is evidence concerning the participation of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and physiopathology of human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies, and digestive system disorders such as gastrointestinal inflammation and gastric ulcer. The role of these reactive oxygen species in several diseases and the potential antioxidant protective effect of natural compounds on affected tissues are topics of high current interest. To consider a natural compound or a drug as an antioxidant substance it is necessary to investigate its antioxidant properties in vitro and then to evaluate its antioxidant functions in biological systems. In this review article, we shall consider the role of natural antioxidants derived from popular plants to reduce or prevent the oxidative stress in gastric ulcer induced by ethanol. PMID:12011936
Repetto, M G; Llesuy, S F
The protective/antioxidative properties of diaryl tellurides were demonstrated in cellular systems of increasing complexity. In the presence of glutathione, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) telluride (1a), bis(4-aminophenyl) telluride (1d) and bis(2-carboxyphenyl) telluride (1h) reduced by more than 50% t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cell death in lung fibroblast cultures at concentrations below 2 microM. Bis(2,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) telluride (2b) reduced by more than 50% leukocyte-mediated and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated damage to Caco-2 cells at 0.1 microM concentration. As judged by their abilities to reduce formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at concentrations close to 1 microM, diaryl tellurides 1a, 1d and 2b protected rat kidney tissue against oxidative damage caused by anoxia and reoxygenation. The organotellurium compounds also offered protection after systemic administration. In the presence of diaryl telluride 2b (0.1-1 microM), the ischemia/reperfusion-induced vascular permeability increase in the hamster cheek pouch was significantly reduced as compared with the control. Some of the most active organotellurium cell protectants were evaluated for their ability to inhibit formation of the inflammatory mediators leukotriene B4 and interleukin-1beta. An inhibitory effect on the secretion of these species was seen for compounds 1a and 2b at or above 10 microM concentrations. The protective effects of diaryl tellurides against t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cell injury can be ascribed mainly to the peroxide-decomposing, glutathione peroxidase-like capacity of the compounds. The chain-breaking, electron- or hydrogen atom-donating ability of diaryl tellurides seems to be the main reason for their protection against leukocyte-mediated cell damage in Caco-2 cells and in the oxidatively challenged rat kidney and hamster cheek pouch. PMID:9515568
Wieslander, E; Engman, L; Svensjö, E; Erlansson, M; Johansson, U; Linden, M; Andersson, C M; Brattsand, R
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the limited biological compatibility of many biomaterials due to inflammation, as well as in various pathologies including atherosclerosis and restenosis as a result of vascular interventions. Engineering antioxidant properties into a material is therefore a potential avenue to improve the biocompatibility of materials, as well as to locally attenuate oxidative stress-related pathologies. Moreover, biodegradable polymers that have antioxidant properties built into their backbone structure have high relative antioxidant content and may provide prolonged, continuous attenuation of oxidative stress while the polymer or its degradation products are present. In this report, we describe the synthesis of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate-co-ascorbate) (POCA), a citric-acid based biodegradable elastomer with native, intrinsic antioxidant properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity of POCA as well as its effects on vascular cells in vitro and in vivo were studied. Antioxidant properties investigated included scavenging of free radicals, iron chelation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. POCA reduced reactive oxygen species generation in cells after an oxidative challenge and protected cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Importantly, POCA antioxidant properties remained present upon degradation. Vascular cells cultured on POCA showed high viability, and POCA selectively inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation, while supporting endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, preliminary data on POCA-coated ePTFE grafts showed reduced intimal hyperplasia when compared to standard ePTFE grafts. This biodegradable, intrinsically antioxidant polymer may be useful for tissue engineering application where oxidative stress is a concern. PMID:24976244
van Lith, Robert; Gregory, Elaine K; Yang, Jian; Kibbe, Melina R; Ameer, Guillermo A
Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth. PMID:15800389
Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P
Propolis is known for a long time for its health benefits and biological activities. Here, the red variety from the northeast of Brazil was chemically analyzed and extracts were investigated regarding their antioxidant and antitumor activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts, obtained from the red propolis, revealed polyphenol content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging potential and enzymatic activities for catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated for human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell (Hep-2), human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and human normal epithelial embryonic kidney (Hek-293). Survival analysis for non-tumor cell line showed greater IC50 compared to tumor cell lines, suggesting an increased sensitivity that may correlate with the higher proliferative index of the tumor vs. normal cells. Our results indicate that the Brazilian red propolis is capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth and constitutes an excellent source of antioxidant and antitumor natural agent. PMID:23174518
Frozza, Caroline Olivieri da Silva; Garcia, Charlene Silvestrin Celi; Gambato, Gabriela; de Souza, Marcia Denize Oliveira; Salvador, Mirian; Moura, Sidnei; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Collares, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Roesch-Ely, Mariana
Phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of the crude and fractionated plant extracts of Anoectochilus formosanus were evaluated using five different assay systems. An acid-treatment (2 N HCl in 95% ethanol) was employed to treat a butanol fraction (BuOH), creating an acid-hydrolyzed BuOH fraction. The IC50 values for DPPH radicals in the BuOH and acid-hydrolyzed BuOH fractions were 0.521 and 0.021
Sheng-Yang Wang; Yueh-Hsiung Kuo; Hsing-Ning Chang; Pei-Ling Kang; Hsin-Sheng Tsay; Ku-Feng Lin; Ning-Sun Yang; Lie-Fen Shyur
The antioxidation property of vitamin E-coated dialysis membrane is effective for reduction of oxidative stress. Effect of amount of vitamin E coating on antioxidation property has been poorly understood yet. In the present study, we evaluated a relationship between amount of vitamin E coating and antioxidation property using a superoxide probe of 2-methyl-6-p-methoxyphenylethynylimidazopyrazinone (MPEC) by the optical fiber method to
Ken-ichiro Yamamoto; Masato Matsuda; Masashi Okuoka; Taiji Yakushiji; Makoto Fukuda; Takehiro Miyasaka; Yutaka Matsumoto; Kiyotaka Sakai
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. Since the endogenous antioxidant defense\\u000a may be not adequate to counteract the enhanced generation of oxidants, a growing interest in research for exogenous nutrients\\u000a has been observed. The present study was designed to assess in vitro the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives:\\u000a calcium d-glucarate, d-gluconic acid lactone,
Joanna Kolodziejczyk; Joanna Saluk-Juszczak; Barbara Wachowicz
Three species of mushroom mycelia are commercially available in Taiwan, namely Grifola frondosa (maitake), Morchella esculenta (morel), and Termitomyces albuminosus (termite mushroom). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these three mycelia and their antioxidant properties were studied. Methanolic extracts from the three mycelia showed high antioxidant activities (85.4–94.7%) at 25 mg ml?1. Reducing powers of the three methanolic extracts were 0.97–1.02
Jeng-Leun Mau; Chieh-No Chang; Shih-Jeng Huang; Chin-Chu Chen
Background In South Africa, Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth is used to destroy lice and to relieve itches, to destroy maggots and to treat allergic rashes, particularly those caused by caterpillars. Antioxidants play an important role protecting against damage by reactive oxygen species. Plants containing flavonoids have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. Methods The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Calpurnia aurea were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. Spectrophotometry was the basis for the determinations of total phenol, total flavonoids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Tannins, quercetin and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Laboratory isolates of 10 bacteria species which included five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative strains were used to assay for antibacterial activity of this plant. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of the stem extract of Calpurnia aurea as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, and FRAP methods were higher than that of the leaves. On the other hand, the leaf extract of the plant has higher level of total flavonols and proanthocyanidins. The leaf extract also has higher radical scavenging activity as shown in 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2¿-azinobis-3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The leaf extract showed activity against seven of the bacterial organisms. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of Calpurnia aurea possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger or, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Although, the antibacterial properties of Calpurnia aurea are not as effective as the standard drugs- Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin, they still possess some activity against bacterial strains used in this study. Calpurnia aurea may therefore be a good candidate for functional foods as well as pharmaceutical plant-based products.
Adedapo, Adeolu A; Jimoh, Florence O; Koduru, Srinivas; Afolayan, Anthony J; Masika, Patrick J
For a number of years, coenzyme Q (CoQ10 in humans), was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular\\u000a fractions and in plasma, and also extensively investigated its antioxidant role. This chapter discusses the relationship between\\u000a the acknowledged bioenergetic role of CoQ10 and some clinical effects. The antioxidant properties of CoQ10 are
Gian Paolo Littarru; Luca Tiano
Effects of drying methods on the stability of phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were assessed. The rhizomes were collected at 9 and 12 months after planting and sun-dried, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 40°, 50°, 60°, or 70° C. Oven drying at 60° C resulted in significant gains of phenolics (441.85 mg.100g d.w), antioxidant activities (78.45 ± 2.04%
Theeraphan Chumroenphat; Intha Khanprom; Luchai Butkhup
Twenty-five compounds (trimetazidine derivatives and other compounds, mostly having a free phenolic group) were examined for their radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Their reaction with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) as a measure of radical scavenging capacity was assessed by two parameters, namely EC50 (the concentration of antioxidant decreasing DPPH by 50%), and log Z, a kinetic parameter proposed here and derived from
Jacek Ancerewicz; Eugenia Migliavacca; Pierre-Alain Carrupt; Bernard Testa; Françoise Brée; Roland Zini; Jean-Paul Tillement; Serge Labidalle; Daniel Guyot; Anne-Marie Chauvet-Monges; Aimé Crevat; Alain Le Ridant
Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) with antioxidative properties were prepared using Pacific hake fish with high endogenous proteolytic activity from Kudoa paniformis parasitic infection. Infection level of ?107K. paniformis spores\\/g fish mince or higher yielded FPH with high antioxidant potential by autolysis and\\/or Validase® BNP or Flavourzyme® 500L. Autolyzing fish mince containing 30×106spores\\/g for 1h at 52°C and pH 5.50 produced
Anusha G. P. Samaranayaka; Eunice C. Y. Li-Chan
Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. PMID:22465955
Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar
Carbonyl iron particle is a typical magnetic microwave absorbing material. Because of the effect of particle shape, the flaky carbonyl iron has large values of microwave permeability and can be an excellent super-thin absorber. However, the flaky carbonyl iron prepared by high-energy ball milling has high activity and is apt to be oxidized. Based on a reverse reaction of the blast furnace iron-making process, this work developed a facile passivation method with carbon dioxide to improve the antioxidation property of the flaky carbonyl iron. The antioxidation property of the passivated carbonyl iron was improved greatly while the excellent microwave absorption property maintained.
Yin, Chunlei; Fan, Junmei; Bai, Liuyang; Ding, Fei; Yuan, Fangli
Abstract This study describes the characterization of essential oil and phenolic compounds in Disporopsis pernyi (Hua) Diels. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and twelve volatile bioactive compounds of D. pernyi were identified. Polyphenols were identified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and quantified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). A total of 4 polyphenolic compounds found in extract were identified as rutin, luteolin, quercetin, and betulinic acid. All obtained extracts and the 4 polyphenolic compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the plant. PMID:24797793
Lin, Qisi; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Dongzhi; Chunjie, Zhao
The object of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Salvia leriifolia Benth extracts and fractions. The functional role of herbs and spices and their constituents is a hot topic in food-related plant research. Salvia species have been used since ancient times in folk medicine for cognitive brain function and have been subjected to extensive research. Thus, we hypothesize that S leriifolia, because of its functional properties, would be a good candidate to use as a nutraceutical product for improving memory in the elderly or patients affected by Alzheimer disease (ad). To test this hypothesis, we examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity using the modified colorimetric Ellman's method against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The n-hexane exhibited the highest activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 0.59 and 0.21 mg/mL, for AChE and BChE, respectively. This extract was fractionated, and 9 of these fractions (A-I) were obtained and tested. Fraction G, characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes as major components, was the most active against AChE (IC(50) = 0.05 mg/mL). Because oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD, we decided to screen the antioxidant activity (AA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test, ?-carotene bleaching test, and bovine brain peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid) assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity, with IC(50) values of 2 and 33 ?g/mL on ?-carotene bleaching test and thiobarbituric acid test, respectively. These results suggest potential health benefits of S leriifolia extracts. However, this finding requires additional investigation in vivo. PMID:21147365
Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Nadjafi, Farsad; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco
Flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins isolated from Pelargonium reniforme were evaluated for their antioxidant ability using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical generating system and a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In both assays, the polyphenols tested showed higher radical scavenging activities than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (IC50 2.6-32.9 microM vs 40.9 microM in the DPPH test, and 2-25 times stronger effects in the chemiluminescence assay). A comparison of the flavonoids and the tannins showed that the latter have more potential than the former. Structural requirements for marked antioxidant activities of hydrolyzable tannins were the presence of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl groups, and apparently carbonyl (ester) functionalities in oxidatively modified dehydrohexa-hydroxydiphenoyl moieties. For flavonoids, it appeared that a catechol (3',4'-dihydroxy) element in the B-ring were important determinants and that O-glycosides were more effective than flavone-based C-glucosyls. Conspicuously, introduction of a galloyl group significantly enhanced their potentials. The demonstrated marked antioxidant effects of the polyphenols provide a clue for beneficial effects of P. reniforme in the treatment of liver disorders among several ethnic groups in areas of southern Africa. PMID:15264932
Latté, Klaus Peter; Kolodziej, Herbert
We have examined the antioxidant activity of the major phenolic compounds in Broccoli: two flavonol glycosides (quercetin 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside) and four hydroxycinnamic acid esters (1,2'-disinapoyl-2-feruloyl gentiobiose, 1-sinapoyl-2-feruloyl gentiobiose, 1,2,2'-trisinapoyl gentiobiose and 1,2-disinapoyl gentiobiose). The Trolox C equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibition of iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation of phosphatidyl choline vesicles were measured. In the aqueous phase TEAC assay, the two flavonol glycosides were less active than their respective aglycones. TEAC values for the hydroxycinnamic acid esters were less than the sum of their constituent hydroxycinnamic acids on a molar basis. Quercetin 3-O-sophoroside was a potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, in contrast to kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside. The hydroxycinnamic acid esters were highly effective at preventing lipid damage with the exception of 1,2,2'-trisinapoyl gentiobiose. The six compounds analysed herein demonstrate the antioxidant activity of the major phenolics in broccoli and indicate the effect on antioxidant activity of sugar substitutions in the phenolic B ring. PMID:9416471
Plumb, G W; Price, K R; Rhodes, M J; Williamson, G
A water extract was prepared from fresh propolis from Brazil. Antioxidant activity was measured using a lipid peroxidation model system. The activity was very strong and, at 1 and 5 mg\\/ml, higher than that of 5 mM ascorbic acid. The scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical of water extract of propolis was high, and the extracts, at 50 and 100
Takeshi Nagai; Reiji Inoue; Hachiro Inoue; Nobutaka Suzuki
Current concepts of the inflammatory process include the formation of oxidation products which have the ability to damage tissue. In a few selected inflammation models which included irritant and immunologic stimulus, some representative compounds with antioxidant activity were studied. A diverse set of responses were obtained, but consistently DPPD and ethoxyquin exhibited antiinflammatory activity. Although it cannot be categorically stated
The structure-function relationships of the naphthoquinone phytochemicals, plumbagin, juglone, and menadione, have been studied with regard to antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Antimutagenicity of these compounds was assessed by the Ames test and RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based rifampicin resistance assay. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging assays and reducing power measurement. Protection of cells and DNA against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage was assayed by survival analysis and gel electrophoresis profiling, respectively. On the 1,4-naphthoquinone nucleus, plumbagin possesses 5-hydroxyl and 2-methyl functional groups, whereas juglone has only the 5-hydroxyl and menadione only the 2-methyl group. Plumbagin showed strong antimutagenic (against ultraviolet and ethyl methanesulfonate) and antioxidant activities, whereas juglone displayed only strong antimutagenic, and menadione only strong antioxidant activities. Thus, these two functional groups (5-OH/2-CH3) play important roles in the differential bioactivity of naphthoquinones. Escherichia coli, microarray analysis showed upregulation of the genes rep (replication/repair), ybaK (tRNA editing), speE (spermidine synthesis), and yjfC (glutathionyl spermidine synthesis) by plumbagin or juglone, and sodC (superoxide dismutase), xthA (oxidative repair), hycB (electron carrier between hydrogenase 3 and fumarate dehydrogenase), and ligA (formation of phosphodiester bond in DNA) by plumbagin or menadione. Studies with E. coli single-gene knockouts showed that ybaK and speE, reported to prevent mistranslation, are likely to be involved in the antimutagenicity displayed by juglone, and sodC to be involved in the antioxidant activity of menadione. PMID:23688616
Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun
Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. The Salmonella typhimurium (TA102) reverse mutation assay, co-incubated with t-BOOH and H(2)O(2), was used to assess the effects of gamma-irradiation (dose: 10kGy) on the antioxidant properties of sage, thyme, and oregano in chloroform and methanol extracts as well as in their mixture. In addition, measurements of the trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC), total polyphenol content (TPC), and tocopherol equivalent (TE) were performed. For the methanol and mixed extracts, antioxidative properties in the S. typhimurium reverse mutation assay were only found when using an exogenous metabolic activation system. Generally, the greatest inhibition of mutagenicity was observed in the chloroform fractions of irradiated and of non-irradiated herbs. The relative antioxidant activities for the different herbs were as follows: TA102/t-BOOH, TEAC, TPC: thyme approximately oregano>sage. TA102/H(2)O(2): thyme approximately oregano approximately sage. TE: sage>thyme>oregano. For the majority of the investigated samples the impact of irradiation was insignificant. Therefore, gamma-irradiation at the doses tested seems to have little, if any, effect on the antioxidative capacity of the tested herbs. PMID:19520134
Brandstetter, S; Berthold, C; Isnardy, B; Solar, S; Elmadfa, I
Abstract In this study, 17 commercial honey samples from Morocco were analyzed. Four samples did not meet the international physicochemical standards due to high hydroxymethylfurfural content and low diastase activity. Phenol content varied from 163.82?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg in citrus honey to 923.70?mg (GAE)/kg in thyme honey from Rachidia; flavonoid content ranged from 4.26?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/kg in citrus honey to 139.62?mg QE/kg in black cumin honey. Black cumin honey had the highest peroxyl scavenging activity; oregano (from Zaraphyt) and thyme honeys (from Rachidia) had the highest ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) scavenging activity; and thyme honey (Saouira) had the highest NO scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Moroccan honeys was correlated with the phenol, flavonoid, and melanoidin contents. Dark honeys had higher antioxidant activity than light honeys. Samples with high sodium levels had lower free radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, calcium and magnesium increased the ABTS and peroxyl scavenging capacity, respectively, of honey samples. According to cluster and discriminant analyses, the honey samples were grouped in three clusters with respect to the phenol, flavonoid, melanoidin, proline, mineral and sugar contents, and free radical scavenging capacity. PMID:24438231
Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça
Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves. PMID:19067389
Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio
Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates) may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary and secondary) could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa products components. PMID:18830150
Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd; Ismail, Amin
Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical ?1 and ? chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications.
Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui
Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical ?1 and ? chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24979271
Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui
The number of skin cancers continues to rise, accounting for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals are linked to skin cancer and aging. Therefore, it is important for us to identify agents that have anti-oxidant properties to protect skin against free radical damage. The purpose of this research is to investigate the anti-oxidant properties of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin that are components from chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria, respectively. We measured the ability of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we demonstrated that varying concentrations of these natural components were able to inhibit upregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our results indicate components of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria exhibit anti-oxidant capabilities and warrant further study in clinical trials to characterize their anti-cancer and anti-aging capabilities. PMID:23884490
Mamalis, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared
The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds. PMID:24444935
Wojdy?o, Aneta; Teleszko, Miros?awa; Oszmia?ski, Jan
For a number of years, coenzyme Q (CoQ10 in humans) was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular\\u000a fractions and in plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis on which\\u000a research supporting the clinical use of CoQ10 is founded. Also at the inner mitochondrial membrane
Gian Paolo Littarru; Luca Tiano
Thirty-seven China wines, produced from different geographical origins, were examined in this study. The antioxidant activity of wines was measured by different analytical methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, 2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), hydroxyl radical-scavenger activity, superoxide radical-scavenger activity, lipid peroxidation and chelating capacity. Furthermore,total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins of wines were determined.
Hua Li; Xiaoyu Wang; Yong Li; Peihong Li; Hua Wang
Monsooned coffee is one of the world specialty coffees processed only in India. Monsooned Malabar (MM) and Monsooned Robusta\\u000a (MR) are processed from native Arabica and Robusta coffees. Few of the parameters like moisture, density, pH, color, soluble\\u000a solids, phenols, caffeine and chlorogenic acids differed significantly compared to the native coffees. Antioxidant activity\\u000a of MM and MR were 62.23 and
Pushpa S. Murthy; H. K. Manonmani
Summary The differences between animal fats and common vegetable oils as regards their protection by antioxidants are briefly reviewed;\\u000a in general, the former can be stabilized by di- and poly-phenolic inhibitors and by inhibitols, the latter by acid-type inhibitors\\u000a such as tartaric, phosphoric and other acids; these acids reinforce the action of the inhibitols which occur naturally in\\u000a vegetable oils or
Calvin Golumbic; H. A. Mattill
Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.
Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon
An extract of Xanthosoma violaceum leaves was subjected to a polyphenol profile determination, including total polyphenols, and antioxidant activity evaluation. Analysis of the extract resulted in the isolation of a new flavone C-glycoside, apigenin 6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-apiofuranoside (1), as well as known flavone C-glycosides, including vitexin (2), isovitexin (3), isovitexin 4'-O-rhamnopyranoside (4), apigenin 6-C-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (5), and apigenin 6,8-diC-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6). The antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by means of two different in vitro tests: bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test) and peroxidation induced by the water-soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride, on mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/linoleic acid unilamellar vesicles (LP-LUV test). In both tests used, the extract and a fraction II showed a significant antioxidant/free-radical scavenging effect (fraction II, EC(50) = 11.6 microg/mL) in comparison to alpha-tocopherol (EC(50) = 10.1 microg/mL). PMID:14558757
Picerno, Patrizia; Mencherini, Teresa; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Francesco; Aquino, Rita
The fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lactarius salmonicolor (Russulaceae) collected from the wild were extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and evaluated for their antioxidant capacity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Additionally, their total phenolic content was evaluated by a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanol extract showed the most potent radical scavenging activity (inhibition of 36.7% of DPPH at 3 mg/mL and 6.8 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry extract), and was further fractionated. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity found to be significant higher in the fractions of increased polarity. The phytochemical investigation which was performed by chromatographic and spectrometric techniques led to the isolation of nine compounds from the methanol extract and the identification of 10 fatty acids and fatty acids esters from the dichloromethane extract. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of isolated compounds showed p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4) to be the most active. Among the various compounds found, the rare azulene type 7-acetyl-4-methylazulene-1-carboxylic acid (1) has been identified, which had been isolated only once before from L. deliciosus. Therefore, this compound seems to have some chemotaxonomic value for Lactrarius species exuding orange to red milk. PMID:23957359
Athanasakis, Georgios; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Gonou-Zagou, Zacharoula; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Fokialakis, Nikolas
Functional properties and antioxidant activity of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle hydrolysed by three different enzymes papain, pepsin and trypsin were studied. The protein hydrolysates produced by trypsin had an excellent solubility (98%) compared to pepsin (77%) and papain hydrolysate (74%). Conversely, the emulsifying activity index (ESI) and foaming abilities were affected by pH. DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power and metal chelating activity of protein hydrolysates increased with increase in concentration. Lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited by 64% by protein hydrolysates produced by trypsin. The results revealed that the functional properties and antioxidant activities of pink perch were greatly affected by the enzymes used. PMID:24426005
Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf; Nazeer, R A
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids, has been investigated in the presence of Cu(II) in methanol. The spectroscopic studies (UV-vis, 1H NMR and IR) were useful to assess the relevant interaction of Quercetin with Cu(II) ions, the chelation sites and dependence of the complex structure from the metal/ligand ratio. A 1:2 (L:M) complex was indicated by Job's method of continuous variation, which was applied to ascertain the stoichiometric composition of the complex. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were evaluated by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The complexed flavonoid was much more effective free radical scavengers than the free flavonoids.
Bukhari, S. Birjees; Memon, Shahabuddin; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Bhanger, M. I.
C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a blue colored accessory photosynthetic pigment found in cyanobacteria. Some of the medicinal properties of Spirulina have been attributed to this pigment, which includes anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. We have screened cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater habitats in Florida for their high content of C-PC. Of 125 strains tested, one filamentous strain identified as Limnothrix sp. was selected for further research. This strain produced 18% C-PC of total dry biomass. Here we describe a simple method for obtaining C-PC of high purity without the use of ion exchange chromatography. The procedure is based on pigment precipitation from the cell lysate with an appropriate concentration of ammonium sulfate, then purification with activated carbon and chitosan, followed by a sample concentration using tangential flow filtration. We have shown that when the lower concentration of ammonium sulfate was used, C-PC with higher purity index was recovered. Characterization of C-PC from Limnothrix showed that it had an absorbance maximum at 620 nm and fluorescence at 639 nm. The molecular mass of intact C-PC was estimated to be ~50 kDa with ? and ? subunits forming dimmers. When C-PC content per unit biomass was compared to that of marketed Spirulina powder, we found that Limnothrix was superior. C-phycocyanin from Limnothrix had an antioxidative activity on DPPH free radicals similar to that found in a natural antioxidant – rutin.
Gantar, Miroslav; Simovic, Dragan; Djilas, Sonja; Gonzalez, Walter W.; Miksovska, Jaroslava
The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.
Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M. H.; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah
The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions. PMID:22837707
Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah
Previously, it has been shown that pteridine derivatives are capable of modulating the action of free radicals and both prooxidant and antioxidant properties have been described. However, the mechanism of manifestation of these properties is still unclear. We studied the radical scavenging properties of 7,8-dihydroneopterin and neopterin using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO). It was found that dihydroneopterin acts generally
Karl Oettl; Sergey Dikalov; Hans-Joachim Freisleben; Walter Mlekusch; Gilbert Reibnegger
This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative properties of hydroalcoholic (80%) extracts from different parts of Urtica pilulifera L. (Family Urticaceae), including leaf (UPL), flower (UPF), seed (UPS), and root (UPR). Antioxidative activity of the extracts was measured using the ferric thiocyanate method, thiobarbituric acid method, reductive potential, metal chelating, free radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In addition, the results were compared with antioxidants such as tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tert-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ?-tocopherol. Total antioxidant activities of UPS, UPF, UPL, UPR, BHA, BHT, and ?-tocopherol were 88.79%, 85.13%, 86.72%, 78.46%, 81.31%, 76.12%, and 46.28%, respectively. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power and the superoxide anion radical and free radical scavenging activities of UPL, UPF, UPS, and UPR are concentration dependent. A correlation between higher antioxidant activity and the amount of total phenolics was found in the extracts. PMID:20828318
Ozen, Tevfik; Cöllü, Zeynep; Korkmaz, Halil
Thirty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria (seven Bifidobacterium, 11 Lactobacillus, six Lactococcus, and 10 Streptococcus thermophilus) were assayed in vitro for antioxidant activity against ascorbic and linolenic acid oxidation (TAA(AA) and TAA(LA)), trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), intracellular glutathione (TGSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Wide dispersion of each of TAA(AA), TAA(LA), TEAC, TGSH, and SOD occurred within bacterial groups, indicating that antioxidative properties are strain specific. The strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSMZ 23032, Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 23033, and Lactobacillus brevis DSMZ 23034 exhibited among the highest TAA(AA), TAA(LA), TEAC, and TGSH values within the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. These strains were used to prepare a potentially antioxidative probiotic formulation, which was administered to rats at the dose of 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) cfu/day for 18 days. The probiotic strains colonized the colon of the rats during the trial and promoted intestinal saccharolytic metabolism. The analysis of plasma antioxidant activity, reactive oxygen molecules level, and glutathione concentration, revealed that, when administered at doses of at least 10(8) cfu/day, the antioxidant mixture effectively reduced doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Probiotic strains which are capable to limit excessive amounts of reactive radicals in vivo may contribute to prevent and control several diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:22790540
Amaretti, Alberto; di Nunzio, Mattia; Pompei, Anna; Raimondi, Stefano; Rossi, Maddalena; Bordoni, Alessandra
The synthesis and study of the antioxidant and vasodilator properties of a new class of phenols able to release nitric oxide are described. The products were designed through a symbiotic approach using selected phenols and selected nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donors as reference models. The antioxidant activities of the hybrid products were assessed by detecting the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced in the ferrous salt/ascorbate-induced autoxidation of lipids present in microsomial membranes of rat hepatocytes. The vasodilator activity was assessed on rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Some of the products (13, 35, 37, 60-62, 64) behave principally as vasodilators and others as antioxidants (24, 32, 72), and the two properties are relatively balanced in 19, 41, and 68. Further in vivo studies should clarify whether some of these products may become preclinical candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular disease underpinned by atheroma. PMID:16686532
Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Giorgis, Marta; Bertinaria, Massimo; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto
The antioxidant properties of diabenol and gliclazide with reference to mexidol have been studied in vitro on several model systems, including chemiluminescence (CL) of lipids, CL with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), CL dependent on luminol oxidation by peroxy radicals, and the Glavind DPPH free-radical method. Diabenol exhibited the properties of a scavenger of superoxide anions and hydroxy and peroxy radicals in model CL systems with ROS generation. The activity of diabenol in inactivating ROS was about 8 times higher compared to mexidol. However, the antioxidant activity of diabenol in CL with peroxy radical generation was 3 times lower compared to mexidol. Gliclazide demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity only on the model with stable DPPH radicals, where its inhibitory effect was 15 times greater than that of the reference drug. PMID:22288154
Spasov, A A; Kosolapov, V A; Chepliaeva, N I
Eight rare earth metal(II) complexes with quercetin ML3 x 6H2O [L=quercetin (3-OH group deprotonated); M = La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Tm and Y] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, complexometric titration, thermal analysis, conductivity, IR, UV, 1HNMR and fluorescence spectra techniques as well as cyclic voltammetry. The quercetin:metal stoichiometry and the equilibrium stability constant for metal binding to quercetin have been determined. The antioxidative and antitumor activities of quercetin x 2H2O and the complexes were tested by both the MTT and SRB methods. The results show that the suppression ratio of the complexes against the tested tumour cells are superior to quercetin x 2H2O. The property of LaL3 x 6H2O reacting with calf thymus DNA was studied by fluorescence methods. The La-complex binding to DNA has been determined by fluorescence titration in 0.05 M Tris-HCl, 0.5 M NaCl buffer (pH 7.0). The results indicate that the interaction of the complex with DNA is very evident. PMID:11192698
Zhou, J; Wang, L F; Wang, J Y; Tang, N
Five new antioxidants containing hindered phenol groups with higher molecular weight(MW) have been synthesized by direct addition reaction of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy methyl phenol (DBHMP) and isocyanates. They are 3,5-di-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyl benzyl n-octadecyl carbamate (MW = 531), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyl benzyl toluene-2,4-dicarbamate (MW = 646) 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyl benzyl hexamethylene dicarbamate (MW = 640), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyl benzyl isophorone dicarbamate (MW = 694), and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyl benzyl methylene diphenylene
Jiang-Qing Pan; N. C. Liu; Wayne W. Y. Lau
Phenolic compounds in macadamia nuts and shells were identified, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in refined\\u000a macadamia nut oil. Thin-layer chromatography of oil extracted from macadamia nut kernels and shells indicated the possible\\u000a presence of catechol, phrogallol, and 3,4,5-trihydroxy phenolic compounds. Four phenolic compounds were tentatively identified\\u000a as 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2?-hydroxy-4?-methoxyacetophenone, 3?,5?-dimethoxy-4?-hydroxyacetophenone, and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic\\u000a acid. Adding 0.01% of 2?-hydroxy-4?-methoxyacetophenone,
L. A. Quinn; H. H. Tang
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is utilized to investigate several categories of green and black tea: Twining green tea (TGT), Chinese green tea (CGT), Red-labels black tea (RBT). Basically, two EPR signals from all the studied samples are observed: One of them is a very weak sharp EPR signal with ? Hpp?10 G and g-factor=2.00023 superimposed on the other broad signal with ? Hpp?550 G and g-factor=2.02489. The broad signal is a characteristic one of manganese(II) complex, while the sharp signal is related to a stable radical of aromatic origin exist in a powder condition. The feature of the manganese EPR signal is attributed to manganese(II) complex and reflected the molecular behavior of Mn(II) in the protein system of the natural leaves. The sharp signal, which is most probably due to a semiquinones radicals, is observed at room temperature and its intensity is remarkably affected by photo degradation of the studied samples. The intensity of manganese(II) EPR signal is found to be related to ageing and disintegration of the tea leaves. Moreover, direct relation between the relative intensity of the semiquinones radical signal and antioxidant activity of the studied samples was also correlated.
Morsy, M. A.; Khaled, M. M.
The antiradical and antioxidant properties of essential oil mixtures (EOMs) with various compositions were studied and compared in model systems of hexanal autooxidation, thermal oxidation of methyl linoleate and beta3-carotene, and in a reaction with the stable diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. It was found that all EOMs under investigation exhibited antiradical activity. The highest antiradical activity was observed for an EOM containing monoterpene hydrocarbons as the main components (the phenol content was low). The antioxidant activity of all EOMs was from 60 to 98% and depended on the model system composition and the method of assay. The mixture with the highest phenol content exhibits the highest antioxidant activity level in the hexanal autooxidation system. EOMs with a high content of phenols and alpha- and y-terpinenes were the most efficient antioxidants in the beta3-carotene model system. The study confirmed the possibility to vary the antioxidant and antiradical properties of essential oils by preparing their mixtures with a specific composition. PMID:22567894
Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Fatkullina, L D; Vorob'eva, A K; Medvedeva, I B; Burlakova, E B
The present study aimed to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Lamiaceae medicinal plants growing wild in Croatia. Using Ellman's colorimetric assay all tested ethanolic extracts and their hydroxycinnamic acid constituents demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory properties in a dose dependent manner. The extracts of Mentha x piperita, M. longifolia, Salvia officinalis, Satureja montana, Teucrium arduini, T. chamaedrys, T. montanum, T. polium and Thymus vulgaris at 1 mg/mL showed strong inhibitory activity against AChE. The antioxidant potential of the investigated Lamiaceae species was assessed by DPPH• scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity assays, in comparison with hydroxycinnamic acids and trolox. The extracts differed greatly in their total hydroxycinnamic derivatives content, determined spectrophotometrically. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the predominant constituent in most of the investigated medicinal plants (by RP-HPLC) and had a substantial influence on their AChE inhibitory and antioxidant properties, with the exception of Teucrium species. These findings indicate that Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's and other related diseases. PMID:24413832
Vladimir-Kneževi?, Sanda; Blažekovi?, Biljana; Kindl, Marija; Vladi?, Jelena; Lower-Nedza, Agnieszka D; Brantner, Adelheid H
Ballota limbata (Lamiaceae) has been used for its antispasmodic, antiulcer, diuretic, vermifuge and sedative effects in folk medicine. However, little is known about how does it work to produce these therapeutic actions. Present research investigated phytochemical components and antioxidant properties of methanol extract and different fractions of Ballota limbata. In this study, phytochemical investigation was done by performing different chemical tests. Here, antioxidant property of the extract and fractions was investigated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity by the phosphomolybdenum method, linoleic acid peroxidation, ferric thiocyanate analysis and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. Methanol extract and fractions showed presence of numerous chemical principles including alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited higher scavenging activity compared to the other fractions under investigation. This fraction displayed 84.16±1.02% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical inhibition at a dose of 60 ?g/ml. IC50 for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazylradical-scavenging activity was 13.53±0.22 ?g/ml, relative to the standard, butylatedhydroxytoluene, having IC50 of 12.33±0.88 ?g/ml. Thus, Ballota limbata showed significant antioxidant activity, which may contribute in the mechanism of above pharmacological actions.
Waheed, I.; Ahmad, M.; Syed, N-H.; Ashraf, Romeeza
Two cultivated (P. ostreatus and L. edodes) and five wild (L. sulphureus, A. campestris, T. clypeatus, T. microcarpus and T. letestui) edible mushrooms were analyzed for their antioxidant activities, total phenolics, total flavonoids, phenolic profile and ergothioneine content. Results showed that A. campestris had the greatest antioxidant activity in all assays with lower EC50 (mg/ml) values of 1.4, 3.6 and 0.035 for scavenging, reducing and chelating activities, respectively. To correlate well with activities, A. campestris also exhibited greater total phenolics and total flavonoids content of 14.6 mg GAE/g and 1.97 mg CE/g, respectively. The maximum concentration (?g/g) of the individual phenolic compounds were 7.80 (P. ostreatus) for caffeic acid, 4.55 (T. letestui) for chlorogenic acid, 15.8 (T. microcarpus) for p-coumaric acid, 20.3 (A. campestris) for ferulic acid, 561.9 (A. campestris) for gallic acid, 38.7 (A. campestris) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 7.08 (A. campestris) for myricetin. All samples tested contained different amounts of ergothioneine ranging from 0.08 (L. sulphureus) to 3.78 (P. ostreatus) mg/g in dry weight. PMID:24679748
Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Abate, Dawit; Haki, Gulelat D; Ziegler, Gregory R
valuable therapeutic approach. The Kani, a tribal high altitude living population in southern India, tradi- tionally use the seeds of Trichopus zeylanicus to combat fatigue. In this study, the antioxidant properties of Trichopus zeylanicus were established on free radicals (DPPH and ABTS), its ability to reduce iron, lipoxygenase activity and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. The effects of Trichopus zeylanicus on
Binu Tharakan; Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran; Bala V. Manyam
The phenolic contents and antioxidative properties of selected wines, produced in the northeast of Thailand, were evaluated and compared, particularly those produced at Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) Farm as a case study. Nine wine varieties were used to evaluate their total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin–Ciocalteu method, free radical scavenging efficacy by DPPH method and reducing power by ferric
Jirayus Woraratphoka; Kanok-Orn Intarapichet; Korakod Indrapichate
Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial woody shrub, cultivated in the Mediterranean countries, mainly to obtain dried leaves used as raw material in medicine, perfumery and food industry. The aim of this paper is to compare the antioxidant properties and the chemical composition of essentials oils obtain by two extraction process: the hydrodistillation and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.
S. FELLAH; P. N. DIOUF; M. PETRISSANS; D. BARTH; M. ROMDHANE; D. PERRIN; M. ABDERRABBA
A simple electrochemical sensor consisting of electrically heated carbon paste electrode with the surface modified by dsDNA is used to characterize voltammetric behaviour and antioxidative activity of four selected flavonoids. Quercetin, rutin, catechin and epigallocatechin gallate accumulate within the DNA layer. A positive effect of the electrode temperature within the range of 20 to 38 °C on the detection of a deep DNA degradation by a copper(II)/H2O2/ascorbic acid cleavage mixture as well as an antioxidative effect of flavonoids was evaluated.
Korbut, O.; Buckova, M.; Labuda, J.; Grundler, P.
Background There is no available information on physicochemical and antioxidant properties on Bangladeshi honey. We investigated five different monofloral and three different multifloral honey samples collected from different parts of Bangladesh. Methods The levels of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant content (AEAC), proline, protein and antioxidants were determined in the honey samples using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results The highest level of phenolic was 688.5?±?5.9 mg Gallic acid/kg, and the highest level of flavonoid was 155?±?6.9 mg Catechin/kg. The highest color intensity was 2034.00?±?17.5 mAU, and the highest protein content was 8.6?±?0.0mg/g. High levels of proline (2932.8?±?3.7 mg/kg), ascorbic acid (154.3?±?0.3 mg/kg), AEAC (34.1?±?1.4mg/100 g) and FRAP (772.4?±?2.5 ?mol Fe (II)/100 g) were detected in some of the samples, especially the multifloral honey samples, indicating good antioxidant properties. A strong positive correlation was found between phenolics, flavonoids, DPPH, FRAP and color intensity, indicating that in addition to total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations, color intensity and amino acid are good indicators of the antioxidant potential of honey. Except for a single sample (BDH-6), the honey samples stored for 1.5 years at room temperature still had 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) values within the recommended range (mean = 10.93 mg/kg), indicating that the rate of HMF production in Bangladeshi honey samples is low. Conclusion It is postulated that the low rate of HMF formation could be attributed to the acidic and low moisture content in the samples. In general, multifloral honeys have higher antioxidant properties based on their high levels of phenolics, flavonoids, AEAC, DPPH and FRAP when compared to monofloral honeys. We also found that monofloral honey samples from Guizotia abyssinica and Nigella sativa had high antioxidant properties.
Objective Antioxidant properties of the water extracts of the commercial bagged fruit and flavoured black teas were evaluated and compared\\u000a with typical black teas of C. sinensis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and DPPH radical method were used for these\\u000a purposes. The content of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids was also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography\\u000a with
Anna P?kal; Paulina Dró?d?; Magdalena Biesaga; Krystyna Pyrzynska
An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as “(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione.”
Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Viswanath, Buddolla; Saigopal, D. V. R.; Narasimha, Golla
An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as "(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione." PMID:24790761
Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Viswanath, Buddolla; Saigopal, D V R; Narasimha, Golla
Physico-chemical properties, functional properties, and antioxidative acitivities of gelatin from the skins of brownbanded\\u000a bamboo shark (BBS; Chiloscyllium punctatum) and blacktip shark (BTS; Carcharhinus limbatus), as affected by extraction temperature, were investigated. ?-Amino acid group content and surface hydrophobicity of both\\u000a gelatins from both species increased as the extraction temperature increased (P?0.05). Both gelatins had a high solubility (more than
Phanat Kittiphattanabawon; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Fereidoon Shahidi
A comparative study of antioxidant compounds, flavonoids and vitamin C, and also antioxidant activity was carried out in four species of Brassicaceae vegetables used for salads: watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), mizuna [ Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica (L.H. Bailey) Haneltand], wild rocket [ Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.], and salad rocket [ Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.]. The characterization of individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI in watercress and mizuna completes the polyphenol study previously reported for wild rocket and salad rocket. The qualitative study of flavonoids in watercress leaves showed a characteristic glycosylation pattern with rhamnose at the 7 position. Isorhamnetin 3,7-di- O-glucoside was identified in mizuna leaves and may be considered a chemotaxonomical marker in some B. rapa subspecies. Brassicaceae species showed differences in the quantitative study of flavonoids, and the highest content was detected in watercress leaves. Watercress and wild rocket leaves had the highest content of vitamin C. The antioxidant activity evaluated by different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays) showed a high correlation level with the content of polyphenols and vitamin C. In conclusion, the Brassicaceae leaves studied, watercress, mizuna, wild rocket, and salad rocket, presented a large variability in the composition and content of antioxidant compounds. These baby leaf species are good dietary sources of antioxidants with an important variability of bioactive compounds. PMID:18321050
Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, María I; Ferreres, Federico
The effects of freeze drying and hot air drying on total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant properties of flour from seven-day-old fresh wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated. In the quantitative analysis of antioxidative components, fresh wheatgrass samples had the highest amount of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll, but the lowest amount of total flavonoids and phenolics. In the analysis of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), ethanolic extract from freeze-dried wheatgrass gave the highest value, while the ?-tocopherol gave the lowest value. In the analysis of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability, freeze-dried wheatgrass samples exhibited the highest activity among the three samples. PMID:22171655
Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu
Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid. PMID:22856394
Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Antioxidant properties of individual essential oils from lemon (Citrus limon L.), pink grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) buds and their mixtures were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was assessed by oxidation of the aliphatic aldehyde hexanal to the carboxylic acid. The lowest and highest antioxidant activities were exhibited by grapefruit and clove bud essential oils, respectively. Mixtures containing clove bud essential oil also strongly inhibited oxidation of hexanal. Changes in the composition of essential oils and their mixtures in the course of long-term storage in the light were studied. The stability of components of lemon and coriander essential oils in mixtures increased compared to individual essential oils. PMID:18924419
Misharina, T A; Samusenko, A L
In the present work, oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.) are explored as natural source of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE), a new environmentally friendly technique, is employed as extraction procedure and HPLC coupled to DAD is used for the chemical characterization of the extracts. Moreover, the radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the determination
I. Rodríguez-Meizoso; F. R. Marin; M. Herrero; F. J. Señorans; G. Reglero; A. Cifuentes; E. Ibáñez
The major exopolysaccharide fraction (EPSa) of Bifidobacterium animalis RH was purified to illustrate the chemical characterization and the antioxidant activity in vitro. The molecular weight of\\u000a EPSa was 2.31 × 104 Da determined by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and the monosaccharide\\u000a analysis of high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) showed that it was a heteropolysaccharide
Rihua XuQian; Qian Shen; Xuelong Ding; Wengeng Gao; Pinglan Li
Ultraviolet radiation induces DNA damage and oxidative stress which can result in skin inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. The flavonoid luteolin that is present in high amounts in the dyers weld, Reseda luteola, is one of the most potent antioxidative plant metabolites and also has ultraviolet-absorbing properties.The aim of this study was to determine whether tocopherol and ubiquinone add synergistic antioxidative values to luteolin. None of the substances showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The photoprotective and antioxidant effect of equivalent concentrations of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone and their combination in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 were studied in solar simulator irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Luteolin had a half-maximal radical scavenging concentration of 2 µg/mL, whereas tocopherol and ubiquinone were only effective at higher concentrations. None of the substances showed a phototoxic effect, and only luteolin had a moderate photoprotective effect at 2 µg/mL. The combination of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone exerted a synergistic radical scavenging effect already at a concentration of 0.25 µg/mL and a complete photoprotection at 2 µg/mL.In summary, our findings suggest that the potent antioxidant and photoprotective effect of flavonoids like luteolin may be further increased by the addition of low concentrations of other antioxidants such as tocopherol and ubiquinone. PMID:23839819
Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Schempp, Christoph M
Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition. PMID:22980898
Zieli?ski, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Ma?gorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zieli?ska, Danuta
Lichen species Usnea ghattensis, Heterodermia podocarpa, Arthothelium awasthii and Parmotrema tinctorum have been cultured in vitro and screened for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antityrosinase potential using different assay systems. The methanol extract of lichens showed antioxidant, antimicrobial and antityrosinase activities according to the order Usnea ghattensis > Arthothelium awasthii > Heterodermia podocarpa > Parmotrema tinctorum. The IC(50) values for the antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of U. ghattensis and A. awasthii were less than or equivalent to that of standard antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors. The methanol extracts of the lichen cultures Usnea ghattensis and Arthothelium awasthii were effective against Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was found to be between 5 and 10 microg extract/mL. The results suggested that the extract of lichen cultures, U. ghattensis and A. awasthii, could be of use as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants, tyrosinase inhibitory and antimicrobial properties as possible food supplements or in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17628467
Behera, B C; Verma, Neeraj; Sonone, Anjali; Makhija, Urmila
In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection. PMID:16599267
Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H
Water-soluble polysaccharides from Pavlova viridis and Sarcinochrysis marina Geitler (P0 and S0, respectively) and their degradation fragments (P1, P2, S1, S2 and S3) were screened for their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl-radical (OH) scavenging, lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibition and the mouse red blood cells (RBCs) hemolysis assay. The physicochemical properties of the polysaccharides were also determined. Chemical analysis showed the presence of sulfate groups and uronic acids. Degradation increased the sulfate group content, but also, in part, damaged the uronic acids. FTIR spectroscopy showed that P0 and S0 had ?-pyranose and ?-pyranose configurations, respectively. The low molecular weight fragments after degradation exhibited higher antioxidant capacities, of which P2 and S3 showed the strongest antioxidant activity in the given assay system. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of P2 on DPPH, OH, LPO and RBCs hemolysis assays were 0.45, 0.42, 0.88, and 1.51 mg/ml, respectively, and the corresponding IC50 values of S3 were 0.41, 0.41, 0.79, and 1.04 mg/ml, respectively. All the polysaccharide fragments evoked a significant dose dependent inhibitory effect or scavenging ability. Altogether, these results suggest that the polysaccharide of two marine Chrysophyta could be considered as a potential antioxidant. PMID:24799200
Sun, Liqin; Wang, Ling; Li, Jing; Liu, Honghui
In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL(1) and HL(2)) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated. PMID:21752697
Ceyhan, Gökhan; Çelik, Cumali; Uru?, Serhan; Demirta?, ?brahim; Elmasta?, Mahfuz; Tümer, Mehmet
The effect of air temperature on the physicochemical and nutritional properties and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was investigated. The following parameters were analysed: proximal composition, water activity (aw), pH, acidity, non-enzymatic browning, surface colour, vitamin content (C and E), mineral content, and antioxidant capacity. The drying kinetics of A. vera gel was modelled using the
Margarita Miranda; Héctor Maureira; Katia Rodríguez; Antonio Vega-Gálvez
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40°-60°) petrol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using a battery of in vitro assays, viz., iron(iii) reduction, iron(ii) chelation and free radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of the pro-oxidant activity of the extract was based upon its effects upon DNA fragmentation and protein carbonylation. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of the extract were determined in non-cancerous CV1-P fibroblast and cancerous A375 melanoma cells using MTT and LDH tests and caspase 3-like activity assay. The highest concentration, 2.0 mg ml(-1), decreased the viability of both cell lines, however, the cancerous melanoma cells were slightly susceptible to the effects. The observed cytotoxicity was not due to the caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, the toxicity might be explained by the pro-oxidative activity of components within the extract against proteins and/or DNA but it is not related to caspase 3-dependent apoptosis within cells. PMID:21779571
Dorman, H J Damien; Lantto, Tiina A; Raasmaja, Atso; Hiltunen, Raimo
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polypropylene (PP) blend films in various blending ratios containing 3000?mg??kg?¹ of tocopherol were manufactured by an extrusion process. Tocopherol release properties were characterised and correlated with antioxidant effectiveness in retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid contacting the films at 40°C. The conditions without tocopherol (control) and with instant tocopherol addition corresponding to the amount included in the films were also prepared and compared with the film-contacting solutions. The effect of tocopherol inclusion and the blending ratio on their physical properties was also examined. A wide range of tocopherol diffusivity in 6.6?×?10?¹?-4.6?×?10?¹?m²?s?¹ were obtained by blend films. As PP content increases, the diffusivity decreased sharply at the beginning and levelled off later. The slower release of tocopherol in LDPE/PP blend films corresponding to lower tocopherol diffusivity retained the higher tocopherol concentration in the linoleic acid system providing better antioxidant effectiveness of the extended induction period in oxidation. The tocopherol inclusion reduced tensile strength and transparency significantly in an affordable range with higher tensile strength given by a higher PP ratio. LDPE/PP blending can be a useful tool to modulate the release profile of tocopherol and thus the antioxidant effectiveness of the tocopherol-incorporated antioxidant packaging film. PMID:22257167
Zhu, X; Lee, D S; Yam, K L
Onions have antioxidant properties and they are an important source of bioactive compounds such as phenols. The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (100-600 MPa/1-3 min/25 °C) on the microstructure and antioxidant properties of onions (cv. Doux) and its relationship with changes in the extractability of potential health-related compounds. Cryo scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure. Vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (DPPH?, ABTS?(+), FRAP) were also analyzed. Tonoplast, plasmalemma and cell walls were affected by the HHP treatment and it favored the diffusion of the cellular content to the intercellular spaces. Vitamin C did not show significant changes, whereas the extracted phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased at pressures of 300 or 600 MPa. Therefore, it could be concluded that HHP produced changes in membrane permeability and disruption of cell walls favoring the release of phenolic compounds from tissue and, in consequence, improving their extractability. PMID:23370723
Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Plaza, Lucía; Hernando, Isabel; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Quiles, Amparo; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar
Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of ? carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 ?g/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi.
The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E was used as a surface modifier (or coating agent) of hollow-fiber hemodialyzer membranes with the aim of increasing their biocompatibility and preventing oxidative stress, which are the main clinical drawbacks in hemodialysis (HD) therapy. At present, the redox chemistry of vitamin E-modified dialyzers is not well characterized and there is no standard method to assess the antioxidant capacity of these biomembranes under conditions that simulate those observed during HD therapy. With this study, we developed an original online method to determine the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E-modified dialyzer membranes during circulation experiments. This method is based on a spectrophotometric assay known as the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The principle of FRAP and its application to the qualitative and quantitative assessment of miniaturized polysulfone (PS)-based vitamin E-modified dialyzers (PS-VE) were verified by the accurate in vitro analysis of the iron-catalyzed oxidation of vitamin E. The antioxidant capacity of miniaturized PS-VE samples assessed in this study was of 14.5 microM Fe(2+), which corresponded to the transformation of nearly one-third of the vitamin E bound to the hollow-fiber membrane to its oxidation end product alpha-tocopherol quinone. This method shows good reproducibility and intra- and inter-assay precision, and can be easily adapted to determine the redox activity of every type of vitamin E-modified dialyzers during technological investigation, manufacturing control and clinical research. PMID:19442768
Floridi, Alessandro; Piroddi, Marta; Pilolli, Francesca; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Aritomi, Masaharu; Galli, Francesco
Antioxidant properties of fruit juices of six Viburnum opulus genotypes were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging capacity (RSC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Folin-Ciocalteu total phenolic content (TPC) assays. TPC varied in the range of 5.4-10.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, RSC (ABTS(+)), FRAP and ORAC values were 31.9-109.8, 32.3-61.8 and 141.6-260.4 ?mol trolox equivalents/g, respectively. V. opulus var. sargentii fruit juice was a remarkably stronger antioxidant than the other five V. opulus genotypes. The content of chlorogenic acid (the main phenolic compound in berry juices) depending on plant cultivar varied in the range of 0.54-6.93 mg/ml. The RSC of individual constituents was measured by the on-line HPLC-UV-DPPH method: chlorogenic acid was the dominant radical scavenger in V. opulus P3 (74%), while epicatechin and catechin (the main antioxidants in V. opulus var. sargentii) contributed to 40% and 23% of the total RSC for the sargentii genotype. Nine constituents were identified in V. opulus juice by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC-QTOF-MS). In general, the study demonstrated that V. opulus var. sargentii followed by V. opulus P3 and V. opulus var. americanum possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. The obtained results may assist in selecting the most valuable V. opulus genotypes for the production of fruits possessing strong antioxidant capacity and containing beneficial phenolic constituents. PMID:23993538
Kraujalyt?, Vilma; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Pukalskas, Audrius; ?esonien?, Laima; Daubaras, Remigijus
An improved purification procedure leading to black sesame ( Sesamum Indicum L.) pigment was developed involving fat removal by treatment of ground black sesame seeds with dichloromethane followed by an optimized hydrolytic protocol with 6 M HCl, at 100 °C, overnight. The black pigment thus obtained displayed good antioxidant efficiency by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay (82% reduction at 0.5 mg/mL), good ferric ion-reducing capacity (61 ?M Trolox equivalent concentration at 0.5 mg/mL), and potent antinitrosating properties (74% inhibition of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) nitrosation at gastric pH at 2.5 mg/mL). A synthetic pigment obtained by oxidative polymerization of coniferyl alcohol (polyconiferyl alcohol, PCA), the putative biosynthetic precursor to the sesame pigment, was characterized as a reference standard. FT IR spectra of the purified sesame pigment and PCA supported the structural similarity. HPLC analysis of degradation products by alkaline hydrogen peroxide of purified black sesame pigment showed the formation of vanillic acid (VA) as the main isolable fragment. Similar yields of VA were obtained by degradation of PCA. A positive correlation between VA yields and DPPH activity was determined in samples of different purities. It is suggested that VA is a structural marker of black sesame pigment, confirming the biosynthetic origin from coniferyl alcohol and pointing to the o-methoxyphenol motif as the key factor accounting for the potent antioxidant properties of the pigment. PMID:22423623
Panzella, Lucia; Eidenberger, Thomas; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco
Objective—Hyperalphalipoproteinemia (HALP) is characterized by elevated plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles with altered composition, metabolism, and function. The impact of such modification on antioxidative activities of HDL subfractions is indeterminate. Methods and Results—Gradient fractionation revealed that buoyant HDL2b and 2a and small dense HDL3b and 3c levels were elevated up to 2.0-fold in HALP subjects (n9; mean plasma
Anatol Kontush; Eliana Cotta de Faria; Sandrine Chantepie; M. John Chapman
A fast, low-cost, convenient, and especially sensitive voltammetric screening approach for the study of the antioxidant properties of isoquercitrin and pedalitin from Pterogyne nitens is suggested in this work. These flavonoids were investigated for their redox properties using cyclic voltammetry in nonaqueous media using N,N-dimethylformamide and tetrabutylammonium tetrafluorborate as the supporting electrolyte, a glassy carbon working electrode, A6(see symbol in text)AgCI reference electrode, and Pt bare wire counter electrode. The comparative analysis of the activity of rutin has also been carried out. Moreover, combining HPLC with an electrochemical detector allowed qualitative and quantitative detection of micromolecules (e.g., isoquercitrin and pedalitin) that showed antioxidant activities. These results were then correlated to the inhibition of beta-carotene bleaching determined by TLC autographic assay and to structural features of the flavonoids. PMID:22816269
Okumura, Leonardo Luiz; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Fernandes, Daniara Cristina; da Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva
Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion. PMID:19241539
Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernández, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godínez, L A; Mendoza, S
In the present study, a peptide having high antioxidant properties was isolated from horse mackerel viscera protein, Magalaspis cordyla. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion was employed to obtain potential protein hydrolysate and was subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) connected to diethyl amino ethyl (DEAE) anion exchange column and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column. The activity of the fractions was tested against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals and the isolated peptide showed 89.2 and 59.1 percentage of scavenging. The amino acid sequence of purified peptide was determined using ESI-MS/MS as Ala-Cys-Phe-Leu (518.5 Da), it exhibited high activity against polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation than that of natural antioxidant, ?-tocopherol. PMID:21640151
Sampath Kumar, N S; Nazeer, R A; Jaiganesh, R
Background Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods. Method Two fruit varieties of F. deltoidea (var. angustifolia (SF) and var. kunstleri (BF)) were extracted separately using double-distilled water. The resulting aqueous extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate to obtain the ethyl acetate and water fractions. The crude aqueous extracts and the corresponding fractions were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, sugar and protein contents. Protein profiling of the extracts and fractions were also carried out by means of SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF MS. Antidiabetic activities were assessed based on the ability of the samples to inhibit yeast and mammalian ?-glucosidase as well as ?-amylase. Antioxidant capacities were examined by measuring the ability of the samples to reduce ferric ions and to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals. Results The crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal ?-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic ?-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed the highest percentage of ?-glucosidase inhibition while having the highest amount of protein (73.33?±?4.99 ?g/mg fraction). All the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with SF crude extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic content (121.62?±?4.86 mg/g extract). Fractionation of the crude extracts resulted in loss of antioxidant activities. There was no positive correlation between phenolic and flavonoid content with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. However, phenolic content correlated well with antioxidant activities of the crude extracts but not with the fractions. Conclusions The antioxidant activities of the fruits of F. deltoidea might be asserted by the phenolic content but other polar plant components were possibly involved in the antidiabetic properties. The study of these compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
A series of diarylheptanoids, namely 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-heptan-3-one-5-O-d-xylopyranoside (oregonin), 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxyheptane-5-O-?-d-xylopyranoside and 1,7-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptane-3-one-5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (platyphylloside), were isolated from the bark of alder family trees, a species widely spread over in Europe. As antioxidants, these natural polyphenols have a promising potential in various fields of application, but their redox reactivity is insufficiently characterized. In this work, their antioxidant activity is described using assays based on DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging, oxygen anion radicals (O2(-)) quenching. The standardized ORAC assay was also achieved, which measures the capacity to protect fluorescent molecules against oxidative degradation. The measured antioxidant activity was higher than that of the well-known antioxidant and biologically active diarylheptanoid curcumin. Molecular modeling was used to rationalize the differences in activity and the mechanisms of action. Thermodynamic descriptors mainly O-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) establish a clear structure-activity relationship. PMID:24703933
Ponomarenko, Jevgenija; Trouillas, Patrick; Martin, Nicolas; Dizhbite, Tatyana; Krasilnikova, Jelena; Telysheva, Galina
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods. PMID:20492235
Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor
In this work, the results of a method based on an electrochemical biosensor to detect DNA damage in vitro for the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of plant extracts are reported. The biosensor consisted of a dsDNA immobilized on a screen-printed electrode surface (SPE). DNA damage was promoted by the generation of the OH radicals via Fenton-type reaction. The interaction
Lucilene Dornelles Mello; Silvia Hernandez; Giovanna Marrazza; Marco Mascini; Lauro Tatsuo Kubota
The antioxidative properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) leaf extract were evaluated in refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein using accelerated oxidation and\\u000a deep frying studies at 180 °C for up to 40 h. The extract was capable of retarding oil oxidation and deterioration significantly\\u000a (P < 0.05) at 0.2% concentration, better than 0.02% BHT for the Oxidative Stability Index (OSI) in an accelerated
Fatihanim Mohd Nor; Suhaila Mohamed; Nor Aini Idris; Razali Ismail
The leaf of C. dipsaceus was evaluated for its nutritional and antioxidant properties. From the present investigation, significant amount of almost all essential amino acids and important minerals were quantified. Low levels of trypsin inhibitory units, phenolics, and tannins content were found as antinutritional content. Further, hot water extract of C. dipsaceus showed good activity especially in ABTS+, metal chelating, nitric oxide, and DPPH assays. Hence, the results conclude that C. dipsaceus could be a valuable nutraceutical supplement to the human diet.
Chandran, Rahul; Nivedhini, V.; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj
The antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid (AA) and gallic acid (GA) were investigated. AA and GA, at a concentration of 1.65 mM, accelerate the oxidation of deoxyribose induced by Fe3+–EDTAJH2O2. The reducing power of these two compounds increased upon increasing the concentration. AA and GA showed no chelating ability toward iron (II). At a concentration of 4.17 mM,
Gow-Chin Yen; Pin-Der Duh; Hui-Ling Tsai
Functional properties and antioxidant activity of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle hydrolysed by three different enzymes papain, pepsin and trypsin were studied. The protein hydrolysates produced\\u000a by trypsin had an excellent solubility (98%) compared to pepsin (77%) and papain hydrolysate (74%). Conversely, the emulsifying\\u000a activity index (ESI) and foaming abilities were affected by pH. DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power
Shabeena Yousuf Naqash; R. A. Nazeer
Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 ?M Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of all the Malaysian honeys. Conclusion Although Malaysian honeys are of good quality, tualang honey contains the strongest antioxidant properties by far.
Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the methanol, water and n-hexane extracts of Drosera intermedia, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau (F-C), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays showed that the methanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity (F-C: 378.6 +/- 31.5 micromol(GAE)/mg(extract); TEAC: 332.2 +/- 29.1 micromol(TE)/mg(extract); ORAC: 64.7 +/- 7.8 micromol(TE)/mg(extract). Antimicrobial activity was tested against seven bacterial and eight yeast strains using the agar diffusion assay, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). All tested D. intermedia extracts demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties with a broad spectrum of activity. However, the n-hexane extract exhibited much greater activity than water and methanol extracts. The most susceptible microorganisms to the n-hexane extract were Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Candida albicans YP0175, for which a MIC value of 13.0 microg/mL was scored. PMID:19768984
Grevenstuk, Tomás; Gonçalves, Sandra; Almeida, Sara; Coelho, Natacha; Quintas, Célia; Gaspar, Maria Nelma; Romano, Anabela
The effect of extraction temperature (25-65°C), extraction time (5-25min) and water to seed ratio (10:1-50:1) on yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability of quince seed mucilage was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Face Center Design with these seven factors, including central and axial points. Numerical optimization determined the optimum extraction conditions based on the highest yield, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability and the lowest protein content and turbidity as being time 5min, temperature 65°C and water to seed ratio 25.1:1. At this optimum point, extraction yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability were found to be 11.58 (%), 2.71 (%), 068 (Å), 1473.96 (mPas), 29.88 (%), 94.89 (%) and 21.36 (%), respectively. The results demonstrated that quince seed mucilage had desirable antioxidant activity, viscosity, emulsifying and foaming properties. PMID:24556115
Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash
Objective To investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two plant species, Litsea elliptica (L. elliptica) and Litsea resinosa (L. resinosa). Methods In vitro method-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was conducted for antioxidant activity determination while antimicrobial assay consisted of agar well diffusion assay and mycelial radial growth assay. Results Methanol extracts of root and stem of L. elliptica and L. resinosa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 of 23.99, 41.69, 11.22 and 35.48 mg/L respectively. All methanol extracts of L. resinosa as well as root extracts from L. elliptica showed significant scavenging activity. Hexane extract from stem of L. resinosa presented the largest inhibition zone in Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli while chloroform extract from inner bark of L. resinosa showed major inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils from the root of both species showed significant antifungal activities which are 80.11% and 66.85% respectively. Conclusions Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica.
Wong, Mui-Hung; Lim, Li-Fang; Ahmad, Fasihuddin bin; Assim, Zaini bin
Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131) from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE), its hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AF) fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.
Chan, Pui-Mun; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani
Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region. PMID:22097293
Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida
Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48?h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144?µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9?µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%. PMID:22328119
Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V
Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p < 0.001) and Genovese ( p < 0.001) basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities. PMID:18712879
Nguyen, Phuong M; Niemeyer, Emily D
The constant exposure of the skin to oxidative stress results in damage to cellular DNA and cell membrane lipids and proteins. To combat this problem, the skin contains a number of antioxidants that protect against oxidative injury. However, these cutaneous antioxidants can be depleted by sun exposure and environmental insults, resulting in an overload of oxidation products. Thus, topical antioxidants that replenish the antioxidant capacity of the skin have the potential to prevent oxidative damage. A number of natural antioxidant ingredients also have anti-inflammatory properties, and can be used in the treatment of oxidative damage such as photoaging and perhaps even skin cancer. This article summarizes the active components, pharmacologic properties, and clinical effectiveness of a number of natural antioxidant ingredients including soy, feverfew, mushroom extracts, teas, Coffea arabica (CoffeeBerry), Pinus pinaster (Pycnogenol), and Polypodium leucotomos. Recent clinical trials suggest that these compounds have promising efficacy in the topical treatment of oxidative stress-induced dermatoses. PMID:18681153
Berson, Diane S
Rhizome extracts of some members of the medicinal Zingiberales are widely used in dietary intake as well as in the traditional system of medicine. Curcumin, the chrome orange-yellow coloring compound present in turmeric rhizomes, has long been known to possess antioxidant property. Crude methanol extracts of the rhizomes of 11 species--Alpinia allughas, A. galanga, Curcuma amada, C. caesia, C. leucorrhiza, Hedychium coronarium, H. coccineum, H. flavescens, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber cassumunar, and Z. officinale--were evaluated for their antioxidant properties using sulfur free radical reactivity with curcumin as a reference indicator. Sulfur free radicals (GS.) are generated by irradiating 15 mM glutathione (GSH) solution using a 5100 Ci cobalt-60 gamma irradiator. As reference indicator for the reactivity with sulfur free radicals, we used the depletion of pure curcumin sample in vitro as determined by a simple spectrophotometric method. The addition of the supernatant from crude rhizome extracts to the reaction mixture significantly decreased the depletion of curcumin, indicating that these crude extracts possessed antioxidant properties. The relative curcumin protection by different crude extracts against GS. showed that Z. cassumunar gave the highest degree of radioprotection. Our results reveal the potential medicinal use of rhizomes of medicinal Zingiberales as dietary agents. PMID:15312045
Chirangini, Pukhrambam; Sharma, Gurumayum J; Sinha, Swapan K
The objective of this study is to evaluating the Brazilian biodiversity through physicochemical characterization and determination of antioxidant potential of three species from the Myrtaceae family, namely yellow guava (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine), guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg), and uvaia ( Eugenia pyriformis Cambess). Guabiroba had the greater quantity of phenolic compounds (9033 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g) and vitamin C (30.58 mg/g) and showed the best TSS/TTA (total soluble solid/total titratable acid) ratio (45.12). For the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) method, the guabiroba (507.49 ?M Trolox/g) presented the highest antioxidant potential; however, in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, uvaia (170.26 g/g DPPH) and guabiroba (161.29 g/g DPPH) were not statistically different. The uvaia outranked the other fruits with respect to its high carotenoid (909.33 ?g/g) and vitamin A (37.83 ?g/g) contents, and the yellow guava, although showing a lower bioactive compound content and antioxidant activity, nevertheless presented much higher values than many traditionally consumed fruits. PMID:22397467
Pereira, Marina C; Steffens, Rosana S; Jablonski, André; Hertz, Plinho F; Rios, Alessandro de O; Vizzotto, Márcia; Flôres, Simone H
A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. PMID:24206441
González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis
Background and Aims The germination test currently represents the most used method to assess seed viability in germplasm banks, despite the difficulties caused by the occurrence of seed dormancy. Furthermore, seed longevity can vary considerably across species and populations from different environments, and studies related to the eco-physiological processes underlying such variations are still limited in their depth. The aim of the present work was the identification of reliable molecular markers that might help in monitoring seed deterioration. Methods Dry seeds were subjected to artificial ageing and collected at different time points for molecular/biochemical analyses. DNA damage was measured using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) approach while the seed antioxidant profile was obtained using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provided profiles of free radicals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profiles of the antioxidant genes MT2 (type 2 metallothionein) and SOD (superoxide dismutase). A modified QRT-PCR protocol was used to determine telomere length. Key Results The RAPD profiles highlighted different capacities of the two Silene species to overcome DNA damage induced by artificial ageing. The antioxidant profiles of dry and rehydrated seeds revealed that the high-altitude taxon Silene acaulis was characterized by a lower antioxidant specific activity. Significant upregulation of the MT2 and SOD genes was observed only in the rehydrated seeds of the low-altitude species. Rehydration resulted in telomere lengthening in both Silene species. Conclusions Different seed viability markers have been selected for plant species showing inherent variation of seed longevity. RAPD analysis, quantification of redox activity of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and gene expression profiling provide deeper insights to study seed viability during storage. Telomere lengthening is a promising tool to discriminate between short- and long-lived species.
Dona, M.; Balestrazzi, A.; Mondoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Ventura, L.; Buttafava, A.; Macovei, A.; Sabatini, M. E.; Valassi, A.; Carbonera, D.
In this study, three phenolic acids including gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) were grafted onto N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) by a free radical mediated grafting method. The grafted copolymers obtained were all water-soluble samples. UV-vis absorption peaks of the grafted copolymers shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers exhibited additional phenolic characteristics of the aromatic ring CC stretching within 1450-1650 cm(-1). NMR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers showed new peaks at 6.2-7.6 ppm assigned to the phenyl protons of phenolic acids. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of three phenolic acids to NOCC. The conjugation probably occurred at amine of NOCC and carboxyl groups of phenolic acids. The grafted copolymers exhibited decreased crystallinity as compared to NOCC and chitosan. Moreover, antioxidant activity in vitro assays showed that the antioxidant property decreased in the order of GA-g-NOCC>CA-g-NOCC>FA-g-NOCC>NOCC>chitosan. Our results suggested the potential of phenolic acids grafted NOCC for the development of effective antioxidant agents. PMID:23994782
Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Tang, Ying-qing; Jin, Chang-hai
Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH) was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin), and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3) were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1), GPAGPAG (ACH-P2), and GFPSG (ACH-P3). ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively), DPPH radical (IC?? 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively), superoxide radical (IC?? 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively), and ABTS radical (IC?? 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively). ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage. PMID:24284428
Wang, Bin; Wang, Yu-Mei; Chi, Chang-Feng; Luo, Hong-Yu; Deng, Shang-Gui; Ma, Jian-Yin
Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH) was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin), and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3) were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1), GPAGPAG (ACH-P2), and GFPSG (ACH-P3). ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively), DPPH radical (IC50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively), superoxide radical (IC50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively), and ABTS radical (IC50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively). ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage.
Wang, Bin; Wang, Yu-Mei; Chi, Chang-Feng; Luo, Hong-Yu; Deng, Shang-Gui; Ma, Jian-Yin
This article describes a novel synthesis of cobalt and quercetin·2H 2O complex in methanol, characterized by using elemental analysis, UV-visible, 1H NMR, TGA, DSC and IR spectrometric techniques. The formation of complex is deduced from the UV-visible spectra which shows that the successive formation of cobalt-quercetin complex occurs in a ratio of 2:1 (metal/ligand) stoichiometrically. The antioxidant activity of the complex was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. In this work, we have shown that the metal complexed flavonoids are much more effective free radical scavengers than the free flavonoids.
Birjees Bukhari, S.; Memon, Shahabuddin; Mahroof Tahir, M.; Bhanger, M. I.
Background Free radical stress leads to tissue injury and can eventually to arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenesis. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural antioxidants of plant origin. We assessed the in-vitro antioxidant activities and screened the phytochemical constituents of methanolic extracts of Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl) Miers. Methods We evaluated the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of P. venusta using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) studies were also undertaken to assess the phytochemical composition of the flower extracts. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, and saponins. The reducing ability of both extracts was in the range (in ?m Fe(II)/g) of 112.49-3046.98 compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 63.56 ± 2.62), catechin (972.02 ± 0.72 ?m) and quercetin 3208.27 ± 31.29. A significant inhibitory effect of extracts of flowers (IC50 = 0.018 ± 0.69 mg/ml) and roots (IC50 = 0.026 ± 0.94 mg/ml) on ABTS free radicals was detected. The antioxidant activity of the extracts of flowers (95%) and roots (94%) on DPPH radicals was comparable with that of ascorbic acid (98.9%) and BHT (97.6%). GC-MS study revealed the presence of myoinositol, hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid in the flower extracts. Conclusion These data suggest that P. venusta is a natural source of antioxidants. The extracts of flowers and roots of P. venusta contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties and could serve as inhibitors or scavengers of free radicals. P. venusta could be exploited as a potential source for plant-based pharmaceutical products. These results could form a sound basis for further investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive compounds.
In order to select efficient petroleum product oxidation inhibitors bases on nitrogen-containing copper complexes and to elucidate the causes of their inhibitory action, we investigated compounds with the general formula CuL/sub 2/ where R = H, 2-CH/sub 3/, 2-OCH/sub 3/, or 3-NO/sub 2/. The antioxidant properties of CuL/sub 2/ were studied in synthetic lubricating oils, based on autooxidation of commercial pentaerythrite ethers and monocarboxylic acid fractions C/sub 5/ -C/sub 9/, using a volumetric method. The CuL/sub 2/ antioxidant efficiency was determined from the induction time tau in kinetic curves of oxygen absorption by lubricating oil. A comparison of the tau values shows that the antioxidant efficiency of the copper complexes increases in the R-substituent series OCH/sub 3/ > CH/sub 3/ > H >> NO/sub 2/, which corresponds to the known electron acceptor properties of the R substituents.
Samartseva, E.D.; Kovtun, G.A.
In the present study, we extracted the chitosan from the larvae of blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, a new source of insect chitosan, using chemical methods. We evaluated the physical properties of the blowfly chitosan using a variety of approaches, including preliminary color-change identification, molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state (13)C cross-polarization and magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C CP/MAS NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its antioxidant property was examined through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assays. The results showed that the molecular weight of the blowfly chitosan (501 kDa) was lower than that of the commercial chitosan (989 kDa), and its degree of deacetylation (DDA) (87.9-89.6%) was also higher than that of the commercial chitosan (83.8-85.8%). Furthermore, the blowfly chitosan exhibited excellent antioxidant activity and its IC50 value was 1.2 mg/ml. Therefore, the blowfly larvae could be a novel alternative source of chitosan and might be used as a natural antioxidant. PMID:23792633
Song, Chao; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Min; Yang, Yanyan; Zhang, Guren
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows perfusion and reconditioning of retrieved lungs for organ transplantation. The Steen solution is specifically designed for this procedure but the mechanism through which it elicits its activity is still to be fully clarified. We speculated that Steen solution may encompass antioxidant properties allowing a reestablishment of pulmonary tissue homeostasis. Blood samples from 10 healthy volunteers were recruited. Platelets and white cells were incubated with Steen solution or buffer solution as control and stimulated with suitable agonists. Reactive oxidant species (ROS), soluble NOX2 (sNOX2-derived peptide), a marker of NADPH oxidase activation, p47phox translocation to cell membrane and isoprostanes production, as marker of oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO), a powerful vasodilator and antioxidant molecule, were measured upon cell stimulation. The Steen solution significantly inhibited p47phox translocation and NOX2 activation in platelets and white cells. Consistent with this finding was the reduction of oxidative stress as documented by a significantly lowered formation of ROS and isoprostanes by both platelets and white cells. Finally, cell incubation with Steen solution resulted in enhanced generation of NO. Herewith, we provide the first evidence that Steen solution possesses antioxidant properties via downregulation of NADPH oxidase activity and enhanced production of NO.
Carnevale, Roberto; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Peruzzi, Mariangela; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Venuta, Federico; Anile, Marco; Diso, Daniele; Cavarretta, Elena; Marullo, Antonino G. M.; Sartini, Patrizio; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco; Frati, Giacomo
The present study examined, for the first time, the in vitro wound healing potential of chitosan green tea polyphenols (CGP) complex based on the activation of transglutaminase (TGM) genes in epidermal morphogenesis. Response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimal processing condition that gave maximum extraction of green tea polyphenols. The antioxidant activity, scavenging ability, and chelating ability were studied and expressed as average EC50 values of CGP and other treatments. In silico analysis and gene coexpression network was subjected to the TGM sequences analysis. The temporal expressions of TGMs were profiled by semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technology within 10 days after wounding and 2 days postwounding. CGP showed the effectiveness of antioxidant properties, and the observations of histopathological photography showed advanced tissue granulation and epithelialization formation by CGP treatment. In silico and coexpression analysis confirmed the regulation via TGM gene family in dermatological tissues. RT-PCR demonstrated increased levels of TGM1-3 expression induced by CGP treatment. The efficacy of CGP in wound healing based on these results may be ascribed to its antioxidant properties and activation of the expression of TGMs, and is, thus, essential for the facilitated repair of skin injury. PMID:23767860
Qin, Yao; Guo, Xing Wei; Li, Lei; Wang, Hong Wei; Kim, Wook
This study was designed to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) using lymphocytes as a model system. Chromium(VI) as potassium dichromate was used to induce oxidative damage. The production of free radicals by chromium and the ability of alcoholic leaf and fruit extracts of seabuckthorn to inhibit the oxidative damage induced by chromium was investigated. Addition of chromium (10 microg/ml) to the cells resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, free radical production and decreased glutathione (reduced) levels. Chromium also caused a significant inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation induced by both lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A. Alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of seabuckthorn at a concentration of 500 microg/ml were found to inhibit chromium-induced free radical production, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and restored the anti-oxidant status to that of control cells. In addition, these extracts also were able to arrest the chromium-induced inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. These observations suggest that the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of seabuckthorn have marked cytoprotective properties, which could be attributed to the anti-oxidant activity. PMID:11849845
Geetha, S; Sai Ram, M; Singh, V; Ilavazhagan, G; Sawhney, R C
Antioxidant properties of amaranth extracts isolated sequentially by acetone and methanol/water from defatted plant leaves, flowers, stems and seeds were assessed by ABTS(+•), DPPH(•), ORAC and total phenols content (TPC) assays. In addition, antioxidant properties of solid plant material were evaluated by the direct QUENCHER method using the same assays. Leaves and flowers of amaranth as well as their extracts possessed the highest antioxidant activities. Radical scavenging capacity in ABTS(+•) assay for leaves, flowers, stems and seeds evaluated by QUENCHER method were 144.24 ± 2.41, 112.33 ± 7.45, 19.05 ± 1.13 and 21.82 ± 1.06 ?mol trolox equivalents in 1 g of dry weight, respectively. On-line HPLC-DPPH(•) assay was used to determine the activity of separated compounds and it was observed that rutin was the main radical scavenger in amaranth extracts. Preliminary screening of extract composition was performed by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS and rutin, nicotiflorin, isoquercitrin, 4-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids were identified by measuring their accurate mass and retention time. PMID:23912804
Kraujalis, Paulius; Venskutonis, Petras R; Kraujalien?, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius
Two novel polysaccharide fractions, named WP1 and WP3, were extracted and purified from wampee [Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels] seeds. Their physicochemical properties, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities were investigated. Results indicated that both WP1 and WP3 were acidic heteropolysaccharides with uronic acid content of 45.35% and 56.79%, respectively. The molar ratio of rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose of WP1 was 5.01:1.50:39.53:1:10.76:23.50 while WP3 was 5.76:1.73:27.27:1:4.72:8.77. Furthermore, WP3 not only exhibited stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than WP1, but also more significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) level in serum of SD rats induced by high-fat diet. PMID:23597711
Wu, Hui; Min, Tian; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Lin; Lai, Furao; Tang, Yuqian; Yang, Xihong
Spectral and redox properties of the phenoxyl radicals from hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and one selected component of phenylpropanoid glycosides, verbascoside, were studied using pulse radiolysis techniques. On the basis of the pH dependence of phenoxyl radical absorptions, the p Ka values for deprotonation of sinapic acid radical and ferulic acid radical are 4.9 and 5.2. The rate constants of one electron oxidation of those antioxidants by azide radical and bromide radical ion were determined at pH 7. The redox potentials of those antioxidants were determined as 0.59-0.71 V vs NHE at pH 7 with reference standard 4-methoxyphenol and resorcinol.
Lin, Weizhen; Navaratnam, Suppiah; Yao, Side; Lin, Nianyun
Compositions having highly effective antioxidant characteristics are provided comprising organic media, normally susceptible to oxidation, such as oils of lubricating viscosity, containing a minor amount sufficient to impart antioxidant properties thereto of the reaction product of a polysulfide and a hydrocarbylmagnesium halide or a grignard reagent.
Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations.
The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay.
Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N.
The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. PMID:24082356
Siddiqui, M Z; Thomas, M; Prasad, N
Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725
Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal
Purpose Enzymatic protein hydrolysates of yellow pea seed have been shown to possess high anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities.\\u000a The aim of this work was to confirm the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities of an enzymatic protein\\u000a hydrolysate of yellow field pea seeds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of peptides from yellow field pea proteins (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated in LPS\\/IFN-?-activated
Fatou Ndiaye; Tri Vuong; Jairo Duarte; Rotimi E. Aluko; Chantal Matar
An investigation was conducted to characterize the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix (primary composites) hybridized with varying amounts of secondary composites made from S-glass or Kevlar 49 fibers. The test...
C. C. Chamis R. F. Lark J. H. Sinclair
In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:24274540
Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash
Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074
Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun
Research summaries are provided, covering studies on various aspects of the properties of water: vapor recoil; surface tension; the isothermal water-vapor interface. In studies of vapor recoil from non-aqueous liquids (triethanolamine) during steady-state...
K. Hickman W. V. Kayser D. K. Thakur I. White H. J. Palmer
Chronic fatigue is considered a complex symptom for which currently there is no curative treatment available. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of fatigue and antioxidant treatment might be a valuable therapeutic approach. The Kani, a tribal high altitude living population in southern India, traditionally use the seeds of Trichopus zeylanicus to combat fatigue. In this study, the antioxidant properties of Trichopus zeylanicus were established on free radicals (DPPH and ABTS), its ability to reduce iron, lipoxygenase activity and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. The effects of Trichopus zeylanicus on reactive oxygen species induced plasmid DNA (pBR322) cleavage were also investigated. Trichopus zeylanicus significantly scavenged free radicals, reduced lipid peroxidation and inhibited lipoxygenase activity. Trichopus zeylanicus also exhibited iron-chelating activity and inhibited reactive oxygen species induced DNA damage. Trichopus zeylanicus contains NADH, polyphenols and sulfhydryl compounds, which have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species suggesting that the antioxidant activity may be an important mechanism of action of Trichopus zeylanicus to combat fatigue. PMID:16177968
Tharakan, Binu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Manyam, Bala V
The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ?60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 ?mol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 ?mol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227
Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana
The present study on Phyllanthus virgatus, known traditionally for its remedial potential, for the first time provides descriptions of the antioxidant and inhibition of ?-amylase enzyme activity first by in vitro analyses, followed by a confirmatory in silico study to create a stronger biochemical rationale. Our results illustrated that P. virgatus methanol extract exhibited strong antioxidant and oxidative DNA damage protective activity than other extracts, which was well correlated with its total phenolic content. In addition, P. virgatus methanol extract strongly inhibited the ?-amylase activity (IC50 33.20 ± 0.556??g/mL), in a noncompetitive manner, than acarbose (IC50 76.88 ± 0.277??g/mL), which showed competitive inhibition. Moreover, this extract stimulated the glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells and also showed a good correlation between antioxidant and ?-amylase activities. The molecular docking studies of the major bioactive compounds (9,12-octadecadienoic acid, asarone, 11-octadecenoic acid, and acrylic acid) revealed via GC-MS analysis from this extract mechanistically suggested that the inhibitory property may be due to the synergistic effect of these bioactive compounds. These results provide substantial basis for the future use of P. virgatus methanol extract and its bioactive compound in in vivo system for the treatment and management of diabetes as well as in the related condition of oxidative stress.
Hashim, Arshya; Khan, M. Salman; Khan, Mohd. Sajid; Baig, Mohd. Hassan
Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899
Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties, bioactive compounds and other physico-chemical parameters from black soybean and its derivatives over 30?days under refrigeration at 4?°C and develop a probiotic petit suisse produced from black soybean. The soymilk showed the highest levels of isoflavones (109?mg/100?g), total phenolics (600?mg/100?g) and total anthocyanins (388?mg/100?g) with the highest response in the tests with DPPH• and ABTS+• on a dry basis. There was a significant increase (p???0.05) in antioxidant activity during storage due to the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in soymilk sample, having a strong linear correlation between the concentration of isoflavone aglycones and the antioxidant activity for ABTS+• (R?=?0.9437, 0.9624 and 0.9992) and DPPH• (R?=?0.9865, 0.9978 and 0.9911), respectively, for soymilk, quark and petit suisse. The conversion of isoflavone was influenced directly by the characteristics of each sample, inhibiting or promoting the action of the enzyme. The petit suisse developed is an alternative for consumers, providing isoflavones and anthocyanins, possessing probiotic average counts (10(8)?CFU?g(-1)) during storage. PMID:24467602
de Moraes Filho, Marsilvio Lima; Hirozawa, Sabrina Satie; Prudencio, Sandra Helena; Ida, Elza Iouko; Garcia, Sandra
The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 ?mol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes. PMID:24959679
Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming
Omija (Schizandra chinensis) is used as an ingredient in traditional medicine in East Asia. It is consumed as tea and wine and display pinkish-red color and beneficial physiological activity. However, the origin of Omija's unique color and bioactivity has not been studied extensively and its application is very limited. Thus, it was required to determine the chemical structure of major phenolic compounds of Omija fruit and evaluate their antioxidant activity. The colorants extracted from a domestic Omija cultivar were concentrated by a Sep-pak(R) Plus C(18) cartridge. A major high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peak of anthocyan represented 94.1% of total absorbable compounds at 520 nm, which was further identified by LC-ESI-MS. The mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of the major anthocyan was determined to be 727. Highly pure anthocyan fraction with a semipreparative HPLC was acid-hydrolyzed, and the sugar moieties linked to anthocyan (cyanidin) were characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) analyses. The linkage patterns of sugars and core cyanidin structure were determined by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses. Antioxidant activity of the extract and the purified anthocyanin was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) methods. As a result, the structure of the purified colorant was identified as Cya-3-O-xylrut. At the same molar level of the samples tested, the purified Cya-3-O-xylrut (31.2% and 39.2%) had substantially greater antioxidant activity than l-ascorbic acid (17.1% and 10.1%) from DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively. In this study, Omija colorant mostly consisted of Cya-3-O-xylrut explained 86% (DPPH) and 98% (ABTS) of total antioxidant activity derived from water extract from Omija. PMID:19323727
Kim, S-H; Joo, M H; Yoo, S-H
N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 ?g/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 ?g/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 ?g/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 ?g/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 ?g/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 ?g/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.
Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.
In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50-10kDa, 10-1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50-10kDa and 10-1kDa peptide fractions showed good radical scavenging activity and reducing power at a concentration of 0.5mg protein/ml. All the fractions demonstrated low iron chelating activity and did not inhibit oxidation in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome model system. However all the fractions were to some extent able to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10-50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products. PMID:24001848
Taheri, Ali; Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline P
Three new lamellarin alkaloids, lamellarins gamma (1), alpha (2), and epsilon (3), along with eight known lamellarin alkaloids, lamellarins M (4), K (5), K-diacetate (6), K-triacetate (7), U (8), I (9), C-diacetate (10), and X-triacetate (11), have been isolated from the Indian ascidian Didemnum obscurum. The structures of 1-11 were established using standard spectroscopic techniques. The structure of lamellarin K-triacetate (7) was further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The antioxidant properties of lamellarin gamma, lamellarin gamma-monoacetate, lamellarins K, U, and I, and lamellarin C-diacetate were evaluated. PMID:15270574
Krishnaiah, P; Reddy, V L N; Venkataramana, G; Ravinder, K; Srinivasulu, M; Raju, T V; Ravikumar, K; Chandrasekar, D; Ramakrishna, S; Venkateswarlu, Y
The leaf of C. dipsaceus was evaluated for its nutritional and antioxidant properties. From the present investigation, significant amount of almost all essential amino acids and important minerals were quantified. Low levels of trypsin inhibitory units, phenolics, and tannins content were found as antinutritional content. Further, hot water extract of C. dipsaceus showed good activity especially in ABTS(+), metal chelating, nitric oxide, and DPPH assays. Hence, the results conclude that C. dipsaceus could be a valuable nutraceutical supplement to the human diet. PMID:24288509
Chandran, Rahul; Nivedhini, V; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj
Abstract Proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acid profiles and nutritional (chemical score, protein digestibility, PDCAAS and mineral dialyzability) and antioxidant properties (TEAC, DPPH and power reduction) from Porphyra columbina were evaluated. Total dietary fiber (48.02?±?1.13?g/100?g dry weight) and protein (24.61?±?0.21?g/100?g dry weight) were the two most abundant components in this seaweed. The main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were C16:0 and C20:5 (n-3), respectively. The limiting amino acid was tryptophan with a chemical score of 57%. Protein digestibility was 74.33?±?3.0%. Porphyra columbina has high mineral content with good Na/K relationship and medium value of potential mineral accessibility (P, Ca and Zn dializability: 18.75?±?0.01, 17.62?±?0.16 and 16.70?±?0.44, respectively). The highest antioxidant properties were obtained with an acetone/water extraction system. This work provides important information about chemical composition and nutraceutical new properties of P. columbina. PMID:24219228
Cian, Raúl E; Fajardo, María A; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier; González, Rolando J; Drago, Silvina R
The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of phycobiliproteins-phycocolloids-based films, obtained from mixtures of two aqueous fractions extracted from Porphyra columbina red seaweed, one enriched in phycocolloids (PcF) and the other in phycobiliproteins (PF). Films with different ratios of PF:PcF (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% [w/w]) and without plasticizer addition were prepared by casting. PcF films had excellent mechanical properties (tensile strength ?50MPa, elongation at break ?3% and an elastic modulus ?17.5MPa). The addition of PF to formulations exerted a plasticizing effect on the PcF matrix, which was manifested in moisture content, water solubility and mechanical properties of the resulting films but not in its water vapour permeability. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the PcF films was significantly increased by the addition of PF and a direct relationship between TEAC and the total phenolic compounds (r(2)=0.9998) and R-phycoerythrin (r(2)=0.9942) was observed. PMID:24176306
Cian, Raúl E; Salgado, Pablo R; Drago, Silvina R; González, Rolando J; Mauri, Adriana N
In the present study starches from four bean varieties viz. red, yellow, black and white, were gamma irradiated in the dose range of 5-25kGy to investigate the effect of radiation processing on physicochemical, morphological and antioxidant properties. Studies revealed positive correlation between gamma irradiation and solubility (r=0.91), irradiation and water absorption capacity (r=0.82) and negative correlations between irradiation and swelling power (r=-0.92), irradiation and pasting properties (r=-0.91) and irradiation and thermal properties (r=-0.89). Microscopic observation under scanning electron microscope indicated the development of surface cracking and fractures on the surface of starch granules with increase in dose. X-ray diffractometry revealed no significant change in diffraction patterns between control and irradiated starches, except a decrease in relative crystallinity. Irradiation increased the proportions of both rapidly digestible starch and enzyme resistant starch of bean starches and significantly prevented the retrogradation of bean starches during storage. Results of the DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power indicated significant (p?0.05) increase in antioxidant activity of all irradiated bean starches with increase in dose. PMID:24906745
Hussain, Peerzada R; Wani, Idrees A; Suradkar, Prashant P; Dar, Mohd A
Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe, hydrolysed by Alcalase 2.4 L (RPH) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) at various concentrations were examined. As DH increased, the reduction of DPPH, ABTS radicals scavenging activities and reducing power were noticeable (p<0.05). The increases in metal chelating activity and superoxide scavenging activity were attained with increasing DH (p<0.05). However, chelating activity gradually decreased at DH above 30%. All activities except superoxide anion radical scavenging activity increased as the concentration of hydrolysate increased (p<0.05). Hydrolysis using Alcalase could increase protein solubility to above 80% over a wide pH range (2-10). The highest emulsion ability index (EAI) and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were observed at low DH (5%) (p<0.05). Concentrations of hydrolysates determined interfacial properties differently, depending on DH. The molecular weight distribution of RPH with 5%DH (RPH5) was determined using Sephadex G-75 column. Two major peaks with the molecular weight of 57.8 and 5.5kDa were obtained. Fraction with MW of 5.5 had the strongest metal chelating activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The results reveal that protein hydrolysates from defatted skipjack roe could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:22980906
Intarasirisawat, Rossawan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Wu, Jianping
Functional properties and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from ornate threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) muscle, using skipjack tuna pepsin, with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH: 10%, 20% and 30%), were evaluated. Emulsifying and foaming properties of hydrolysates were governed by their DH and concentrations used. Hydrolysates with 20% DH had the highest scavenging activities for ABTS and DPPH radicals.
Sitthipong Nalinanon; Soottawat Benjakul; Hideki Kishimura; Fereidoon Shahidi
Sakura-cha (salted cherry blossom tea) is a Japanese tea that is traditionally served at celebrations such as wedding ceremonies. The production of Sakura-cha includes the immersion of cherry blossom flowers in Japanese plum vinegar, and through this process, the byproduct (plum vinegar extract of cherry blossom) is obtained. In this study, the antioxidant activity of the plum vinegar extract of cherry blossom was examined. The plum vinegar extract of cherry blossom had a greater superoxide anion scavenging activity compared with red wine, which is a well-known strong antioxidant. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and caffeic acid were the major components in the phenolic extract prepared from plum vinegar extract of cherry blossom, and they possessed superoxide anion scavenging activity. Caffeic acid is mainly responsible for the scavenging activity of phenolic extract; the contributions of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were minor. PMID:18092753
Matsuura, Ritaro; Moriyama, Hironori; Takeda, Naruki; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Morita, Yusuke; Shimamura, Tomoko; Ukeda, Hiroyuki
In the present study, optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Endothelium corneum gigeriae galli (PEGG) were investigated. It was found that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction temperature 87.0°C, extraction time 177.0 min, enzyme concentration 1.65%, enzymatic hydrolysis time 141.0 min, liquid-to-solid ratio 20, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 55°C and enzymatic hydrolysis pH 3.6. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 5.08%. In addition, PEGG had a relatively high sulfate radical content. PEGG was composed of rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose, with molar percentages of 13.1, 4.5, 72.8 and 9.6%, respectively. The average molecular weight was 83 kDa. And there were infrared characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides in the FT-IR spectroscopy of PEGG. For antioxidant activities in vitro, PEGG showed possessed strong hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fe(2+) chelating and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. PMID:24751271
Xiong, Qingping; Li, Xia; Zhou, Ruizhen; Hao, Hairong; Li, Songlin; Jing, Yi; Zhu, Chun; Zhang, Qinghua; Shi, Yingying
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a group of highly reactive oxygen-containing chemicals. ROS are essential for various biological functions, including cell survival and growth, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time ROS production is connected to a number of disorders, such as chronic inflammation, age-related diseases and cancers. In the immune system, ROS are involved in the defence of the host organism, immune response and immune regulation. One of the main sites of ROS generation in the cell is mitochondrial electron transport. In contrast to a number of traditional antioxidants, the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 exerts its antioxidant properties even in nanomolar concentrations. In this work, we investigated immunomodulatory properties of SkQ1 and demonstrated that treatment of mice with SkQ1 led to a decrease in percentage of CD8(+) T cells but not of CD4(+) T cells. We documented a decrease of a relative number of naïve T cells with a simultaneous increase in percentage of effector memory T cells. Central memory T cells had also a trend to be increased after SkQ1 treatment. In fraction of dendritic cells, we found an increase in percentage of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In the case of myeloid cells, SkQ1 treatment decreased significantly the percentage of granulocytes. No effect of SkQ1 was observed on regulatory T cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, as well as on freshly isolated CD8(+) T or CD4(+) T cells, indicating the indirect influence of SkQ1 on immune cells. PMID:22591624
Yang, Yuhui; Karakhanova, Svetlana; Soltek, Sabine; Werner, Jens; Philippov, Pavel P; Bazhin, Alexandr V
Poria cocos F.A.Wolf is a Chinese traditional medicine used to treat chronic gastritis, edema, nephrosis, gastric atony, and acute gastroenteric catarrh. Polysaccharides are the main active component of P. cocos. We obtained polysaccharides PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 from the degradation of P. cocos polysaccharides (PCP) with different concentrations of H2O2 solution. Molecular weights were determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. HPLC analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PCP-1, PCP-2, and PCP-3 are heteropolysaccharides composed of glucose and arabinose. IR spectra indicated obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharides. The antioxidant activities of these polysaccharides were evaluated by established in vitro systems, including scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, ABTS radicals, and ferrous ions. The degradation polysaccharides exhibited obvious and concentration-dependent antioxidant properties. In addition, DNA binding analysis showed that PCP-1 had a stronger capacity than other polysaccharides to interact with DNA. However, each polysaccharide had a certain capacity for DNA damage protection. PMID:24708960
Tang, Jin; Nie, Jing; Li, Danping; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Shaopeng; Ma, Fang; Sun, Qiao; Song, Jia; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping
Background The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF). Methods The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice. Results All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 ?g/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 ?g/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 ?g/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 ?g/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation. Conclusions Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.
Haematococcus pluvialis, a green alga accumulates astaxathin upto 2-3% on dry weight basis. In the present study, identification of carotenoids from Haematococcus cyst cell extract by HPLC and LC-MS (APCI) and their antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro model systems. The extract exhibited 89% and 78% antioxidant activity in beta-carotene linoleate model, and hydroxyl radical scavenging model at 9 ppm of total carotenoid respectively. The extract also showed 80%, 85% and 79% antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in kidney, brain and liver of rats. Low-density lipoprotein oxidation induced by Cu2+ ions also protected (45%, 64% and 75%) by the extract in a dose dependent manner with different carotenoid levels. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in the blood, liver, and kidney of rat was also significantly (p<0.005) decreased in H. pluvialis treated rats. Potent antioxidant activity is attributable to various carotenoids present in the extract. PMID:19996684
Ranga, Rao; Sarada, A Ravi; Baskaran, V; Ravishankar, G A
Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(?)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. PMID:24262566
Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha
Synthese and characterization of boronic acid functionalized macroporous uniform poly(4-chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene) particles and its use in the isolation of antioxidant compounds from plant extracts.
Aminophenyl boronic acid (APBA) carrying uniform-macroporous poly(chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene), poly(CMS-co-DVB) particles were synthesized for selective separation of cis-diol-containing flavonoids from plant extracts. For this purpose, 2.5 ?m polystyrene seed particles were first swelled by a mixture of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), toluene and dodecanol, then by a monomer mixture including CMS and DVB. The repolymerization of the monomer phase in the swollen seed particles provided macroporous and uniform particles, approximately 7 ?m in size. Chlorine atoms on the surface of these particles were derivatized with APBA to gain affinity properties for flavonoids containing vicinal hydroxyl groups. Model adsorption studies showed that these particles selectively adsorbed quercetin and rutin containing cis-diol groups, but did not adsorb apigenin similar to quercetin and not carrying cis-diol groups. These particles were also tested in adsorption/desorption studies for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the Hypericum perforatum (HP) stems to obtain high antioxidant mixtures. With ethanol extract, the antioxidant activity of the desorption solution was a bit higher than that of the post-adsorption solutions. However, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the desorption solution decreased with respect to the original extract and post-adsorption solutions. A similar result was obtained for the antioxidant activity of the desorption solution using ethyl acetate extract. An interesting result was obtained that DPPH radical scavenging activity of the post-adsorption solution was higher than that of the original ethyl acetate extract and desorption solutions. These results were attributed to selective adsorption of antioxidant characterized cis-diol-containing apolar molecules much more rather than that radical scavenger characterized polar molecules. PMID:23153644
Cetinkaya, Onur; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Ciçek, Hüseyin
Aim of the studyNoni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice has been used for more than 2000 years in Polynesia as a traditional folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to finely characterize noni juice from Costa Rica and to evaluate its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.
E. Dussossoy; P. Brat; E. Bony; F. Boudard; P. Poucheret; C. Mertz; J. Giaimis; A. Michel
Thiocyanate (SCN) functions in host defense as part of the secreted lactoperoxidase (LPO) microbicidal pathway. SCN is the preferred substrate for LPO-driven catalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) forming hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN). HOSCN is selectively generated by many peroxidase enzymes that can utilize SCN including: eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), gastric peroxidase (GPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), salivary peroxidase (SPO), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO). These enzymes generate HOSCN through a two-electron halogenation reaction. HOSCN is a potent microbicidal agent that kills or nullifies invading pathogens but is better tolerated by host tissue. Some controversy exists as to whether physiologic levels of HOSCN are non-toxic to host tissue, but the disagreement appears to be based on results of enzymatic generation (yielding moderate steady-state exposure) versus direct high level acute exposure in mammalian cell lines. This apparent duality is also true of other endogenous oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and relates to the difference between physiologically relevant oxidant production versus supra-physiologic bolus dosing approaches. SCN has antioxidant properties that include the ability to protect cells against oxidizing agents such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and repair protein chloramines. SCN is an important endogenous molecule that has the potential to interact in complex and elegant ways with its host environment and foreign organisms. SCN’s diverse properties as both host defense and antioxidant agent make it a potentially useful therapeutic.
Chandler, Joshua D.; Day, Brian J.
The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs. PMID:23775704
Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason
The bidentate borate anion H(2)B(ptz)(2)(-) and its transition metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, electronic, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The molar conductance of 10(-3) M solution for all the complexes supports their non-ionic nature. The TGA profile of borate anion shows a single stage unlike that of two stage decomposition plot of the metal complexes. On the basis of spectroscopic studies the geometry of all the complexes have been proposed to be distorted-tetrahedral. The in vitro antioxidant and lipid oxidation inhibition of the ligand and its complexes have also been studied. The Cu[B(ptz)(2)](2) complex was found to be most effective in all the studies. PMID:22885087
Nami, Shahab A A; Alam, Mahboob; Husain, Ahmad; Parveen, Mehtab
The complex formation between Cr(III) and morin was carried out in methanol and confirmed by analytical characterization using UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, and TG-DTA. UV-Vis shows significant bathochromic shift in benzoyl upon coordination as well as IR well illustrates the peak shift of C=O group and formation of a O–Cr(III) bond. Likewise, 1H NMR studies clarify that Cr(III) metal ion replaces the 5OH proton hence; 5-hydroxy-4-keto site is employed by morin in chelation to form six-membered stable ring system out of three available chelating sites. In addition, TG-DTA denotes the presence of coordinated and crystalline water molecules. The melting point of the complex was found to be 389°C by DSC. In addition, Cr(III)-morin complex was found to be a more potent antioxidant than morin as evaluated by DPPH• and FRAP methods.
Panhwar, Qadeer K.; Memon, Shahabuddin
To extract antioxidant peptide from hoki frame protein hydrolysate (APHPH), we employed six proteases (pepsin, trypsin, papain, ?-chymotrypsin, Alcalase and Neutrase) for enzymatic hydrolysis, and the antioxidant activities of their hydrolysates were investigated using both lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and free radical scavenging assay by electron spin resonance spin-trapping technique. Among hydrolysates, peptic hydrolysate, having the highest antioxidant activity, further
Soo-Yong Kim; Jae-Young Je; Se-Kwon Kim
The antioxidant activities of different durian cultivars at the same stage of ripening (Mon Thong, Chani, Kan Yao, Pung Manee and Kradum) were compared in order to choose the best as a supplement in the human diet. Total polyphenols (mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g fresh weight (FW)) and flavonoids (mg catechin equivalent (CE)/100 g FW) in Mon Thong (361.4+/-23.2 and 93.9+/-7.4) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in Kradum (271.5+/-11.2 and 69.2+/-5.3) and Kan Yao (283.2+/-16.5 and 72.1+/-6.8). The free polyphenols and flavonoids showed lower results than the hydrolyzed ones. Anthocyanins (microg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100 g FW) and flavanols (microg CE/100 g FW) were significantly higher in Mon Thong (427.3+/-23.8 and 171.4+/-16.3) than in Kradum (320.2+/-12.1 and 128.6+/-9.7) and Kan Yao (335.3+/-14.1 and 134.4+/-11.7). Ultraviolet spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analyses showed that caffeic acid and quercetin were the dominant bioactive substances in Mon Thong cultivar. The antioxidant activity (microM trolox equivalent/100 g FW) of Mon Thong cultivar (260.8+/-20.2, 1,075.6+/-81.4 and 2,352.7+/-124.2) determined by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in Kradum (197.4+/-8.9, 806.5+/-31.2 and 1,773.2+/-102.5) and in Kan Yao (204.7+/-9.7, 845.5+/-48.6 and 1,843.6+/-107.5). The correlation coefficients between polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols and FRAP, CUPRAC and TEAC capacities were between 0.89 and 0.98. In extracted and separated by electrophoresis durian proteins, some differences were found in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein bands in the region of 16 and 68 kDa for Kradum, 45 kDa for Mon Thong and three bands for Kan Yao. Antioxidants and proteins can be used for characterization of the quality of durian cultivars. In conclusion, the bioactivity of durian cultivars Mon Thong, Chani and Pung Manee was high and the total polyphenols were the main contributors to the overall antioxidant capacity. The results of our investigation in vitro are comparable with other fruits that widely used in human diets. Therefore, Durian can be used as a supplement for nutritional and healthy purposes, especially Durian Mon Thong, Chani and Pung Manee. PMID:18979619
Toledo, Fernando; Arancibia-Avila, Patricia; Park, Yong-Seo; Jung, Soon-Teck; Kang, Seong-Gook; Heo, Buk Gu; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Zachwieja, Zofia; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Pasko, Pawel; Gorinstein, Shela
The high temperature oxidation behaviors of Ti-Al-N films prepared by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) technique were studied at temperatures ranging from 500°C to 800°C in air. Ti0.88Al0.12N film, which showed excellent microhardness in the previous work, was investigated on its anti-oxidation properties compared with pure TiN film and on the roles of Al in anti-oxidation properties. TiAlN film showed
Chung Wan Kim; Kwang Ho Kim
Wild edible truffles (namely, Terfezia leonis, Tirmania pinoyi, and T. nivea) were commercially obtained from Southern Algeria and methanolic extracts were prepared from these truffles. Their antioxidant and antiradical properties were studied by using five analytical methods: scavenging capacity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS·+), superoxide anion (O2·-) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay. Chemical constituents contributing to these activities were also investigated. T. leonis had the highest total phenolics, total carotenoids, and anthocyanin contents. At 2.6 mg/mL, scavenging effects on the DPPH· radical were 92.47%, 53.06%, and 41.34% for T. leonis, T. pinoyi, and T. nivea, respectively. T. leonis showed the most potent radical scavenging activities on DPPH·, ABTS·+, and O2·- radicals, with EC50 values of 1.08, 1.35, and 7.27 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, T. leonis exhibited the highest reductive capabilities. On the basis of the EC50 values, T. leonis had good antioxidant and antiradical properties. These results showed that methanolic extracts from these three truffles species had effective antioxidant and antiradical properties. Therefore, wild edible desert truffles could serve as an easily accessible item of food rich in natural antioxidants, as a possible food supplement, or even as a pharmaceutical agent. PMID:24266372
Gouzi, Hicham; Leboukh, Mourad; Bouchouka, Elmouloud
Carnosine has antioxidant properties and is efficient in the treatment of chemically-induced inflammatory lesions in animals. However, some studies question its biological significance as antioxidant and show lack of protection and even pro-oxidant effect of carnosine in systems containing nickel and iron ions. The ability of carnosine to: (1) reduce Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions; (2) protect deoxyribose from oxidation by Fe(2+)-, Fe(3+)-, and Cu(2+)-H(2)O(2)-EDTA systems; (3) protect DNA from damage caused by Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems; (4) inhibit HClO- and H(2)O(2)-peroxidase-induced luminol dependent chemiluminescence was tested in vitro. At concentration 10 mM carnosine reduced 16.6+/-0.5 nmoles of Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions during 20 min. incubation and added to plasma significantly increased its ferric reducing ability. Inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation by 10 mM carnosine reached 56+/-5, 40+/-11 and 30+/-11% for systems containing Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively. The damage to DNA was decreased by 84+/-9 and 61+/-14% when Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems were applied. Combination of 10 mM histidine with alanine or histidine alone (but not alanine) enhanced 1.3 and 2.3 times (P<0.05) the DNA damage induced by Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate. These amino acids added to 10 mM carnosine decreased 3.1-fold (P<0.05) its protective effect on DNA. Carnosine at 10 and 20 mM decreased by more than 90% light emission from both chemiluminescent systems. It is concluded that carnosine has significant antioxidant activity especially in the presence of transition metal ions. However, hydrolysis of carnosine with subsequent histidine release may be responsible for some pro-oxidant effects. PMID:15853927
Mozdzan, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Rysz, Jacek; Nowak, Dariusz
1. Curcumin is a naturally occurring poly-phenolic compound with a broad range of favorable biological functions including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The low bioavailability and in vivo stability of curcumin require the development of suitable carrier vehicles to deliver the molecule in a sustained manner at therapeutic levels. 2. We investigated the feasibility and potential of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers as a delivery vehicle for curcumin for wound healing applications. By optimizing the electrospinning parameters, bead-free curcumin loaded PCL nanofibers were developed. 3. The fibers showed sustained release of curcumin for 72 h and could be made to deliver a dosage much lower than the reported cytotoxic concentration while remaining bioactive. Human foreskin fibroblast cells (HFF-1) showed more than 70% viability on curcumin loaded nanofibers. The antioxidant activity of curcumin loaded nanofibers was demonstrated using an ORAC assay and by the ability of the fibers to maintain the viability of HFF-1 cells on the fibers under a condition of oxidative stress. The curcumin loaded nanofibers also reduced inflammatory induction as evidenced by low levels of IL-6 release from mouse monocyte-macrophages seeded on the fibers following stimulation by E.coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The in vivo wound healing capability of the curcumin loaded PCL nanofibers was demonstrated by an increased rate of wound closure in a streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice model. 4. These results demonstrate that curcumin loaded PCL nanofiber matrix is bioactive and has potential as a wound dressing with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Merrell, Jonathan G.; McLaughlin, Shaun W.; Tie, Lu; Laurencin, Cato T.; Chen, Alex F.; Nair, Lakshmi S.
The effects of various proteases on the formation and characteristics of rice dreg protein hydrolysates (RDPHs) were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of often under-utilised rice dreg protein (RDP) with different enzymes studied here was found to significantly improve protein content and solubility. RDPHs prepared by alkaline protease showed better protein recovery, producing higher protein content with much smaller peptides, while hydrolysates generated by Protamex showed the highest antioxidant activities with more than 80% solubility over a wide pH range. The results indicated that the type of protease greatly influenced the molecular weight and amino acid residue composition of RDPH. The enzyme type also determined the functional properties and antioxidant activity of the recovered proteins. It was found that an optimum allocation of alkaline protease in addition to the Neutrase enzyme could be an appropriate strategy to produce RDPH with desirable functionalities, antioxidant properties, and low salt content. PMID:25005954
Zhao, Qiang; Xiong, Hua; Selomulya, Cordelia; Chen, Xiao Dong; Zhong, Honglan; Wang, Shenqi; Sun, Wenjing; Zhou, Qiang
Several Mallotus species (Euphorbiaceae) are used in Vietnam as edible plants or as traditional medicines for different indications, some related to the treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the antioxidant activities of 33 samples from 17 Vietnamese Mallotus species. We also evaluated potential cytotoxic activity against human cervix carcinoma HeLa and human lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. Our aim is to develop safe dietary supplements with a protective effect against various diseases caused by tissue damage and the acceleration of the aging process linked to reactive oxygen species. These tests allowed the identification of non-cytotoxic plant species exhibiting significant antiradical properties. These antioxidant properties may be explained by their polyphenol composition. The antioxidant activity of the most active Mallotus species was further analyzed with and without tannins removal. We also identified by LC-ESI-MS some flavonoids responsible for a part of this activity. PMID:21815417
Van Hong, N T; Rivière, Céline; Hong, Quang T; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Hoai, Nam N; Dejaegher, Bieke; Tistaert, Christophe; Kim, Thanh N T; Van Kiem, P; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Van, Minh C; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle
Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract.
Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. Since the endogenous antioxidant defense may be not adequate to counteract the enhanced generation of oxidants, a growing interest in research for exogenous nutrients has been observed. The present study was designed to assess in vitro the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives: calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate (0.5-3 mM) in the protection of plasma proteins and lipids, against the damage caused by 0.1 mM peroxynitrite (ONOO?). Exposure of plasma to ONOO? resulted in carbonyl groups increase, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, reduction in thiol groups, and enhanced lipid peroxidation. D-gluconic acid lactone and sodium D-gluconate effectively decreased 3-NT formation; the antinitrative action of calcium D-glucarate was less effective. In plasma samples incubated with ONOO? and tested compounds, the level of carbonyl groups was decreased in comparison to plasma samples treated only with ONOO?. The level of protein -SH groups and glutathione was significantly higher in the presence of glucose derivatives than in plasma samples treated with ONOO? only. All the tested compounds had the inhibitory effect on the peroxynitrite-induced plasma lipids peroxidation. The results obtained from our work indicate that calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate may partly protect plasma proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-induced damages. PMID:21086198
Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara
The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February-November) from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil). Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02) were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content. PMID:22314384
Freire, Kristerson R L; Lins, Antonio C S; Dórea, Marcos C; Santos, Francisco A R; Camara, Celso A; Silva, Tania M S
Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25?mol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03?g/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity. PMID:23692751
Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina
Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae) is used in Cameroon and West Africa folk medicine for the treatment of various microbial infections (measles, chickenpox, and sexually transmitted diseases). The antibacterial properties of the methanolic extract and fractions from stem bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron were tested against three Gram-positive bacteria and eight Gram-negative bacteria using Agar-well diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract and fractions were investigated by DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The methanolic extract and some fractions exhibited antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (ID = 0.00–25.00?mm; MIC = 781–12500??g/mL and 0.24–1000??g/mL). The activity of the crude extract is, however, very weak compared to the reference antibiotics (MIC = 0.125–128??g/mL). Two fractions (FE and FF) showed significant activity (MIC = 0.97??g/mL) while S. aureus ATCC 25922 was almost resistant to all the tested fractions. In addition, the crude extract and some fractions showed good antioxidant potential with inhibition values ranging from 17.53 to 98.79%. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as some of the fractions in the treatment of infectious diseases and oxidative stress.
Mokale Kognou, Aristide Laurel; Ngono Ngane, Rosalie Annie; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Koanga Mogtomo, Martin Luther; Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Biyiti, Lucie; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri
Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864
Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar
We report on the application of supplementary light-emitting diode (LED) lighting within a greenhouse for cultivation of red, green and light green leaf baby lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under natural illumination and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (16-h; PPFD-170?molm(-2)s(-1)) during different growing season. Supplementary lighting from blue 455/470nm and green 505/530nm LEDs was applied (16-h; PPFD-30?molm(-2)s(-1)). Our results showed that to achieve solely a positive effect is complicated, because metabolism of antioxidant properties in lettuce depended on multicomponent exposure of variety, light quality or seasonality. The general trend of a greater positive effect of supplemental LED components on the vitamin C and tocopherol contents was in order: 535>505>455>470nm; on the total phenol content: 505>535=470>455nm; on the DPPH free-radical scavenging capacity: 535=470>505>455nm; on the total anthocyanins: 505>455>470>535nm. Further investigations are needed for understanding the mechanism and interaction between antioxidants and light signal transduction pathways. PMID:25005972
Samuolien?, Giedr?; Sirtautas, Ram?nas; Brazaityt?, Aušra; Duchovskis, Pavelas
In this study, we investigated the potential of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as a new source for preparation of edible films and determined the physical, mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, microstructural and thermal properties. QSM films were prepared by incorporation of three levels of glycerol (25-50%, w/w). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (O2P), elongation at break (EB), water solubility and moisture content of QSM films increased while, tensile strength (TS), density and surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly. The measurement of color values showed that by the increasing of the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix, the b and L values increased while ?E value decreased. Microscopic views indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without obvious cracks, breaks, or openings on the surfaces after the incorporation of glycerol as a plasticizer. The results of the present study suggest that QSM as a new antioxidant edible film with interesting specifications can potentially be used for packaging of a wide range of food products. PMID:24076197
Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash
Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant properties in jam. Conclusions The retention of bioactive compounds and jam color stability were strongly dependent on the pectin type and dosage. By a proper selection of pectin type and dose could be limited the losses recorded in response to processing and storage.
Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5-7.5?mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25-7.5?mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5-7.5?mg/mL and 2.5-10?mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7? ? g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1? ? g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099
Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin
Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of four Malaysian monofloral types of honey (gelam, longan, rubber tree and sourwood honeys) compared to manuka honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content, were measured. A number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The mean pH, moisture content, EC and TDS of Malaysian honey were 3.90?±?0.12, 17.01?±?3.07%, 0.59?±?0.17 mS/cm and 294.87?±?81.96 ppm, respectively. The mean color and HMF level was 102.07?±?41.77 mm Pfund and 49.51?±?0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Sourwood honey contained the highest contents of phenolics (580.03?±?0.38 mggalic acid/kg) and flavonoids (156.82?±?0.47 mgcatechin/kg) with high DPPH radical scavenging activity (59.26?±?3.77%) as well as ferric reducing power [648.25?±?0.90 ?M Fe (II)/100 g]. Sourwood honey also exhibited the highest color intensity. Several strong positive correlations were observed amongst the different antioxidant parameters and the various antioxidant tests. Conclusion This is the first time that the antioxidant potential of both sourwood and rubber tree honeys have been reported. Our results indicated that Malaysian honey (specifically sourwood honey and longan honey) is a good source of antioxidants compared to Manuka honey.
Various bean products fermented by microorganisms are commonly consumed in Asian diets; however, the safety or functional properties of fermented beans can vary with different microbial species and with different processes being applied to different beans. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidative and mutagenic properties of 50% ethanolic extracts from red beans fermented by Aspergillus oryzae. The extracts' antioxidative activities, including alpha,alpha;-diphenyl-beta-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effects, Fe(2+)-chelating ability, and reducing power, were studied in vitro. The antioxidative effects provided by the extracts depended strongly on their concentrations. In general, antioxidative activity increased with extract concentration to a certain point and then leveled off as the concentration further increased. The fermented red bean extracts showed less of a scavenging effect on the DPPH radical and less reducing power than the commercial antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, but better Fe(2+)-chelating ability. No mutagenicity or toxicity effect on any of the tested strains (Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535) was found for the 50% ethanolic extracts of fermented red beans with the Ames mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the 50% ethanolic extracts were not mutagenic. PMID:12233859
Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Cheng-Tien; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chung, Yun-Chin
The antioxidant potential of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), also known as AD4, was assessed by employing different in vitro assays. These included reducing power, free radical scavenging capacities, peroxidation inhibiting activity through linoleic acid emulsion system and metal chelating capacity, as compared to NAC and three widely used antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Of the antioxidant properties that were investigated, NACA was shown to possess higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging ability and reducing power than NAC, at all the concentrations, whereas the scavenging ability of H(2)O(2) differed with concentration. While NACA had greater H(2)O(2) scavenging capacity at the highest concentration, NAC was better than NACA at lower concentrations. NAC and NACA had a 60% and 55% higher ability to prevent beta-carotene bleaching, respectively, as compared to control. The chelating activity of NACA was more than 50% that of the metal chelating capacity of EDTA and four and nine times that of BHT and alpha-tocopherol, respectively. When compared to NACA and NAC; alpha-tocopherol had higher DPPH scavenging abilities and BHT and alpha-tocopherol had better beta-carotene bleaching power. These findings provide evidence that the novel antioxidant, NACA, has indeed enhanced the antioxidant properties of NAC. PMID:18404536
Ates, Burhan; Abraham, Linu; Ercal, Nuran
We studied the changes in the anti-oxidant capacity of tissues, such as heart, liver, and blood in male and female rats, as a parameter for evaluating oxidative stress after either a prolonged (210 min) or an exhausting bout of swimming. Furthermore, we also investigated exercise-induced changes in the electrophysiological properties, measured in vitro, of papillary muscle fibres. Small decreases of
P. Venditti; M. C. Piro; G. Artiaco; S. Di Meo
Vigna aconitifolia sprouts (Moth bean sprouts, MBS) were analyzed for their nutritional and antioxidant properties during sprouting. Sprouting for six days led to a 7.0 fold increase in fresh weight, 2.4 fold increase in soluble proteins, 3.0 fold increase in carbohydrates, and a 5.5 fold increase in mineral content. Phenolic content also increased by 28% during germination. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and kaempferol were the predominant phenolic compounds detected in the ethanolic extracts of MBS by HPLC. Following supplementation with metal ions (200 ?g ml?¹), the sprouts demonstrated a considerable increase in metal ion uptake, with improved phenolic content. MBS ethanolic extracts also reduced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. PMID:22466624
Kestwal, Rakesh M; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang
The effects of citric acid deamidation on the physiochemical properties of wheat gluten were investigated. In vitro digestion was carried out to determine changes of molecular weight distribution, amino acids composition and antioxidant efficacy of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Results indicated that citric acid deamidation significantly increased gluten solubility and surface hydrophobicity, at a neutral pH. Deamidation induced molecular weight distribution change of gluten with little proteolysis. Results from FTIR indicated that the ?-helix and ?-turn of deamidated gluten increased accompanied by a decrease of the ?-sheet structure. After deamidation, in vitro pepsin digestibility of wheat gluten decreased, while in vitro pancreatin digestibility increased. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activity of the in vitro digests decreased with increase of deamidation time. The high Lys and total essential AAs amounts in the final digests suggested that the nutritional values of wheat gluten after deamidation might be enhanced. PMID:23871023
Qiu, Chaoying; Sun, Weizheng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming
The development of nontoxic yet effective radioprotectors is needed because of the increasing risk of human exposure to ionizing radiation. We have reported that high-altitude Podophyllum hexandrum (HAPH) confers a radioprotective effect in in vitro and in vivo models. The present study reports on the antioxidant and radioprotective properties of low-altitude Podophyllum hexandrum (LAPH), from which the toxic compound podophyllotoxin has been partially removed during the extraction process. Using HPLC,we estimated the relative content of two marker compounds, podophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin glycoside, in low-altitude Podophyllum extract (LAPE) and found them to be 23.3% and 9.50%, respectively. The ferrous ion chelation potential of LAPE was estimated using the 2,2 bipyridyl assay, and the activity was found to be increased concomitantly with the increase in its concentration, with a maximal inhibition at 25 microg/mL (42.20%) as compared to quercetin (34.9%). The electron donation potential of LAPE was also evaluated, because the antioxidant activities of natural products are known to bear a direct correlation with their ability to donate electrons. The concentration required to attain unit absorbance values at 700 nm were 0.230541+/-0.09 and 0.041+/-0.06 for butylated hydroxyl toluene and LAPE, respectively, indicating a higher antioxidant activity of LAPE. The free radical scavenging ability of LAPE was also assessed and exhibited a dose-dependant increase (1-100 microg/mL), comparable to that of quercetin at 25 microg/mL. The role of LAPE in protecting DNA was evaluated, and it was found that LAPE (30 microg/mL) rendered its maximum radioprotection against the 250 Gy-induced damage in the plasmid (pBR322) relaxation assay. LAPE significantly inhibited radiation-induced, iron/ascorbate- and combined stress (iron/ascorbate and radiation)-induced formation of TBARS (p<0.05). We conclude that LAPH, with its easy accessibility, ease of cultivation, multifarious radioprotective properties, and role as a renewable source of bioactive constituents, along with its low associated toxicity (due to partial removal of podophyllotoxin), enhances its possible use for human clinical applications. PMID:16393123
Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Puri, Satish Chander; Sagar, Ravinder; Singh, Shikha; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Surender; Kaur, Gurpreet; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar
The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in formation of glucuronide, methyl and sulphate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (?)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1–30 ?M quercetin, 3?- or 4?-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and quercetin-3?-sulphate; or 20–100 ?M EGCG, 4?-O-methyl-EGCG and 4?,4?-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to co-incubation with 100 U/ml of TNF?. 3?-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4?-O-methyl-quercetin and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC50 values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0 and 4.4 ?M, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20–100 ?M), quercetin-3?-O-sulphate (10–30 ?M) and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20–100 ?M) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4?,4?-di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC50 value of 94 ?M, whereas EGCG (20–60 ?M) and 4?-O-methyl-EGCG (20–100 ?M) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3?-O-methyl-quercetin and 4?,4?-di-O-methyl-EGCG on adhesion molecule expression were not related to either inhibition of NF-?B activation or their antioxidant reducing capacity. Our data indicate that flavonoid metabolites have different biological and antioxidant properties than their parent compounds, and suggest that data from in vitro studies using non-metabolites of flavonoids are of limited relevance in vivo.
Lotito, Silvina B.; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Yang, Chung S.; Crozier, Alan; Frei, Balz
Aim of this paper is to find out the relationship between antioxidant activity of Abutilon indicum Linn and their phytochemical composition especially phenols and flavonols. Successive extractions were carried out for the Abutilon indicum plant with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water. All these extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were correlated with their total phenol and flavonol content present in the plant. Ethyl acetate showed maximum free radical scavenging activity. IC50 value for various antioxidant methods for all extract showed no significance with total antioxidant capacity except IC50 value of LPO (r2 = 0.7273). Correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was not significant with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.3065. Total antioxidant capacity and total flavonol content showed similar correlation with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.0962.
Srividya, A. R.; Dhanabal, S. P.; Jeevitha, S.; Varthan, V. J. Vishnu; Kumar, R. Rajesh
To improve the anti-oxidation properties of carbon fibers (CFs), the sol-gel method followed by pyrolysis was used to coat CFs with SiC/SiO2 ceramic coatings. The SiO2 sol-gel coating was performed by dip coating a PAN(polyacrylonitrile)-based stabilized fiber (PSF) in a silica sol prepared by the polycondensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of an acidic catalyst. The PSF coated with SiO2 sol then underwent heat treatments at high temperatures in an inert atmosphere to deposit the SiC/SiO2 and carbonize the deposited fibers. The surface morphology of the CFs deposited with SiC/SiO2 was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The relative oxidation resistance of the SiC/SiO2 layer deposited on the CFs was determined by the weight loss due to the use of a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under flowing air, and the data were used to calculate the activation energies through an Arrhenius plot. PMID:22103138
Kim, Bo-Hye; Yang, Kap Seung; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Su Yeun
Previous intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) studies have indicated significant variation in ICSI success rates among different species. In mouse ICSI, the zona pellucida (ZP) undergoes a "hardening" process at fertilization in order to prevent subsequent sperm from penetrating. There have been few studies investigating changes in the mechanical properties of mouse ZP post fertilization. To characterize mouse ZP mechanical properties and quantitate the mechanical property differences of the ZP before and after fertilization, a microelectromechanical systems-based multiaxis cellular force sensor has been developed. A microrobotic cell manipulation system employing the multiaxis cellular force sensor is used to conduct mouse ZP force sensing, establishing a quantitative relationship between applied forces and biomembrane structural deformations on both mouse oocytes and embryos. An analytical biomembrane elastic model is constructed to describe biomembrane mechanical properties. The characterized elastic modulus of embryos is 2.3 times that of oocytes, and the measured forces for puncturing embryo ZP are 1.7 times those for oocyte ZP. The technique and model presented in this paper can be applied to investigations into the mechanical properties of other biomembranes, such as the plasma membrane of oocytes or other cell types. PMID:15376919
Sun, Yu; Wan, Kai-Tak; Roberts, Kenneth P; Bischof, John C; Nelson, Bradley J
Extrusion process has been widely used for the development of many functional foods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate (BHC) hydrolysates (P, FC, PF and FCF). Extrusion was carried out with a Brabender single screw extruder. The ACE inhibition and the antioxidant capacity (AC) were estimated by the inhibition of the ACE and ABTS+? radical cation expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), respectively. The ACE inhibition and TEAC values from hydrolysates were significantly higher than that from BHC. The highest ACE inhibition corresponded to P hydrolysate and the highest TEAC corresponded to PF and FCF hydrolysates. The ACE inhibition and AC from extruded products with added hydrolysates were higher than that from maize control; however, the extrusion process modified both ACE inhibition and AC formerly present in hydrolysates. PMID:21568820
Cian, Raúl E; Luggren, Pablo; Drago, Silvina R
An aqueous coriander extract obtained through a sequential extraction process, was analysed using chromatography and mass spectrometry in order to identify the phenolic compounds responsible for its antioxidant activity. Four fractions were identified from the crude extract using chromatography in a silica gel column. Their antioxidant activity, according to the ?-carotene\\/linoleic acid model, was similar to one another but inferior
Enayde de Almeida Melo; Jorge Mancini Filho; Nonete Barbosa Guerra
Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…
Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda
Tribofilms with thickness ranging from 100-200 nm were developed in-situ during wear tests using a zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates (ZDDP) and fluorinated ZDDP (F-ZDDP). The influence of the antioxidant alkylated diphenyl amine on the formation and properties of these tribofilm is examined. Results indicate that the thickness of the tribofilms formed when F-ZDDP is used is always thicker than the tribofilm formed with ZDDP. In addition, in the presence of antioxidants the tribofilm thickness is increased. The hardness of these tribofilms in the absence of the antioxidants is significantly higher at the near surface region (0-30 nm) when compared to the films formed in the presence of antioxidant. Nanoscratch tests conducted to examine the abrasion resistance of the tribofilms also indicate that the tribofilms formed by F-ZDDP are more resistant to scratch compared to films formed by ZDDP. In the presence of antioxidant, tribofilms formed by F-ZDDP are significantly thicker while both films behave in a similar fashion in nanoscratch tests. Transmission electron microscopy of the wear debris formed during the tests were examined and results indicate the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles of Fe3O4 with an approximate size of 5-10 nm embedded within an otherwise amorphous tribofilm. PMID:18283818
Somayaji, Anuradha; Mourhatch, Ramoun; Aswath, Pranesh B
(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)methanone (5) and its two derivatives with bromine were synthesized from reactions such as bromination and demethylation of (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)methanone (6). The Wolf-Kishner reduction product (9) of 6 and its three derivatives with bromine were obtained. 4-(3,4-Dihydroxybenzyl)benzene-1,2,3-triol and its dibromide derivative (16) were also synthesized from 9 and the corresponding dibromide derivative. The in vitro antioxidant activities of nine new compounds synthesized in these reactions were determined by analyzing the radical scavenging activities of bromophenols for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD), and the superoxide anion radical (O(2)(·-)) and examining the total reducing power through Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation, FRAP and CUPRAC assays and the ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Moreover, the results of these activities were compared to those of standard antioxidant compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ?-tocopherol, and trolox. The results showed that the synthesized bromophenols had effective antioxidant power. The phenol 5 with two phenolic rings and five phenolic hydroxyl groups was the most potent antioxidant and radical scavenger. In conclusion, the new compounds are promising molecules to be used owing to their potential antioxidant properties. PMID:22147548
Cetinkaya, Yasin; Göçer, Hülya; Menzek, Abdullah; Gülçin, Ilhami
Abstract Liver steatosis is characterized by lipid dysregulation and fat accumulation in the liver and can lead to oxidative stress in liver. Since proanthocyanidins are present in plant-based foods and have powerful antioxidant properties, we investigated whether proanthocyanidins can prevent oxidative stress and subsequent liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment can cause steatosis in rats that models both alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. We pre-treated rats by oral administration of proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds 7 days prior to intragastrically administering CCl4. Proanthocyanidin treatment continued for an additional 2 weeks, after which time liver and serum were harvested, and mediators of liver injury, oxidative stress, and histological features were evaluated. CCl4-treated rats exhibited significant increases in the following parameters as compared to non-treated rats: fat droplets in the liver, liver injury (ALT, AST), and DNA damage (8-OHdG). Additionally, CCl4 treatment decreased antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH, GPX, and CAT in the liver due to their rapid depletion after battling against oxidative stress. Compared to CCl4-treated rats, treatment with proanthocyanidins effectively suppressed lipid accumulation, liver injury, DNA damage, as well as restored antioxidant enzyme levels. Further investigation revealed that proanthocyanidins treatment also inhibited expression of CYP2E1 in liver, which prevented the initial step of generating free radicals from CCl4. The data presented here show that treatment with orally administered proanthocyanidins prevented liver injury in the CCl4-induced steatosis model, likely through exerting antioxidant actions to suppress oxidative stress and inhibiting the free radical-generating CYP2E1 enzyme. PMID:24712752
Dai, Ning; Zou, Yuan; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Hui-Fang; Dai, Mu-Gen
In chronic wounds, a number of host factors are released which perpetuate the inflammatory process, including polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical (O2*-) and hydroxyl radical (*OH) species. The glycosaminoglycan. hyaluronan, has been shown to act as an antioxidant towards ROS, although the potential for biomaterials, such as HYAFF -11p75 (the 75% benzyl ester of hyaluronan) and AQUACEL (carboxymethylcellulose), to act in this manner has yet to be elucidated. This study compared the antioxidant properties of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan (HMWT HA and LMWT HA), HYAFF -11p75, AQUACEL and an AQUACEL /hyaluronan composite (AQUACEL /HA) against O2*- and *OH. The antioxidant capacities of each material were assessed by their ability to inhibit cytochrome C reduction by O2*- fluxes, generated via the oxidation of hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidase, and their inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation by *OH fluxes, generated by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron (Fe2+). All materials studied possessed dose dependent antioxidant properties towards O2*-, with HYAFF 11p75 having the greatest antioxidant potential towards these species, followed by AQUACEL, HMWT HA, AQUACEL /HA and LMWT HA. Only HMWT HA exhibited dose dependent antioxidant properties towards *OH at the fluxes examined. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis implied that ester bonds between the hyaluronan backbone and benzyl groups of HYAFF -11p75 are highly susceptible to O2*- hydrolysis, with the de-esterified benzyl alcohol being rapidly degraded in the presence of *OH. This data supports the hypothesis that HYAFF -11p75 has greater antioxidant capacity towards O2*-, due to the esterified benzyl groups providing alternative sites for O2*- attack other than the hyaluronan backbone of HYAFF -11p75 itself and explains the inability of HYAFF -11p75 to scavenge *OH, due to benzyl alcohol degradation by *OH. The antioxidant activities of these biomaterials, particularly HYAFF -11p75 and AQUACEL, towards O2*- could be beneficial, as the scavenging of PMN-derived O2*- may remove initial sources of O2*- and further prevent the secondary formation of *OH. These ROS are thought to be a primary causal factor for the extensive degradation and metabolic alterations observed in chronic wounds. PMID:11962667
Moseley, R; Leaver, M; Walker, M; Waddington, R J; Parsons, D; Chen, W Y J; Embery, G
In this article we have reported synthesis, chemical characterization (with single crystal XRD, elemental analysis, FTIR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy), DNA binding (with cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis spectroscopy, molecular docking and viscometry) and antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging) of 1-(2-methylbenzoyl)-3-(3-ferrocenylphenyl)selenourea (MOT). We found that this compound interacts electrostatically with DNA and has a binding constant value of 1.703 × 104 M?1. Lower value of diffusion coefficient for MOT-DNA adduct (1.35 × 106 cm2 s?1) relative to free MOT (1.66 × 106 cm2 s?1) in cyclic voltammetry (CV) indicated the binding of the compound with DNA. Smaller value of binding site size (0.88 base pairs) in CV, hyperchromism in UV–vis spectroscopy and decrease of relative specific viscosity of DNA in viscometry favored electrostatic interactions. Binding energy of experimental (?5.77 kcal mol?1) and simulated (?5.86 kcal mol?1) work are in close agreement with each other. IC50 value of MOT for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging was found to be 27 ?M.
Hussain, Raja Azadar; Badshah, Amin; Sohail, Manzar; Lal, Bhajan; Akbar, Kamran
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small redox protein existing ubiquitously in all living organisms and plays an important role in multiple cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation and immune response. To date very few studies have been carried out to examine the function of piscine Trx. In this study, we identified and analyzed the function of a Trx homologue, CsTrx1, from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The deduced amino acid sequence of CsTrx1 is composed of 107 residues and shares 54.1-60.8% overall identities with the Trx of other teleosts. CsTrx1 contains the highly conserved CXXC motif, which in mammals is known to be the active site, in the form of CQPC. Expression of CsTrx1 as determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was highest in liver and upregulated in time-dependent manners by bacterial infection and by exposure to iron, copper, and hydrogen peroxide. Purified recombinant CsTrx1 (rCsTrx1) exhibited insulin disulfide reductase activity and antioxidant activity, both which, however, were lost when the two cysteine residues in the CQPC motif were mutated to serine. Further analysis showed that rCsTrx1 was able to stimulate the proliferation of head kidney leukocytes, upregulate the expression of immune relevant genes, and enhance the resistance of leukocytes against bacterial infection. Taken together, these results indicate that CsTrx1 is a biologically active reductase and an antioxidant that requires the CXXC motif for activity and that CsTrx1 possesses cytokine-like immunoregulatory property. These results suggest a role for CsTrx1 in protecting cells against oxidative stress caused by oxidant exposure and pathogen infection. PMID:22270611
Sun, Jin-sheng; Li, Yong-xin; Sun, Li
Two hundred and fifty-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used to investigate the dietary supplementation effects of different levels of 0.0 turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) (free TRP, F.TRP), 0.25 (low TRP, L.TRP), 0.5 (medium TRP, M.TRP) and 0.75% TRP (high TRP, H.TRP) or 50 mg/kg vitamin E (VE) on antioxidant properties of thigh meat in broiler chickens after slaughter. No effect of treatment was observed for the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in thigh meat (P > 0.05) but all were reduced over time (P < 0.0001). A significant treatment*time interaction was observed for thigh meat GPX activity (P = 0.02). Significant effects of treatment and time were observed for malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the treatments for thigh meat MDA content at slaughter (P > 0.05). Three days after refrigerator storage, MDA content in thigh meat of M.TRP birds was lower than that of F.TRP birds (P < 0.05). Both the M.TRP and VE birds showed a lower MDA content in thigh meat as compared with F.TRP birds 7 days after storage (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of 5 mg/kg TRP can increases the thigh meat shelf-life storage and quality in broiler chickens after slaughter. PMID:22862930
The Physicochemical properties, macro and micro elements (Al, Cd, Ca,Fe, Pb, Mg, P, K, and Zn), fatty acids, total phe- nolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of oil from seeds of two Abutilon species, grown wild in Pakistan were investigated. Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) and Abutilon muticum DC. (Malvaceae) were found to contain 5.9 and 6.3% moisture, 25.1 and 28.3%
Muhammad Akram Kashmiri; Sammia Yasmin; Mushtaq Ahmad; Ayesha Mohy-ud-Din
Comparison of the antioxidant properties of wound dressing materials–carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronan benzyl ester and hyaluronan, towards polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived reactive oxygen species
In chronic wounds, factors are released which perpetuate inflammatory processes, including polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical (O2?) and hydroxyl radical (OH) species. The glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has established antioxidant properties towards ROS, although the antioxidant potential of wound dressing biomaterials, such as 75% benzyl esterified hyaluronan (BEHA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMCH), are less characterised. This study
R. Moseley; M. Walker; R. J. Waddington; W. Y. J. Chen
Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with constant barrel temperature. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of extrusion cooking variables (feed moisture, FM, 20% and 50%; screw speed, SS, 200 and 400rpm) and storing of the extruded flours at 4°C for 24h on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch (RS), pasting properties and antioxidant capacities. Extrusion cooking at higher FM and lower SS increased the amylose content, which was expressed in highest RS content. Water adsorption index (WAI) and pasting properties were increased, while water solubility index (WSI), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (FRAP, ABTS(+), DPPH) in free and bound phenolics were decreased compared to the other extruded samples. Storing the extruded flours at 4°C for 24h prior to oven drying was the main factor leading to a further increase in the content of amylose, RS, TPC and WSI values, as well as pasting properties - in particular peak viscosity. Compared to native banana flour, extrusion cooking caused significant changes in all studied properties of the extruded flours, except for soluble DF and antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+) and DPPH) of bound phenolics. PMID:24054209
Sarawong, Chonthira; Schoenlechner, Regine; Sekiguchi, Ken; Berghofer, Emmerich; Ng, Perry K W
Reducing sugars for example glucose, fructose, etc., and their phosphate derivatives non-enzymatically glycate biological macromolecules (e.g., proteins, DNA and lipids) and is related to the production of free radicals. Here we present a novel study, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) along with UV/Vis absorption and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), on normal and glycated human placenta DNA and have explored the antioxidant property of the naturally occurring polyhydroxy flavone quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) in preventing the glycation. The decrease in the absorption intensity of DNA in presence of sugars clearly indicates the existence of sugar molecules between the two bases of a base pair in the duplex DNA molecule. Variations were perceptible in the PCS relaxation profiles of normal and glycated DNA. The melting temperature of placenta DNA was decreased when glycated suggesting a decrease in the structural stability of the double-stranded glycated DNA. Our DSC and PCS data showed, for the first time, that the dramatic changes in the structural properties of glycated DNA can be prevented to a significant extent by adding quercetin. This study provides valuable insights regarding the structure, function, and dynamics of normal and glycated DNA molecules, underlying the manifestation of free radical mediated diseases, and their prevention using therapeutically active naturally occurring flavonoid quercetin.
Sengupta, Bidisa [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296, Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Uematsu, Takashi [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296, Goeteborg (Sweden); Jacobsson, Per [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296, Goeteborg (Sweden); Swenson, Jan [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296, Goeteborg (Sweden)
Physico-chemical and mechanical properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin (G), chitosan (C) from shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) and composite films (G75/C25, G50/C50, G25/C75) plasticized with glycerol were investigated. The results indicated that chitosan film had higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break when compared with the other films. Composite films show no significant difference in tensile strength (TS), thickness and transparency. The structural properties evaluated by FTIR and DSC showed total miscibility between both polymers. DSC scans showed that the increase of chitosan content in the composite films increases the transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy (?Hg) of films. The morphology study of gelatin, chitosan and composite films showed a compact and homogenous structure. In addition, gelatin and G75/C25 films demonstrated a high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical-scavenging and reducing power activities, while films contained chitosan exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24709012
Jridi, Mourad; Hajji, Sawssan; Ayed, Hanen Ben; Lassoued, Imen; Mbarek, Aïcha; Kammoun, Maher; Souissi, Nabil; Nasri, Moncef
The ?-carotene bleaching assay, a common method for evaluating antioxidant activity, has been widely criticized due to its low reproducibility, problematic quantification, complex reagent preparation, and interference of different factors (temperature, pH, solvents, and metals). In this work we have examined the effects of these factors and developed a highly reproducible procedure for microplate assay, evaluated the critical points of the method, and proposed a kinetic model for quantifying both antioxidant and prooxidant activities. The application of these tools produced very consistent results, which provide robust and meaningful criteria to compare in detail the characteristics of several well-known commercial antioxidants, as well as several predictable prooxidants, and can be easily applied to natural extracts, food samples, and many other type of compounds. As an example, we have tested a set of commercial antioxidants and some typical lipophilic prooxidants. The activity of the tested antioxidants decreased in the following order: ethoxyquin ? ?-tocopherol > butylhydroxyanisole > butylhydroxytoluene ? propyl gallate. On the other hand, hemoglobin and Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+) showed a strong prooxidant effect, and the activity was null in Cd(2+), Ni(2+), and Sr(2+), slightly antioxidant in Mg(2+), and strongly antioxidant in Zn(2+) and Mn(2+). PMID:22849655
Prieto, M A; Rodríguez-Amado, I; Vázquez, J A; Murado, M A
Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidative activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from muscle of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) were investigated. Sardinelle protein hydrolysates (SPH) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus pumilus A1 (SPHA1), Bacillus mojavensis A21 (SPHA21) and crude enzyme extract from sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) viscera (SPHEE). The protein hydrolysates SPHA1, SPHA21 and SPHEE contained high protein content 79.1%, 78.25% and 74.37%, respectively. The protein hydrolysates had an excellent solubility and possessed interfacial properties, which were governed by their concentrations. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, reducing power assay, chelating activity, ?-carotene bleaching and DNA nicking assay. All protein hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. SPHA21 had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (89% at 6 mg/ml) and higher ability to prevent bleaching of ?-carotene than SPHA1 and SPHEE (p?0.05). However, SPHEE exhibited the highest metal chelating activity (89% at 1 mg/ml) and the strongest protection against hydroxyl radical induced DNA breakage (p?0.05). PMID:24741155
Ben Khaled, Hayet; Ktari, Naourez; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Moncef
In this study, two polysaccharides (Elaeagnus angustifolia L. polysaccharide-1 (PEA-1) and PEA-2) were prepared from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Then, the preliminary structure and antioxidant activities of all the samples were investigated. The results showed that the average molecular weights for PEA-1 and PEA-2 were 9113 and 5020 Da, respectively. And, PEA-1 was mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. The components of PEA-2 were rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, respectively. Moreover, the Antioxidant assays demonstrated that PEA-1 possessed of strong free radicals scavenging activity and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, suggesting that PEA-1 could potentially be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:24972139
Chen, Qingqing; Chen, Juncheng; Du, Hongtao; Li, Qi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Gechao; Liu, Hong; Wang, Junru
Calcium dobesilate possesses antioxidant properties and protects against capillary permeability by reactive oxygen species in the rat peritoneal cavity, but whether a similar action can take place in the diabetic rat retina is unknown. We investigated the oral treatment of diabetic rats with calcium dobesilate on the prevention of free radical-mediated retinal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (90 min ischemia followed by 3 min and/or 24 h of reperfusion). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were orally treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg of calcium dobesilate for 10 days (n=12 in each group). In the first series of studies, calcium dobesilate was found to significantly reduce the maldistribution of ion content in diabetic ischemic/reperfused rat retina. Thus, in diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg/day calcium dobesilate, ischemia/reperfusion provoked: (i) 27.5% increase in retinal Na(+) content compared to 51.8% in the vehicle-treated group (P<0.05), and (ii) 59.6% increase in retinal Ca(2+) content compared to 107.1% in vehicle-treated animals (P<0.05). In the second series of studies, calcium dobesilate was found to significantly protect diabetic rat retina against inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase activities by ischemia/reperfusion (54% and 41% reduction, respectively, with 100 mg/kg of calcium dobesilate) and also against changes in retinal ATP, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents. In the third series of experiments, rats treated with 100 mg/kg of calcium dobesilate reduced the hydroxyl radical signal intensity to 41% (measured by electron paramagnetic resonance), induced by ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic rat retina. Finally, 100 mg/kg calcium dobesilate significantly reduced retinal edema (measured by the thickness of the inner plexiform layer) in diabetic rats. In conclusion, oral treatment with calcium dobesilate significantly protected diabetic rat retina against oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Whether the antioxidant properties of calcium dobesilate explain, at least in part, its beneficial therapeutic effects in diabetic retinopathy deserves further investigation. PMID:11675046
Szabo, M E; Haines, D; Garay, E; Chiavaroli, C; Farine, J C; Hannaert, P; Berta, A; Garay, R P
Composition of essential oils and antioxidant activity of peel ethanol extract were analyzed in 18 local lemon cultivars. Essential oils composition was determined by GC\\/FID analysis, and antioxidant activity with the ABTS method. Fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameters, peel thickness, seed number, juice percentage, titratable acidity and juice pH were also determined for each cultivar. The main component in
C. Di Vaio; G. Graziani; A. Gaspari; G. Scaglione; S. Nocerino; A. Ritieni
Background: Virgin argan oil is of interest in cardiovascular risk prevention due to its fat composition and antioxidant compounds.Aims: We investigated with Moroccan subjects the effect of regular virgin argan oil consumption on lipid profile and antioxidant status and the in vitro effect of argan oil minor compounds (tocopherols, sterols and polyphenols) on LDL peroxidation.Design: Healthy subjects (20 men, 76
Anas Drissi; Josefa Girona; Mounia Cherki; Gemma Godàs; Abdelfettah Derouiche; Mariame El Messal; Rachid Saile; Anass Kettani; Rosa Solà; Luis Masana; Ahmed Adlouni
The leaves of Passiflora alata Dryander and Passiflora edulis Sims, traditionally used in American countries to treat both anxiety and nervousness by folk medicine, are rich in polyphenols, which have been reported as natural antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant activities of P. edulis and P. alata hydroalcoholic leaf extracts were verified in in vitro and ex vivo assays. P.
Martina Rudnicki; Marcos Roberto de Oliveira; Tiago da Veiga Pereira; Flávio Henrique Reginatto; Felipe Dal-Pizzol; José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Sea urchin gonads are highly priced sushi foodstuff “Uni” in Japanese traditional food, but after removal of them the residual shells with spines are dumped as waste. However, sea urchin shells contain naphthoquinone pigments with several phenolic hydroxyl groups, which were expected to act as potent antioxidant substances by donating hydrogens. Our previous study has evaluated their antioxidant ability to
Rui Kuwahara; Hideo Hatate; Tamami Yuki; Hisashi Murata; Ryusuke Tanaka; Yoichiro Hama
Background Chalcone, an important intermediate of flavonoid synthetic pathway, has been shown to exhibit diverse biological and pharmacological activities such as anti- cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, etc. Results In this study, a novel series of chalcones fatty acid esters 5b-e and 6b-e have been synthesized via the reaction of the respective chalcones with either palmitic or stearic acid. Another related class of compounds comprising 2,3-disubstituted chalcones 7b-d and 8b(b’)-d as well as 2-amino-6-(substituted-phenyl)-4-substitutedphenyl-nicotinonitrile derivatives 9a,c,e have been also prepared by both electrophilic and Michael addition reactions, respectively, with the corresponding chalcones. The structures of all compounds are confirmed via a wide range of spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectra. Significantly, all synthesized compounds have been tested for their promising antioxidant activities via utilization of 1,1-biphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl as a free radical scavenging reagent. Surprisingly, the results demonstrated that compound 5e (68.58% at C?=?2 ?g/ml) was more effective as an antioxidant agent than the ascorbic acid, a commonly used antioxidant. Furthermore, the role and contribution of different functional groups on the antioxidant activity of the synthesized chalcone derivatives are also probed and rationalized in terms of their electronic and structural effect. Conclusion Good activity was noted for chalcone fatty acid esters, with some members recorded higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid.
Seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) contain high levels of polyphenolic antioxidants. These compounds were extracted, fractionated, and finally separated into three fractions, F1, F2, and F3, according to their degrees of polymerization. The structures of the isolated fractions were characterized by a combination of mass spectrometric analyses. F1 contained mainly low molecular weight phenolic substances, including procyanidin trimers. The predominant fractions F2 and F3 consisted of polymeric proanthocyanidins having a series of heteropolyflavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin/(-)-epicatechin units, and polymerization degrees of 19 and 23, respectively. The polyphenol polymers had doubly linked A-type interflavan linkages in addition to single B-type bonds without gallic acid esterified to them. The isolated polyphenolic compounds exhibited potent antioxidative activities comparable to monomeric (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, or more efficacious than those monomers. The results suggest the potential usefulness of polyphenol polymers from seed shells as a source for nutraceutical factors. PMID:19053354
Ogawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Hideto; Niimi, Ai; Katsube, Takuya; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Yokota, Kazushige
The main metabolites of caffeic and ferulic acids (ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, caffeic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate), the most representative phenolic acids in fruits and vegetables, and the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid were synthesized, purified, and tested for their antioxidant activity in comparison with those of their parent compounds and other related phenolics. Both the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging method were used. Ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate and ferulic acid-4'-O-glucuronide exhibited very low antioxidant activity, while the monosulfate derivatives of caffeic acid were 4-fold less efficient as the antioxidant than caffeic acid. The acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid showed strong antioxidant action. The antioxidant activity of caffeic acid-3'-O-glucuronide and caffeic acid-4'-O-glucuronide was also studied. Our results demonstrate that some of the products of phenolic acid metabolism still retain strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, we first demonstrate the ex vivo synthesis of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid by mouse liver microsomes, in addition to the phenyl glucuronide. PMID:23157164
Piazzon, A; Vrhovsek, U; Masuero, D; Mattivi, F; Mandoj, F; Nardini, M
Polyurethane fibers were fabricated using an electrospinning method with aluminum hydroxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as flame-retardant additives to improve the thermal oxidation stability of the polyurethane fibers. The MWCNTs were incorporated into the polyurethane fibers after oxyfluorination treatment to improve the dispersivity and compatability. The thermal properties and anti-oxidation stabilities of these polyurethane fibers were investigated under nitrogen
Ji Sun Im; Byong Chol Bai; Tae-Sung Bae; Se Jin In; Young-Seak Lee
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga (cyanophyta) rich in phycocyanin (PC), a photosynthetic pigment with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel natural extract from AFA enriched with PC to protect normal human erythrocytes and plasma samples against oxidative damage in vitro. In red blood cells, oxidative
Serena Benedetti; Francesca Benvenuti; Silvia Pagliarani; Sonia Francogli; Stefano Scoglio; Franco Canestrari
Six different batches of cold-pressed black cumin seed oils (BCSO) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles, thymoquinone contents, oxidative stability, and antioxidant properties. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids in the tested oils. The cold-pressed BCSO samples differed in their oxidative stability measured as the oxidative stability index (OSI). The greatest OSI was about 155 h,
Herman Lutterodt; Marla Luther; Margaret Slavin; Jun-Jie Yin; John Parry; Jin-Ming Gao
The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo LC., Cucurbitaceae) extract (CME) selected for its high superoxide dismutase activity. Peritoneal macrophages were pre-activated in vitro with 300IU of interferon-? (IFN-?) and were then challenged in culture with IgGl\\/anti-IgG1 immune complexes (IgG1IC) in presence of various
Ioannis Vouldoukis; Dominique Lacan; Caroline Kamate; Philippe Coste; Alphonse Calenda; Dominique Mazier; Marc Conti; Bernard Dugas
Selected synthetic dipeptides and milk protein hydrolysates were evaluated for their dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties, and their superoxide (SO) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. DPP-IV inhibition was seen with eight out of the twelve dipeptides and 5 of the twelve hydrolysates studied. Trp-Val inhibited DPP-IV, however, inhibition was not observed with the reverse peptide Val-Trp. The most potent hydrolysate inhibitors were generated from casein (CasH2) and lactoferrin (LFH1). Two Trp containing dipeptides, Trp-Val and Val-Trp, and three lactoferrin hydrolysates scavenged DPPH. The dipeptides had higher SO EC(50) values compared to the milk protein hydrolysates (arising from three lactoferrin and one whey protein hydrolysates). Higher molecular mass fractions of the milk protein hydrolysates were associated with the SO scavenging activity. Trp-Val and one lactoferrin hydrolysate (LFH1) were multifunctional displaying both DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidant (SO and DPPH scavenging) activities. These compounds may have potential as dietary ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes by virtue of their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and to extend the half-life of incretin molecules. PMID:23219487
Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J
Background Lutein is an important eye-protective nutrient. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of lutein on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced uveitis in mice. Methods Lutein, suspended in drinking water at a final concentration of 12.5 and 25 mg/mL, was administered to mice at 0.1 mL/10 g body weight for five consecutive days. Control and model group received drinking water only. Uveitis was induced by injecting LPS (100 mg per mouse) into the footpad in the model and lutein groups on day 5 after the last drug administration. Eyes of the mice were collected 24 hours after the LPS injection for the detection of indicators using commercial kits and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS-induced uveitis was confirmed by significant pathological damage and increased the nitric oxide level in eye tissue of BALB/C mice 24 hours after the footpad injection. The elevated nitric oxide level was significantly reduced by oral administration of lutein (125 and 500 mg/kg/d for five days) before LPS injection. Moreover, lutein decreased the malondialdehyde content, increased the oxygen radical absorbance capacity level, glutathione, the vitamin C contents and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Lutein further increased expressions of copper-zinc SOD, manganese SOD and GPx mRNA. Conclusion The antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against LPS-induced uveitis, partially through the intervention of inflammation process.
Effects of ?-carotene on the oxidative stability of chlorophyll or riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were determined by analysing the depleted headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, fluorescence intensity, and headspace volatiles. As the concentration of ?-carotene increased from 0 to 10, 100, and 1000 ?M, the oxidative stability of samples containing chlorophylls decreased in a concentration-dependent manner under light, indicating that ?-carotene acted as a prooxidant. However, in riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions, 100 and 1000 ?M ?-carotene inhibited lipid oxidation. Although ?-carotene protected both photosensitisers in O/W emulsions, ?-carotene displayed antioxidative or prooxidative properties, which depended on the polarity of the photosensitisers. The development of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol increased greatly in chlorophyll sensitised O/W emulsions with an increase in ?-carotene concentration, implying that more singlet oxygen oxidation occurred due to the higher levels of remaining chlorophylls. However, the content of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol in the riboflavin sensitised O/W emulsions was not significantly correlated with the ?-carotene concentration, which indicates that ?-carotene in the lipid particles effectively quenched singlet oxygen. PMID:23578641
Park, JungWoo; Kim, Tae Soo; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan
The antioxidant and pro-oxidant potential of an extract from red radish, in which the major compounds were acylated pelargonidin derivatives, were assessed with a variety of assays in vitro. The extract appeared to form a complex with Fe(3+) or Cu(2+). It displayed a concentration-dependant reducing power (1.16OD(700 nm) at a concentration of 4mM) and scavenging effect against 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals (with IC(50)=1.74 +/- 0.03 mM). It could promote the cleavage of plasmid DNA with Cu(II)/H(2)O(2) or Cu(II) alone. This DNA damage could be inhibited by horseradish peroxidase, catalase, and EDTA, respectively. The extract also showed growth inhibition of Bel-7402 cells at lower concentration. The results suggested that the formation of reactive oxygen species might be involved in the mechanism of DNA damage. The acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish could act as antioxidant and pro-oxidant and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties were relative to the reaction conditions. It might provide novel antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:20600520
Wang, Lin-Song; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Cao, Ying; Wang, Li; Li, Fang-Jun; Wang, Yi-Fan
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vascular effects of an enzymatic extract of grape pomace (GP-EE) on isolated arteries, focusing our attention on endothelium-derived relaxation and on its antioxidant properties. Grape pomace derived from wine making was extracted by an enzymatic process and its composition of polyphenols was evaluated by HPLC and ESI-MS/MS, detecting kaempferol, catechin, quercetin and procyanidins B1 and B2, trace levels of resveratrol and tracing out gallocatechin and anthocyanidins. GP-EE induced endothelium- and NO-dependent vasodilatation of both rat aorta and small mesenteric artery (SMA) segments and reduced Phe-induced response in aortic rings. Both ORAC and DPPH assays confirmed antioxidant scavenging properties of GP-EE, which also prevented O(2)(·-) production (assessed by DHE fluorescence) and contraction elicited by ET-1. These results provide evidence that GP-EE possesses interesting antioxidant and protective vascular properties and highlight the potential interest of this extract as a functional food. PMID:22953822
Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia; Justo, Maria Luisa; Claro, Carmen Maria; Vila, Elisabet; Parrado, Juan; Herrera, Maria Dolores; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria
Fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) are very commonly consumed in many parts of the world and are a vital component of the diet in most of the Arabian countries. This preliminary study documents for the first time its antioxidant and antimutagenic properties in vitro. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by an aqueous extract of date fruit. The amount of fresh extract required to scavenge 50% of superoxide radicals was equivalent to 0.8 mg/mL of date fruit in the riboflavin photoreduction method. An extract of 2.2 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity in the deoxyribose degradation method. Concentrations of 1.5 and 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Aqueous date extract was also found to inhibit significantly the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In an Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, an extract of 1.9 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxides. In a time course inhibition study of lipid peroxide, at a 2.0 mg/mL concentration of date extract, there was a complete inhibition of TBARS formation in the early stages of the incubation period that increased during later stages of the incubation. Similarly, in the high Fe(2+)/ascorbate induction system a concentration of 2.3 mg/mL inhibited carbonyl formation measured by DNPH reaction by 50%. Moreover, a concentration of 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited lipid peroxide and protein carbonyl formation. Date fruit extract also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mutagenecity on Salmonella tester strains TA-98 and TA-100 with metabolic activation. Extract from 3.6 mg/plate and 4.3 mg/plate was found required for 50% inhibition of His+ revertant formation in TA-98 and TA-100, respectively. These results indicate that antioxidant and antimutagenic activity in date fruit is quite potent and implicates the presence of compounds with potent free-radical-scavenging activity. PMID:11804538
Vayalil, Praveen K
Background There is an interest in finding new and safe antioxidants from natural sources such as medicinal plants. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ten Iranian medicinal plants extracts. Materials and Methods For antioxidant activity, the radical scavenging activity, reducing power and phenolic contents of ethanol plant extracts were determined. Gallic acid was used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Results The highest antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging was found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var (VS) with an IC50 equal to 263.52 ± 5.981 ?g/ml and Rosa damascena Mill (RD) with and IC50 equal to 287.9 ± 5.675 ?g/ml that are higher than gallic acid (IC50 = 25.32 ± 5.593 ?g/ml). The highest antioxidant activity in terms of ferric reducing capacity was also found in Verbascum sinuatum L. Var extracts (in 85.08 ± 8.66 ?g/ml concentration with absorbance 0.5). Also, this extract contains the highest phenolic compounds (8.53 ± 0.11 mg/g). Conclusion In this study, Verbascum sinuatum L. Var contains the highest level of phenolic compounds may be contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power in comparison to the other plant extracts. Therefore this plant is a good candidate as natural antioxidant.
Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Kalanteri, Tahereh
Genistein-modified poly(amide):poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PA:PVP/G) hemodialysis membranes have been fabricated by coagulation via solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO)/nonsolvent (water) exchange. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the unmodified PA:PVP membranes were evaluated in vitro using human blood. It was found that these unmodified PA:PVP membranes were noncytotoxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but raised intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Pure genistein (in DMSO solution) was not only nontoxic to PBMC, but also suppressed the ROS levels in a manner dependent on genistein dosage. A similar dose-dependent suppression of ROS was found in genistein-modified PA (i.e., PA/G) membranes. However, the PVP addition had little or no effect in the suppression of ROS levels for the ternary PA:PVP/G system; the membrane ROS suppression was largely controlled by the genistein dosage. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin (IL-6) in whole blood were measured by ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The unmodified PA:PVP membranes drastically increased the level of TNF-?; however, the concentration of IL-1? and IL-6 remained almost the same. The PA/G membranes reduced the concentration of IL-1? and TNF-? even at very low genistein loadings, but it required a higher genistein loading to realize a similar effect in the case of IL-6. Of particular importance is that the genistein-modified blend membranes (PA:PVP/G) showed greater suppression of the concentrations of all three cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) in comparison with those of the PA/G membranes, signifying the role of PVP in the enhanced anti-inflammatory properties of these genistein-modified membranes. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was employed to quantify any genistein leaching during the in vitro testing. PMID:21657246
Neelakandan, Chandrasekaran; Chang, Teng; Alexander, Thomas; Define, Linda; Evancho-Chapman, Michelle; Kyu, Thein
Antioxidant response element (ARE) and nuclear transcription factor Nrf2 are known to regulate expression and coordinated induction of NQO1 and other detoxifying enzyme genes in response to antioxidants and xenobiotics. A cytosolic inhibitor of Nrf2, INrf2, that retains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm, was cloned and sequenced. Treatment of cells with antioxidants and xenobiotics results in the release of Nrf2 from
Saravanakumar Dhakshinamoorthy; Anil K Jaiswal
Three partially purified polysaccharides were extracted from Phellinus linteus mycelia using hot water, 1% (NH4)2C2O4, and 1.25M NaOH/0.05% NaBH4, and the extracts were named PL-W, PL-A, and, PL-N respectively. PL-N mainly comprised xylose and arabinose with a high molecular weight (Mw) and the highest carbohydrate and uronic acid contents. PL-W and PL-A were mainly composed of glucose with high and low Mw fractions in various ratios. All three polysaccharides existed as compact coils in aqueous solutions and exhibited strong scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. The polysaccharides also had high uronic acid and carbohydrate contents and strong antioxidant activities. The Mws, monosaccharide compositions, and chemical structures of the polysaccharides also affected their antioxidant activities. PL-A and PL-N had better antioxidant activities and could thus be developed as potential natural antioxidant agents for applications in food additives and biomedical industries. PMID:24815400
Wang, Zhen-Bin; Pei, Juan-Juan; Ma, Hai-Le; Cai, Pan-Fu; Yan, Jing-Kun
Purification and characterization of antioxidant components from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus abalonus including 9-beta-d-ribofuranosidoadenine, 5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine, and a triterpenoid.
Although Pleurotus abalonus is a well-known edible mushroom in Asia, there is a dearth of information on its antioxidant activity. The present report is the first one focused on the purification and characterization of 9-beta-d-ribofuranosidoadenine (ADO), 5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio) adenosine (MTA) and a triterpenoid complex from P. abalonus. Different antioxidant activities including inhibitory effects on hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in brain and kidney homogenates as well as significant synergistic effect on scavenging of hydroxyl radicals were demonstrated, which lays a foundation for the development of P. abalonus as a natural antioxidant applied in medicine. PMID:23892470
Zhang, Ye Ni; Song, Min; Ng, Tzi Bun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Fang
The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.
Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina
The phytochemicals in fruits have been shown to be major bioactive compounds with regard to health benefits. Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) is a native palm fruit from the Brazilian savannah and Amazon rainforest that plays an important role in the diet of rural communities and is also a source of income for poor people. This paper reports the characterization and analyses of phenolics from bacaba fruit extract. The total phenolic content of bacaba fruit amounted to 1759.27 ± 1.01 mg GAE/100 g, the flavonoid content was 1134.32 ± 0.03 mg CTE/100 g, and the anthocyanin content was 34.69 ± 0.00 mg cyn-3-glc/100 g. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through different assays [ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, TEAC, and cellular antioxidant assay (CAA) assays] and revealed a significant antioxidant capacity for bacaba in comparison to the data available in the literature. The assignment of the phenolic compounds using HPLC-DAD-MS(n) was based on the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (?(max)) and mass spectral analyses, and 14 compounds were tentatively identified. The results suggest that bacaba fruits are a promising source of phenolics. PMID:22788720
Abadio Finco, Fernanda D B; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Tseng, Wen-Hsin; Böser, Sabrina; Graeve, Lutz
Samples of rice husks, Eucalyptus globulus wood and Pinus pinaster wood (containing arabinoxylan, acetylated glucuronoxylan and acetylated glucomannan as major hemicellulose components, respectively) were subjected to autohydrolysis. The resulting liquid phases, containing mainly hemicellulose-derived saccharides, were refined by physicochemical methods to reduce their contents of monosaccharides and non-saccharide compounds. Raw autohydrolysis liquors and refined concentrates coming from aqueous treatments were assayed for antioxidant activity using the following assays: reducing power (FRAP), DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity and protection of ?-carotene-linoleic emulsions from oxidation. The reducing power and radical scavenging capacity of the non refined fractions were comparable to the ones determined for the reference compound butylhydroxytoluene. Hemicellulose concentrated from the different feedstocks and refining protocols showed a dose dependent antioxidant activity in the range of concentrations evaluated. The in vitro antioxidant activity of concentrates correlated with their phenolic content. PMID:23768385
Rivas, Sandra; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos
Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.
Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina
The protective effect of antioxidants and naturally occurring substances against oxidative stress damage has recently attracted much attention. The leaves of Mallotus oppositifolium, a shrub of the family Euphorbiacea that grows in many parts of Africa, are used in folk medicine and herbal preparations for the treatment of dysentery, worms and malaria. The study investigated the antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Mallotus oppositifolium (MEMO) in comparison with butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as a standard antioxidant using three free radical generators viz hydrophilic radical generator 2,2-azobis(2-amidino propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), hydrophobic radical generator 2,2-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) and hydroxyl radical and non-specific radical generator Fe2+/ascorbate system in an in vitro, in vivo and ex-vivo model systems. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves extract was also assessed. Phytochemical analysis of the powdered leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardenolides and saponins. In vitro study indicated that while MEMO failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by AAPH, while BHA offered 55.5% inhibition. In addition, while AMVN-induced LPO was inhibited by 17.7% and 29.4% by MEMO and BHA respectively, Fe2+/ascorbate system-induced LPO was inhibited by 57.9% and 78.9% by MEMO and BHArespectively. Ex-vivo studies showed that MEMO at 100mg/kg bw reduced malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels by 34.5% and 12.0% respectively compared with the control. In vivo, MEMO increased (P<0.05) superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 408.0% and 295.0% respectively. Taken together, this study demonstrates that MEMO exhibits antioxidant, radical scavenging and enhancement of enzymatic antioxidant capacity and as such could intervene in toxicological processes mediated by free radical mechanisms. PMID:22416646
Adedara, I A; Adesanoye, O A; Farombi, E O
A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905
Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A
A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil.
Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Research on the bioactives from seaweeds has increased in recent years. Antioxidant activity is one of the most studied, due to the interest of these compounds both as preservatives and protectors against oxidation in food and cosmetics and also due to their health implications, mainly in relation to their potential as functional ingredients. Brown algae present higher antioxidant potential in comparison with red and green families and contain compounds not found in terrestrial sources. In vitro antioxidant chemical methods, used as a first approach to evaluate potential agents to protect from lipid oxidation in foods, confirmed that the brown algae crude extracts, fractions and pure components are comparatively similar or superior to synthetic antioxidants. Particular emphasis on the fucoidan and phlorotannin polymeric fractions is given, considering variations associated with the species, collection area, season, and extraction and purification technologies. PMID:23411309
Balboa, Elena M; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andres; Falqué, Elena; Domínguez, Herminia
Prominent features of heliotrin-related chronic toxical disorders of the liver developing in hepatic cirrohosis include hyperfermentemia, hypoproteinemia, intensification of lipid peroxidation (LPO), as evidenced by decrease in the activity of the antioxidant defence. In chronic active liver disorders, hyperfermentemia and hyperlipoperoxidation are common, but it is later in the course of the experiment that hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia and manifest depression of the antioxidant defence that come to be developing. Berberin experimental pharmacotherapy has been shown to attenuate the degree of hyperfermentemia, hyperlipoperoxidation and to increase levels of albumin and antioxidant defence enzymes, particularly so earlier in the course of the studies conducted but with aggravation of the pathological process the efficacy of the drug tended to be lower. Neoselen appeared to be effective in alleviating the cytologic syndrome, hyperlipoperoxidation, increasing the activity of the antioxidant defence enzymes. Patients are found to derive more benefit from neoselen therapy with prolongation of its use. PMID:12145877
Karimov, Kh Ia; Inoiatova, F Kh; Salikhodzhaeva, U Sh; Kodiralieva, M R
The antioxidant level of commercial tinctures from three Lamiaceae plants, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, and Melissa officinalis, have been determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the 2.2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging technique and ABTS assay. Total phenolic content was expressed as GAE (gallic acid equivalent) and ranged from 0.24 to 3.99 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, calculated as TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ranged from 23.5 to 35.6 micromol Trolox/mL, while in the DPPH method, the EC50 value ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 mL/assay. Radical scavenging activity was correlated with total phenolic content. Correlations between ABTS and F-C methods, DPPH and F-C methods and ABTS and DPPH methods were calculated. The obtained results can be useful as additional information about the antioxidant activity of galenical preparations. PMID:23413570
Kowalczyk, Adam; Biskup, Izabela; Fecka, Izabela
Antioxidative activities were found in the culture supernatant of Bacillus licheniformis OPL-007 using shrimp head waste (SHW) as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. After optimizing fermentation conditions, some bio-active substances were determined from the broth. The contents of total phenols, polysaccharides, reducing sugars, free amino acids, and organic acids were 888.80, 402.74, 85.88, 2,061.79, and 5,426.74 mg/l, respectively. Moreover, the fermentation liquid was found rich in eight essential amino acids and non-protein amino acids. The antioxidant activity of the culture supernatant, in terms of the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals, reducing power, and metal chelating ability, was monitored, and the fermentation liquid showed a strong antioxidant capacity. The results indicate that bio-deproteinization of SHW by B. licheniformis OPL-007 can increase its antioxidant activity, and SHW has the potential application in the production of functional foods. PMID:23609904
Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; He, Shuai; Xie, Jieling; Kan, Feifei; Yu, Chunyu; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Changhu; Lin, Hong
Different molecular weight polysaccharides were prepared by degradation of polysaccharides extracted from Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching rhizome (CPA) with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. Four low molecular polysaccharides derivatives (CPA-1, CPA-2, CPA-3 and CPA-4) were successfully obtained and had their antioxidant activities investigated employing various established in vitro systems. All CPA derivatives showed pronounced antioxidant activity, and had stronger antioxidant ability than CPA in certain tests. CPA-1 exhibited the strongest scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical among all samples, and the IC50 value was 25 ?g/mL. CPA-2 possessed the highest scavenging ability against superoxide radical at 200 ?g/mL. The scavenging activity of CPA-4 on hydroxyl radical was higher than CPA from 120 to 200 ?g/mL. The mechanism on influence the antioxidant activity of CPA and its degraded derivatives was indicated. PMID:24751245
Sheng, Jiwen; Sun, Yanlong
Polyols have been incorporated into fish oil emulsions as a means for the inhibition of lipid oxidation and suppression of fishy flavor. However, the role of sugars and polyhydric alcohols as antioxidants has not been clearly established. Selected polyols were evaluated for their performance as antioxidants and modifiers of oxidation pathways in a model system. Oil/water (O/W) emulsions were prepared with freshly steam-deodorized menhaden oil. A layer of emulsion in aluminum pans held at 5 degrees C was exposed to 2550 lx fluorescent lights for 24 h before peroxide values and volatile flavor compounds were analyzed by GC headspace entrainment procedure. Antioxidant activity was confirmed for fructose, sucrose, raffinose, sorbitol, or mannitol when incorporated at 16% of the aqueous phase into model fish oil-in-water emulsions. Peroxide values were suppressed 10-18% in treated samples compared to control samples. Viscosity data did not exclude possible contributions from a restricted oxygen diffusion mechanism in the antioxidant activity, but revealed that emulsion viscosity did not govern fish oil oxidation rates. Combining polyols with phenolic antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, BHT, or TBHQ) frequently diminished the antioxidant activity compared to that for individual phenolic antioxidants, which was interpreted as indicating that the H-donating activity of phenolic antioxidants was hindered by the H-bonding activity of polyols. A viscosity-based inhibition of the retroaldol conversion of (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal to (Z)-4-heptenal with a high fructose concentration (67%) was attributed to a restriction of molecular mobility of reactants, but the conversion was only slightly inhibited by the concentration of fructose (16%) used in experimental emulsions. The data supported a hypothesis that either or both free radical scavenging and transition state metal chelation activities were provided by polyols in fish oil emulsions. Also, polyols retarded the water-requiring retroaldol decomposition of (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal to (Z)-4-heptenal in the model systems and the reaction may be involved in some suppression of fishy flavors in emulsions. PMID:15537333
Faraji, Habibollah; Lindsay, Robert C
We previously reported that royal jelly proteins (RJPs) hydrolyzed with protease N show the strong antioxidative activity against the peroxidation of linoleic acid. In this study, 29 antioxidative peptides were isolated from hydrolysate by membrane ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. We particularly focused on 12 small peptides with 2–4 amino acid residues: these
Hang Guo; Yoshiaki Kouzuma; Masami Yonekura
A new family of antioxidant ion-pair surfactants was developed by acid-base association of a fatty amine (C12 or C16) with caffeic acid, a natural antioxidant molecule. The amphiphilic molecules obtained, spontaneously formed stable vesicles in water with hydrodynamic diameters around 230 nm. Moreover, as shown by a surface tension study, they presented a phase transition from micelles to vesicles. The maintenance
Sergii Rudiuk; Mathieu Delample; Sophie Franceschi-Messant; Nadia Chouini-Lalanne; Emile Perez; Jean-Christophe Garrigues; Isabelle Rico-Lattes
Antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content, and reducing power of the crude extract, fractions, and subfractions derived from a red alga, Polysiphonia urceolata, were evaluated and determined. The antioxidative activity was measured using the ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the ?-carotene–linoleate assay systems, and compared with that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), gallic acid (GA), and ascorbic acid (AscA). The
Xiao-Juan Duan; Wei-Wei Zhang; Xiao-Ming Li; Bin-Gui Wang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signaling events are involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and represent a major contribution to vascular regulation. Molecular signaling is highly dependent on ROS. But depending on the amount of ROS production it might have toxic or protective effects. Despite a large number of negative outcomes in large clinical trials (e.g., HOPE, HOPE-TOO), antioxidant molecules and agents are important players to influence the critical balance between production and elimination of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, chronic systemic antioxidant therapy lacks clinical efficacy, probably by interfering with important physiological redox signaling pathways. Therefore, it may be a much more promising attempt to induce intrinsic antioxidant pathways in order to increase the antioxidants not systemically but at the place of oxidative stress and complications. Among others, heme oxygenase (HO) has been shown to be important for attenuating the overall production of ROS in a broad range of disease states through its ability to degrade heme and to produce carbon monoxide and biliverdin/bilirubin. With the present review we would like to highlight the important antioxidant role of the HO system and especially discuss the contribution of the biliverdin, bilirubin, and biliverdin reductase (BVR) to these beneficial effects. The BVR was reported to confer an antioxidant redox amplification cycle by which low, physiological bilirubin concentrations confer potent antioxidant protection via recycling of biliverdin from oxidized bilirubin by the BVR, linking this sink for oxidants to the NADPH pool. To date the existence and role of this antioxidant redox cycle is still under debate and we present and discuss the pros and cons as well as our own findings on this topic.
Jansen, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas
Vitamin B6, an essential cofactor in enzymatic reactions, has only recently been linked to cellular oxidative stress. We investigated the role of this vitamin as an antioxidant in oxidative responses linked to plant defense. B6 vitamers effectively quenched superoxide and had antioxidant activity when assayed in vitro. The de novo B6 biosynthetic genes (PDX1 and PDX2) were identified in Nicotiana
Sheri A. Denslow; Amanda A. Walls; Margaret E. Daub
The antioxidant activities of extracts from leaves of the medicinal plants growing in Siberia were examined. Total antioxidant\\u000a activity was determined using in vitro methods including DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging\\u000a assay, chelating capacity assay with ferrozine, evaluation of capacity to protect plasmid DNA against oxidative damage, measurement\\u000a of H2O2 production, and measurement of total flavonoid and tannin content
Galina V. Smirnova; Galina I. Vysochina; Nadezda G. Muzyka; Zoya Y. Samoylova; Tatyana A. Kukushkina; Oleg N. Oktyabrsky
In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties. PMID:24996365
Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D
Extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa leaves were evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties in the acetaminophen-induced liver damage model. Antioxidative evaluation of ethanolic extract gave total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin C content and vitamin E content and the levels of selenium and zinc as 6.6+/-0.2mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 0.092+/-0.003 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 0.21+/-0.03 mg/g, 0.054+/-0.002 mg/g, 0.52+/-0.05 ppm and 9.28+/-0.16 ppm, respectively. The DPPH scavenging capacity and the reductive potential were 78.32+/-2.41% and 0.65+/-0.02 mg/g ascorbic acid, respectively. Pretreatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts decreased the activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and the level of bilirubin in the serum that were elevated by acetaminophen. The two extracts also ameliorated the elevation in the activities of the enzymes in the liver. Acetaminophen intoxication led to reduction in serum and liver albumin levels which were not significantly increased by pretreatment with the extracts. The extracts also protected against acetaminophen induced lipid peroxidation. These results indicated that leaf extracts from B. diffusa possess hepatoprotective property against acetaminophen-induced liver damage which may be mediated through augmentation of antioxidant defenses. PMID:20553784
Olaleye, M Tolulope; Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Ogunboye, Adebayo A; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A
The antioxidant properties of ?-tocopherol have been proposed to play a beneficial chemopreventive role against cancer. However, emerging data also indicate that it may exert contrasting effects on the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments when given as dietary supplement, being in that case harmful for patients. This dual role of ?-tocopherol and, in particular, its effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs remains poorly documented. For this purpose, we studied here, using high throughput flow cytometry, the direct impact of ?-tocopherol on apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by different cytotoxic agents on various models of cancer cell lines in vitro. Our results indicate that physiologically relevant concentrations of ?-tocopherol strongly compromise the cytotoxic and cytostatic action of various protein kinase inhibitors (KI), while other classes of chemotherapeutic agents or apoptosis inducers are unaffected by this vitamin. Interestingly, these anti-chemotherapeutic effects of ?-tocopherol appear to be unrelated to its antioxidant properties since a variety of other antioxidants were completely neutral toward KI-induced cell cycle arrest and cell death. In conclusion, our data suggest that dietary ?-tocopherol could limit KI effects on tumour cells, and, by extent, that this could result in a reduction of the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer treatments based on KI molecules.
Pedeboscq, Stephane; Rey, Christophe; Petit, Muriel; Harpey, Catherine; De Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, Francois; Lartigue, Lydia
UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. PMID:24372191
Angelo, Gismondi; Lorena, Canuti; Marta, Grispo; Antonella, Canini
Underutilized vegetables are currently studied not only for their nutrient values but also for their health-promoting components for protection against chronic diseases. The present study was performed to evaluate chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts, namely, lalis (Plectocomiopsis geminiflora) and pantu (Eugeissona insignis). Additionally, the vegetable extracts were evaluated for their activities in the inhibition of digestive enzymes and effects on insulin secretion using BRIN BD11 pancreatic cell lines. Both vegetables contain valuable sources of dietary fiber, potassium, and zinc. For the first time, the phenolic compounds of the vegetables were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Appreciable amounts of chlorogenic acid were found in the studied vegetables. The sample extracts exhibited potential antioxidant capacities through chemical and biological in vitro assays. High inhibition of ?-amylase activity (>50%) was found from the extracts. Thus, it was suggested the vegetable consumption could fulfill the nutrient requirements among local communities. PMID:24499380
Ahmad Aufa, Zabidah; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Hamid, Muhajir
Bioactive roe protein hydrolysates were prepared from Channa striatus (CRPH) and Labeo rohita (LRPH) and their functional and in vitro antioxidant properties evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis was 28.41% at 60min in channa and 18.85% in labeo roe concentrates at 90min. The yields of protein hydrolysates were 24.15% and 12.45% for channa and labeo roe protein concentrates, respectively. The protein content was identical (58%) in both roe protein hydrolysates. Protein solubility in channa was higher (90.48%) when compared to labeo (50.6%) at pH 12. Higher oil absorption capacity and foam stability were observed in CRPH and higher emulsifying capacity was found in LRPH. Smaller peptides of 12kDa were noted in both CRPH and LRPH. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in CRPH than in LRPH as seen from DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. PMID:22953883
Galla, Narsing Rao; Pamidighantam, Prabhakara Rao; Akula, Satyanarayana; Karakala, Balaswamy
Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents.
Reactive free oxygen radicals are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or cystic fibrosis (CF). They can originate from endogenous processes or can be part of exogenous exposures (e.g. ozone, cigarette smoke, asbestos fibres). Consequently, therapeutic enhancement of anti-oxidant defence mechanisms in
A. Gillissen; D. Nowak
The search for natural antioxidants, especially of plant origin, has notably increased in recent years. Bunium persicum Boiss. is an economically important medicinal plant growing wild in the dry temperature regions in Iran. In this study, chemical constituents of the essential oil of the seed from Bunium persicum Boiss. have been studied by GC/MS technique. The major components were caryophyllene (27.81%), gamma-terpinene (15.19%), cuminyl acetate (14.67%). Individual antioxidant assays such as, DPPH* scavenging activity and beta-carotene bleaching have been carried out. In DPPH* system, the EC(50) value of essential oil was determined as 0.88 mg/mL. In beta-carotene bleaching antioxidant activity of essential oil (0.45%) was almost equal to BHT at 0.01%. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated in crude soybean oil by monitoring peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of the oil substrate. The results showed that the Bunium persicum essential oil (BPEO) was able to reduce the oxidation rate of the soybean oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C (oven test). The essential oil at 0.06% showed the same effect of BHA at 0.02%. Hence, BPEO could be used as an additive in food after screening. PMID:18810640
Shahsavari, Neda; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Naghdibadi, Hasanali
Danshensu (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid) and salvianolic acid B, two natural phenolic acids of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza root of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, have been reported to have potential protective effects from oxidative injury. To better understand their biological functions, the in vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant
Guang-Rong Zhao; Heng-Ming Zhang; Ting-Xiang Ye; Zhi-Jun Xiang; Ying-Jin Yuan; Zhi-Xin Guo; Li-Bin Zhao
The protein from the seeds of melinjo ( Gnetum gnemon ) was purified using a precipitation method and ion exchange chromatographic techniques to identify the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Two antioxidant protein fractions were isolated from G. gnemon seed with molecular weights of approximately 30 kDa (Gg-AOPI) and 12 kDa (Gg-AOPII) by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Gg-AOPII is Gly-Asn-Gly-Lys-Ala-Thr-Val-Ala-Ile-Leu-Val-Lys-Glu-Lys-Val-Glu-Tyr-Gly-Glu-Glu, and the result of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis showed that they were distinct from each other; no protein in database matching was found to both Gg-AOPI and Gg-AOPII. The antioxidant or free radical scavenging activities of Gg-AOPs were investigated by employing in vitro assay systems including the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, scavenging effect on ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), reducing power, chelating abilities of metal ions Cu(2+) and Fe(2+), and protections against hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA damages. The result showed that two protein fractions exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant activities against free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion and showed activities similar to those of glutathione (G-SH) and BHT in a linoleic acid emulsion assay system. Moreover, Gg-AOPI and Gg-AOPII also exhibited notable reducing power and strong chelating effect on Fe(2+) and protected hydroxyl radical induced oxidative DNA damage. The data obtained by the in vitro systems obviously established the antioxidant potency of Gg-AOPs. PMID:21486028
Siswoyo, Tri Agus; Mardiana, Eka; Lee, Kyun Oh; Hoshokawa, Keizo
The stone fish (Actinopyga lecanora) ethanolic and methanolic tissue extracts were investigated for total phenolic contents (TPCs) as well as antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Both extracts showed low amount of phenolics (20.33 to 17.03?mg of gallic acid equivalents/100?g dried sample) and moderate antioxidant activity (39% to 34%??DPPH• radical scavenging activity and 23.95 to 22.30?mmol/100?mL FeSO4 FRAP value). Enzymatic proteolysis was carried out in order to improve the antioxidant activity using six commercially available proteases under their optimum conditions. The results revealed that the highest increase in antioxidant activity up to 85% was obtained for papain-generated proteolysate, followed by alcalase (77%), trypsin (75%), pepsin (68%), bromelain (68%), and flavourzyme (50%) as measured by DPPH• radical scavenging activity, whilst for the FRAP value, the highest increase in the antioxidant activity up to 39.2?mmol/100?mL FeSO4 was obtained for alcalase-generated proteolysate, followed by papain (29.5?mmol/100?mL FeSO4), trypsin (23.2?mmol/100?mL FeSO4), flavourzyme (24.7?mmol/100?mL FeSO4), bromelain (22.9?mmol/100?mL FeSO4), and pepsin (20.8?mmol/100?mL FeSO4). It is obvious that proteolysis of stone fish tissue by proteolytic enzymes can considerably enhance its antioxidant activity.
Bordbar, Sara; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid
Caffeic acid (CA) is distributed widely in nature and possesses strong antioxidant activity. However, CA has lower solubility in non-polar media, which limits its application in fat-soluble food. To increase the lipophilicity of natural antioxidant CA, a series of alkyl caffeates were synthesized and their antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated. The antioxidant parameters, including the induction period, acid value and unsaturated fatty acid content, of the alkyl caffeates in edible oil were firstly investigated. The results indicated that alkyl caffeates had a lower DPPH IC50 (14-23 µM) compared to CA, dibutyl hydroxy toluene (BHT) and Vitamin C (24-51 µM), and significantly inhibited four human cancer cells (SW620, SW480, SGC7901 and HepG2) with inhibition ratio of 71.4-78.0% by a MTT assay. With regard to the induction period and acid value assays, methyl and butyl caffeates had higher abilities than BHT to restrain the oxidation process and improve the stability of edible oil. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil allowed maintenance of a higher unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester content (68.53%) at high temperatures. Overall, the alkyl caffeats with short chain length (n<5) assessed better oxidative stability than those with long chain length. To date, this is the first report to the correlations among the antioxidant activity, anticancer activity and oxidative stability of alkyl caffeates. PMID:24760050
Wang, Jun; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Pang, Na; Wang, Fang-Qin; Pang, Fei; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An
Methanolic extracts of eight Salvia species, namely S. aethiopis, S. candidissima, S. limbata, S. microstegia, S. nemorosa, S. pachystachys, S. verticillata, and S. virgata, sampled from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid. Total phenolic content of the extracts of Salvia species were performed Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and gallic acid used as standard. A wide variation has been observed among species in terms of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. In both DPPH and beta-carotene system, the most active plant was Salvia verticillata with a value of IC50=18.3 microg/ml and 75.8%, respectively. This species also has the highest total phenolic content (167.1 mgGAE/g DW). The total amount of phenolics was between 50.3 to 167.1 mgGAE/g DW among species. A positive linear correlation was observed between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results suggest that the extract of Salvia species, notably Salvia verticillata with the highest antioxidant activity, can be used as natural antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:19746262
Tosun, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Ozer, Hakan; Polat, Taskin; Ozturk, Erdogan
The polyphenolic contents and the antioxidant activity of the skins and pulps of different grape cultivars were estimated using HPLC and DPPH antioxidant assay, respectively. The phenolics and flavonoids identified were quercetin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, and (?)-epicatechin. The total phenolic contents were found to be the highest in the grape skin of Flouxa (>400?mg/100?g), followed by Campbell Early and Tamnara (>300?mg/100?g), and then by Red Globe and Ruby Seedless (>250?mg/100?g), and the total phenolic content was the lowest in Italia and Delaware (<60?mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of the grape extracts varied from 12.5% (Ruby Seedless) to 60.2% (Hongiseul) for skins, whereas the antioxidant activities of the grape extracts varied from 35.4% (Campbell Early) to 84.5% (Hongiseul) for pulps. The grape pulps have stronger antioxidant activities than those of the grape skins. Our results suggest that the phenolic and flavonoid contents in extracts of grape skins and pulps showed statistically significant correlations with the free radical scavenging activity.
Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Kim, S. H.; Ko, Eun Young; Park, Se Won
Caffeic acid (CA) is distributed widely in nature and possesses strong antioxidant activity. However, CA has lower solubility in non-polar media, which limits its application in fat-soluble food. To increase the lipophilicity of natural antioxidant CA, a series of alkyl caffeates were synthesized and their antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated. The antioxidant parameters, including the induction period, acid value and unsaturated fatty acid content, of the alkyl caffeates in edible oil were firstly investigated. The results indicated that alkyl caffeates had a lower DPPH IC50 (14–23 µM) compared to CA, dibutyl hydroxy toluene (BHT) and Vitamin C (24–51 µM), and significantly inhibited four human cancer cells (SW620, SW480, SGC7901 and HepG2) with inhibition ratio of 71.4–78.0% by a MTT assay. With regard to the induction period and acid value assays, methyl and butyl caffeates had higher abilities than BHT to restrain the oxidation process and improve the stability of edible oil. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil allowed maintenance of a higher unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester content (68.53%) at high temperatures. Overall, the alkyl caffeats with short chain length (n<5) assessed better oxidative stability than those with long chain length. To date, this is the first report to the correlations among the antioxidant activity, anticancer activity and oxidative stability of alkyl caffeates.
Wang, Jun; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Pang, Na; Wang, Fang-Qin; Pang, Fei; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An
The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC). DPPH scavenging (IC(50)) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC(50) and FRAP assays (r(2) > 0.9). The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca) was negatively correlated with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:22949859
Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ali, Md Eaqub; Ismail, Mohd Razi
The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC). DPPH scavenging (IC50) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC50 and FRAP assays (r2 > 0.9). The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca) was negatively correlated with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.
Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Ismail, Mohd Razi
3 Abstract: Petroleum ether fractions of Aframomum danielli obtained by vacuum liquid chromatography were characterized using ultraviolet, infrared and proton nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were obtained by their reducing power. Among the fractions, fraction F3 had the strongest antioxidant property on the basis of their reducing power. Infrared spectrum of fraction F3 showed the presence of
S. B. Fasoyiro; G. O. Adegoke; O. O. Idowu
The essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia lanigera Poir. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Cyprus was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 compounds, representing 93.6% of the oil, were identified, and the major components were showed to be thymol (12.1%), hexadecanoic acid (6.0%), carvacrol and ?-thujone (5.7%). The essential oil was assayed for its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Antimicrobial activity of the oil, evaluated using the broth dilution method, resulted higher against Gram-positive bacteria than the other referenced strains tested. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by using DPPH and FRAP methods together with three antioxidant standards, L-ascorbic acid, tert-butyl-4-hydroxy toluene (BHT) and gallic acid. The activity of the sample in both methods was higher than that of all of standards used at the same dose. PMID:20977923
Tenore, Gian Carlo; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco; Napolitano, Francesco; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice
Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes. PMID:21675192
Brazhe, N A; Ba?zhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V
Polyphenols are predominantly secondary metabolites in muscadine grapes, playing an important role in the species' strong resistance to pests and diseases. This study examined the above property by evaluating the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activities of muscadine polyphenols against selected foodborne pathogens. Results showed that antioxidant activity for different polyphenols varied greatly, ranging from 5 to 11.1 mmol Trolox/g. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities for polyphenols showed a positive correlation. Muscadine polyphenols exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against tested foodborne pathogens, especially Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 67-152 mg/L). Muscadine polyphenols at 4 × MIC caused nearly a 5 log10 CFU/mL drop in cell viability for S. aureus in 6 h with lysis, whereas at 0.5 × MIC they inhibited its biofilm formation and at 16 × MIC they eradicated biofilms. Muscadine polyphenols showed synergy with antibiotics and maximally caused a 6.2 log10 CFU/mL drop in cell viability at subinhibitory concentration. PMID:24865879
Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Hsu, Wei-Yea; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R
Limoniastramide, a new dimer of phenolic acid amide, isolated from Limoniastrum guyonianum, along with two natural monomers N-E-caffeoyl tyramine (1) and N-E-feruloyl tyramine (2), using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. We investigate the antioxidant activities of Limoniastrum amides using various in vitro assays. Results showed that N-E-feruloyl tyramine and N-E-caffeoyl tyramine exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity compared to the dimer (IC50=0.5, 0.6 and 6.5?g/ml, respectively). In addition, they have significant capacities to inhibit the bleaching of ?-carotene. Limoniastramide presented the best activity with an IC50 value equal to 8?g/ml. Finally, the N-E-caffeoyl tyramine showed the highest reducing power (EC50=26?g/ml) compared to the other molecules. The present study found that L. guyonianum amides have effective in vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging activity which can be used in pharmacological and food industry due to their antioxidant properties. PMID:24176369
Trabelsi, Najla; Oueslati, Samia; Ksouri, Riadh; Nassra, Merian; Marchal, Axel; Krisa, Stéphanie; Abdelly, Chedly; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre
Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by Trametes versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS graft copolymers were effective antioxidants as judged by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The presence of laccase caused a reduction in starch molecular weight although a cross-linked gel fraction was also observed when HBT was present. This new method for preparing starch chemically modified with phenolic compounds is simple and the resulting antioxidant polymers have potential in food, cosmetic and packaging applications. PMID:23121948
Shogren, Randal L; Biswas, Atanu
Great importance has been attributed to antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with oxidative stress for many years. At the same time the antioxidants are free radicals themselves, and they can exert prooxidant activity depending on the concentration. They influence the cell redox homeostasis by their prooxidant and antioxidant activity as well. Drugs of chronic liver diseases should be considered, because free radicals are generated during the activity of the monooxygenase system, which affect the tissue oxidised status. Combined antioxidant treatment is more favourable compared with monotherapy, because antioxidants have scavenger-, compartment- and tissue-specificity and they regenerate each other directly, too. Beside their antioxidant property they may also directly regulate many important processes, e.g. cell cycle. We have some favourable results with regard combined antioxidant therapy of liver disease of different etiology. PMID:15320484
Hagymási, Krisztina; Blázovics, Anna
Selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se–PC) and its different aggregates – monomer (??), trimer (??)3 and hexamer (??)6, which are represented as Se–PC1, Se–PC2 and Se–PC3, as well as their ? and ? subunits, were prepared and purified from selenium-rich Spirulina platensis. The Se speciation in Se–PC, its aggregates and subunits, as well as the antioxidant activities of these compounds against free radicals
Z. Huang; B. J. Guo; R. N. S. Wong; Y. Jiang
The search for natural antioxidants, especially of plant origin, has notably increased in recent years. Bunium persicum Boiss. is an economically important medicinal plant growing wild in the dry temperature regions in Iran. In this study, chemical\\u000a constituents of the essential oil of the seed from Bunium persicum Boiss. have been studied by GC\\/MS technique. The major components were caryophyllene
Neda Shahsavari; Mohsen Barzegar; Mohammad Ali Sahari; Hasanali Naghdibadi
Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr?/?, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8?µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.
Aguilar, E.C.; Jascolka, T.L.; Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M.; Peluzio, M.C.G.; Alvarez-Leite, J.I.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant known to cause neurobehavioral defects and is especially toxic to the developing brain. With recent studies showing that fetal exposure to low-dose MeHg causes developmental abnormalities, it is therefore important to find ways to combat its effects as well as to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying MeHg toxicity. In the present study, the effects of MeHg on cultured neural progenitor cells (NPC) derived from mouse embryonic brain were investigated. We first confirmed the vulnerability of embryonic NPC to MeHg toxicity, NPC from the telencephalon were more sensitive to MeHg compared to those from the diencephalon. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) which is known to inhibit glutathione synthesis accelerated MeHg toxicity. Furthermore, antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine and alpha-tocopherol dramatically rescued the NPC from MeHg's toxic effects. Interestingly, a 12 hr delay in the addition of either antioxidant was still able to prevent the cells from undergoing cell death. Although it is now difficult to avoid MeHg exposure from our environment and contaminated foods, taking anti-oxidants from foods or supplements may prevent or diminish the toxicological effects of MeHg. PMID:19483385
Watanabe, Jun; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Naganuma, Akira; Nakamura, Masahisa; Shioda, Seiji; Nakajo, Sigeo
The grafting of fruits and vegetables influences fruit quality. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the rootstock and the scion on the antioxidant activity and the content in vitamin C, total phenols, lycopene and ?-carotene of bell pepper. The cultivars Fascinato and Jeanette were used as scion and Terrano was used as rootstock. Four harvests in the production cycle of the vegetable were analyzed in a cultivation system under shading nets. The results indicate statistical differences in the content of these bioactive compounds between the varieties, between grafting and not grafting and between sampling dates (p ? 0.05). The vitamin C content, ?-carotene, and antioxidant capacity proved significantly higher in Fascinato than in Janette. On average, grafting increased ?-carotene and vitamin C concentrations and improved the antioxidant capacity, but had no influence on the total phenol or lycopene contents. It is concluded that grafting to the rootstock Terrano improves the nutritional quality of the fruit produced in both varieties of bell pepper studied. PMID:24352022
Chávez-Mendoza, Celia; Sánchez, Esteban; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ezequiel; Guevara-Aguilar, Alexandro
Five polysaccharides from unprocessed Chinese angelica (UCAP), parched one with alcohol (ACAP), soil (SCAP), sesame oil (OCAP) and parched into charred (CCAP) were extracted and purified. Their structures were identified by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and antioxidative activities were compared by determining MDA contents and SOD activities of liver tissue in mice damaged with CCl4 after gavage. The results showed that the FT-IR spectra of CCAP and OCAP displayed lower transmittance at around 1050cm(-1) in comparison with that of UCAP. Five polysaccharides were all composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose. In CCAP, ACAP, OCAP and SCAP, the proportions of arabinose were significantly increased in comparison with that of UCAP. The SOD activities in CCAP and SCAP groups were significantly enhanced, and MDA contents in CCAP, OCAP and SCAP groups were significantly decreased as compared with UCAP group. This indicated that processing could change the structure, composition and enhance antioxidative activity of polysaccharide in Chinese angelica, and CCAP possessed the strongest antioxidative activity. PMID:24680904
Ji, Peng; Wei, Yanming; Xue, Wenxin; Hua, Yongli; Zhang, Man; Sun, Hongguo; Song, Zhixue; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jinxia; Zhao, Haifu; Zhang, Wenquan
Canthaxanthin (cx) is a potent antioxidant that is chemically synthesized at the industrial scale and has imperative applications in the cosmetic and feed industries. An orange pigmented mesophilic bacterium, designated as K44, was isolated from soil samples of Kargil, India. Biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and FAME analysis of the bacterium indicated it to belong in the genus Dietzia and is distinct from human isolates. The strain showed 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology with Dietzia maris DSM 43102. High-performance liquid chromatography profile of the pigments isolated from K44 showed two major peaks absorbing at 465.3 and 475 nm. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of both these peaks revealed their m/z to be 564. The molecular weights, LC-MS/MS fragmentation patterns, and lambdamax of these fractions corresponded to all-trans- (475 nm) and 9-cis-(465.3 nm) cx isomers. The antioxidant activities of cis- and trans-cx isomers isolated from this bacterium were found to differ, where the cis-isomer showed higher free radical, superoxide radical, and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities than the alltrans- isomer, suggesting that 9-cis-cx is more effective as an antioxidant than the all-trans-cx. PMID:23412067
Venugopalan, Vijaylatha; Tripathi, Subhash K; Nahar, Pradip; Saradhi, P Pardha; Das, Rakha H; Gautam, Hemant K