Science.gov

Sample records for characterized clone resource

  1. Final progress report, Construction of a genome-wide highly characterized clone resource for genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, William C.

    2000-02-14

    At TIGR, the human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) end sequencing and trimming were with an overall sequencing success rate of 65%. CalTech human BAC libraries A, B, C and D as well as Roswell Park Cancer Institute's library RPCI-11 were used. To date, we have generated >300,000 end sequences from >186,000 human BAC clones with an average read length {approx}460 bp for a total of 141 Mb covering {approx}4.7% of the genome. Over sixty percent of the clones have BAC end sequences (BESs) from both ends representing over five-fold coverage of the genome by the paired-end clones. The average phred Q20 length is {approx}400 bp. This high accuracy makes our BESs match the human finished sequences with an average identity of 99% and a match length of 450 bp, and a frequency of one match per 12.8 kb contig sequence. Our sample tracking has ensured a clone tracking accuracy of >90%, which gives researchers a high confidence in (1) retrieving the right clone from the BA C libraries based on the sequence matches; and (2) building a minimum tiling path of sequence-ready clones across the genome and genome assembly scaffolds.

  2. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Valerie A; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R; Church, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  3. Cloning and characterization of new bioluminescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Ballou, Byron T.; Dagnal, Erich; Bryan, Bruce

    1999-07-01

    Over the past two years Prolume has undertaken a comprehensive program to clone luciferases and associated 'green fluorescent proteins' (GFPs) from marine animals that use coelenterazine as the luciferin. To data we have cloned several bioluminescent proteins, including two novel copepod luciferases and two anthozoan GFPs. These four proteins have sequences that differ greatly form previously cloned analogous proteins; the sequence diversity apparently is due to independent evolutionary origins and unusual evolutionary constraints. Thus coelenterazine-based bioluminescent systems may also manifest a variety of useful properties. We discuss form this taxonomic perspective the initial biochemical and spectral characterization of our cloned proteins. Emphasis is placed on the anthozoan luciferase-GFP systems, whose efficient resonance energy transfer has elicited much current interest.

  4. Recombinant laccase: I. Enzyme cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Claudio; Bruzzese, Debora; Cambria, Maria Teresa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pechkova, Eugenia

    2013-03-01

    We obtained structural and functional characterization of a recombinant Laccase from Rigidoporus lignosus (formerly Rigidoporus microporus), a white-rot basidiomycete, by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biochemical assays. Here we report the optimization of expression and purification procedures of a recombinant Laccase expressed in supercompetent Escherichia coli cells. We amplified the coding sequence of Laccase using PCR from cDNA and cloned into a bacterial expression system. The resulting expression plasmid, pET-28b, was under a strong T7/Lac promoter induced by IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoipyranoside). We obtained purification by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) method. We recorded the variation of the current of a solution containing purified Laccase with increasing Syringaldazine (SGZ) concentration using a potentiometer as proof of principle, showing its compatibility with the development of a new enzymatic biosensor for medical purposes, as described in Part II. PMID:22991171

  5. Cloning and characterization of porcine resistin gene.

    PubMed

    Dai, M H; Xia, T; Chen, X D; Gan, L; Feng, S Q; Qiu, H; Peng, Y; Yang, Z Q

    2006-02-01

    Resistin is a member of resistin-like molecules (RELMs) and a hormone secreted from mature adipocytes in rodents and leukocytes in human. We now report the cloning and characterization of the full-length porcine resistin cDNA and gene. Sequence analysis indicated that the pig resistin cDNA sequence had an open reading frame of 330 bp encoding a 12 kDa protein of 109 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 75.2% identity to the human resistin. The porcine resistin gene was composed of four exons and had exactly the same exon structure as the human resistin gene. The tissue distribution of porcine resistin mRNA was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Resistin gene expression was the highest in porcine leukocytes and low in adipose tissue. Resistin protein could be detected in porcine serum by western blotting and it circulated in serum as dimers and trimers. We provided the first evidence that resistin was abundantly expressed in porcine leukocytes and had an expression pattern similar to that in human resistin mRNA and protein. This suggests that the pig may be a suitable animal model for studying the function of resistin in human insulin resistance. PMID:16023825

  6. Babesia bovis clones: biochemical and enzymatic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Camarillo, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to generate additional knowledge of the biochemistry of Babesia bovis. A modified in vitro culture technique used for cloning B. bovis. This technique included a low oxygen concentration atmosphere (2%, O/sub 2/, 5% CO/sub 2/, 93% N/sub 2/) and 4 mm fluid level. Cultures initiated with one infected erythrocyte were maintained until parasitemias of positive wells reached 2% parasitemia. Primary clones were obtained and from these, nine clones were recloned twice and used for subsequent studies. A procedure was developed to concentrate and separate B. bovis merozoites and infected erythrocytes by Percoll density gradients. Merozoites separated at 1.087 g/ml specific density, whereas infected erythrocytes separated at 1.121 g/ml. Viability of purified parasites was not affected. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to identify metabolic enzyme in B. bovis and B. bigemina. The enzymes LDH, GDH, GPI and HK were detected in both species. Molecular analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins metabolically labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine indicated that two clones, derived from the same field strain, were similar but not identical to the parent. Fewer proteins were observed in the parental strain. Growth of two 60-Co irradiated B. bovis clones indicated a dose-effect relationship. Growth of parasites exposed for the longest period was initially retarded but returned to normal growth after two or three subcultures. Cultures exposed for shorter periods were unaffected with respect to the rate of growth. Analysis of electrophoretic mobility of metabolic enzyme showed a change in migration pattern.

  7. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of canine ICOS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je-Hwan; Joo, Young-Don; Yim, Daesong; Lee, Richard; Ostrander, Elaine A; Loretz, Carol; Little, Marie-Térèse; Storb, Rainer; Kuhr, Christian S

    2004-10-01

    Inducible costimulatory receptor (ICOS) is one recently identified member of the CD28 family of costimulatory molecules. Evidence suggests ICOS functions as a critical immune regulator and, to evaluate these effects, we employed the canine model system that has been used to develop strategies currently in clinical use for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To investigate the effects of blocking the ICOS pathway in the canine hematopoietic cell transplantation model, we tested existing murine and human reagents and cloned the full length of the open reading frame of canine ICOS cDNA to allow the development of reagents specific for the canine ICOS. Canine ICOS contains a major open reading frame of 624 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 208 amino acids, and localizes to chromosome 37. Canine ICOS shares 79% sequence identity with human ICOS, 70% with mouse, and 69% with rat. Canine ICOS expression is limited to stimulated PBMC. PMID:15475250

  9. Technological Literacy and Human Cloning. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how technology educators can deal with advances in human genetics, specifically, cloning. Includes a definition and history of cloning, discusses its benefits, and looks at social concerns and arguments for and against human cloning. Includes classroom activities and websites. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  10. Characterizing seamless ligation cloning extract for synthetic biological applications.

    PubMed

    Messerschmidt, Katrin; Hochrein, Lena; Dehm, Daniel; Schulz, Karina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2016-09-15

    Synthetic biology aims at designing and engineering organisms. The engineering process typically requires the establishment of suitable DNA constructs generated through fusion of multiple protein coding and regulatory sequences. Conventional cloning techniques, including those involving restriction enzymes and ligases, are often of limited scope, in particular when many DNA fragments must be joined or scar-free fusions are mandatory. Overlap-based-cloning methods have the potential to overcome such limitations. One such method uses seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) prepared from Escherichia coli cells for straightforward and efficient in vitro fusion of DNA fragments. Here, we systematically characterized extracts prepared from the unmodified E. coli strain DH10B for SLiCE-mediated cloning and determined DNA sequence-associated parameters that affect cloning efficiency. Our data revealed the virtual absence of length restrictions for vector backbone (up to 13.5 kbp) and insert (90 bp to 1.6 kbp). Furthermore, differences in GC content in homology regions are easily tolerated and the deletion of unwanted vector sequences concomitant with targeted fragment insertion is straightforward. Thus, SLiCE represents a highly versatile DNA fusion method suitable for cloning projects in virtually all molecular and synthetic biology projects. PMID:27311554

  11. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  12. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  13. In vitro expression of human p53 cDNA clones and characterization of the cloned human p53 gene.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D; Laver-Rudich, Z; Rotter, V

    1985-08-01

    The human p53 gene was cloned and characterized by using a battery of p53 DNA clones. A series of human cDNA clones of various sizes and relative localizations to the mRNA molecule were isolated by using the human p53-H14 (2.35-kilobase) cDNA probe which we previously cloned. One such isolate, clone p53-H7 (2.65 kilobases), spans the entire human mature p53 mRNA molecule. Construction of the human cDNA clones in the pSP65 RNA transcription vector facilitated the generation of p53 transcripts by the SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase. The p53-specific RNA transcripts obtained without further processing were translated into p53 proteins in a cell-free system. By using this rapid in vitro transcription-translation assay, we found that whereas clone p53-H7 (2.65 kilobases) coded for a mature-sized p53 protein, a shorter cDNA clone, p53-H13 (1.8 kilobases), dictated the synthesis of a smaller-sized p53 protein (45 kilodaltons). The p53 proteins synthesized in vitro immunoprecipitated efficiently with human-specific anti-p53 antibodies. Genomic analysis of human DNA revealed the presence of a single p53 gene residing within two EcoRI fragments. Heteroduplex analysis between the full-length cDNA clone p53-H7 and the cloned p53 gene indicated the presence of seven major exons. PMID:3018534

  14. Cloning and characterization of centromeric DNA from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Centola, M; Carbon, J

    1994-01-01

    The centromere locus from linkage group VII of Neurospora crassa has been cloned, characterized, and physically mapped. The centromeric DNA is contained within a 450-kb region that is recombination deficient, A+T-rich, and contains repetitive sequences. Repetitive sequences from within this region hybridize to a family of repeats located at or near centromeres in all seven linkage groups of N. crassa. Genomic Southern blots and sequence analysis of these repeats revealed a unique centromere structure containing a divergent family of centromere-specific repeats. The predominantly transitional differences between copies of the centromere-specific sequence repeats and their high A+T content suggest that their divergence was mediated by repeat-induced point (RIP) mutations. Images PMID:7904723

  15. Cloning and Characterization of Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhonghua; Yeats, Trevor; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The first committed step in triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of oxidosqualene to polycyclic alcohols or ketones C30H50O. It is catalyzed by single oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) enzymes that can carry out varying numbers of carbocation rearrangements and, thus, generate triterpenoids with diverse carbon skeletons. OSCs from diverse plant species have been cloned and characterized, the large majority of them catalyzing relatively few rearrangement steps. It was recently predicted that special OSCs must exist that can form friedelin, the pentacyclic triterpenoid whose formation involves the maximum possible number of rearrangement steps. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to clone a friedelin synthase from Kalanchoe daigremontiana, a plant species known to accumulate this triterpenoid in its leaf surface waxes. Five OSC cDNAs were isolated, encoding proteins with 761–779 amino acids and sharing between 57.4 and 94.3% nucleotide sequence identity. Heterologous expression in yeast and GC-MS analyses showed that one of the OSCs generated the steroid cycloartenol together with minor side products, whereas the other four enzymes produced mixtures of pentacyclic triterpenoids dominated by lupeol (93%), taraxerol (60%), glutinol (66%), and friedelin (71%), respectively. The cycloartenol synthase was found expressed in all leaf tissues, whereas the lupeol, taraxerol, glutinol, and friedelin synthases were expressed only in the epidermis layers lining the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade. It is concluded that the function of these enzymes is to form respective triterpenoid aglycones destined to coat the leaf exterior, probably as defense compounds against pathogens or herbivores. PMID:20610397

  16. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  17. [Cloning and functional characterization of phytoene desaturase in Andrographis paniculata].

    PubMed

    Shen, Qin-qin; Li, Li-xia; Zhan, Peng-lin; Wang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    A full-length cDNA of phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene from Andrographis paniculata was obtained through RACE-PCR. The cDNA sequence consists of 2 224 bp with an intact ORF of 1 752 bp (GeneBank: KP982892), encoding a ploypeptide of 584 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that the deduced protein has extensive sequence similarities to PDS from other plants, and contains a conserved NAD ( H) -binding domain of plant dehydrase cofactor binding-domain in N-terminal. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that ApPDS was more related to PDS of Sesamum indicum and Pogostemon cablin. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ApPDS expressed in whole aboveground tissues with the highest expression in leaves. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) was performed to characterize the functional of ApPDS in planta. Significant photobleaching was not observed in infiltrated leaves, while the PDS gene has been down-regulated significantly at the yellowish area. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of PDS gene cloning and functional characterization from A. paniculata, which lays the foundation for further investigation of new genes, especially that correlative to andrographolide biosynthetic pathway. PMID:26975098

  18. The UniTrap resource: tools for the biologist enabling optimized use of gene trap clones

    PubMed Central

    Roma, Guglielmo; Sardiello, Marco; Cobellis, Gilda; Cruz, Pedro; Lago, Giampiero; Sanges, Remo; Stupka, Elia

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive resource devoted to biologists wanting to optimize the use of gene trap clones in their experiments. We have processed 300 602 such clones from both public and private projects to generate 28 199 ‘UniTraps’, i.e. distinct collections of unambiguous insertions at the same subgenic region of annotated genes. The UniTrap resource contains data relative to 9583 trapped genes, which represent 42.3% of the mouse gene content. Among the trapped genes, 7 728 have a counterpart in humans, and 677 are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases. The aim of this analysis is to provide the wet lab researchers with a comprehensive database and curated tools for (i) identifying and comparing the clones carrying a trap into the genes of interest, (ii) evaluating the severity of the mutation to the protein function in each independent trapping event and (iii) supplying complete information to perform PCR, RT-PCR and restriction experiments to verify the clone and identify the exact point of vector insertion. To share this unique resource with the scientific community, we have designed and implemented a web interface that is freely accessible at http://unitrap.cbm.fvg.it/. PMID:17942430

  19. Genomic mapping by end-characterized random clones: A mathematical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Port, E.; Sun, F.; Martin, D.

    1995-03-01

    Physical maps can be constructed by {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} a large number of random clones and inferring overlap between clones when the fingerprints are sufficiently similar. E. Lander and M. Waterman gave a mathematical analysis of such mapping strategies. The analysis is useful for comparing various fingerprinting methods. Recently it has been proposed that ends of clones rather than the entire clone be fingerprinted or characterized. Such fingerprints, which include sequenced clone ends, require a mathematical analysis deeper than that of Lander-Waterman. This paper studies clone islands, which can include uncharacterized regions, and also the islands that are formed entirely from the ends of clones. 23 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of Schistosoma japonicum aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Bin; Liu, Xiufeng; Wang, Xiaoning; Hu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidant defense is an essential mechanism for schistosomes to cope with damage from host immune-generated reactive oxygen species. The evaluation of the effects of aldose reductase, an important enzyme that may be involved in this system, has long been neglected. In the present study, aldose reductase of Schistosoma japonicum (SjAR) was cloned and characterized. The activity of SjAR was assessed in vitro and was suppressed by the reported inhibitor, epalrestat. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SjAR was expressed at each of the development stages analyzed with increased levels in cercariae. The results also showed that SjAR was expressed at higher levels in adult male worms than in adult female worms. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis indicated that the purified recombinant SjAR (rSjAR) protein displayed a significant level of antigenicity. Immunolocalization analysis revealed that SjAR was mainly distributed in the gynecophoral canal of adult male worms. BALB/c mice immunized with rSjAR induced a 32.91 % worm reduction compared to the adjuvant group (P < 0.01). Moreover, a 28.27 % reduction in egg development in the liver (P > 0.05) and a 42.75 % reduction in egg development in the fecal samples (P < 0.05) were also observed. These results suggested that SjAR may be a potential new drug target or vaccine candidate for schistosomes. PMID:23160889

  1. Cloning and characterization of a murine SIL gene

    SciTech Connect

    Collazo-Garcia, N.; Scherer, P.; Aplan, P.D.

    1995-12-10

    The human SIL gene is disrupted by a site-specific interstitial deletion in 25% of children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since transcriptionally active genes are prone to recombination events, the recurrent nature of this lesion suggests that the SIL gene product is transcriptionally active in the cell type that undergoes this interstitial deletion and that the SIL gene product may play a role in normal lymphoid development. To facilitate studies of SIL gene function, we have cloned and characterized a murine SIL gene. The predicted murine SIL protein is 75% identical to the human gene, with good homology throughout the open reading frame. An in vitro translated SIL cDNA generated a protein slightly larger than the predicted 139-kDa protein. Although a prior report detected SIL mRNA expression exclusively in hematopoietic tissues, a sensitive RT-PCR assay demonstrated SIL expression to be ubiquitous, detectable in all tissues examined. Since the RT-PCR assay suggested that SIL mRNA expression was higher in rapidly proliferating tissues, we assayed SIL mRNA expression using a murine erythroleukemia model of terminal differentiation and found it to be dramatically decreased in conjunction with terminal differentiation. These studies demonstrate that the human SIL gene product is quite well conserved in rodents and suggest that the SIL gene product may play a role in cell proliferation. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Cloning, Characterization, Regulation, and Function of Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box Genes from Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes are SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE–Like MADS box transcription factors linked to endodormancy induction. We have cloned and characterized several cDNA and genomic clones of DAM genes from the model perennial weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). We present evidence fo...

  3. Cloning and functional characterization of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Molnár, Péter; Schwab, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) genes have been functionally characterized in different plant species, little is known about the biochemical role and enzymatic activities of members of the subclass 4 (CCD4). To gain insight into their biological function, CCD4 genes were isolated from apple (Malus x domestica, MdCCD4), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x morifolium, CmCCD4a), rose (Rosa x damascena, RdCCD4), and osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans, OfCCD4), and were expressed, together with AtCCD4, in Escherichia coli. In vivo assays showed that CmCCD4a and MdCCD4 cleaved beta-carotene well to yield beta-ionone, while OfCCD4, RdCCD4, and AtCCD4 were almost inactive towards this substrate. No cleavage products were found for any of the five CCD4 genes when they were co-expressed in E. coli strains that accumulated cis-zeta-carotene and lycopene. In vitro assays, however, demonstrated the breakdown of 8'-apo-beta-caroten-8'-al by AtCCD4 and RdCCD4 to beta-ionone, while this apocarotenal was almost not degraded by OfCCD4, CmCCD4a, and MdCCD4. Sequence analysis of genomic clones of CCD4 genes revealed that RdCCD4, like AtCCD4, contains no intron, while MdCCD, OfCCD4, and CmCCD4a contain introns. These results indicate that plants produce at least two different forms of CCD4 proteins. Although CCD4 enzymes cleave their substrates at the same position (9,10 and 9',10'), they might have different biochemical functions as they accept different (apo)-carotenoid substrates, show various expression patterns, and are genomically differently organized. PMID:19436048

  4. Cloning, overexpression and characterization of Leishmania donovani squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Prachi; Kumar, Kishore; Chaudhaery, Shailendra S; Saxena, Anil K; Roy, Uma

    2010-10-01

    Squalene synthase (SSN, EC 2.5.1.21), a major enzyme in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, catalyses an unusual head-to-head reductive dimerization of two molecules of farnesyl-pyrophosphate (FPP) in a two-step reaction to form squalene. FPP serves as a metabolic intermediate in the formation of sterols, dolichols, ubiquinones and farnesylated proteins. Here, we report cloning, expression and purification of a catalytically active recombinant squalene synthase of Leishmania donovani (LdSSN). The pH and temperature optima of LdSSN were 7.4 and 37°C, respectively. Biochemical studies revealed that the K(m) and V(max) for the substrate FPP were 3.8 μM and 0.59 nM min(-1) mg(-1) and for NADPH were 43.23 μM and 0.56 nM min(-1) mg(-1). LdSSN was found to be sensitive towards denaturants as manifested by a loss of enzyme activity at the concentration of 1 M urea or 0.25 M guanidine hydrochloride. Zaragozic acid A, a potent inhibitor of mammalian SSN, was also a competitive inhibitor of recombinant LdSSN, with a K(i) of 74 nM. This is the first report on the purification and characterization of full-length recombinant SSN from L. donovani. Studies on recombinant LdSSN will help in evaluating this enzyme as a potential drug target for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:20722739

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of sheep FGF5 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihua; He, Sangang; Liu, Mingjun; Liu, Guosong; Yuan, Zheng; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wenrong

    2015-01-25

    The fibroblast growth factor 5 gene (FGF5) is a member of the FGF gene family, and represents a candidate gene for hair length because of its role in the regulation of the hair follicle growth cycle. In our current study, we cloned, sequenced, and characterized the full-length FGF5 cDNA of Chinese Merino sheep. We obtained the complete genomic sequence of the FGF5 gene from sheep blood samples, and compared it to other FGF5 sequences in GenBank. We found that the FGF5 gene spanned 21,743bp of genomic DNA, and consisted of 3 exons and 2 introns, both of which differed from those of a previously annotated FGF5 genomic sequence from sheep. We also identified a previously undescribed FGF5 mRNA splicing variant, FGF5S, and the western blot analysis showed that the molecular weights of the FGF5 (34kDa) and FGF5s (17kDa) proteins were consistent with the estimates based on the genomic and cDNA sequence data. We examined the expression of both FGF5 mRNAs in various tissues of sheep, and found that the expression of the FGF5S mRNA was restricted to the brain, spleen, and skin tissue. The single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the genomic sequence revealed 72 genetic variants of the FGF5 gene. Our findings provide insight into the functions of the FGF5 gene in Chinese Merino. PMID:25445274

  6. Cloning and characterization of three Eimeria tenella lipid phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  7. Cloning and Characterization of Three Eimeria tenella Lipid Phosphate Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  8. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in cloned Amaranthus palmeri plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (GA) possesses multiple copies of the target site, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) of this herbicide. Cloned plants of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes from Mississippi (MS) were compared with GA populations using le...

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of multidomain xylanase from manure library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene (manf-x10) encoding xylanase from an environmental genomic DNA library was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded enzyme was predicted to be 467 amino acids with a molecular mass of 50.3 kD. The recombinant ManF-X10 was purified by HisTrap affinity column and showed activit...

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  11. Isolation and characterization of human defensin cDNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Daher, K.A.; Lehrer, R.I.; Ganz, T.; Kronenberg, M. )

    1988-10-01

    Four clones that encode defensins, a group of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils, were isolated from an HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cDNA library. Analysis of these clones indicated that the defensins are made as precursor proteins, which must be cleaved to yield the mature peptides. Defensin mRNA was detected in normal bone marrow cells, but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes. Defensin transcripts were also found in the peripheral leukocytes of some leukemia patients and in some lung and intestine tissues. Defensin mRNA content was augmented by treatment of HL-60 cells with dimethyl sulfoxide. These results define important aspects of the mechanism of synthesis and the tissue-specific expression of a major group of neutrophil granule proteins.

  12. CLONING AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CHICKEN INTERLEUKIN-17D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proinflammatory cytokine IL-17D was cloned from a testis cDNA library prepared from the Korean native chicken. The full-length chicken IL-17D (chIL-17D) cDNA consisted of a 348 nucleotide sequence encoding an open reading frame of 116 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 17.0 kDa. Co...

  13. Establishment of clones of Trypanosoma cruzi and their characterization in vitro and in vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, S. Chia-tung

    1982-01-01

    An efficient technique for isolating clones of Trypanosoma cruzi from cultures and from animals has been developed. It is based on the inoculation of one organism, obtained by serial dilutions of cultured epimastigotes or isolated blood stream trypomastigotes, into enriched NNN medium (NNN-F:93). The cloning efficiency (percentage of positive cultures over the number inoculated) was 70% for cultured epimastigotes and 30-40% for blood-stream trypomastigotes. In vitro cultural characteristics of 14 secondary clones of an avirulent strain indicated that 12 clones grew in the F-94 medium primarily as epimastigotes at 27 °C and exclusively as amastigotes at 37 °C; 2 clones grew in F-94 medium primarily as amastigotes regardless of incubation temperature (27 °C or 37 °C). In vivo characterization of 7 clones from 2 virulent strains indicated that the virulence of individual clones was low immediately after isolation in NNN-F:93 medium, but the virulence of some clones returned to the level of the parent strain after more than 8 serial passages in CD-1 mice. PMID:7044587

  14. Characterization of lunar ilmenite resources

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Vaniman, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Ilmenite will be an important lunar resource, to be used mainly for oxygen production but also as a source of iron. Ilmenite abundances in high-Ti basaltic lavas are higher (10--20%) than in high-Ti mare soils (mostly <10%). This factor alone may make crushed high-Ti basaltic lavas most attractive as a target for ilmenite extraction. Concentration of ilmenite from either a crushed basalt or regolith requires sizing to avoid polycrystalline fragments. In coarse-grained high-Ti basaltic lavas, about 60--80% of the ilmenite will consist of relatively ''clean'' single crystals if the rocks are crushed to a size of 0.2 mm. Fine-grained high-Ti basalts, with thin skeletal or hopper-shaped ilmenites, would produce essentially no free or ''clean'' ilmenite grains unless crushed to sizes of less than 0.15 mm, and only /approximately/7% free ilmenite if crushed to sizes smaller than 0.05 mm. Data from the 2.8 m-thick regolith sampled by coring at the Apollo 17 site show that in even the most basalt-clast-rich and least mature stratigraphic intervals, free ilmenite grains make up less than 2% of the 0.02- to 0.2-mm size fraction and a mere 0.3% of the 0.2- to 2-mm size fraction. 23 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Entamoeba Clone-Recognition Experiments: Morphometrics, Aggregative Behavior, and Cell-Signaling Characterization.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Avelina; Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Hackey, Meagan; Rutherford, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Studies on clone- and kin-discrimination in protists have proliferated during the past decade. We report clone-recognition experiments in seven Entamoeba lineages (E. invadens IP-1, E. invadens VK-1:NS, E. terrapinae, E. moshkovskii Laredo, E. moshkovskii Snake, E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar). First, we characterized morphometrically each clone (length, width, and cell-surface area) and documented how they differed statistically from one another (as per single-variable or canonical-discriminant analyses). Second, we demonstrated that amebas themselves could discriminate self (clone) from different (themselves vs. other clones). In mix-cell-line cultures between closely-related (E. invadens IP-1 vs. E. invadens VK-1:NS) or distant-phylogenetic clones (E. terrapinae vs. E. moshkovskii Laredo), amebas consistently aggregated with same-clone members. Third, we identified six putative cell-signals secreted by the amebas (RasGap/Ankyrin, coronin-WD40, actin, protein kinases, heat shock 70, and ubiquitin) and which known functions in Entamoeba spp. included: cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cell movement, and stress-induced encystation. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-clone characterization of Entamoeba spp. morphometrics, aggregative behavior, and cell-signaling secretion in the context of clone-recognition. Protists allow us to study cell-cell recognition from ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Modern protistan lineages can be central to studies about the origins and evolution of multicellularity. PMID:26990199

  16. Cloning and characterization of micro-RNAs from moss.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Tzahi; Talmor-Neiman, Mali; Stav, Ran; Riese, Maike; Huijser, Peter; Baulcombe, David C

    2005-09-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous tiny RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plant development and responses to external stimuli. To date, miRNAs have been cloned from higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice and pumpkin, and there is limited information on their identity in lower plants including Bryophytes. Bryophytes are among the oldest groups of land plants among the earth's flora, and are important for our understanding of the transition to life on land. To identify miRNAs that might have played a role early in land plant evolution, we constructed a library of small RNAs from the juvenile gametophyte (protonema) of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Sequence analysis revealed five higher plant miRNA homologues, including three members of the miR319 family, previously shown to be involved in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis, and miR156, which has been suggested to regulate several members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family in Arabidopsis. We have cloned PpSBP3, a moss SPL homologue that contains an miR156 complementary site, and demonstrated that its mRNA is cleaved within that site suggesting that it is an miR156 target in moss. Six additional candidate moss miRNAs were identified and shown to be expressed in the gametophyte, some of which were developmentally regulated or upregulated by auxin. Our observations suggest that miRNAs play important regulatory roles in mosses. PMID:16146523

  17. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a rat kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Meng, F; Xie, G X; Thompson, R C; Mansour, A; Goldstein, A; Watson, S J; Akil, H

    1993-01-01

    A full-length cDNA was isolated from a rat striatal library by using low-stringency screening with two PCR fragments, one spanning transmembrane domains 3-6 of the mouse delta opioid receptor and the other unidentified but homologous to the mouse delta receptor from rat brain. The novel cDNA had a long open reading frame encoding a protein of 380 residues with 59% identity to the mouse delta receptor and topography consistent with a seven-helix guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor. COS-1 cells transfected with the coding region of this clone showed high-affinity binding to kappa opioid receptor-selective ligands such as dynorphin A and U-50,488 and also nonselective opioid ligands such as bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine, and naloxone. Not bound at all (or bound with low affinity) were dynorphin A-(2-13), enantiomers of naloxone and levophanol [i.e., (+)-naloxone and dextrorphan], and selective mu and delta opioid receptor ligands. Activation of the expressed receptor by kappa receptor agonists led to inhibition of cAMP. Finally, in situ hybridization revealed a mRNA distribution in rat brain that corresponded well to the distribution of binding sites labeled with kappa-selective ligands. These observations indicate that we have cloned a cDNA encoding a rat kappa receptor of the kappa 1 subtype. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8234341

  18. Cloning and characterization of two flavohemoglobins from Aspergillus oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shengmin; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakanishi, Yoshito; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2009-03-27

    Two flavohemoglobin (FHb) genes, fhb1 and fhb2, were cloned from Aspergillus oryzae. The amino acid sequences of the deduced FHb1 and FHb2 showed high identity to other FHbs except for the predicted mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminus of FHb2. The recombinant proteins displayed absorption spectra similar to those of other FHbs. FHb1 and FHb2 were estimated to be a monomer and a dimer in solution, respectively. Both of the isozymes exhibit high NO dioxygenase (NOD) activity. FHb1 utilizes either NADH or NADPH as an electron donor, whereas FHb2 can only use NADH. These results suggest that FHb1 and FHb2 are fungal counterparts of bacterial FHbs and act as NO detoxification enzymes in the cytosol and mitochondria, respectively. This study is the first to show that a microorganism contains two isozymes of FHb and that intracellular localization of the isozymes could differ.

  19. Cloning and characterization of temperature-related gene TRS1.

    PubMed

    Han, X-B; Zhou, X-C; Hu, Z-Y; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, Y-X

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of spermatogenesis arrest derived from heat treatment and to screen temperature-related genes involved in spermatogenesis, the authors analyzed the differences in gene expression between cryptorchid and scrotal testes in rats, and cloned a full-length cDNA named TRS1. In situ hybridization showed that TRS1 mRNA was mainly expressed in spermatocyte and round spermatids in testis. The expression level decreased in cryptorchid testis, suggesting that the lower scrotal temperature is a key factor in keeping the normal expression of TRS1. At the N-terminal of TRS1, there was a plecstrin homology (PH) domain signature. This PH domain has high similarity to that in PEPP2, a homosapien protein, which has a characteristic of binding phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate via its PH domain in vitro. These findings suggest that TRS1 may be important in spermatogenesis and give clues for further research on the function of TRS1. PMID:12137588

  20. Cloning and Functional Characterization of SAD Genes in Potato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Bian, Chun Song; Xu, Jian Fei; Pang, Wan fu; Liu, Jie; Duan, Shao Guang; Lei, Zun-Guo; Jiwan, Palta; Jin, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD) were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8) against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD) was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato. PMID:25825911

  1. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Bian, Chun Song; Xu, Jian Fei; Pang, Wan Fu; Liu, Jie; Duan, Shao Guang; Lei, Zun-Guo; Jiwan, Palta; Jin, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD) were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8) against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD) was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato. PMID:25825911

  2. Cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of Thielavia terrestris glucoamylase.

    PubMed

    Rey, Michael W; Brown, Kimberly M; Golightly, Elizabeth J; Fuglsang, Claus C; Nielsen, Bjarne R; Hendriksen, Hanne V; Butterworth, Amy; Xu, Feng

    2003-12-01

    Thielavia terrestris is a soil-borne thermophilic fungus whose molecular/ cellular biology is poorly understood. Only a few genes have been cloned from the Thielavia genus. We detected an extracellular glucoamylase in culture filtrates of T. terrestris and cloned the corresponding glaA gene. The coding region contains five introns. Based on the amino acid sequence, the glucoamylase was 65% identical to Neurospora crassa glucoamylase. Sequence comparisons suggested that the enzyme belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 15. The T. terrestris glaA gene was expressed in Aspergillus oryzae under the control of an A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and an Aspergillus niger glucoamylase terminator. The 75-kDa recombinant glucoamylase showed a specific activity of 2.8 micromol/(min x mg) with maltose as substrate. With maltotriose as a substrate, the enzyme had an optimum pH of 4.0 and an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at 60 degrees C for 30 min. The Km and kcat of the enzyme for maltotriose were determined at various pHs and temperatures. At 20 degrees C and pH 4.0, the enzyme had a Km of 0.33 +/- 0.07 mM and a kcat of (5.5 +/- 0.5) x 103 min(-1) for maltotriose. The temperature dependence of kcat/Km indicated an activation free energy of 2.8 kJ/mol across the range of 20-70 degrees C. Overall, the enzyme derived from the thermophilic fungus exhibited properties comparable with that of its homolog derived from mesophilic fungi. PMID:14665735

  3. Physiological Characterization of Adaptive Clones in Evolving Populations of the Yeast, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Julian; Paquin, Charlotte; Oeller, Paul W.; Lee, Lester W.

    1985-01-01

    Populations of a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae were grown in glucose-limited continuous culture for more than 260 generations. A series of seven sequential adaptive changes were identified by monitoring the frequency of cycloheximide resistance in these populations. Samples were taken from the continuous cultures following each adaptive shift and characterized physiologically to determine (1) the range of phenotypes that can be selected in a precisely defined constant environment and (2) the order and predictability of the occurrence of the adaptive mutations in evolving populations. The clones were characterized with respect to the growth parameters, maximum growth rate, saturation coefficient and yield, as well as for changes in cell size and geometry and rate of glucose uptake. The maximum growth rates of the seven adaptive clones were very similar, but in contrast the saturation coefficients differed substantially. Surprisingly, not all clones showed reductions in the saturation coefficients, in comparison to the immediately preceding clones, as would be predicted from classical continuous culture kinetics. In addition, yield estimates first increased and then decreased for later isolated adaptive clones. In general, the results suggest epistatic interactions between the adaptive clones, consistent with earlier published results. The rate of glucose uptake, as measured by 14Cxylose uptake, increased dramatically after the selection and fixation of seven adaptive clones. Progressive decreases in cell volume and changes in cell geometry, resulting in increased surface area to volume ratios, were also observed in the adaptive clones, but these changes were not always seen in other haploid and diploid yeast populations evolving under the same conditions. Such changes may be easily explainable in terms of the characteristics of the glucose-limited environment. The significance of the results to the evolution of microorganisms under nutrient-limiting conditions is

  4. Characterization of a forest soil metagenome clone that confers indirubin and indigo production on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lim, He Kyoung; Chung, Eu Jin; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Chung, Young Ryun; Cho, Kwang Yun; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2005-12-01

    A microbial community analysis of forest soil from Jindong Valley, Korea, revealed that the most abundant rRNA genes were related to Acidobacteria, a major taxon with few cultured representatives. To access the microbial genetic resources of this forest soil, metagenomic libraries were constructed in fosmids, with an average DNA insert size of more than 35 kb. We constructed 80,500 clones from Yuseong and 33,200 clones from Jindong Valley forest soils. The double-agar-layer method allowed us to select two antibacterial clones by screening the constructed libraries using Bacillus subtilis as a target organism. Several clones produced purple or brown colonies. One of the selected antibacterial clones, pJEC5, produced purple colonies. Structural analysis of the purified pigments demonstrated that the metagenomic clone produced both the pigment indirubin and its isomer, indigo blue, resulting in purple colonies. In vitro mutational and subclonal analyses revealed that two open reading frames (ORFs) are responsible for the pigment production and antibacterial activity. The ORFs encode an oxygenase-like protein and a putative transcriptional regulator. Mutations of the gene encoding the oxygenase canceled both pigment production and antibacterial activity, whereas a subclone carrying the two ORFs retained pigment production and antibacterial activity. This finding suggests that these forest soil microbial genes are responsible for producing the pigment with antibacterial activity. PMID:16332749

  5. Molecular cloning of tetracycline resistance genes from Streptomyces rimosus in Streptomyces griseus and characterization of the cloned genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuki, T; Katoh, T; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1985-01-01

    Two tetracycline resistance genes of Streptomyces rimosus, an oxytetracycline producer, were cloned in Streptomyces griseus by using pOA15 as a vector plasmid. Expression of the cloned genes, designated as tetA and tetB was inducible in S. griseus as well as in the donor strain. The tetracycline resistance directed by tetA and tetB was characterized by examining the uptake of tetracycline and in vitro polyphenylalanine synthesis by the sensitive host and transformants with the resultant hybrid plasmids. Polyphenylalanine synthesis with crude ribosomes and the S150 fraction from S. griseus carrying the tetA plasmid was resistant to tetracycline, and, by a cross-test of ribosomes and S150 fraction coming from both the sensitive host and the resistant transformant, the resistance directed by tetA was revealed to reside mainly in crude ribosomes and slightly in the S150 fraction. However, the resistance in the crude ribosomes disappeared when they were washed with 1 M ammonium chloride. These results suggest that tetA specified the tetracycline resistance of the machinery for protein synthesis not through ribosomal subunits, but via an unidentified cytoplasmic factor. In contrast, S. griseus carrying the tetB plasmid accumulated less intracellular tetracycline than did the host, and the protein synthesis by reconstituting the ribosomes and S150 fraction was sensitive to the drug. Therefore, it is conceivable that tetB coded a tetracycline resistance determinant responsible for the reduced accumulation of tetracycline. Images PMID:2982781

  6. Cloning and characterization of nanos gene in silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoli; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Wang, Weihua

    2008-02-01

    Gene nanos is a maternal posterior group gene required for normal development of abdominal segments and the germ line in Drosophila. Expression of nanos-related genes is associated with the germ line in a broad variety of other taxa. In this study, the 5'-RACE method and the in silico cloning method are used to isolate the new nanos-like gene of Bombyx mori and the gene obtained is analyzed with bioinformatics tools. The putative protein is expressed in Escherichia coli and the antiserum has been produced in New Zealand white rabbits. The result shows that the nanos cDNA is 1,913 bp in full length and contains a 954 bp open reading frame. The deduced protein has 317 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular weight of 35 kDa, isoelectric point of 5. 38, and contains a conserved nanos RNA binding domain. The conserved region of the deduced protein shares 73% homology with the nanos protein conserved region of Honeybee (Apis mellifera). This gene has been registered in the GenBank under the accession number EF647589. One encoding sequence of the nanos fragment has been successfully expressed in E. coli. Western blotting analysis indicates that homemade antiserum can specifically detect nanos protein expressed in prokaryotic cells. PMID:18407054

  7. Cloning and partial characterization of Entamoeba histolytica PTPases

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera-Rodriguez, Sara Elisa; Baylon-Pacheco, Lidia; Talamas-Rohana, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, Jose Luis . E-mail: rosales@cinvestav.mx

    2006-04-21

    Reversible protein tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential signal transduction mechanism that regulates cell growth, differentiation, mobility, metabolism, and survival. Two genes coding for protein tyrosine phophatases, designed EhPTPA and EhPTPB, were cloned from Entamoeba histolytica. EhPTPA and EhPTPB proteins showed amino acid sequence identity of 37%, both EhPTPases showed similarity with Dictyostelium discoideum and vertebrate trasmembranal PTPases. mRNA levels of EhPTPA gene are up-regulated in trophozoites recovered after 96 h of liver abscess development in the hamster model. EhPTPA protein expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (GST::EhPTPA) showed enzymatic activity with p-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate and was inhibited by PTPase inhibitors vanadate and molybdate. GST::EhPTPA protein selectively dephosphorylates a 130 kDa phosphotyrosine-containing protein in trophozoite cell lysates. EhPTPA gene codifies for a 43 kDa native protein. Up-regulation of EhPTPA expression suggests that EhPTPA may play an important role in the adaptive response of trophozoites during amoebic liver abscess development.

  8. Cloning and characterization of hydrogen uptake genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed Central

    Leyva, A; Palacios, J M; Mozo, T; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1987-01-01

    A gene library of genomic DNA from the hydrogen uptake (Hup)-positive strain 128C53 of Rhizobium leguminosarum was constructed by using the broad-host-range mobilizable cosmid vector pLAFR1. The resulting recombinant cosmids contained insert DNA averaging 21 kilobase pairs (kb) in length. Two clones from the above gene library were identified by colony hybridization with DNA sequences from plasmid pHU1 containing hup genes of Bradyhizobium japonicum. The corresponding recombinant cosmids, pAL618 and pAL704, were isolated, and a region of about 28 kb containing the sequences homologous to B. japonicum hup-specific DNA was physically mapped. Further hybridization analysis with three fragments from pHU1 (5.9-kb HindIII, 2.9-kb EcoRI, and 5.0-kb EcoRI) showed that the overall arrangement of the R. leguminosarum hup-specific region closely parallels that of B. japonicum. The presence of functional hup genes within the isolated cosmid DNA was demonstrated by site-directed Tn5 mutagenesis of the 128C53 genome and analysis of the Hup phenotype of the Tn5 insertion strains in symbiosis with peas. Transposon Tn5 insertions at six different sites spanning 11 kb of pAL618 completely suppressed the hydrogenase activity of the pea bacteroids. Images PMID:2822654

  9. [Cloning and characterization of D-113 gene promoter from cotton].

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Ming; Guo, Yu-Long; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Hou, Lei; Pei, Yan

    2002-02-01

    To study the expression of late embryogenesis abundant gene in seeds, the 1,024 bp 5' flanking sequence of D-113 gene, a late embryogenesis abundant gene of Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312, was cloned by PCR. The similarity compared with the sequence of Lea protein gene family published was 92.50%. There are three putative ABREs and one enhancer-like which riches A/T in the promoter. The promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene to form pLD II. Via a particle bombardment, pLD II was introduced into embryogenic calli of cotton and seeds of Brassica napus which were all treated with abscisic acid for 3d before bombardment, also into roots, stems and leafs of cotton. Transient expression was measured histochemically as spot number 24 h after bombardment. GUS sexpression was observed in the seeds of Brassica napus and the embryogenic calli of cotton, but not found in roots and leaves of cotton. Those results indicated that the expression of D-113 gene promoter was embryo specific. PMID:11902000

  10. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  11. Cloning, purification and biochemical characterization of dipetarudin, a new chimeric thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    López, M; Mende, K; Steinmetzer, T; Nowak, G

    2003-03-25

    The development of thrombin inhibitors could provide invaluable progress for antithrombotic therapy. In this paper, we report the cloning, purification and biochemical characterization of dipetarudin, a chimeric thrombin inhibitor composed of the N-terminal head structure of dipetalogastin II, the strongest inhibitor from the assassin bug Dipetalogaster maximus, and the exosite 1 blocking segment of hirudin, connected through a five glycine linker. The cloning of dipetarudin was performed by a simple method which had not been used previously to clone chimeras. Biochemical characterization of dipetarudin revealed that it is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor with a molecular mass (M(r)=7560) and a thrombin inhibitory activity (K(i)=446 fM) comparable to r-hirudin. PMID:12651003

  12. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of pyridoxamine–pyruvate aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikane, Yu; Yokochi, Nana; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxamine–pyruvate aminotransferase is a PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) (a coenzyme form of vitamin B6)-independent aminotransferase which catalyses a reversible transamination reaction between pyridoxamine and pyruvate to form pyridoxal and L-alanine. The gene encoding the enzyme has been identified, cloned and overexpressed for the first time. The mlr6806 gene on the chromosome of a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Mesorhizobium loti, encoded the enzyme, which consists of 393 amino acid residues. The primary sequence was identical with those of archaeal aspartate aminotransferase and rat serine–pyruvate aminotransferase, which are PLP-dependent aminotransferases. The results of fold-type analysis and the consensus amino acid residues found around the active-site lysine residue identified in the present study showed that the enzyme could be classified into class V aminotransferases of fold type I or the AT IV subfamily of the α family of the PLP-dependent enzymes. Analyses of the absorption and CD spectra of the wild-type and point-mutated enzymes showed that Lys197 was essential for the enzyme activity, and was the active-site lysine residue that corresponded to that found in the PLP-dependent aminotransferases, as had been suggested previously [Hodsdon, Kolb, Snell and Cole (1978) Biochem. J. 169, 429–432]. The Kd value for pyridoxal determined by means of CD was 100-fold lower than the Km value for it, suggesting that Schiff base formation between pyridoxal and the active-site lysine residue is partially rate determining in the catalysis of pyridoxal. The active-site structure and evolutionary aspects of the enzyme are discussed. PMID:16545075

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) transketolase.

    PubMed

    Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea

    2013-10-01

    Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

  14. Cloning and characterization of a bovine adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael; Katano, Hisako; Bossis, Ioannis; Chiorini, John A

    2004-06-01

    To better understand the relationship between primate adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) and those of other mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the genome of an AAV found as a contaminant in two isolates of bovine adenovirus that was reported to be serologically distinct from primate AAVs. The bovine AAV (BAAV) genome has 4,693 bp, and its organization is similar to that of other AAV isolates. The left-hand open reading frame (ORF) and both inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) have the highest homology with the rep ORF and ITRs of AAV serotype 5 (AAV-5) (89 and 96%, respectively). However, the right-hand ORF was only 55% identical to the AAV-5 capsid ORF; it had the highest homology with the capsid ORF of AAV-4 (76%). By comparing the BAAV cap sequence with a model of an AAV-4 capsid, we mapped the regions of BAAV VP1 that are divergent from AAV-4. These regions are located on the outside of the capsid and are partially located in exposed loops. BAAV was not neutralized by antisera raised against recombinant AAV-2, AAV-4, or AAV-5, and it demonstrated a unique cell tropism profile in four human cancer cell lines, suggesting that BAAV might have transduction activity distinct from that of other isolates. A murine model of salivary gland gene transfer was used to evaluate the in vivo performance of recombinant BAAV. Recombinant BAAV-mediated gene transfer was 11 times more efficient than that with AAV-2. Overall, these data suggest that vectors based on BAAV could be useful for gene transfer applications. PMID:15163744

  15. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)

    Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  16. Cloning, Overexpression in Escherichia coli, and Characterization of a Thermostable Fungal Acetylxylan Esterase from Talaromyces emersonii

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick G.; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, Angel T.; Tuohy, Maria G.; Faulds, Craig B.

    2012-01-01

    The gene encoding an acetylxylan esterase (AXE1) from the thermophilic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and characterized. This form of AXE1, rTeAXE1, exhibits increased thermostability and activity at a higher temperature than other known fungal acetyl esterases, thus having huge potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:22407679

  17. Cloning, overexpression in Escherichia coli, and characterization of a thermostable fungal acetylxylan esterase from Talaromyces emersonii.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Murray, Patrick G; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, Angel T; Tuohy, Maria G; Faulds, Craig B

    2012-05-01

    The gene encoding an acetylxylan esterase (AXE1) from the thermophilic ascomycete Talaromyces emersonii was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and characterized. This form of AXE1, rTeAXE1, exhibits increased thermostability and activity at a higher temperature than other known fungal acetyl esterases, thus having huge potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:22407679

  18. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  19. Cloning, sequencing and characterization of lipase from a polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing Pseudomonas resinovorans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipase gene (lip) of a biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing bacterium P. resinovorans NRRL B-2649 was cloned, sequenced and characterized by using consensus primers and PCR-based genome walking method. The ORF of the putative Lip (314 amino acids) and its active site (Ser111, Asp...

  20. Cloning and characterization of a critical regulator for pre-harvest sprouting in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat u...

  1. Characterization of a deep-sea sediment metagenomic clone that produces water-soluble melanin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yali; Lai, Xintian; He, Xiaocui; Cao, Lixiang; Zeng, Zhirui; Zhang, Jiong; Zhou, Shining

    2009-01-01

    To access to the microbial genetic resources of deep-sea sediment by a culture-independent approach, the sediment DNA was extracted and cloned into fosmid vector (pCC1FOS) generating a library of 39,600 clones with inserts of 24-45 kb. The clone fss6 producing red-brown pigment was isolated and characterized. The pigment was identified as melanin according to its physico-chemical characteristics. Subcloning and sequences analyses of fss6 demonstrated that one open reading frame (ORF2) was responsible for the pigment production. The deduced protein from ORF2 revealed significant amino acid similarity to the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) from deep-sea bacteria Idiomarina loihiensis. Further study demonstrated that the production of melanin was correlated with homogentistic acid (HGA). The p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate produced by the Escherichia coli host was converted to HGA through the oxidation reaction of introduced HPPD. The results demonstrate that expression of DNA extracted directly from the environment might generate applicable microbial gene products. The construction and analysis of the metagenomic library from deep-sea sediment contributed to our understanding for the reservoir of unexploited deep-sea microorganisms. PMID:18648877

  2. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Chicken Stem Cell Antigen 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem cell antigen 2 (SCA2) is a Ly-6 family member whose function is largely unknown. To characterize biological properties and tissue distribution of chicken SCA2, SCA2 protein was expressed and purified in E. coli, and a polyclonal antibody developed. Utilizing the polyclonal antibody SCA2 is a 13...

  3. Cloning and characterization of the Bacteroides fragilis metalloprotease toxin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A A; Mundy, L M; Trucksis, M; Wu, S; Kaper, J B; Sears, C L

    1997-01-01

    Strains of Bacteroides fragilis that produce a ca. 20-kDa heat-labile protein toxin (termed B. fragilis toxin [BFT]) have been associated with diarrheal disease of animals and humans. BFT alters the morphology of intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo and stimulates secretion in ligated intestinal segments of rats, rabbits, and lambs. Previous genetic and biochemical data indicated that BFT was a metalloprotease which hydrolyzed G (monomeric) actin, gelatin, and azocoll in vitro. In this paper, the cloning and sequencing of the entire B. fragilis toxin gene (bft) from enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) 86-5443-2-2 is reported. The bft gene from this ETBF strain consists of one open reading frame of 1,191 nucleotides encoding a predicted 397-residue holotoxin with a calculated molecular weight of 44,493. Comparison of the predicted BFT protein sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified BFT indicates that BFT is most probably synthesized by ETBF strains as a preproprotein. These data predict that BFT is processed to yield a biologically active toxin of 186 residues with a molecular mass of 20.7 kDa which is secreted into the culture supernatant. Analysis of the holotoxin sequence predicts a 20-residue amphipathic region at the carboxy terminus of BFT. Thus, in addition to the metalloprotease activity of BFT, the prediction of an amphipathic domain suggests that oligomerization of BFT may permit membrane insertion of the toxin with creation of a transmembrane pore. Comparison of the sequences available for the bft genes from ETBF 86-5443-2-2 and VPI 13784 revealed two regions of reduced homology. Hybridization of oligonucleotide probes specific for each bft to toxigenic B.fragilis strains revealed that 51 and 49% of toxigenic strains contained the 86-5433-2-2 and VPI 13784 bft genes, respectively. No toxigenic strain hybridized with both probes. We propose that these two subtypes of bft be termed bft-1 (VPI 13784) and bft-2 (86

  4. Development and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive murine T-cell lines and clones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepe, George S., Jr.; Smith, James G.; Denman, David; Bullock, Ward E.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    Several Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive murine cloned T-cell lines (TCLs) were isolated from spleens of C57BL/6 mice immunized with viable H. capsulatum yeast cells, using the methodology of Kimoto and Fathman (1980). These T-cells were characterized phenotypically as Thy-1.2(+) Lyt-1(+) L3T4(+) Lyt-2(-), that is, as the helper/inducer phenotype. The cloned T cells proliferate in response to histoplasmin and, in some cases, to heterologous fungal anigens. Upon injection of mice with the antigen, the T-cells mediate local delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and, after stimulation, release regulatory lymphokines.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of potato spindle tuber viroid cDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert A.; Cress, Dean E.

    1980-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA has been synthesized from a polyadenylylated potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) template and inserted in the Pst I endonuclease site of plasmid pBR322 by using the oligo(dC)·oligo(dG)-tailing procedure. Tetracycline-resistant ampicillin-sensitive transformants contained sequences complementary to PSTV [32P]cDNA, and one recombinant clone (pDC-29) contains a 460-base-pair insert. This cloned double-stranded PSTV cDNA contains the cleavage sites for six restriction endonucleases predicted by the published primary sequence of PSTV as well as one additional site each for Ava I, Hae III, Hpa II, and Sma I. The additional Ava I, Hpa II, and Sma I sites are explained by the presence of a second C-C-C-G-G-G sequence in the cloned double-stranded cDNA. The largest fragment released by Hae III digestion contains approximately 360 base pairs. These results suggest that we have cloned almost the entire sequence of PSTV, but the sequence cloned differs slightly from that published. Hybridization probes derived from pDC-29 insert have allowed detection and preliminary characterization of RNA molecules having the same size as PSTV but the opposite polarity. This RNA is present during PSTV replication in infected tomato cells. Images PMID:16592877

  6. Cloning, expression and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis sirR.

    PubMed

    Namwat, Wises; Somnate, Baramee; Maleehual, Dutsadee; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Faksri, Kiatichai

    2014-05-01

    Identification of new drug targets is important for the improvement of chemotherapy for tuberculosis treatment. Metal-associated gene products are candidates for novel drug development. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) sirR-encoded protein has been proposed, but the function of MTB SirR has not yet been elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that MTB SirR contains iron binding domains with 34%-59% similarity to previously described metal-dependent gene regulators and that the gene lies in Rv2787-sirR operon. RT-PCR revealed that the Rv2787-sirR operon is transcribed a single bicistronic mRNA. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of recombinant MTB His-tagged SirR demonstrated a 25 kDa protein (by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting) that exists as a dimer (native PAGE). Based on electrophoretic mobility shift assay, MTB SirR bound a cis element located at -85 bp upstream of its operon. As Rv2787-sirR operon is unique only to MTB (and M. bovis), further studies on its regulation and other functions of the encoded proteins should provide leads towards the discovery of novel anti-TB drugs. PMID:24974654

  7. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Drosophila Stress Induced DNase

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Chang-Soo; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Tang, Xiaolei; Anchondo, Brenda; Magallanes, Diego; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster flies mount an impressive immune response to a variety of pathogens with an efficient system comprised of both humoral and cellular responses. The fat body is the main producer of the anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) with anti-pathogen activity. During bacterial infection, an array of secreted peptidases, proteases and other enzymes are involved in the dissolution of debris generated by pathogen clearance. Although pathogen destruction should result in the release a large amount of nucleic acids, the mechanisms for its removal are still not known. In this report, we present the characterization of a nuclease gene that is induced not only by bacterial infection but also by oxidative stress. Expression of the identified protein has revealed that it encodes a potent nuclease that has been named Stress Induced DNase (SID). SID belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved cation-dependent nucleases that degrade both single and double-stranded nucleic acids. Down-regulation of sid expression via RNA interference leads to significant reduction of fly viability after bacterial infection and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that SID protects flies from the toxic effects of excess DNA/RNA released by pathogen destruction and from oxidative damage. PMID:25083901

  8. Cloning, expression, and preliminary structural characterization of RTN-1C

    SciTech Connect

    Fazi, Barbara; Melino, Sonia; Sano, Federica Di; Cicero, Daniel O.; Piacentini, Mauro . E-mail: mauro.piacentini@uniroma2.it; Paci, Maurizio

    2006-04-14

    Reticulons (RTNs) are endoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins widely distributed in plants, yeast, and animals. They are characterized by unique N-terminal parts and a common 200 amino acid C-terminal domain containing two long hydrophobic sequences. Despite their implication in many cellular processes, their molecular structure and function are still largely unknown. In this study, the reticulon family member RTN-1C has been expressed and purified in Escherichia coli and its molecular structure has been analysed by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy in different detergents in order to obtain a good solubility and a relative stability. The isotopically enriched protein has been also produced to perform structural studies by NMR spectroscopy. The preliminary results obtained showed that RTN-1C protein possesses helical transmembrane segments when a membrane-like environment is produced by detergents. Moreover, fluorescence experiments indicated the exposure of tryptophan side chains as predicted by structure prediction programs. We also produced the isotopically labelled protein and the procedure adopted allowed us to plan future NMR studies to investigate the biochemical behaviour of reticulon-1C and of its peptides spanning out from the membrane.

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of pannexin genes in chicken.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Jun; Kim, Dong-Bin; Bae, Jae Woong; Sagong, Borum; Choi, Soo-Young; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2014-09-01

    Pannexins (Panx) are a family of proteins that share sequences with the invertebrate gap junction proteins, innexins, and have a similar structure to that of the vertebrate gap junction proteins, connexins. To date, the Panx family consists of 3 members, but their genetic sequences have only been completely determined in a few vertebrate species. Moreover, expression of the Panx family has been reported in several rodent tissues: Panx1 is ubiquitously expressed in mammals, whereas Panx2 and Panx3 expressions are more restricted. Although members of the Panx family have been detected in mammals, their genetic sequences in avian species have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we obtained the full-length mRNA sequences of chicken PANX genes and evaluated the homology of the amino acids from these sequences with those of other species. Furthermore, PANX gene expression in several chicken tissues was investigated based on mRNA levels. PANX1 was detected in the brain, cochlea, chondrocytes, eye, lung, skin, and intestine, and PANX2 was expressed in the brain, eye, and intestine. PANX3 was observed in the cochlea, chondrocytes, and bone. In addition, expression of PANX3 was higher than PANX1 in the cochlea. Immunofluorescent staining revealed PANX1 in hair cells, as well as the supporting cells, ganglion neurons, and the tegmentum vasculosum in chickens, whereas PANX3 was only detected in the bone surrounding the cochlea. Overall, the results of this study provide the first identification and characterization of the sequence and expression of the PANX family in an avian species, and fundamental data for confirmation of Panx function. PMID:25002553

  10. Chondroitin sulfate synthase-3. Molecular cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yada, Toshikazu; Sato, Takashi; Kaseyama, Hiromi; Gotoh, Masanori; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kwon, Yeon-Dae; Togayachi, Akira; Kudo, Takashi; Watanabe, Hideto; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Kimata, Koji

    2003-10-10

    Recently, it has become evident that chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosyltransferases, which transfer glucuronic acid and/or N-acetylgalactosamine residues from each UDP-sugar to the nonreducing terminus of the CS chain, form a gene family. We report here a novel human gene (GenBank trade mark accession number AB086062) that possesses a sequence homologous with the human chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1) gene, formerly known as chondroitin synthase. The full-length open reading frame consists of 882 amino acids and encodes a typical type II membrane protein. This enzyme contains a beta 3-glycosyltransferase motif and a beta 4-glycosyltransferase motif similar to that found in CSS1. Both the enzymes were expressed in COS-7 cells as soluble proteins, and their enzymatic natures were characterized. Both glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities were observed when chondroitin, CS polymer, and their corresponding oligosaccharides were used as the acceptor substrates, but no polymerization reaction was observed as in the case of CSS1. The new enzyme was thus designated chondroitin sulfate synthase-3 (CSS3). However, the specific activity of CSS3 was much lower than that of CSS1. The reaction products were shown to have a GlcUA beta 1-3GalNAc linkage and a GalNAc beta 1-4GlcUA linkage in the nonreducing terminus of chondroitin resulting from glucuronyltransferase activity and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity, respectively. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript level of CSS3 was much lower than that of CSS1, although it was ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues. These results indicate that CSS3 is a glycosyltransferase having both glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities. It may make a contribution to CS biosynthesis that differs from that of CSS1. PMID:12907687

  11. The role of 5'-adenylylsulfate reductase in the sulfur assimilation pathway of soybean: molecular cloning, kinetic characterization, and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seeds are a major source of protein, but contain low levels of sulfur-containing amino acids. With the objective of studying the sulfur assimilation pathway of soybean, a full-length cDNA clone for 5’-adenylylsulfate reductase (APS reductase) was isolated and characterized. The cDNA clone ...

  12. Cloning and characterization of polyphenol oxidase cDNAs of Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed Central

    Joy, R W; Sugiyama, M; Fukuda, H; Komamine, A

    1995-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding polyphenol oxidases were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from a log-phase suspension culture of Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) producing betalains. The clones exhibit 93 and 86% sequence identity at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid levels, respectively. Both clones contain two copper-binding domains characterized by histidine-rich regions, which are found ubiquitously in all polyphenol oxidases/tyrosinases, and a putative third histidine-rich, copper-binding region, which is common to all plant polyphenol oxidases. One of the Phytolacca cDNA deduced amino acid sequences contains the ubiquitous transit peptide for all proteins targeted to the internal lumen of thylakoid membranes of plastids and is considered to be 98 residues in length based on a proposed sequence cleavage site motif. This would produce a processed peptide of approximately 54 kD. In addition to common features of transit peptides, it was found that an additional conserved region for polyphenol oxidases was located between the hydroxy amino acid-rich region and the thylakoid transfer domain. Spatial and temporal expression was investigated by northern blot analysis of total RNA from various organs of Phytolacca plants. Transcripts of the two clones were found to be 2.1 and 2.3 kb, respectively. Both transcripts were present only at substantial levels in ripening, betalain-containing fruit. PMID:7539531

  13. Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Molecular Clone of Koala Retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Takayuki; Hoshino, Shigeki; Abe, Masumi; Yasuda, Jiro; Shogen, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus that is currently endogenizing into koalas. Studies on KoRV infection have been hampered by the lack of a replication-competent molecular clone. In this study, we constructed an infectious molecular clone, termed plasmid pKoRV522, of a KoRV isolate (strain Aki) from a koala reared in a Japanese zoo. The virus KoRV522, derived from pKoRV522, grew efficiently in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells, attaining 106 focus-forming units/ml. Several mutations in the Gag (L domain) and Env regions reported to be involved in reduction in viral infection/production in vitro are found in pKoRV522, yet KoRV522 replicated well, suggesting that any effects of these mutations are limited. Indeed, a reporter virus pseudotyped with pKoRV522 Env was found to infect human, feline, and mink cell lines efficiently. Analyses of KoRV L-domain mutants showed that an additional PPXY sequence, PPPY, in Gag plays a critical role in KoRV budding. Altogether, our results demonstrate the construction and characterization of the first infectious molecular clone of KoRV. The infectious clone reported here will be useful for elucidating the mechanism of endogenization of the virus in koalas and screening for antiretroviral drugs for KoRV-infected koalas. PMID:23427161

  14. Cloning and characterization of the aroA gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, T; Jones, C; Charles, I; Dougan, G; Young, D

    1990-01-01

    The aroA gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been cloned by complementation of an aroA mutant of Escherichia coli after lysogenization with a recombinant DNA library in the lambda gt11 vector. Detailed characterization of the M. tuberculosis aroA gene by nucleotide sequencing and by immunochemical analysis of the expressed product indicates that it encodes a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase that is structurally related to analogous enzymes from other bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. The potential use of the cloned gene in construction of genetically defined mutant strains of M. tuberculosis by gene replacement is proposed as a novel approach to the rational attenuation of mycobacterial pathogens and the possible development of new antimycobacterial vaccines. Images PMID:2123856

  15. Characterization of a TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159-ala Human Lymphoblast Clone

    SciTech Connect

    Chyall, L.: Gauny, S.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    TK6 cells are a well-characterized human B-lymphoblast cell line derived from WIL-2 cells. A derivative of the TK6 cell line that was stably transfected to express a mutated form of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL (TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159- ala clone #38) is compared with the parent cell line. Four parameters were evaluated for each cell line: growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency, and frequency of spontaneous mutation to 6‑thioguanine resistance (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase locus) or trifluorothymidine resistance (thymidine kinase locus). We conclude that the mutated Bcl-xL protein did not affect growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency or spontaneous mutation frequencies at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. Results at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus were inconclusive. A mutant fraction for TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells exposed to 150cGy of 160kVp x-rays was also calculated. Exposure to x-irradiation increased the mutant fraction of TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells.

  16. Identification and characterization of mutant clones with enhanced propagation rates from phage-displayed peptide libraries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kieu T H; Adamkiewicz, Marta A; Hebert, Lauren E; Zygiel, Emily M; Boyle, Holly R; Martone, Christina M; Meléndez-Ríos, Carola B; Noren, Karen A; Noren, Christopher J; Hall, Marilena Fitzsimons

    2014-10-01

    A target-unrelated peptide (TUP) can arise in phage display selection experiments as a result of a propagation advantage exhibited by the phage clone displaying the peptide. We previously characterized HAIYPRH, from the M13-based Ph.D.-7 phage display library, as a propagation-related TUP resulting from a G→A mutation in the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of gene II. This mutant was shown to propagate in Escherichia coli at a dramatically faster rate than phage bearing the wild-type Shine-Dalgarno sequence. We now report 27 additional fast-propagating clones displaying 24 different peptides and carrying 14 unique mutations. Most of these mutations are found either in or upstream of the gene II Shine-Dalgarno sequence, but still within the mRNA transcript of gene II. All 27 clones propagate at significantly higher rates than normal library phage, most within experimental error of wild-type M13 propagation, suggesting that mutations arise to compensate for the reduced virulence caused by the insertion of a lacZα cassette proximal to the replication origin of the phage used to construct the library. We also describe an efficient and convenient assay to diagnose propagation-related TUPS among peptide sequences selected by phage display. PMID:24952360

  17. Cloning and characterization of the beer foaming gene CFG1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2012-10-31

    Foam production is an essential characteristic of beer, generated mainly from the proteins present in the malt and, to a minor extent, from the mannoproteins in brewer's yeast cell walls. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the novel fermentation gene CFG1 (Carlsbergensis foaming gene) from Saccharomyces pastorianus. CFG1 encodes the cell wall protein Cfg1p, a 105 kDa protein highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall mannoproteins, particularly those involved in foam formation, such as Awa1p and Fpg1p. Further characterization of Cfg1p revealed that this novel protein is responsible for beer foam stabilization. This report represents the first time that a brewing yeast foaming gene has been cloned and its action fully characterized. PMID:23039128

  18. Cloning and characterization of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from the highly branched isoprenoid producing diatom Rhizosolenia setigera

    PubMed Central

    Ferriols, Victor Marco Emmanuel N.; Yaginuma, Ryoko; Adachi, Masao; Takada, Kentaro; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Okada, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The diatom Rhizosolenia setigera Brightwell produces highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) hydrocarbons that are ubiquitously present in marine environments. The hydrocarbon composition of R. setigera varies between C25 and C30 HBIs depending on the life cycle stage with regard to auxosporulation. To better understand how these hydrocarbons are biosynthesized, we characterized the farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase (FPPS) enzyme of R. setigera. An isolated 1465-bp cDNA clone contained an open reading frame spanning 1299-bp encoding a protein with 432 amino acid residues. Expression of the RsFPPS cDNA coding region in Escherichia coli produced a protein that exhibited FPPS activity in vitro. A reduction in HBI content from diatoms treated with an FPPS inhibitor, risedronate, suggested that RsFPPS supplies precursors for HBI biosynthesis. Product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry also revealed that RsFPPS produced small amounts of the cis-isomers of geranyl pyrophosphate and FPP, candidate precursors for the cis-isomers of HBIs previously characterized. Furthermore, RsFPPS gene expression at various life stages of R. setigera in relation to auxosporulation were also analyzed. Herein, we present data on the possible role of RsFPPS in HBI biosynthesis, and it is to our knowledge the first instance that an FPPS was cloned and characterized from a diatom. PMID:25996801

  19. Establishment and Characterization of Molecular Clones of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses Replicating on Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Czauderna, Frank; Fischer, Nicole; Boller, Klaus; Kurth, Reinhard; Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2000-01-01

    The use of pig xenografts is being considered to alleviate the shortage of allogeneic organs for transplantation. In addition to the problems overcoming immunological and physiological barriers, the existence of numerous porcine microorganisms poses the risk of initiating a xenozoonosis. Recently, different classes of type C porcine endogenous retoviruses (PERV) which are infectious for human cells in vitro have been partially described. We therefore examined whether completely intact proviruses exist that produce infectious and replication-competent virions. Several proviral PERV sequences were cloned and characterized. One molecular PERV class B clone, PERV-B(43), generated infectious particles after transfection into human 293 cells. A second clone, PERV-B(33), which was highly homologous to PERV-B(43), showed a G-to-A mutation in the first start codon (Met to Ile) of the env gene, preventing this provirus from replicating. However, a genetic recombinant, PERV-B(33)/ATG, carrying a restored env start codon, became infectious and could be serially passaged on 293 cells similar to virus clone PERV-B(43). PERV protein expression was detected 24 to 48 h posttransfection (p.t.) using cross-reacting antiserum, and reverse transcriptase activity was found at 12 to 14 days p.t. The transcriptional start and stop sites as well as the splice donor and splice acceptor sites of PERV mRNA were mapped, yielding a subgenomic env transcript of 3.1 kb. PERV-B(33) and PERV-B(43) differ in the number of copies of a 39-bp segment in the U3 region of the long terminal repeat. Strategies to identify and to specifically suppress or eliminate those proviruses from the pig genome might help in the production of PERV-free animals. PMID:10756014

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a calreticulin cDNA from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xundong; Zhuo, Kan; Luo, Mei; Sun, Longhua; Liao, Jinling

    2011-06-01

    The cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a calreticulin from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is described herein. The full-length cDNA (Bx-crt-1) contained a 1200 bp open reading frame that could be translated to a 399 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced protein contained highly conserved regions of a calreticulin gene and had 66.2-70.1% amino acid sequence identity to other calreticulin sequences from nematodes. RNAi, RT-PCR amplification, and southern blot suggest that Bx-crt-1 may be important for the development of B. xylophilus. PMID:21371475

  1. Angucyclines Sch 47554 and Sch 47555 from Streptomyces sp. SCC-2136: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Devi Bahdur; Oh, Tae-Jin; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Sthapit, Basundhara; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Lee, Hei Chan; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2006-10-31

    The entire gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of angucyclines Sch 47554 and Sch 47555 was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA spanning 77.5-kb revealed a total of 55 open reading frames, and the deduced products exhibited strong sequence similarities to type II polyketide synthases, deoxysugar biosynthetic enzymes, and a variety of accessory enzymes. The involvement of this gene cluster in the pathway of Sch 47554 and Sch 47555 was confirmed by genetic inactivation of the aromatase, including a portion of the ketoreductase, which was disrupted by inserting the thiostrepton gene. PMID:17085966

  2. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of carbonic anhydrase from Populus tremula x tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Larsson, S; Björkbacka, H; Forsman, C; Samuelsson, G; Olsson, O

    1997-07-01

    A leaf cDNA library from hybrid aspen, Populus tremula x tremuloides, was constructed. From this two different cDNA clones, denoted CA1a and CA1b, encoding a chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase (CA) were isolated and DNA sequenced. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the isolated CAs belong to the beta-CA family, and have identities around 70% to other dicotyledonous plant CAs. The two hybrid aspen cDNA clones display a high nucleotide sequence identity, only 12 nucleotides differ. Since only one gene copy of this soluble chloroplastic CA is present in the nuclear genome, we postulate that the two isolated cDNA clones are alleles. Northern blot hybridization revealed a CA transcript of ca. 1300 bases, 140 bases shorter than in pea. Western and northern blot hybridizations on crude protein extracts and on total RNA, respectively, isolated from stem and leaves, showed that hybrid aspen CA is expressed specifically in the leaf under the growth conditions used. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the mature hybrid aspen CA enzyme subunit has a molecular mass of 24.8 kDa. The enzyme was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization showed that the protein structure and the CO2-hydration activity are similar to the pea enzyme. Molecular characterization of a CA from a perennial plant has not previously been performed, and it demonstrates that both the structure and activity of hybrid aspen CA resembles CAs from annual plants. PMID:9247540

  3. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang; Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, essential for global food security, is threatened by the brown planthopper (BPH). The breeding of host-resistant crops is an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for pest control, but few resistance gene resources have thus far been cloned. An indica rice introgression line RBPH54, derived from wild rice Oryza rufipogon, has been identified with sustainable resistance to BPH, which is governed by recessive alleles at two loci. In this study, a map-based cloning approach was used to fine-map one resistance gene locus to a 24kb region on the short arm of chromosome 6. Through genetic analysis and transgenic experiments, BPH29, a resistance gene containing a B3 DNA-binding domain, was cloned. The tissue specificity of BPH29 is restricted to vascular tissue, the location of BPH attack. In response to BPH infestation, RBPH54 activates the salicylic acid signalling pathway and suppresses the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, similar to plant defence responses to biotrophic pathogens. The cloning and characterization of BPH29 provides insights into molecular mechanisms of plant–insect interactions and should facilitate the breeding of rice host-resistant varieties. PMID:26136269

  4. Cloning and Characterization of a Critical Regulator for Preharvest Sprouting in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shubing; Sehgal, Sunish K.; Li, Jiarui; Lin, Meng; Trick, Harold N.; Yu, Jianming; Gill, Bikram S.; Bai, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for preharvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat using comparative mapping and map-based cloning. This gene, designated TaPHS1, is a wheat homolog of a MOTHER OF FLOWERING TIME (TaMFT)-like gene. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the gene confirmed that TaPHS1 positively regulates PHS resistance. We discovered two causal mutations in TaPHS1 that jointly altered PHS resistance in wheat. One GT-to-AT mutation generates a mis-splicing site, and the other A-to-T mutation creates a premature stop codon that results in a truncated nonfunctional transcript. Association analysis of a set of wheat cultivars validated the role of the two mutations on PHS resistance. The molecular characterization of TaPHS1 is significant for expediting breeding for PHS resistance to protect grain yield and quality in wheat production. PMID:23821595

  5. Cloning and characterization of a Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 gene cluster encoding toluene-4-monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kwangmu Yen; Karl, M.R.; Blatt, L.M.; Simon, M.J.; Winter, R.B.; Fausset, P.R.; Lu, H.S.; Harcourt, A.A.; Chen, K.K. )

    1991-09-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 metabolizes toluene as a carbon source by a previously unknown pathway. The initial step of the pathway is hydroxylation of toluene to form p-cresol by a multicomponent toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) system. The authors have cloned and characterized a gene cluster from KR 1 that determines the T4MO activity. To clone the T4MO genes, KR1 DNA libraries were constructed in Escherichia coli HB 101 by using a broad-host-range vector and transferred to a KR1 mutant able to grow on p-cresol but no on toluene. An insert consisting of two SacI fragments of identical size was shown to complement the mutant for growth on toluene. One of the SacI fragments, when cloned into the E. coli vector pUC19, was found to direct the synthesis of indigo dye. The indigo-forming property was correlated with the presence of T4MO activity. The T4MO genes were mapped to a 3.6-kb region, and the direction of transcription was determined. DNA sequencing and N-terminal amino acid determination identified a five-gene cluster, tmoABCDE, within this region. Expression of this cluster carrying a single mutation in each gene demonstrated that each of the five genes is essential for T4MO activity. Other evidence presented indicated that none of the tmo genes was involved in the regulation of the tmo gene cluster, in the control of substrate transport of the T4MO system, or in major processing of the products of the tmo genes. It was tentatively concluded that the tmoABCDE genes encode structural polypeptides of the T4MO enzyme system. One of the tmo genes was tentatively identified as a ferredoxin gene.

  6. Cloning and characterization of the first GH10 and GH11 xylanases from Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhizhuang; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Lau, Peter C K

    2014-10-01

    The only available genome sequence for Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 was annotated to not encode any β-1,4-endoxylanase encoding genes of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 or 11. Here, we report the identification and cloning of two such members in R. oryzae strain NRRL 29086. Strain 29086 was one of several selected fungi grown on wheat or triticale bran and screened for xylanase activity among other hydrolytic actions. Its high activity (138 U/ml) in the culture supernatant led to the identification of two activity-stained proteins, designated Xyn-1 and Xyn-2 of respective molecular masses 32,000 and 22,000. These proteins were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. The specific activities of Xyn-1 and Xyn-2 towards birchwood xylan were 605 and 7,710 U/mg, respectively. Kinetic data showed that the lower molecular weight Xyn-2 had a higher affinity (K m=3.2 ± 0.2 g/l) towards birchwood xylan than Xyn-1 by about 4-fold. The melting temperature (T m) of the two proteins, estimated to be in the range of 49.5-53.7 °C indicated that they are rather thermostable proteins. N-terminal and internal peptide sequences were obtained by chemical digestion of the purified xylanases to facilitate cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, and sequencing of the respective gene. The cloned Rhizopus xylanases were used to demonstrate release of xylose from flax shives-derived hemicellulose as model feedstock. Overall, this study expands the catalytic toolbox of GH10 and 11 family proteins that have applications in various industrial and bioproducts settings. PMID:24760228

  7. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the rat Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fei; Li, Min; Cheng, Sai-Yu; Wen, Liang; Liu, Ming-Hua; Shuai, Jie

    2014-08-15

    Pax6 functions as a pleiotropic regulator in eye development and neurogenesis. Its splice variant Pax6 5a has been cloned in many vertebrate species including human and mouse, but never in rat. This study focused on the cloning and characterization of the Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant in rat. It was cloned from Sprague-Dawley rats 10 days post coitum (E10) by RT-PCR and was sequenced for comparison with Pax6 sequences in the GenBank by BLAST. The rat Pax6 5a was revealed to contain an additional 42 bp insertion at the paired domain. At the nucleotide level, the rat Pax6 5a coding sequence (1,311 bp) had a higher degree of homology to the mouse (96% identical) than to the human (93% identical) sequence. At the amino acid (aa) level, rat PAX6 5a shares 99.8% identity with the mouse sequence and 99.5% with the human sequence. The splice variant is preferentially expressed in the rat E10 embryonic headfolds and not in the trunk of neurula. Its effects on the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT assay. Both pLEGFP-Pax6 5a-transfected cells and pLEGFP-Pax6-transfected cells exhibited a similar growth curve (P>0.05), suggesting that the Pax6 5a has a similar effect on the proliferation of rMSCs as Pax6. PMID:24952136

  8. Cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution of prolactin receptor in the sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Santos, C R; Ingleton, P M; Cavaco, J E; Kelly, P A; Edery, M; Power, D M

    2001-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) was cloned and its tissue distribution characterized in adults of the protandrous hermaphrodite marine teleost, the sea bream (Sparus aurata). An homologous cDNA probe for sea bream PRLR (sbPRLR) was obtained by RT-PCR using gill mRNA. This probe was used to screen intestine and kidney cDNA libraries from which two overlapping clones (1100 and 2425 bp, respectively) were obtained. These clones had 100% sequence identity in the overlapping region (893 bp) and were used to deduce the complete amino acid sequence of sbPRLR. The receptor spans 2640 bp and encodes a protein of 537 amino acids. Features characteristic of PRLR, two pairs of cysteines, WS box, hydrophobic transmembrane domain, box 1, and box 2, were identified and showed a high degree of sequence identity to PRLRs from other vertebrate species. SbPRLR is 29 and 32% identical to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) PRLRs, respectively. In the sea bream two PRLR transcripts of 2.8 and 3.2 kb were detected in the intestine, kidney, and gills and a single transcript of 2.8 kb was detected in skin and pituitary by Northern blot. Spermiating gonads (more than 95% male tissue; gonado-somatic index of 0.6) contained, in addition to the 2.8-kb transcript, three more transcripts of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.1 kb. RT-PCR, which is a far more sensitive method than Northern blot, detected PRLR mRNA in gills, intestine, brain, pituitary, kidney, liver, gonads, spleen, head-kidney, heart, muscle, and bone. Immunohistochemistry using specific polyclonal antibodies raised against an oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of sbPRLR detected PRLR in several epithelial tissues of juvenile sea bream, including the anterior gut, renal tubule, choroid membrane of the third ventricle, saccus vasculosus, branchial chloride cells, and branchial cartilage. PMID:11161768

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the full-length Hsp90 gene from Matricaria recutita.

    PubMed

    Ling, S P; Su, S S; Zhang, H M; Zhang, X S; Liu, X Y; Pan, G F; Yuan, Y

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is one of the most abundant and conserved chaperone proteins and plays important roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. However, little is known regarding the sequence and function of Hsp90s in Matricaria recutita. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of the hsp90 gene from this species. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technologies with 2 degenerate primers that were designed based on the hsp90 gene sequence from other members of Asteraceae, we isolated and characterized an Hsp90 homolog gene from M. recutita (Mr-Hsp90). The full-length Mr-hsp90 cDNA sequence, containing 2097 base pairs, encodes a protein of 698 amino acids. Based on amino acid sequence identity, Mr-Hsp90 showed high similarity to other cloned Hsp90 proteins. The Mr-Hsp90 protein was closely clustered with the Lactuca sativa in a phylogenetic tree. These results indicate that the cloned sequence of Mr-Hsp90 is a member of the Hsp90 family, which is reported for the first time in M. recutita. Next, we conducted a salt stress experiment to determine the protein's function under salt stress conditions. Survival of chamomile seedlings subjected to heat-shock pretreatment was significantly increased compared with groups that had not undergone heat-shock pretreatment in a salt stress environment. This indicates that Mr-Hsp90 plays an important role in the salt resistance of chamomile seedlings. PMID:25526220

  10. The cloning and characterization of a second brain enzyme with NAAG peptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Bzdega, Tomasz; Crowe, Samantha L; Ramadan, Epolia R; Sciarretta, Kathryn H; Olszewski, Rafal T; Ojeifo, Olumide A; Rafalski, Victoria A; Wroblewska, Barbara; Neale, Joseph H

    2004-05-01

    The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate is inactivated by extracellular peptidase activity following synaptic release. It is speculated that the enzyme, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII, EC 3.14.17.21), participates in this inactivation. However, CGCPII knockout mice appear normal in standard neurological tests. We report here the cloning and characterization of a mouse enzyme (tentatively identified as glutamate carboxypeptidase III or GCPIII) that is homologous to an enzyme identified in a human lung carcinoma. The mouse peptidase was cloned from two non-overlapping EST clones and mouse brain cDNA using PCR. The sequence (GenBank, AY243507) is 85% identical to the human carcinoma enzyme and 70% homologous to mouse GCPII. GCPIII sequence analysis suggests that it too is a zinc metallopeptidase. Northern blots revealed message in mouse ovary, testes and lung, but not brain. Mouse cortical and cerebellar neurons in culture expressed GCPIII message in contrast to the glial specific expression of GCPII. Message levels of GCPIII were similar in brains obtained from wild-type mice and mice that are null mutants for GCPII. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat GCPII or mouse GCPIII expressed membrane bound peptidase activity with similar V(max) and K(m) values (1.4 micro m and 54 pmol/min/mg; 3.5 micro m and 71 pmol/min/mg, respectively). Both enzymes are activated by a similar profile of metal ions and their activities are blocked by EDTA. GCPIII message was detected in brain and spinal cord by RT-PCR with highest levels in the cerebellum and hippocampus. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that nervous system cells express at least two differentially distributed homologous enzymes with similar pharmacological properties and affinity for NAAG. PMID:15086519

  11. Cloning and first functional characterization of a plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Q.; Mercier, R.W.; Yao, W.; Berkowitz, G.A.

    1999-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (cng) non-selective cation channels have been cloned from a number of animal systems. These channels are characterized by direct gating upon cAMO or cGMO binding to the intracellular portion of the channel protein, which leads to an increase in channel conductance. Animal cng channels are involved in signal transduction systems; they translate stimulus-induced changes in cytosolic cyclic nucleotide into altered cell membrane potential and/or cation flux as part of a signal cascade pathway. Putative plant homologs of animal cng channels have been identified. However, functional characterization (i.e., demonstration of cyclic-nucleotide-dependent ion currents) of a plant cng channel has not yet been accomplished. The authors report the cloning and first functional characterization of a plant member of this family of ion channels. The Arabidopsis cDNA AtCNGC2 encodes a polypeptide with deduced homology to the {alpha}-subunit of animal channels, and facilitates cyclic nucleotide-dependent cation currents upon expression in a number of heterologous systems. AtCNGC2 expression in a yeast mutant lacking a low-affinity K{sup +} uptake system complements growth inhibition only when lipophilic nucleotides are present in the culture medium. Voltage clamp analysis indicates that Xenopus lawvis oocytes injected with AtCNGC2 cRNA demonstrate cyclic-nucleotide-dependent, inward-rectifying K{sup +} currents. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) transfected with AtCNGC2 cDNA demonstrate increased permeability to Ca{sup 2+} only in the presence of lipophilic cyclic nucleotides. The evidence presented here supports the functional classification of AtCNGC2 as a cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel, and presents the first direct evidence identifying a plant member of this ion channel family.

  12. Characterization and Comparison of 2 Distinct Epidemic Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones of ST59 Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Unger, Clemens; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Lindsay, Jodi A.; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Götz, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Taiwanese CA-MRSA isolates belong to ST59 and can be grouped into 2 distinct clones, a virulent Taiwan clone and a commensal Asian-Pacific clone. The Taiwan clone carries the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes and the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) VT, and is frequently isolated from patients with severe disease. The Asian-Pacific clone is PVL-negative, carries SCCmec IV, and a frequent colonizer of healthy children. Isolates of both clones were characterized by their ability to adhere to respiratory A549 cells, cytotoxicity to human neutrophils, and nasal colonization of a murine and murine sepsis models. Genome variation was determined by polymerase chain reaction of selected virulence factors and by multi-strain whole genome microarray. Additionally, the expression of selected factors was compared between the 2 clones. The Taiwan clone showed a much higher cytotoxicity to the human neutrophils and caused more severe septic infections with a high mortality rate in the murine model. The clones were indistinguishable in their adhesion to A549 cells and persistence of murine nasal colonization. The microarray data revealed that the Taiwan clone had lost the ø3-prophage that integrates into the β-hemolysin gene and includes staphylokinase- and enterotoxin P-encoding genes, but had retained the genes for human immune evasion, scn and chps. Production of the virulence factors did not differ significantly in the 2 clonal groups, although more α-toxin was expressed in Taiwan clone isolates from pneumonia patients. In conclusion, the Taiwan CA-MRSA clone was distinguished by enhanced virulence in both humans and an animal infection model. The evolutionary acquisition of PVL, the higher expression of α-toxin, and possibly the loss of a large portion of the β-hemolysin-converting prophage likely contribute to

  13. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a K{sub m} value of 13.9 μM and 13.4 μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a K{sub m} value of 103 μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. - Highlights: • A new Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. • rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver. • rtOatp1d1 displays multi-specific transport of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. • rtOatp1d1 is a homologue of the OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. • rtOatp1d1 is a microcystin (MC) transporter.

  14. Human T-cell clones with reactivity to Mycobacterium leprae as tools for the characterization of potential vaccines against leprosy.

    PubMed Central

    Emmrich, F; Kaufmann, S H

    1986-01-01

    T-cell clones with the T4 phenotype were established from patients with tuberculoid leprosy. The antigen reactivity of these clones ranged from stringent specificity for Mycobacterium leprae to broad cross-reactivity with other mycobacteria. Killed M. leprae had a weak stimulatory capacity which could be enhanced by ultrasonication. Among the three candidate antileprosy vaccines, M. leprae, M. bovis BCG, and the ICRC (Indian Cancer Research Center) strain, the last was superior in stimulating cross-reactive T4 clones. This finding argues for a differential masking of similar or identical membrane antigens in various mycobacterial species. T-cell clones with defined reactivity patterns for mycobacterial antigens could be helpful tools for the characterization of an antileprosy vaccine. PMID:3081446

  15. Characterization of four human YAC libraries for clone size, chimerism and X chromosome sequence representation.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, R; Kere, J; MacMillan, S; Masisi, M J; Johnson, D; Molini, B J; Halley, G R; Wein, K; Trusgnich, M; Eble, B

    1994-01-01

    Four collections of human X-specific YACs, derived from human cells containing supernumerary X chromosomes or from somatic cell hybrids containing only X human DNA were characterized. In each collection, 80-85% of YAC strains contained a single X YAC. Five thousand YACs from the various libraries were sized, and cocloning was assessed in subsets by the fraction of YAC insert-ends with non-X sequences. Cocloning was substantial, ranging up to 50% for different collections; and in agreement with previous indications, in all libraries the larger the YACs, the higher the level of cocloning. In libraries made from human-hamster hybrid cells, expected numbers of clones were recovered by STS-based screening; but unexpectedly, the two collections from cells with 4 or 5 X chromosomes yielded numbers of YACs corresponding to an apparent content of only about two X equivalents. Thus it is possible that the DNA of inactive X chromosomes is poorly cloned into YACs, speculatively perhaps because of its specialized chromatin structure. Images PMID:8078777

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. PMID:23058847

  17. Cloning and characterization of an immunoglobulin A Fc receptor from cattle.

    PubMed

    Morton, H Craig; Pleass, Richard J; Storset, Anne K; Dissen, Erik; Williams, John L; Brandtzaeg, Per; Woof, Jenny M

    2004-02-01

    Here, we describe the cloning, sequencing and characterization of an immunoglobulin A (IgA) Fc receptor from cattle (bFcalphaR). By screening a translated EST database with the protein sequence of the human IgA Fc receptor (CD89) we identified a putative bovine homologue. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification confirmed that the identified full-length cDNA was expressed in bovine cells. COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cloned cDNA bound to beads coated with either bovine or human IgA, but not to beads coated with bovine IgG2 or human IgG. The bFcalphaR cDNA is 873 nucleotides long and is predicted to encode a 269 amino-acid transmembrane glycoprotein composed of two immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail devoid of known signalling motifs. Genetically, bFcalphaR is more closely related to CD89, bFcgamma2R, NKp46, and the KIR and LILR gene families than to other FcRs. Moreover, the bFcalphaR gene maps to the bovine leucocyte receptor complex on chromosome 18. Identification of the bFcalphaR will aid in the understanding of IgA-FcalphaR interactions, and may facilitate the isolation of FcalphaR from other species. PMID:15027906

  18. Cloning, characterization, localization, and mutational screening of the human BARX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Gould, D B; Walter, M A

    2000-09-15

    The Bar subclass of homeodomain proteins was first identified for its role in Drosophila eye development. The Bar subclass homolog, Barx1, has since been cloned in mouse and in chick. The expression of Barx1 in developing teeth and craniofacial mesenchyme of neural crest origin makes it a strong candidate for the related human disorders of Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome (ARS) and iridogoniodysgenesis syndrome (IGDS). Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human Bar class gene, human BARX1. Screening of a human fetal craniofacial library resulted in the isolation of a 1.6-kb full-length transcript. Sequence analysis indicated that human BARX1, mouse Barx1, and chick Barx1 show 100% identity at the amino acid level within their homeodomains. Human BARX1 is expressed in a number of tissues including testis and heart by Northern analysis and in iris and craniofacial tissues by PCR of cDNA libraries. BARX1 chromosomal localization to 9q12 was determined by radiation hybrid mapping. Intron/exon boundaries were established, and primers were generated to PCR amplify all four exons. A mutation screen was conducted in 55 patients affected with ARS, IGDS, or related ocular malformations. While six sequence polymorphisms were detected, no disease-causing mutations of BARX1 were observed. PMID:10995576

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of copper amine oxidase from Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jieyin; Morita, Hiroyuki; Chen, Guoshen; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-09-15

    A cDNA encoding a novel copper amine oxidase (CAO) was cloned and sequenced from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata (Huperziaceae), which produces the Lycopodium alkaloid huperzine A. A 2043-bp open reading frame encoded an Mr 76,854 protein with 681 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 44-56% identity with the known CAOs of plant origin, and contained the active site consensus sequence of Asn-Tyr-Asp/Glu. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that HsCAO from the primitive vascular plant H. serrata is closely related to Physcomitrella patens subsp CAO. The recombinant enzyme, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the oxidative deamination of aliphatic and aromatic amines. Among them, the enzyme accepted cadaverine as the best substrate to catalyze the oxidative deamination to Δ(1)-piperideine, which is the precursor of the Lycopodium alkaloids. Furthermore, a homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies predicted the active site architecture, which suggested the crucial active site residues for the observed substrate preference. This is the first report of the cloning and characterization of a CAO enzyme from the primitive Lycopodium plant. PMID:22901898

  20. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of FGF5 in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Bao, W L; Yao, R Y; He, Q; Guo, Z X; Bao, C; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z G

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein that belongs to the FGF family, and was found to be associated with hair growth in humans and other animals. The Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) is a goat breed that provides superior cashmere; this breed was formed by spontaneous mutation in China. Here, we report the cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of the Cashmere goat FGF5. The cloned FGF5 cDNA was 813 base pairs (KM596772), including an open reading frame encoding a 270-amino-acid polypeptide. The nucleotide sequence shared 99% homology with Ovis aries FGF5 (NM_001246263.1). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that FGF5 contained a signal peptide, an FGF domain, and a heparin-binding growth factor/FGF family signature. There was 1 cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, 11 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 4 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 1 amidation site, 1 N-glycosylation site, and 1 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site in FGF5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that FGF5 mRNA levels were higher in testis than in the pancreas and liver. These data suggest that FGF5 may play a crucial role in Cashmere goat hair growth. PMID:26400346

  1. Quantitative and qualitative characterization of expanded CD4+ T cell clones in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Kazuyoshi; Shoda, Hirofumi; Kochi, Yuta; Yasui, Tetsuro; Kadono, Yuho; Tanaka, Sakae; Fujio, Keishi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune destructive arthritis associated with CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity. Although expanded CD4+ T cell clones (ECs) has already been confirmed, the detailed characteristics of ECs have not been elucidated in RA. Using combination of a single-cell analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in TCR repertoire analysis, we here revealed the detailed nature of ECs by examining peripheral blood (PB) from 5 RA patients and synovium from 1 RA patient. When we intensively investigated the single-cell transcriptome of the most expanded clones in memory CD4+ T cells (memory-mECs) in RA-PB, senescence-related transcripts were up-regulated, indicating circulating ECs were constantly stimulated. Tracking of the transcriptome shift within the same memory-mECs between PB and the synovium revealed the augmentations in senescence-related gene expression and the up-regulation of synovium-homing chemokine receptors in the synovium. Our in-depth characterization of ECs in RA successfully demonstrated the presence of the specific immunological selection pressure, which determines the phenotype of ECs. Moreover, transcriptome tracking added novel aspects to the underlying sequential immune processes. Our approach may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of RA. PMID:26245356

  2. Cloning and characterization of Pseudomonas sp. strain DNT genes for 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation.

    PubMed

    Suen, W C; Spain, J C

    1993-03-01

    The degradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) by Pseudomonas sp. strain DNT is initiated by a dioxygenase attack to yield 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC) and nitrite. Subsequent oxidation of MNC by a monooxygenase results in the removal of the second molecule of nitrite, and further enzymatic reactions lead to ring fission. Initial studies on the molecular basis of DNT degradation in this strain revealed the presence of three plasmids. Mitomycin-derived mutants deficient in either DNT dioxygenase only or DNT dioxygenase and MNC monooxygenase were isolated. Plasmid profiles of mutant strains suggested that the mutations resulted from deletions in the largest plasmid. Total plasmid DNA partially digested by EcoRI was cloned into a broad-host-range cosmid vector, pCP13. Recombinant clones containing genes encoding DNT dioxygenase, MNC monooxygenase, and 2,4,5-trihydroxytoluene oxygenase were characterized by identification of reaction products and the ability to complement mutants. Subcloning analysis suggests that the DNT dioxygenase is a multicomponent enzyme system and that the genes for the DNT pathway are organized in at least three different operons. PMID:8449889

  3. Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of Echovirus 25.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wangheng; Yang, Lisheng; Li, Shuxuan; Yu, Hai; Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Chen, Mengyuan; He, Shuizhen; Ye, Xiangzhong; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-07-01

    Echovirus 25 (E-25) is a member of the enterovirus family and a common pathogen that induces hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), meningitis, skin rash, and respiratory illnesses. In this study, we constructed and characterized an infectious full-length E-25 cDNA clone derived from the XM0297 strain, which was the first subgenotype D6 strain isolated in Xiamen, China. The 5'-Untranslated Regions (5'-UTR), P3 (3A-3B, 3D) and P3 (3C) regions of this E-25 (XM0297) strain were highly similar to EV-B77, E-16 and E-13, respectively. Our data demonstrate that the rescued E-25 viruses exhibited similar growth kinetics to the prototype virus strain XM0297. We observed the rescued viral particles using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and found them to possess an icosahedral structure, with a diameter of approximately 30 nm. The cross neutralization test demonstrated that the E-25 (XM0297) strain immune serum could not neutralize EV-A71, CV-A16 or CV-B3; likewise, the EV-A71 and CV-A16 immune serum could not neutralize E-25 (XM0297). The availability of this infectious clone will greatly enhance future virological investigations and possible vaccine development against E-25. PMID:26004198

  4. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  5. Cloning, sequencing, expression and characterization of DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y F; Sancar, A

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned the phr gene that encodes DNA photolyase from Salmonella typhimurium by in vivo complementation of Escherichia coli phr gene defect. The S.typhimurium phr gene is 1419 base pairs long and the deduced amino acid sequence has 80% identity with that of E. coli photolyase. We expressed the S.typhimurium phr gene in E.coli by ligating the E.coli trc promoter 5' to the gene, and purified the enzyme to near homogeneity. The apparent molecular weight of S.typhimurium photolyase is 54,000 dalton as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which is consistent with the calculated molecular weight of 53,932 dalton from the deduced phr gene product. S.typhimurium photolyase is purple-blue in color with near UV-visible absorption peaks at 384, 480, 580, and 625 nm and a fluorescence peak at 470 nm. From the characteristic absorption and fluorescence spectra and reconstitution experiments, S.typhimurium photolyase appears to contain flavin and methenyltetrahydrofolate as chromophore-cofactors as do the E.coli and yeast photolyases. Thus, S.typhimurium protein is the third folate class photolyase to be cloned and characterized to date. The binding constant of S.typhimurium photolyase to thymine dimer in DNA is kD = 1.6 x 10(-9) M, and the quantum yield of photorepair at 384 nm is 0.5. Images PMID:1840665

  6. Characterization of an infectious molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, T M; Robinson, M A; Bowers, F S; Kindt, T J

    1995-01-01

    An infectious molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was derived from an HTLV-I-transformed rabbit T-cell line, RH/K30, obtained by coculture of rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with the human HTLV-I-transformed cell line MT-2. The RH/K30 cell line contained two integrated proviruses, an intact HTLV-I genome and an apparently defective provirus with an in-frame stop codon in the env gene. A genomic DNA fragment containing the intact HTLV-I provirus was cloned into bacteriophage lambda (K30 phi) and subcloned into a plasmid vector (K30p). HTLV-I p24gag protein was detected in culture supernatants of human and rabbit T-cell and fibroblast lines transfected with these clones, at levels comparable to those of the parental cell line RH/K30. Persistent expression of virus was observed in one of these lines, RL-5/K30p, for more than 24 months. Biologic characterization of this cell line revealed the presence of integrated HTLV-I provirus, spliced and unspliced mRNA transcripts, and typical extracellular type C retrovirus particles. As expected, these virus particles contained HTLV-I RNA and reverse transcriptase activity. The transfected cells also expressed surface major histocompatibility complex class II, whereas no expression of this molecule was detected in the parental RL-5 cell line. Virus was passaged by cocultivation of irradiated RL-5/K30p cells with either rabbit PBMC or human cord blood mononuclear cells, demonstrating in vitro infectivity. The virus produced in these cells was also infectious in vivo, since rabbits injected with RL-5/K30p cells became productively infected, as evidenced by seroconversion, amplification of HTLV-I-specific sequences by PCR from PBMC DNA, and virus isolation from PBMC. Availability of infectious molecular clones will facilitate functional studies of HTLV-I genes and gene products. PMID:7884847

  7. Cloning, expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of a shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    SciTech Connect

    Schoepe, Jan Niefind, Karsten; Chatterjee, Shivani; Schomburg, Dietmar

    2006-07-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a shikimate dehydrogenase from C. glutamicum is presented. The shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum has been cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector, overexpressed and purified. Native crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique using 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the centred monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.77, b = 63.17, c = 35.67 Å, β = 92.26° (at 100 K), and diffract to 1.64 Å on a synchrotron X-ray source. The asymmetric unit is likely to contain one molecule, corresponding to a packing density of 2.08 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of about 41%.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of human papilloma virus DNA derived from a laryngeal papilloma.

    PubMed Central

    Gissmann, L; Diehl, V; Schultz-Coulon, H J; zur Hausen, H

    1982-01-01

    Papilloma virus DNA from a laryngeal papilloma was cloned in phage lambda L 47 and characterized after cleavage with different restriction enzymes. Hybridization with the DNAs of human papilloma virus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 showed no homology under stringent hybridization conditions. Human papilloma virus type 6 DNA, however, was partially identical to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA; different restriction enzyme fragments hybridizing with the other DNA were identified on each genome. The degree of homology was determined by reassociation kinetics to be 25%. According to the present nomenclature, laryngeal papilloma virus therefore represents a different type of human papilloma virus and is tentatively designated as human papilloma virus type 11. Sequences homologous to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA were also found in four of nine additional laryngeal papillomas. Attempt to detect homologous DNA in 12 carcinomas of the larynx were negative. Images PMID:6292500

  9. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaoi, T.; Laksanalamai, P.; Jiemjit, A.; Kagawa, H. K.; Alton, T.; Trent, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  11. Cloning, expression and characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Longbao; Cui, Wenjing; Fang, Yueqin; Liu, Yi; Gao, Xinxing; Zhou, Zhemin

    2013-05-01

    The industrial-scale production of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) mainly uses strains of Rhodotorula. However, the PAL gene from Rhodotorula has not been cloned. Here, the full-length gene of PAL from Rhodotorula glutinis was isolated. It was 2,121 bp, encoding a polypeptide with 706 amino acids and a calculated MW of 75.5 kDa. Though R. glutinis is an anamorph of Rhodosporium toruloides, the amino acid sequences of PALs them are not the same (about 74 % identity). PAL was expressed in E. coli and characterized. Its specific activity was 4.2 U mg(-1) and the k cat/K m was 1.9 × 10(4) mM(-1) s(-1), exhibiting the highest catalytic ability among the reported PALs. The genetic and biochemical information reported here should facilitate future application in industry. PMID:23338700

  12. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, T; Laksanalamai, P; Jiemjit, A; Kagawa, H K; Alton, T; Trent, J D

    2000-09-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. PMID:10973825

  13. TWRS privatization support project waste characterization resource dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-09-01

    A single estimate of waste characteristics for each underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site is not available. The information that is available was developed for specific programmatic objectives and varies in format and level of descriptive detail, depending on the intended application. This dictionary reflects an attempt to define what waste characterization information is available. It shows the relationship between the identified resource and the original data source and the inter-relationships among the resources; it also provides a brief description of each resource. Developed as a general dictionary for waste characterization information, this document is intended to make the user aware of potenially useful resources.

  14. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrains fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologs OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a Km value of 13.9 μM and 13.4 μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a Km value of 103 μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. PMID:25218291

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of genistein 4'-O-glucoside specific glycosyltransferase from Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Ruby; Santosh Kumar, R J; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Singh, Somesh; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-07-01

    Health related benefits of isoflavones such as genistein are well known. Glycosylation of genistein yields different glycosides like genistein 7-O-glycoside (genistin) and genistein 4'-O-glycoside (sophoricoside). This is the first report on isolation, cloning and functional characterization of a glycosyltransferase specific for genistein 4'-O-glucoside from Bacopa monniera, an important Indian medicinal herb. The glycosyltransferase from B. monniera (UGT74W1) showed 49% identity at amino acid level with the glycosyltransferases from Lycium barbarum. The UGT74W1 sequence contained all the conserved motifs present in plant glycosyltransferases. UGT74W1 was cloned in pET-30b (+) expression vector and transformed into E. coli. The molecular mass of over expressed protein was found to be around 52 kDa. Functional characterization of the enzyme was performed using different substrates. Product analysis was done using LC-MS and HPLC, which confirmed its specificity for genistein 4'-O-glucoside. Immuno-localization studies of the UGT74W1 showed its localization in the vascular bundle. Spatio-temporal expression studies under normal and stressed conditions were also performed. The control B. monniera plant showed maximum expression of UGT74W1 in leaves followed by roots and stem. Salicylic acid treatment causes almost tenfold increase in UGT74W1 expression in roots, while leaves and stem showed decrease in expression. Since salicylic acid is generated at the time of injury or wound caused by pathogens, this increase in UGT74W1 expression under salicylic acid stress might point towards its role in defense mechanism. PMID:24664316

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772bp containing a 2115bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a Km value of 13.9μM and 13.4μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a Km value of 103μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. PMID:25218291

  17. Development of novel SCAR markers for genetic characterization of Lonicera japonica from high GC-RAMP-PCR and DNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Li, J; Qiu, Y M; Wei, C L; Yang, L Q; Fu, J J

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were further developed from high-GC primer RAMP-PCR-amplified fragments from Lonicera japonica DNA by molecular cloning. The four DNA fragments from three high-GC primers (FY-27, FY-28, and FY-29) were successfully cloned into a pGM-T vector. The positive clones were sequenced; their names, sizes, and GenBank numbers were JYHGC1-1, 345 bp, KJ620024; YJHGC2-1, 388 bp, KJ620025; JYHGC7-2, 1036 bp, KJ620026; and JYHGC6-2, 715 bp, KJ620027, respectively. Four novel SCAR markers were developed by designing specific primers, optimizing conditions, and PCR validation. The developed SCAR markers were used for the genetic authentication of L. japonica from its substitutes. This technique provides another means of developing DNA markers for the characterization and authentication of various organisms including medicinal plants and their substitutes. PMID:27173286

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Candida tsukubaensis alpha-glucosidase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, B T; Larkin, A; Bolton, M; Cantwell, B A

    1991-07-01

    The molecular cloning of an alpha-glucosidase gene isolated from a Candida tsukubaensis (CBS 6389) genomic library in Saccharomyces cervisiae is reported. The cloned gene is contained within a 6.2 kb Sau3A DNA fragment and directs the synthesis and secretion of an amylolytic enzyme into the extracellular medium of the recombinant host, S. cerevisiae. The cloned enzyme was found to have an unusually broad substrate specificity and is capable of hydrolysing alpha-1,2, alpha-1,3, alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 linked, as well as aryl and alkyl, D-glucosides. On the basis of its substrate specificity profile, the cloned enzyme was classified as an alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20). It has a pH optimum in the range 4.2-4.6, a temperature optimum of 58 degrees C and is readily inactivated at pasteurization temperature (60 degrees C). Southern blot analysis failed to reveal any homology between the cloned gene and genomic DNA isolated from other well characterized amylolytic yeasts. A rapid plate-assay, based on the utilization of a chromogenic substrate X-alpha-D-glucoside to detect the expression of the cloned alpha-glucosidase in S. cerevisiae transformants, was developed. PMID:1934116

  19. Molecular cloning with a pMEA300-derived shuttle vector and characterization of the Amycolatopsis methanolica prephenate dehydratase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Vrijbloed, J W; van Hylckama Vlieg, J; van der Put, N M; Hessels, G I; Dijkhuizen, L

    1995-01-01

    An efficient restriction barrier for methylated DNA in the actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica could be avoided by using a nonmethylating Escherichia coli strain for DNA isolations. The A. methanolica prephenate dehydratase gene was cloned from a gene bank in a pMEA300-derived shuttle vector in E. coli and characterized. PMID:7592448

  20. Cloning and functional characterization of the rabbit C-C chemokine receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Deshun; Yuan, Xiu-juan; Evans, Robert J; Pappas, Amy T; Wang, He; Su, Eric W; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Venkataraman, Chandrasekar

    2005-01-01

    Background CC-family chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is implicated in the trafficking of blood-borne monocytes to sites of inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. The major challenge in the development of small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists is the lack of cross-species activity to the receptor in the preclinical species. Rabbit models have been widely used to study the role of various inflammatory molecules in the development of inflammatory processes. Therefore, in this study, we report the cloning and characterization of rabbit CCR2. Data regarding the activity of the CCR2 antagonist will provide valuable tools to perform toxicology and efficacy studies in the rabbit model. Results Sequence alignment indicated that rabbit CCR2 shares 80 % identity to human CCR2b. Tissue distribution indicated that rabbit CCR2 is abundantly expressed in spleen and lung. Recombinant rabbit CCR2 expressed as stable transfectants in U-937 cells binds radiolabeled 125I-mouse JE (murine MCP-1) with a calculated Kd of 0.1 nM. In competition binding assays, binding of radiolabeled mouse JE to rabbit CCR2 is differentially competed by human MCP-1, -2, -3 and -4, but not by RANTES, MIP-1α or MIP-1β. U-937/rabbit CCR2 stable transfectants undergo chemotaxis in response to both human MCP-1 and mouse JE with potencies comparable to those reported for human CCR2b. Finally, TAK-779, a dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist effectively inhibits the binding of 125I-mouse JE (IC50 = 2.3 nM) to rabbit CCR2 and effectively blocks CCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Conclusion In this study, we report the cloning of rabbit CCR2 and demonstrate that this receptor is a functional chemotactic receptor for MCP-1. PMID:16001983

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a 20q13.2 amplicon in breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.; Froula, J.; Kowbel, D.

    1994-09-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has identified an amplification event involving chromosome band 20q13.2 in 15-20% of primary breast carcinomas. The application of FISH to the study of tumor interphase nuclei using 33 locus specific cosmid and P1 probes revealed amplification of band 20q13.2 in 35% of breast cancer cell lines and 8% of primary tumors. Moreover, this study localized the amplification event to the 1.5Mb interval defined by (Flpter 0.80-0.84.) and excluded all known genes in the region as candidates for the putative oncogene(s). To both identify the putative oncogene(s) and characterize the amplicon, a 12 member 4Mb YAC contig has been assembled by STS mapping that spans the core of the amplicon. The YAC contig is now being converted to a P1 contig to facilitate sequencing, exon trapping and direct selection of cDNAs. This is being accomplished by performing interAlu PCR reactions on individual YACs and sequencing the reaction products to create 5-10 new STSs per megaYAC. The DuPont P1 library is then screened for these STSs by the PCR. To date 21 P1 clones, forming 6 contigs, have been isolated by screening the DuPont P1 library for existing and/or newly created STSs. The ends of the 21 P1 clones are being sequenced to facilitate contig alignment and to enable chromosome walking. In collaboration with the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory we have initiated the directed sequencing of two P1 contigs, localized within the amplicon core, and ultimately will sequence the entire 1-2Mb amplicon.

  2. Cloning and molecular characterization of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomere length analysis of Peromyscus leucopus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Alaks, Glen; Desierto, Marie J; Townsley, Danielle M.; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Chen, Jichun; Lacy, Robert C.; Young, Neal S.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase complex that regulates telomerase activity to maintain telomere length for all animals with linear chromosomes. As the Mus musculus (MM) laboratory mouse has very long telomeres compared to humans, a potential alternative animal model for telomere research is the Peromyscus leucopus (PL) mouse that has telomere lengths close to the human range and has the wild counterparts for comparison. We report the full TERT coding sequence (pTERT) from PL mice to use in the telomere research. Comparative analysis with eight other mammalian TERTs revealed a pTERT protein considerably homologous to other TERTs and preserved all TERT specific-sequence signatures, yet with some distinctive features. pTERT displayed the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with hamster TERT. Unlike human but similar to MM mice, pTERT expression was detected in various adult somatic tissues of PL mice, with the highest expression in testes. Four different captive stocks of PL mice and wild-captured PL mice each displayed group-specific average telomere lengths, with the longest and shortest telomeres in inbred and outbred stock mice, respectively. pTERT showed considerable numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations. A pTERT proximal promoter region cloned was homologous among PL and MM mice and rat, but with species-specific features. From PL mice, we further cloned and characterized ribosomal protein, large, P0 (pRPLP0) to use as an internal control for various assays. Peromyscus mice have been extensively used for various studies, including human diseases, for which pTERT and pRPLP0 would be useful tools. PMID:25962353

  3. Cloning and characterization of HsfA2 from Lily (Lilium longiflorum).

    PubMed

    Xin, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Li; Li, Xiaoxin; Lian, Qinglong; Yuan, Xue; Hu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Li; He, Xiuli; Yi, Mingfang

    2010-08-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are the terminal components of the signal transduction chain mediating the activation of genes responsive to both heat stress and a large number of chemical stressors. This paper aims to clone Hsf from lily and characterize its function by analyses of mRNA expression, transactivation activity and thermotolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. In this study, the gene encoding HsfA2 with 1,053 bp open reading frame (ORF) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique from Lilium longiflorum 'White heaven'. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that the deduced protein was a novel member of the Hsf class A2. Expression analyses by RT-PCR indicated that LlHsfA2 expression was induced by heat shock and H(2)O(2) treatment, but not by NaCl. It was also found that the expression of LlHsfA2 correlated with thermotolerance in Lilium longiflorum 'White heaven' and Oriental hybrid 'Acapulco' under heat stress. Furthermore, yeast one-hybrid assay showed that LlHsfA2 had transactivation activity. In addition, overexpression of LlHsfA2 activated the downstream genes including Hsp101, Hsp70, Hsp25.3 and Apx2 and enhanced the thermotolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Taken together, our data suggest that LlHsfA2 is a novel and functional HsfA2, involved in heat signaling pathway in lily and useful for improvement of thermotolerance in transgenic plants. PMID:20499070

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of beta-expansin gene related to root hair formation in barley.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

    2006-07-01

    Root hairs are specialized epidermal cells that play a role in the uptake of water and nutrients from the rhizosphere and serve as a site of interaction with soil microorganisms. The process of root hair formation is well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); however, there is a very little information about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair development in monocots. Here, we report on isolation and cloning of the beta-expansin (EXPB) gene HvEXPB1, tightly related to root hair initiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using root transcriptome differentiation in the wild-type/root-hairless mutant system, a cDNA fragment present in roots of wild-type plants only was identified. After cloning of full-length cDNA and genomic sequences flanking the identified fragment, the subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed homology of the protein coded by the identified gene to the EXPB family. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that expression of HvEXPB1 cosegregated with the root hair phenotype in F2 progeny of the cross between the hairless mutant rhl1.a and the wild-type Karat parent variety. Expression of the HvEXPB1 gene was root specific; it was expressed in roots of wild-type forms, but not in coleoptiles, leaves, tillers, and spikes. The identified gene was active in roots of two other analyzed root hair mutants: rhp1.a developing root hair primordia only and rhs1.a with very short root hairs. Contrary to this, a complete lack of HvEXPB1 expression was observed in roots of the spontaneous root-hairless mutant bald root barley. All these observations suggest a role of the HvEXPB1 gene in the process of root hair formation in barley. PMID:16679418

  5. Cloning and Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean Native Goat 40

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Chan; Kang, Seung Ha; Choi, Eun Young; Hong, Yeon Hee; Bok, Jin Duck; Kim, Jae Yeong; Lee, Sang Suk; Choi, Yun Jaie; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2016-01-01

    A gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean native goat (KNG) 40 that encodes an endo-β-1,4-glucanase, EG1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α. Recombinant plasmid DNA from a positive clone with a 3.2 kb insert hydrolyzing carboxyl methyl-cellulose (CMC) was designated as pDS3. The entire nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open-reading frame (ORF) was deduced. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 684 amino acids. The recombinant EG1 produced in E. coli DH5α harboring pDS3 was purified in one step using affinity chromatography on crystalline cellulose and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/zymogram analysis of the purified enzyme revealed two protein bands of 57.1 and 54.1 kDa. The amino terminal sequences of these two bands matched those of the deduced ones, starting from residue 166 and 208, respectively. Putative signal sequences, a Shine–Dalgarno-type ribosomal binding site, and promoter sequences related to the consensus sequences were deduced. EG1 has a typical tripartite structure of cellulase, a catalytic domain, a serine-rich linker region, and a cellulose-binding domain. The optimal temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme was 55°C, but it retained over 90% of maximum activity in a broad temperature range (40°C to 60°C). The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of rEG1 were 0.39% CMC and 143 U/mg, respectively. PMID:26732336

  6. Cloning and molecular characterization of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomere length analysis of Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Alaks, Glen; Desierto, Marie J; Townsley, Danielle M; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Chen, Jichun; Lacy, Robert C; Young, Neal S

    2015-08-15

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase complex that regulates telomerase activity to maintain telomere length for all animals with linear chromosomes. As the Mus musculus (MM) laboratory mouse has very long telomeres compared to humans, a potential alternative animal model for telomere research is the Peromyscus leucopus (PL) mouse that has telomere lengths close to the human range and has the wild counterparts for comparison. We report the full TERT coding sequence (pTERT) from PL mice to use in the telomere research. Comparative analysis with eight other mammalian TERTs revealed a pTERT protein considerably homologous to other TERTs and preserved all TERT specific-sequence signatures, yet with some distinctive features. pTERT displayed the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with hamster TERT. Unlike human but similar to MM mice, pTERT expression was detected in various adult somatic tissues of PL mice, with the highest expression in testes. Four different captive stocks of PL mice and wild-captured PL mice each displayed group-specific average telomere lengths, with the longest and shortest telomeres in inbred and outbred stock mice, respectively. pTERT showed considerable numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations. A pTERT proximal promoter region cloned was homologous among PL and MM mice and rat, but with species-specific features. From PL mice, we further cloned and characterized ribosomal protein, large, P0 (pRPLP0) to use as an internal control for various assays. Peromyscus mice have been extensively used for various studies, including human diseases, for which pTERT and pRPLP0 would be useful tools. PMID:25962353

  7. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of a 200-Kilodalton Diagnostic Antigen of Babesia bigemina†

    PubMed Central

    Tebele, N.; Skilton, R. A.; Katende, J.; Wells, C. W.; Nene, V.; McElwain, T.; Morzaria, S. P.; Musoke, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Current serological tests for Babesia bigemina use semipurified merozoite antigens derived from infected erythrocytes. One of the major drawbacks of these tests is that antigen quality can vary from batch to batch. Since the quality of the antigen contributes to the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests, the use of standardized recombinant antigens should ensure consistency in assay quality. Previously, a 200-kDa merozoite antigen (p200) was identified as a candidate diagnostic antigen for use in a serological assay for the detection of B. bigemina antibodies in infected cattle. In this study, we have cloned, characterized, and expressed p200. A 3.5-kbp cDNA clone encoding p200 was isolated and shown to be almost full length, lacking approximately 300 bp at the 5′ end. The predicted amino acid sequence shows that p200 consists of a long, highly charged central repeat region of an uninterrupted α helix, indicative of a fibrous protein. Immunoelectron microscopy localized p200 to the merozoite cytoplasm, suggesting that the antigen may be a structural protein involved in forming filament structures within the cytoskeleton. The 3.5-kbp cDNA was expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), but the yield was poor. To improve the yield, cDNA fragments encoding antigenic domains of p200 were expressed as fusions with GST. One of these fusion proteins, C1A-GST, is composed of a 7-kDa fragment of the p200 repeat region and contains epitopes that react strongly with sera from cattle experimentally infected with B. bigemina. Recombinant C1A-GST should permit the development of an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against B. bigemina. PMID:10834983

  8. Cloning and Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean Native Goat 40.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Chan; Kang, Seung Ha; Choi, Eun Young; Hong, Yeon Hee; Bok, Jin Duck; Kim, Jae Yeong; Lee, Sang Suk; Choi, Yun Jaie; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2016-01-01

    A gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean native goat (KNG) 40 that encodes an endo-β-1,4-glucanase, EG1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α. Recombinant plasmid DNA from a positive clone with a 3.2 kb insert hydrolyzing carboxyl methyl-cellulose (CMC) was designated as pDS3. The entire nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open-reading frame (ORF) was deduced. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 684 amino acids. The recombinant EG1 produced in E. coli DH5α harboring pDS3 was purified in one step using affinity chromatography on crystalline cellulose and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/zymogram analysis of the purified enzyme revealed two protein bands of 57.1 and 54.1 kDa. The amino terminal sequences of these two bands matched those of the deduced ones, starting from residue 166 and 208, respectively. Putative signal sequences, a Shine-Dalgarno-type ribosomal binding site, and promoter sequences related to the consensus sequences were deduced. EG1 has a typical tripartite structure of cellulase, a catalytic domain, a serine-rich linker region, and a cellulose-binding domain. The optimal temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme was 55°C, but it retained over 90% of maximum activity in a broad temperature range (40°C to 60°C). The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of rEG1 were 0.39% CMC and 143 U/mg, respectively. PMID:26732336

  9. A Novel Hyaluronidase from Brown Spider (Loxosceles intermedia) Venom (Dietrich's Hyaluronidase): From Cloning to Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; de Mari, Thiago Lopes; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Trevisan Silva, Dilza; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni; Gremski, Waldemiro; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-01-01

    Loxoscelism is the designation given to clinical symptoms evoked by Loxosceles spider's bites. Clinical manifestations include skin necrosis with gravitational spreading and systemic disturbs. The venom contains several enzymatic toxins. Herein, we describe the cloning, expression, refolding and biological evaluation of a novel brown spider protein characterized as a hyaluronidase. Employing a venom gland cDNA library, we cloned a hyaluronidase (1200 bp cDNA) that encodes for a signal peptide and a mature protein. Amino acid alignment revealed a structural relationship with members of hyaluronidase family, such as scorpion and snake species. Recombinant hyaluronidase was expressed as N-terminal His-tag fusion protein (∼45 kDa) in inclusion bodies and activity was achieved using refolding. Immunoblot analysis showed that antibodies that recognize the recombinant protein cross-reacted with hyaluronidase from whole venom as well as an anti-venom serum reacted with recombinant protein. Recombinant hyaluronidase was able to degrade purified hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), while dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS) were not affected. Zymograph experiments resulted in ∼45 kDa lytic zones in hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) substrates. Through in vivo experiments of dermonecrosis using rabbit skin, the recombinant hyaluronidase was shown to increase the dermonecrotic effect produced by recombinant dermonecrotic toxin from L. intermedia venom (LiRecDT1). These data support the hypothesis that hyaluronidase is a “spreading factor”. Recombinant hyaluronidase provides a useful tool for biotechnological ends. We propose the name Dietrich's Hyaluronidase for this enzyme, in honor of Professor Carl Peter von Dietrich, who dedicated his life to studying proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23658852

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel cathelicidin-derived myeloid antimicrobial peptide from Phasianus colchicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; Lu, Zekuan; Feng, Feifei; Zhu, Wei; Guang, Huijuan; Liu, Jingze; He, Weiyu; Chi, Lianli; Li, Zheng; Yu, Haining

    2011-03-01

    Cathelicidins were initially characterized as a family of antimicrobial peptides. Now it is clear that they fulfill several immune functions in addition to their antimicrobial activity. In the current work, three cDNA sequences encoding pheasant cathelicidins were cloned from a constructed bone marrow cDNA library of Phasianus colchicus, using a nested-PCR-based cloning strategy. The three deduced mature antimicrobial peptides, Pc-CATH1, 2 and 3 are composed of 26, 32, and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. Unlike the mammalian cathelicidins that are highly divergent even within the same genus, Pc-CATHs are remarkably conserved with chicken fowlicidins with only a few of residues mutated according to the phylogenetic analysis result. Synthetic Pc-CATH1 exerted strong antimicrobial activity against most of bacteria and fungi tested, including the clinically isolated (IS) drug-resistant strains. Most MIC values against Gram-positive bacteria were in the range of 0.09-2.95 μM in the presence of 100mM NaCl. Pc-CATH1 displayed a negligible hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes, lysing 3.6% of erythrocytes at 3.15 μM (10 μg/ml), significantly higher than the corresponding MIC. Pc-CATH1 was stable in the human serum for up to 72 h, revealing its extraordinary serum stability. These specific features of Pc-CATH1 may make its applications much wider given the potency and breadth of the peptide's bacteriocidal capacity and its resistance towards serum and high-salt environments. PMID:20955730

  11. Lunar science measurements and instruments for resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.

    1992-12-31

    Resource characterization is a requirement for effective production of any product from planetary materials, whether that product is to be used locally or exported. The characterization required is not necessarily costly or extensive; for example, our current knowledge of lunar regolith is probably sufficient for it to be used immediately for shielding purposes. However, other products from regolith (e.g., oxygen and solar-wind gases) will require more thorough and particularly site-specific resource characterization before actual production commences. If global maps of the Moon are obtained by some combination of gamma ray, reflectance, X-ray fluorescence, and/or imaging methods, the task of targeting resource sites will be considerably improved. Once these sites are selected, however, they must be characterized on the ground. The product of this characterization should be useable maps that will maximize the product output and minimize wasted energy and effort.

  12. Lunar science measurements and instruments for resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.

    1992-01-01

    Resource characterization is a requirement for effective production of any product from planetary materials, whether that product is to be used locally or exported. The characterization required is not necessarily costly or extensive; for example, our current knowledge of lunar regolith is probably sufficient for it to be used immediately for shielding purposes. However, other products from regolith (e.g., oxygen and solar-wind gases) will require more thorough and particularly site-specific resource characterization before actual production commences. If global maps of the Moon are obtained by some combination of gamma ray, reflectance, X-ray fluorescence, and/or imaging methods, the task of targeting resource sites will be considerably improved. Once these sites are selected, however, they must be characterized on the ground. The product of this characterization should be useable maps that will maximize the product output and minimize wasted energy and effort.

  13. Cloning, expression, and characterization of the Lactococcus lactis pfl gene, encoding pyruvate formate-lyase.

    PubMed Central

    Arnau, J; Jørgensen, F; Madsen, S M; Vrang, A; Israelsen, H

    1997-01-01

    The Lactococcus lactis pfl gene, encoding pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL), has been cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of the L. lactis PFL. protein showed high similarity to those of other bacterial PFL proteins and included the conserved glycine residue involved in posttranslational activation of PFL. The genetic organization of the chromosomal pfl region in L. lactis showed differences from other characterized pfl loci, with an upstream open reading frame independently transcribed in the same orientation as the pfl gene. The gene coding for PFL-activase (act), normally found downstream of pfl, was not identified in L. lactis. Analysis of pfl expression showed a strong induction under anaerobiosis at the transcriptional level independent of the growth medium used. During growth with galactose, pfl showed the highest levels of expression. Constructed L. lactis pfl strains were unable to produce formate under anaerobic growth. Higher levels of diacetyl and acetoin were produced anaerobically in the constructed Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis pfl strain. PMID:9294449

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Two Bistructural S-Layer-RTX Proteins from Campylobacter rectus

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Martin; Kuhnert, Peter; Nicolet, Jacques; Burnens, André P.; Frey, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter rectus is an important periodontal pathogen in humans. A surface-layer (S-layer) protein and a cytotoxic activity have been characterized and are thought to be its major virulence factors. The cytotoxic activity was suggested to be due to a pore-forming protein toxin belonging to the RTX (repeats in the structural toxins) family. In the present work, two closely related genes, csxA and csxB (for C. rectus S-layer and RTX protein) were cloned from C. rectus and characterized. The Csx proteins appear to be bifunctional and possess two structurally different domains. The N-terminal part shows similarity with S-layer protein, especially SapA and SapB of C. fetus and Crs of C. rectus. The C-terminal part comprising most of CsxA and CsxB is a domain with 48 and 59 glycine-rich canonical nonapeptide repeats, respectively, arranged in three blocks. Purified recombinant Csx peptides bind Ca2+. These are characteristic traits of RTX toxin proteins. The S-layer and RTX domains of Csx are separated by a proline-rich stretch of 48 amino acids. All C. rectus isolates studied contained copies of either the csxA or csxB gene or both; csx genes were absent from all other Campylobacter and Helicobacter species examined. Serum of a patient with acute gingivitis showed a strong reaction to recombinant Csx protein on immunoblots. PMID:10198015

  15. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PS35 lipase

    PubMed Central

    Kanmani, Palanisamy; Kumaresan, Kuppamuthu; Aravind, Jeyaseelan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lipases are enzymes of immense industrial relevance, and, therefore, are being intensely investigated. In an attempt to characterize lipases at molecular level from novel sources, a lipase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PS35 was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α cells and sequenced. It showed up to 98% homology with other lipase sequences in the NCBI database. The recombinant enzyme was then purified from E. coli culture, resulting in a 19.41-fold purification with 9.7% yield. It displayed a preference for long-chain para-nitrophenyl esters, a characteristic that is typical of true lipases. Its optimum pH and temperature were determined to be 8.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The half-lives were 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 h at 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C, respectively. The metal ions K+ and Fe3+ enhanced the enzyme activity. The enzyme displayed substantial residual activity in the presence of various tested chemical modifiers, and interestingly, the organic solvents, such as n-hexane and toluene, also favored the enzyme activity. Thus, this study involves characterization of B. amyloliquefaciens lipase at molecular level. The key outcomes are novelty of the bacterial source and purification of the enzyme with desirable properties for industrial applications. PMID:26691486

  16. Molecular Cloning, Overexpression and Characterization of a Novel Water Channel Protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Erbakan, Mustafa; Shen, Yue-xiao; Grzelakowski, Mariusz; Butler, Peter J.; Kumar, Manish; Curtis, Wayne R.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins are highly selective water channel proteins integrated into plasma membranes of single cell organisms; plant roots and stromae; eye lenses, renal and red blood cells in vertebrates. To date, only a few microbial aquaporins have been characterized and their physiological importance is not well understood. Here we report on the cloning, expression and characterization of a novel aquaporin, RsAqpZ, from a purple photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 17023. The protein was expressed homologously at a high yield (∼20 mg/L culture) under anaerobic photoheterotrophic growth conditions. Stopped-flow light scattering experiments demonstrated its high water permeability (0.17±0.05 cm/s) and low energy of activation for water transport (2.93±0.60 kcal/mol) in reconstituted proteoliposomes at a protein to lipid ratio (w/w) of 0.04. We developed a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy based technique and utilized a fluorescent protein fusion of RsAqpZ, to estimate the single channel water permeability of RsAqpZ as 1.24 (±0.41) x 10−12 cm3/s or 4.17 (±1.38)×1010 H2O molecules/s, which is among the highest single channel permeability reported for aquaporins. Towards application to water purification technologies, we also demonstrated functional incorporation of RsAqpZ in amphiphilic block copolymer membranes. PMID:24497982

  17. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a cellobiose dehydrogenase from Thielavia terrestris induced under cellulose growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Langston, James A; Brown, Kimberly; Xu, Feng; Borch, Kim; Garner, Ashley; Sweeney, Matt D

    2012-06-01

    The enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is of considerable interest, not only for its biotechnological applications, but also its potential biological role in lignocellulosic biomass breakdown. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of cellobiose and other cellodextrins, utilizing a variety of one- and two-electron acceptors, although the electron acceptor employed in nature is still unknown. In this study we show that a CDH is present in the secretome of the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris when grown with cellulose, along with a mixture of cellulases and hemicellulases capable of breaking down lignocellulosic biomass. We report the cloning of this T. terrestris CDH gene (cbdA), its recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, and purification and characterization of the T. terrestris CDH protein (TtCDH). The TtCDH shows spectral properties and enzyme activity similar to other characterized CDH enzymes. Substrate specificity was determined for a number of carbohydrate electron donors in the presence of the two-electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. The TtCDH also shows dramatic synergy with Thermoascus aurantiacus glycoside hydrolase family 61A protein in the presence of a β-glucosidase for the cleavage of cellulose. PMID:22484439

  18. A Novel Cold-Adapted Lipase from Sorangium cellulosum Strain So0157-2: Gene Cloning, Expression, and Enzymatic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Qian, Yun-Kai; Li, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Hong; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Genome sequencing of cellulolytic myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum reveals many open-reading frames (ORFs) encoding various degradation enzymes with low sequence similarity to those reported, but none of them has been characterized. In this paper, a predicted lipase gene (lipA) was cloned from S. cellulosum strain So0157-2 and characterized. lipA is 981-bp in size, encoding a polypeptide of 326 amino acids that contains the pentapeptide (GHSMG) and catalytic triad residues (Ser114, Asp250 and His284). Searching in the GenBank database shows that the LipA protein has only the 30% maximal identity to a human monoglyceride lipase. The novel lipA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the recombinant protein (r-LipA) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The enzyme hydrolyzed the p-nitrophenyl (pNP) esters of short or medium chain fatty acids (≤C10), and the maximal activity was on pNP acetate. The r- LipA is a cold-adapted lipase, with high enzymatic activity in a wide range of temperature and pH values. At 4 °C and 30 °C, the Km values of r-LipA on pNP acetate are 0.037 ± 0.001 and 0.174 ± 0.006 mM, respectively. Higher pH and temperature conditions promoted hydrolytic activity toward the pNP esters with longer chain fatty acids. Remarkably, this lipase retained much of its activity in the presence of commercial detergents and organic solvents. The results suggest that the r-LipA protein has some new characteristics potentially promising for industrial applications and S. cellulosum is an intriguing resource for lipase screening. PMID:22072918

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of the Lymantria dispar initiator caspase dronc.

    PubMed

    Kitaguchi, Koji; Hamajima, Rina; Yamada, Hayato; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Ikeda, Motoko

    2013-06-28

    Ld652Y cells from the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, are extremely sensitive to various apoptotic stimuli, whereas BM-N cells from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are relatively resistant to apoptotic stimuli. We previously cloned and characterized a B. mori homologue (bm-dronc) of Drosophila melanogaster dronc. In the present study, we cloned and characterized an L. dispar homologue of dronc (ld-dronc) comparatively with Bm-Dronc. The open reading frame of ld-dronc consisted of 1329bp that was predicted to encode a 443 amino-acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 50,706Da and 54-57% amino acid sequence identity with Dronc homologues from other lepidopteran insects identified to date. Ld-Dronc had a long prodomain, large p20 domain, and small p10 domain, and a catalytic site composed of (308)QTCRG(312), which was distinct from the sites QACRG in Bm-Dronc and QMCRG in Dronc homologues of several other lepidopteran insects. Transiently expressed Ld-Dronc underwent proteolytic processing in the lepidopteran cell lines L. dispar Ld652Y, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9, and B. mori BM-N, and dipteran D. melanogaster S2, but only triggered apoptosis in the lepidopteran cell lines. Endogenous Ld-Dronc underwent processing in Ld652Y cells upon infection with vAcΔp35, but not in mock-infected Ld652Y cells, supporting the involvement of Ld-Dronc in apoptosis induction. In vAcΔp35-infected apoptotic cells, Ld-Dronc underwent proteolytic processing more rapidly and extensively than Bm-Dronc. Similar results were obtained for Ld-Dronc and Bm-Dronc expressed transiently in S2, Ld652Y, Sf9, and BM-N cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the intrinsic properties of Dronc proteinsare responsible, at least in part, for the differing sensitivity of Ld652Y and BM-N to apoptosis induction upon NPV infection. PMID:23743202

  20. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, J L; Ross, D; McPherson, J; Williams, H; Kurnit, D; Nussbaum, A L; Karathanasis, S K; Zannis, V I

    1982-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Twenty putative apo A-I cDNA clones were selected by screening 10,000 clones of an adult human liver cDNA library with an oligonucleotide probe. The probe was a mixture of synthetic 14-base-long DNA oligomers constructed to correspond to the codons for apo A-I amino acids 105-109. Four of these clones were examined further and showed 600- to 800-base-pair (bp) inserts. Preliminary restriction mapping and partial DNA sequence analysis indicated that the shorter inserts were a subset of the longer DNA inserts. DNA sequence analysis of the clone with an insert of approximately equal to 600 bp, designated pAI-113, revealed that it contained a DNA sequence corresponding to apo A-I amino acids 94-243. The DNA base sequence of this clone also contained a standard termination codon, polyadenylylation signal, and poly(A) tail. Partial DNA sequence of a second clone that contained an 800-bp insert, designated pAI-107, showed that it corresponded to apo A-I amino acids 18-243 and also included the 3' untranslated region. Isolation of these cDNA clones will facilitate molecular analyses of apolipoproteins in normal and disease states. PMID:6294659

  2. Characterization and pharmacological properties of in vitro propagated clones of Echinacea tennesseensis (Beadle) small

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue culture techniques have been used to establish and maintain a repository of medicinal Echinacea. In vitro clones obtained from hypocotyls of germinated seeds, varied macroscopically, microscopically and exhibited variation in immune enhancing activity. Two in vitro produced clones of Echinace...

  3. Characterization of an Unusual Cytoplasmic Chimera Detected in Bolting Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a visible flower stalk or bolting has been used as a major trait to categorize garlic clones. Analysis of mitochondrial genome variation with PCR revealed differences between bolting and non-bolting clones of garlic. Screening 333 garlic accessions from diverse geographic origins rev...

  4. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Goda, Hatsumi M; Ushigusa, Kota; Ito, Hiromi; Okino, Nozomu; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Ito, Makoto

    2008-10-31

    We report here the molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a novel endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, classified into the GH101 family, from Enterococcus faecalis (endo-EF). The recombinant endo-EF was found to catalyze the liberation of core1-disaccharides (Galbeta1-3GalNAc) from core1-pNP (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha-pNP) like other GH101 family enzymes. However, endo-EF seems to differ in specificity from the GH101 enzymes reported to date, because it was able to release trisaccharides from core2-pNP (Galbeta1-3[GlcNAcbeta1-6]GalNAcalpha-pNP) and tetrasaccharides from Gal-core2-pNP (Galbeta1-3[Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-6]GalNAcalpha-pNP). Interestingly, the enzyme could transfer not only core1-disaccharides but also core2-trisaccharides to alkanols generating alkyl-oligosaccharides. Endo-EF should facilitate O-glycoprotein research. PMID:18725192

  5. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel thermophilic polygalacturonase from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Sun, Dejun; Zhou, Yulai; Liu, Liping; Han, Weiwei; Zheng, Baisong; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zuoming

    2014-01-01

    We cloned the gene ACM61449 from anaerobic, thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, and expressed it in Escherichia coli origami (DE3). After purification through thermal treatment and Ni-NTA agarose column extraction, we characterized the properties of the recombinant protein (CbPelA). The optimal temperature and pH of the protein were 72 °C and 5.2, respectively. CbPelA demonstrated high thermal-stability, with a half-life of 14 h at 70 °C. CbPelA also showed very high activity for polygalacturonic acid (PGA), and released monogalacturonic acid as its sole product. The Vmax and Km of CbPelA were 384.6 U·mg⁻¹ and 0.31 mg·mL⁻¹, respectively. CbPelA was also able to hydrolyze methylated pectin (48% and 10% relative activity on 20%-34% and 85% methylated pectin, respectively). The high thermo-activity and methylated pectin hydrolization activity of CbPelA suggest that it has potential applications in the food and textile industry. PMID:24705464

  6. Cloning and characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene in Gracilaria/Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xueying; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2006-04-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays important roles in various cellular processes. A cytosolic GAPDH encoding gene ( gpd) of Gracilaria/Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis was cloned and characterized. Deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme of G. lemaneiformis had high homology with those of seven red algae. The 5'-untranslated regions of the GAPDHs encoding genes of these red algae varied greatly. GAPDHs of these red algae shared the highly conserved glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase active site ASCTTNCL. However, such active site of Cyanidium caldarium was different from those of the other six algae at the last two residues (CL to LF), thus the spatial structure of its GAPDH active center may be different from those of the other six. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GAPDH of G. lemaneiformis might have undergone an evolution similar to those of Porphyra yezoensis, Chondrus crispus, and Gracilaria verrucosa. C. caldarium had a closer evolutionary relationship with Cyanidioschyzon merolae than with Cyanidium sp. Virtual Northern blot analysis revealed that gpd of G. lemaneiformis expressed constitutively, which suggested that it might be house-keeping and could be adapted as an inner control in gene expression analysis of G. lemaneiformis.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the nicotianamine synthase gene in Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa.

    PubMed

    Huang, B L; Cheng, C; Zhang, G Y; Su, J J; Zhi, Y; Xu, S S; Cai, D T; Zhang, X K; Huang, B Q

    2015-01-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a ubiquitous metabolite in plants that bind heavy metals, is crucial for metal homeostasis, and is also an important metal chelator that facilitates long-distance metal transport and sequestration. NA synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nicotianamine synthase (NAS). Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa is highly tolerant to Ni, Pb, and Zn. In this study, a gene encoding EvNAS was cloned and characterized in E. vesicaria subsp sativa. The full-length EvNAS cDNA sequence contained a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 155-bp 3'-UTR, and a 966-bp open reading frame encoding 322-amino acid residues. The EvNAS genomic sequence contained no introns, which is similar to previously reported NAS genes. The deduced translation of EvNAS contained a well-conserved NAS domain (1-279 amino acids) and an LIKI-CGEAEG box identical to some Brassica NAS and to the LIRL-box in most plant NAS, which is essential for DNA binding. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EvNAS was most closely related to Brassica rapa NAS3 within the Cruciferae, followed by Thlaspi NAS1, Camelina NAS3, and Arabidopsis NAS3. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that EvNAS expression was greatest in the leaves, followed by the flower buds and hypocotyls. EvNAS was moderately expressed in the roots. PMID:26782459

  8. Enolase from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii Vittad.: biochemical characterization, molecular cloning, and localization.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Emanuela; Saltarelli, Roberta; Ceccaroli, Paola; Buffalini, Michele; Pierleoni, Raffaella; Palma, Francesco; Bonfante, Paola; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2004-02-01

    Enolase from Tuber borchii mycelium was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity using an anion-exchange and a gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore, the corresponding gene (eno-1) was cloned and characterized. The purified enzyme showed a higher affinity for 2-PGA (0.26 mM) with respect to PEP; the stability and activity of enolase were dependent of the divalent cation Mg2+. T. borchii eno-1 has an ORF of 1323 bp coding for a putative protein of 440 amino acids and Southern blotting analysis revealed that the gene is present as a single copy in T. borchii. The enzymatic activity and the mRNA expression level evaluated in mycelia grown either in different carbon sources, in pyruvate or during starvation were the same in all the conditions tested, while biochemical and Northern blotting analyses performed with mycelia at different days of growth showed T. borchii eno-1 regulation in response to the growth phase. Finally, Western blotting analysis demonstrated that enolase is localized only in the cytosolic fraction confirming its important role in glycolysis. PMID:14732262

  9. Cloning, expression and characterization of a eukaryotic cycloalkanone monooxygenase from Cylindrocarpon radicicola ATCC 11011.

    PubMed

    Leipold, Friedemann; Wardenga, Rainer; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we have cloned and characterized a cycloalkanone monooxygenase (CAMO) from the ascomycete Cylindrocarpon radicicola ATCC 11011 (identical to Cylindrocarpon destructans DSM 837). The primary structure of this Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BMVO) revealed 531 residues with around 45% sequence identity to known cyclohexanone monooxygenases. The enzyme was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli and investigated with respect to substrate spectrum and kinetic parameters. Substrate specificity studies revealed that a large variety of cycloaliphatic and bicycloaliphatic ketones are converted by this CAMO. A high catalytic efficiency against cyclobutanone was observed and seems to be a particular property of this BVMO. The thus produced butyrolactone derivatives are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of natural products and bioactive compounds. Furthermore, the enzyme revealed activity against open-chain ketones such as cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl methyl ketone which have not been reported to be accepted by typical cyclohexanone monooxygenases. These results suggest that the BVMO from C. radicicola indeed might be rather unique and since no BVMOs originating from eukaryotic organisms have been produced recombinantly so far, this study provides the first example for such an enzyme. PMID:22075635

  10. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yanmin; Wang, Yingdian; Capell, Teresa; Shi, Lianxuan; Ni, Xiuzhen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73) and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1) gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity. PMID:26030746

  11. Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of sanglifehrin A, a potent cyclophilin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xudong; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Fei; Shao, Lei; Tang, Gongli; Wilkinson, Barrie; Liu, Wen

    2011-03-01

    Sanglifehrin A (SFA), a potent cyclophilin inhibitor produced by Streptomyces flaveolus DSM 9954, bears a unique [5.5] spirolactam moiety conjugated with a 22-membered, highly functionalized macrolide through a linear carbon chain. SFA displays a diverse range of biological activities and offers significant therapeutic potential. However, the structural complexity of SFA poses a tremendous challenge for new analogue development via chemical synthesis. Based on a rational prediction of its biosynthetic origin, herein we report the cloning, sequencing and characterization of the gene cluster responsible for SFA biosynthesis. Analysis of the 92 776 bp contiguous DNA region reveals a mixed polyketide synthase (PKS)/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathway which includes a variety of unique features for unusual PKS and NRPS building block formation. Our findings suggest that SFA biosynthesis requires a crotonyl-CoA reductase/carboxylase (CCR) for generation of the putative unusual PKS starter unit (2R)-2-ethylmalonamyl-CoA, an iterative type I PKS for the putative atypical extender unit (2S)-2-(2-oxo-butyl)malonyl-CoA and a phenylalanine hydroxylase for the NRPS extender unit (2S)-m-tyrosine. A spontaneous ketalization of significant note, may trigger spirolactam formation in a stereo-selective manner. This study provides a framework for the application of combinatorial biosynthesis methods in order to expand the structural diversity of SFA. PMID:21416665

  12. Cloning and characterization of calreticulin and its association with salinity stress in P. trituberculatus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jianjian; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Dening; Gao, Baoquan; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein and plays important roles in salinity stress response. Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important fishery species, and water salinity conditions influence its commercial farming significantly. In order to research the function of calreticulin under salinity stress, the full-length cDNA sequence of calreticulin from P. trituberculatus (PtCRT) was firstly cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence of PtCRT is 1676 bp with 1218 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 405 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the deduced acid amino sequences of PtCRT shared the highest homology to CRT of Fenneropenaeus chinensis (89%). Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that PtCRT was expressed in all detected tissues and showed the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. In addition, salinity challenge significantly influenced the expression level of PtCRT in gill. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in cDNA sequence of PtCRT, and one SNP was associated with the salt tolerant trait. All results indicated that PtCRT plays an important role in mediating the salinity adaption of P. trituberculatus. PMID:25995067

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression studies of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, S; Khan, M A; Wilson, D B; Akhtar, M W

    2007-02-01

    Cloning, high-level expression, and characterization of the somatotropin (ST) gene of an indigenous Nili-Ravi breed of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (BbST) are described. Coding, non-coding, and promoter regions of BbST were amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed several silent and two interesting point mutations on comparison with STs of other vertebrate species. One interesting variation in the BbST sequence was the replacement of a conserved glutamine residue by arginine. A plasmid was also constructed for the production of BbST in Escherichia coli BL21 (RIPL) CodonPlus, under the control of IPTG-inducible T7-lac promoter. High-level expression could be obtained by synthesizing a codon-optimized ST gene and expressing it in the form of inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies represented over 20% of the E. coli cellular proteins. The biologically active conformation of purified BbST was confirmed by its efficient growth promoting activity in Nb2 cell proliferation assay. The expression system and purification strategy employed promise to be a useful approach to produce BbST for further use in structure-function studies and livestock industry. PMID:17367293

  14. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of the stress kinase YeaG from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tagourti, Jihen; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Richarme, Gilbert

    2008-05-01

    We cloned, overexpressed and purified the Escherichia coli yeaG gene product, whose amino acid sequence displays homology to prokaryotic serine protein kinases. The gene coding for YeaG was generated by amplifying the yeaG gene from E. coli by polymerase chain reaction. It was inserted into the expression plasmid pET-21a, under the transcriptional control of the bacteriophage T7 promoter and lac operator. A BL21(DE3) E. coli strain transformed with the YeaG-expression vector pET-21a-yeaG accumulates large amounts of a soluble protein with a molecular mass of 76kDa in SDS-PAGE, which matches the expected YeaG molecular weight of 74.5kDa. YeaG, although soluble, has a marked tendency to aggregate in the absence of detergents, so that it was purified in the presence of 0.1% Triton X-100, by ion exchange chromatography and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The purified protein is monomeric and displays autokinase and casein kinase activities which are optimal in the presence of 10mM Mn(2+). The purification of the active protein kinase YeaG described in this study should allow us to characterize its biochemical target(s) in E. coli extracts. PMID:18276156

  15. Cloning and characterization of the actin gene from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qiong; Chang, Qing; Zhuang, Hua; Huang, Li-Li; Kang, Zhen-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust, is an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete. Urediniospores are the most common spore type involved in the epidemiology of this disease. Tip growth of germ tubes of germinated urediniospores is a key step during infection of wheat, but few studies have investigated it so far. Recent research has found that actin is closely associated with hyphal tip growth. In this study, we have cloned and obtained the full-length actin cDNA from P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and characterized its expression. Furthermore, actin filament (F-actin) patterns were visualized microscopically during germ tube formation. The most conspicuous actin-containing structures were actin patches. They were mainly concentrated near the hyphal tip and scattered throughout the cortex. By using cytochalasin B, we observed that depolymerization of F-actin greatly reduced the germination rate of urediniospores and disrupted the transport of vesicles to the germ tube tip, indicating that F-actin played a key role in the tip growth of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. This work helps us to understand the tip growth mechanism of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, and may provide a theoretical framework for designing novel pesticides. PMID:22806107

  16. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte. beta. -spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Prchal, J.T.; Morley, B.J.; Yoon, S.H.; Coetzer, T.L.; Palek, J.; Conboy, J.G.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-11-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical ..cap alpha.. (M/sub r/ 240,000) and ..beta.. (M/sub r/ 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific ..beta..-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the ..beta..-9 through ..beta..-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the ..beta..-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte ..beta..-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the ..beta..-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities.

  17. Cloning and characterization of p8 homolog cDNA in the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Qing; Li, Lin-Chun; Lin, Sheng-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2010-06-01

    The p8 gene encodes a transcription factor known to modulate cell growth, division, and apoptosis and influences gene expression. In this study, an Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) homolog of the p8 gene was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The full-length p8 cDNA consists of 601 bp and encodes 76 amino acids with a molecular mass of 9 kD. The bHLH region is well conserved between Atlantic halibut and other animals. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that the p8 transcript is constitutively expressed in 9 of the 12 tissues tested: pancreas, intestine, stomach, gill, head kidney, heart, liver, ovary, and spleen. A predicted microRNA target site was found in the 3'UTR of Atlantic halibut p8 mRNA. We speculate that the target site may pair to microRNA molecules because the target site resides in a big loop, a space large enough for the binding of microRNA molecules. PMID:20454949

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the complement component C6 gene in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Bang; Zhang, Jun-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jia-Le

    2011-05-15

    The complement system, as a representative of innate immunity, plays a key role in the host defense against infections. C6 is the member of complement components creating the membrane attack complex (MAC). In this study, we cloned and characterized the grass carp complement component C6 (gcC6) gene. Our data showed that gcC6 gene contained a 2724bp open reading frame (ORF), a 237bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 219bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcC6 showed 77.6% and 58.9% identity to zebrafish C6 and rainbow trout C6, respectively. GcC6 gene was expressed in a wide range of grass carp tissues, and the highest expression level of gcC6 was detected in the spleen and liver. Upon challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, its expression was significantly up-regulated in muscle, trunk kidney, liver, head kidney, spleen, heart and intestine, whereas it was down-regulated in the brain and skin. The expression level of gcC6 was high at the unfertilized egg stage. It was significantly increased at 1 day post-hatching, but it was decreased at 10 days post-hatching. This result suggested that the complement C6 transcripts in early embryos were of maternal origin. PMID:21353312

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and tissue expression analysis of Hi-Line Brown chicken Akirin2.

    PubMed

    Man, Chaolai; Li, Xiang; Lee, Jongeun

    2011-10-01

    Akirins are novel important nuclear proteins able to modulate transcriptional activities in a gene-specific manner. Akirin2 is an important gene related to immune responses, it is necessary to isolate the akirin2 gene from chicken because it may be associated with vaccine and enhancement of immune response. In this study, a Hi-Line Brown chicken homolog of the vertebrate akirin2 gene was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The akirin2 full-length coding sequence (CDS) consisted of 576nt and encoded 191 amino acids with a molecular weight of 21.58 kD. The COOH-terminal alpha-helix region was well conserved between chicken and other animals. RT-PCR analysis showed that the akirin2 transcripts were constitutively expressed in 16 tissues tested. Several microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of chicken akirin2 gene. We presume that Akirin2 protein may be used as a new-type immunopotentiator in poultry immune system in the future. PMID:21858694

  20. Cloning and characterization of indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, D N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Yu A

    2010-12-01

    For the first time for methylotrophic bacteria an enzyme of phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.74), has been found. An open reading frame (ORF) was identified in the genome of facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 using BLAST. This ORF encodes thiamine diphosphate-dependent 2-keto acid decarboxylase and has similarity with indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylases, which are key enzymes of IAA biosynthesis. The ORF of the gene, named ipdC, was cloned into overexpression vector pET-22b(+). Recombinant enzyme IpdC was purified from Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and characterized. The enzyme showed the highest k(cat) value for benzoylformate, albeit the indolepyruvate was decarboxylated with the highest catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)). The molecular mass of the holoenzyme determined using gel-permeation chromatography corresponds to a 245-kDa homotetramer. An ipdC-knockout mutant of M. extorquens grown in the presence of tryptophan had decreased IAA level (46% of wild type strain). Complementation of the mutation resulted in 6.3-fold increase of IAA concentration in the culture medium compared to that of the mutant strain. Thus involvement of IpdC in IAA biosynthesis in M. extorquens was shown. PMID:21314613

  1. Cloning and characterization of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) IL-18 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yue; Deng, Jiabo; Niu, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Jianqiu; Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhang, Yizheng; Tan, Xuemei

    2016-06-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing IFN-γ. IL-18 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is an intrinsic inhibitor of IL-18 that possesses higher affinity to IL-18. In this study, we cloned and characterized IL-18BP in giant panda (AmIL-18BP) from the spleen. The amino acid sequence of giant panda IL-18BP ORF shared about 65% identities with other species. To evaluate the effects of AmIL-18BP on the immune responses, we expressed the recombinant AmIL-18BP in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).The fusing protein PET-AmIL-18BP was purified by nickel affinity column chromatography. The biological function of purified PET-AmIL-18BP was determined on mice splenocyte by qRT-PCR. The results showed that AmIL-18BP was functional and could significantly reduce IFN-γ production in murine splenocytes. These results will facilitate the study of protecting giant panda on etiology and immunology. PMID:27234556

  2. Cloning and partial characterization of the mouse glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Sayeski, P P; Wang, D; Su, K; Han, I O; Kudlow, J E

    1997-01-01

    Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) is the enzyme that is rate limiting in the synthesis of glucosamine and hexosamines. Glucosamine has been proposed to contribute to the glucotoxicity of diabetes. Evidence that the gene encoding GFAT is transcriptionally regulated prompted us to clone and characterize its promoter. The position of the mouse GFAT promoter relative to the translational start site was located by primer extension and found to be 149 bp upstream of the translational start site. A 1.9 kb SacI fragment of the GFAT gene was found to contain the promoter and 88 bp of sequence downstream of the transcriptional start site. This promoter segment could drive expression of a luciferase reporter gene, could confer correct transcriptional initiation to the reporter and could confer the EGF-responsiveness previously observed in the native gene. The mouse GFAT promoter lacks a canonical TATA box and has several GC boxes within a highly GC-rich region. Deletional analysis of the promoter indicated that a proximal element extending to -120 relative to the transcriptional start site could confer reporter expression at a level of 57% of the 1.9 kb construct. Detailed analysis of this proximal region by DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Sp1 binds to three elements in this proximal promoter segment and plays a vital role in regulation of transcription from this gene. PMID:9060444

  3. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel esterase from a South China Sea sediment metagenome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Fuchao; Chen, Huaxin; Zhao, Jin; Yan, Jinfei; Jiang, Peng; Li, Ronggui; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-07-01

    Lipolytic enzymes, including esterases and lipases, represent a group of hydrolases that catalyze the cleavage and formation of ester bonds. A novel esterase gene, scsEst01, was cloned from a South China Sea sediment metagenome. The scsEst01 gene consisted of 921 bp encoding 307 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence shared less than 90% identity with other lipolytic enzymes in the NCBI nonredundant protein database. ScsEst01 was successfully co-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with chaperones (dnaK-dnaJ-grpE) to prevent the formation of inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein was purified on an immobilized metal ion affinity column containing chelating Sepharose charged with Ni2+. The enzyme was characterized using p -nitrophenol butyrate as a substrate. ScsEst01 had the highest lipolytic activity at 35°C and pH 8.0, indicative of a meso-thermophilic alkaline esterase. ScsEst01 was thermostable at 20°C. The lipolytic activity of scsEst01 was strongly increased by Fe2+, Mn2+ and 1% Tween 80 or Tween 20.

  4. Cloning, Purification and Characterization of the Collagenase ColA Expressed by Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    PubMed

    Abfalter, Carmen M; Schönauer, Esther; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Huemer, Markus; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Regl, Christof; Briza, Peter; Ferreira, Fatima; Huber, Christian G; Brandstetter, Hans; Posselt, Gernot; Wessler, Silja

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial collagenases differ considerably in their structure and functions. The collagenases ColH and ColG from Clostridium histolyticum and ColA expressed by Clostridium perfringens are well-characterized collagenases that cleave triple-helical collagen, which were therefore termed as ´true´ collagenases. ColA from Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) has been added to the collection of true collagenases. However, the molecular characteristics of B. cereus ColA are less understood. In this study, we identified ColA as a secreted true collagenase from B. cereus ATCC 14579, which is transcriptionally controlled by the regulon phospholipase C regulator (PlcR). B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA was cloned to express recombinant wildtype ColA (ColAwt) and mutated to a proteolytically inactive (ColAE501A) version. Recombinant ColAwt was tested for gelatinolytic and collagenolytic activities and ColAE501A was used for the production of a polyclonal anti-ColA antibody. Comparison of ColAwt activity with homologous proteases in additional strains of B. cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l.) and related clostridial collagenases revealed that B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA is a highly active peptidolytic and collagenolytic protease. These findings could lead to a deeper insight into the function and mechanism of bacterial collagenases which are used in medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27588686

  5. Cloning, expression, and characterization of thermostable manganese superoxide dismutase from Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Ning; Zheng, Yan; E, Shi-Jin; Li, Duo-Chuan

    2009-02-01

    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus, a thermophilic fungus, was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Pichia pastoris and its gene product was characterized. The coding sequence predicted a 231 residues protein with a unique 35 amino acids extension at the N-terminus indicating a mitochondrial-targeting sequence. The content of Mn was 2.46 microg/mg of protein and Fe was not detected in the purified enzyme. The enzyme was found to be inhibited by NaN(3), but not by KCN or H(2)O(2). These results suggested that the SOD in Thermoascus aurantiacus var. levisporus was the manganese superoxide dismutase type. In comparison with other MnSODs, all manganese-binding sites were also conserved in the sequence (H88, H136, D222, H226). The molecular mass of a single band of the enzyme was estimated to be 21.7 kDa. The protein was expressed in tetramer form with molecular weight of 68.0 kDa. The activity of purified protein was 2,324 U/mg. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was 55 degrees C and it exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5. The enzyme was thermostable at 50 and 60 degrees C and the half-life at 80 degrees C was approximately 40 min. PMID:19229500

  6. Glucoamylase starch-binding domain of Aspergillus niger B1: molecular cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Paldi, Tzur; Levy, Ilan; Shoseyov, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are protein domains located within a carbohydrate-active enzyme, with a discrete fold that can be separated from the catalytic domain. Starch-binding domains (SBDs) are CBMs that are usually found at the C-terminus in many amylolytic enzymes. The SBD from Aspergillus niger B1 (CMI CC 324262) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as an independent domain and the recombinant protein was purified on starch. The A. niger B1 SBD was found to be similar to SBD from A. kawachii, A. niger var. awamori and A. shirusami (95-96% identity) and was classified as a member of the CBM family 20. Characterization of SBD binding to starch indicated that it is essentially irreversible and that its affinity to cationic or anionic starch, as well as to potato or corn starch, does not differ significantly. These observations indicate that the fundamental binding area on these starches is essentially the same. Natural and chemically modified starches are among the most useful biopolymers employed in the industry. Our study demonstrates that SBD binds effectively to both anionic and cationic starch. PMID:12646045

  7. A Metagenomic Advance for the Cloning and Characterization of a Cellulase from Red Rice Crop Residues.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carlos; Silva, Bruna; Medeiros, Betsy; Serrato, Rodrigo; Johnston-Monje, David

    2016-01-01

    Many naturally-occurring cellulolytic microorganisms are not readily cultivable, demanding a culture-independent approach in order to study their cellulolytic genes. Metagenomics involves the isolation of DNA from environmental sources and can be used to identify enzymes with biotechnological potential from uncultured microbes. In this study, a gene encoding an endoglucanase was cloned from red rice crop residues using a metagenomic strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 70%. The endoglucanase was named EglaRR01 and was biochemically characterized. This recombinant protein showed activity on carboxymethylcellulose, indicating that EglaRR01 is an endoactive lytic enzyme. The enzymatic activity was optimal at a pH of 6.8 and at a temperature of 30 °C. Ethanol production from this recombinant enzyme was also analyzed on EglaRR01 crop residues, and resulted in conversion of cellulose from red rice into simple sugars which were further fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol after seven days. Ethanol yield in this study was approximately 8 g/L. The gene found herein shows strong potential for use in ethanol production from cellulosic biomass (second generation ethanol). PMID:27347917

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of a mucin-binding GAPDH from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhaval K; Shah, Kunal R; Pappachan, Anju; Gupta, Sarita; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis. It is also referred to as a moonlighting protein as it has many diverse functions like regulation of apoptosis, iron homeostasis, cell-matrix interactions, adherence to human colon etc. apart from its principal role in glycolysis. Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria which colonize the human gut and confer various health benefits to humans. In the present study, we have cloned, expressed and purified the GAPDH from Lactobacillus acidophilus to get a recombinant product (r-LaGAPDH) and characterized it. Size exclusion chromatography shows that r-LaGAPDH exists as a tetramer in solution and have a mucin binding and hemagglutination activity indicating carbohydrate like binding adhesion mechanism. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies showed an interaction of r-LaGAPDH with mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine with a Kd of 3.6±0.7×10(-3)M, 4.34±0.09×10(-3)M, 4±0.87×10(-3)M and 3.7±0.28×10(-3)M respectively. We hope that this preliminary data will generate more interest in further elucidation of the roles of GAPDH in the adhesion processes of the bacteria. PMID:27180300

  9. Novel glucose dehydrogenase from Mucor prainii: Purification, characterization, molecular cloning and gene expression in Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Satake, Ryoko; Ichiyanagi, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Keiichi; Hirokawa, Kozo; Araki, Yasuko; Yoshimura, Taro; Gomi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is of interest for its potential applications in the field of glucose sensors. To improve the performance of glucose sensors, GDH is required to have strict substrate specificity. A novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent GDH was isolated from Mucor prainii NISL0103 and its enzymatic properties were characterized. This FAD-dependent GDH (MpGDH) exhibited high specificity toward glucose. High specificity for glucose was also observed even in the presence of saccharides such as maltose, galactose and xylose. The molecular masses of the glycoforms of GDH ranged from 90 to 130 kDa. After deglycosylation, a single 80 kDa band was observed. The gene encoding MpGDH was cloned and expressed in Aspergillus sojae. The apparent kcat and Km values of recombinant enzyme for glucose were found to be 749.7 s(-1) and 28.3 mM, respectively. The results indicated that the characteristics of MpGDH were suitable for assaying blood glucose levels. PMID:25912449

  10. Cloning and characterization of a Loa loa-specific repetitive DNA.

    PubMed

    Egwang, T G; Ajuh, P M; Akue, J P

    1992-12-01

    A Loa loa EcoRI genomic library in lambda gt11 was screened with 32P-labeled L. loa DNA and 1 repetitive clone, LL20, was isolated. An 800-bp Rsa I fragment of LL20, which is L. loa specific, was subcloned into pUC19 and the recombinant plasmid was designated pRsa4. While the 3.8-kb Eco RI fragment of LL20 cross-hybridized to other filarial DNA under low stringency conditions, the 800-bp fragment of pRsa4 was L. loa specific under the same conditions. Further characterization of the insert of pRsa4 was therefore carried out. Its lower limit of detection is 800 pg of L. loa genomic DNA, it has a low copy number (50-100) and an interspersed distribution in the genome. As a probe it does not distinguish between simian and human L. loa DNA. The nucleotide sequence contains 69% A + T and 31% G + C and shows no notable internal repeats. PMID:1484545

  11. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the H(+)-Pyrophosphatase from Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2016-04-01

    H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) is a primary pyrophosphate (PPi)-energized proton pump to generate electrochemical H(+) gradient for ATP production and substance translocations across membranes. It plays an important role in stress adaptation that was intensively substantiated by numerous transgenic plants overexpressing H(+)-PPases yet devoid of any correlated studies pointing to the elite energy plant, Jatropha curcas. Herein, we cloned the full length of J. curcas H(+)-PPase (JcVP1) complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription PCR, based on the assembled sequence of its ESTs highly matched to Hevea brasiliensis H(+)-PPase. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 765 amino acids that was predicted as a K(+)-dependent H(+)-PPase evolutionarily closest to those of other Euphorbiaceae plants. Many cis-regulatory elements relevant to environmental stresses, molecular signals, or tissue-specificity were identified by promoter prediction within the 1.5-kb region upstream of JcVP1 coding sequence. Meanwhile, the responses of JcVP1 expression to several common abiotic stresses (salt, drought, heat, cold) were characterized with a considerable accordance with the inherent stress tolerance of J. curcas. Moreover, we found that the heterologous expression of JcVP1 could significantly improve the salt tolerance in both recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and this effect could be further fortified in yeast by N-terminal addition of a vacuole-targeting signal peptide from the H(+)-PPase of Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:26643082

  12. Cloning and characterizing of the murine IRF-3 gene promoter region.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Guo; Liu, Lifei; Gao, Shan; Jin, Rui; Ren, Wei; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) plays essential roles in inflammation and immune response. Here, we cloned the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the murine IRF-3 gene (mIRF-3) and characterized the molecular mechanisms controlling the mIRF-3 transcriptional activity in NIH3T3 cells. Analyses of a series of 5' deletion constructs demonstrated that a 301 bp region (-255/+46) of the mIRF-3 gene is sufficient for full promoter activity. This region contains IK1, Egr2, Cmyb, E2F1 and YY1 putative transcription factor binding sites. Mutation of Egr2 or YY1 site led to 52-68 % decrease of the mIRF-3 promoter activity, and double Egr2 and YY1 mutation reduced the promoter activity to 20 % of the wild-type promoter activity. Furthermore, knockingdown of endogenous Egr2 or YY1 by a siRNA strategy markedly inhibited the mIRF-3 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Egr2 and YY1 interact with the mIRF-3 promoter in vivo. These results suggested that the basal promoter activity of the mIRF-3 gene is regulated by transcription factors Egr2 and YY1 in NIH3T3 cells. PMID:26740329

  13. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Moraga, Ángela Rubio; Mozos, Almudena Trapero; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Background Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C. sativus, despite the importance of these compounds as antioxidant agents. Moreover, their bitter taste makes them excellent candidates for consideration as potential organoleptic agents of saffron spice, the dry stigmas of C. sativus. Results Using degenerate primers designed to match the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG) box we cloned a full length cDNA encoding CsGT45 from C. sativus stigmas. This protein showed homology with flavonoid glucosyltransferases. In vitro reactions showed that CsGT45 catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP_glucose to kaempferol and quercetin. Kaempferol is the unique flavonol present in C. sativus stigmas and the levels of its glucosides changed during stigma development, and these changes, are correlated with the expression levels of CsGT45 during these developmental stages. Conclusion Findings presented here suggest that CsGT45 is an active enzyme that plays a role in the formation of flavonoid glucosides in C. sativus. PMID:19695093

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of procirsin, an active aspartic protease precursor from Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Faro, Rosário; Castanheira, Pedro; Parisi, Gustavo; Veríssimo, Paula; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra; Simões, Isaura; Faro, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Typical aspartic proteinases from plants of the Astereaceae family like cardosins and cyprosins are well-known milk-clotting enzymes. Their effectiveness in cheesemaking has encouraged several studies on other Astereaceae plant species for identification of new vegetable rennets. Here we report on the cloning, expression and characterization of a novel aspartic proteinase precursor from the flowers of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The isolated cDNA encoded a protein product with 509 amino acids, termed cirsin, with the characteristic primary structure organization of plant typical aspartic proteinases. The pro form of cirsin was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to be active without autocatalytically cleaving its pro domain. This contrasts with the acid-triggered autoactivation by pro-segment removal described for several recombinant plant typical aspartic proteinases. Recombinant procirsin displayed all typical proteolytic features of aspartic proteinases as optimum acidic pH, inhibition by pepstatin, cleavage between hydrophobic amino acids and strict dependence on two catalytic Asp residues for activity. Procirsin also displayed a high specificity towards κ-casein and milk-clotting activity, suggesting it might be an effective vegetable rennet. The findings herein described provide additional evidences for the existence of different structural arrangements among plant typical aspartic proteinases. PMID:22727116

  15. Cloning and Characterization of the Antiviral Activity of Feline Tetherin/BST-2

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Aiko; Abe, Masumi; Morikawa, Yuko; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Yasuda, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    Human Tetherin/BST-2 has recently been identified as a cellular antiviral factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. In this study, we cloned a cDNA fragment encoding a feline homolog of Tetherin/BST-2 and characterized the protein product. The degree of amino acid sequence identity between human Tetherin/BST-2 and the feline homolog was 44.4%. Similar to human Tetherin/BST-2, the expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 mRNA was inducible by type I interferon (IFN). Exogenous expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 efficiently inhibited the release of feline endogenous retrovirus RD-114. The extracellular domain of feline Tetherin/BST-2 has two putative N-linked glycosylation sites, N79 and N119. Complete loss of N-linked glycosylation by introduction of mutations into both sites resulted in almost complete abolition of its antiviral activity. In addition, feline Tetherin/BST-2 was insensitive to antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu, although the antiviral activity of human Tetherin/BST-2 was antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu. Our data suggest that feline Tetherin/BST-2 functions as a part of IFN-induced innate immunity against virus infection and that the induction of feline Tetherin/BST-2 in vivo may be effective as a novel antiviral strategy for viral infection. PMID:21479233

  16. Cloning and characterization of a potentially protective chitinase-like recombinant antigen from Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, N; Freedman, D O; Fitzgerald, P C; Unnasch, T R; Ottesen, E A; Nutman, T B

    1994-01-01

    While there is no direct evidence demonstrating the existence of protective immunity to Wuchereria bancrofti infection in humans, the presence of individuals, in populations in areas where infection is endemic, with no clinical evidence of past or current infection despite appreciable exposure to the infective larvae, suggests that protective immunity to filarial parasites may occur naturally. Earlier work indicated that such putatively immune individuals generated antibodies to a 43-kDa antigen from larval extracts of the related filarial parasite Brugia malayi that was recognized by only 8% of the infected population. With rabbit antiserum raised against this 43-kDa antigen, this current study identified a recombinant clone, WbN43, with an insert size of 2.3 kb, from a W. bancrofti genomic expression library. The recombinant fusion protein was differentially recognized by the putatively immune individuals but not by the infected patients. The coding sequence (684 bp) from the 5' end had significant sequence similarity to chitinases from Serratia marcescens, Bacillus circulans, Streptomyces plicatus, and B. malayi. Peptide sequencing of the expressed product also defined a chitinase-like sequence. Molecular characterization indicated WbN43 to be a low-copy-number gene, with expression predominantly in infective larvae and microfilariae but not in adult parasites. Images PMID:8168956

  17. Cloning and characterization of two xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2005-12-01

    Two xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley beta-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74. PMID:16332739

  18. Cloning and Characterization of Two Xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. Strain KM21

    PubMed Central

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2005-01-01

    Two xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley β-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74. PMID:16332739

  19. Cloning and characterization of a PI-like MADS-box gene in Phalaenopsis orchid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Hexige, Saiyin; Zhang, Tian; Pittman, Jon K; Chen, Donghong; Ming, Feng

    2007-11-30

    The highly evolved flowers of orchids have colorful sepals and fused columns that offer an opportunity to discover new genes involved in floral development in monocotyledon species. In this investigation, we cloned and characterized the homologous PISTALLATA-like (PI-like) gene PhPI15 (Phalaenopsis PI STILLATA # 15), from the Phalaenopsis hybrid cultivar. The protein sequence encoded by PhPI15 contains a typical PI-motif. Its sequence also formed a subclade with other monocot PI-type genes in phylogenetic analysis. Southern analysis showed that PhPI15 was present in the Phalaenopsis orchid genome as a single copy. Furthermore, it was expressed in all the whorls of the Phalaenopsis flower, while no expression was detected in vegetative organs. The flowers of transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing PhPI15 showed male-sterile phenotypes. Thus, as a Class-B MADS-box gene, PhPI15 specifies floral organ identity in orchids. PMID:18047777

  20. Virulence Potential and Genome-Wide Characterization of Drug Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones Selected In Vivo by the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Nelson; Hiller, N. Luisa; Powell, Evan; Earl, Josh; Ahmed, Azad; Sá-Leão, Raquel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Tomasz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We used mouse models of pneumococcal colonization and disease combined with full genome sequencing to characterize three major drug resistant clones of S. pneumoniae that were recovered from the nasopharynx of PCV7-immunized children in Portugal. The three clones – serotype 6A (ST2191), serotype 15A (ST63) and serotype 19A (ST276) carried some of the same drug resistance determinants already identified in nasopharyngeal isolates from the pre-PCV7 era. The three clones were able to colonize efficiently the mouse nasopharyngeal mucosa where populations of these pneumococci were retained for as long as 21 days. During this period, the three clones were able to asymptomatically invade the olfactory bulbs, brain, lungs and the middle ear mucosa and established populations in these tissues. The virulence potential of the three clones was poor even at high inoculum (105 CFU per mouse) concentrations in the mouse septicemia model and was undetectable in the pneumonia model. Capsular type 3 transformants of clones 6A and 19A prepared in the laboratory produced lethal infection at low cell concentration (103 CFU per mouse) but the same transformants became impaired in their potential to colonize, indicating the importance of the capsular polysaccharide in both disease and colonization. The three clones were compared to the genomes of 56 S. pneumoniae strains for which sequence information was available in the public databank. Clone 15A (ST63) only differed from the serotype 19F clone G54 in a very few genes including serotype so that this clone may be considered the product of a capsular switch. While no strain with comparable degree of similarity to clone 19A (ST276) was found among the sequenced isolates, by MLST this clone is a single locust variant (SLV) of Denmark14-ST230 international clone. Clone 6A (ST2191) was most similar to the penicillin resistant Hungarian serotype 19A clone. PMID:24069360

  1. Should the World Stop Cloning Around? 12th Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, David R.; Karayan, Michael

    This lesson for grade 12 is designed to raise student awareness of the potential of human cloning and of the effects it could have on the present, naturally born population. Students work in teams to research the issue and are provided with background information, detailed instructions, on-line resources, and reflection questions. The teacher's…

  2. Sodium-dependent methotrexate carrier-1 is expressed in rat kidney: cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Kneuer, Carsten; Honscha, Kerstin U; Honscha, Walther

    2004-03-01

    Previous Northern blot studies suggested strong expression of a homolog to the sodium-dependent hepatocellular methotrexate transporter in the kidneys. Here, we report on the cloning of the cDNA for the renal methotrexate carrier isoform-1 (RK-MTX-1) and its functional characterization. Sequencing revealed 97% homology to the rat liver methotrexate carrier with an identical open reading frame. Differences were located in the 5'-untranslated region and resulted in the absence of putative regulatory elements (Barbie box, Ah/ARNT receptor) identified in the cDNA for the hepatocellular carrier. For functional characterization, MTX-1 cDNA was stably expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. A sodium-dependent transport of methotrexate with a K(m) of 41 microM and a V(max) of 337 pmol.mg protein(-1).min(-1) was observed. This uptake was blocked by the reduced folates dihydro- and tetrahydrofolate as well as by methotrexate itself. Folate was inhibiting only weakly, whereas 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was a strong inhibitor. Further inhibitors of the methotrexate transport included the bile acids cholate and taurocholate and xenobiotics like bumetanide and BSP. PAH, ouabain, bumetanide, cholate, taurocholate, and acetyl salicylic acid were tested as potential substrates. However, none of these substances was transported by MTX-1. Furthermore, expression of RK-MTX-1 in MDCK cells enhanced methotrexate toxicity in these cells fivefold. Analysis of a fusion protein of RK-MTX-1 and the influenza virus hemagglutinin epitope by immunoblotting revealed a major band at 72 kDa within the cell membrane but not in the soluble fraction of transfected MDCK. Indirect immunofluorescence staining revealed an exclusive localization of the carrier in the plasma membrane, and by confocal laser-scanning microscopy we were able to demonstrate that the protein is expressed in the serosal region of MDCK tubules grown in a morphogenic collagen gel model. PMID:14612385

  3. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the dog P2X7 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Roman, S; Cusdin, FS; Fonfria, E; Goodwin, JA; Reeves, J; Lappin, SC; Chambers, L; Walter, DS; Clay, WC; Michel, AD

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Human and rodent P2X7 receptors exhibit differences in their sensitivity to antagonists. In this study we have cloned and characterized the dog P2X7 receptor to determine if its antagonist sensitivity more closely resembles the human or rodent orthologues. Experimental approach: A cDNA encoding the dog P2X7 receptor was isolated from a dog heart cDNA library, expressed in U-2 OS cells using the BacMam viral expression system and characterized in electrophysiological, ethidium accumulation and radioligand binding studies. Native P2X7 receptors were examined by measuring ATP-stimulated interleukin-1β release in dog and human whole blood. Key results: The dog P2X7 receptor was 595 amino acids long and exhibited high homology (>70%) to the human and rodent orthologues although it contained an additional threonine at position 284 and an amino acid deletion at position 538. ATP possessed low millimolar potency at dog P2X7 receptors. 2′-&3′-O-(4benzoylbenzoyl) ATP had slightly higher potency but was a partial agonist. Dog P2X7 receptors possessed relatively high affinity for a number of selective antagonists of the human P2X7 receptor although there were some differences in potency between the species. Compound affinities in human and dog blood exhibited a similar rank order of potency as observed in studies on the recombinant receptor although absolute potency was considerably lower. Conclusions and implications: Dog recombinant and native P2X7 receptors display a number of pharmacological similarities to the human P2X7 receptor. Thus, dog may be a suitable species for assessing target-related toxicity of antagonists intended for evaluation in the clinic. PMID:19814727

  4. Production, characterization, cloning and sequence analysis of a monofunctional catalase from Serratia marcescens SYBC08.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua-Wei; Cai, Yu-Jie; Liao, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Da-Bing

    2011-04-01

    A monofunctional catalase from Serratia marcescens SYBC08 produced by liquid state fermentation in 7 liter fermenter was isolated and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP), ion exchange chromatography (IEC), and gel filtration (GF) and characterized. Its sequence was analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique and gene cloning. The highest catalase production (20,289 U · ml(-1)) was achieved after incubation for 40 h. The purified catalase had an estimated molecular mass of 230 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 58 kDa. High specific activity of the catalase (199,584 U · mg(-1) protein) was 3.44 times higher than that of Halomonas sp. Sk1 catalase (57,900 U · mg(-1) protein). The enzyme without peroxidase activity was found to be an atypical electronic spectrum of monofunctional catalase. The apparent K(m) and V(max) were 78 mM and 188, 212 per µM H(2) O(2) µM heme(-1) s(-1), respectivly. The enzyme displayed a broad pH activity range (pH 5.0-11.0), with optimal pH range of 7.0-9.0: It was most active at 20 °C and had 78% activity at 0 °C. Its thermo stability was slightly higher compared to that of commercial catalase from bovine liver. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence of cloning gene was the catalase sequence from Serratia marcescens SYBC08. The sequence was compared with that of 23 related catalases. Although most of active site residues, NADPH-binding residues, proximal residues of the heme, distal residues of the heme and residues interacting with a water molecule in the enzyme were well conserved in 23 related catalases, weakly conserved residues were found. Its sequence was closely related with that of catalases from pathogenic bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. This result imply that the enzyme with high specific activity plays a significant role in preventing those microorganisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae against hydrogen peroxide resulted in cellular damage. Calalase yield by Serratia

  5. Cloning, Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Endomannanases from Thermobifida Species Isolated from Different Niches

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Ákos; Barna, Terézia; Szabó, Erna; Elek, Rita; Hubert, Ágnes; Nagy, István; Nagy, István; Kriszt, Balázs; Táncsics, András; Kukolya, József

    2016-01-01

    Thermobifidas are thermotolerant, compost inhabiting actinomycetes which have complex polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzyme systems. The best characterized enzymes of these hydrolases are cellulases from T. fusca, while other important enzymes especially hemicellulases are not deeply explored. To fill this gap we cloned and investigated endomannanases from those reference strains of the Thermobifida genus, which have published data on other hydrolases (T. fusca TM51, T. alba CECT3323, T. cellulosilytica TB100T and T. halotolerans YIM90462T). Our phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA and endomannanase sequences revealed that T. alba CECT3323 is miss-classified; it belongs to the T. fusca species. The cloned and investigated endomannanases belong to the family of glycosyl hydrolases 5 (GH5), their size is around 50 kDa and they are modular enzymes. Their catalytic domains are extended by a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM) of type 2 with a 23–25 residues long interdomain linker region consisting of Pro, Thr and Glu/Asp rich repetitive tetrapeptide motifs. Their polypeptide chains exhibit high homology, interdomain sequence, which don’t show homology to each other, but all of them are built up from 3–6 times repeated tetrapeptide motifs) (PTDP-Tc, TEEP-Tf, DPGT-Th). All of the heterologously expressed Man5A enzymes exhibited activity only on mannan. The pH optima of Man5A enzymes from T. halotolerans, T. cellulosilytica and T. fusca are slightly different (7.0, 7.5 and 8.0, respectively) while their temperature optima span within the range of 70–75°C. The three endomannanases exhibited very similar kinetic performances on LBG-mannan substrate: 0.9–1.7mM of KM and 80–120 1/sec of turnover number. We detected great variability in heat stability at 70°C, which was influenced by the presence of Ca2+. The investigated endomannanases might be important subjects for studying the structure/function relation behind the heat stability and for industrial

  6. Characterization of sphere-forming HCT116 clones by whole RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunkyung; Oh, Inkyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine CD133+ cells defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colon cancer, we examined whether CD133+ clones in HCT116 demonstrate known features of CSCs like sphere-forming ability, chemodrug-resistance, and metastatic potential. Methods Magnetic cell isolation and cell separation demonstrated that <1% of HCT116 cells expressed CD133, with the remaining cells being CD133- clones. In colon cancer cells, radioresistance is also considered a CSC characteristic. We performed clonogenic assay using 0.4 Gy γ-irradiation. Results Interestingly, there were no differences between HCT116 parental and HCT116 CD133+ clones when the cells comprised 0.5% of the total cells, and CD133- clone demonstrated radiosensitive changes compared with parental and CD133+ clones. Comparing gene expression profiles between sphere-forming and nonforming culture conditions of HCT116 subclones by whole RNA sequencing failed to obtain specific genes expressed in CD133+ clones. Conclusion Despite no differences of gene expression profiles in monolayer attached culture conditions of each clone, sphere-forming conditions of whole HCT116 subclones, parental, CD133+, and CD133- increased 1,761 coding genes and downregulated 1,384 genes related to CSCs self-renewal and survival. Thus, spheroid cultures of HCT116 cells could be useful to expand colorectal CSCs rather than clonal expansion depending on CD133 expressions. PMID:27073788

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of cDNA clone of human ceruloplasmin receptor.

    PubMed

    Sasina, L K; Tsymbalenko, N V; Platonova, N A; Puchkova, L V; Voronina, O V; Gyulikhandanova, N E; Gaitskhoki, V S

    2000-05-01

    An individual clone, presumably carrying a 3 bp fragment of ceruloplasmin receptor cDNA was isolated from the expression library of human placenta cDNA using polyclonal specific antibodies to ceruloplasmin receptors. EcoR1-hydrolysate of isolated DNA was cloned in a pTZ19 bacterial vector and sequenced in the forward and reverse direction. The comparison of the revealed sequence with known sequences of human genome revealed its high similarity to ceruloplasmin cDNA. PMID:10977961

  8. cDNA cloning and characterization of two trehalases from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera; Noctuidade).

    PubMed

    Zou, Q; Wei, P; Xu, Q; Zheng, H Z; Tang, B; Wang, S G

    2013-01-01

    The oriental leafworm moth, Spodoptera litura, is a major agricultural pest in southeast Asia and nearby Pacific regions. Two distinct trehalases have been identified in insects: soluble trehalase (Treh1) and membrane-bound trehalase (Treh2), although there is currently no information on these genes in S. litura. To characterize the distribution and function of treh, cDNAs of Treh proteins were cloned from S. litura. SpoliTreh1 cDNA has an open reading frame of 1758 nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 585 amino acids, with a predicted mass of approximately 67.07 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.86. SpoliTreh2 cDNA has an open reading frame of 2325 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 645 amino acids, a mass of approximately 73.62 kDa, and an isoelectric point of 5.90. Northern blotting analysis revealed that SpoliTreh1 transcripts are in the midgut, fat body, tracheae, and epidermis, but not in the brain and Malpighian tubules of S. litura larvae, whereas SpoliTreh2 transcripts were found in all 6 tissues. SpoliTreh1 transcripts were highly expressed in the fat body of the pre-pupal stage, and SpoliTreh2 transcripts were highly expressed in the fat body of 3-day-old larvae of the 6th instar and during the 1st 6 days of the pupal stage, except the 2nd day. Both SpoliTreh1 and SpoliTreh2 were highly expressed in third-instar larvae. PMID:23613237

  9. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1).

    PubMed

    Nunoya, Kenichi; Grant, Caroline E; Zhang, Dawei; Cole, Susan P C; Deeley, Roger G

    2003-08-01

    Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) transports a wide range of structurally diverse conjugated and nonconjugated organic anions and some peptides, including oxidized and reduced glutathione (GSH). The protein confers resistance to certain heavy metal oxyanions and a variety of natural product-type chemotherapeutic agents. Elevated levels of MRP1 have been detected in many human tumors, and the protein is a candidate therapeutic target for drug resistance reversing agents. Previously, we have shown that human MRP1 (hMRP1) and murine MRP1 (mMRP1) differ in their substrate specificity despite a high degree of structural conservation. Since rat models are widely used in the drug discovery and development stage, we have cloned and functionally characterized rat MRP1 (rMRP1). Like mMRP1 and in contrast to hMRP1, rMRP1 confers no, or very low, resistance to anthracyclines and transports the two estrogen conjugates, 17beta-estradiol-17-(beta-d-glucuronide) (E217betaG) and estrone 3-sulfate, relatively poorly. Mutational studies combined with vesicle transport assays identified several amino acids conserved between rat and mouse, but not hMRP1, that make major contributions to these differences in substrate specificity. Despite the fact that the rodent proteins transport E217betaG poorly and the GSH-stimulated transport of estrone 3-sulfate is low compared with hMRP1, site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that different nonconserved amino acids are involved in the low efficiency with which each of the two estrogen conjugates is transported. Our studies also suggest that although rMRP1 and mMRP1 are 95% identical in primary structure, their substrate specificities may be influenced by amino acids that are not conserved between the two rodent proteins. PMID:12867490

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

  11. Comparative study of two thioredoxins from common cutworm (Spodoptera litura): cloning, expression, and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tinghao; Wan, Hu; Zhang, Yashu; Shakeel, Muhammad; Lu, Yanhui; You, Hong; Lee, Kwang Sik; Jin, Byung Rae; Li, Jianhong

    2015-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes that are involved in protecting organisms against various oxidative stresses. Here, we cloned and characterized two thioredoxins, named SlTrx1 and SlTrx2, from the common cutworm Spodoptera litura. SlTrx1 and SlTrx2, respectively, consist of 988 and 606 bp full-length cDNA with 318 and 447 bp open reading frames encoding 106 and 149 amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal region of SlTrx2 contains a predicted mitochondrial localization signal (33 amino acids). A phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that SlTrx1 is in the cytosolic thioredoxin Trx1 cluster, whereas SlTrx2 is in the mitochondrial thioredoxin Trx2 cluster. Recombinant SlTrx1 (14 kDa) and SlTrx2 (16 kDa), expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells, demonstrated insulin disulfide reductase activity at the same optimum temperature and pH value of 35 °C and 7.0, respectively, in vitro. During S. litura development, we found that SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 had similar transcript expression patterns and were constitutively expressed in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut, with the highest expression occurring in the sixth-instar larval stage in the epidermis and midgut. In addition, both SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 mRNA were up-regulated in S. litura after injection with H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide, indoxacarb, and metaflumizone. These results suggest that SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 function as potent antioxidant enzymes, and provide a molecular basis for the roles SlTrx1 and SlTrx2 during development and the oxidative stress response of S. litura. PMID:25542738

  12. Cloning, expression and characterization of β-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger ASKU28.

    PubMed

    Choengpanya, Khuanjarat; Arthornthurasuk, Siriphan; Wattana-amorn, Pakorn; Huang, Wan-Ting; Plengmuankhae, Wandee; Li, Yaw-Kuen; Kongsaeree, Prachumporn T

    2015-11-01

    β-Xylosidases catalyze the breakdown of β-1,4-xylooligosaccharides, which are produced from degradation of xylan by xylanases, to fermentable xylose. Due to their important role in xylan degradation, there is an interest in using these enzymes in biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, the coding sequence of a glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger ASKU28 (AnBX) was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris as an N-terminal fusion protein with the α-mating factor signal sequence (α-MF) and a poly-histidine tag. The expression level was increased to 5.7 g/l in a fermenter system as a result of optimization of only five codons near the 5' end of the α-MF sequence. The recombinant AnBX was purified to homogeneity through a single-step Phenyl Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme exhibited an optimal activity at 70°C and at pH 4.0-4.5, and a very high kinetic efficiency toward a xyloside substrate. AnBX demonstrated an exo-type activity with retention of the β-configuration, and a synergistic action with xylanase in hydrolysis of beechwood xylan. This study provides comprehensive data on characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-xylosidase that have not been determined in any prior investigations. Our results suggested that AnBX may be useful for degradation of lignocellulosic biomass in bioethanol production, pulp bleaching process and beverage industry. PMID:26166179

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of a family-74 xyloglucanase from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Diana C; Cheng, Mark; Xiang, Bosong; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Wilson, David B

    2003-07-01

    Thermobifida fusca xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (Xeg)74 and the Xeg74 catalytic domain (CD) were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. This enzyme has a glycohydrolase family-74 CD that is a specific xyloglucanase followed by a family-2 carbohydrate binding module at the C terminus. The Michaelis constant (Km) and maximal rate (Vmax) values for hydrolysis of tamarind seed xyloglucan (tamXG) are 2.4 micro m and 966 micro mol xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) min-1. micro mol protein-1. More than 75% of the activity was retained after a 16-h incubation at temperatures up to 60 degrees C. The enzyme was most active at pH 6.0-9.4. NMR analysis showed that its catalytic mechanism is inverting. The oligosaccharide products from hydrolysis of tamXG were determined by MS analysis. Cel9B, an active carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)ase from T. fusca, was also found to have activity on xyloglucan (XG) at 49 micro mol.min-1. micro mol protein-1, but it could not hydrolyze XG units containing galactose. An XG/cellulose composite was prepared by growing Gluconacetobacterxylinus on glucose with tamXG in the medium. Although a mixture of purified cellulases was unable to degrade this material, the composite material was fully hydrolyzed when Xeg74 was added. T. fusca was not able to grow on tamXG, but Xeg74 was found in the culture supernatant at the same level as was found in cultures grown on Solka Floc. The function of this enzyme appears to be to break down the XG surrounding cellulose fibrils found in biomass so that T. fusca can utilize the cellulose as a carbon source. PMID:12846842

  14. Cloning, characterization and expression of a novel laccase gene Pclac2 from Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bao Zhen; Li, Peiqian

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are blue copper oxidases (E.C. 1.10.3.2) that catalyze the one-electron oxidation of phenolics, aromatic amines, and other electron-rich substrates with the concomitant reduction of O2 to H2O. A novel laccase gene pclac2 and its corresponding full-length cDNA were cloned and characterized from Phytophthora capsici for the first time. The 1683 bp full-length cDNA of pclac2 encoded a mature laccase protein containing 560 amino acids preceded by a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence of PCLAC2 showed high similarity with other known fungal laccases and contained four copper-binding conserved domains of typical laccase protein. In order to achieve a high level secretion and full activity expression of PCLAC2, expression vector pPIC9K with the Pichia pastoris expression system was used. The recombinant PCLAC2 protein was purified and showed on SDS-PAGE as a single band with an apparent molecular weight ca. 68 kDa. The high activity of purified PCLAC2, 84 U/mL, at the seventh day induced with methanol, was observed with 2,2′-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozin-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for ABTS were 4.0 and 30 °C, respectively. The reported data add a new piece to the knowledge about P. Capsici laccase multigene family and shed light on potential function about biotechnological and industrial applications of the individual laccase isoforms in oomycetes. PMID:24948955

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of SoxB2 gene from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Bao, Zhenmin; Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Yueyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-11-01

    The Sox proteins play critical roles during the development of animals, including sex determination and central nervous system development. In this study, the SoxB2 gene was cloned from a mollusk, the Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri), and characterized with respect to phylogeny and tissue distribution. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of C. farreri SoxB2 ( Cf SoxB2) were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking, respectively, using a partial cDNA fragment from the highly conserved DNA-binding domain, i.e., the High Mobility Group (HMG) box. The full-length cDNA sequence of Cf SoxB2 was 2 048 bp and encoded 268 amino acids protein. The genomic sequence was 5 551 bp in length with only one exon. Several conserved elements, such as the TATA-box, GC-box, CAAT-box, GATA-box, and Sox/sry-sex/testis-determining and related HMG box factors, were found in the promoter region. Furthermore, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays were carried out to assess the mRNA expression of Cf SoxB 2 in different tissues. SoxB2 was highly expressed in the mantle, moderately in the digestive gland and gill, and weakly expressed in the gonad, kidney and adductor muscle. In male and female gonads at different developmental stages of reproduction, the expression levels of Cf SoxB2 were similar. Considering the specific expression and roles of SoxB 2 in other animals, in particular vertebrates, and the fact that there are many pallial nerves in the mantle, cerebral ganglia in the digestive gland and gill nerves in gill, we propose a possible essential role in nervous tissue function for Sox B 2 in C. farreri.

  16. Cloning and characterization of a new multi-stress inducible metallothionein gene in Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chengjie; Miao, Wei

    2006-06-01

    A new multi-stress-inducible metallothionein (MT) gene isoform has been cloned and characterized from the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Both the 5'- and 3'-UT regions of the Tp-MT2 gene are very different from the previously reported Tp-MT1 isoform in this organism and from other described MT genes in Tetrahymena pigmentosa and Tetrahymena thermophila. The putative protein sequence of Tp-MT2 contains cysteine clusters with characteristics of the typical Tetrahymena Cd-inducible MT genes. However, the sequence has a special feature of four intragenic tandem repeats within its first half, with a conserved structural pattern x(5/8)CCCx(6)CCx(6)CxCxNCxCCK. To investigate the transcriptional activities of both Tp-MT2 and Tp-MT1 genes toward heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn) and H(2)O(2), the mRNA levels of these two isoforms were evaluated by means of real-time quantitative PCR. Results showed that Tp-MT2 had a higher basal expression level than Tp-MT1 and both genes were induced by Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn ions after short exposure (1h), although to different extents. Cd was the most effective metal inducer of both two isoforms, but the relative expression level of Tp-MT2 was much lower than that of Tp-MT1. Different expression patterns were also shown between the two genes when treated with Cd over a period of 24h. We suggest that TpMT-1 plays the role of a multi-inducible stress gene, while TpMT-2 may have a more specific function in basal metal homeostasis although it may have undergone a functional differentiation process. The putative functional significance and evolutionary mode of the TpMT-2 isoform are discussed. PMID:16621695

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of crustin from mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Imjongjirak, Chanprapa; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Sittipraneed, Siriporn

    2009-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the host innate immune response against microbial invasion. In the present study, we report the identification and characterization of a crustin (CrusSp) from the hemocyte of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain using an expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) approaches. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed seven different variances of the CrusSp cDNA in mud crab. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 111 amino acids with 21 residues signal sequence. The predicted molecular mass of the mature protein (90 amino acids) is 10.27 kDa with an estimated pI of 8.54. Analysis of the protein domain features indicated typical conserved cysteine residues containing a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the C-terminus. A neighbour-joining tree showed that S. paramamosain crustin is closely related to other crustin homologues, and displays the highest similarity to crustin antimicrobial peptide in shore crab Carcinus maenas. Four exons and three introns were identified within the 999 bp genomic DNA sequence of CrusSp. Tissue distribution analysis showed that CrusSp was highly expressed in hemocytes, gills, intestines and muscle but it was not expressed in hepatopancreas and eyestalks. To gain insight into the in vitro antimicrobial activities of CrusSp, the mature peptide coding region was cloned into E. coli for heterologous expression. The recombinant CrusSp could inhibit the growth of gram-positive bacteria but had no inhibition activity against gram-negative bacteria. These results indicated the involvement of CrusSp in the innate immunity of S. paramamosain. PMID:18425600

  18. Cloning and characterization of the genes encoding nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase of Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600.

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, H R; Egli, T; van der Meer, J R

    1996-01-01

    A 6.2-kb DNA fragment containing the genes for the nitrilotriacetate (NTA) monooxygenase of Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 was cloned and characterized by DNA sequencing and expression studies. The nucleotide sequence contained three major open reading frames (ORFs). Two of the ORFs, which were oriented divergently with an intergenic region of 307 bp, could be assigned to the NTA monooxygenase components A and B. The predicted N-terminal amino acid sequences of these ORFs were identical with those determined for the purified components. We therefore named these genes ntaA (for component A of NTA monooxygenase) and ntaB (for component B). The ntaA and ntaB genes could be expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and the gene products were visualized after Western blotting (immunoblotting) and incubation with polyclonal antibodies against component A or B. By mixing overproduced NtaB from E. coli and purified component A from C. heintzii ATCC 29600, reconstitution of a functional NTA monooxygenase complex was possible. The deduced gene product of ntaA showed only significant homology to SoxA (involved in dibenzothiophene degradation) and to SnaA (involved in pristamycin synthesis); that of ntaB shared weak homologies in one domain with other NADH:flavine mononucleotide oxidoreductases. These homologies provide no conclusive answer as to the possible evolutionary origin of the NTA monooxygenase. The deduced gene product of the third ORF (ORF1) had homology in the N-terminal region with the GntR class of bacterial regulator proteins and therefore may encode a regulator protein, possibly involved in regulation of ntaA and ntaB expression. PMID:8892809

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Rather, Irshad Ahmad; Awasthi, Praveen; Mahajan, Vidushi; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants and are grouped into 17 families (PR-1 to PR-17). PR-5 family includes proteins related to thaumatin and osmotin, with several members possessing antimicrobial properties. In this study, a PR-5 gene showing a high degree of homology with osmotin-like protein was isolated from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). A complete open reading frame consisting of 675 nucleotides, coding for a precursor protein, was obtained by PCR amplification. Based on sequence comparisons with tobacco osmotin and other osmotin-like proteins (OLPs), this protein was named ObOLP. The predicted mature protein is 225 amino acids in length and contains 16 cysteine residues that may potentially form eight disulfide bonds, a signature common to most PR-5 proteins. Among the various abiotic stress treatments tested, including high salt, mechanical wounding and exogenous phytohormone/elicitor treatments; methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and mechanical wounding significantly induced the expression of ObOLP gene. The coding sequence of ObOLP was cloned and expressed in a bacterial host resulting in a 25kDa recombinant-HIS tagged protein, displaying antifungal activity. The ObOLP protein sequence appears to contain an N-terminal signal peptide with signatures of secretory pathway. Further, our experimental data shows that ObOLP expression is regulated transcriptionally and in silico analysis suggests that it may be post-transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated through microRNAs and post-translational protein modifications, respectively. This study appears to be the first report of isolation and characterization of osmotin-like protein gene from O. basilicum. PMID:25550044

  20. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of LGP2 cDNA from goose, Anser cygnoides.

    PubMed

    Wei, L; Song, Y; Cui, J; Qu, N; Wang, N; Ouyang, G; Liao, M; Jiao, P

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 ( LGP2: ) is a homologue of the retinoic acid inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 that lacks the caspase activation and recruitment domain required for signaling. It plays a pivotal role in host immune response. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length open reading frame ( ORF: ) sequence of LGP2 in the Qingyuan goose (Anser cygnoides) and evaluated the mRNA expression of this gene post infection with an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus ( HPAIV: ). The full-length goose LGP2 ORF (2,028 bp) encoded a polypeptide of 675 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contained 5 main overlapping structural domains-2 DEAD/DEAH box helicase domains, one conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme, one helicase superfamily C-terminal domain and one C-terminal regulatory domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that goose LGP2 was constitutively expressed in all 19 investigated tissues, but the expression level was different among them. It was high expressed in the trachea, jejunum, bursa, kidney and heart, but low in the glandular stomach, lung, liver, spleen, crop and muscular stomach. A significant increase in the transcription of LGP2 was detected in the brain, spleen and lungs of geese post infection with H5N1 HPAIV versus uninfected tissues. These findings indicated that goose LGP2 was an important receptor that is involved in the host antiviral innate immune defense to H5N1 HPAIV in geese. PMID:27143779

  1. [Cloning, prokaryotic expression and characterization of lysine decarboxylase gene from Huperzia serrata].

    PubMed

    Di, Ci; Li, Jing; Tang, Yuntao; Peng, Qingzhong

    2014-08-01

    Huperzine A is a promising drug to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, its biosynthetic pathway is still unknown. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) has been proposed to catalyze the first-step of the biosynthesis of huperzine A. To identify and characterize LDCs from Huperzia serrata, we isolated two LDC fragments (LDC1 and LDC2) from leaves of H. serrata by RT-PCR and then cloned them into pMD 19-T vector. Sequence analysis showed that LDC1 and LDC2 genes shared 95.3% identity and encoded the protein of 212 and 202 amino acid residues respectively. Thus, we ligated LDC genes into pET-32a(+) to obtain recombinant expressing vectors pET-32a(+)/LDC1 and pET-32a(+)/LDC2 respectively. We further introduced two expression vectors into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and cultured positive colonies of E. coli in liquid LB medium. After inducing for 4 hours with 260 μg/mL IPTG at 30 degrees C, soluble recombinant Trx-LDC1 and Trx-LDC2 were obtained and isolated for purification using a Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. We incubated purified recombinant proteins with L-lysine in the enzyme reaction buffer at 37 degrees C and then derived the reaction products using dansyl chloride. It was found that both Trx-LDC1 and Trx-LDC2 had decarboxylase activity, could convert L-lysine into cadaverine by way of thin layer chromatography assay. Further, bioinformatics analysis indicated that deduced LDC1 and LDC2 had different physicochemical properties, but similar secondary and three-dimensional structures. PMID:25423760

  2. [Cloning, prokaryotic expression and characterization of lysine decarboxylase gene from Huperzia serrata].

    PubMed

    Di, Ci; Li, Jing; Tang, Yuntao; Peng, Qingzhong

    2014-08-01

    Huperzine A is a promising drug to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, its biosynthetic pathway is still unknown. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) has been proposed to catalyze the first-step of the biosynthesis of huperzine A. To identify and characterize LDCs from Huperzia serrata, we isolated two LDC fragments (LDC1 and LDC2) from leaves of H. serrata by RT-PCR and then cloned them into pMD 19-T vector. Sequence analysis showed that LDC1 and LDC2 genes shared 95.3% identity and encoded the protein of 212 and 202 amino acid residues respectively. Thus, we ligated LDC genes into pET-32a(+) to obtain recombinant expressing vectors pET-32a(+)/LDC1 and pET-32a(+)/LDC2 respectively. We further introduced two expression vectors into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and cultured positive colonies of E. coli in liquid LB medium. After inducing for 4 hours with 260 μg/mL IPTG at 30 degrees C, soluble recombinant Trx-LDC1 and Trx-LDC2 were obtained and isolated for purification using a Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. We incubated purified recombinant proteins with L-lysine in the enzyme reaction buffer at 37 degrees C and then derived the reaction products using dansyl chloride. It was found that both Trx-LDC1 and Trx-LDC2 had decarboxylase activity, could convert L-lysine into cadaverine by way of thin layer chromatography assay. Further, bioinformatics analysis indicated that deduced LDC1 and LDC2 had different physicochemical properties, but similar secondary and three-dimensional structures. PMID:25507483

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from Chorispora bungeana.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenchen; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yu; Liu, Sha; Yan, Kan; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Hua; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe; Chen, Shuyan

    2015-11-10

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which is a molecule essential for polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis, methylation modifications of protein, DNA and lipids. SAMS also plays an important role in abiotic stress response. Chorispora bungeana (C. bungeana) is an alpine subnival plant species which possesses strong tolerance to cold stress. Here, we cloned and characterized an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene, CbSAMS (C. bungeana S-adenosylmethionine synthetase), from C. bungeana, which encodes a protein of 393 amino acids containing a methionine binding motif GHPDK, an ATP binding motif GAGDQG and a phosphate binding motif GGGAFSGDK. Furthermore, an NES (nuclear export signal) peptide was identified through bioinformatics analysis. To explore the CbSAMS gene expression regulation, we isolated the promoter region of CbSAMS gene 1919bp upstream the ATG start codon, CbSAMSp, and analyzed its cis-acting elements by bioinformatics method. It was revealed that a transcription start site located at 320 bp upstream the ATG start codon and cis-acting elements related to light, ABA, auxin, ethylene, MeJA, low temperature and drought had been found in the CbSAMSp sequence. The gene expression pattern of CbSAMS was then analyzed by TR-qPCR and GUS assay method. The result showed that CbSAMS is expressed in all examined tissues including callus, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers with a significant higher expression level in roots and flowers. Furthermore, the expression level of CbSAMS was induced by low temperature, ethylene and NaCl. Subcellular localization revealed that CbSAMS was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus but has a significant higher level in the nucleus. These results indicated a potential role of CbSAMS in abiotic stresses and plant growth in C. bungeana. PMID:26205258

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of Cuc m 2, a major allergen in Cucumis melo

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies reported the clinical features of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after ingestion of melon. Melon allergy is a common IgE-mediated fruit allergy in Iran. This prompted us to investigate immunochemical and molecular properties of the major allergen in melon fruit, to compare the IgE-binding capacity of the natural protein with the recombinant allergen, and to determine cross-reactivity of the major allergen with closely-related allergens from other plants displaying clinical cross-reactivity with melon. Methods: Identification and molecular characterization of the major melon allergen were performed using IgE immunoblotting, allergen-specific ELISA, affinity-based purifications, cross-inhibition assays, cloning, and expression of the allergen in Escherichia coli. Results: Melon profilin was identified and isolated as a major IgE-binding component and designated as Cuc m 2. Sequencing corresponding cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 363 bp coding for 131 amino acid residues and two fragments of 171 bp and 383 bps for the 5’and 3’ UTRs, respectively. Significant cross-reactivity was found between melon profilin and Cynodon dactylon, tomato, peach, and grape profilins in cross-inhibition assays. Although the highest degree of amino acid identity was revealed with watermelon profilin, there was no significant cross-reactivity between melon and watermelon profilins. Conclusion: Melon profilin is the major IgE-binding component in melon extract, and the recombinant and natural forms exhibited similar IgE-binding capacities. A part of the fruit-fruit and pollen-fruit cross-reactions could be explained by the presence of this conserved protein; however, sequence homology provides insufficient information to predict IgE cross-reactivity of profilins. PMID:26989709

  5. Cloning, purification and characterization of two components of phenol hydroxylase from Rhodococcus erythropolis UPV-1.

    PubMed

    Saa, Laura; Jaureguibeitia, Arrate; Largo, Eneko; Llama, María J; Serra, Juan L

    2010-03-01

    Phenol hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of phenol to catechol in Rhodococcus erythropolis UPV-1 was identified as a two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase. The two proteins are encoded by the genes pheA1 and pheA2, located very closely in the genome. The sequenced pheA1 gene was composed of 1,629 bp encoding a protein of 542 amino acids, whereas the pheA2 gene consisted of 570 bp encoding a protein of 189 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences of both genes showed high homology with several two-component aromatic hydroxylases. The genes were cloned separately in cells of Escherichia coli M15 as hexahistidine-tagged proteins, and the recombinant proteins His(6)PheA1 and His(6)PheA2 were purified and its catalytic activity characterized. His(6)PheA1 exists as a homotetramer of four identical subunits of 62 kDa that has no phenol hydroxylase activity on its own. His(6)PheA2 is a homodimeric flavin reductase, consisting of two identical subunits of 22 kDa, that uses NAD(P)H in order to reduce flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), according to a random sequential kinetic mechanism. The reductase activity was strongly inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents. The hydroxylation of phenol in vitro requires the presence of both His(6)PheA1 and His(6)PheA2 components, in addition to NADH and FAD, but the physical interaction between the proteins is not necessary for the reaction. PMID:19787347

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of four caspases members in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Weiwei; Duan, Xuemei; Li, Ye; Jin, Chunhua; Xiong, Jinbo; Qiu, Qiongfen

    2016-08-01

    The caspase family representing aspartate-specific cysteine proteases have been demonstrated to possess key roles in apoptosis and immune response. We previously demonstrated that LPS challenged Apostichopus japonicus coelomocyte could significantly induced apoptosis in vitro. However, apoptosis related molecules were scarcely investigated in this economic species. In the present work, we cloned and characterized four members caspase family from A. japonicus (designated as Ajcaspase-2, Ajcaspase-3, Ajcaspase-6, and Ajcaspase-8, respectively) by RACE. Multiple sequence alignment and structural analysis revealed that all Ajcaspases contained the conservative CASC domain at C terminal, in which some unique features for each Ajcaspase made them different from each other. These specific domains together with phylogenetic analysis supported that all these four identified proteins belonged to novel members of apoptotic signaling pathway in sea cucumber. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that four Ajcaspase genes were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The expression of Ajcaspase-2 was tightly correlated with that of Ajcaspase-8 in each detected tissues. Ajcaspase-3 and Ajcaspase-6 transcripts were both highly expressed in immune tissue of coelomocytes. Furthermore, the Vibrio splendidus challenged sea cucumber coelomocytes could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expressions of four genes. The expression levels of Ajcaspase-2 and Ajcaspase-8 were relative earlier than those of Ajcaspase-6 and Ajcaspase-3, respectively, which could be inferred that Ajcapase-2 might directly modulate Ajcaspase-6, and Ajcaspase-8 initiate the expression of Ajcaspase-3. The induce expressions differed among each Ajcaspase depending upon their roles such as initiator or effector caspase. All our results demonstrated that four Ajcaspases present diversified functions in apoptotic cascade signaling pathway of sea cucumber under immune response. PMID:27245866

  7. Cloning and characterization of a SnRK2 gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Chun, J; Li, F-S; Ma, Y; Wang, S-H; Chen, F

    2014-01-01

    Although the SnRK2 class of Ser/Thr protein kinases is critical for signal transduction and abiotic stress resistance in plants, there have been no studies to examine SnRK2 in Jatropha curcas L. In the present study, JcSnRK2 was cloned from J. curcas using the rapid amplification of cDNA end technique and characterized. The JcSnRK2 genomic sequence is 2578 base pairs (bp), includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and the 1017-bp open reading frame encodes 338 amino acids. JcSnRK2 was transcribed in all examined tissues, with the highest transcription rate observed in the roots, followed by the leaves and stalks; the lowest rate was observed in flowers and seeds. JcSnRK2 expression increased following abscisic acid treatment, salinity, and drought stress. During a 48-h stress period, the expression of JcSnRK2 showed 2 peaks and periodic up- and downregulation. JcSnRK2 was rapidly activated within 1 h under salt and drought stress, but not under cold stress. Because of the gene sequence and expression similarity of JcSnRK2 to AtSnRK2.8, primarily in the roots, an eukaryotic expression vector containing the JcSnRK2 gene (pBI121-JcSnRK2) was constructed and introduced to the Arabidopsis AtSnRK2.8 mutant snf2.8. JcSnRK2-overexpressing plants exhibited higher salt and drought tolerance, further demonstrating the function of JcSnRK2 in the osmotic stress response. J. curcas is highly resistant to extreme salt and drought conditions and JcSnRK2 was found to be activated under these conditions. Thus, JcSnRK2 is potential candidate for improving crop tolerance to salt and drought stress. PMID:25526217

  8. Cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor II gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, B H; Chen, K J; Yao, Y B; Liu, Q L; Xiao, T Y; Su, J M; Peng, H Z

    2015-01-01

    Here, we characterized the structure and function of the coagulation factor II (FII) gene in grass carp and determined its role in coagulation mechanisms. The FII gene EST was obtained using a constructed splenic transcriptome database; the full-length FII gene sequence was obtained by 3' and 5' RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of FII was cloned and the full-length gene was found to be 1718 bp, with an ORF of 1572 bp; the gene contained a 25 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 108 bp 3'-UTR. The ORF encoded 524 amino acids, including 74 alkaline amino acids (arginine and lysine) and 69 acidic amino acids (aspartic acid and glutamic acid). The theoretical pI was 6.22. The calculated instability index (II) was 39.81, indicating that FII was a stable protein; the half-life period was predicted to be approximately 30 h. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that grass carp FII showed most similarity (71%) to FII of Takifugu rubripes, followed by Oplegnathus fasciatus (48% similarity) and Larimichthys crocea (47% similarity). A real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that under normal circumstances, FII was most highly expressed in the liver, followed by the gill, spleen, thymus, and head-kidney (P < 0.001). After injection of the grass carp reovirus 873 (GCRV873), the pattern of FII expression was significantly altered (P < 0.001); gene expression was high after injection, suggesting a response involving the initiation of the coagulation system and defense of the body in combination with the platelet and complement system. PMID:26535692

  9. Cloning, functional characterization and heterologous expression of TaLsi1, a wheat silicon transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Montpetit, Jonatan; Vivancos, Julien; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Rémus-Borel, Wilfried; Belzile, François; Ma, Jian Feng; Bélanger, Richard R

    2012-05-01

    Silicon (Si) is known to be beneficial to plants, namely in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses. The magnitude of such positive effects is associated with a plant's natural ability to absorb Si. Many grasses can accumulate as much as 10% on a dry weight basis while most dicots, including Arabidopsis, will accumulate less than 0.1%. In this report, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of TaLsi1, a wheat Si transporter gene. In addition, we developed a heterologous system for the study of Si uptake in plants by introducing TaLsi1 and OsLsi1, its ortholog in rice, into Arabidopsis, a species with a very low innate Si uptake capacity. When expressed constitutively under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, both TaLsi1 and OsLsi1 were expressed in cells of roots and shoots. Such constitutive expression of TaLsi1 or OsLsi1 resulted in a fourfold to fivefold increase in Si accumulation in transformed plants compared to WT. However, this Si absorption caused deleterious symptoms. When the wheat transporter was expressed under the control of a root-specific promoter (a boron transporter gene (AtNIP5;1) promoter), a similar increase in Si absorption was noted but the plants did not exhibit symptoms and grew normally. These results demonstrate that TaLsi1 is indeed a functional Si transporter as its expression in Arabidopsis leads to increased Si uptake, but that this expression must be confined to root cells for healthy plant development. The availability of this heterologous expression system will facilitate further studies into the mechanisms and benefits of Si uptake. PMID:22351076

  10. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of UMP kinase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hari Prasad, O; Nanda Kumar, Y; Reddy, O V S; Chaudhary, Abhijit; Sarma, P V G K

    2012-04-01

    Uridine monophosphate kinase (UMPK) an enzyme of de novo biosynthesis catalyses the formation of UDP and it is involved in cell wall and RNA biosynthesis. In the present study UMPK of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 was characterized. Analysis of purified UMPK by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200 indicated a molecular weight of 150 kDa and exhibited monomeric form with molecular weight of 25 kDa in SDS-PAGE confirming homohexamer nature of UMPK in solution. The enzyme kinetics of UMPK showed K(m) of 2.80 ± 0.1 μM and Vmax 51.38 ± 1.39 μM of NADH/min/mg. The enzyme exhibited cooperative kinetics with ATP as substrate, as GTP decreased this cooperativity and increased affinity for ATP. The UMPK gene was amplified, sequenced (Accession number: FJ415072), cloned in pQE30 vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. The purified recombinant UMPK showed similar properties of native UMPK. The UMPK gene sequence showed complete homology with pyrH gene sequence of all S. aureus strains reported in the database, the 3D structure of S. aureus UMPK built from the deduced amino acid sequence was super imposed with human UMPK (PDB ID: 1TEV) to find out the structural identity using the MATRAS programme gave an RMSD value 4.24 Å indicating very low homology and extensive structural variations with human UMPK structure. Thus, UMPK may be a potential drug target in the development of antimicrobials. PMID:22528139

  11. Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Mutagenesis of a Thermostable Exoinulinase From Kluyveromyces cicerisporus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun-Yan; Cao, Hai-Long; Tan, Hai-Dong; Hu, Xue-Jun; Liu, Wu-Jun; Du, Yu-Guang; Yin, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Inulinase is an enzyme that belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 32. It converts inulin into high-fructose syrups and fructoligosaccharides, both of which are widely used in pharmaceutical and food industries. In this study, the kcINU1 gene (GenBank accession number AF178979) encoding an exoinulinase was cloned from Kluyveromyces cicerisporus CBS4857 and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, yielding a maximum of 45.2 ± 0.6 U mL(-1) of inulinase activity of culture supernatant. The expressed inulinase was purified and characterized. The enzyme had an optimum temperature of 55 °C and an optimum pH of 4.5. It had a K m of 0.322 mM and a V max of 4317 μM min(-1) mg(-1) protein when inulin was used as a substrate. It retained nearly 90 % of the maximal activity after pre-incubation at 50 °C for 1 h or at pH ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 at 4 °C for 24 h, demonstrating that KcINU1 was stable at high temperature and low pH. Moreover, we constructed two KcINU1 mutants, Asp30Ala and Glu215Ala, by site-directed mutagenesis and confirmed via zymogram analysis that Asp-30 and Glu-215 of the enzyme were the catalytic active center. The present study has provided important information for understanding the catalytic mechanism of exoinulinase. PMID:26446826

  12. Cloning, expression, and characterization of thermophilic L-asparaginase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Lee, Yun-Ha; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Lee, Changhee; Park, Choi Kyu; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2014-06-01

    The present study demonstrates cloning, expression, and characterization of hyperthermostable L-asparaginase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 in Escherichia coli BLR(DE3). The recombinant 6× His-tagged protein L-asparaginase from T. kodakarensis (TkAsn), was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment followed by affinity chromatography using a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was found to be approximately 37 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzymatic properties, such as optimum temperature and pH, were 90 °C and 8.0, respectively. Its appearent Km , Vmax , and Kcat values were 2.6 mM, 1121 µmol min(-1)  mg(-1) , and 694 S(-1) , respectively. The enzyme displayed high thermal stability at optimum temperature with an insignificant loss in enzymatic activity, retaining almost 90% of its activity over a time period of 32 h. The relative activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited by the supplementation of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) ions, while moderately inhibited by other ions. In contrast, Mg(2+) ions enhanced the relative activity compared to the control. The acrylamide contents in baked dough were reduced to sixty percent after treatment with recombinant TkAsn as compared to the untreated control. Results of the present study revealed that the enzyme was highly active at broader range of temperatures and pH, which reflect the potential of recombinant TkAsn in the food processing industry. In addition, the high thermal stability of the enzyme may facilitates its handling, storage, and transportation. PMID:24442710

  13. RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain affordable human and robotic space exploration, the ability to live off the land at the exploration site will be essential. NASA calls this ability in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and is focusing on finding ways to sustain missions first on the Moon and then on Mars. The ISRU project aims to develop capabilities to technology readiness level 6 for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and early human missions returning to the Moon. NASA is concentrating on three primary areas of ISRU: (1) excavating, handling, and moving lunar regolith, (2) extracting oxygen from lunar regolith, and (3) finding, characterizing, extracting, separating, and storing volatile lunar resources, especially in the permanently shadowed polar craters. To meet the challenges related to technology development for these three primary focus areas, the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project was initiated in February 2005, through funding by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. RESOLVE's objectives are to develop requirements and conceptual designs and to perform breadboard concept verification testing of each experiment module. The final goal is to deliver a flight prototype unit that has been tested in a relevant lunar polar environment. Here we report progress toward the third primary area creating ways to find, characterize, extract, separate, and store volatile lunar resources. The tasks include studying thermal, chemical, and electrical ways to collect such volatile resources as hydrogen, water, nitrogen, methane, and ammonia. We approached this effort through two subtasks: lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) and regolith volatile characterization (RVC).

  14. Hydrokinetic Resource Characterization on the Tanana River Near Nenana, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniolo, H.; Duvoy, P.; Schmid, J.; Johnson, J.

    2012-12-01

    The field of hydrokinetics, in general, is developing rapidly due to high fossil fuel costs and the desire to use renewable energy sources to reduce greenhouse gases. Alaska, in particular, has tidal and in-stream hydrokinetic resources. This presentation focuses on resource characterization in rivers; specifically, the Tanana River near Nenana, Alaska. We present a comprehensive approach to characterize the existing resource and the conditions for installing hydrokinetic devices. The methodology includes: a) extensive field measurements, b) numerical modeling, and c) turbulence analysis. Field work efforts involve bathymetric surveys, velocity measurements, and sediment sampling. Modeling encompasses an existing 2D-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and the calculation of power density along the river reach. Turbulence analysis provides insights on channel stability and energy partition. As results of this combined research approach, preliminary sediment-rating curves were developed, distribution of available power density was calculated and possible sites for turbine deployment were defined.

  15. Purification and partial characterization of the multicomponent dextranase complex of Streptococcus sobrinus and cloning of the dextranase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J F; Barrett, T A; Curtiss, R

    1987-01-01

    The presence of proteases in culture supernatant fluids and on the cell surface of Streptococcus sobrinus and the aggregation of multicomponent enzyme complexes make the isolation and characterization of cell surface proteins difficult. We report a simple purification procedure for dextranase and the cloning of the dextranase structural gene. S. sobrinus culture supernatant fluids were precipitated with 70% ammonium sulfate, and the precipitate was dialyzed against sodium acetate buffer and loaded onto a hemoglobin-Sepharose 4B column connected to a blue dextran-agarose column at 4 degrees C. After being washed with low concentrations of salt, the dextranase and the dextran-binding proteins were eluted with 5 M KI and further purified by gel filtration. Two dextranases (molecular weights, 175,000 and 160,000) were purified and partially characterized. The structural gene for the dextranase of S. sobrinus 6715 strain UAB66, serotype g, was cloned into the cosmid vector, pHC79. Clones were selected for expression of dextranase activity by detection of zones of enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of a blue dextran substrate incorporated into minimal medium agar plates. Release of dextranase was achieved by induction of thermoinducible, excision-defective Escherichia coli K-12 lysogens containing recombinant cosmid molecules of S. sobrinus DNA. Recombinant cosmid molecules were repackaged simultaneously into infectious lambdoid particles. Recombinant clones expressing dextranase activity which varied in size from the high-molecular-weight protein produced by S. sobrinus (i.e., 175,000) to lower-molecular-weight forms expressed by S. sobrinus have been identified and partially characterized. Images PMID:3546141

  16. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  17. Cloning, characterization, and tissue expression pattern of mouse Nma/BAMBI during odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Knight, C; Simmons, D; Gu, T T; Gluhak-Heinrich, J; Pavlin, D; Zeichner-David, M; MacDougall, M

    2001-10-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotides to consensus serine kinase functional domains previously identified a novel, partial rabbit tooth cDNA (Zeichner-David et al., 1992) that was used in this study to identify a full-length mouse clone. A 1390-base-pair cDNA clone was isolated encoding a putative 260-amino-acid open reading frame containing a hydrophobic 25-amino-acid potential transmembrane domain. This clone shares some homology with the TGF-beta type I receptor family, but lacks the intracellular kinase domain. DNA database analysis revealed that this clone has 86% identity to a newly isolated human gene termed non-metastatic gene A and 80% identity to a Xenopus cDNA clone termed BMP and activin membrane bound inhibitor. Here we report the mouse Nma/BAMBI cDNA sequence, the tissue expression pattern, and confirmed expression in dental cell lines. This study demonstrates that Nma/BAMBI is a highly conserved protein across species and is expressed at high levels during odontogenesis. PMID:11706948

  18. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: characterization of major clones and emergence of epidemic clones of sequence type (ST) 36 and ST 121 in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ohadian Moghadam, Solmaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Sadighian, Hooman

    2015-04-01

    Information about the molecular structure of MRSA strains provides significant insights into the epidemiology of this important pathogen. To investigate the molecular characteristics of MRSA isolates, MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular typing by means of spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) grouping and to phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing by means of disk diffusion assay. Then the presence of pvl genes was evaluated. Cluster analysis by eBURSTv3 showed that MRSA isolates belonged to two major clonal complexes (CC); CC8 (ST239, ST585, ST2732, ST1294) and CC30 (ST30, ST36, ST1163) and four singletons. Subsequent analysis of MRSA isolates revealed that the most prevalent SCCmec type was type III (55.8%) followed by type IV (34.9%) and type II (2.3%). Totally 11 different spa types were discriminated among which types t037 and t030 were predominant. The prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA strains was high (20%), which is a matter of great concern, because the PVL is frequently associated with severe and recurrent SSTIs. ST239-III- t037 represented the most predominant MRSA clone. The presence of sequence type (ST) 36 and ST 121 are being reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:25795589

  19. Transfer of the cloned Salmonella SPI-1 type III secretion system and characterization of its expression mechanisms in Gram negative bacteria in comparison with cloned SPI-2.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Chris; Hannagan, Susan; Santiago, Clayton P; Wilson, James W

    2015-11-01

    Cloned type III secretion systems have much potential to be used for bacterial engineering purposes involving protein secretion and substrate translocation directly into eukaryotic cells. We have previously cloned the SPI-1 and SPI-2 type III systems from the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome using plasmid R995 which can conveniently capture large genomic segments for transfer between bacterial strains. However, though expressed and functional in Salmonella strains, cloned SPI-1 was previously observed to have a serious expression defect in other Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. Here we show that cloned SPI-1 expression and secretion can be detected in the secretion preps from E. coli and Citrobacter indicating the first observation of non-Salmonella SPI-1 expression. We describe a compatible plasmid system to introduce engineered SPI-1 substrates into cloned SPI-1 strains. However, a SPI-1 translocation defect is still observed in E. coli, and we show that this is likely due to a defect in SipB expression/secretion in this species. In addition, we also examined the requirement for the hilA and ssrAB regulators in the expression of cloned SPI-1 and SPI-2, respectively. We found a strict requirement for hilA for full cloned SPI-1 expression and secretion. However, though we found that ssrAB is required for full cloned SPI-2 expression in a range of media across different bacteria, it is not required for cloned SPI-2 expression in MgM8 inducing media in S. Typhimurium. This suggests that under SPI-2 inducing conditions in S. Typhimurium, other factors can substitute for loss of ssrAB in cloned SPI-2 expression. The results provide key foundational information for the future use of these cloned systems in bacteria. PMID:26505312

  20. Characterization of in vivo mutated T cell clones from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, S; Sfikakis, P P; Lipnick, R N; Klipple, G L; Steinberg, A D; Tsokos, G C

    1995-02-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased percentages of activated T cells and increased numbers of cells with mutations in their hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene, as judged by growth in the presence of 6-thioguanine. To study the relevance of these mutant T cells to disease pathogenesis, we have assessed the phenotype and functional capabilities of such cells from 21 patients with SLE who never had received cytotoxic drugs. The frequency of T cells with mutations in hprt in the blood of these patients ranged from normal to 25 times normal (mean +/- SEM [21.1 +/- 6.1] x 10(-6) versus [4.8 +/- 0.8] x 10(-6), in 15 age-matched normal individuals, P < 0.001) and correlated significantly with disease duration. CD4+ and CD8+ phenotypes were comparable among mutated and nonmutated clones from both patients and normals. Although the frequency of CD3+CD4-CD8- cells was low, it was increased among SLE-derived T cells (mutated and wild-type) compared with clones derived from normals (5% for SLE vs 1% for normals). A substantial percentage of all clones were able to help autologous B cells to produce anti-ssDNA, 11 of 68 (16%) selected clones and 3 of 28 (11%) nonselected clones. Help for autoantibody production was confined to CD4+ SLE-derived T cell clones. It could be blocked using an anti-HLA-DR mAb, suggesting that classical cognate help was operative. This represents the first estimate of the frequency of T cells able to drive autoantibody production in SLE. PMID:7828367

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of l-methionine γ-lyase from Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Daizou; Yasuda, Eri; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Takashi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    A pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) was cloned from Streptomyces avermitilis catalyzed the degradation of methionine to α-ketobutyrate, methanethiol, and ammonia. The sav7062 gene (1,242 bp) was corresponded to 413 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 42,994 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other MGL enzymes. The sav7062 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and exhibited the MGL catalytic activities. We cloned the enzyme that has the MGL activity in Streptomyces for the first time. PMID:25817696

  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of an ethanol tolerant GH3 β-glucosidase from Myceliophthora thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Paschos, Thomas; Taouki, Ioanna; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The β-glucosidase gene bgl3a from Myceliophthora thermophila, member of the fungal glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 3, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The mature β-glucosidase gene, which results after the excision of one intron and the secreting signal peptide, was placed under the control of the strong alcohol oxidase promoter (AOX1) in the plasmid pPICZαC. The recombinant enzyme (90 kDa) was purified and characterized in order to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Recombinant P. pastoris efficiently secreted β-glucosidase into the medium and produced high level of enzymatic activity (41 U/ml) after 192 h of growth, under methanol induction. MtBgl3a was able to hydrolyze low molecular weight substrates and polysaccharides containing β-glucosidic residues. The Km was found to be 0.39 mM on p-β-NPG and 2.64 mM on cellobiose. Optimal pH and temperature for the p-β-NPG hydrolysis were 5.0 and 70 °C. The β-glucosidase exhibits a half life of 143 min at 60 °C. Kinetic parameters of inhibition were determined for D-glucose, D-xylose and D-gluconic acid, indicating tolerance of the enzyme for these sugars and oxidized products. The recombinant enzyme was stimulated by short chain alcohols and has been shown to efficiently synthesize methyl-D-glucoside in the presence of methanol due to its transglycosylation activity. The stability of MtBgl3a in ethanol was prominent, and it retained most of its original activity after we exposed it to 50% ethanol for 6 h. The high catalytic performance, good thermal stability and tolerance to elevated concentrations of ethanol, D-xylose and D-glucose qualify this enzyme for use in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production, as part of an efficient complete multi-enzyme cocktail. PMID:23638383

  3. The cloning, expression, purification, characterization and modeled structure of Caulobacter crescentus β-Xylosidase I.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Luciana; Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Seixas, Flavio Augusto Vicente; Kadowaki, Marina Kimiko; Sampaio, Silvio César; Silva, José Luis da Conceição; Osaku, Clarice Aoki; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2012-09-01

    The xynB1 gene (CCNA 01040) of Caulobacter crescentus that encodes a bifunctional enzyme containing the conserved β-Xylosidase and α-L-Arabinofuranosidase (β-Xyl I-α-L-Ara) domains was amplified by PCR and cloned into the vector pJet1.2Blunt. The xynB1 gene was subcloned into the vector pPROEX-hta that produces a histidine-fused translation product. The overexpression of recombinant β-Xyl I-α-L-Ara was induced with IPTG in BL21 (DE3) and the resulting intracellular protein was purified with pre-packaged nickel-Sepharose columns. The recombinant β-Xyl I-α-L-Ara exhibited a specific β-Xylosidase I activity of 1.25 U mg(-1) to oNPX and a specific α-L-Arabinofuranosidase activity of 0.47 U mg(-1) to pNPA. The predominant activity of the recombinant enzyme was its β-Xylosidase I activity, and the enzymatic characterization was focused on it. The β-Xylosidase I activity was high over the pH range 3-10, with maximal activity at pH 6. The enzyme activity was optimal at 45 °C, and a high degree of stability was verified over 240 min at this temperature. Moreover, β-Xylosidase activity was inhibited in the presence of the metals Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), and the enzyme exhibited K(M) and V(Max) values of 2.89 ± 0.13 mM and 1.4 ± 0.04 μM min(-1) to oNPX, respectively. The modeled structure of β-xylosidase I showed that its active site is highly conserved compared with other structures of the GH43 family. The increase in the number of contact residues responsible for maintaining the dimeric structure indicates that this dimer is more stable than the tetramer form. PMID:22806729

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of melanotransferrin from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuemei; Li, Dong; Cui, Jun; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-06-01

    Melanotransferrin (MTf), a member of the transferrin families, plays an important role in immune response. But the research about MTf in sea cucumber is limited till now. In this study, the Melanotransferrin (Aj-MTf) gene was firstly cloned and characterized from the sea cucumber Apostichoupus japonicus by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of Aj-MTf is 2,840 bp in length and contains a 2,184 bp open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 727 amino acids. An iron-responsive element-like structure is located at the 5'-UTR of Aj-MTf cDNA. Sequence analysis shows that the Aj-MTf contains two conserved domains, and the binding-iron (III) sites, including eight amino acid residues (D81,Y109,Y215,H283,D425,Y454,Y565 and H634) and three N-linked glycosylation sites (N121V122S123,N173A174S175 and N673S674T675). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses suggested that the Aj-MTf expressions in the coelomic fluid, body cavity wall and respiratory trees were significantly changed from 4 to 24 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The mRNA levels of Aj-MTf in coelomic fluid was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 h in treatment group, and Aj-MTf shared a similar expression pattern with C-type lectin in coelomic fluid, while both genes appears to gradually increase after 4 h of LPS injection. These results indicate that the Aj-MTf plays a pivotal role in immune responses to the LPS challenge in sea cucumber, and provide new information that it is complementary to the sea cucumber immune genes and initiate new researches concerning the genetic basis of the holothurian immune response. PMID:24535270

  5. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in spotted scat, Scatophagus argus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Tao; Yang, Zhao; Chen, Hua-Pu; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Deng, Si-Ping; Li, Guang-Li; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The functions of the MC4R in fish have not been investigated extensively. We herein reported on the cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) MC4R (SAMC4R). It consisted of a 984bp open reading frame predicted to encode a protein of 327 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that SAMC4R was highly homologous (>80%) at amino acid levels to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SAMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4R. Using RT-PCR, we showed that in addition to brain, pituitary, and gonads, mc4r mRNA was also widely expressed in peripheral tissues of spotted scat in sexually divergent pattern. With human MC4R (hMC4R) as a control, several agonists including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-MSH (NDP-MSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and THIQ (N-[(3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium3-ylcarbonyl]-(1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine), were used to investigate the binding and signaling properties of SAMC4R. The results showed that SAMC4R bound NDP-MSH with the highest affinity followed by ACTH (1-24) and α-MSH. Similar ranking was also found for hMC4R, although SAMC4R had two to five-fold higher affinities for these ligands. THIQ did not displace NDP-MSH from SAMC4R, different from hMC4R. α-MSH, NDP-MSH, and ACTH (1-24) were identified as potent agonists to stimulate cAMP generation followed by THIQ in SAMC4R. The availability of SAMC4R and its pharmacological characteristics will facilitate the investigation of its function in regulating diverse physiological processes in spotted scat. PMID:27080551

  6. Cloning, expression, and characterization of recombinant nitric oxide synthase-like protein from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Midha, Shuchi; Mishra, Rajeev; Aziz, M.A.; Sharma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Ashish; Khandelwal, Puneet; Bhatnagar, Rakesh . E-mail: rakbhat01@yahoo.com

    2005-10-14

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is amongst a family of evolutionarily conserved enzymes, involved in a multi-turnover process that results in NO as a product. The significant role of NO in various pathological and physiological processes has created an interest in this enzyme from several perspectives. This study describes for the first time, cloning and expression of a NOS-like protein, baNOS, from Bacillus anthracis, a pathogenic bacterium responsible for causing anthrax. baNOS was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble and catalytically active enzyme. Homology models generated for baNOS indicated that the key structural features that are involved in the substrate and active site interaction have been highly conserved. Further, the behavior of baNOS in terms of heme-substrate interactions and heme-transitions was studied in detail. The optical perturbation spectra of the heme domain demonstrated that the ligands perturb the heme site in a ligand specific manner. baNOS forms a five-coordinate, high-spin complex with L-arginine analogs and a six-coordinate low-spin complex with inhibitor imidazole. Studies indicated that the binding of L-arginine, N {sup {omega}}-hydroxy-L-arginine, and imidazole produces various spectroscopic species that closely correspond to the equivalent complexes of mammalian NOS. The values of spectral binding constants further corroborated these results. The overall conservation of the key structural features and the correlation of heme-substrate interactions in baNOS and mammalian NOS, thus, point towards an interesting phenomenon of convergent evolution. Importantly, the NO generated by NOS of mammalian macrophages plays a potent role in antimicrobicidal activity. Because of the existence of high structural and behavioral similarity between mammalian NOS and baNOS, we propose that NO produced by B. anthracis may also have a pivotal pathophysiological role in anthrax infection. Therefore, this first report of characterization of a NOS

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of two thermostable carboxyl esterases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ewis, Hosam E; Abdelal, Ahmed T; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2004-03-31

    Screening of the genomic libraries of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC12980 and ATCC7954 for esterase/lipase activity led to the isolation of two positive clones. The results of subclonings and sequence analyses identified two genes, est30 and est55, encoding two different carboxylesterases, and genetic rearrangement in the est55 locus was revealed from genomic comparison. The est30 gene encodes a polypeptide of 248 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 28338 Da, and the est55 gene encodes a polypeptide of 499 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54867 Da. Both enzymes were purified to near homogeneity from recombinant strains of Escherichia coli. The results of enzyme characterization showed that while both enzymes possess optimal activities with short chain acyl derivatives, Est55 has a broader pH tolerance (pH 8-9) and optimal temperature range (30-60 degrees C) than Est30. The activation energy of Est55 (35.7 kJ/mol) was found to be significantly lower than that of Est30 (101.9 kJ/mol). Both enzymes were stable at 60 degrees C for more than 2 h; at 70 degrees C, the half-life for thermal inactivation was 40 and 180 min for Est55 and Est30, respectively. With p-nitrophenyl caproate as the substrate and assayed at 60 degrees C, Est55 had K(m) and k(cat) values of 0.5 microM and 39758 s(-1) while Est30 exhibited values of 2.16 microM and 38 s(-1). Inhibition studies indicated that both Est30 and Est55 were strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and tosyl-l-phenylalanine, consistent with the proposed presence of Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad of the alpha/beta hydrolase family. The enzymatic properties of Est30 and Est55 reported here warrant the potential applications of these enzymes in biotechnological industries. PMID:15033540

  8. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase Gene from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Rui; Yu, You-Ben; Xiao, Yao; Li, Dong-Hua; Xiao, Bin; Yu, Oliver; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaves contain abundant flavan-3-ols, which include dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H: EC 1.14.13.21) is one of the enzymes in the establishment of the hydroxylation pattern. A gene encoding F3′H, designated as CsF3′H, was isolated from Camellia sinensis with a homology-based cloning technique and deposited in the GenBank (GenBank ID: KT180309). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CsF3′H was highly homologous with the characterized F3′Hs from other plant species. Four conserved cytochrome P450-featured motifs and three F3′H-specific conserved motifs were discovered in the protein sequence of CsF3′H. Enzymatic analysis of the heterologously expressed CsF3′H in yeast demonstrated that tea F3′H catalyzed the 3′-hydroxylation of naringenin, dihydrokaempferol and kaempferol. Apparent Km values for these substrates were 17.08, 143.64 and 68.06 μM, and their apparent Vmax values were 0.98, 0.19 and 0.44 pM·min−1, respectively. Transcription level of CsF3′H in the new shoots, during tea seed germination was measured, along with that of other key genes for flavonoid biosynthesis using real-time PCR technique. The changes in 3′,4′-flavan-3-ols, 3′,4′,5′-flavan-3-ols and flavan-3-ols, were consistent with the expression level of CsF3′H and other related genes in the leaves. In the study of nitrogen supply for the tea plant growth, our results showed the expression level of CsF3′H and all other tested genes increased in response to nitrogen depletion after 12 days of treatment, in agreement with a corresponding increase in 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols content in the leaves. All these results suggest the importance of CsF3′H in the biosynthesis of 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols in tea leaves. PMID:26907264

  9. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel erythrose reductase from Candida magnoliae JH110

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Erythrose reductase (ER) catalyzes the final step of erythritol production, which is reducing erythrose to erythritol using NAD(P)H as a cofactor. ER has gained interest because of its importance in the production of erythritol, which has extremely low digestibility and approved safety for diabetics. Although ERs were purified and characterized from microbial sources, the entire primary structure and the corresponding DNA for ER still remain unknown in most of erythritol-producing yeasts. Candida magnoliae JH110 isolated from honeycombs produces a significant amount of erythritol, suggesting the presence of erythrose metabolizing enzymes. Here we provide the genetic sequence and functional characteristics of a novel NADPH-dependent ER from C. magnoliae JH110. Results The gene encoding a novel ER was isolated from an osmophilic yeast C. magnoliae JH110. The ER gene composed of 849 nucleotides encodes a polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 31.4 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of ER showed a high degree of similarity to other members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily including three ER isozymes from Trichosporonoides megachiliensis SNG-42. The intact coding region of ER from C. magnoliae JH110 was cloned, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli using a combined approach of gene fusion and molecular chaperone co-expression, and subsequently purified to homogeneity. The enzyme displayed a temperature and pH optimum at 42°C and 5.5, respectively. Among various aldoses, the C. magnoliae JH110 ER showed high specific activity for reduction of erythrose to the corresponding alcohol, erythritol. To explore the molecular basis of the catalysis of erythrose reduction with NADPH, homology structural modeling was performed. The result suggested that NADPH binding partners are completely conserved in the C. magnoliae JH110 ER. Furthermore, NADPH interacts with the side chains Lys252, Thr255, and Arg258, which could account for the enzyme

  10. Cloning, sequencing and characterization of lipase genes from a polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing Pseudomonas resinovorans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipase (lip) and lipase-specific foldase (lif) genes of a biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate- (PHA-) synthesizing Pseudomonas resinovorans NRRL B-2649 were cloned using primers based on consensus sequences, followed by PCR-based genome walking. Sequence analyses showed a putative Lip gene-product (...

  11. Cloning and Characterization of a Putative GS3 Ortholog Involved in Maize Kernel Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the second exon of GS3 is the causal mutation for grain size and weight variation in rice. This gene has been cloned and is hypothesized to be involved in the evolution of grain size during domestication. In this study, we isolated the maize homolog, ZmGS3, ...

  12. Cloning and characterization of an alpha-glucuronidase from a mixed microbial population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-Glucuronidase enzymes play an essential role in the full enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Up to this point, all genes encoding alpha-glucuronidase enzymes have been cloned from individual, pure culture strains. Using a high-throughput screening strategy, we have isolated the first alph...

  13. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CDNA ENCODING GIARDIA LAMBLIA d-GIARDIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA coding for d-giardin was cloned from Giardia lamblia trophozoites in order to localize the protein and study its function in mediating surface attachment. Recombinant d-giardin antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as a poly-histidine fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatogr...

  14. Cloning, expression and characterization of a lipase encoding gene from human oral metagenome.

    PubMed

    Preeti, Arivaradarajan; Hemalatha, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Mullany, Peter; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2014-09-01

    The human oral metagenomic DNA cloned into plasmid pUC19 was used to construct a DNA library in Escherichia coli. Functional screening of 40,000 metagenomic clones led to identification of a clone LIP2 that exhibited halo on tributyrin agar plate. Sequence analysis of LIP2 insert DNA revealed a 939 bp ORF (omlip1) which showed homology to lipase 1 of Acinetobacter junii SH205. The omlip1 ORF was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) using pET expression system. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity and the biochemical properties were studied. The purified OMLip1 hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl esters and triacylglycerol esters of medium and long chain fatty acids, indicating the enzyme is a true lipase. The purified protein exhibited a pH and temperature optima of 7 and 37 °C respectively. The lipase was found to be stable at pH range of 6-7 and at temperatures lower than 40 °C. Importantly, the enzyme activity was unaltered, by the presence or absence of many divalent cations. The metal ion insensitivity of OMLip1offers its potential use in industrial processes. PMID:24891735

  15. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 39 Xylosidase from Bacillus Halodurans C-125

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 39 xylosidase (BH1068) from the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans strain C-125 was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and the recombinant gene product termed XylBH1068 was expressed in E. coli. Of the artificial substrates tested, XylBH1068 hydrolyzed nitro...

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested ...

  17. Cloning and characterization of a recombinant family 5 endoglucanase from Bacillus licheniformis strain B-41361

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a family 5 endoglucanase, cel5A, was cloned from the moderate thermophile Bacillus licheniformis strain B-41361. The primary structure of the translated cel5A gene predicts a 49 amino acid putative secretion signal and a 485 residue endoglucanase consisting of an N-terminal family...

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    MedlinePlus

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  19. Cloning, expression and characterization of glucokinase gene involved in the glucose-6- phosphate formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Hanumanthu Prasanna; Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Vasu, Dudipeta; Swarupa, Vimjam; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Krishna Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) formation in Staphylococcus aureus is catalysed by glucokinase (glkA) gene under high glucose concentration leading to upregulation of various pathogenic factors; therefore the present study is aimed in the cloning and characterization of glk A gene from S. aureus ATCC12600. The glk A gene was cloned in the Sma I site of pQE 30, sequenced (Accession number: JN645812) and expressed in E. coli DH5α. The recombinant glk A expressed from the resultant glk A 1 clone was purified using nickel metal chelate chromatography, the pure enzyme gave single band in SDS-PAGE with molecular weight of 33kDa. The rglk A showed very high affinity to glucose Km 5.1±0.06mM with Hill coefficient of 1.66±0.032mM. Analysis of glucokinase sequence of S. aureus showed presence of typical ATP binding site and ROK motif CNCGRSGCIE. Sequentially and phylogenetically S. aureus glk A exhibited low identity with other bacterial glk A and 21% homology with human glucokinase (GCK). Functionally, S. aureus glk A showed higher rate of G-6-P formation compared to human GCK which may have profound role in the pathogenesis. PMID:23519063

  20. Development and characterization of an in vivo pathogenic molecular clone of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Cook, S J; Berger, S L; Lichtenstein, D L; Ghabrial, N N; Montelaro, R C; Issel, C J

    1998-02-01

    An infectious nonpathogenic molecular clone (19-2-6A) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was modified by substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment amplified by PCR techniques from a pathogenic variant (EIAV(PV)) of the cell culture-adapted strain of EIAV (EIAV(PR)). This substitution consisted of coding sequences for 77 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of the integrase, the S1 (encoding the second exon of tat), S2, and S3 (encoding the second exon of rev) open reading frames, the complete env gene (including the first exon of rev), and the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR). Modified 19-2-6A molecular clones were designated EIAV(PV3.3), and infection of a single pony (678) with viruses derived from a mixture of five of these molecular clones induced clinical signs of acute equine infectious anemia (EIA) at 23 days postinfection (dpi). As a consequence of this initial study, a single molecular clone, EIAV(PV3.3#3) (redesignated EIAV(UK)), was selected for further study and inoculated into two ponies (613 and 614) and two horses (700 and 764). Pony 614 and the two horses developed febrile responses by 12 dpi, which was accompanied by a 48 to 64% reduction in platelet number, whereas pony 613 did not develop fever (40.6 degrees C) until 76 dpi. EIAV could be isolated from the plasma of these animals by 5 to 7 dpi, and all became seropositive for antibodies to this virus by 21 dpi. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence demonstrated that the 3.3-kbp 3' fragment of EIAV(UK) differed from the consensus sequence of EIAV(PV) by just a single amino acid residue in the second exon of the rev gene. Complete homology with the EIAV(PV) consensus sequence was observed in the hypervariable region of the LTR. However, EIAV(UK) was found to contain an unusual 68-bp nucleotide insertion/duplication in a normally conserved region of the LTR sequence. These results demonstrate that substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment from the EIAV(PV) strain into the infectious nonpathogenic

  1. Cloning and Characterization of an Intracellular Esterase from the Wine-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Oenococcus oeni▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sumby, Krista M.; Matthews, Angela H.; Grbin, Paul R.; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of EstB28, the first esterase to be so characterized from the wine-associated lactic acid bacterium, Oenococcus oeni. The published sequence for O. oeni strain PSU-1 was used to identify putative esterase genes and design PCR primers in order to amplify the corresponding region from strain Ooeni28, an isolate intended for inoculation of wines. In this way a 912-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative esterase of 34.5 kDa was obtained. The amino acid sequence indicated that EstB28 is a member of family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the GDSAG motif common to other lactic acid bacteria. This ORF was cloned into Escherichia coli using an appropriate expression system, and the recombinant esterase was purified. Characterization of EstB28 revealed that the optimum temperature, pH, and ethanol concentration were 40°C, pH 5.0, and 28% (vol/vol), respectively. EstB28 also retained marked activity under conditions relevant to winemaking (10 to 20°C, pH 3.5, 14% [vol/vol] ethanol). Kinetic constants were determined for EstB28 with p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked substrates ranging in chain length from C2 to C18. EstB28 exhibited greatest specificity for C2 to C4 pNP-linked substrates. PMID:19734337

  2. Characterization of cDNA clones for the human c-yes gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, J; Semba, K; Yamanashi, Y; Nishizawa, M; Miyajima, N; Yamamoto, T; Toyoshima, K

    1987-01-01

    Three c-yes cDNA clones were obtained from poly(A)+ RNA of human embryo fibroblasts. Sequence analysis of the clones showed that they contained inserts corresponding to nearly full-length human c-yes mRNA, which could encode a polypeptide of 543 amino acids with a relative molecular weight (Mr) of 60,801. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein has no apparent membrane-spanning region or suspected ligand binding domain and closely resembles pp60c-src. Comparison of the sequences of c-yes and v-yes revealed that the v-yes gene contains most of the c-yes coding sequence except the region encoding its extreme carboxyl terminus. The region missing from the v-yes protein is the part that is highly conserved in cellular gene products of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. PMID:2436037

  3. Molecular characterization of cloned variants of Coxiella burnetii isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Ning, Z; Yu, S R; Quan, Y G; Xue, Z

    1992-03-01

    To study the molecular properties of Coxiella burnetii phase variants we cloned the phase variants of C. burnetii Qiyi (CBQY) strain by the red plaque technique. Three cloned strains, CBQYIC3 (phase I), CBQYIIC7 (phase II) and CBQYIIC5 (semirough-phase) were analysed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot assay, plasmid isolation and agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA restriction fragments. The results suggest that the unique phase-dependent substance is a lipopolysaccharide and that most protein components of phase I and phase II cells are shared. No significant differences of DNA restriction fragments were found between clonal isolates of phase I and phase II C. burnetii CBQY strains. A plasmid of approximately 56 Kb was isolated from both phase I and phase II variants indicating that phase variation probably could not be attributed to its presence or absence. PMID:1359769

  4. Cloning and characterization of the Bacillus licheniformis gene coding for alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Hulett, F M

    1984-01-01

    The structural gene for alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.1) of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 was cloned into the Pst1 site of pMK2004 from chromosomal DNA. The gene was cloned on an 8.5-kilobase DNA fragment. A restriction map was developed, and the gene was subcloned on a 4.2-kilobase DNA fragment. The minimum coding region of the gene was localized to a 1.3-kilobase region. Western blot analysis was used to show that the gene coded for a 60,000-molecular-weight protein which cross-reacts with anti-alkaline phosphatase prepared against the salt-extractable membrane alkaline phosphatase of B. licheniformis MC14 . Images PMID:6327655

  5. Cloning and characterization of the Bacillus licheniformis gene coding for alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hulett, F M

    1984-06-01

    The structural gene for alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.1) of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 was cloned into the Pst1 site of pMK2004 from chromosomal DNA. The gene was cloned on an 8.5-kilobase DNA fragment. A restriction map was developed, and the gene was subcloned on a 4.2-kilobase DNA fragment. The minimum coding region of the gene was localized to a 1.3-kilobase region. Western blot analysis was used to show that the gene coded for a 60,000-molecular-weight protein which cross-reacts with anti-alkaline phosphatase prepared against the salt-extractable membrane alkaline phosphatase of B. licheniformis MC14 . PMID:6327655

  6. Cloning and characterization of the gene for Escherichia coli seryl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Härtlein, M; Madern, D; Leberman, R

    1987-01-01

    Seryl-tRNA synthetase is the gene product of the serS locus in Escherichia coli. Its gene has been cloned by complementation of a serS temperature sensitive mutant K28 with an E. coli gene bank DNA. The resulting clones overexpress seryl-tRNA synthetase by a factor greater than 50 and more than 6% of the total cellular protein corresponds to the enzyme. The DNA sequence of the complete coding region and the 5'- and 3' untranslated regions was determined. Protein sequence comparison of SerRS with all available aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase sequences revealed some regions of significant homology particularly with the isoleucyl- and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases from E. coli. Images PMID:3029694

  7. Functional Cloning and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from the Chicken Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Culture-independent sampling in conjunction with a functional cloning approach identified diverse antibiotic resistance genes for different classes of antibiotics in gut microbiomes from both conventionally raised and free-range chickens. Many of the genes are phylogenetically distant from known resistance genes. Two unique genes that conferred ampicillin and spectinomycin resistance were also functional in Campylobacter, a distant relative of the Escherichia coli host used to generate the genomic libraries. PMID:22286984

  8. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of endoglucanase genes from Fibrobacter succinogenes AR1.

    PubMed Central

    Cavicchioli, R; Watson, K

    1991-01-01

    A cosmid gene library was constructed in Escherichia coli from genomic DNA isolated from the ruminal anaerobe Fibrobacter succinogenes AR1. Clones were screened on carboxymethyl cellulose, and 8 colonies that produced large clearing zones and 25 colonies that produced small clearing zones were identified. Southern blot hybridization revealed the existence of at least three separate genes encoding cellulase activity. pRC093, which is representative of cosmid clones that produce large clearing zones, was subcloned in pGem-1, and the resulting hybrid pRCEH directed synthesis of endoglucanase activity localized on a 2.1-kb EcoRI-HindIII insert. Activity was expressed from this fragment when it was cloned in both orientations in pGem-1 and pGem-2, indicating that F. succinogenes promoters functioned successfully in E. coli. A high level of endoglucanase activity was detected on acid-swollen cellulose, ball-milled cellulose, and carboxymethyl cellulose; and a moderate level was detected on filter paper, Avicel, lichenan, and xylan. Most activity (80%) was localized in the periplasm of E. coli, with low but significant levels (16%) being detected in the extracellular medium. The periplasmic endoglucanase had an estimated molecular weight of 46,500, had an optimum temperature of 39 degrees C, and exhibited activity over a broad pH range, with a maximum at pH 5.0. Images PMID:2014986

  9. Molecular and biological characterization of a neurovirulent molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, M T; Hauer, D A; Mankowski, J L; Zink, M C; Clements, J E

    1997-01-01

    To identify the molecular determinants of neurovirulence, we constructed an infectious simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) molecular clone, SIV/17E-Fr, that contained the 3' end of a neurovirulent strain of SIV, SIV/17E-Br, derived by in vivo virus passage. SIV/17E-Fr is macrophage tropic in vitro and neurovirulent in macaques. In contrast, a molecular clone, SIV/17E-Cl, that contains the SU and a portion of the TM sequences of SIV/17E-Br is macrophage tropic but not neurovirulent. To identify the amino acids that accounted for the replication differences between SIV/17E-Fr and SIV/17E-Cl in primary macaque cells in vitro, additional infectious molecular clones were constructed. Analysis of these recombinant viruses revealed that changes in the TM portion of the envelope protein were required for the highest level of replication in primary macaque macrophages and brain cells derived from the microvessel endothelium. In addition, a full-length Nef protein is necessary for optimum virus replication in both of these cell types. Finally, viruses expressing a full-length Nef protein in conjunction with the changes in the TM had the highest specific infectivity in a sMAGI assay. Thus, changes in the TM and nef genes between SIV/17E-Cl and SIV/17E-Fr account for replication differences in vitro and correlate with replication in the central nervous system in vivo. PMID:9223467

  10. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter. PMID:26907376

  11. Establishment and characterization of a chimeric infectious cDNA clone of classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T S; Xia, Y H

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease among swine that has an important economic impact worldwide. There are two important CSFV strains in China, Shimen and hog cholera lapinized virus (HCLV). Shimen strain is highly virulent while HCLV, also referred to as C-strain, is a live attenuated vaccine strain considered to be one of the most effective and safest live vaccines. In this study, a chimeric infectious cDNA clone of CSFV named pT7SM-c was engineered by replacing the Erns genomic region of an infectious clone of CSFV Shimen strain, pT7SM, with the same region obtained from HCLV. RNA transcripts of pT7SM-c containing an engineered EcoRI site that served as a genetic marker were directly infectious in PK15 cells. The rescued virus vT7SM-c showed similar growth kinetics and cytopathic effect with the parental virus vT7SM in the cells. The chimeric infectious cDNA clone can be used as a practical tool for further studying of the virulence, protein function and pathogenesis of CSFV through genetic manipulation. PMID:27265471

  12. Cloning, characterization, and expression of two alpha-amylase genes from Aspergillus niger var. awamori.

    PubMed

    Korman, D R; Bayliss, F T; Barnett, C C; Carmona, C L; Kodama, K H; Royer, T J; Thompson, S A; Ward, M; Wilson, L J; Berka, R M

    1990-03-01

    Using synthetic oligonucleotide probes, we cloned genomic DNA sequences encoding an alpha-amylase gene from Aspergillus niger var. awamori (A. awamori) on a 5.8 kb EcoRI fragment. Hybridization experiments, using a portion of this cloned fragment to probe DNA from A. awamori, suggested the presence of two alpha-amylase gene copies which were subsequently cloned as 7 kb (designated as amyA) and 4 kb (amyB) HindIII fragments. DNA sequence analysis of the amyA and amyB genes revealed the following: (1) Both genes are arranged as nine exons and eight introns; (2) The nucleotide sequences of amyA and amyB are identical throughout all but the last few nucleotides of their respective coding regions; (3) The amyA and amyB genes from A. awamori share extensive homology (greater than or equal to 98% identity) with the genes encoding Taka-amylase from A. oryzae. In order to test whether both amyA and amyB were functional in the genome, we constructed vectors containing gene fusions of either amyA and amyB to bovine prochymosin cDNA and used these vectors to transform A. awamori. Transformants which contained either the amyA- or amyB-prochymosin gene fusions produced extracellular chymosin, suggesting that both genes are functional. PMID:2340591

  13. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  14. Cloning and functional characterization of Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (FADS2) in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Tinti, E; Mellery, J; Michaux, C; Larondelle, Y; Perpète, E; Kestemont, P

    2016-01-01

    The Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a freshwater carnivorous species of high interest to diversify inland aquaculture. However, little is known about its ability to bioconvert polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from plant oils into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). In this study, special attention has been given to the fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) which is commonly described to be a rate-limiting enzyme of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. This work reports on the cloning, tissue expression and functional characterization of the Eurasian perch fads2, but also on the cloning of two alternative splicing transcripts named fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2. The fads2 cDNA cloned is composed of an open reading frame (ORF) of 1338 nucleotides (nt) and encodes a protein of 445 amino acids. This deduced amino acid sequence displays the typical structure of microsomal FADS2 including two transmembrane domains and an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain with the "HPGG" motif. Quantitative real-time PCR assay of fads2, fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2 expressions revealed that the fads2 transcript was mainly expressed in the liver and intestine and exhibited a typical gene expression pattern of freshwater species while fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2 genes were highly expressed in the brain, followed by the liver and intestine. Functional characterization of Eurasian perch FADS2 in transgenic yeast showed a fully functional Δ6 desaturation activity toward C18 PUFA substrates, without residual Δ5 and Δ8 desaturase activities. PMID:26478265

  15. Cloning, Sequencing, and Characterization of a Gene Cluster Involved in EDTA Degradation from the Bacterium BNC1

    PubMed Central

    Bohuslavek, Jan; Payne, Jason W.; Liu, Yong; Bolton, Harvey; Xun, Luying

    2001-01-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent, widely used in many industries. Because of its ability to mobilize heavy metals and radionuclides, it can be an environmental pollutant. The EDTA monooxygenases that initiate EDTA degradation have been purified and characterized in bacterial strains BNC1 and DSM 9103. However, the genes encoding the enzymes have not been reported. The EDTA monooxygenase gene was cloned by probing a genomic library of strain BNC1 with a probe generated from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the monooxygenase. Sequencing of the cloned DNA fragment revealed a gene cluster containing eight genes. Two of the genes, emoA and emoB, were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene products, EmoA and EmoB, were purified and characterized. Both experimental data and sequence analysis showed that EmoA is a reduced flavin mononucleotide-utilizing monooxygenase and that EmoB is an NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase. The two-enzyme system oxidized EDTA to ethylenediaminediacetate (EDDA) and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) to iminodiacetate (IDA) with the production of glyoxylate. The emoA and emoB genes were cotranscribed when BNC1 cells were grown on EDTA. Other genes in the cluster encoded a hypothetical transport system, a putative regulatory protein, and IDA oxidase that oxidizes IDA and EDDA. We concluded that this gene cluster is responsible for the initial steps of EDTA and NTA degradation. PMID:11157232

  16. Characterization of long cDNA clones from human adult spleen. II. The complete sequences of 81 cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Jikuya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Jun; Kikuno, Reiko; Hirosawa, Makoto; Nagase, Takahiro; Nomura, Nobuo; Ohara, Osamu

    2003-02-28

    To accumulate information on the coding sequences (CDSs) of unidentified genes, we have conducted a sequencing project of human long cDNA clones. Both the end sequences of approximately 10,000 cDNA clones from two size-fractionated human spleen cDNA libraries (average sizes of 4.5 kb and 5.6 kb) were determined by single-pass sequencing to select cDNAs with unidentified sequences. We herein present the entire sequences of 81 cDNA clones, most of which were selected by two approaches based on their protein-coding potentialities in silico: Fifty-eight cDNA clones were selected as those having protein-coding potentialities at the 5'-end of single-pass sequences by applying the GeneMark analysis; and 20 cDNA clones were selected as those expected to encode proteins larger than 100 amino acid residues by analysis of the human genome sequences flanked by both the end sequences of cDNAs using the GENSCAN gene prediction program. In addition to these newly identified cDNAs, three cDNA clones were isolated by colony hybridization experiments using probes corresponding to known gene sequences since these cDNAs are likely to contain considerable amounts of new information regarding the genes already annotated. The sequence data indicated that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding CDSs of cDNA clones analyzed here were 5.0 kb and 2.0 kb (670 amino acid residues), respectively. From the results of homology and motif searches against the public databases, functional categories of the 29 predicted gene products could be assigned; 86% of these predicted gene products (25 gene products) were classified into proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. PMID:12693554

  17. Cloning, characterization, and mapping of human homolog of mouse T-cell death-associated gene.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, H; Zeng, Z; Su, K; Fan, P; Shell, B K; Carter, K C; Li, Y

    1998-06-01

    To establish immunologic autotolerance, self-reactive immature thymocytes are eliminated by negative selection during T-cell development in the thymus. Self-reactive clones undergo apoptosis after stimulation via the T-cell receptor (TCR). The process of cell selection is determined by the dedication of the TCR for tolerogenic antigen/major histocompatibility complex. We have cloned a novel human gene that is highly homologous in the transmembrane and G protein-coupling domains to mouse T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8). The gene, human TDAG8 (hTDAG8), which belongs to the G protein-couple receptor superfamily, encodes a protein of 337 amino acids. An expressed sequence tag (EST) corresponding to hTDAG8 was identified from a human thyroid cDNA library and subsequently used to isolate a full-length genomic clone. Northern blot analysis revealed that the hTDAG8 gene is expressed predominantly in lymphoid tissues, including peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus. Stably transfected mammalian CHO cells were generated, and heterologous expression of hTDAG8 was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that hTDAG8 maps to human chromosome 14q31-32.1, a region in which abnormalities associated with human T-cell lymphoma or leukemia are found. Taken together, these data implicate the hTDAG8 gene in T-cell-associated diseases in humans, but its actual physiological and pathological role in the human immune system needs further investigation. PMID:9655242

  18. Cloning and Characterization of the Human Trefoil Factor 3 Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yifang; Mao, Xuefei; Deng, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Human trefoil factor 3 (hTFF3) is a small-molecule peptide with potential medicinal value. Its main pharmacological function is to alleviate gastrointestinal mucosal injuries caused by various factors and promote the repair of damaged mucosa. However, how its transcription is regulated is not yet known. The aim of this study was to clone the hTFF3 gene promoter region, identify the core promoter and any transcription factors that bind to the promoter, and begin to clarify the regulation of its expression. The 5′ flanking sequence of the hTFF3 gene was cloned from human whole blood genomic DNA by PCR. Truncated promoter fragments with different were cloned and inserted into the pGL3-Basic vector to determine the position of the core hTFF3 promoter. Transcription element maintaining basic transcriptional activity was assessed by mutation techniques. Protein-DNA interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). RNA interference and gene over-expression were performed to assay the effect of transcription factor on the hTFF3 expression. The results showed that approximately 1,826 bp of the fragment upstream of hTFF3 was successfully amplified, and its core promoter region was determined to be from −300 bp to −280 bp through analysis of truncated mutants. Mutation analysis confirmed that the sequence required to maintain basic transcriptional activity was accurately positioned from −300 bp to −296 bp. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that this area contained a Sp1 binding site. Sp1 binding to the hTFF3 promoter was confirmed by ChIP experiments. Sp1 over-expression and interference experiments showed that Sp1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of the hTFF3 promoter and increased hTFF3 expression. This study demonstrated that Sp1 plays an important role in maintaining the transcription of hTFF3. PMID:24743382

  19. Functional Identification and Characterization of Genes Cloned from Halophyte Seashore Paspalum Conferring Salinity and Cadmium Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Chuanming; Tan, Zhiqun; Liu, Jun; Zhuang, Lili; Yang, Zhimin; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-affected and heavy metal-contaminated soils limit the growth of glycophytic plants. Identifying genes responsible for superior tolerance to salinity and heavy metals in halophytes has great potential for use in developing salinity- and Cd-tolerant glycophytes. The objective of this study was to identify salinity- and Cd-tolerance related genes in seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), a halophytic perennial grass species, using yeast cDNA expression library screening method. Based on the Gateway-compatible vector system, a high-quality entry library was constructed, which contained 9.9 × 106 clones with an average inserted fragment length of 1.48 kb representing a 100% full-length rate. The yeast expression libraries were screened in a salinity-sensitive and a Cd-sensitive yeast mutant. The screening yielded 32 salinity-tolerant clones harboring 18 salinity-tolerance genes and 20 Cd-tolerant clones, including five Cd-tolerance genes. qPCR analysis confirmed that most of the 18 salinity-tolerance and five Cd-tolerance genes were up-regulated at the transcript level in response to salinity or Cd stress in seashore paspalum. Functional analysis indicated that salinity-tolerance genes from seashore paspalum could be involved mainly in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant systems, protein modification, iron transport, vesicle traffic, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Cd-tolerance genes could be associated with regulating pathways that are involved in phytochelatin synthesis, HSFA4-related stress protection, CYP450 complex, and sugar metabolism. The 18 salinity-tolerance genes and five Cd-tolerance genes could be potentially used as candidate genes for genetic modification of glycophytic grass species to improve salinity and Cd tolerance and for further analysis of molecular mechanisms regulating salinity and Cd tolerance. PMID:26904068

  20. Cloning and functional characterization of the bile acid-sensitive methotrexate carrier from rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Honscha, W; Dötsch, K U; Thomsen, N; Petzinger, E

    2000-06-01

    We have cloned two complementary DNAs (cDNAs), RL-Mtx-1 and RL-Mtx-2, corresponding to the bile acid- sensitive methotrexate carrier from rat liver by direct full-length rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) using degenerated primers that were deduced from published sequences of tumor cell methotrexate transporters. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cosM6 cells, both clones mediate methotrexate and bumetanide transport. RL-Mtx-1 consists of 2,445 bp with an open reading frame of 1,536 bp. The corresponding protein with 512 amino acids has a molecular weight of 58 kd. RL-Mtx-2 (2,654 bp) differs by an additional insert of 203 bp. This insert is located in frame at position 1,196 of the RL-Mtx-1 and contains the typical splice junction sites at the 5' and 3' end, indicating that the RL-Mtx-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) is generated by alternative splicing. The insert contains a stop codon that shortens the RL-Mtx-2 protein to 330 amino acids (38 kd). Both cDNAs contain the binding site sequence for the dioxin/nuclear translocator responsive element (Ah/Arnt-receptor) in conjunction with a barbiturate recognition sequence (Barbie box). Preliminary results show that the Barbie box acts as a negative regulatory element. The two liver cDNA clones show homologies to the published sequences of folate and the reduced folate carriers, but no homology is found to the transport systems for organic anions like the Ntcp1, oatp1, OAT-K1, and OAT1. Expression of the mRNA for the methotrexate carrier is found in liver, kidney, heart, brain, spleen, lung, and skeletal muscle, but not in the testis as revealed by Northern blot analysis. The highest abundance of the mRNA is found in the kidney. PMID:10827155

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of mutant and wild-type human. beta. -actin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, J.; Gunning, P.; Porreca, P.; Ng, S.Y.; Lin, C.H.; Kedes, L.

    1984-10-01

    There are more than 20 ..beta..-actin-specific sequences in the human genome, many of which are pseudogenes. To facilitate the isolation of potentially functional ..beta..-actin genes, they used the new method of B. Seed for selecting genomic clones by homologous recombination. A derivative of the ..pi..VX miniplasmid, ..pi..AN7..beta..1, was constructed by insertion of the 600-base-pair 3' untranslated region of the ..beta..-actin mRNA expressed in human fibroblasts. Five clones containing ..beta..-actin sequences were selected from an amplified human fetal gene library by homologous recombination between library phage and the miniplasmid. One of these clones contained a complete ..beta..-actin gene with a coding sequence identical to that determined for the mRNA of human fibroblasts. A DNA fragment consisting of mostly intervening sequences from this gene was then use to identify 13 independent recombinant copies of the analogous gene from two specially constructed gene libraries, each containing one of the two types of mutant ..beta..-actin genes found in a line of neoplastic human fibroblasts. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences encoded by the unmutated gene predict that a guanine-to-adenine transition is responsible for the glycine-to-aspartic acid mutation at codon 244 and would also result in the loss of a HaeIII site. Detection of this HaeIII polymorphism among the fibroblast-derived closed verified the identity of the ..beta..-actin gene expressed in human fibroblasts.

  2. Functional Identification and Characterization of Genes Cloned from Halophyte Seashore Paspalum Conferring Salinity and Cadmium Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Chuanming; Tan, Zhiqun; Liu, Jun; Zhuang, Lili; Yang, Zhimin; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-affected and heavy metal-contaminated soils limit the growth of glycophytic plants. Identifying genes responsible for superior tolerance to salinity and heavy metals in halophytes has great potential for use in developing salinity- and Cd-tolerant glycophytes. The objective of this study was to identify salinity- and Cd-tolerance related genes in seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), a halophytic perennial grass species, using yeast cDNA expression library screening method. Based on the Gateway-compatible vector system, a high-quality entry library was constructed, which contained 9.9 × 10(6) clones with an average inserted fragment length of 1.48 kb representing a 100% full-length rate. The yeast expression libraries were screened in a salinity-sensitive and a Cd-sensitive yeast mutant. The screening yielded 32 salinity-tolerant clones harboring 18 salinity-tolerance genes and 20 Cd-tolerant clones, including five Cd-tolerance genes. qPCR analysis confirmed that most of the 18 salinity-tolerance and five Cd-tolerance genes were up-regulated at the transcript level in response to salinity or Cd stress in seashore paspalum. Functional analysis indicated that salinity-tolerance genes from seashore paspalum could be involved mainly in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant systems, protein modification, iron transport, vesicle traffic, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Cd-tolerance genes could be associated with regulating pathways that are involved in phytochelatin synthesis, HSFA4-related stress protection, CYP450 complex, and sugar metabolism. The 18 salinity-tolerance genes and five Cd-tolerance genes could be potentially used as candidate genes for genetic modification of glycophytic grass species to improve salinity and Cd tolerance and for further analysis of molecular mechanisms regulating salinity and Cd tolerance. PMID:26904068

  3. Cloning and characterization of T-cell-reactive protein antigens from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, I A; Swaminathan, B; Ziegler, H K

    1990-01-01

    To explore the molecular basis of the T-cell-mediated immune response to Listeria monocytogenes, we cloned and expressed listerial antigens in Escherichia coli using the lambda-ZAP bacteriophage and Bluescript plasmid vectors. A two-stage screening strategy was implemented to identify T-cell-reactive antigens; the first stage involved antibodies or oligonucleotide probes and the second stage was based on assays for T-cell activation. A library of genomic DNA from L. monocytogenes was generated in lambda-ZAP, and then antigens, were detected in infected cells with a polyclonal rabbit anti-L. monocytogenes antiserum and an L. monocytogenes-specific monoclonal antibody. Also, synthetic oligonucleotide probes corresponding to the structural gene for listeriolysin O (LLO) were used to screen the recombinant DNA library. In each case, positive isolates were evaluated for T-cell antigenicity by measuring antigen-induced interleukin-2 production by polyclonal T cells taken from L. monocytogenes-immune mice. Phage clones were subcloned and expressed in the Bluescript plasmid and tested further for antigenic activity and LLO expression. Using this screening strategy, we successfully identified bacterial clones producing recombinant listerial antigens which activate L. monocytogenes-immune T cells in vitro. Antigens operative in the T-cell response during infection with L. monocytogenes include LLO, 62- and 39-kilodalton proteins, and other poorly defined bacterial surface components. We also found that high concentrations of recombinant LLO inhibited macrophage-mediated antigen presentation. These results are discussed in terms of the multiple functions of LLO as a virulence factor, inhibitor of antigen presentation, and potent antigen in the T-cell response to L. monocytogenes. These studies represent the first step toward a genetic definition of the antigens recognized in immune defense to L. monocytogenes. Images PMID:2117570

  4. Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX): Implementing Instrument Suite Data Fusion to Characterize Regolith Hydrogen Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, Albert F. C.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Elphic, Richard C.; Boynton, William V.; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    CRUX is a modular suite of geophysical and borehole instruments combined with display and decision support system (MapperDSS) tools to characterize regolith resources, surface conditions, and geotechnical properties. CRUX is a NASA-funded Technology Maturation Program effort to provide enabling technology for Lunar and Planetary Surface Operations (LPSO). The MapperDSS uses data fusion methods with CRUX instruments, and other available data and models, to provide regolith properties information needed for LPSO that cannot be determined otherwise. We demonstrate the data fusion method by showing how it might be applied to characterize the distribution and form of hydrogen using a selection of CRUX instruments: Borehole Neutron Probe and Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer data as a function of depth help interpret Surface Neutron Probe data to generate 3D information. Secondary information from other instruments along with physical models improves the hydrogen distribution characterization, enabling information products for operational decision-making.

  5. Cloning, characterization, and sequence of the yeast DNA topoisomerase I gene.

    PubMed Central

    Thrash, C; Bankier, A T; Barrell, B G; Sternglanz, R

    1985-01-01

    The structural gene for yeast DNA topoisomerase I (TOP1) has been cloned from two yeast genomic plasmid banks. Integration of a plasmid carrying the gene into the chromosome and subsequent genetic mapping shows that TOP1 is identical to the gene previously called MAK1. Seven top1 (mak1) mutants including gene disruptions are viable, demonstrating that DNA topoisomerase I is not essential for viability in yeast. A 3787-base-pair DNA fragment including the gene has been sequenced. The protein predicted from the DNA sequence has 769 amino acids and a molecular weight of 90,020. Images PMID:2989818

  6. Characterization of a novel MICA allele, MICA*012:05, by cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Tian, W; Wang, F; Zhu, F M; Li, L X

    2016-08-01

    A new MICA allelic variant, MICA*012:05, has been identified in a Chinese Mongolian population. Following polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT), this new allele was further confirmed by cloning and sequencing. MICA*012:05 was linked to an HLA-A*24-C*01-B*55:02-DRB1*09 haplotype. MICA*012:05 differs from MICA*012:01 by a single synonymous C to T substitution at nucleotide position 269 in exon 3. PMID:27273902

  7. Cloning and characterization of styrene catabolism genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    SciTech Connect

    Marconi, A.M.; Solinas, F.; Galli, E.; Bestetti, G.

    1996-01-01

    Styrene is used in large quantities in the manufacturing of plastics, synthetic rubber, and resins. Styrene-utilizing microorganisms have been isolate in consideration of their potential applications as biocatalysts in the removal of styrene in industrial wastes. However, data conserving styrene catabolism in bacteria are not abundant. In this paper the isolated of the Pseudomonas fluorescens ST genes involved in the first steps of styrene degradation are reported as well as the identification of the intermediates accumulated by single recombinant clones. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cloning and characterization of the methyl coenzyme M reductase genes from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Bokranz, M; Bäumner, G; Allmansberger, R; Ankel-Fuchs, D; Klein, A

    1988-01-01

    The genes coding for methyl coenzyme M reductase were cloned from a genomic library of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg into Escherichia coli by using plasmid expression vectors. When introduced into E. coli, the reductase genes were expressed, yielding polypeptides identical in size to the three known subunits of the isolated enzyme, alpha, beta, and gamma. The polypeptides also reacted with the antibodies raised against the respective enzyme subunits. In M. thermoautotrophicum, the subunits are encoded by a gene cluster whose transcript boundaries were mapped. Sequence analysis revealed two more open reading frames of unknown function located between two of the methyl coenzyme M reductase genes. Images PMID:2448287

  9. Positional cloning in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, Poaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Whipple, Clinton J.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Positional (or map-based) cloning is a common approach to identify the molecular lesions causing mutant phenotypes. Despite its large and complex genome, positional cloning has been recently shown to be feasible in maize, opening up a diverse collection of mutants to molecular characterization. • Methods and Results: Here we outline a general protocol for positional cloning in maize. While the general strategy is similar to that used in other plant species, we focus on the unique resources and approaches that should be considered when applied to maize mutants. • Conclusions: Positional cloning approaches are appropriate for maize mutants and quantitative traits, opening up to molecular characterization the large array of genetic diversity in this agronomically important species. The cloning approach described should be broadly applicable to other species as more plant genomes become available. PMID:25606355

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of protective outer membrane protein P.69 from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Charles, I G; Dougan, G; Pickard, D; Chatfield, S; Smith, M; Novotny, P; Morrissey, P; Fairweather, N F

    1989-01-01

    Protein P.69 is localized on the outer membrane of Bordetella pertussis and is one of the virulence factors believed to contribute to the disease state of whooping cough. We demonstrate that protein synthesis of P.69 is under genetic control of the vir locus. Using oligonucleotide probes derived from the protein sequence of a cyanogen bromide fragment, we have cloned the gene for P.69 from B. pertussis CN2992. Analysis of the DNA sequence reveals a G + C-rich gene capable of encoding a protein of 910 amino acids with a Mr of 93,478, suggesting that P.69 is a processed form of a larger precursor. In common with some of the genes in the pertussis toxin operon, the sequence CCTGG was found 5' to the ATG initiation codon. At the 3' end, 29 bases after the TAA stop codon, the sequence GTTTTTCCT was found and may have some function in transcription termination. A full-length clone of the gene for P.69 carried by the cosmid pBPI69 was unable to direct the expression of P.69 protein in an Escherichia coli host. The generation of P.69-fusion products allowed the detection of P.69-specific protein products synthesized in E. coli. Images PMID:2542937

  11. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-12-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava. PMID:23132522

  12. The 5-HT4 receptor: molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of two splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, C; Adham, N; Kao, H T; Olsen, M A; Laz, T M; Schechter, L E; Bard, J A; Vaysse, P J; Hartig, P R; Branchek, T A

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning efforts have provided primary amino acid sequence and signal transduction data for a large collection of serotonin receptor subtypes. These include five 5-HT1-like receptors, three 5-HT2 receptors, one 5-HT3 receptor, two 5-HT5 receptors, one 5-HT6 receptor and one 5-HT7 receptor. Molecular biological information on the 5-HT4 receptor is notably absent from this list. We now report the cloning of the pharmacologically defined 5-HT4 receptor. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, we identified a rat brain PCR fragment which encoded a '5-HT receptor-like' amino acid sequence. The corresponding full length cDNA was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. Transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, this receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and is sensitive to the benzamide derivative cisapride. The response is also blocked by ICS-205930. Interestingly, we isolated two splice variants of the receptor, 5-HT4L and 5-HT4S, differing in the length and sequence of their C-termini. In rat brain, the 5-HT4S transcripts are restricted to the striatum, but the 5-HT4L transcripts are expressed throughout the brain, except in the cerebellum where it was barely detectable. In peripheral tissues, differential expression was also observed in the atrium of the heart where only the 5-HT4S isoform was detectable. Images PMID:7796807

  13. Cloning and characterization of an insecticidal crystal protein gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kenyae.

    PubMed

    Misra, Hari S; Khairnar, Nivedita P; Mathur, Manjula; Vijayalakshmi, N; Hire, Ramesh S; Dongre, T K; Mahajan, S K

    2002-04-01

    A sporulating culture of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae strain HD549 is toxic to larvae of lepidopteran insect species such as Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera and Phthorimaea operculella, and a dipteran insect, Culex fatigans. A 1.9-kb DNA fragment, PCR-amplified from HD549 using cryII-gene-specific primers, was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein produced 92% mortality in first-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and 86% inhibition of adult emergence in Phthorimaea operculella, but showed very low toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera, and lower mortality against third-instar larvae of dipteran insects Culex fatigans, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. The sequence of the cloned crystal protein gene showed almost complete homology with a mosquitocidal toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, with only five mutations scattered in different regions. Amino acid alignment with different insecticidal crystal proteins using the MUTALIN program suggested presence of the conserved block 3 region in the sequence of this protein. A mutation in codon 409 of this gene that changes a highly conserved phenylalanine residue to serine lies in this block. PMID:12357073

  14. Cloning and molecular characterization of a putative voltage-gated sodium channel gene in the crayfish.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Cagil; Purali, Nuhan

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel genes and associated proteins have been cloned and studied in many mammalian and invertebrate species. However, there is no data available about the sodium channel gene(s) in the crayfish, although the animal has frequently been used as a model to investigate various aspects of neural cellular and circuit function. In the present work, by using RNA extracts from crayfish abdominal ganglia samples, the complete open reading frame of a putative sodium channel gene has firstly been cloned and molecular properties of the associated peptide have been analyzed. The open reading frame of the gene has a length of 5793 bp that encodes for the synthesis of a peptide, with 1930 amino acids, that is 82% similar to the α-peptide of a sodium channel in a neighboring species, Cancer borealis. The transmembrane topology analysis of the crayfish peptide indicated a pattern of four folding domains with several transmembrane segments, as observed in other known voltage-gated sodium channels. Upon analysis of the obtained sequence, functional regions of the putative sodium channel responsible for the selectivity filter, inactivation gate, voltage sensor, and phosphorylation have been predicted. The expression level of the putative sodium channel gene, as defined by a qPCR method, was measured and found to be the highest in nervous tissue. PMID:27032955

  15. Cloning and characterization of human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, J.; Norman, D.K.; Beckmann, R.J.; Long, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor was isolated from two cDNA libraries by two different techniques. Based upon the frequency of positive clones, the abundance of mRNA for protein S is approx. = 0.01%. Blot hybridization of electrophoretically fractionated poly(A)/sup +/ RNA revealed a major mRNA approx. = 4 kilobases long and two minor forms of approx. = 3.1 and approx. = 2.6 kilobases. One of the cDNA clones contains a segment encoding a 676 amino acid protein S precursor, as well as 108 and 1132 nucleotides of 5' and 3' noncoding sequence, respectively, plus a poly(A) region at the 3' end. The cDNAs are adenosine plus thymidine-rich (60%) except for the 5' noncoding region, where 78% of the nucleotides are guanosine or cytosine. The protein precursor consists of a 41 amino acid leader peptide followed by 635 amino acids corresponding to mature protein S. Comparison of the mature protein region with homologous vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins shows that it is composed of the following domains: an amino-terminal ..gamma..-carboxyglutamic acid-rich region of 37 amino acids; a 36 amino acid linker region rich in hydroxy amino acids; four epidermal growth factor-like segments, each approx. = 45 amino acids long; and a 387 amino acid carboxyl-terminal domain of unrecognized structure and unknown function.

  16. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Monofunctional Catalase from Geobacillus sp. CHB1.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xianbo; Chen, Jichen; Lin, Chenqiang; Lin, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Catalases are widely used in many scientific areas. A catalase gene (Kat) from Geobacillus sp. CHB1 encoding a monofunctional catalase was cloned and recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which was the first time to clone and express this type of catalase of genus Geobacillus strains as far as we know. This Kat gene was 1,467 bp in length and encoded a catalase with 488 amino acid residuals, which is only 81% similar to the previously studied Bacillus sp. catalase in terms of amino acid sequence. Recombinant catalase was highly soluble in E. coli and made up 30% of the total E. coli protein. Fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli showed a high catalase activity level up to 35,831 U/mL which was only lower than recombinant Bacillus sp. WSHDZ-01 among the reported catalase production strains. The purified recombinant catalase had a specific activity of 40,526 U/mg and K m of 51.1 mM. The optimal reaction temperature of this recombinant enzyme was 60°C to 70°C, and it exhibited high activity over a wide range of reaction temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 90°C. The enzyme retained 94.7% of its residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 hour. High yield and excellent thermophilic properties are valuable features for this catalase in industrial applications. PMID:27579320

  17. Adaptor long-range PCR procedure for clone-specific characterization and chromosomal localization.

    PubMed

    Tsoktouridis, Georgios; Merz, Christian A; DelVecchio, Vito G

    2005-06-01

    An efficient adaptor long-range PCR (ALR-PCR) procedure was developed to detect genomic rearrangements in high-plasticity genomic regions between closely related strains of bacteria. The method was precisely optimized using a combination of high-speed experimental steps for the chromosomal localization and elucidation of deletions, inversions, duplications, or inserted sequences within a clone-specific flanking region. The advantages of this strategy are: (i) ready-to-use polymerase mixtures and Master mix (ready-to-use reaction mixtures with polymerase MasterAmp and buffer 2x Premix 4); (ii) a 5-min ligation procedure; (iii) rapid purification of DNA digests; (iv) optimized DNA template concentration protocol to avoid nonspecific amplification and high backgrounds; (v) long-range PCR protocol to obtain at least 9.6 kb single PCR products; (vi) two-step PCR cycling with the same annealing and extension temperature at 68 degrees C; (vii) simple design of the adaptors according to the preferred restriction endonuclease enzyme; and (viii) simple technology and equipment required. The application of this method for a tester-specific suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) clone of Brucella melitensis 16M revealed an 837-bp deletion and a 7255-bp DNA transfer from one chromosomal location to another for Brucella abortus 2308 used as a driver. PMID:16018549

  18. Homologous cloning, characterization and expression of a new halophyte phytochelatin synthase gene in Suaeda salsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Ming; Zhao, Jianmin; Lü, Jiasen; Ren, Zhiming; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-01-01

    The halophyte Suaeda salsa can grow in heavy metal-polluted areas along intertidal zones having high salinity. Since phytochelatins can eff ectively chelate heavy metals, it was hypothesized that S. salsa possessed a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene. In the present study, the cDNA of PCS was obtained from S. salsa (designated as SsPCS) using homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A sequence analysis revealed that SsPCS consisted of 1 916 bp nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 492 amino acids with one phytochelatin domain and one phytochelatin C domain. A similarity analysis suggested that SsPCS shared up to a 58.6% identity with other PCS proteins and clustered with PCS proteins from eudicots. There was a new kind of metal ion sensor motif in its C-terminal domain. The SsPCS transcript was more highly expressed in elongated and fibered roots and stems (P <0.05) than in leaves. Lead and mercury exposure significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of SsPCS (P <0.05). To the best of our knowledge, SsPCS is the second PCS gene cloned from a halophyte, and it might contain a diff erent metal sensing capability than the first PCS from Thellungiella halophila. This study provided a new view of halophyte PCS genes in heavy metal tolerance.

  19. Homologous cloning, characterization and expression of a new halophyte phytochelatin synthase gene in Suaeda salsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Ming; Zhao, Jianmin; Lü, Jiasen; Ren, Zhiming; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-09-01

    The halophyte Suaeda salsa can grow in heavy metal-polluted areas along intertidal zones having high salinity. Since phytochelatins can eff ectively chelate heavy metals, it was hypothesized that S. salsa possessed a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene. In the present study, the cDNA of PCS was obtained from S. salsa (designated as SsPCS) using homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A sequence analysis revealed that SsPCS consisted of 1 916 bp nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 492 amino acids with one phytochelatin domain and one phytochelatin C domain. A similarity analysis suggested that SsPCS shared up to a 58.6% identity with other PCS proteins and clustered with PCS proteins from eudicots. There was a new kind of metal ion sensor motif in its C-terminal domain. The SsPCS transcript was more highly expressed in elongated and fibered roots and stems ( P<0.05) than in leaves. Lead and mercury exposure significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of SsPCS ( P<0.05). To the best of our knowledge, SsPCS is the second PCS gene cloned from a halophyte, and it might contain a diff erent metal sensing capability than the first PCS from Thellungiella halophila. This study provided a new view of halophyte PCS genes in heavy metal tolerance.

  20. Molecular characterization of tobacco sulfite reductase: enzyme purification, gene cloning, and gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, K; Ashikari, T; Tanaka, Y; Kusumi, T a; Hase, T

    1998-09-01

    A cDNA clone, NtSiR1, that encodes the precursor of ferredoxin-dependent sulfite reductase (Fd-SiR) has been isolated from a cDNA library of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1). The identity of the cDNA was established by comparison of the purified protein and the predicted structure with the nucleotide sequence. The amino terminus of the purified enzyme was Thr62 of the precursor protein, and the mature region of NtSiR1 consisted of 632 amino acids. Tobacco Fd-SiR is 82, 77, and 48% identical with Fd-SiRs from Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, and a cyanobacterium, respectively. Significant similarity was also found with Escherichia coli NADPH-SiR in the region involved in ligation of siroheme and the [4Fe-4S] cluster. On Northern blot analysis, a transcript of NtSiR1 was detected in leaves, stems, roots, and petals in similar amounts. We also isolated a genomic SiR clone named gNtSiR1. It consists of 8 exons and 7 introns. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that at least two SiR genes are present in the tobacco genome. PMID:9722674

  1. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Monofunctional Catalase from Geobacillus sp. CHB1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Catalases are widely used in many scientific areas. A catalase gene (Kat) from Geobacillus sp. CHB1 encoding a monofunctional catalase was cloned and recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which was the first time to clone and express this type of catalase of genus Geobacillus strains as far as we know. This Kat gene was 1,467 bp in length and encoded a catalase with 488 amino acid residuals, which is only 81% similar to the previously studied Bacillus sp. catalase in terms of amino acid sequence. Recombinant catalase was highly soluble in E. coli and made up 30% of the total E. coli protein. Fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli showed a high catalase activity level up to 35,831 U/mL which was only lower than recombinant Bacillus sp. WSHDZ-01 among the reported catalase production strains. The purified recombinant catalase had a specific activity of 40,526 U/mg and Km of 51.1 mM. The optimal reaction temperature of this recombinant enzyme was 60°C to 70°C, and it exhibited high activity over a wide range of reaction temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 90°C. The enzyme retained 94.7% of its residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 hour. High yield and excellent thermophilic properties are valuable features for this catalase in industrial applications. PMID:27579320

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Dicer-like 2 gene from Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Peng, Jiejun; Lu, Yuwen; Lin, Lin; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Hairu; Chen, Jianping; Adams, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Dicer-like proteins (DCLs) are involved in small RNA-mediated development and viral defense in plants. In model plants, at least four DCLs have been found and a number of studies have helped to understand their function. However, the function of the Dicer or DCLs in other plants is still unclear. Here, we report the full-length cDNA sequence of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis DCL2 (BrDCL2) gene, which contains a 4,179 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 1,392 amino acids. At the 3' end of BrDCL2, clones with three different lengths of 3' untranslated region were found. An alternative splice variant of BrDCL2, BrDCL2sv, in which one intron was retained between exon9 and exon10, was also cloned. Because of a change in the coding sequence resulting in a premature terminal codon, BrDCL2sv was expected to translate a short peptide containing the whole DEXHc domain. PMID:18607769

  3. Cloning, expression, and characterization of the Micromonospora viridifaciens neuraminidase gene in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Sakurada, K; Ohta, T; Hasegawa, M

    1992-01-01

    We have cloned the Micromonospora viridifaciens neuraminidase (EC 3.2.1.18) gene (nedA) in Streptomyces lividans. This was accomplished by using the vector pIJ702 and BglII-BclI libraries of M. viridifaciens chromosomal inserts created in S. lividans. The libraries were screened for the expression of neuraminidase by monitoring the cleavage of the fluorogenic neuraminidase substrate 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-D-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. Positive clones (BG6, BG7, BC4, and BC8) contained the identical 2-kb BclI-BglII fragment and expressed neuraminidase efficiently and constitutively using its own promoter in the heterologous host. From the nucleotide sequence analysis, an open reading frame of 1,941 bp which encodes a polypeptide with an M(r) of 68,840 was detected. The deduced amino acid sequence has five Asp boxes, -Ser-X-Asp-X-Gly-X-Thr-Trp, showing great similarity to other bacterial and viral neuraminidases. We have also identified the catalytic domain by using truncated proteins produced in S. lividans. Images PMID:1400240

  4. Cloning and characterization of the major histone H2A genes completes the cloning and sequencing of known histone genes of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Gorovsky, M A

    1996-08-01

    A truncated cDNA clone encoding Tetrahymena thermophila histone H2A2 was isolated using synthetic degenerate oligonucleotide probes derived from H2A protein sequences of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The cDNA clone was used as a homologous probe to isolate a truncated genomic clone encoding H2A1. The remaining regions of the genes for H2A1 (HTA1) and H2A2 (HTA2) were then isolated using inverse PCR on circularized genomic DNA fragments. These partial clones were assembled into intact HTA1 and HTA2 clones. Nucleotide sequences of the two genes were highly homologous within the coding region but not in the noncoding regions. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with protein sequences of T. pyriformis H2As showed only two and three differences respectively, in a total of 137 amino acids for H2A1, and 132 amino acids for H2A2, indicating the two genes arose before the divergence of these two species. The HTA2 gene contains a TAA triplet within the coding region, encoding a glutamine residue. In contrast with the T. thermophila HHO and HTA3 genes, no introns were identified within the two genes. The 5'- and 3'-ends of the histone H2A mRNAs; were determined by RNase protection and by PCR mapping using RACE and RLM-RACE methods. Both genes encode polyadenylated mRNAs and are highly expressed in vegetatively growing cells but only weakly expressed in starved cultures. With the inclusion of these two genes, T. thermophila is the first organism whose entire complement of known core and linker histones, including replication-dependent and basal variants, has been cloned and sequenced. PMID:8760889

  5. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  6. Construction, characterization and expression of full length cDNA clone of sheep YAP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Li, Da; Su, Rui; Musa, Hassan H; Chen, Ling; Zhou, Hong

    2014-02-01

    RT-PCR, 5'RACE, 3'RACE were used to clone sheep full length cDNA sequence of YAP1 (Yes-associated protein 1), eukaryotic expression plasmid and a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated at Ser42 was successfully constructed. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that sheep YAP1 gene encoded water-soluble protein and its relative molecular weight and isoelectric point was 44,079.0 Da and 4.91, respectively. Sub-cellular localization of YAP1 was in the nucleus, it is hydrophilic non-transmembrane and non-secreted protein. YAP1 protein contained 33 phosphorylation sites, seven glycosylation sites and two WW domains. The secondary structure of YAP1 was mainly composed of random coil, while the tertiary structure of domain area showed a forniciform helix structure. YAP1 gene was expressed in different tissues, the highest expression was in kidney and the lowest was in hypothalamus. The CDS of sheep YAP1was amplified by RT-PCR from healthy sheep longissimus dorsi muscle, cloned into pMD19-T simple vector by T/A ligation. YAP1 coding region was further sub-cloned into pEGFP-C1 vector by T4 Ligase to construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid and then make the eukaryotic expression vector as the template to construct the phosphorylation site mutant. PCR, restriction enzyme and sequencing were used to confirm the recombinant plasmid. The sheep full-length YAP1 cDNA sequence is 1712 in length encoding 403 amino acids. It was confirmed that the sheep YAP1 CDS was correctly inserted into eukaryotic expression vector and serine had been mutated to alanine by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. The result showed that the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-C1-YAP1 and pEGFP-C1-YAP1 S42A was constructed correctly, this will help for further studies on the YAP1 protein expression and its biological activities. PMID:24381103

  7. Physical Characterization of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Larionov, Ph D

    2007-06-05

    A special interest in the organization of human centromeric DNA was stimulated a few years ago when two independent groups succeeded in reconstituting a functional human centromere, using constructs carrying centromere-specific alphoid DNA arrays. This work demonstrated the importance of DNA components in mammalian centromeres and opened a way for studying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation and for construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with therapeutic potential. To elucidate the structural requirements for formation of HACs with a functional kinetochore, we developed a new method for cloning of large DNA fragments for human centromeric regions that can be used as a substrate for HAC formation. This method exploits in vivo recombination in yeast (TAR cloning). In addition, a new strategy for the construction of alphoid DNA arrays was developed in our lab. The strategy involves the construction of uniform or hybrid synthetic alphoid DNA arrays by the RCA-TAR technique. This technique comprises two steps: rolling circle amplification of an alphoid DNA dimer and subsequent assembling of the amplified fragments by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast (Figure 1). Using this system, we constructed a set of different synthetic alphoid DNA arrays with a predetermined sequence varying in size from 30 to 140 kb and demonstrated that some of the arrays are competent in HAC formation. Because any nucleotide can be changed in a dimer before its amplification, this new technique is optimal for identifying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation in HACs. Moreover, the technique makes possible to introduce into alphoid DNA arrays recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins. We have made the following progress on the studying of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology: i) minimal size of alphoid DNA array required for de novo kinetochore formation was estimated; ii

  8. Using adult cloned trees grown under natural conditions to characterize BVOC emission variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Ekberg, Anna; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) are diverse chemical species produced and emitted from the vegetation as trace gases. BVOCs are commonly grouped into isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, where isoprene is mainly emitted by deciduous trees and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by coniferous trees. BVOCs are known to have a considerable impact on atmospheric chemistry and are precursors for secondary organic aerosol, which in turn are important for the aerosol feedback on the Earth's climate. Recently, Bäck et al. (2012) reported a high diversity of the chemical composition of emitted compounds from pine trees growing at the same stand due to genetic variation. This study here uses cloned trees growing naturally in a transect in Europe in order to exclude genetic variation and to assess emission variation between and within selected tree species grown at different climatic conditions. The International Phenological Garden (IPG) network, where cloned trees are used to monitor the long-term phenological observations of representative tree species for Europe provides a specific, cloned set of important tree species, which had been planted throughout Europe starting in 1957. This gives a unique opportunity to study the adaptation to various climatic conditions and field conditions in genetically identical plants in relation to BVOC emissions. During a field campaign in 2013 at the IPG site in Taastrup, Denmark (55°40' N, 12°18' E), seven trees were measured at three heights within the canopy. Measured trees were two English oaks (Quercus robur), one European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and four Norway spruces (Picea abies) of two provenances. For oak and one provenance of spruce, measurements were performed twice, both in June and in August in order to examine any emission pattern change with the progression of the summer. Measurements were performed using a gas-exchange cuvette of a photosynthesis system combined with BVOC adsorbent tubes, which were

  9. Genetic characterization and cloning of Mothers against dpp, a gene required for decapentaplegic function in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Sekelsky, J.J.; Newfeld, S.J.; Raftery, L.A.; Chartoff, E.H.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1995-03-01

    The decapentaplegic (dpp) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a growth factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) superfamily and that plays a central role in multiple cell-cell signaling events throughout development. Through genetic screens we are seeking to identify other functions that act upstream, downstream or in concert with dpp to mediate its signaling role. We report the genetic characterization and cloning of Mothers against dpp (Mad), a gene identified in two such screens. Mad loss-of-function mutations interact with dpp alleles to enhance embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning defects, as well as adult appendage defects, suggesting a role for Mad in mediating some aspect of dpp function. In support of this, homozygous Mad mutant animals exhibit defects in midgut morphogenesis, imaginal disk development and embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning that are very reminiscent of dpp mutant phenotypes. We cloned the Mad region and identified the Mad transcription unit through germline transformation rescue. We sequenced a Mad cDNA and identified three Mad point mutations that alter the coding information. The predicted MAD polypeptide lacks known protein motifs, but has strong sequence similarity to three polypeptides predicted from genomic sequence from the nematode Caenorhabiditis elegans. Hence, MAD is a member of a novel, highly conserved protein family. 60 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b gene from the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCB) have been implicated in the stress response. In this study, a gene encoding LHCB in the pigeon pea was cloned and characterized. Based on the sequence of a previously obtained 327 bp Est, a full-length 793 bp cDNA was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It was designated CcLHCB1 and encoded a 262 amino acid protein. The calculated molecular weight of the CcLHCB1 protein was 27.89 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.29. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the CcLHCB1 protein sequence shared a high identity with LHCB from other plants. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that CcLHCB1 was a hydrophobic protein with three transmembrane domains. By fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CcLHCB1 mRNA transcripts were detectable in different tissues (leaf, stem, and root), with the highest level found in the leaf. The expression of CcLHCB1 mRNA in the leaves was up-regulated by drought stimulation and AM inoculation. Our results provide the basis for a better understanding of the molecular organization of LCHB and might be useful for understanding the interaction between plants and microbes in the future. PMID:26329890

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a GH11 endoxylanase from Chaetomium globosum, and its use in enzymatic pretreatment of biomass.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raushan Kumar; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kim, Dongwook; Kang, Yun Chan; Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2013-08-01

    An endo-1,4-β-xylanase gene, xylcg, was cloned from Chaetomium globosum and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The complete gene of 675 bp was amplified, cloned into the pET 28(a) vector, and expressed. The optimal conditions for the highest activity of the purified recombinant XylCg were observed at a temperature of 40 °C and pH of 5.5. Using oat-spelt xylan, the determined K m, V max, and k cat/K m values were 0.243 mg ml⁻¹, 4,530 U mg⁻¹ protein, and 7,640 ml s⁻¹ mg⁻¹, respectively. A homology model and sequence analysis of XylCg, along with the biochemical properties, confirmed that XylCg belongs to the GH11 family. Rice straw pretreated with XylCg showed 30 % higher conversion yield than the rice straw pretreated with a commercial xylanase. Although xylanases have been characterized from fungal and bacterial sources, C. globosum XylCg is distinguished from other xylanases by its high catalytic efficiency and its effectiveness in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:23184220

  12. Cloning, Characterization and Heterologous Expression of the Indolocarbazole Biosynthetic Gene Cluster from Marine-Derived Streptomyces sanyensis FMA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Du, Yuanyuan; Cui, Qiu; Zhang, Jingtao; Zhu, Weiming; Hong, Kui; Li, Wenli

    2013-01-01

    The indolocarbazole (ICZ) alkaloids have attracted much attention due to their unique structures and potential therapeutic applications. A series of ICZs were recently isolated and identified from a marine-derived actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sanyensis FMA. To elucidate the biosynthetic machinery associated with ICZs production in S. sanyensis FMA, PCR using degenerate primers was carried out to clone the FAD-dependent monooxygenase gene fragment for ICZ ring formation, which was used as a probe to isolate the 34.6-kb DNA region containing the spc gene cluster. Sequence analysis revealed genes for ICZ ring formation (spcO, D, P, C), sugar unit formation (spcA, B, E, K, J, I), glycosylation (spcN, G), methylation (spcMA, MB), as well as regulation (spcR). Their involvement in ICZ biosynthesis was confirmed by gene inactivation and heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor M1152. This work represents the first cloning and characterization of an ICZ gene cluster isolated from a marine-derived actinomycete strain and would be helpful for thoroughly understanding the biosynthetic mechanism of ICZ glycosides. PMID:23389092

  13. Cloning and Characterization of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase from Mouse Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiao-Wen; Cho, Hearn J.; Calaycay, Jimmy; Mumford, Richard A.; Swiderek, Kristine M.; Lee, Terry D.; Ding, Aihao; Troso, Tiffany; Nathan, Carl

    1992-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) conveys a variety of messages between cells, including signals for vasorelaxation, neurotransmission, and cytotoxicity. In some endothelial cells and neurons, a constitutive NO synthase is activated transiently by agonists that elevate intracellular calcium concentrations and promote the binding of calmodulin. In contrast, in macrophages, NO synthase activity appears slowly after exposure of the cells to cytokines and bacterial products, is sustained, and functions independently of calcium and calmodulin. A monospecific antibody was used to clone complementary DNA that encoded two isoforms of NO synthase from immunologically activated mouse macrophages. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to confirm most of the amino acid sequence. Macrophage NO synthase differs extensively from cerebellar NO synthase. The macrophage enzyme is immunologically induced at the transcriptional level and closely resembles the enzyme in cytokine-treated tumor cells and inflammatory neutrophils.

  14. Cloning, expression and characterization of a new agarase-encoding gene from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinzhi; Chu, Yan; Wu, Qianqian; Gu, Yuchao; Han, Feng; Yu, Wengong

    2009-10-01

    The beta-agarase gene agaA, cloned from a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24, consists of 1,359 nucleotides encoding 453 amino acids in a sequence corresponding to a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and a carbohydrate-binding module type 13 (CBM13). The recombinant enzyme is an endo-type agarase that hydrolyzes beta-1,4-linkages of agarose, yielding neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose as the predominant products. In two cleavage patterns, AgaA digested the smallest substrate, neoagarooctaose, into neoagarobiose, neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose. Site directed mutation was performed to investigate the differences between AgaA and AgaD of Vibrio sp. PO-303, identifying residues V(109)VTS(112) as playing a key role in the enzyme reaction. PMID:19504047

  15. Molecular Characterization of the Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli ST131 Clone

    PubMed Central

    Schembri, Mark A.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Forde, Brian M.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Beatson, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 is a recently emerged and globally disseminated multidrug resistant clone associated with urinary tract and bloodstream infections in both community and clinical settings. The most common group of ST131 strains are defined by resistance to fluoroquinolones and possession of the type 1 fimbriae fimH30 allele. Here we provide an update on our recent work describing the globally epidemiology of ST131. We review the phylogeny of ST131 based on whole genome sequence data and highlight the important role of recombination in the evolution of this clonal lineage. We also summarize our findings on the virulence of the ST131 reference strain EC958, and highlight the use of transposon directed insertion-site sequencing to define genes associated with serum resistance and essential features of its large antibiotic resistance plasmid pEC958. PMID:26131613

  16. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid). PMID:22678026

  17. [Cloning of HAL1 gene and characterization for salt tolerance tomato].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Wang, S F; Zhao, Y X; Zhao, K F; Zhang, H

    2001-11-01

    The HAL1 gene was cloned by PCR strategy and confirmed by sequencing. Its open read frame is 879 bp, encoding a peptide of 294 amino acids (32 kD Protein). A chimaeric construct of HAL1 and Npt II (neomycin phosphotransferase II) was constructed and introduced into commercial cultivars of tomato (Zhong SU No. 5: Lycopersicon escullentum) by Agrobacterium tumefacien-mediated gene transformation. Transformants were selected for their ability to grow and root on media containing kanamycin. Transformation was confirmed by analysis of PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. The salt tolerance of transgenic tomato is evaluated by comparing the fresh weight, dry weight, Na+, K+ content of transgenic tomato and control tomato. It is concluded that the over-expressing of HAL1 in tomato could enhance the salt tolerance of the transgenic tomato. PMID:11910760

  18. Cloning, characterization, and regulation of nifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, G; Hübner, P; Sandmeier, U; Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1996-07-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus nifF gene and upstream sequence were cloned by using a probe based on the N-terminal sequence of NifF. nifF was found to not be contained in the previously described nif regions I, II, and III. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that it is highly similar to NifF from Azotobacter vinelandii and NifF from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Analysis of translational fusions demonstrated that the regulation of transcription was the same as previously reported at the protein level. Insertional mutagen esis showed that NifF contributes significantly to nitrogenase activity under normal nitrogen-fixing conditions and that it is absolutely required for nitrogen fixation under iron limitation. PMID:8682802

  19. Cloning, over-expression and characterization of a thermo-tolerant xylanase from Thermotoga thermarum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hao; Zhang, Yu; Zhong, Hui; Huang, Yingjuan; Li, Xun; Wang, Fei

    2014-03-01

    The xyn10B gene, encoding the endo-1,4-β-xylanase Xyn10B from Thermotoga thermarum, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The ORF of the xyn10B was 1,095 bp and encoded to mature peptide of 344 amino acids with a calculated MW of 40,531 Da. The recombinant xylanase was optimally active at 80 °C, pH 6.0 and retained approx. 60 % of its activity after 2 h at 75 °C. Apparent K m , k cat and k cat /K m values of the xylanase for beechwood xylan were 1.8 mg ml(-1), 520 s(-1) and 289 ml mg(-1) s(-1), respectively. The end products of the hydrolysis of beechwood xylan were mainly oligosaccharides but without xylose after 2 h hydrolysis. PMID:24170174

  20. Cloning and characterization of the human invasion suppressor gene E-cadherin (CDH1)

    SciTech Connect

    Berx, G.; Staes, K.; Hengel, J. van

    1995-03-20

    E-cadherin is a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule. Downregulation of E-cadherin expression often correlates with strong invasive potential and poor prognosis of human carcinomas. By using recombinant {lambda} phage, cosmid, and P1 phage clones, we isolated the full-length human E-cadherin gene (CDH1). The gene spans a region of approximately 100 kb, and its location on chromosome 16q22.1 was confirmed by FISH analysis. Detailed restriction mapping and partial sequence analysis of the gene allowed us to identify 16 exons and a 65-kb-long intron 2. The intron-exon boundaries are highly conserved in comparison with other {open_quotes}classical cadherins.{close_quotes} In intron 1 we identified a high-density CpG island that may be implicated in transcription regulation during embryogenesis and malignancy. 52 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Cloning and characterization of an abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) actin gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongming; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Chen, Hong

    2004-10-01

    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3‧ RACE and 5‧ RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3‧ untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5‧ untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin (β-actin) than to human muscle actin.

  2. PCR cloning and characterization of multiple ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNAs from tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.; Gianfagna, T.

    1998-01-01

    Four ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) cDNAs were cloned from tomato fruit and leaves by the PCR techniques. Three of them (agp S1, agp S2, and agp S3) encode the large subunit of AGP, the fourth one (agp B) encodes the small subunit. The deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs show very high identities (96-98%) to the corresponding potato AGP isoforms, although there are major differences in tissue expression profiles. All four tomato AGP transcripts were detected in fruit and leaves; the predominant ones in fruit are agp B and agp S1, whereas in leaves they are agp B and agp S3. Genomic southern analysis suggests that the four AGP transcripts are encoded by distinct genes.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a cold-active xylanase enzyme from an environmental DNA library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles C; Kibblewhite-Accinelli, Rena E; Wagschal, Kurt; Robertson, George H; Wong, Dominic W S

    2006-08-01

    There is a great interest in xylanases due to the wide variety of industrial applications for these enzymes. We cloned a xylanase gene (xyn8) from an environmental genomic DNA library. The encoded enzyme was predicted to be 399 amino acids with a molecular weight of 45.9 kD. The enzyme was categorized as a glycosyl hydrolase family 8 member based on sequence analysis of the putative catalytic domain. The purified enzyme was thermolabile, had an activity temperature optimum of 20 degrees C on native xylan substrate, and retained significant activity at lower temperatures. At 4 degrees C, the apparent K (m) was 3.7 mg/ml, and the apparent k (cat) was 123/s. PMID:16532363

  4. Cloning and characterization of the Rubisco activase gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; He, Bowen; Zhou, Shuang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2010-02-01

    A full-length cDNA of Rubisco activase (IBrcaI) was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). IBrcaI contains a 1,347 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 439 amino acids. The sequence alignment of multiple Rubisco activase genes from sweet potato and other plants showed high homology at two previously described ATP-binding sites. Western blot analysis indicated that there are two Rubisco activase proteins in sweet potato. Expression of IBrcaI was only detected in leaves. In the 14 h light and 10 h dark photoperiods, maximal and minimal IBrcaI mRNA expression levels were detected at 8:00 in the morning and at midnight, respectively. PMID:19296237

  5. Purification, characterization cloning, and sequencing of metalloendopeptidase from Streptomyces septatus TH-2.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Yoshiko Uesugi, Jiro Arima; Iwabuchi, Masaki

    2005-02-15

    Streptomyces septatus TH-2 secretes a large amount of a protease when cultured on a medium containing K(2)HPO(4) and glucose. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a three-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular mass of approximately 35kDa, and was particularly inhibited by EDTA and phosphoramidon. Its substrate specificity was investigated using novel fluorescence energy transfer combinatorial libraries. The protease was found to prefer Phe and Tyr at the P(1) position, a hydrophobic or basic residue at the P(2) position, and a basic or small residue at the P(3) position. Its gene was cloned and sequenced, and its deduced amino acid sequence contained an HEXXH consensus sequence for zinc binding, confirming that it encodes metalloendopeptidase. The primary structure of the enzyme showed 40 and 69% identities with that of thermolysin from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus and that of a metalloendopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus, respectively. PMID:15639229

  6. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Wei; Shi, Lin; Chai, Ji-Tian; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-04-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is critical in regulating mammalian food intake and energy expenditure. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), famous as the living fossil, is an endangered species endemic to China. We are interested in exploring the functions of the giant panda MC4R (amMC4R) in regulating energy homeostasis and report herein the molecular cloning and pharmacology of the amMC4R. Sequence analysis revealed that amMC4R was highly homologous (>88%) at nucleotide and amino acid sequences to several mammalian MC4Rs. Western blot revealed that the expression construct myc-amMC4R in pcDNA3.1 was successfully constructed and expressed in HEK293T cells. With human MC4R (hMC4R) as a control, pharmacological characteristics of amMC4R were analyzed with binding and signaling assays. Four agonists, including [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), α- and β-MSH, and a small molecule agonist, THIQ, were used in binding and signaling assays. We showed that amMC4R bound NDP-MSH with the highest affinity followed by THIQ, α-MSH, and β-MSH, with the same ranking order as hMC4R. Treatment of HEK293T cells expressing amMC4R with different concentrations of agonists resulted in dose-dependent increase of intracellular cAMP levels, with similar EC50s for the four agonists. The results suggested that the cloned amMC4R encoded a functional MC4R. The availability of amMC4R and its binding and signaling properties will facilitate the investigation of amMC4R in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:26896843

  7. Linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes: purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-De; Grund, Alan D; Schneider, Kenneth J; Langley, Kim M; Wassink, Sarah L; Peng, Susan S; Rosson, Reinhardt A

    2007-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes strain ATCC 6919 catalyzes the isomerization of the double bond at the C9 position in linoleic acid (c9,c12, 18:2) to form t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2). CLA has significant health benefits in animal and human. The linoleic acid C9 isomerase was purified to an apparent homogeneity by successive chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and chromatofocusing columns. Two degenerated oligonucleotide primers were synthesized according to the N-terminal peptide sequence to clone, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a short nucleotide sequence (62 bp) of the isomerase gene. The linoleic acid isomerase gene (lai) was subsequently cloned by inverse PCR. The amino acid sequence deduced from the lai coding sequence predicts a protein of 424 amino acid residues (48 kDa), excluding the N-terminal methionine, which was absent in the polypeptide purified from the native host. The isomerase shares no significant sequence homology to other enzymes except a flavin-binding domain in the N-terminal region. The recombinant isomerase purified from Escherichia coli showed a typical ultraviolet spectrum for FAD-bound proteins. The recombinant enzyme produced a single isomer of t10,c12-CLA from linoleic acid, as demonstrated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. The recombinant isomerase protein was expressed at high levels in E. coli, but it was almost totally sequestered in inclusion bodies. The level of active isomerase was increased 376-fold by medium and process optimization in bench-scale fermentors. PMID:18057448

  8. A novel highly thermostable xylanase stimulated by Ca2+ from Thermotoga thermarum: cloning, expression and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xylanase is an important component of hemicellulase enzyme system. Since it plays an important role in the hydrolysis of hemicellulose into xylooligosaccharides (XOs), high thermostable xylanase has been the focus of much recent attention as powerful enzyme as well as in the field of biomass utilization. Results A xylanase gene (xyn10A) with 3,474 bp was cloned from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga thermarum that encodes a protein containing 1,158 amino acid residues. Based on amino acid sequence homology, hydrophobic cluster and three dimensional structure analyses, it was attested that the xylanase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 10 with five carbohydrate binding domains. When the xylanase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), the specific enzyme activity of xylanase produced by the recombinant strain was up to 145.8 U mg-1. The xylanase was optimally active at 95°C, pH 7.0. In addition, it exhibited high thermostability over broad range of pH 4.0-8.5 and temperature 55-90°C upon the addition of 5 mM Ca2+. Confirmed by Ion Chromatography System (ICS) analysis, the end products of the hydrolysis of beechwood xylan were xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose and xylohexaose. Conclusions The xylanase from T. thermarum is one of the hyperthermophilic xylanases that exhibits high thermostability, and thus, is a suitable candidate for generating XOs from cellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry residues for the uses as prebiotics and precursors for further preparation of furfural and other chemicals. PMID:23418789

  9. Cloning and immunologic characterization of a truncated Bordetella bronchiseptica filamentous hemagglutinin fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Keil, D J; Burns, E H; Kisker, W R; Bemis, D; Fenwick, B

    1999-12-10

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is an outer-membrane associated adhesin conserved within the genus Bordetella. FHA provides protection against B. pertussis infections in humans and is a component of acellular whooping cough vaccines. Furthermore, FHA serves as a protective antigen in several animal models of infection with B. bronchiseptica and may serve as a protective antigen of canine bordetellosis. In this study, polyclonal anti-B. pertussis FHA antiserum was used to identify an immunoreactive clone from the genomic DNA library of a canine B. bronchiseptica field isolate. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the immunoreactive clone were compared to fhaB and FhaB from B. pertussis revealing 94% identity at the nucleic acid level, and 86% identity at the protein level. A truncated fusion protein (FHAt) was prepared which included a conserved domain homologous to the immunodominant region in the FHA of B. pertussis [Leininger E, Bowen S, Renauld-Mongen G, Rouse JH, Menozzi FD, Locht C, Heron I, Brennan MJ. Immunodominant domain present on the Bordetella pertussis vaccine component filamentous hemagglutinin. J. Infect. Dis. 1997;175:1423-1431; Wilson DR, Siebers A, Finlay BB. Antigenic analysis of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin with phage display libraries and rabbit anti-filamentous hemagglutinin polyclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 1998;66:4884-4894]. FHAt was shown to be safe and antigenic in rabbits. FHAt induced the formation of antibodies that inhibit the hemagglutination associated with full length B. pertussis FHA, and inhibit adherence of B. bronchisepitca to canine fibroblasts by as much as 65%. This information may have implications for the development of safe and efficacious subunit vaccines for the prevention of canine bordetellosis and may contribute to future acellular whooping cough vaccines. PMID:10580199

  10. Characterization of nonprimate hepacivirus and construction of a functional molecular clone

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, Troels K. H.; Kapoor, Amit; Nishiuchi, Eiko; Brock, Kenny V.; Yu, Yingpu; Andrus, Linda; Gu, Meigang; Renshaw, Randall W.; Dubovi, Edward J.; McDonough, Sean P.; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Divers, Thomas J.; Tennant, Bud C.; Rice, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) is the closest known relative of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its study could enrich our understanding of HCV evolution, immunity, and pathogenesis. High seropositivity is found in horses worldwide with ∼3% viremic. NPHV natural history and molecular virology remain largely unexplored, however. Here, we show that NPHV, like HCV, can cause persistent infection for over a decade, with high titers and negative strand RNA in the liver. NPHV is a near-universal contaminant of commercial horse sera for cell culture. The complete NPHV 3′-UTR was determined and consists of interspersed homopolymer tracts and an HCV-like 3′-terminal poly(U)-X-tail. NPHV translation is stimulated by miR-122 and the 3′-UTR and, similar to HCV, the NPHV NS3-4A protease can cleave mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein to inactivate the retinoic acid-inducible gene I pathway. Using an NPHV consensus cDNA clone, replication was not observed in primary equine fetal liver cultures or after electroporation of selectable replicons. However, intrahepatic RNA inoculation of a horse initiated infection, yielding high RNA titers in the serum and liver. Delayed seroconversion, slightly elevated circulating liver enzymes and mild hepatitis was observed, followed by viral clearance. This establishes the molecular components of a functional NPHV genome. Thus, NPHV appears to resemble HCV not only in genome structure but also in its ability to establish chronic infection with delayed seroconversion and hepatitis. This NPHV infectious clone and resulting acute phase sera will facilitate more detailed studies on the natural history, pathogenesis, and immunity of this novel hepacivirus in its natural host. PMID:25646476

  11. Cloning and Characterization of Three Fatty Alcohol Oxidase Genes from Candida tropicalis Strain ATCC 20336

    PubMed Central

    Eirich, L. Dudley; Craft, David L.; Steinberg, Lisa; Asif, Afreen; Eschenfeldt, William H.; Stols, Lucy; Donnelly, Mark I.; Wilson, C. Ron

    2004-01-01

    Candida tropicalis (ATCC 20336) converts fatty acids to long-chain dicarboxylic acids via a pathway that includes among other reactions the oxidation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids to ω-aldehydes by a fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO). Three FAO genes (one gene designated FAO1 and two putative allelic genes designated FAO2a and FAO2b), have been cloned and sequenced from this strain. A comparison of the DNA sequence homology and derived amino acid sequence homology between these three genes and previously published Candida FAO genes indicates that FAO1 and FAO2 are distinct genes. Both genes were individually cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The substrate specificity and Km values for the recombinant FAO1 and FAO2 were significantly different. Particularly striking is the fact that FAO1 oxidizes ω-hydroxy fatty acids but not 2-alkanols, whereas FAO2 oxidizes 2-alkanols but not ω-hydroxy fatty acids. Analysis of extracts of strain H5343 during growth on fatty acids indicated that only FAO1 was highly induced under these conditions. FAO2 contains one CTG codon, which codes for serine (amino acid 177) in C. tropicalis but codes for leucine in E. coli. An FAO2a construct, with a TCG codon (codes for serine in E. coli) substituted for the CTG codon, was prepared and expressed in E. coli. Neither the substrate specificity nor the Km values for the FAO2a variant with a serine at position 177 were radically different from those of the variant with a leucine at that position. PMID:15294826

  12. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of avian cathelicidin orthologs, Cc-CATHs, from Coturnix coturnix.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Wenjuan; He, Weiyu; Guang, Huijuan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Duo; Liu, Jingze; Chen, Ming; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2011-05-01

    Cathelicidins comprise a family of antimicrobial peptides sharing a highly conserved cathelin domain, which play a central role in the early innate host defense against infection. In the present study, we report three novel avian cathelicidin orthologs cloned from a constructed spleen cDNA library of Coturnix coturnix, using a nested-PCR-based cloning strategy. Three coding sequences containing ORFs of 447, 465 and 456 bp encode three mature antimicrobial peptides (named Cc-CATH1, 2 and 3) of 26, 32 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that precursors of Cc-CATHs are significantly conserved with known avian cathelicidins. Synthetic Cc-CATH2 and 3 displayed broad and potent antimicrobial activity against most of the 41 strains of bacteria and fungi tested, especially the clinically isolated drug-resistant strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration values in the range 0.3-2.5 μm for most strains with or without the presence of 100 mm NaCl. Cc-CATH2 and 3 showed considerable reduction of cytotoxic activity compared to other avian cathelicidins, with average IC(50) values of 20.18 and 17.16 μm, respectively. They also exerted a negligible hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes, lysing only 3.6% of erythrocytes at a dose up to 100 μg·mL(-1) . As expected, the recombinant Cc-CATH2 (rCc-CATH2) also showed potent bactericidal activity. All these features of Cc-CATHs encourage further studies aiming to estimate their therapeutic potential as drug leads, as well as coping with current widespread antibiotic resistance, especially the new prevalent and dangerous 'superbug' that is resistant to almost all antibiotics. PMID:21375690

  13. Cloning, Functional Characterization, and Catalytic Mechanism of a Bergaptol O-Methyltransferase from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yucheng; Wang, Nana; Zeng, Zhixiong; Xu, Sheng; Huang, Chuanlong; Wang, Wei; Liu, Tingting; Luo, Jun; Kong, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are main active components of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Among them, methoxylated coumarin compound, such as bergapten, xanthotoxin, and isopimpinellin, has high officinal value and plays an important role in medicinal field. However, major issues associated with the biosynthesis mechanism of coumarins remain unsolved and no corresponding enzyme has been cloned from P. praeruptorum. In this study, a local BLASTN program was conducted to find the candidate genes from P. praeruptorum transcriptome database using the nucleotide sequence of Ammi majus bergaptol O-methyltransferase (AmBMT, GenBank accession No: AY443006) as a template. As a result, a 1335 bp full-length of cDNA sequence which contains an open reading frame of 1080 bp encoding a BMT polypeptide of 359 amino acids was obtained. The recombinant protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and displayed an observed activity to bergaptol. In vitro experiments show that the protein has narrow substrate specificity for bergaptol. Expression profile indicated that the cloned gene had a higher expression level in roots and can be induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Subcellular localization analysis showed that the BMT protein was located in cytoplasm in planta. Homology modeling and docking based site-directed mutagenesis have been employed to investigate the amino acid residues in BMT required for substrate binding and catalysis. Conservative amino acid substitutions at residue H264 affected BMT catalysis, whereas substitutions at residues F171, M175, D226, and L312 affected substrate binding. The systemic study summarized here will enlarge our knowledge on OMTs and provide useful information in investigating the coumarins biosynthesis mechanism in P. praeruptorum. PMID:27252733

  14. Cloning, Functional Characterization, and Catalytic Mechanism of a Bergaptol O-Methyltransferase from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yucheng; Wang, Nana; Zeng, Zhixiong; Xu, Sheng; Huang, Chuanlong; Wang, Wei; Liu, Tingting; Luo, Jun; Kong, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are main active components of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Among them, methoxylated coumarin compound, such as bergapten, xanthotoxin, and isopimpinellin, has high officinal value and plays an important role in medicinal field. However, major issues associated with the biosynthesis mechanism of coumarins remain unsolved and no corresponding enzyme has been cloned from P. praeruptorum. In this study, a local BLASTN program was conducted to find the candidate genes from P. praeruptorum transcriptome database using the nucleotide sequence of Ammi majus bergaptol O-methyltransferase (AmBMT, GenBank accession No: AY443006) as a template. As a result, a 1335 bp full-length of cDNA sequence which contains an open reading frame of 1080 bp encoding a BMT polypeptide of 359 amino acids was obtained. The recombinant protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and displayed an observed activity to bergaptol. In vitro experiments show that the protein has narrow substrate specificity for bergaptol. Expression profile indicated that the cloned gene had a higher expression level in roots and can be induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Subcellular localization analysis showed that the BMT protein was located in cytoplasm in planta. Homology modeling and docking based site-directed mutagenesis have been employed to investigate the amino acid residues in BMT required for substrate binding and catalysis. Conservative amino acid substitutions at residue H264 affected BMT catalysis, whereas substitutions at residues F171, M175, D226, and L312 affected substrate binding. The systemic study summarized here will enlarge our knowledge on OMTs and provide useful information in investigating the coumarins biosynthesis mechanism in P. praeruptorum. PMID:27252733

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel Athspr promoter specifically active in vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Yang, Tao; Li, Xiaoying; Hao, Hongyan; Xu, Shengtao; Cheng, Wei; Sun, Yingli; Wang, Chongying

    2014-05-01

    The vascular system--xylem, phloem and the cambium--is essential for water supply, nutrient transport, and physical support in higher plants. Although it is known that vascular-specific gene expression is regulated by cis-acting regulatory sequences in promoters, it is largely unknown how many regulatory elements exist and what their roles are in promoters. To understand the regulatory elements of vascular-specific promoters and their roles in vascular development, a T-DNA insertion mutant showing delayed growth and diminished resistance to environmental stress was isolated using promoter trap strategy. The novel gene, Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related (Athspr), was cloned from Arabidopsis ecotype C24. Strong GUS (β-glucuronidase) staining in the original promoter trap line was found in the vascular tissues of all organs in the mutant. The Athspr promoter was cloned and fused with GUS and eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter genes to verify its vascular-specific expression in Arabidopsis. Further histochemical analysis in transgenic plants demonstrated a similar GUS expression pattern in the vascular tissues. In addition, ATHSPR-eGFP driven by Athspr promoter was observed in vascular bundles of the transgenic seedling roots. Finally, comparative analysis with promoter motifs from 37 genes involved in vascular development revealed that Athspr and all other promoters active in vascular tissues contained regulatory elements responding to phytohormones, light, biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as those regulating tissue-specific expression. These results demonstrated that the Athspr promoter has a vascular tissue-specific activity and Athspr may have multiple functions in vascular development and resistance against various stresses. PMID:24675528

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a nuclear androgen receptor activated by 11-ketotestosterone

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Berg, A Håkan; von Hofsten, Jonas; Grahn, Birgitta; Hellqvist, Anna; Larsson, Anders; Karlsson, Johnny; Modig, Carina; Borg, Bertil; Thomas, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Although 11-ketotestosterone is a potent androgen and induces male secondary sex characteristics in many teleosts, androgen receptors with high binding affinity for 11-ketotestosterone or preferential activation by 11-ketotestosterone have not been identified. So, the mechanism by which 11-ketotestosterone exhibits such high potency remains unclear. Recently we cloned the cDNA of an 11-ketotestosterone regulated protein, spiggin, from three-spined stickleback renal tissue. As spiggin is the only identified gene product regulated by 11-ketotestosterone, the stickleback kidney is ideal for determination of the mechanism of 11-ketotestosterone gene regulation. A single androgen receptor gene with two splicing variants, belonging to the androgen receptor-β subfamily was cloned from stickleback kidney. A high affinity, saturable, single class of androgen specific binding sites, with the characteristics of an androgen receptor, was identified in renal cytosolic and nuclear fractions. Measurement of ligand binding moieties in the cytosolic and nuclear fractions as well as to the recombinant receptor revealed lower affinity for 11-ketotestosterone than for dihydrotestosterone. Treatment with different androgens did not up-regulate androgen receptor mRNA level or increase receptor abundance, suggesting that auto-regulation is not involved in differential ligand activation. However, comparison of the trans-activation potential of the stickleback androgen receptor with the human androgen receptor, in both human HepG2 cells and zebrafish ZFL cells, revealed preferential activation by 11-ketotestosterone of the stickleback receptor, but not of the human receptor. These findings demonstrate the presence of a receptor preferentially activated by 11-ketotestosterone in the three-spined stickleback, so far the only one known in any animal. PMID:16107211

  17. DNA cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; Isik, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2012-12-13

    We have cloned, purified, and characterized an α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the human pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCA. The new enzyme has significant catalytic activity, and an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates led to the detection of a large number of low nanomolar inhibitors, among which are methazolamide, acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, and indisulam (KI values in the range 0.69-8.1 nM). As bicarbonate is a virulence factor of this bacterium and since ethoxzolamide was shown to inhibit the in vivo virulence, we propose that VchCA may be a target for antibiotic development, exploiting a mechanism of action rarely considered until now. PMID:23181552

  18. Cloning and Characterization of tesk1, a Novel Spermatogenesis-Related Gene, in the Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Liang; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Wanjun; Liu, Yang; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Na; Chen, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Testis-specific protein kinase 1 (Tesk1) is a serine/threonine kinase with unique structural features. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the tesk1 gene of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis. The full-length tesk1 cDNA consists of 1,672 nucleotides, encoding a 331 amino acid polypeptide with a characteristic structure composed of an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. The tesk1 genomic sequence contains eight exons and seven introns. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that tesk1 mRNA is expressed predominantly in the testis, though the level of expression varied throughout development. We used in situ hybridization to show that tesk1 mRNA is expressed in the spermatids of males and pseudo-males, but not in triploid males. Our results suggest that tongue sole Tesk1 may play a role in spermatogenesis. PMID:25271995

  19. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%). PMID:16454675

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of a β-carbonic anhydrase from Malassezia globosa, a potential antidandruff target.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, Kirsty S; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Mastrolorenzo, Antonio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-04-12

    A β-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the fungal pathogen Malassezia globosa has been cloned, characterized, and studied for its inhibition with sulfonamides. This enzyme, designated MG-CA, has significant catalytic activity in the CO(2) hydration reaction and was inhibited by sulfonamides, sulfamates, and sulfamides with K(I) in the nanomolar to micromolar range. Several sulfonamides have also been investigated for the inhibition of growth of M. globosa, M. dermatis, M. pachydermatic, and M. furfur in cultures, whereas a mouse model of dandruff showed that treatment with sulfonamides led to fragmented fungal hyphae, as for the treatment with ketoconazole, a clinically used antifungal agent. These data prompt us to propose MG-CA as a new antidandruff drug target. PMID:22424239

  1. Cloning and identification of novel hydrolase genes from a dairy cow rumen metagenomic library and characterization of a cellulase gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in cellulose degrading enzymes has increased in recent years due to the expansion of the cellulosic biofuel industry. The rumen is a highly adapted environment for the degradation of cellulose and a promising source of enzymes for industrial use. To identify cellulase enzymes that may be of such use we have undertaken a functional metagenomic screen to identify cellulase enzymes from the bacterial community in the rumen of a grass-hay fed dairy cow. Results Twenty five clones specifying cellulose activity were identified. Subcloning and sequence analysis of a subset of these hydrolase-positive clones identified 10 endoglucanase genes. Preliminary characterization of the encoded cellulases was carried out using crude extracts of each of the subclones. Zymogram analysis using carboxymethylcellulose as a substrate showed a single positive band for each subclone, confirming that only one functional cellulase gene was present in each. One cellulase gene, designated Cel14b22, was expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli and purified for further characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. It was stable over a broad pH range, from pH 4.0 to 10.0. The activity was significantly enhanced by Mn2+ and dramatically reduced by Fe3+ or Cu2+. The enzyme hydrolyzed a wide range of beta-1,3-, and beta-1,4-linked polysaccharides, with varying activities. Activities toward microcrystalline cellulose and filter paper were relatively high, while the highest activity was toward Oat Gum. Conclusion The present study shows that a functional metagenomic approach can be used to isolate previously uncharacterized cellulases from the rumen environment. PMID:23062472

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from sheep and cashmere goat reveal alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wan-Jin; Han, Bao-Da; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Li; Bao, Xiao-Hong; Bou, Shorgan

    2011-03-01

    We cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding for Izumo1 of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). Analysis of 4.6 kb Izumo1 genomic sequences in sheep and goat revealed a canonical open reading frame (ORF) of 963 bp spliced by eight exons. Sheep and goat Izumo1 genes share >99% identity at both DNA and protein levels and are also highly homologous to the orthologues in cattle, mouse, rat and human. Extensive cloning and analysis of Izumo1 cDNA revealed three (del 69, del 182 and del 217) and two (del 69 and ins 30) alternative splicing isoforms in goat and sheep, respectively. All of the isoforms are derived from splicing at typical GT-AG sites leading to partial or complete truncation of the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain. Bioinformatics analysis showed that caprine and ovine Izumo1 proteins share similar structure with their murine orthologue. There are a signal peptide at the N-terminus (1-22 aa), a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus (302-319 aa), and an extracellular Ig-like region in the middle (161-252 aa) with a putative N-linked glycosylation site (N(205)-N-S). Alignment of Izumo1 protein sequences among 15 mammalian species displayed several highly conserved regions, including LDC and YRC motifs with cysteine residues for potential disulfide bridge formation, CPNKCG motif upstream of the Ig-like domain, GLTDYSFYRVW motif upstream of the putative N-linked glycosylation site, and a number of scattered cysteine residues. These distinctive features are very informative to pinpoint the important gene motifs and functions. The C-terminal regions, however, are more variable across species. Izumo1 cDNA sequences of goat, sheep, and cow were found to be largely homologous, and the molecular phylogenetic analysis is consistent with their morphological taxonomy. This implies the Izumo1 gene evolves from the same ancestor, and the mechanism of sperm-egg fusion in mammals may be under the same principle in which Izumo1 plays an important role. PMID

  3. Monoterpene metabolism. Cloning, expression, and characterization of (-)-isopiperitenol/(-)-carveol dehydrogenase of peppermint and spearmint.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Kerry L; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-03-01

    The essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are distinguished by the oxygenation position on the p-menthane ring of the constitutive monoterpenes that is conferred by two regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene-3- and limonene-6-hydroxylases. Following hydroxylation of limonene, an apparently similar dehydrogenase oxidizes (-)-trans-isopiperitenol to (-)-isopiperitenone in peppermint and (-)-trans-carveol to (-)-carvone in spearmint. Random sequencing of a peppermint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes, including dehydrogenases. Full-length dehydrogenase clones were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a recently developed in situ assay. A single full-length acquisition encoding (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (ISPD) was isolated. The (-)-ISPD cDNA has an open reading frame of 795 bp that encodes a 265-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 27,191. Nondegenerate primers were designed based on the (-)-trans-ISPD cDNA sequence and employed to screen a spearmint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library from which a 5'-truncated cDNA encoding the spearmint homolog, (-)-trans-carveol-dehydrogenase, was isolated. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the remaining 5'-sequence from RNA isolated from oil gland secretory cells of spearmint leaf. The full-length spearmint dehydrogenase shares >99% amino acid identity with its peppermint homolog and both dehydrogenases are capable of utilizing (-)-trans-isopiperitenol and (-)-trans-carveol. These isopiperitenol/carveol dehydrogenases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and are related to other plant short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in secondary metabolism (lignan biosynthesis), stress responses, and phytosteroid biosynthesis, but they are quite dissimilar (approximately 13% identity) to the monoterpene

  4. Cloning, expression and pharmacological characterization of rabbit adenosine A1 and A3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hill, R J; Oleynek, J J; Hoth, C F; Kiron, M A; Weng, W; Wester, R T; Tracey, W R; Knight, D R; Buchholz, R A; Kennedy, S P

    1997-01-01

    The role of adenosine A1 and A3 receptors in mediating cardioprotection has been studied predominantly in rabbits, yet the pharmacological characteristics of rabbit adenosine A1 and A3 receptor subtypes are unknown. Thus, the rabbit adenosine A3 receptor was cloned and expressed, and its pharmacology was compared with that of cloned adenosine A1 receptors. Stable transfection of rabbit A1 or A3 cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells resulted in high levels of expression of each of the receptors, as demonstrated by high-affinity binding of the A1/A3 adenosine receptor agonist N6-(4-amino-3-[125I]iodobenzyl)adenosine (125I-ABA). For both receptors, binding of 125I-ABA was inhibited by the GTP analog 5'-guanylimidodiphosphate, and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was inhibited by the adenosine receptor agonist (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine. The rank orders of potency of adenosine receptor agonists for inhibition of 125I-ABA binding were as follows: rabbit A1, N6-cyclopentyladenosine = (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine > N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > or = I-ABA > or = N6-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine > > N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide > N6-(4-amino-3-benzyl)adenosine; rabbit A3, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide > or = I-ABA > > N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > N6-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine = N6-cyclopentyladenosine = (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine > N6-(4-amino-3-benzyl)adenosine. The adenosine receptor antagonist rank orders were as follow: rabbit A1, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine > 1,3- dipropyl-8-(4-acrylate)phenylxanthine > or = xanthine amine congener > > 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline; rabbit A3, xanthine amine congener > 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-acrylate)phenylxanthine > or = 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine > > 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline. These observations confirm the identity of the expressed proteins as A1 and A3 receptors. The results will facilitate further in-depth studies of the roles of A1 and A3 receptors in

  5. Cloning, expression, and characterization of epi-cedrol synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Mercke, P; Crock, J; Croteau, R; Brodelius, P E

    1999-09-15

    Sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases) catalyze the conversion of the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate to various sesquiterpene structural types. In plants, many sesquiterpenes are produced as defensive chemicals (phytoalexins) or mediators of chemical communication (i.e., pollinator attractants). A number of sesquiterpene synthases are present in Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood). We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding one of these, epi-cedrol synthase. This clone contains a 1641-bp open reading frame coding for 547 amino acids (63.5 kDa), a 38-bp 5'-untranslated end, and a 272-bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence was 32 to 43% identical with the sequences of other known sesquiterpene cyclases from angiosperms. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed the formation of both olefinic (3%) and oxygenated (97%) sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate. GC-MS analysis identified the olefins as alpha-cedrene (57% of the olefins), beta-cedrene (13%), (E)-beta-farnesene (5%), alpha-acoradiene (1%), (E)-alpha-bisabolene (8%), and three unknown olefins (16%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (97% of total sesquiterpene generated, exclusive of farnesol and nerolidol) as cedrol (4%) and epi-cedrol (96%). epi-Cedrol synthase was not active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate, whereas geranyl diphosphate was converted to monoterpenes by the recombinant enzyme at a rate of about 15% of that observed with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. The monoterpene olefin products are limonene (45%), terpinolene (42%), gamma-terpinene (8%), myrcene (5%), and alpha-terpinene (2%); a small amount of the monoterpene alcohol terpinen-4-ol is also produced. The pH optimum for the recombinant enzyme is 8.5-9.0 (with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate) and the K(m) values for farnesyl diphosphate are 0.4 and 1.3 microM at pH 7. 0 and 9.0, respectively. The K(m) for Mg(2+) is 80 microM at pH 7.0 and 9.0. PMID:10486140

  6. Cloning and characterization of alpha-glucuronidase enzymes from mixed cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemicellulose is second to cellulose as the most common carbohydrate source on the planet. Efficient utilization of this resource is essential to the economic viability of biomass refineries. Xylan, a primary component of hemicellulose, is a polymer of beta-1,4-linked xylose sugars. This polymer ...

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression profiles of androgen receptors in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus).

    PubMed

    Chen, H P; Deng, S P; Dai, M L; Zhu, C H; Li, G L

    2016-01-01

    Androgen plays critical roles in vertebrate reproductive systems via androgen receptors (ARs). In the present study, the full-length spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) androgen receptor (sAR) cDNA sequence was cloned from testis. The sAR cDNA measured 2448 bp in length with an open-reading frame of 2289 bp, encoding 763 amino acids. Amino acid alignment analyses showed that the sARs exhibited highly evolutionary conserved functional domains. Phylogenetically, the sARs clustered within the ARβ common vertebrate group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that sAR expression varied in level and distribution throughout the tissues of both females and males. sAR expression was detected during testicular development by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the highest transcription of sARs was observed in the mid-testicular stage, and remained at a high expression level until the late-testicular stage. In addition, the effects of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) and estrogen (E2) on the expression of sARs in ovaries were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. sAR expression increased at 12 and 24 h post-MT treatment and decreased with E2 treatment. The present study provides preliminary evidence indicating gonadal plasticity of spotted scat under exogenous steroidal hormone treatments. It also provides a theoretical basis for sex reversal and production of artificial pseudo-males for female monosex breeding. PMID:27173207

  8. A Novel Alliinase from Onion Roots. Biochemical Characterization and cDNA Cloning1

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Jane E.; Shaw, Martin L.; Joyce, Meeghan D. Pither; McCallum, John A.; McManus, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    We have purified a novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) from roots of onion (Allium cepa L.). Two isoforms with alliinase activity (I and II) were separated by concanavalin A-Sepharose and had molecular masses of 52.7 (I) and 50.5 (II) kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 51 (I) and 57.5 (II) kD by gel filtration fast-protein liquid chromatography. Isoform I had an isoelectric point of 9.3, while isoform II had isoelectric points of 7.6, 7.9, 8.1, and 8.3. The isoforms differed in their glycosylation. Both contained xylose/fucose containing complex-type N-linked glycans, and isoform II also contained terminal mannose structures. Both isoforms had activity with S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides. Unlike other allium alliinases, A. cepa root isoforms had cystine lyase activity. We cloned a gene from A. cepa root cDNA and show that it codes for A. cepa root alliinase protein. Homology to other reported allium alliinase genes is 50%. The gene coded for a protein of mass 51.2 kD, with two regions of deduced amino acid sequence identical to a 25- and a 40-amino acid region, as determined experimentally. The A. cepa root alliinase cDNA was expressed mainly in A. cepa roots. The structure and function of the alliinase gene family is discussed. PMID:10759524

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Yange; Zhao, Qiping; Han, Hongyu; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youling; Huang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and is crucial for parasite survival. In this study, we cloned and expressed the LDH of Eimeria tenella (EtLDH). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of EtLDH was developmentally regulated at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. EtLDH mRNA levels were higher in second-generation merozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and sporozoites). EtLDH protein expression levels were most prominent in second-generation merozoites, moderately expressed in unsporulated oocysts and sporulated oocysts, and weakly detected in sporozoites. Immunostaining with anti-recombinant EtLDH (rEtLDH) antibody indicated that EtLDH was mainly located in the anterior region in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region of intracellular sporozoites except for the apex after invasion into DF-1 cells. Specific staining of EtLDH protein was more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreased in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of EtLDH function using specific antibodies cannot efficiently reduce the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. These results suggest that EtLDH may be involved in glycolysis during the first-generation merogony stage in E. tenella and has little role in host invasion. PMID:24906988

  10. Cloning and characterization of SPL-family genes in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Li, M; Zhao, S Z; Zhao, C Z; Zhang, Y; Xia, H; Lopez-Baltazar, J; Wan, S B; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) proteins play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stressors. The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a globally important oil crop. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of 15 SPLs in the peanut by transcriptome sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and analyzed their genomic DNA sequences. cDNA lengths varied significantly, from 369 to 3102 bp. The SBP domain of the peanut SPL proteins was highly conserved compared to SPLs in other plant species. Based on their sequence similarity to SPLs from other plant species, the peanut SPLs could be grouped into five subgroups. In each subgroup, lengths of individual genes, conserved motif numbers, and distribution patterns were similar. Seven of the SPLs were predicted to be targets of miR156. The SPLs were ubiquitously expressed in the roots, leaves, flowers, gynophores, and seeds, with different expression levels and accumulation patterns. Significant differences in the expression of most of the SPLs were observed between juvenile and adult leaves, suggesting that they are involved in developmental regulation. Dynamic changes occurred in transcript levels at stage 1 (aerial grown green gynophores), stage 2 (gynophores buried in soil for about three days), and stage 3 (gynophores buried in soil for about nine days with enlarged pods). Possible roles that these genes play in peanut pod initiation are discussed. PMID:26909986

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper. PMID:27109200

  12. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of opine dehydrogenases from the polychaete rockworm Marphysa sanguinea.

    PubMed

    Endo, Noriyuki; Kan-no, Nobuhiro; Nagahisa, Eizoh

    2007-06-01

    Alanopine dehydrogenase (AlDH) and three isoforms of strombine/alanopine dehydrogenase (St/AlDH) were purified from muscle tissue of the polychaete rockworm Marphysa sanguinea. The four enzymes, which can be distinguished by the isoelectric point, are monomeric 42 kDa proteins, possess similar pH-activity profiles, and display specificity for pyruvate and NAD(H). The three isoforms of St/AlDH show equivalent Km and Vmax for glycine and L-alanine and for D-strombine and meso-alanopine. Free amino acid levels in the muscle and D-strombine accumulation in vivo during muscle activity suggest that St/AlDHs function physiologically as StDH. AlDH shows specificity for L-alanine and meso-alanopine, but not for glycine or D-strombine. The amino acid sequences of AlDH and one of the St/AlDH isoforms were determined by a combination of amino acid sequence analysis and cDNA cloning. St/AlDH cDNA consisted of 1586 bp nucleotides that encode a 399-residue protein (43,346.70 Da), and AlDH cDNA consisted of 1587 bp nucleotides that encode a 399-residue protein (43,886.68 Da). The two amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNA displayed 67% amino acid identity, with greatest similarity to that of tauropine dehydrogenase from the polychaete Arabella iricolor. PMID:17350870

  13. Cloning and Characterization of an Alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular a-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of an alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Mark L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular alpha-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  15. Cloning, characterization, and production of three α-l-fucosidases from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shuquan; Zhang, Huaqin; Chen, Xiaodi; Lu, Lili; Xu, Li; Xiao, Min

    2016-04-01

    α-l-Fucosidases are key enzymes for the degradation of intestinal glycans by gut microbes. In this work, three putative α-l-fucosidases (Afc1, Afc2, and Afc3) genes from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Afc1 had the α-l-fucosidase domain of glycoside hydrolase (GH) 29 family but showed no enzyme activity toward all the substrates examined. The putative acid/base residue of Afc1, Ser205, was replaced by a glutamic acid which is conserved in GH29-B α-l-fucosidases. However, the mutant Afc1-S205E still failed to show enzyme activity. Afc2 and Afc3 were determined to be 1,3-1,4-α-l-fucosidase of GH29-B subfamily and 1,2-α-l-fucosidase of GH95 family, respectively, and both of them could release fucose from porcine gastric mucin (PGM). When C. perfringens ATCC 13124 grew with the presence of PGM, the transcription of afc1 decreased slightly, while those of afc2 and afc3 increased to 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, and the enzyme activities of Afc2 and Afc3 in the culture increased to 2.2-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. These results suggest that Afc2 and Afc3 are involved in the degradation of intestinal fucosyl glycans by C. perfringens ATCC 13124. PMID:26663202

  16. Cloning, expression, and characterization of coenzyme-B12-dependent diol dehydratase from Lactobacillus diolivorans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuqin; Meng, Xiaolei; Chen, Yunlai; Wei, Yutuo; Du, Liqin; Huang, Ribo

    2014-01-01

    The three gldCDE genes from Lactobacillus diolivorans, that encode the three subunits of the glycerol dehydratase, were cloned and the proteins were co-expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli with added sorbitol and betaine hydrochloride. The purified enzyme exists as a heterohexamer (α2β2γ2) structure with a native molecular mass of 210 kDa. It requires coenzyme B12 for catalytic activity and is subject to suicide inactivation by glycerol during catalysis. The enzyme had maximum activity at pH 8.6 and 37 °C. The apparent K m values for coenzyme B12, 1,2-ethanediol, 1,2-propanediol, and glycerol were 1.5 μM, 10.5 mM, 1.3 mM, and 5.8 mM, respectively. Together, these results indicated that the three genes gldCDE encoding the proteins make up a coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase and not a glycerol dehydratase. PMID:24078133

  17. Cloning, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in SF9 Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Pravesh; Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Woo Taek; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Weontae

    2016-01-01

    A balance between production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Increased levels of ROS during oxidative stress are associated with disease conditions. Antioxidant enzymes, such as extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), in the extracellular matrix (ECM) neutralize the toxicity of superoxide. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of EC-SOD in protecting the brain, lungs, and other tissues from oxidative stress. Therefore, EC-SOD would be an excellent therapeutic drug for treatment of diseases caused by oxidative stress. We cloned both the full length (residues 1–240) and truncated (residues 19–240) forms of human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) into the donor plasmid pFastBacHTb. After transposition, the bacmid was transfected into the Sf9-baculovirus expression system and the expressed hEC-SOD purified using FLAG-tag. Western blot analysis revealed that hEC-SOD is present both as a monomer (33 kDa) and a dimer (66 kDa), as detected by the FLAG antibody. A water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) assay showed that both full length and truncated hEC-SOD proteins were enzymatically active. We showed that a potent superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), inhibits hEC-SOD activity. PMID:26912083

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of F-type lectin from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Anju, A; Jeswin, J; Thomas, P C; Vijayan, K K

    2013-07-01

    F-type lectin is an important type of pattern recognition receptor that can recognize and bind carbohydrate moieties on the surface of potential pathogens through its carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). This paper reports the cloning of an F-type lectin (designated as pfF-type lectin) from the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA of this pfF-type lectin contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 588 bp coding for196 amino acids. A signal peptide at the N-terminus of the deduced polypeptide was predicted by the signal P program and the cleavage site is located between the positions of Gly(19)and Tyr(20). Conserved domain search at NCBI revealed the pfF-type lectin domain extends from Lys(55)to Val(192). Semi-quantitative analysis in adult tissues showed that the pfF-type lectin mRNA was abundantly expressed in haemocytes and gill and rarely expressed in other tissues tested. After challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), expression of pfF-type lectin mRNA in haemocytes was increased, reaching the highest level at 4 h, then dropping to basal levels at 36 h. These results suggest that F-type lectin play a critical role in the innate immune system of the pearl oyster P. fucata. PMID:23624143

  19. Cloning, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in SF9 Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Pravesh; Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Woo Taek; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Weontae

    2016-03-01

    A balance between production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Increased levels of ROS during oxidative stress are associated with disease conditions. Antioxidant enzymes, such as extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), in the extracellular matrix (ECM) neutralize the toxicity of superoxide. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of EC-SOD in protecting the brain, lungs, and other tissues from oxidative stress. Therefore, EC-SOD would be an excellent therapeutic drug for treatment of diseases caused by oxidative stress. We cloned both the full length (residues 1-240) and truncated (residues 19-240) forms of human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) into the donor plasmid pFastBacHTb. After transposition, the bacmid was transfected into the Sf9-baculovirus expression system and the expressed hEC-SOD purified using FLAG-tag. Western blot analysis revealed that hEC-SOD is present both as a monomer (33 kDa) and a dimer (66 kDa), as detected by the FLAG antibody. A water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) assay showed that both full length and truncated hEC-SOD proteins were enzymatically active. We showed that a potent superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), inhibits hEC-SOD activity. PMID:26912083

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Spirometra erinacei casein kinase I.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li Na; Wang, Han; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Man; Xu, Ming Guo; Wang, Li Fu; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2015-12-01

    The Spirometra erinacei casein kinase I (SeCKI) gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its characteristics were investigated in this study. The recombinant SeCP protein (rSeCKI) was purified. The vaccination of mice with rSeCKI induced the Th1/Th2-mixed type of immune response with Th2 predominant (high levels of IgG1). Western blotting analysis showed that rSeCP was recognized by the sera of plerocercoid-infected mice, and anti-rSeCP serum recognized the native SeCP protein of plerocercoid crude antigens. Transcription and expression of SeCP was observed at the plerocercoid and adult stages of S. erinacei. Immunolocalization identified SeCKI in the tegument and parenchymal tissues of plerocercoids and in the teguments of adults. SeCKI appeared to be essential indispensable for the S. erinacei development and survival in host, but its biological functions need to be further investigated. PMID:26437645

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization analysis of immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene in European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianjun; Guan, Ruizhang; Lin, Peng; Guo, Songlin

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was cloned and analyzed. The full-length cDNA of the IgM heavy chain gene (GenBank accession no. EF062515) has 2089 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 581 amino acids. The IgM heavy chain was composed of leader peptide (L), variable domain (VH), CH1, CH2, Hinge, CH3, CH4, and C-terminus and two novel continuous putative N-glycosylation sites were found close to the second cysteine of CH3 in A. anguilla-H1 and A. anguilla-H2. The deduced amino acid sequence of the European eel IgM heavy chain constant region shared similarities to that of the Ladyfish (Elops saurus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) with the identity of 46.1%, 39.7%, 38.9%, 32.4%, 32.3%, 31.7%, and 30.7%, respectively. The highest level of IgM gene expression was observed in the kidney, followed by the spleen, gills, liver, muscle and heart in the apparently healthy European eels. PMID:19013650

  2. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ping; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2016-04-10

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) can catalyze the release of the N-terminal amino acid from acetylated peptides. There were many documented examples of this enzyme in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, knowledge about APH in insects still remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a putative silkworm Bombyx mori APH (BmAPH) gene. The BmAPH gene encodes a protein of 710 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 78.5kDa. The putative BmAPH and mammal APHs share about 36% amino acid sequence identity, yet key catalytic residues are conserved (Ser566, Asp654, and His686). Expression and purification of the recombinant BmAPH in Escherichia coli showed that it has acylpeptide hydrolase activity toward the traditional substrate, Ac-Ala-pNA. Furthermore, organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, and malathion, significantly inhibited the activity of the APH both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BmAPH was expressed in all tested tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that BmAPH protein was localized in the basement membranes. These results suggested that BmAPH may be involved in enhancing silkworm tolerance to the OP insecticides. In a word, our results provide evidence for understanding of the biological function of APH in insects. PMID:26778207

  3. Cloning, expression, characterization and crystallization of BRP39, a signalling glycoprotein expressed during mammary gland apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ashok K; Fisher, Andrew J; Yu, Zhihao; Pradeep, Mangottil A; Janjanam, Jagdeesh; Kaushik, Jai K

    2009-04-01

    Breast regression protein (BRP39) is a glycoprotein, which is expressed during mammary gland involution in mouse. The physiological function of BRP39 is not known. High levels of expression of BRP39 have also been associated with breast cancer development. In the present investigation a cDNA encoding rBRP39 (recombinant BRP39) was cloned by PCR techniques. It consists of 1,143 nucleotides and encodes an open reading frame of 381 amino acid residues including a signal sequence of 21 amino acids. Recombinant BRP39 was produced in E. coli in a soluble form at low temperature (15 degrees C). Expression and purification of rBRP39 was confirmed by western blot analysis. Purified rBRP39 showed high chitin-binding activity but no chitinase activity. The lack of chitinase activity may be attributed to the mutation of critical active site residue Glu120 to Leu120 and Asp118 to Ala118 in BRP39. However, a mutant in which the residue was reverted back to Glu, by site directed mutagenesis, displayed no chitinase activity. Purified recombinant BRP39 was crystallized and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.8A resolution. The crystals belonged to the space group C2 with unit cell parameters a=130.4A, b=81.3A, c=229.2A, beta=105.9 degrees. The structure refinement is in progress. PMID:19041398

  4. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a new phytase from the phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae DSMZ 18074.

    PubMed

    Shao, Na; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2008-07-01

    The soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae is an economically important pathogen of many crops. A new phytase gene, appA, was cloned from P. wasabiae by degenerate PCR and TAIL-PCR. The open reading frame of appA consisted of 1,302 bp encoding 433 amino acid residues, including 27 residues of a putative signal peptide. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 45 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.5. The amino acid sequence contained the conserved active site residues RHGXRXP and HDTN of typical histidine acid phosphatases, and showed the highest identity of 48.5% to PhyM from Pseudomonas syringae. The gene fragment encoding the mature phytase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the purified recombinant phytase had a specific activity of 1,072+/-47 U/mg for phytate substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified phytase were pH 5.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The Km value was 0.17 mM, with a Vmax of 1,714 micromol/min/mg. This is the first report of the identification and isolation of phytase from Pectobacterium. PMID:18667849

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Filamentous Fungal S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao; Zhou, Shengmin; Yu, Haijun; Li, Jingyi; Xia, Yang; Li, Baoyi; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-28

    S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) metabolizes S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and has been shown to play important roles in regulating cellular signaling and formulating host defense by modulating intracellular nitric oxide levels. The enzyme has been found in bacterial, yeast, mushroom, plant, and mammalian cells. However, to date, there is still no evidence of its occurrence in filamentous fungi. In this study, we cloned and investigated a GSNOR-like enzyme from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The enzyme occurred in native form as a homodimer and exhibited low thermal stability. GSNO was an ideal substrate for the enzyme. The apparent Km and kcat values were 0.55 mM and 34,100 min(-1), respectively. Substrate binding sites and catalytic center amino acid residues based on those from known GSNORs were conserved in this enzyme, and the corresponding roles were verified using site-directed mutagenesis. Therefore, we demonstrated the presence of GSNOR in a filamentous fungus for the first time. PMID:26869606

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the energy homeostasis-associated gene in piglet*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-ping; Gao, Yun-ling; Liu, Gang; Deng, Dun; Chen, Rong-jun; Zhang, Yu-zhe; Li, Li-li; Wen, Qing-qi; Hou, Yong-qing; Feng, Ze-meng; Guo, Zhao-hui

    2015-01-01

    The energy homeostasis-associated (Enho) gene encodes a secreted protein, adropin, which regulates the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, a major regulator of lipogenesis. In the present study, the porcine (Sus scrofa) homologue of the Enho gene, which was named pEnho, was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The gene sequence was submitted into the GenBank of NCBI, and the access number is GQ414763. The pEnho encodes a protein of 76 amino acids which shows 75% similarity to Homo sapiens adropin. The expression profile of pEnho in tissues (liver, muscle, anterior jejunum, posterior jejunum, and ileum) was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. pEnho was localized on porcine chromosome 10 and no introns were found. In conclusion, pEnho was cloned and analysed with the aim of increasing knowledge about glucose and lipid metabolism in piglets and helping to promote the health and growth of piglets through adropin regulation. PMID:26055914

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the energy homeostasis-associated gene in piglet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-ping; Gao, Yun-ling; Liu, Gang; Deng, Dun; Chen, Rong-jun; Zhang, Yu-zhe; Li, Li-li; Wen, Qing-qi; Hou, Yong-qing; Feng, Ze-meng; Guo, Zhao-hui

    2015-06-01

    The energy homeostasis-associated (Enho) gene encodes a secreted protein, adropin, which regulates the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, a major regulator of lipogenesis. In the present study, the porcine (Sus scrofa) homologue of the Enho gene, which was named pEnho, was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The gene sequence was submitted into the GenBank of NCBI, and the access number is GQ414763. The pEnho encodes a protein of 76 amino acids which shows 75% similarity to Homo sapiens adropin. The expression profile of pEnho in tissues (liver, muscle, anterior jejunum, posterior jejunum, and ileum) was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. pEnho was localized on porcine chromosome 10 and no introns were found. In conclusion, pEnho was cloned and analysed with the aim of increasing knowledge about glucose and lipid metabolism in piglets and helping to promote the health and growth of piglets through adropin regulation. PMID:26055914

  8. Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of the cholesterol oxidase CgChoA from Chryseobacterium gleum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol oxidases are important enzymes for applications such as the analysis of cholesterol in clinical samples, the synthesis of steroid derived drugs, and are considered as potential antibacterial drug targets. Results The gene choA encoding a cholesterol oxidase from Chryseobacterium gleum DSM 16776 was cloned into the pQE-30 expression vector and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 co-transformed with pRARE2. The N-terminally His-tagged cholesterol oxidase (CgChoA) was assigned to be a monomer in solution by size exclusion chromatography, showed a temperature optimum of 35°C, and a pH optimum at 6.75 using 0.011 M MOPS buffer under the tested conditions. The purified protein showed a maximum activity of 15.5 U/mg. CgChoA showed a Michaelis-Menten like kinetic behavior only when the substrate was dissolved in water and taurocholate (apparent Km = 0.5 mM). In addition, the conversion of cholesterol by CgChoA was studied via biocatalytic batches at analytical scale, and cholest-4-en-3-one was confirmed as product by HPLC-MS. Conclusion CgChoA is a true cholesterol oxidase which activity ranges among the high performing described cholesterol oxidases from other organisms. Thus, the enzyme broadens the available toolbox of cholesterol oxidases for e.g. synthetic and biosensing applications. PMID:24885249

  9. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of Ecdysis Triggering Hormone from Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    P, Bhagath Kumar; K, Kasi Viswanath; S, Tuleshwori Devi; R, Sampath Kumar; Doucet, Daniel; Retnakaran, Arthur; Krell, Peter J; Feng, Qili; Ampasala, Dinakara Rao

    2016-07-01

    At the end of each stadium, insects undergo a precisely orchestrated process known as ecdysis which results in the replacement of the old cuticle with a new one. This physiological event is necessary to accommodate growth in arthropods since they have a rigid chitinous exoskeleton. Ecdysis is initiated by the direct action of Ecdysis Triggering Hormones on the central nervous system. Choristoneura fumiferana is a major defoliator of coniferous forests in Eastern North America. It is assumed that, studies on the ecdysis behavior of this pest might lead to the development of novel pest management strategies. Hence in this study, the cDNA of CfETH was cloned. The open reading frame of the cDNA sequence was found to encode three putative peptides viz., Pre-Ecdysis Triggering Hormone (PETH), Ecdysis Triggering Hormone (ETH), and Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Associated Peptide (ETH-AP). The CfETH transcript was detected in the epidermal tissue of larval and pupal stages, but not in eggs and adults. In order to explore the structural conformation of ETH, ab initio modelling and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations were performed. Further, a library of insecticides was generated and virtual screening was performed to identify the compounds displaying high binding capacity to ETH. PMID:27012894

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of spexin in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Qiongyu; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Huapu; Li, Guangli; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Spexin is a newly discovered neuropeptide in vertebrates. Comprehensive comparative studies are required to unveil its biological functions. In order to ascertain the neuroendocrine function of spexin in orange-spotted grouper, its full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences were cloned and analyzed. Sequence analyses showed that the spexin gene structure is composed of six exons and five introns, and the amino acids of mature peptide (spexin-14) in grouper are identical to that of other fish. Tissue expression analysis found that grouper spexin is highly expressed in the brain, liver and ovary. Real time-PCR analysis demonstrated that the hypothalamic expression of spexin declined gradually during the ovarian development, and was up-regulated by food deprivation. Intraperitoneal administration of spexin-14 peptides to grouper significantly elevated the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and suppressed the orexin expression in the hypothalamus, but could not change the hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 (gnrh1). Both in vivo and in vitro administration of spexin could not significantly influence the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshβ) and luteinizing hormone β (lhβ) in the pituitary with the exception of an inhibition of gh expression. Our data suggested that the spexin has a significant role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in orange-spotted grouper. PMID:26944307

  11. Cloning and characterization of a serotonin N-acetyltransferase from a gymnosperm, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Kim, Young-Soon; Ahn, Taeho; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in both animals and plants. SNAT catalyzes serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, an immediate precursor for melatonin biosynthesis by N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT). We cloned the SNAT gene from a gymnosperm loblolly pine (Pinus teada). The loblolly pine SNAT (PtSNAT) gene encodes 255 amino acids harboring a transit sequence with 67 amino acids and shows 67% amino acid identity with rice SNAT when comparing the mature polypeptide regions. Purified recombinant PtSNAT showed peak activity at 55°C with the K(m) (428 μM) and Vmax (3.9 nmol/min/mg protein) values. As predicted, PtSNAT localized to chloroplasts. The SNAT mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues, including leaf, bud, flower, and pinecone, whereas the corresponding protein was detected only in leaf. In accordance with the exclusive SNAT protein expression in leaf, melatonin was detected only in leaf at 0.45 ng per gram fresh weight. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gymnosperm PtSNAT had high homology with SNATs from all plant phyla (even with cyanobacteria), and formed a clade separated from the angiosperm SNATs, suggestive of direct gene transfer from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis. PMID:25208036

  12. Purification, characterization, and molecular gene cloning of an antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Tanokura, Masaru; Hatano, Ken-ichi

    2007-03-01

    A novel basic protein with antifungal activity was isolated from the seeds of Ginkgo biloba and purified to homogeneity. The protein inhibited the growth of some fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma reesei, and Candida albicans) but did not exhibit antibacterial action against Escherichia coli. Furthermore, this protein showed weak inhibitory activity against the aspartic protease pepsin. To design primers for gene amplification, the NH(2)-terminal and partial internal amino acid sequences were determined using peptides obtained from a tryptic digest of the oxidized protein. The full-length cDNA of the antifungal protein was cloned and sequenced by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA contained a 402-bp open reading frame encoding a 134-aa protein with a potential signal peptide (26 residues), suggesting that this protein is synthesized as a preprotein and secreted outside the cells. The antifungal protein shows approximately 85% identity with embryo-abundant proteins from Picea abies and Picea glauca at the amino acid level; however, there is no homology between this protein and other plant antifungal proteins, such as defensin, and cyclophilin-, miraculin- and thaumatin-like proteins. PMID:17338634

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of the recombinant Yersinia pseudotuberculosis L-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Pokrovsky, V S; Omeljanjuk, N M; Borisova, A A; Anisimova, N Yu; Sokolov, N N

    2012-03-01

    We have cloned ansB (YPTB1411) gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Q66CJ2 and constructed stable inducible expression system that overproduce L-asparaginase from Y. pseudotuberculosis (YpA) in Escherichiacoli BL21 (DE3) cells. For purification of YpA we used Q-Sepharose and DEAE-Toyopearl column chromatography. We examined kinetics of the enzyme reaction, catalytic activity as a function of pH, temperature and ionic strength, thermostability and other enzyme properties. Biochemical properties of YpA are similar with those of E. coli type II L-asparaginase. K(m) for L-asparagine is 17 ± 0.9 μM and pI 5.4 ± 0.3. Enzyme demonstrates maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 60 °C. YpA L-glutaminase activity is relatively low and more than 15 times less than specific activity towards L-asn. We evaluated also the antiproliferative effect of YpA in vitro and in vivo with E. colil-asparaginase (EcA) as the reference substance at similar conditions. PMID:22226870

  14. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding Halobacterium halobium adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Inouye, S; Kawai, M; Fukami-Kobayashi, K; Gõ, M; Nakazawa, A

    1996-10-10

    The gene (AK) encoding adenylate kinase (AK) of Halobacterium halobium was cloned. AK consisted of 648 bp and coded for 216 amino acids (aa). S1 mapping and primer extension experiments indicated that the transcription start point (tsp) was located immediately upstream from the start codon. The TAT-like promoter sequence was found at a position 20-24 bp upstream from tsp. The most striking property of the enzyme was a putative Zn finger-like structure with four cysteines. It might contribute to the structural stability of the molecule in high-salt conditions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated two lineages of the AK family, the short and long types which diverged a long time ago, possibly before the separation of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the H. halobium AK belongs to the long-type AK lineage, it is located in an intermediary position between the two lineages of the phylogenetic tree, indicating early divergence of the gene along the long-type lineage. PMID:8917077

  15. Cloning and characterization of an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) from Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q; Deveraux, Q L; Maeda, S; Stennicke, H R; Hammock, B D; Reed, J C

    2001-01-15

    We cloned a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, BmIAP, from Bombyx mori BmN cells. BmIAP contains two baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains followed by a RING domain. BmIAP shares striking amino acid sequence similarity with lepidopteran IAPs, SfIAP and TnIAP, and with two baculoviral IAPs, CpIAP and OpIAP, suggesting evolutionary conservation. BmIAP blocks programmed cell death (apoptosis) in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-21 cells induced by p35 deficient Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This anti-apoptotic function requires both the BIR domains and RING domain of BmIAP. In mammalian cells, BmIAP inhibits Bax induced but not Fas induced apoptosis. Further biochemical data suggest that BmIAP is a specific inhibitor of mammalian caspase-9, an initiator caspase in the mitochondria/cytochrome-c pathway, but not the downstream effector proteases, caspase-3 and caspase-7. These results suggest that suppression of apoptosis by lepidopteran IAPs in insect cells may involve inhibition of an upstream initiator caspase in the conserved mitochondria/cytochrome-c pathway for apoptosis. PMID:11341966

  16. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Two BTB Genes in the Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ke; Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins containing the BTB (Bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and Broad Complex) domain typically share low sequence similarities and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions. We previously identified two putative and closely related BTB genes, BTB1 and BTB2, in the genome of the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. In the current study, full-length BTB1 and BTB2 cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. BTB1 and BTB2 encode proteins of 380 and 401 amino acids, respectively. BTB1 and BTB2 proteins each contain an N-terminal BTB domain and no other identifiable domains. Thus, they belong to a large category of BTB-domain proteins that are widely distributed in eukaryotes, yet with largely unknown function(s). BTB1 and BTB2 gene knockdowns in M. occidentalis females using RNAi reduced their fecundity by approximately 40% and 73%, respectively, whereas knockdown had no impact on their survival or the development of their offspring. These findings suggest these two proteins may be involved in processes related to egg production in this predatory mite, expanding the list of functions attributed to these diverse proteins. PMID:26640898

  17. [Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel ice gene from Capsella bursapastoris].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinglong; Sun, Xiaoqing; Liu, Sixiu; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaojun; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2005-01-01

    A new ice gene (designated as Cbice53, an inducer of CBF expression) was cloned from Capsella bursa-pastoris by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of Cbice53 was 1811 bp long with a 1476 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a Myc-like protein of 492 amino acids. The predicted CbICE53 protein contained a potential basic helix-loop-helix, a nuclear localization signal (NLS), a RNA-binding regions RGG box, N-glycosylation and kinase phosphorylation sites. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CbICE53 was highly homologous to ICE1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcription of Cbice53 gene was induced transiently during salt and cold treatments, suggesting that it was involved in someway in cold-acclimation process. Our study implies that the Cbice53 gene is a new member of the ice gene family and may exert functions in cold- and salt-responsiveness in C. bursa-pastoris. PMID:15773544

  18. Bacterial phytoene synthase: molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of Erwinia herbicola phytoene synthase.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Math, Shivanand K; Desai, Shrivallabh B; Poulter, C Dale

    2003-03-25

    Phytoene synthase (PSase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to give prephytoene diphosphate (PPPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate to phytoene. These reactions constitute the first pathway specific step in carotenoid biosynthesis. The crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was isolated from a plasmid containing the carotenoid gene cluster in Erwinia herbicola and cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. Upon induction, recombinant phytoene synthase constituted 5-10% of total soluble protein. To facilitate purification of the recombinant enzyme, the structural gene for PSase was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to incorporate a C-terminal Glu-Glu-Phe (EEF) tripepetide to allow purification by immunoaffinity chromatography on an immobilized monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody YL1/2 column. Purified recombinant PSase-EEF gave a band at 34.5 kDa upon SDS-PAGE. Recombinant PSase-EEF was then purified to >90% homogeneity in two steps by ion-exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography. The enzyme required Mn(2+) for activity, had a pH optimum of 8.2, and was strongly stimulated by detergent. The concentration of GGPP needed for half-maximal activity was approximately 35 microM, and a significant inhibition of activity was seen at GGPP concentrations above 100 microM. The sole product of the reaction was 15,15'-Z-phytoene. PMID:12641468

  19. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a neuraminidase gene from Arcanobacterium pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Jost, B H; Songer, J G; Billington, S J

    2001-07-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen, associated with suppurative infections in domestic animals. In addition to pyolysin, a pore-forming, cholesterol-binding toxin, A. pyogenes expresses a number of putative virulence factors, including several proteases and neuraminidase activity. A 3,009-bp gene, nanH, was cloned and sequenced and conferred neuraminidase activity on an Escherichia coli host strain. The predicted 107-kDa NanH protein displayed similarity to a number of bacterial neuraminidases and contained the RIP/RLP motif and five copies of the Asp box motif found in all bacterial neuraminidases. Recombinant His-tagged NanH was found to have pH and temperature optima of 5.5 to 6.0 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Insertional deletion of the nanH gene resulted in the reduction, but not absence, of neuraminidase activity, indicating the presence of a second neuraminidase gene in A. pyogenes. NanH was localized to the A. pyogenes cell wall. A. pyogenes adhered to HeLa, CHO, and MDBK cells in a washing-resistant manner. However, the nanH mutant was not defective for adherence to epithelial cells. The role of NanH in host epithelial cell adherence may be masked by the presence of a second neuraminidase in A. pyogenes. PMID:11401983

  20. Cloning, expression and characterization of a gene encoding nitroalkane-oxidizing enzyme from Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihui; Tan, Huarong

    2002-12-01

    A nitroalkane-oxidizing enzyme gene (naoA) was cloned from a genomic DNA library of Streptomyces ansochromogenes 7100. The deduced protein (NaoA) of this gene contains 363 amino acids and has high similarity to several nitroalkane-oxidizing enzymes from various micro-organisms. The naoA gene was subcloned into an expression vector pET23b and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The protein was then purified, and its characteristics were studied. Experimental results showed that NaoA can convert 1-nitropropane, 2-nitropropane and nitroethane into the corresponding carbonyl compounds. The optimal pH and temperature for NaoA was found to be pH 7-8 and 48-56 degrees C, respectively. The Km of NaoA for nitroethane is approximately 26.8 mm. NADH and nitro blue tetrazolium are strong inhibitors of NaoA, and thiol compounds and superoxide dismutase partially inhibit the enzyme activity. Therefore, superoxide may be an essential intermediate in the oxidation of nitroalkane by NaoA. PMID:12473127

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a New C-type Lysozyme Gene from Yak Mammary Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming Feng; Hu, Ming Jun; Ren, Hong Hui; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Milk lysozyme is the ubiquitous enzyme in milk of mammals. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a new chicken-type (c-type) milk lysozyme gene (YML), was cloned from yak mammary gland tissue. A 444 bp open reading frames, which encodes 148 amino acids (16.54 kDa) with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids, was sequenced. Further analysis indicated that the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences identities between yak and cow milk lysozyme were 89.04% and 80.41%, respectively. Recombinant yak milk lysozyme (rYML) was produced by Escherichia coli BL21 and Pichia pastoris X33. The highest lysozyme activity was detected for heterologous protein rYML5 (M = 1,864.24 U/mg, SD = 25.75) which was expressed in P. pastoris with expression vector pPICZαA and it clearly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Result of the YML gene expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the YML gene was up-regulated to maximum at 30 day postpartum, that is, comparatively high YML can be found in initial milk production. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the amino acid sequence was similar to cow kidney lysozyme, which implied that the YML may have diverged from a different ancestor gene such as cow mammary glands. In our study, we suggest that YML be a new c-type lysozyme expressed in yak mammary glands that plays a role as host immunity. PMID:26580446

  2. Cloning and Characterization of Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Gene Involved in Triterpenoids Biosynthesis from Poria cocos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianrong; Li, Yangyuan; Liu, Danni

    2014-01-01

    Poria cocos (P. cocos) has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine and triterpenoids are the most important pharmacologically active constituents of this fungus. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) is a key enzyme of triterpenoids biosynthesis. The gene encoding FPS was cloned from P. cocos by degenerate PCR, inverse PCR and cassette PCR. The open reading frame of the gene is 1086 bp in length, corresponding to a predicted polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 41.2 kDa. Comparison of the P. cocos FPS deduced amino acid sequence with other species showed the highest identity with Ganoderma lucidum (74%). The predicted P. cocos FPS shares at least four conserved regions involved in the enzymatic activity with the FPSs of varied species. The recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the recombinant FPS could catalyze the formation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Furthermore, the expression profile of the FPS gene and content of total triterpenoids under different stages of development and methyl jasmonate treatments were determined. The results indicated that there is a positive correlation between the activity of FPS and the amount of total triterpenoids produced in P. cocos. PMID:25474088

  3. Characterization and cDNA cloning of androgenic gland hormone of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Hasegawa, Y; Ohira, T; Katakura, Y; Nagasawa, H

    1999-10-22

    The sex differentiation in crustaceans is known to be controlled by a peptide hormone called androgenic gland hormone (AGH). AGH was extracted and purified from the androgenic glands (AGs) of the male isopod Armadillidium vulgare by high-performance liquid chromatography. AGH consisted of two peptide chains and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. A cDNA encoding AGH was cloned by PCR and sequenced. The cDNA had an open reading frame of 432 bp, which encoded a preproAGH consisting of a signal peptide (21 residues), B chain (44 residues), C peptide (46 residues), and A chain (29 residues). Through processing, the A and B chains might form a heterodimer interlinked by disulfide bonds. The A chain possessed a putative N-linked glycosylation site. A Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe detected a hybridization signal with 0.8 kb in the RNA preparation only from the AGs. PMID:10529379

  4. Cloning and characterization of a phosphate transporter gene in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-He; Xia, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Jiao; Bai, Lin-Han

    2012-08-01

    The full-length cDNA of a Na(+) -dependent Pi transport gene (DsSPT1) in Dunaliella salina was cloned by 3' and 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 716 predicted amino acids, which exhibited 60.5% identity to that of Na(+) -dependent Pi transport 1 (DvSPT1) from Dunaliella viridis. Hydrophobicity and secondary structure prediction revealed 11 conserved transmembrane domains similar to those found in DvSPT1 from D. viridis and PHO89 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result of real-time quantitative PCR showed that expression level of DsSPT1 was enhanced at first and reached its peak at 90 min after salt stress; however, D. salina cells rapidly absorbed extracellular inorganic phosphorus which was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) during the first 5 min under salt stress. It suggested that D. salina on the absorption of inorganic phosphorus was regulated at DsSPTI posttranslational level. PMID:22052620

  5. Cloning, characterization and application of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuenian; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-03-01

    It is important to develop native and highly efficient promoters for effective genetic engineering of filamentous fungi. Although Aspergillus terreus is an important industrial fungus for the production of itaconic acid and lovastatin, the available genetic toolbox for this microorganism is still rather limited. We have cloned the 5' upstream region of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd; 2,150 bp from the start codon) from A. terreus CICC 40205 and subsequently confirmed its promoter function using sgfp (synthetic green fluorescent protein) as the reporter. The sequence of the promoter PgpdAt was further analysed by systematic deletion to obtain an effective and compact functional promoter. Two truncated versions of PgpdAt (1,081 and 630 bp) were also able to drive sgfp expression in A. terreus. The activities of these three PgpdAt promoters of varying different lengths were further confirmed by fluorescence, western blot and transcription. The shortest one (630 bp) was successfully applied as a driver of vgb expression in the genetic engineering of A. terreus. The function of expressed haemoglobin was demonstrated by the CO (carbon monoxide)-difference spectrum and enhanced oxygen uptake rate, glucose consumption and itaconic acid titer. Our study was successful in developing and validating an efficient and compact native promoter for genetic engineering of A. terreus. PMID:24306453

  6. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongbo; Wei, Zhaojun; Nachman, Ronald J.; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-01-01

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested its ligand specificities in a heterologous reporter system. HzDHr was expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, which were co-transfected with the aequorin reporter, and was used to measure the ligand activities. A total of 68 chemicals, including natural DH analogs and structurally similar peptide mimetics, were tested for agonistic and antagonistic activities. Several peptide mimetics with a 2-amino-7-bromofluorene-succinoyl (2Abf-Suc) N-terminal modification showed strong agonistic activities; these mimetics included 2Abf-Suc-F[dA]PRLamide, 2Abf-Suc-F[dR]PRLamide, 2Abf-Suc-FKPRLamide and 2Abf-Suc-FGPRLamide. Antagonistic activity was found in the ecdysis triggering hormone in Drosophila melanogaster (FFLKITKNVPRLamide). Interestingly, HzDHr does not discriminate between DH (WFGPRLamide C-terminal motif) and another closely related endogenous peptide, pyrokinin 1 (FXPRXamide; a C-terminal motif that is separate from WFGPRLamide). We provide large-scale in vitro data that serve as a reference for the development of agonists and antagonists to disrupt the DH signaling pathway. PMID:24257143

  7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase (CsVDE) in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongyu; Kong, Lingcui; Niu, Dandan; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2013-01-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under high light stress. We have cloned a violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (CsVDE) from cucumber. The amino acid sequence of CsVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. RT-PCR analysis and histochemical staining show that CsVDE is expressed in all green tissues in cucumber and Arabidopsis. Using GFP fusion protein and immunogold labeling methods, we show that CsVDE is mainly localized in chloroplasts in cucumber. Under high light stress, relative expression of CsVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) is increased rapidly, and abundance of the gold particles was also increased. Furthermore, CsVDE is quickly induced by cold and drought stress, reaching maximum levels at the 2nd hour and the 9th day, respectively. The ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is reduced in transgenic Arabidopsis down-regulated by the antisense fragment of CsVDE, compared to wild type (WT) Arabidopsis under high light stress. This indicates decreased functionality of the xanthophyll cycle and increased sensitivity to photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) in transgenic Arabidopsis under high light stress. PMID:23717606

  8. Cloning and characterization of a gibberellin-induced RNase expressed in barley aleurone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.W.; Rogers, J.C. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

    1999-04-01

    The authors cloned a cDNA for a gibberellin-induced ribonuclease (RNase) expressed in barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone and the gene for a second barley RNase expressed in leaf tissue. The protein encoded by the cDNA is unique among RNases described to date in that it contains a novel 23-amino acid insert between the C2 and C3 conserved sequences. Expression of the recombinant protein in tobacco (Ncotiana tabacum) suspension-cultured protoplasts gave an active RNase of the expected size, confirming the enzymatic activity of the protein. Analyses of hormone regulation of re-expression of mRNA for the aleurone RNase revealed that, like the pattern for [alpha]-amylase, mRNA levels increased in the presence of gibberellic acid, and its antagonist abscisic acid prevented this effect. Quantitative studies at early times demonstrated that cycloheximide treatment of aleurone layers increased mRNA levels 4-fold, whereas a combination of gibberellin plus cycloheximide treatment was required to increase [alpha]-amylase mRNA levels to the same extent. These results are consistent with loss of repression as an initial effect of gibberellic acid on transcription of those genes, although the regulatory pathways for the two genes may differ.

  9. Process characterization of a novel cross-regulation system for cloned protein production in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Kallio, P.T.; Bailey, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    A novel cross-regulation expression system has been shown previously to be very effective for regulated recombinant protein production. Earlier studies established that this system offers better control of basal expression and higher maximal induced expression than more traditional vectors. Using production of cloned chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) as a model system, several factors determining the performance of this system were examined. Specifically, the effects of varying induction times and inducer (IPTG) concentrations on cell growth and the rate of CAT production were examined. The CAT expression was maximally induced with at least 0.5 mM IPTG added at the midexponential growth phase. Specific CAT content (on a total protein basis) was correlated with the CAT mRNA level. CAT message levels were minimal preinduction and far above background postinduction, consistent with prior simulation results. Cessation of CAT accumulation as the culture entered the stationary phase coincided with a corresponding 10-fold decrease in the level of CAT mRNA which was likely caused by an increased mRNA degradation rate. Maintenance of significant CAT message levels with a concomitant 2-fold increase in CAT accumulation was achieved by extending cell growth in a fed-batch process. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Cloning and characterization of a gene from Rhizobium melilotii 2011 coding for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, J; Thamm, S; Lurz, R; Hussain, A; Faist, G; Dobrinski, B

    1988-01-01

    A 7 kb chromosomal DNA fragment from R. melilotii was cloned, which complemented temperature-sensitivity of an E. coli amber mutant in rpsA, the gene for ribosomal protein S1 (ES1). From complementation and maxicell analysis a 58 kd protein was identified as the homolog of protein S1 (RS1). DNA sequence analysis of the R. melilotii rpsA gene identified a protein of 568 amino acids, which showed 47% identical amino acid homology to protein S1 from E. coli. The RS1 protein lacked the two Cys residues which had been reported to play an important role for the function of ES1. Two repeats containing Shine-Dalgarno sequences were identified upstream of the structural gene. Binding studies with RNA polymerase from E. coli and Pseudomonas putida located one RNA-polymerase binding site close to the RS1 gene and another one several hundred basepairs upstream. One possible promoter was also identified by DNA sequence comparison with the corresponding E. coli promoter. Images PMID:3368316

  11. Cloning, Expression, and Biochemical Characterization of an Enantioselective Lipase, YLIP9, from Yarrowia lipolytica MSR80.

    PubMed

    Syal, Poonam; Gupta, Rani

    2015-05-01

    A novel lipase gene, ylip9, of Yarrowia lipolytica MSR80 was cloned and expressed in pEZZ18-HB101 system and was 99% identical to YLIP9 of Y. lipolytica CLIB122. It was purified using IgG-Sepharose as ZZ fused YLIP9 and had specific activity of 0.8 U/mg. ZZ-YLIP9 was most active at pH 8.0 and 70 °C. It was stable over a wide pH range of 3.0-11.0 and 100 % active at 70 °C up to 2 h and had t1/2 of 286.42 min at 80 °C. It showed high specificity toward p-nitrophenyldecanoate with kcat and catalytic efficiency of 30.17 s(-1) and 16.67 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. It was non-regioselective, but an S-enantioselective lipase and the percentage conversion were enhanced in presence of hexane. ZZ-YLIP9 was stable in all of the organic solvents used, and its activity was enhanced by solvents having logP value less than 2. PMID:25805014

  12. The Cloning and Characterization of a Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T. R.; Morisseau, C.; Walzem, R. L.; Ma, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular homeostasis through its hydrolysis of the endothelial-derived messenger molecules, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. This study reports the cloning and expression of a sEH homolog from chicken liver. The resulting 63-kDa protein has an isoelectric point of 6.1. The recombinant enzyme displayed epoxide hydrolase activity when assayed with [3H]-trans-1,3-diphenylpropene oxide (t-DPPO), as well as trans-9,10-epoxystearate and the cis-8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15- epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. The chicken enzyme displayed a lower kcat:Km for t-DPPO than the mammalian enzymes. The enzyme was sensitive to urea-based inhibitors developed for mammalian sEH. Such compounds could be used to study the role of chicken sEH in conditions in which endothelial-derived vasodilation is believed to be impaired, such as pulmonary hypertension syndrome. PMID:16523628

  13. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of duck mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS).

    PubMed

    Li, Huilin; Zhai, Yajun; Fan, Yufang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Hui; Luo, Rui

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), also called IPS-1/VISA/Cardif, is an important molecule involved in host defense and triggers a signal for producing type I IFN. Currently the function of MAVS in ducks (duMAVS) remains largely unclear while significant progress has been made in mammals. In this study, the full-length duMAVS cDNA was cloned from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) for the first time. Tissue specificity analysis showed duMAVS was universally expressed in all detected tissues. DEFs transfected with duMAVS were able to induce interferon-β (IFN-β) expression through activating interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Both the CARD-like domain and transmembrane domain were required for duMAVS signaling via deletion mutant analysis. In addition, poly(I:C)- or Sendai virus (SeV)-induced IFN-β expression in DEFs were significantly decreased by knock-down of duMAVS with siRNA. Altogether, these results indicate that MAVS is a critical immunoregulator in duck innate immune system. PMID:26586642

  14. Gene cloning and characterization of a novel esterase from activated sludge metagenome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A metagenomic library was prepared using pCC2FOS vector containing about 3.0 Gbp of community DNA from the microbial assemblage of activated sludge. Screening of a part of the un-amplified library resulted in the finding of 1 unique lipolytic clone capable of hydrolyzing tributyrin, in which an esterase gene was identified. This esterase/lipase gene consists of 834 bp and encodes a polypeptide (designated EstAS) of 277 amino acid residuals with a molecular mass of 31 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that it showed 33% and 31% amino acid identity to esterase/lipase from Gemmata obscuriglobus UQM 2246 (ZP_02733109) and Yarrowia lipolytica CLIB122 (XP_504639), respectively; and several conserved regions were identified, including the putative active site, HSMGG, a catalytic triad (Ser92, His125 and Asp216) and a LHYFRG conserved motif. The EstAS was overexpressed, purified and shown to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl (NP) esters of fatty acids with short chain lengths (≤ C8). This EstAS had optimal temperature and pH at 35°C and 9.0, respectively, by hydrolysis of p-NP hexanoate. It also exhibited the same level of stability over wide temperature and pH ranges and in the presence of metal ions or detergents. The high level of stability of esterase EstAS with its unique substrate specificities make itself highly useful for biotechnological applications. PMID:20028524

  15. Cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the catalytic domain of sika deer MMP-13.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Jiawen; Liu, Meichen; Wang, Siming; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 13 is one of three mammalian collagenases that are capable of initiating the degradation of interstitial collagens during wound healing. Herein, we report for the first time the molecular cloning of the catalytic domain (CD) of sika deer MMP-13, followed by protein expression in Escherichia coli and purification by affinity chromatography. The final yield was approximately 90.4 mg per liter of growth culture with a purity of 91.6%. The mass recovery during the purification and renaturation were 70.2% and 81.5%, respectively. Using gelatin zymography and a degradation assay, we found that the refolded sika deer MMP-13 (CD) could digest gelatin. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme bioactivity was 8.0 and 37 °C, respectively. The Km value for the enzyme-catalyzed digestion of gelatin was 136+/-8 μg/mL, and the Vmax was 4.12 × 10(3) U/μg. sdMMP13 (CD) was able to completely degrade collagen II and gelatin, and partially degrade fibronectin. The sdMMP-13 (CD) activity was significantly inhibited by several chemicals including 1, 10-phenanthroline, EDTA, Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Mn(2+). PMID:27338011

  16. Purification, cloning and characterization of a GPI inositol deacylase from Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Güther, Maria Lucia Sampaio; Leal, Simone; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Cross, George A.M.; Ferguson, Michael A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Inositol acylation is an obligatory step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis whereas mature GPI anchors often lack this modification. The GPI anchors of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) undergo rounds of inositol acylation and deacylation during GPI biosynthesis and the deacylation reactions are inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Inositol deacylase was affinity labelled with [3H]DFP and purified. Peptide sequencing was used to clone GPIdeAc, which encodes a protein with significant sequence and hydropathy similarity to mammalian acyloxyacyl hydrolase, an enzyme that removes fatty acids from bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Both contain a signal sequence followed by a saposin domain and a GDSL-lipase domain. GPIdeAc–/– trypanosomes were viable in vitro and in animals. Affinity-purified HA-tagged GPIdeAc was shown to have inositol deacylase activity. However, total inositol deacylase activity was only reduced in GPIdeAc–/– trypanosomes and the VSG GPI anchor was indistinguishable from wild type. These results suggest that there is redundancy in T.brucei inositol deacylase activity and that there is another enzyme whose sequence is not recognizably related to GPIdeAc. PMID:11532956

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of the translationally controlled tumor protein gene in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Masateru; Mon, Hiroaki; Nho, Si-Kab; Koga, Katsumi

    2004-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (Tctp/p23) is known to be synthesized preferentially in cells during the early growth phase of tumors, but is also expressed in normal cells. To elucidate its molecular basis of the expression and physiological significance, a cDNA encoding for the Bombyx mori Tctp (BmTctp) was deduced by editing the partial cDNA sequences registered in a Bombyx EST database. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the BmTCTP mRNA was transcribed in all larval organs examined and was present constantly during the cell cycle of BmN4 cells. A genomic clone of 4255 nucloetide residues produced by inverse PCR contained the 5'-flanking region, two introns and three exons of the BmTCTP gene. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region indicated that a putative promoter region contains several canonical transcription elements such as GATA box, CCAAT motif, MEF2, E4BP4.01 and AP-1, but lacks a TATA box element. Luciferase reporter assay of the deletion constructs of the 5'-flanking region revealed that the -676 to +66 region enhanced the promoter activity the most markedly. In addition to this, there were at least two enhancer-like elements and several repressor elements. PMID:15364286

  18. Cloning and molecular characterization of the Chinese hamster ERCC2 nucleotide excision repair gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, J.M.; Salazar, E.P.; Lamerdin, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Chinese hamster ERCC2 nucleotide excision repair gene, encoding a presumed ATP-dependent DNA helicase, was cloned from the V79 cell line, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The {approximately}15-kb gene comprises 23 exons with a 2283-base open reading frame. The predicted 760-amino-acid protein is 98% identical to the human ERCC2/EXP (760 amino acids), 51% identical to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD3 (778 amino acids), and 54% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad15 (772 amino acids) proteins. The promoter region of the hamster ERCC2 gene contains a pyrimidine-rich stretch (42 nucleotides, 88% C+T) similar to sequences found in the promoter regions of two other nucleotide excision repair genes, a GC box, a putative {alpha}-Pal transcription factor binding site, and two CAAT boxes. There is no apparent TAATA box. No consensus polyadenylation sequence (AATAAA or its variants) was found with 663 bases 3{prime} of the translation termination codon. 54 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Cloning and characterization of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    PubMed

    Wu, W K; Mak, C H; Ko, R C

    2006-03-01

    Copper/zinc (Cu/Zn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was identified for the first time in both crude somatic extracts (CE) and excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Trichinella pseudospiralis. It was the dominant SOD in infective-stage larvae. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CE and E/S products yielded a prominent band, which was cyanide-sensitive and was partly inhibited by hydrogen peroxide in SOD assay. Cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD was cloned. The 471-bp full-length cDNA sequence contained an open reading frame of 157 amino acids. The gene contained three introns. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that the expression of cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD was substantially higher in infective-stage larvae than in adult worms. Cluster analysis showed that the sequence of the Cu/Zn SOD of T. pseudospiralis, an adenophorean nematode, is related to those of Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Onchocerca volvulus, and Haemonchus contortus (all belonging to the sercenentean group). PMID:16341881

  20. Molecular cloning and function characterization of a new macrophage-activating protein from Tremella fuciformis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Liang; Chang, An-Ju; Kuo, Xhao-Kai; Sheu, Fuu

    2014-02-19

    Silver ear mushroom ( Tremella fuciformis ) is an edible fungus with health benefits. In this study, we purified a new T. fuciformis protein (TFP) and demonstrated its ability to activate primary murine macrophages. The isolation procedure involved ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion exchange chromatography. TFP naturally formed a 24 kDa homodimeric protein and did not contain glycan residues. The TFP gene was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method, and the cDNA sequence of TFP was composed of 408 nucleotides with a 336 nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 112 amino acid protein. TFP was capable of stimulating TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-12 production in addition to CD86/MHC class II expression, mRNA expression of M1-type chemokines, and nuclear NF-κB accumulation in murine peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, TFP failed to stimulate TLR4-neutralized and TLR4-knockout macrophages, suggesting that TLR4 is a required receptor for TFP signaling on macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that TFP may be an important bioactive compound from T. fuciformis that induces M1-polarized activation through a TLR4-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:24400969

  1. Cloning, overexpression and characterization of a thermostable pullulanase from Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huawei; Yu, Xinxin; Chen, Libing; Wu, Guangxu

    2014-03-01

    A gene encoding a special type of pullulanase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (TTHpu) was cloned. It has an open reading frame of 1428bp encoding a mature protein with a molecular mass of 52kDa. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli using pHsh and pET28a vectors. The pHsh expression system produced a 3.6-fold higher recombinant pullulanase than pET28a. The recombinant TTHpu was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified TTHpu exhibited highest activity at pH 6.5 and 70°C. More than 90% activity was retained after incubation at 60-70°C for 2h and the half-life was 2h at 80°C. The stability of the enzyme was in a pH range from 6.0 to 8.0. Manganese at 5mM enhanced its activity up to 298%. The Km and Vmax for the enzyme activity on pullulan were 0.0031mgmL(-1) and 23.8μmolmin(-1), respectively. Unlike the most of pullulan-hydrolyzing enzymes described to date, this enzyme can attack α-1,6- and α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in pullulan, and produce a mixture of maltotriose, maltose and glucose. The enzyme could be further employed for industrial saccharification of starch. PMID:24316447

  2. Purification, cloning and characterization of fragaceatoxin C, a novel actinoporin from the sea anemone Actinia fragacea.

    PubMed

    Bellomio, Augusto; Morante, Koldo; Barlic, Ariana; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Viguera, Ana Rosa; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel

    2009-11-01

    Actinia fragacea is commonly called the "strawberry" anemone because of the distinctive yellow or green spots displayed on its red column. Its venom contains several haemolytic proteins with a molecular mass of approximately 20 kDa that can be separated by ion-exchange column chromatography. One of them was purified to homogeneity and was named fragaceatoxin C (FraC). Its 15 N-terminal residues were identified by Edman degradation and served to obtain its complete DNA coding sequence by RT-PCR. The coding region of FraC was amplified and cloned in the expression vector pBAT-4. Purified recombinant FraC consists of 179 amino acids and multiple sequence alignment with other actinoporins clearly indicates that FraC belongs to this protein family. The secondary structure, thermal stability and lytic activity of native and recombinant FraC were practically identical and exhibit the same basic features already described for equinatoxin-II and sticholysin-II. PMID:19563820

  3. Cloning and characterization of a flavonol synthase gene from Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, KwangSoo; Kim, Yeji; Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Flavonols are the most abundant of all the flavonoids and play pivotal roles in a variety of plants. We isolated a cDNA clone encoding flavonol synthase from Scutellaria baicalensis (SbFLS). The SbFLS cDNA is 1011 bp long, encodes 336 amino acid residues, and belongs to a family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. The overall structure of SbFLS is very similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanidin synthase (AtANS), with a β jelly-roll fold surrounded by tens of short and long α-helices. SbFLS was constitutively expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, with particularly high expression in the roots and flowers. SbFLS transcript levels in the roots were 376-, 70-, and 2.5-fold higher than in the leaves, stems, and flowers. The myricetin content was significantly higher than that of kaempferol and quercetin. Therefore, we suggest that SbFLS mediates flavonol formation in the different organs of S. baicalensis. Our study may contribute to the knowledge of the role of FLS in S. baicalensis. PMID:24672406

  4. Characterization and molecular cloning of a serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (OsSHM1) in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dekai; Liu, Heqin; Li, Sujuan; Zhai, Guowei; Shao, Jianfeng; Tao, Yuezhi

    2015-09-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is important for one carbon metabolism and photorespiration in higher plants for its participation in plant growth and development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A rice serine hydroxymethyltransferase gene, OsSHM1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SHM1, was isolated using map-based cloning. The osshm1 mutant had chlorotic lesions and a considerably smaller, lethal phenotype under natural ambient CO2 concentrations, but could be restored to wild type with normal growth under elevated CO2 levels (0.5% CO2 ), showing a typical photorespiratory phenotype. The data from antioxidant enzymes activity measurement suggested that osshm1 was subjected to significant oxidative stress. Also, OsSHM1 was expressed in all organs tested (root, culm, leaf, and young panicle) but predominantly in leaves. OsSHM1 protein is localized to the mitochondria. Our study suggested that molecular function of the OsSHM1 gene is conserved in rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:25641188

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Bombyx mori gene encoding the transcription factor Atonal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Feng, Fan; Xia, Hengchuan; Chen, Liang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2014-01-01

    The atonal genes are an evolutionarily conserved group of genes encoding regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. These transcription factors have a critical antioncogenic function in the retina, and are necessary for cell fate determination through the regulation of the cell signal pathway. In this study, the atonal gene was cloned from Bombyx mori, and the transcription factor was named BmAtonal. Sequence analysis showed that the BmAtonal protein shares extensive homology with other invertebrate Atonal proteins with the bHLH motif. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses revealed that BmAtonal was expressed in all developmental stages of B. mori and various larval tissues. The BmAtonal protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified protein. By immunofluorescence, the BmAtonal protein was localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm of BmN cells. After knocking out nuclear localization signals (NLS), the BmAtonal protein was only detected in the cytoplasm. In addition, using the B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) baculovirus expression system, the recombinant BmAtonal protein was successfully expressed in the B. mori cell line BmN. This work lays the foundation for exploring the biological functions of the BmAtonal protein, such as identifying its potential binding partners and understanding the molecular control of the formation of sensory organs. PMID:24873037

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of G Alpha Proteins from the Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus.

    PubMed

    Hull, J Joe; Wang, Meixian

    2014-01-01

    The Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in the activation of diverse signal transduction cascades. However, the role of these genes in chemosensation remains to be fully elucidated. To initiate a comprehensive survey of signal transduction genes, we used homology-based cloning methods and transcriptome data mining to identity Gα subunits in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight). Among the nine sequences identified were single variants of the Gαi, Gαo, Gαs, and Gα12 subfamilies and five alternative splice variants of the Gαq subfamily. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of the putative L. hesperus Gα subunits support initial classifications and are consistent with established evolutionary relationships. End-point PCR-based profiling of the transcripts indicated head specific expression for LhGαq4, and largely ubiquitous expression, albeit at varying levels, for the other LhGα transcripts. All subfamilies were amplified from L. hesperus chemosensory tissues, suggesting potential roles in olfaction and/or gustation. Immunohistochemical staining of cultured insect cells transiently expressing recombinant His-tagged LhGαi, LhGαs, and LhGαq1 revealed plasma membrane targeting, suggesting the respective sequences encode functional G protein subunits. PMID:26463065

  7. Cloning and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis genes from Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yifen; Neo, Pei-Chin; Najimudin, Nazalan; Sudesh, Kumar; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Samian, Razip

    2010-04-01

    Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 is a locally isolated bacterium that possesses the ability to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) consisting of both poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] homopolymer and medium-chain length (mcl) monomers (6 to 14 carbon atoms) when sugars or fatty acids are utilized as the sole carbon source. In this study, the P(3HB) biosynthesis operon carrying the phbC(Ps) P(3HB) synthase was successfully cloned and sequenced using a homologous probe. Three open reading frames encoding NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase (PhbB(Ps)), beta-ketothiolase (PhbA(Ps)) and P(3HB) synthase (PhbC(Ps)) were found in the phb operon. The genetic organization of phb operon showed a putative promoter region, followed by phbB(Ps)-phbA(Ps)-phbC(Ps). phbR(Ps)which encoded a putative transcriptional activator was located in the opposite orientation, upstream of phbBAC(Ps). Heterologous expression of pGEM''ABex harboring phbC(Ps) in Escherichia coli JM109 resulted in P(3HB) accumulation of up to 40% of dry cell weight (DCW). PMID:20082371

  8. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a putative sulfite oxidase (SO) ortholog from Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongliang; Su, Xinhong; Wu, Jianyu; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Hua

    2012-03-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) catalyzes the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate and thus has important roles in diverse metabolic processes. However, systematic molecular and functional investigations on the putative SO from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) have hitherto not been reported. In this work, a full-length cDNA encoding putative sulfite oxidase from N. benthamiana (NbSO) was isolated. The deduced NbSO protein shares high homology and typical structural features with other species SOs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that NbSO cDNA clone encodes a tobacco SO isoform. Southern blot analysis suggests that NbSO is a single-copy gene in the N. benthamiana genome. The NbSO transcript levels were higher in aerial tissues and were up-regulated in N. benthamiana during sulfite stress. Reducing the SO expression levels through virus-induced gene silencing caused a substantial accumulation in sulfite content and less sulfate accumulation in N. benthamiana leaves when exposed to sulfite stress, and thus resulted in decreased tolerance to sulfite stress. Taken together, this study improves our understanding on the molecular and functional properties of plant SO and provides genetic evidence on the involvement of SO in sulfite detoxification in a sulfite-oxidizing manner in N. benthamiana plants. PMID:21667106

  9. Cloning and characterization of the genes for two distinct cephalosporin acylases from a Pseudomonas strain.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, A; Matsuyama, K; Yamamoto, K; Ichikawa, S; Komatsu, K

    1987-12-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain SE83 converts cephalosporin C and 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid (GL-7ACA) to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7ACA). A DNA library of this strain was constructed in Escherichia coli and screened for the ability to deacylate GL-7ACA to 7ACA. Apparently, two distinct genes, designated acyI and acyII, were cloned on 4.8- and 6.0-kilobase-pair BglII fragments, respectively. The enzymes encoded by the two genes showed different substrate specificities, and the acyII-encoded enzyme was found to yield 7ACA from cephalosporin C by direct deacylation. Expression of the two genes in E. coli was strongly dependent on a promoter of the vector. The coding regions for acyI and acyII were localized on the 2.5- and 2.8-kilobase-pair fragments, respectively, by subcloning experiments, and high expression of both genes was obtained by placing them under the control of the lacUV5 promoter. The acyII-encoded enzyme was purified and shown to be composed of two nonidentical subunits with molecular weights of 26,000 and 57,000. Maxicell analysis revealed three acyII-specific polypeptides, two of which corresponded to the above subunits. The third polypeptide with a molecular weight of 83,000 was suggested to be the precursor of both subunits. PMID:2824449

  10. Characterization, molecular cloning, and expression analysis of Ecsit in the spinyhead croaker, Collichthys lucidus.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Jiang, K J; Zhang, F Y; Wang, J; Ma, L B

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (Ecsit) is reported to play an essential role in innate immunity, embryogenesis, and assembly or stability of the mitochondrial complex I. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Ecsit was cloned from the spinyhead croaker Collichthys lucidus based on the expressed sequence tags from our cDNA library constructed using the SMART technique. The cDNA was 1669 bp long, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 121 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 183 bp, and an open reading frame of 1365 bp encoding a 454-amino acid polypeptide. The estimated molecular weight of C. lucidus Ecsit (ClEcsit) was 52.50 kDa with an isoelectric point of 6.14, and contained a typical Ecsit domain that is conserved in other Ecsits. Multiple alignment of ClEcsit with other selected Ecsits suggested that some amino acid residues were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ClEcsit was more similar to its identities in Sciaenidae and grouped with Ecsits from other Perciformes. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed broad expression of ClEcsit and the transcript was strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in other tissues. PMID:26909903

  11. Production, characterization, gene cloning, and nematocidal activity of the extracellular protease from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N4.

    PubMed

    Jankiewicz, Urszula; Larkowska, Ewa; Swiontek Brzezinska, Maria

    2016-06-01

    A rhizosphere strain of the bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N4 secretes the serine protease PN4, whose molecular mass is approximately 42 kDa. The optimal temperature for the enzyme activity of the 11-fold purified protein was 50°C and the optimal pH was 10.5. The activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited by specific serine protease inhibitors, which allowed for its classification as an alkaline serine protease family. Ca(2+) ions stimulated the activity of the protease PN4, while Mg(2+) ions stabilized its activity, and Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions strongly inhibited its activity. The enzyme has broad substrate specificity. For example, it is able to hydrolyse casein, keratin, albumin, haemoglobin, and gelatin, as well as the insoluble modified substrates azure keratin and azocoll. The gene that encodes the 1740 bp precursor form of the enzyme (accession number: LC031815) was cloned. We then deduced that its amino acid sequence includes the region of the conserved domain of the S8 family of peptidases as well as the catalytic triad Asp/His/Ser. The bacterial culture fluid as well as the purified protease PN4 demonstrated biocidal activity with regard to the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus spp. PMID:26896861

  12. Human and rodent MaxiK channel beta-subunit genes: cloning and characterization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Wallner, M; Meera, P; Toro, L

    1999-01-01

    Voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K+ (MaxiK) channels play key roles in controlling neuronal excitability and vascular tone. We cloned and analyzed human and rodent genes for the modulatory beta subunit, KCNMB1. The human and mouse beta-subunit genes are approximately 11 and approximately 9 kb in length, respectively, and have a four exon-three intron structure. Primer extension assay localized the transcription initiation site at 442 (human) or 440 (mouse) bp upstream of the translation initiation codon, agreeing with the transcript size in Northern blots. Both genes have a TATA-less putative promoter region, with a transcription initiator-like region, and motifs characteristic of regulated promoters, including muscle-specific enhancing factors-1 and -2. Consistent with a tissue-specific expression of KCNMB1, regulated at the transcriptional level, beta-subunit transcripts are abundant in smooth muscle and heart, but scarce in lymphatic tissues, brain, and liver. Expressed rat and mouse beta subunits increase the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the human MaxiK channel alpha subunit. PMID:9888999

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a chlorophyll degradation regulatory gene (ZjSGR) from Zoysia japonica.

    PubMed

    Teng, K; Chang, Z H; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Xu, L X; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-01-01

    The stay-green gene (SGR) is a key regulatory factor for chlorophyll degradation and senescence. However, to date, little is known about SGR in Zoysia japonica. In this study, ZjSGR was cloned, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The target sequence is 831 bp in length, corresponding to 276 amino acids. Protein BLAST results showed that ZjSGR belongs to the stay-green superfamily. A phylogenetic analysis implied that ZjSGR is most closely related to ZmSGR1. The subcellular localization of ZjSGR was investigated, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results demonstrated that ZjSGR protein is localized in the chloroplasts. Quantitative real time PCR was carried out to investigate the expression characteristics of ZjSGR. The expression level of ZjSGR was found to be highest in leaves, and could be strongly induced by natural senescence, darkness, abscisic acid (ABA), and methyl jasmonate treatment. Moreover, an in vivo function analysis indicated that transient overexpression of ZjSGR could accelerate chlorophyll degradation, up-regulate the expression of SAG113, and activate ABA biosynthesis. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ZjSGR could play an important regulatory role in leaf chlorophyll degradation and senescence in plants at the molecular level. PMID:27173268

  14. Cloning and characterization of the UBC gene from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

    PubMed

    Diao, Y; Li, G L; Yu, A Q; Zheng, X W; Xie, K Q; Wang, Y W; Zhou, M Q; Ming, J; Hu, Z L

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is extensively involved in the regulation of a considerable number of physiological processes in plant cells. E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UBC), one of the essential enzymes of eukaryotic ubiquitination, catalyzes protein ubiquitination together with E1 and E3. In this study, we cloned four full-length cDNA NnUBCs of Nelumbo nucifera. With the same coding sequence length of 459 bp and coding 153 amino acids, these four genes are highly homologous with the AtUBC1 and AtUBC2 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction showed that these four genes exhibited different expression patterns in different tissues of N. nucifera. Overall, the expression of NnUBC3 was the highest in all plant tissues. Tests of different stress treatments showed that NnUBC3 plays an important role in response to heat, salt, and drought stresses in N. nucifera. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants (Atubc1-1Atubc2-1 mutant) expressing NnUBC3 presented a wild-type phenotype, indicating that NnUBC3 performs the same function as AtUBC1 and AtUBC2. PMID:27525889

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase from Dunaliella viridis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Wang, Fei; Meng, Xiangzong; Luo, Saifan; Li, Qiyun; Dong, Hongyun; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-04-01

    Dunaliella is a group of green algae with exceptional stress tolerance capability, and is considered as an important model organism for stress tolerance study. Here we cloned a TPS (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) gene from Dunaliella viridis and designated it as DvTPS (D. viridis trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase).The DvTPS cDNA contained an ORF of 2793 bp encoding 930 aa. DvTPS had both TPS and TPP domain and belonged to the Group II TPS/TPP fusion gene family. Southern blots showed it has a single copy in the genome. Genome sequence analysis revealed that it has 18 exons and 17 introns. DvTPS had a constitutive high expression level under various NaCl culture conditions, however, could be induced by salt shock. Promoter analysis indicated there were ten STREs (stress response element) in its promoter region, giving a possible explanation of its inducible expression pattern upon salt shock. Yeast functional complementation analysis showed that DvTPS had neither TPS nor TPP activity. However, DvTPS could improve the salt tolerance of yeast salt sensitive mutant G19. Our results indicated that despite DvTPS showed significant similarity with TPS/TPP, its real biological function is still remained to be revealed. PMID:20878239

  16. Direct detection, cloning and characterization of a glucoside hydrolase from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Hua, Mei; Zhao, Shubo; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Dongbo; Xia, Hongmei; Li, Fan; Chen, Shan

    2015-06-01

    A glucoside hydrolase gene, egl01, was cloned from the soil DNA of Changbai Mountain forest by homologous PCR amplification. The deduced sequence of 517 amino acids included a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 5 and was homologous to a putative cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis. The recombinant enzyme, Egl01, was maximally active at pH 5 and 50 °C and it was stable at pH 3-9, 4-50 °C, and also stable in the presence of metal ions, organic solvents, surfactants and salt. Its activity was above 120 % in 2-3 M NaCl/KCl and over 70 % was retained in 1-4 M NaCl/KCl for 6d. Egl01 hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose, beechwood xylan, crop stalk, laminarin, filter paper, and avicel but not pNPG, indicating its broad substrate specificity. These properties make this recombinant enzyme a promising candidate for industrial applications. PMID:25700816

  17. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of the porcine β defensin 2 in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-li; Zhao, Yan-cong; Song, Xiao-yan; Huang, Xian-xian; Zhao, Wei-dong

    2013-06-01

    Porcine β defensin 2(pBD2)is a cationic 37-amino acid antimicrobial peptide with disulfide bonds. Synthetic pBD2 had broad antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, and thus pBD2 could be a good candidate as a bactericidal agent for pigs. This study reported the successful recombinant expression of pBD2 in Escherichia coli and analysis of its antimicrobial activity, its hemolytic activity, salt-tolerance and thermal stability as well. The pBD2 gene, obtained by RT-PCR using the tongue total RNA as a template and cloned into pET30a expression vector, was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) plysS. The recombinant pBD2 was expressed after induction by IPTG and purified by His tag affinity column with 95% purity. The recombinant pBD2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli including the multi-resistant E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of recombinant pBD2 against tested bacteria was 10 μg/mL, and the recombinant pBD2 could kill 50% E. coli at 14.39 μg/mL and S. aureus at 21.1 μg/mL. In addition, pBD2 showed low hemolytic activity, salt-tolerance and thermal stability, the properties would be important for its application in practice. PMID:22973850

  18. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 39 Xylosidase from Bacillus Halodurans C-125

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagschal, Kurt; Franqui-Espiet, Diana; Lee, Charles C.; Robertson, George H.; Wong, Dominic W. S.

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 39 xylosidase (BH1068) from the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans strain C-125 was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag, and the recombinant gene product termed BH1068(His)6 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Of the artificial substrates tested, BH1068(His)6 hydrolyzed nitrophenyl derivatives of β-d-xylopyranose, α-l-arabinofuranose, and α-l-arabinopyranose. Deviation from Michaelis-Menten kinetics at higher substrate concentrations indicative of transglycosylation was observed, and k cat and K m values were measured at both low and high substrate concentrations to illuminate the relative propensities to proceed along this alternate reaction pathway. The pH maximum was 6.5, and under the conditions tested, maximal activity was at 47°C, and thermal instability occurred above 45°C. BH1068(His)6 was inactive on arabinan, hydrolyzed xylooligosaccharides, and released only xylose from oat, wheat, rye, beech, and birch arabinoxylan, and thus, can be classified as a xylosidase with respect to natural substrate specificity. The enzyme was not inhibited by up to 200 mM xylose. The oligomerization state was tetrameric under the size-exclusion chromatography conditions employed.

  19. Molecular characterization of multiple cDNA clones for ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Villand, P; Olsen, O A; Kleczkowski, L A

    1993-12-01

    PCR amplification of cDNA prepared from poly(A)+ RNA from aerial parts of Arabidopsis thaliana, using degenerate nucleotide primers based on conserved regions between the large and small subunits of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP), yielded four different cDNAs of ca. 550 nucleotides each. Based on derived amino acid sequences, the identities between the clones varied from 49 to 69%. Sequence comparison to previously published cDNAs for AGP from various species and tissues has revealed that three of the amplified cDNAs (ApL1, ApL2 and ApL3) correspond to the large subunit of AGP, and one cDNA (ApS) encodes the small subunit of AGP. Both ApL1 and ApS were subsequently found to be present in a cDNA library made from Arabidopsis leaves. All four PCR products are encoded by single genes, as found by genomic Southern analysis. PMID:8292792

  20. Cloning and characterization of the goadsporin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584.

    PubMed

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Nakaho, Mizuho; Hayashi, Keiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2005-12-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster of goadsporin, a polypeptide antibiotic containing thiazole and oxazole rings, was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584. The cluster contains a structural gene, godA, and nine god (goadsporin) genes involved in post-translational modification, immunity and transcriptional regulation. Although the gene organization is similar to typical bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters, each goadsporin biosynthetic gene shows low homology to these genes. Goadsporin biosynthesis is initiated by the translation of godA, and the subsequent cyclization, dehydration and acetylation are probably catalysed by godD, godE, godF, godG and godH gene products. godI shows high similarity to the 54 kDa subunit of the signal recognition particle and plays an important role in goadsporin immunity. Furthermore, four goadsporin analogues were produced by site-directed mutagenesis of godA, suggesting that this biosynthesis machinery is used for the heterocyclization of peptides. PMID:16339937

  1. Cloning and characterization of hELD/OSA1, a novel BRG1 interacting protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlstone, Adam F L; Olave, Ivan A; Barker, Nick; van Noort, Mascha; Clevers, Hans

    2002-01-01

    A highly conserved multisubunit enzymic complex, SWI/SNF, participates in the regulation of eukaryote gene expression through its ability to remodel chromatin. While a single component of SWI/SNF, Swi2 or a related protein, can perform this function in vitro, the other components appear to modulate the activity and specificity of the complex in vivo. Here we describe the cloning of hELD/OSA1, a 189 KDa human homologue of Drosophila Eld/Osa protein, a constituent of Drosophila SWI/SNF. By comparing conserved peptide sequences in Eld/Osa homologues we define three domains common to all family members. A putative DNA binding domain, or ARID (AT-rich DNA-interacting domain), may function in targetting SWI/SNF to chromatin. Two other domains unique to Eld/Osa proteins, EHD1 and EHD2, map to the C-terminus. We show that EHD2 mediates binding to Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), a human homologue of yeast Swi2. EHD1 and EHD2 also appear capable of interacting with each other. Using an antibody raised against EHD2 of hELD/OSA1, we detected Eld/Osa1 in endogenous SWI/SNF complexes derived from mouse brain. PMID:11988099

  2. Complementation cloning and characterization of the pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase gene from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Misener, S R; Walker, V K

    2001-02-01

    The first insect cDNA and genomic sequences encoding pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase (EC 1.5.1.2) have been isolated from Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA sequence was identified by interspecies complementation of an E. coli proline auxotroph and encodes a protein 280 amino acids in length with 25-41% identity to pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductases isolated from other organisms. The corresponding gene is single copy and is located at cytological position 91E-F, and in one of the P1 clones in that region. With a single 61-bp intron, and an impressively small 135- to 200-bp region that presumably acts as a bidirectional promoter, the gene itself shows remarkable economy. The calculated molecular weight of 29,700 predicts that the native enzyme is likely an octomer. Sequencing of the promoter region and expression studies, as well as the known function of the enzyme in redox regulation and the high levels of free proline in insects, suggest that this housekeeping gene encodes an enzyme with a crucial role in intermediary metabolism. PMID:11444018

  3. Cloning and Characterization of Two Extracellular Heparin-degrading Endosulfatases in Mice and Humans*

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto-Tomita, Megumi; Uchimura, Kenji; Werb, Zena; Hemmerich, Stefan; Rosen, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    Here we report the cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding the human ortholog (HSulf-1) of the developmentally regulated putative sulfatases QSulf-1 (Dhoot, G. K., Gustafsson, M. K., Ai, X., Sun, W., Standiford, D. M., and Emerson, C. P., Jr. (2001) Science 293, 1663–1666) and RSulfFP1 (Ohto, T., Uchida, H., Yamazaki, H., Keino-Masu, K., Matsui, A., and Masu, M. (2002) Genes Cells 7, 173–185) as well as a cDNA encoding a closely related protein, designated HSulf-2. We have also obtained cDNAs for the mouse orthologs of both Sulfs. We demonstrate that the proteins encoded by both classes of cDNAs are endoproteolytically processed in the secretory pathway and are released into conditioned medium of transfected CHO cells. We demonstrate that the mammalian Sulfs exhibit arylsulfatase activity with a pH optimum in the neutral range; moreover, they can remove sulfate from the C-6 position of glucosamine within specific subregions of intact heparin. Taken together, our results establish that the mammalian Sulfs are extracellular endosulfatases with strong potential for modulating the interactions of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular microenvironment. PMID:12368295

  4. Cloning and Characterization of the Scute (Sc) Gene of Drosophila Subobscura

    PubMed Central

    Botella, L. M.; Donoro, C.; Sanchez, L.; Segarra, C.; Granadino, B.

    1996-01-01

    The scute (sc) gene, a member of the achaete-scute complex of Drosophila melanogaster, has dual functions: sisterless (sis-b) function required for sex determination and dosage compensation and scute function, which is involved in neurogenesis. The sc homologue of D. subobscura was cloned. It lacks introns and encodes a single 1.7-kb transcript slightly larger than that of D. melanogaster (1.6 kb). The Sc protein of D. subobscura is slightly larger than that of D. melanogaster (382 vs. 345 amino acids). Sequence comparisons between both species show the Sc protein to have a highly conserved bHLH domain. Outside this domain, amino acid replacements are not randomly distributed. Two additional conserved domains, of 20 and 36 amino acids, are present near the C-terminal end. They may represent domains confering specificity upon the Sc protein with respect to other proteins of the achaete-scute complex. In its 3' untranslated region, Sc RNA contains uridine stretches, putative Sxl protein DNA-binding sites. The D. subobscura Sc protein can cooperate with other D. melanogaster bHLH proteins because D. subobscura sc supplies sis-b function when introduced into D. melanogaster transgenic flies mutant for sc. PMID:8913748

  5. Molecular cloning and expression characterization of ApoC-I in the orange-spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhou, L; Li, Z; Gui, J F

    2008-12-01

    Endogenous yolk nutrients are crucial for embryo and larval development in fish, but developmental behavior of the genes that control yolk utilization remains unknown. Apolipoproteins have been shown to play important roles in lipid transport and uptake through the circulation system. In this study, EcApoC-I, the first cloned ApoC-I in teleosts, has been screened from pituitary cDNA library of female orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and the deduced amino acid sequence shows 43.5% identity to one zebrafish (Danio rerio) hypothetical protein similar to ApoC-I, and 21.2%, 21.7%, 22.5%, 20%, and 22.5% identities to Apo C-I of human (Homo sapiens), house mouse (Mus musculus), common tree shrew (Tupaia glis), dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), respectively. Although the sequence identity is low, amphipathic alpha-helices with the potential to bind to lipid were predicted to exist in the EcApoC-I. RT-PCR analysis revealed that it was first transcribed in gastrula embryos and maintained a relatively stable expression level during the following embryogenesis. During embryonic and early larval development, a very high level of EcApoC-I expression was in the yolk syncytial layer, indicating that it plays a significant role in yolk degradation and transfers nutrition to the embryo and early larva. By the day 7 after hatching, EcApoC-I transcripts were observed in brain. In adult, EcApoC-I mRNA was detected abundantly in brain and gonad. In transitional gonads, the EcApoC-I expression is restricted to the germ cells. The data suggested that EcApoC-I might play an important role in brain and gonad morphogenesis and growth. PMID:18958591

  6. Full-length cDNA cloning and structural characterization of preproinsulin in Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Zhang, S Z; Li, E; Wang, C; Wang, C L; Wu, X B

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is an important endocrine hormone that plays a critical physiological role in regulating metabolism and glucostasis in vertebrates. In this study, the complete cDNA of Alligator sinensis preproinsulin gene was cloned for the first time by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods; the amino acid sequence encoded and protein structure were analyzed. The full-length of preproinsulin cDNA sequence consists of 528 base pairs (bp), comprising a 34-bp 5'-untranslated region, a 170-bp 3'-untranslated region and an open reading frame that is 324 bp in length. The open reading frame encodes a 107-amino acid preproinsulin with a molecular weight of approximately 12,153.8 Da, theoretical isoelectric point of 5.68, aliphatic index of 92.06, and grand average of hydropathicity of -0.157, from which a signal peptide, a B-chain, a C-peptide, and an A-chain are derived. Online analysis suggested that the deduced preproinsulin amino acid sequence contains a transmembrane region, and that it has a signal peptide whose cleavage site occurs between alanine 24 and alanine 25. Comparative analysis of preproinsulin amino acid sequences indicated that the A-chain and B-chain sequences of preproinsulins are highly conserved between reptiles and birds, and that the preproinsulin amino acid sequence of Alligator sinensis shares 89% similarity to that of Chelonia mydas, but low similarity of 48-63% to those of mammals and fishes. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method revealed that preproinsulin of Alligator sinensis had high homology with reptiles and birds, such as Chelonia mydas, Gallus gallus, and Columba livia. PMID:25366775

  7. Cloning, solubilization, and characterization of squalene synthase from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwon; Poulter, C Dale

    2008-06-01

    Squalene synthase (SQS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to give presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of PSPP to squalene. These reactions constitute the first pathway-specific steps in hopane biosynthesis in Bacteria and sterol biosynthesis in Eukarya. The genes encoding SQS were isolated from the hopane-producing bacteria Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and Zymomonas mobilis and cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed proteins with a His(6) tag were found exclusively in inclusion bodies when no additives were used in the buffer. After extensive optimization, soluble recombinant T. elongatus BP-1 SQS was obtained when cells were disrupted and purified in buffers containing glycerol. The recombinant B. japonicum and Z. mobilis SQSs could not be solubilized under any of the expression and purification conditions used. Purified T. elongatus His(6)-SQS gave a single band at 42 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and molecular ion at m/z 41886 by electrospray mass spectrometry. Incubation with FPP and NADPH gave squalene as the sole product. Incubation of the enzyme with [(14)C]FPP in the absence of NADPH gave PSPP. The enzyme requires Mg(2+) for activity, has an optimum pH of 7.6, and is strongly stimulated by detergent. Under optimal conditions, the K(m) of FPP is 0.97 +/- 0.10 microM and the k(cat) is 1.74 +/- 0.04 s(-1). Zaragozic acid A, a potent inhibitor of mammalian, fungal, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae SQSs, also inhibited recombinant T. elongatus BP-1 SQS, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 95.5 +/- 13.6 nM. PMID:18375558

  8. The superoxide dismutase from red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus: molecular cloning and characterization analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei; Chen, Jing; Hou, Libo; Huang, Yanqing; Xia, Siyao; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, an extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) gene and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) gene were cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecCuZnSOD is 498 bp and encodes a 166 amino acids (aa) protein, whereas the ORF of mtMnSOD is 654 bp and encodes a 218 aa protein. The amino acid sequences of C. quadricarinatus ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD showed high similarities with those of ecCuZnSODs and mtMnSODs of other crustaceans, respectively. Both ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD of C. quadricarinatus were highly expressed in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, intestine, and gill; low transcript levels were seen in other tissues (heart, muscle, and nerve). The immune responses of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD were studied following inoculation with Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Aeromonas hydrophila. After S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila challenge, mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD in hemocytes and gill was upregulated. mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD in the hepatopancreas was also upregulated after S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila inoculation. mtMnSOD in hepatopancreas was upregulated after A. hydrophila inoculation, whereas this was down-regulated after S. eriocheiris challenge. After S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila challenge, total SOD activity and CuZnSOD activity both increased compared to control group. The results showed that these SODs from C. quadricarinatus likely play an important role in protecting some tissues from reactive oxygen intermediates produced during challenge from S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila. PMID:25366155

  9. Cloning and characterization of dihydrofolate reductases from deep-sea bacteria.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Chiho; Ohmae, Eiji; Tate, Shin-Ichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Nakasone, Kaoru; Kato, Chiaki

    2010-04-01

    Enzymes from organisms living in deep-sea are thought to have characteristic pressure-adaptation mechanisms in structure and function. To better understand these mechanisms in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an essential enzyme in living cells, we cloned, overexpressed and purified four new DHFRs from the deep-sea bacteria Shewanella violacea (svDHFR), Photobacterium profundum (ppDHFR), Moritella yayanosii (myDHFR) and Moritella japonica (mjDHFR), and compared their structure and function with those of Escherichia coli DHFR (ecDHFR). These deep-sea DHFRs showed 33-56% primary structure identity to ecDHFR while far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that their secondary and tertiary structures were not largely different. The optimal temperature and pH for deep-sea DHFRs activity were lower than those of ecDHFR and different from each other. Deep-sea DHFRs kinetic parameters K(m) and k(cat) were larger than those of ecDHFR, resulting in 1.5-2.8-fold increase of k(cat)/K(m) except for mjDHFR which had a 28-fold decrease. The enzyme activity of ppDHFR and mjDHFR (moderate piezophilic bacteria) as well as ecDHFR decreased as pressure increased, while svDHFR and myDHFR (piezophilic bacteria) showed a significant tolerance to pressure. These results suggest that DHFRs from deep-sea bacteria possess specific enzymatic properties adapted to their life under high pressure. PMID:20040594

  10. Cloning and Characterization of Two Potent Kunitz Type Protease Inhibitors from Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L; Fischer, Katja; Zhang, Wenbao; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a cosmopolitan disease which imposes a significant burden on the health and economy of affected communities. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms whereby E. granulosus is able to survive in the hostile mammalian host environment, avoiding attack by host enzymes and evading immune responses, but protease inhibitors released by the parasite are likely implicated. We identified two nucleotide sequences corresponding to secreted single domain Kunitz type protease inhibitors (EgKIs) in the E. granulosus genome, and their cDNAs were cloned, bacterially expressed and purified. EgKI-1 is highly expressed in the oncosphere (egg) stage and is a potent chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase inhibitor that binds calcium and reduced neutrophil infiltration in a local inflammation model. EgKI-2 is highly expressed in adult worms and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin. As powerful inhibitors of mammalian intestinal proteases, the EgKIs may play a pivotal protective role in preventing proteolytic enzyme attack thereby ensuring survival of E. granulosus within its mammalian hosts. EgKI-1 may also be involved in the oncosphere in host immune evasion by inhibiting neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G once this stage is exposed to the mammalian blood system. In light of their key roles in protecting E. granulosus from host enzymatic attack, the EgKI proteins represent potential intervention targets to control CE. This is important as new public health measures against CE are required, given the inefficiencies of available drugs and the current difficulties in its treatment and control. In addition, being a small sized highly potent serine protease inhibitor, and an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis, EgKI-1 may have clinical potential as a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic. PMID:26645974

  11. Cloning and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Cupriavidus metallidurans-CH34.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjai; Wani, Shadil Ibrahim; Chauhan, Nar Singh; Sharma, Rakesh; Sareen, Dipti

    2011-09-01

    A putative epoxide hydrolase-encoding gene was identified from the genome sequence of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with His(6)-tag at its N-terminus. The epoxide hydrolase (CMEH) was purified to near homogeneity and was found to be a homodimer, with subunit molecular weight of 36 kDa. The CMEH had broad substrate specificity as it could hydrolyze 13 epoxides, out of 15 substrates tested. CMEH had high specific activity with 1,2-epoxyoctane, 1,2-epoxyhexane, styrene oxide (SO) and was also found to be active with meso-epoxides. The enzyme had optimum pH and temperature of 7.5 and 37°C respectively, with racemic SO. Biotransformation of 80 mM SO with recombinant whole E. coli cells expressing CMEH led to 56% ee(P) of (R)-diol with 77.23% conversion in 30 min. The enzyme could hydrolyze (R)-SO, ∼2-fold faster than (S)-SO, though it accepted both (R)- and (S)-SO with similar affinity as K(m)(R) and K(m)(S) of CMEH were 2.05±0.42 and 2.11±0.16 mM, respectively. However, the k(cat)(R) and k(cat)(S) for the two enantiomers of SO were 4.80 and 3.34 s(-1), respectively. The wide substrate spectrum exhibited by CMEH combined with the fast conversion rate makes it a robust biocatalyst for industrial use. Regioselectivity studies with enantiopure (R)- and (S)-SO revealed that with slightly altered regioselectivity, CMEH has a high potential to synthesize an enantiopure (R)-PED, through an enantioconvergent hydrolytic process. PMID:21515382

  12. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of an exo-inulinase from Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Xu, You-Yong; Yang, Hong-Mei; Xu, Hong; Xue, Feng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiao-Hai

    2014-07-01

    An inulinase-producing strain, Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9, was isolated from natural sources to produce R,R-2,3-butanediol via one-step fermentation of raw inulin extracted from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. The inulinase gene from P. polymyxa ZJ-9 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the purified recombinant inulinase was estimated to be approximately 56 kDa by both sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration chromatography. This result suggests that the active form of the inulinase is probably a monomer. Terminal hydrolysis fructose units from the inulin indicate that enzymes are exo-inulinase. The purified recombinant enzyme showed maximum activity at 25 °C and pH 6.0, which indicate its extreme suitability for industrial applications. Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Mg(2+) stimulated the activity of the purified enzyme, whereas Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) inhibited enzyme activity. The K m and V max values for inulin hydrolysis were 1.72 mM and 21.69 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. The same parameters toward sucrose were 41.09 mM and 78.7 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. Considering its substrate specificity and other enzymatic characteristics, we believe that this inulinase gene from P. polymyxa ZJ-9 could be transformed into other special bacterial strains to allow inulin conversion to other biochemicals and bioenergy through one-step fermentation. PMID:24807534

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Mlo gene in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Qin, Bi; Zheng, Fucong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mlo gene encodes a plant-specific seven-transmembrane domain protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. In this study, a novel Mlo gene from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), designated HbMlo1, was cloned by RT-PCR in rubber tree. The ORF of HbMlo1 was 1551bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. HbMlo1 was a typical Mlo protein with seven-transmembrane domain. Sequence comparison between HbMlo1 and other Mlo proteins demonstrated that HbMlo1 shared the highest similarity with the Cucumis melo CmMlo1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtMlo1 with 75.1% and 71.3% sequence identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMlo1, CmMlo1, AtMlo1, AtMlo13, and AtMlo15 formed into the phylogenetic clade II with 100% bootstrap support value. HbMlo1 transcript exhibited tissue specificity, and it was preferentially expressed in leaf. Furthermore, the amount of HbMlo1 transcript was significantly induced by various phytohormones (including ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and gibberellic acid), H2O2, and wounding treatments. Under drought stress, HbMlo1 exhibited a complex pattern of regulation. However, HbMlo1 expression did not significantly change during powdery mildew infection. These results suggested that HbMlo1 might play a role in phytohormone signaling and abiotic stress response processes in rubber tree. PMID:25506769

  14. Cloning and characterization of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase from Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Monk, B C; Kurtz, M B; Marrinan, J A; Perlin, D S

    1991-01-01

    The Candida albicans PMA1 gene was isolated from a genomic library by using a hybridization probe obtained from the PMA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene was localized to chromosome III of the Candida genome. An open reading frame of 2,685 nucleotides predicts an amino acid sequence of 895 amino acids that is 83% homologous at both the DNA and protein levels to its S. cerevisiae equivalent. A polyadenylated mRNA transcript of about 4,000 nucleotides contains a highly folded AU-rich leader of 242 nucleotides. The structure of the gene, codon bias, and levels of approximately 100-kDa H(+)-ATPase protein recovered in plasma membranes indicate a highly expressed gene. The plasma membrane ATPase was purified to about 90% homogeneity and appeared to be blocked at the amino terminus. Three hydrophobic membrane sector tryptic fragments from the partially digested ATPase provided internal sequence information for over 50 amino acids, which agrees with the sequence predicted by the cloned gene. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the C. albicans enzyme is about 3 kDa smaller than its Saccharomyces counterpart and was consistent with a predicted Mr of 97,398. Antibodies to the S. cerevisiae whole ATPase or its carboxyl terminus bound to the C. albicans enzyme but with lower avidity. Kinetic analysis showed that the Candida and Saccharomyces ATPases respond to glucose activation-starvation in nonidentical fashions. The amino-terminal domain of the C. albicans ATPase is marked by a net deletion of 23 amino acids in comparison with the S. cerevisiae ATPase. These differences maintain net charge, occur in nonconserved regions of fungal ATPases, and are sufficient to account for the observed difference in electrophoretic mobility between the two yeast ATPases. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1834633

  15. Cloning and Characterization of Two Potent Kunitz Type Protease Inhibitors from Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L.; Fischer, Katja; Zhang, Wenbao; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a cosmopolitan disease which imposes a significant burden on the health and economy of affected communities. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms whereby E. granulosus is able to survive in the hostile mammalian host environment, avoiding attack by host enzymes and evading immune responses, but protease inhibitors released by the parasite are likely implicated. We identified two nucleotide sequences corresponding to secreted single domain Kunitz type protease inhibitors (EgKIs) in the E. granulosus genome, and their cDNAs were cloned, bacterially expressed and purified. EgKI-1 is highly expressed in the oncosphere (egg) stage and is a potent chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase inhibitor that binds calcium and reduced neutrophil infiltration in a local inflammation model. EgKI-2 is highly expressed in adult worms and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin. As powerful inhibitors of mammalian intestinal proteases, the EgKIs may play a pivotal protective role in preventing proteolytic enzyme attack thereby ensuring survival of E. granulosus within its mammalian hosts. EgKI-1 may also be involved in the oncosphere in host immune evasion by inhibiting neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G once this stage is exposed to the mammalian blood system. In light of their key roles in protecting E. granulosus from host enzymatic attack, the EgKI proteins represent potential intervention targets to control CE. This is important as new public health measures against CE are required, given the inefficiencies of available drugs and the current difficulties in its treatment and control. In addition, being a small sized highly potent serine protease inhibitor, and an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis, EgKI-1 may have clinical potential as a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic. PMID:26645974

  16. Characterization, cloning and immunolocalization of a coronin homologue in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Bayle, D; Brugerolle, G

    2000-06-01

    On adhesion to host cells the flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis switches to an amoeboid form rich in actin microfilaments. We have undertaken the identification of actin-associated proteins that regulate actin dynamics. A monoclonal antibody 4C12 raised against a cytoskeletal fraction of T. vaginalis labeled a protein doublet at circa 50 kDa. These two bands were recognized by the antibody against Dictyostelium discoideum coronin. During cell extraction and actin polymerization, T. vaginalis coronin cosedimented with F-actin. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the protein doublet was separated into two sets of isoforms covering two Ip zones around 6 and 7. By screening a T. vaginalis library with 4C12, two clones Cor 1 and Cor 2 were isolated. This gene duplicity is a particularity among unicellular organisms examined. The complete sequence of the gene Cor 1 encodes a 435-residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa and Ip of 5.58. The incomplete sequence Cor 2 was very similar but with a more basic calculated Ip than Cor 1 on the same region. T. vaginalis coronin had 50% similarity with the coronin family, possessing the five WD-repeats and a leucine zipper in its C-terminal part. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that coronin mainly colocalized with actin at the periphery of the adherent amoeboid cells. However, coronin labeling displayed patches within a reticular array. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the coronin labeling in the actin-rich microfilamentous fringe beneath the plasma membrane, with accumulation in phagocytic zones and pseudopodial extensions. In T. vaginalis, one of the first emerging lineage of eukaryotes, coronin seems to play an important role in actin dynamics and may be a downstream target of a signaling mechanism for the cytoskeleton reorganization. PMID:10928457

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of the β-catenin gene from fine-wool sheep.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Yang, Zu; Darwish, Hesham; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ge, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xiyue; Li, Rongni; Deng, Xuemei

    2014-08-10

    β-Catenin is an evolutionarily conserved molecule that functions as a crucial effector in both cell-to-cell adhesion and Wnt signaling. To gain a better understanding of its role in the development of hair follicles, we cloned the cDNA sequence of the β-catenin gene from the skin of Aohan fine-wool sheep and performed a variety of bioinformatics analyses. We obtained the full-length sequence, which was 4573-bp long and contained a 2346-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 781 amino acids. The protein had a predicted molecular weight of 85.4 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.57. Domain architecture analysis of the β-catenin protein revealed an armadillo repeat region, which is a common feature of β-catenin in other species. The ovine β-catenin gene shares 97.91%, 94.25%, 94.59%, 83.89%, and 89.39% sequence identity with its homologs in Bos taurus, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Gallus gallus, and Mus musculus, respectively, while the amino acid sequence is more than 99% identical with each of these species. The expression of β-catenin mRNA was detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skin, muscle, and adipose tissue. Expression levels were maximal in the lung and minimal in the muscle, and the difference in expression in these tissues was significant (P<0.01). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of the β-catenin protein in all tissues examined; expression was lowest in the skin and adipose tissues. PMID:24881815

  18. The newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster) RPE65 promoter: molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Casco-Robles, Martin Miguel; Miura, Tomoya; Chiba, Chikafumi

    2015-06-01

    The adult newt has the ability to regenerate the neural retina following injury, a process achieved primarily by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). To deliver exogenous genes to the RPE for genetic manipulation of regenerative events, we isolated the newt RPE65 promoter region by genome walking. First, we cloned the 2.8 kb RPE65 promoter from the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Sequence analysis revealed several conserved regulatory elements described previously in mouse and human RPE65 promoters. Second, having previously established an I-SceI-mediated transgenic protocol for the newt, we used it here to examine the -657 bp proximal promoter of RPE65. The promoter assay used with F0 transgenic newts confirmed transgene expression of mCherry fluorescent protein in the RPE. Using bioinformatic tools and the TRANSFAC database, we identified a 340 bp CpG island located between -635 and -296 bp in the promoter; this region contains response elements for the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor known as MITF (CACGTG, CATGTG), and E-boxes (CANNTG). Sex-determining region box 9 (or SOX9) response element previously reported in the regulation of RPE genes (including RPE65) was also identified in the newt RPE65 promoter. Third, we identified DNA motif boxes in the newt RPE65 promoter that are conserved among other vertebrates. The newt RPE65 promoter is an invaluable tool for site-specific delivery of exogenous genes or genetic manipulation systems for the study of retinal regeneration in this animal. PMID:25490979

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of three beta-defensins from canine testes.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Ortega, M Teresa; Blecha, Frank; Prakash, Om; Melgarejo, Tonatiuh

    2005-05-01

    Mammalian beta-defensins are small cationic peptides possessing broad antimicrobial and physiological activities. Because dogs are particularly resilient to sexually transmitted diseases, it has been proposed that their antimicrobial peptide repertoire might provide insight into novel antimicrobial therapeutics and treatment regimens. To investigate this proposal, we cloned the full-length cDNA of three canine beta-defensin isoforms (cBD-1, -2, and -3) from canine testicular tissues. Their predicted peptides share identical N-terminal 65-amino-acid residues, including the beta-defensin consensus six-cysteine motif. The two longer isoforms, cBD-2 and -3, possess 4 and 34 additional amino acids, respectively, at the C terminus. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of cBD, a 34-amino-acid peptide derived from the shared mature peptide region was synthesized. Canine beta-defensin displayed broad antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus; MICs of 6 and 100 mug/ml, respectively), gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; MICs of 20 to 50, 20, and 50 mug/ml, respectively), and yeast (Candida albicans; MIC of 5 to 50 mug/ml) and lower activity against Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. canigenitalium (MIC of 200 mug/ml). Antimicrobial potency was significantly reduced at salt concentrations higher than 140 mM. All three canine beta-defensins were highly expressed in testis. In situ hybridization indicated that cBD-1 was expressed primarily in Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules. In contrast, cBD-2 was located primarily within Leydig cells. The longest isoform, cBD-3, was detected in Sertoli cells and to a lesser extent in the interstitium. The tissue-specific expression and broad antimicrobial activity suggest that canine beta-defensins play an important role in host defense and other physiological functions of the male reproductive system. PMID:15845463

  20. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding hexokinase from tomato.

    PubMed

    Menu, T; Rothan, C; Dai, N; Petreikov, M; Etienne, C; Destrac-Irvine, A; Schaffer, A; Granot, D; Ricard, B

    2001-01-01

    Two different partial sequences encoding putative hexokinase (HXK, ATP: hexose-6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by RT-PCR using degenerate primers. Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of two divergent HXK genes. A complete cDNA of one HXK was isolated by screening a cDNA library prepared from young cherry tomato fruit. The 1770 bp cDNA of LeHXK2 contained an open reading frame encoding a 496 amino acid protein that has 69% identity with the two Arabidopsis HXKs, 83 and 85% identity with potato StHXK1 and tobacco NtHXK, respectively. However, this clone had 97% amino acid identity with potato StHXK2 and, therefore, was named LeHXK2. LeHXK2 cDNA was expressed in a triple mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strain which lacked the ability to phosphorylate glucose and fructose and, therefore, was unable to grow on these sugars as carbon sources. Mutant cells expressing LeHXK2 grew on both glucose and fructose with shorter doubling time on glucose. The kinetic properties of LeHXK2 expressed in yeast were determined after the purification of LeHXK2 by HPLC-ion exchange chromatography, confirming the identity of LeHXK2 as hexokinase with higher affinity to glucose. LeHXK2 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR expression analysis in all organs and tissues and at all stages of fruit development. However, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that LeHXK2 was most highly expressed in flowers. PMID:11164592

  1. Cloning and characterization of two novel chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Dunaliella viridis.

    PubMed

    He, Yunxia; Meng, Xiangzong; Fan, Qianlan; Sun, Xiaoliang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2009-09-01

    Dunaliella, a unicellular green alga, has the unusual ability to survive dramatic osmotic stress by accumulating high concentrations of intracellular glycerol as a compatible solute. The chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) has been considered to be the key enzyme that produces glycerol for osmoregulation in Dunaliella. In this study, we cloned the two most prominent GPDH cDNAs (DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2) from Dunaliella viridis, which encode two polypeptides of 695 and 701 amino acids, respectively. Unlike higher plant GPDHs, both proteins contained extra phosphoserine phosphatase (SerB) domains at their N-termini in addition to C-terminal GPDH domains. Such bi-domain GPDHs represent a novel type of GPDH and are found exclusively in the chlorophyte lineage. Transient expression of EGFP fusion proteins in tobacco leaf cells demonstrated that both DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 are localized in the chloroplast. Overexpression of DvGPDH1 or DvGPDH2 could complement a yeast GPDH mutant (gpd1Delta), but not a yeast SerB mutant (ser2Delta). In vitro assays with purified DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 also showed apparent GPDH activity for both, but no SerB activity was detected. Surprisingly, unlike chloroplastic GPDHs from plants, DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 could utilize both NADH and NADPH as coenzymes and exhibited significantly higher GPDH activities when NADH was used as the coenzyme. Q-PCR analysis revealed that both genes exhibited transient transcriptional induction of gene expression upon hypersalinity shock, followed by a negative feedback of gene expression. These results shed light on the regulation of glycerol synthesis during salt stress in Dunaliella. PMID:19551475

  2. Cloning and characterization of two rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase genes from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Suykerbuyk, M E; Kester, H C; Schaap, P J; Stam, H; Musters, W; Visser, J

    1997-01-01

    A rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase gene of Aspergillus aculeatus was used as a probe for the cloning of two rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase genes of Aspergillus niger. The corresponding proteins, rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B, are 78 and 72% identical, respectively, with the A. aculeatus enzyme. In A. niger cultures which were shifted from growth on sucrose to growth on apple pectin as a carbon source, the expression of the rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase A gene (rhgA) was transiently induced after 3 h of growth on apple pectin. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase B gene was not induced by apple pectin, but the rhgB gene was derepressed after 18 h of growth on either apple pectin or sucrose. Gene fusions of the A. niger rhgA and rhgB coding regions with the strong and inducible Aspergillus awamori exlA promoter were used to obtain high-producing A. awamori transformants which were then used for the purification of the two A. niger rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography of oligomeric degradation products showed that optimal degradation of an isolated highly branched pectin fraction by A. niger rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B occurred at pH 3.6 and 4.1, respectively. The specific activities of rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B were then 0.9 and 0.4 U/mg, respectively, which is significantly lower than the specific activity of A. aculeatus rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase (2.5 U/mg at an optimal pH of 4.5). Compared to the A enzymes, the A. niger B enzyme appears to have a different substrate specificity, since additional oligomers are formed. PMID:9212401

  3. Cloning, characterization and mRNA expression of interleukin-6 in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Liu, Wen-Bin; Wu, Qiu-Jue; Gao, Xiao-Chan; Ren, Hong-Tao

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the interleukin-6 gene (IL-6) cDNA in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was identified and its expression profiles under ammonia stress and bacterial challenge were investigated. The IL-6 sequence consisted of 1045 bp, including a 696 bp ORF which translated into a 232 amino acid (AA) protein. The protein contained a putative signal peptide of 24 AA in length. IL-6 expression analysis showed that the it is differentially expressed in various tissues under normal conditions and the highest IL-6 level was observed in the intestine tissue, followed by the liver, and then in the gills. Under ammonia stress, the IL-6 mRNA level both in spleens and intestine increased significantly (P < 0.05), with the maximum levels attained at 6 h, 12 h (72, 10-fold, respectively). Thereafter, they all significantly decreased (P < 0.01) and returned to the basal value within 48 h. Whereas, in livers it slightly decreased at 3 h firstly (0.5-fold), and then significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the maximum level attained 12 h (3-fold). Further expression analysis showed that the mRNA level of IL-6 in spleens, intestine and livers of blunt snout bream all increased significantly (P < 0.05), with maximum values attained at 6 h, 3 h, 6 h (10, 6, 18-fold, respectively) after Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) injection, and then decreased to the basal value within 24 h which suggested that IL-6 was involved in the immune response to A. hydrophila. The cloning and expression analysis of the IL-6 provide theoretical basis to further study the mechanism of anti-adverseness and expression characteristics under stress conditions in blunt snout bream. PMID:26965748

  4. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the human histidase gene (HAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Suchi, Mariko; Sano, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Haruo; Wada, Yoshiro

    1995-09-01

    Histidase (EC 4.3.1.3) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the nonoxidative determination of histidine to urocanic acid. Histidinemia, resulting from reduced histidase activity as reported in Cambridge stock his/her mice and in humans, is the most frequent inborn metabolic error in Japan. The histidase chromosomal gene (HAL) was isolated from a {lambda}EMBL-3 human genomic library using the human histidase cDNA as a probe. Restriction mapping and Southern blot analysis of the isolated clones reveal a single-copy gene spanning approximately 25 kb and consisting of 21 exons. Exon 1 encodes only 5{prime} untranslated sequence of liver histidase mRNA, with protein coding beginning in exon 2. A rarely observed 5{prime}GC, similar to that reported in the human P-450(SCC) gene, is present in intron 20. All other splicing junctions adhere to the canonical GT/AG rule. A TATA box sequence is located 25 bp upstream of the liver histidase transcription initiation site determined by S1 nuclease protection analysis. Several liver- and epidermis-specific transcription factor binding sites, including C/EBP, NFIL6, HNF5, AP2/ KER1, MNF, and others, are also identified in the 5{prime} flanking region. Consistent with the hepatic and epidermal expression of histidase, this finding suggests that histidase transcription may be regulated by these factors. We further identify a polymorphism (A to G transition) in the histidase coding region of exon 16. The human histidase genomic structure presented here should facilitate the molecular investigation of symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of histidinemia. 69 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [Gene cloning, expression and characterization of two cold-adapted lipases from Penicillium sp. XMZ-9].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2012-04-01

    Cold-adapted lipases are attractive biocatalysts that can be used at low temperatures as additives in food products, laundry detergents, and the organic synthesis of chiral intermediates. Cold-adapted lipases are normally found in microorganisms that survive at low temperatures. A fungi strain XMZ-9 exhibiting lipolytic activity was isolated from the soil of glaciers in Xinjiang by the screening plates using 1% tributyrin as the substrate and Victoria blue as an indicator. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons of its 18S rDNA, the strain was identified as Penicillium sp. The partial nucleotide sequences of these two lipase related genes, LipA and LipB, were obtained by touchdown PCR using the degenerate primers designed according to the conservative domains of lipase. The full-length sequences of two genes were obtained by genome walking. The gene lipA contained 1 014 nucleotides, without any intron, comprising one open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The gene lipB comprised two introns (61 bp and 49 bp) and a coding region sequence of 1 122 bp encoding a polypeptide of 373 amino acids, cDNA sequences of both lipA and lipB were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant LipA was mostly expressed as inclusion bodies, and recovered lipase activity at low temperature after in vitro refolded by dilution. Differently, the recombinant LipB was expressed in the soluble form and then purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography Column. It showed high lipase activity at low temperature. These results indicated that they were cold-adapted enzymes. This study paves the way for the further research of these cold-adapted lipases for application in the industry. PMID:22803398

  6. Gene cloning and characterization of a cold-adapted esterase from Acinetobacter venetianus V28.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ok; Heo, Yu Li; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Bong-Seok; Jee, Young-Ju; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Acinetobacter venetians V28 was isolated from the intestine of righteye flounder, Poecilopsetta plinthus caught in Vietnam seawater, and the esterase gene was cloned using a shotgun method. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence (1,017 bp) corresponded to a protein of 338 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 37,186. The esterase had 87% and 72% identities with the lipases of A. junii SH205 and A. calcoaceticus RUH2202, respectively. The esterase contained a putative leader sequence, as well as the conserved catalytic triad (Ser, His, Asp), consensus pentapeptide GXSXG, and oxyanion hole sequence (HG). The protein from the strain V28 was produced in both a soluble and an insoluble form when the Escherichia coli cells harboring the gene were cultured at 18 degrees C. The maximal activity of the purified enzyme was observed at a temperature of 40 degrees C and pH 9.0 using p-NP-caprylate as substrate; however, relative activity still reached to 70% even at 5 degrees C with an activation energy of 3.36 kcal/mol, which indicated that it was a cold-adapted enzyme. The enzyme was a nonmetalloprotein and was active against p-nitrophenyl esters of C4, C8, and C14. Remarkably, this enzyme retained much of its activity in the presence of commercial detergents and organic solvents. This cold-adapted esterase will be applicable as catalysts for reaction in the presence of organic solvents and detergents. PMID:22814499

  7. Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Kakizuka, A; Aizawa, M; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S

    1994-11-01

    Prostanoid receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. By taking advantage of nucleotide sequence homology among the prostanoid receptors, we have isolated and identified a cDNA fragment and its gene encoding a mouse prostaglandin (PG) D receptor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and gene cloning. This gene codes for a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 40,012. The deduced amino acid sequence has a high degree of similarity with the mouse PGI receptor and the EP2 subtype of the PGE receptor, which together form a subgroup of the prostanoid receptors. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the gene showed a single class of binding sites for [#H]PGD2 with a Kd of 40 nM. This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist). PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and iloprost showed little displacement activity at concentrations up to 10 microM. PGD2 and BW 245C also increased cAMP levels in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner. BW A868C showed a partial agonist activity in the cAMP assay. Northern blotting analysis with mouse poly(A)+ RNA identified a major mRNA species of 3.5 kb that was most abundantly expressed in the ileum, followed by lung, stomach, and uterus. PMID:7972033

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization, and bioactivity analysis of interleukin 18 in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Wang, Q; Niu, L L; Deng, J B; Yu, J Q; Zhang J X Wang, Y Z; Yin, M M; Tan, X M

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18), as a member of IL-1 superfamily, is an important pleiotropic cytokine that modulates Th1 immune responses. In this report, we cloned and identified a homolog of IL-18 in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (designated as AmIL-18) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The open readin g frame of AmIL-18 cDNA is 579 bp encoding a deduced protein of 192 amino acids. AmIL-18 gDNA fragments contained 5 exons and 4 introns. The amino acid sequence of AmIL-18 shared 23.9 to 87.0% identity with other species. To evaluate the effects of AmIL-18 on the immune response, we expressed the recombinant AmIL-18 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The fusion protein PET-AmIL-18 was purified by nickel affinity column chromatography and verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. The biological function of purified PET-AmIL-18 was determined on mouse splenocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. INF-γ and other cytokines were increased when stimulated by PET-AmIL-18, particularly when combined with recombinant human interleukin 12, while a Th2-type cytokine, interleukin-4, was strikingly suppressed. These results will provide information for the potential use of recombinant proteins to manipulate the immune response in giant pandas and facilitate the study to protect this treasured species. PMID:25501180

  9. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Profile of Estrogen Receptor in Common Chinese Cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Wan; Liu, Li-Qin; Wang, Tian-Ming; Shi, Hui-Lai; Ping, Hong-Ling; Chi, Chang-Feng; Yang, Jing-Wen; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroid hormones are widely detected in molluscs and play important roles in sex determination, gonadal tissue maturation, and gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways of sex steroids in cephalopod have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated from common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica. The sjER cDNA clone was found to contain 1,788 nucleotides including a 1,470 bp open reading frame encoding 489 amino acid (aa) residues. The deduced ER protein consisted of six nuclear receptor characteristic domains. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the ER DNA-binding domain and ligand-binding domain are highly conserved compared to other mollusc ERs. Highest aa identities were found for sjER with common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ER (89%) and pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ER (61%). Tissue expression analysis confirmed that sjER was widely distributed among tissues and predominantly expressed in the brain, liver, gonad (testis and ovary), and other accessory sexual gland (nidamental gland). The ER expression was temporally upregulated in the brain, liver, and ovary during the early sexual maturation period in S. japonica, which is coincident with the fluctuation of ovary estradiol content. These suggest that sjER may be involved in regulating the reproductive cycle of S. japonica. A fusion protein transient transfections assay showed that sjER was mainly located in the nucleus, suggesting a possible orthodox working mechanism of S. japonica ER in the nucleus through a ligand-dependent activation of specific gene transcription. PMID:27076436

  10. Cloning and characterization of a new broadspecific β-glucosidase from Lactococcus sp. FSJ4.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shujun; Chang, Jie; Lee, Yong Seok; Guo, Weiliang; Choi, Yong Lark; Zhou, Yongcan

    2014-01-01

    A β-glucosidase gene bglX was cloned from Lactococcus sp. FSJ4 by the method of shotgun. The bglX open reading frame consisted of 1,437 bp, encoding 478 amino acids. SDS-PAGE showed a recombinant bglX monomer of 54 kDa. Substrate specificity study revealed that the enzyme exhibited multifunctional catalysis activity against pNPG, pNPX and pNPGal. This enzyme shows higher activity against aryl glycosides of xylose than those of glucose or galactose. The enzyme exhibited the maximal activity at 40 °C, and the optimal pH was 6.0 with pNPG and 6.5 with pNPX as the substrates. Molecular modeling and substrate docking showed that there should be one active center responsible for the mutifuntional activity in this enzyme, since the active site pocket was substantially wide to allow the entry of pNPG, pNPX and pNPGal, which elucidated the structure-function relationship in substrate specificities. Substrate docking results indicated that Glu180 and Glu377 were the essential catalytic residues of the enzyme. The CDOCKER_ENERGY values obtained by substrate docking indicated that the enzyme has higher activity against pNPX than those of pNPG and pNPGal. These observations are in conformity with the results obtained from experimental investigation. Therefore, such substrate specificity makes this β-glucosidase of great interest for further study on physiological and catalytic reaction processes. PMID:23892562

  11. Cloning, Purification and Characterization of a Highly Thermostable Amylase Gene of Thermotoga petrophila into Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Asma; Aftab, Muhammad Nauman; ud Din, Zia; Aftab, Saima; Iqbal, Irfana; ul Haq, Ikram

    2016-02-01

    A putative α-amylase gene of Thermotoga petrophila was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using pET-21a (+), as an expression vector. The growth conditions were optimized for maximal expression of the α-amylase using various parameters, such as pH, temperature, time of induction and addition of an inducer. The optimum temperature and pH for the maximum expression of α-amylase were 22 °C and 7.0 pH units, respectively. Purification of the recombinant enzyme was carried out by heat treatment method, followed by ion exchange chromatography with 34.6-fold purification having specific activity of 126.31 U mg(-1) and a recovery of 56.25%. Molecular weight of the purified α-amylase, 70 kDa, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was stable at 100 °C temperature and at pH of 7.0. The enzyme activity was increased in the presence of metal ions especially Ca(+2) and decreased in the presence of EDTA indicating that the α-amylase was a metalloenzyme. However, addition of 1% Tween 20, Tween 80 and β-mercaptoethanol constrained the enzyme activity to 87, 96 and 89%, respectively. No considerable effect of organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, acetone and n-butanol) was observed on enzyme activity. With soluble starch as a substrate, the enzyme activity under optimized conditions was 73.8 U mg(-1). The α-amylase enzyme was active to hydrolyse starch forming maltose. PMID:26526464

  12. Purification and characterization of cloned alkaline protease gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Irfana; Aftab, Muhammad Nauman; Afzal, Mohammed; Ur-Rehman, Asad; Aftab, Saima; Zafar, Asma; Ud-Din, Zia; Khuharo, Ateeque Rahman; Iqbal, Jawad; Ul-Haq, Ikram

    2015-02-01

    Thermostable alkaline serine protease gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-1172 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using pET-22b(+), as an expression vector. The growth conditions were optimized for maximal production of the protease using variable fermentation parameters, i.e., pH, temperature, and addition of an inducer. Protease, thus produced, was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography with 13.7-fold purification, with specific activity of 97.5 U mg(-1) , and a recovery of 23.6%. Molecular weight of the purified protease, 39 kDa, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was stable at 90 °C at pH 9. The enzyme activity was steady in the presence of EDTA indicating that the protease was not a metalloprotease. No significant change in the activity of protease after addition of various metal ions further strengthened this fact. However, an addition of 1% Triton X-100 or SDS surfactants constrained the enzyme specific activity to 34 and 19%, respectively. Among organic solvents, an addition of 1-butanol (20%) augmented the enzyme activity by 29% of the original activity. With casein as a substrate, the enzyme activity under optimized conditions was found to be 73.8 U mg(-1) . The effect of protease expression on the host cells growth was also studied and found to negatively affect E. coli cells to certain extent. Catalytic domains of serine proteases from eight important thermostable organisms were analyzed through WebLogo and found to be conserved in all serine protease sequences suggesting that protease of G. stearothermophilus could be beneficially used as a biocontrol agent and in many industries including detergent industry. PMID:25224381

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Ning, Xuanxuan; Pei, Dong; Zhao, Jianmin; You, Liping; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Huifeng

    2013-05-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) proteins are involved in many biological processes especially the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, two Trx cDNAs were cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using rapid amplifi cation of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The two cDNAs were named MgTrx1 and MgTrx2, respectively. The open reading frames of MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were 318 and 507 base pairs (bp) and they encoded proteins of 105 and 168 amino acids with estimated molecular masses of 11.45 and 18.93 kDa, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that both proteins possessed the conserved active site dithiol motif Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys. In addition, MgTrx2 also possessed a putative mitochondrial targeting signal suggesting that it is located in the mitochondria. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that both MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined. The MgTrx1 transcript was most abundant in hemocytes and gills, whereas the MgTrx2 transcript was most abundant in gonad, hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes. Following Vibrio anguillarum challenge, the expression of MgTrx1 was up-regulated and reached its peak, at a value 10-fold the initial value, at 24 h. Subsequently, expression returned back to the original level. In contrast, the expression level of MgTrx2 was down-regulated following bacterial stimulation, with one fi fth of the control level evident at 12 h post challenge. These results suggest that MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 may play important roles in the response of M. galloprovincialis to bacterial challenge.

  14. Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Satoh, D; Horii, A; Ochiai, M; Ashida, M

    1999-03-12

    Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid. PMID:10066809

  15. Cloning and characterization of two nuclear receptors from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J; Devaney, E

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) encompass a superfamily of cytoplasmic/nuclear localized receptors that on ligand binding (or by phosphorylation) directly regulate the transcription of target genes. NRs are involved in many developmental processes, including moulting in insects and dauer larva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report the isolation of two genes related to NRs from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. Bp-nhr-1 is a member of the NGF1-B subfamily of NRs and is expressed at very low levels in post-infective larval stage 3 (L3) after their transmission to the mammalian host. The second gene, Bp-nhr-2, is related to XR78E/F of Drosophila, a gene involved in the ecdysone response, over the region of its DNA-binding domain. cDNA and genomic clones have been isolated that correspond to Bp-nhr-2. The most striking feature of the encoded protein is that, although there is a DNA-binding domain similar to that of other NRs, the ligand-binding domain is absent. To investigate the pattern of transcription of Bp-nhr-2 in the filarial life cycle, semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR was performed; this analysis demonstrated that the gene is expressed in early stages after infection and in the adult and microfilariae, and is up-regulated just before the moult between L3 and L4 but is not expressed during the moult between L4 and adult. Antibodies raised against a peptide corresponding to the transactivation domain of Bp-nhr-2 demonstrate that the protein is expressed in microfilariae and adult samples and that another cross-reactive protein is expressed in these life-cycle stages. PMID:10548557

  16. Rapid cloning, expression, and functional characterization of paired αβ and γδ T-cell receptor chains from single-cell analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-zhi J; Dash, Pradyot; Calverley, Matthew; Tomchuck, Suzanne; Dallas, Mari H; Thomas, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic expression of antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) genes is a promising approach for immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancers. A key to the efficient application of this approach is the rapid and specific isolation and cloning of TCRs. Current methods are often labor-intensive, nonspecific, and/or relatively slow. Here, we describe an efficient system for antigen-specific αβTCR cloning and CDR3 substitution. We demonstrate the capability of cloning influenza-specific TCRs within 10 days using single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Gibson Assembly techniques. This process can be accelerated to 5 days by generating receptor libraries, requiring only the exchange of the antigen-specific CDR3 region into an existing backbone. We describe the construction of this library for human γδ TCRs and report the cloning and expression of a TRGV9/TRDV2 receptor that is activated by zoledronic acid. The functional activity of these αβ and γδ TCRs can be characterized in a novel reporter cell line (Nur77-GFP Jurkat 76 TCRα–β–) for screening of TCR specificity and avidity. In summary, we provide a rapid method for the cloning, expression, and functional characterization of human and mouse TCRs that can assist in the development of TCR-mediated therapeutics. PMID:26858965

  17. Rapid cloning, expression, and functional characterization of paired αβ and γδ T-cell receptor chains from single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi-Zhi J; Dash, Pradyot; Calverley, Matthew; Tomchuck, Suzanne; Dallas, Mari H; Thomas, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic expression of antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) genes is a promising approach for immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancers. A key to the efficient application of this approach is the rapid and specific isolation and cloning of TCRs. Current methods are often labor-intensive, nonspecific, and/or relatively slow. Here, we describe an efficient system for antigen-specific αβTCR cloning and CDR3 substitution. We demonstrate the capability of cloning influenza-specific TCRs within 10 days using single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Gibson Assembly techniques. This process can be accelerated to 5 days by generating receptor libraries, requiring only the exchange of the antigen-specific CDR3 region into an existing backbone. We describe the construction of this library for human γδ TCRs and report the cloning and expression of a TRGV9/TRDV2 receptor that is activated by zoledronic acid. The functional activity of these αβ and γδ TCRs can be characterized in a novel reporter cell line (Nur77-GFP Jurkat 76 TCRα(-)β(-)) for screening of TCR specificity and avidity. In summary, we provide a rapid method for the cloning, expression, and functional characterization of human and mouse TCRs that can assist in the development of TCR-mediated therapeutics. PMID:26858965

  18. First Characterization of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli ST131 and ST405 Clones Causing Community-Onset Infections in South America▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sory J.; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F.; Martinez, Ernesto; Rosso, Fernando; Muñoz, Martin; Quinn, John P.; Cantón, Rafael; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli has emerged worldwide as an important pathogen associated with community-onset infections, but in South America reports are scarce. We document the presence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli of the international ST131 and ST405 clones in Colombia and present the first molecular characterization of these isolates in South America. PMID:21325548

  19. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327bp encoding 109 amino acids w...

  20. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)8–fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases. PMID:26805857

  1. Use of genomics to identify bacterial undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase: cloning, expression, and characterization of the essential uppS gene.

    PubMed

    Apfel, C M; Takács, B; Fountoulakis, M; Stieger, M; Keck, W

    1999-01-01

    The prenyltransferase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase (di-trans,poly-cis-decaprenylcistransferase; EC 2.5.1.31) was purified from the soluble fraction of Escherichia coli by TSK-DEAE, ceramic hydroxyapatite, TSK-ether, Superdex 200, and heparin-Actigel chromatography. The protein was labeled with the photolabile analogue of the farnesyl pyrophosphate analogue (E, E)-[1-3H]-(2-diazo-3-trifluoropropionyloxy)geranyl diphosphate and was detected on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa. This protein band was cut out from the gel, trypsin digested, and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric analysis. Comparison of the experimental data with computer-simulated trypsin digest data for all E. coli proteins yielded a single match with a protein of unassigned function (SWISS-PROT Q47675; YAES_ECOLI). Sequences with strong similarity indicative of homology to this protein were identified in 25 bacterial species, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in Caenorhabditis elegans. The homologous genes (uppS) were cloned from E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, expressed in E. coli as amino-terminal His-tagged fusion proteins, and purified over a Ni2+ affinity column. An untagged version of the E. coli uppS gene was also cloned and expressed, and the protein purified in two chromatographic steps. We were able to detect Upp synthetase activity for all purified enzymes. Further, biochemical characterization revealed no differences between the recombinant untagged E. coli Upp synthetase and the three His-tagged fusion proteins. All enzymes were absolutely Triton X-100 and MgCl2 dependent. With the use of a regulatable gene disruption system, we demonstrated that uppS is essential for growth in S. pneumoniae R6. PMID:9882662

  2. Cloning and functional characterization of two abiotic stress-responsive Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEHs).

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanhuan; Liang, Mingxiang; Xu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Kang, Jian; Zhao, Qingxin; Zhao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Two fructan hydrolases were previously reported to exist in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and one native fructan-β-fructosidase (1-FEH) was purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE, but no corresponding cDNA was cloned. Here, we cloned two full-length 1-FEH cDNA sequences from Jerusalem artichoke, named Ht1-FEH I and Ht1-FEH II, which showed high levels of identity with chicory 1-FEH I and 1-FEH II. Functional characterization of the corresponding recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris X-33 demonstrated that both Ht1-FEHs had high levels of hydrolase activity towards β(2,1)-linked fructans, but low or no activity towards β(2,6)-linked levan and sucrose. Like other plant FEHs, the activities of the recombinant Ht1-FEHs were greatly inhibited by sucrose. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Ht1-FEH I transcripts accumulated to high levels in the developing leaves and stems of artichoke, whereas the expression levels of Ht1-FEH II increased in tubers during tuber sprouting, which implies that the two Ht1-FEHs play different roles. The levels of both Ht1-FEH I and II transcript were significantly increased in the stems of NaCl-treated plants. NaCl treatment also induced transcription of both Ht1-FEHs in the tubers, while PEG treatments slightly inhibited the expression of Ht1-FEH II in tubers. Analysis of sugar-metabolizing enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentration via HPLC showed that the enzyme activities of 1-FEHs were increased but the fructose content was decreased under NaCl and PEG treatments. Given that FEH hydrolyzes fructan to yield Fru, we discuss possible explanations for the inconsistency between 1-FEH activity and fructan dynamics in artichokes subjected to abiotic stress. PMID:25522837

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel gene PDRG that is differentially regulated by p53 and ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiuquan; Huang, Ying; Sheikh, M Saeed

    2003-10-16

    We report the cloning and characterization of a novel p53 and DNA damage-regulated gene (PDRG). The human and mouse PDRG sequences are highly homologous and contain open reading frames of 133 amino acids each with molecular masses of 15.5 and 15.3 kDa, respectively. PDRG codes for a novel protein that does not show similarity to any known protein in the databases. Human PDRG is predominantly expressed in normal testis and exhibits reduced but detectable expression in other organs. GFP-tagged PDRG was predominantly detected as aggregates that appeared to reside in a distinct subcellular compartment. PDRG mRNA was upregulated by ultraviolet radiation (UV) but downregulated by tumor suppressor p53. UV is known to transcriptionally upregulate the expression of certain genes by activating the transcription factor Oct-1, while p53 has been reported to suppress transcription of certain genes by directly binding to a novel head-to-tail response element. Cloning and sequence analysis of PDRG promoter revealed the presence of Oct-1-binding element and a putative head-to-tail-type p53-binding site. Indeed, UV as well as exogenous Oct-1 independently increased PDRG promoter activity, suggesting that UV could mediate PDRG upregulation via Oct-1. Exogenous wild-type p53 was found to downregulate the PDRG promoter activity indicating that wild-type p53 transcriptionally suppresses the expression of PDRG and may mediate its effect via the putative head-to-tail response element. Furthermore, stable expression of exogenous PDRG was found to decrease the clonogenic survival after UV irradiation, which highlights the significance of PDRG in facilitating UV-induced killing. PMID:14562055

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Spermine Synthesis Gene Associated with Cold Tolerance in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xujun; Li, Qinghui; Hu, Jingyan; Wang, Mingle; Li, Xinghui

    2015-11-01

    Spermine synthase (SPMS, EC 2.5.1.22), enzyme of spermine (Spm) biosynthesis, has been shown to be related to stress response. In this study, attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding SPMS from tea plant (Camellia sinensis). The effect of exogenous application of Spm in C. sinensis subjected to low-temperature stress was also investigated. A full-length SPMS complementary DNA (cDNA) (CsSPMS) with an open reading frame of 1113 bp was cloned using reverse transcription-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques from cultivar "Yingshuang". The CsSPMS gene, which encoded a 371 amino acid polypeptide, in four cultivars is highly homologous. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the CsSPMS gene shows tissue-specific expression, mainly in the leaf and root of tea plant. The expression analysis demonstrated that the CsSPMS gene is quickly induced by cold stress and had similar trends in four cultivars. Spm-supplemented "Baicha" cultivar contains higher endogenous polyamines compared to the control, coupling with higher expression levels of ADC and SPMS. In addition, activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as free proline content in the Spm-supplemented samples were higher than the control during the experiment course or at a given time point, indicating that Spm exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. Moreover, Agrobacterium-mediated expression of CsSPMS in tobacco leaves showed relatively higher cold tolerance. Taken together, these findings will enhance the understanding of the relationships among CsSPMS gene regulatory, polyamines accumulation, and cold tolerance in tea plant. PMID:26276446

  5. Cloning, characterization and structural model of a FatA-type thioesterase from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Vega, M J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2005-08-01

    The substrate specificity of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (EC 3.1.2.14) determines the fatty acids available for the biosynthesis of storage and membrane lipids in seeds. In order to determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.), we isolated, cloned and sequenced a cDNA clone of acyl-ACP thioesterase from developing sunflower seeds, HaFatA1. Through the heterologous expression of HaFatA1 in Escherichia coli we have purified and characterized this enzyme, showing that sunflower HaFatA1 cDNA encodes a functional thioesterase with preference for monounsaturated acyl-ACPs. The HaFatA1 thioesterase was most efficient (kcat/K(m)) in catalyzing oleoyl-ACP, both in vivo and in vitro. By comparing this sequence with those obtained from public databases, we constructed a phylogenetic tree that included FatA and FatB thioesterases, as well as related prokaryotic proteins. The phylogenetic relationships support the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and the suggestion that eubacteria from the delta-subdivision were the guest cells in the symbiosis with archaea. These prokaryotic proteins are more homologous to plant FatB, suggesting that the ancient thioesterases were more similar to FatB. Finally, using the available structure prediction methods, a 3D model of plant acyl-ACP thioesterases is proposed that reflects the combined data from direct mutagenesis and chimera studies. In addition, the model was tested by mutating the residues proposed to interact with the ACP protein in the FatA thioesterase by site-directed mutagenesis. The results indicate that this region is involved in the stabilization of the substrate at the active site. PMID:15841386

  6. Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasma agalactiae Reveals the Presence of an Endemic Clone in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates from Spain were genetically characterized to investigate their genomic diversity and to better understand their relationship to isolates from other countries. Molecular typing revealed a high genomic homogeneity in Spanish M. agalactiae isolates, which clearly shows the circulation of one endemic clonal population. PMID:23224102

  7. SABATH Methyltransferases from White Spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss): Gene Cloning, Functional Characterization and Structural Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Known members of the plant SABATH family of methyltransferases have important biological functions by methylating hormones, signaling molecules and other metabolites. While all previously characterized SABATH genes were isolated from angiosperms, in this article, we report on the isolation and funct...

  8. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression of Cyathus bulleri laccase in Pichia pastoris and characterization of recombinant laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases and catalyze the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. There is considerable interest in using these enzymes for dye degradation as well as for synthesis of aromatic compounds. Laccases are produced at relatively low levels and, sometimes, as isozymes in the native fungi. The investigation of properties of individual enzymes therefore becomes difficult. The goal of this study was to over-produce a previously reported laccase from Cyathus bulleri using the well-established expression system of Pichia pastoris and examine and compare the properties of the recombinant enzyme with that of the native laccase. Results In this study, complete cDNA encoding laccase (Lac) from white rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was amplified by RACE-PCR, cloned and expressed in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX)1 promoter. The coding region consisted of 1,542 bp and encodes a protein of 513 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the matured protein displayed high homology with laccases from Trametes versicolor and Coprinus cinereus. The sequence analysis indicated the presence of Glu 460 and Ser 113 and LEL tripeptide at the position known to influence redox potential of laccases placing this enzyme as a high redox enzyme. Addition of copper sulfate to the production medium enhanced the level of laccase by about 12-fold to a final activity of 7200 U L-1. The recombinant laccase (rLac) was purified by ~4-fold to a specific activity of ~85 U mg-1 protein. A detailed study of thermostability, chloride and solvent tolerance of the rLac indicated improvement in the first two properties when compared to the native laccase (nLac). Altered glycosylation pattern, identified by peptide mass finger printing, was proposed to contribute to altered properties of the rLac. Conclusion Laccase of C. bulleri was successfully produced extra

  9. Endoglucanase I from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Purification, characterization, cloning and expression.

    PubMed

    Ding, S J; Ge, W; Buswell, J A

    2001-11-01

    We isolated an endoglucanase, EG1, from culture fluid of Volvariella volvacea grown on crystalline cellulose by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, and preparative PAGE. EG1 has a molecular mass of 42 kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE and an isoelectric point of 7.7. Enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of carboxymethyl-cellulose (CM-cellulose) is maximal at pH 7.5 and 55 degrees C. EG1 also hydrolysed phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose and filter paper (at rates of 29% and 6%, respectively, compared with CM-cellulose), but did not hydrolyse crystalline cellulose, cotton, oat spelt xylan, and birchwood xylan. Degenerate primers based on the N-terminal sequences of purified EGI and a protease-generated fragment were used to generate cDNA fragments encoding a portion of the EG1 gene (eg1), and RACE was used to obtain full-length cDNA clones. The cDNA of eg1 contained an ORF of 1167 bp encoding 389 amino acids. The amino-acid sequence from Ala24 to Thr40 corresponded to the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. The first 23 amino acids are presumed to be a signal peptide. V. volvacea EG1 has been assigned to glycoside hydrolase family 5 according to the classification of glycohydrolases based on amino-acid sequence similarities. Transcripts of eg1 were detected in total RNA from mycelium grown on cellulose but not from mycelium grown on glucose. Cellobiose also induced eg1 expression in 1- to 4-day-old cultures but the signal intensity was lower than that obtained with cellulose. Catabolite repression was observed 24 h after addition of 1% (w/v) glucose, alpha-lactose, beta-lactose, xylose, mannose, sorbose or fructose to medium containing 1% (w/v) crystalline cellulose. Eg1 was expressed at a high level in the yeast, Pichia pastoris, and the catalytic activity of the recombinant EG1 was confirmed. PMID:11722552

  10. Cloning of Azorhizobium caulinodans nicotinate catabolism genes and characterization of their importance in N2 fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Buckmiller, L M; Lapointe, J P; Ludwig, R A

    1991-01-01

    Twenty Azorhizobium caulinodans vector insertion (Vi) mutants unable to catabolize nicotinate (Nic- phenotype) were identified and directly cloned as pVi plasmids. These pVi plasmids were used as DNA hybridization probes to isolate homologous wild-type sequences. From subsequent physical mapping experiments, the nic::Vi mutants defined four distinct loci. Two, possibly three, of these loci are physically linked. A. caulinodans nic loci II and III encode the structural genes for nicotinate catabolism; nic loci I and IV encode nicotinate-driven respiratory chain components. Recombinant lambda bacteriophages corresponding to three of these loci were subcloned in pRK293; resulting plasmids were used for complementation tests with resolved nic::IS50 derivatives of the nic::Vi mutants. When wild-type A. caulinodans was cultured in defined liquid medium under 3% O2, nicotinate catabolism stimulated N2 fixation 10-fold. In these exponentially growing cultures, the entire (300 microM) nicotinate supplement was exhausted within 10 h. While nic::Vi mutants retained the ability to fix some N2, they did so at rates only 10% of that of the wild type: nitrogenase activity by nic::Vi mutants was not stimulated by 300 microM added nicotinate. Higher-level (5 mM) nicotinate supplementation inhibited N2 fixation. Because 5 mM nicotinate repressed nitrogenase induction in all nic::Vi mutants as well, this repression was independent of nicotinate catabolism. During catabolism, nicotinate is first oxidized to 6-OH-nicotinate by a membrane-bound nicotinate hydroxylase which drives a respiratory chain to O2. In A. caulinodans wild-type cultures, added 300 microM 6-OH-nicotinate stimulated N2 fixation twofold better than did added 300 microM nicotinate. Likewise, nic::Vi mutant 61302, defective in nicotinate hydroxylase, fixed N2 at wild-type levels when supplemented with 300 microM 6-OH-nicotinate. Therefore, nicotinate catabolism stimulates N2 fixation not by nicotinate hydroxylase

  11. Cloning, characterization and expression of OsFMO(t) in rice encoding a flavin monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jicai; Liu, Lanna; Cao, Youpei; Li, Jiazuo; Mei, Mantong

    2013-12-01

    Flavin monooxygenases (FMO) play a key role in tryptophan (Trp)-dependent indole-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in plants and regulate plant growth and development. In this study, the full-length genomic DNA and cDNA of OsFMO(t), a FMO gene that was originally identified from a rolled-leaf mutant in rice, was isolated and cloned from wild type of the rolled-leaf mutant. OsFMO(t) was found to have four exons and three introns, and encode a protein with 422 amino acid residues that contains two basic conserved motifs, with a 'GxGxxG' characteristic structure. OsFMO(t) showed high amino acid sequence identity with FMO proteins from other plants, in particular with YUCCA from Arabidopsis, FLOOZY from Petunia, and OsYUCCA1 from rice. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that OsFMO(t) and the homologous FMO proteins belong to the same clade in the evolutionary tree. Overexpression of OsFMO(t) in transformed rice calli produced IAA-excessive phenotypes that showed browning and lethal effects when exogenous auxins such as naphthylacetic acid (NAA) were added to the medium. These results suggested that the OsFMO(t) protein is involved in IAA biosynthesis in rice and its overexpression could lead to the malformation of calli. Spatio-temporal expression analysis using RT-PCR and histochemical analysis for GUS activity revealed that expression of OsFMO(t) was totally absent in the rolled-leaf mutant. However, in the wild type variety, this gene was expressed at different levels temporally and spatially, with the highest expression observed in tissues with fast growth and cell division such as shoot apexes, tender leaves and root tips. Our results demonstrated that IAA biosynthesis regulated by OsFMO(t) is likely localized and might play an essential role in shaping local IAA concentrations which, in turn, is critical for regulating normal growth and development in rice. PMID:24371168

  12. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of alpha-2-macroglobulin in cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Hsiao; Liu, Ping-Chung; Hung, Chia-Yu; Lee, Kuo-Kau

    2014-12-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) is a broad spectrum protease inhibitor which is abundant in the plasma of vertebrates and several invertebrates. The α-2-M was purified from cobia (Rachycentron canadum) plasma by a four-step procedure: poly ethylene glycol fractionation, affinity chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography on Fast Protein liquid chromatography system in the present study. It migrated as one protein band with a molecular mass of about 360 kDa in the native state, whereas in SDS-PAGE it was about 180 kDa under non-reducing condition. This result revealed that the native protein was a dimer. In addition, it was cleaved into two different fragments of molecular mass about 93 and 87 kDa when reduced by dithiothreitol (DTT). The anti-protease activity of the purified α-2-M was apparently decreased as temperature elevated above 50 °C. The α-2-M exhibited highest protease inhibitory activity at pH 9. The results indicate that the α-2-M is a heat-labile and alkaline protease inhibitor. The purified α-2-M exhibited more than 50% protease inhibitory activity against extracellular products (ECP) of Vibrio alginolytius isolated from diseased cobia. It seems that the protease activities in ECP may be affected by the plasma α-2-M. The protease inhibitory activities of cobia plasma or purified α-2-M were decreased when incubated with 10 mM methylamine for 30 min. The α-2-M cDNA consisted of 4611 bp with an open reading frame of 4374 bp had been cloned from cobia liver. This sequence contained thioester domain (GCGEQ) and thirteen predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. In addition, the amino acid sequence of thioester domain and genes of adjacent regions of cobia α-2-M were further compared with sequences of known fish species in GenBank. The unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) was employed to construct the phylogenetic trees of α-2-M among different fish species (freshwater fish, sea

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a complement-depleting factor from king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Sun, Qian-Yun; Jin, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-09-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is an anti-complement factor existing in cobra venom. CVF proteins have been purified from the venoms of Naja haje, Naja siamensis, Naja atra, Naja kaouthia, Naja naja, Naja melanoleuca and Austrelaps superbus, but only three full-length cDNA sequences of CVF are available. In the present work, a cobra venom factor termed OVF was purified from the crude venom of Ophiophagus hannah by successive gel filtration, ion-exchange and heparin affinity chromatography steps. The purified OVF was homogenous on the SDS-PAGE gel with an apparent molecular weight of 140 kDa under non-reducing conditions. Under reducing conditions, OVF was divided into three bands with apparent molecular weight of 72 kDa (α chain), 45 kDa (β chain) and 32 kDa (γ chain), respectively. OVF consumed complement components with anti-complement activity of 154 units per mg. By using Reverse transcription-PCR and 5'-RACE assay, the open reading frame of OVF was obtained. MALDI-TOF and protein sequencing assays confirmed the cloned cDNA coding for OVF protein. The cDNA sequence of OVF is conservative when aligned with that of other CVFs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed OVF is closer to CVF from N. kaouthia than to AVF-1 and AVF-2 from A. superbus. Our results demonstrated that OVF has its unique features as following: 1) The N-terminal amino acid sequence of OVF γ chain is different from that of other known CVFs, suggesting that the OVF γ chain might be further processed; 2) Unlike N. kaouthia CVF and A. superbus AVF-1, which have potential N-linked glycosylation sites located in both α and β chain, OVF only has N-linked glycosylation site in its α chain as revealed by Schiff's reagent staining and protein sequence analysis; 3) In addition to the 27 well conserved cysteine residues in all known CVFs, OVF have an additional cysteine residue in its γ chain. Understanding the importance of above mentioned specific characteristics might provide useful information on structure

  14. Cloning and characterization of the promoter regions from the parent and paralogous creatine transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Ndika, Joseph D T; Lusink, Vera; Beaubrun, Claudine; Kanhai, Warsha; Martinez-Munoz, Cristina; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-01-10

    Interconversion between phosphocreatine and creatine, catalyzed by creatine kinase is crucial in the supply of ATP to tissues with high energy demand. Creatine's importance has been established by its use as an ergogenic aid in sport, as well as the development of intellectual disability in patients with congenital creatine deficiency. Creatine biosynthesis is complemented by dietary creatine uptake. Intracellular transport of creatine is carried out by a creatine transporter protein (CT1/CRT/CRTR) encoded by the SLC6A8 gene. Most tissues express this gene, with highest levels detected in skeletal muscle and kidney. There are lower levels of the gene detected in colon, brain, heart, testis and prostate. The mechanism(s) by which this regulation occurs is still poorly understood. A duplicated unprocessed pseudogene of SLC6A8-SLC6A10P has been mapped to chromosome 16p11.2 (contains the entire SLC6A8 gene, plus 2293 bp of 5'flanking sequence and its entire 3'UTR). Expression of SLC6A10P has so far only been shown in human testis and brain. It is still unclear as to what is the function of SLC6A10P. In a patient with autism, a chromosomal breakpoint that intersects the 5'flanking region of SLC6A10P was identified; suggesting that SLC6A10P is a non-coding RNA involved in autism. Our aim was to investigate the presence of cis-acting factor(s) that regulate expression of the creatine transporter, as well as to determine if these factors are functionally conserved upstream of the creatine transporter pseudogene. Via gene-specific PCR, cloning and functional luciferase assays we identified a 1104 bp sequence proximal to the mRNA start site of the SLC6A8 gene with promoter activity in five cell types. The corresponding 5'flanking sequence (1050 bp) on the pseudogene also had promoter activity in all 5 cell lines. Surprisingly the pseudogene promoter was stronger than that of its parent gene in 4 of the cell lines tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first

  15. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhengying; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2012-03-01

    Acetaldehyde is a known mutagen and carcinogen. Active aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) represents an important mechanism for acetaldehyde detoxification. A yeast strain XJ-2 isolated from grape samples was found to produce acetaldehyde dehydrogenase with a high activity of 2.28 U/mg and identified as Issatchenkia terricola. The enzyme activity was validated by oxidizing acetaldehyde to acetate with NAD(+) as coenzyme based on the headspace gas chromatography analysis. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ist-ALD) was cloned by combining SiteFinding-PCR and self-formed adaptor PCR. The ist-ALD gene comprised an open reading frame of 1,578 bp and encoded a protein of 525 amino acids. The predicted protein of ist-ALD showed the highest identity (73%) to ALDH from Pichia angusta. The ist-ALD gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product (ist-ALDH) presented a productivity of 442.3 U/mL cells. The purified ist-ALDH was a homotetramer of 232 kDa consisting of 57 kDa-subunit according to the SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analysis. Ist-ALDH exhibited the optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 40°C, respectively. The activity of ist-ALDH was enhanced by K(+), NH4(+), dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol but strongly inhibited by Ag(+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride. In the presence of NAD(+), ist-ALDH could oxidize many aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic aldehydes, preferably acetaldehyde. Kinetic study revealed that ist-ALDH had a k (cat) value of 27.71/s and a k (cat)/K (m) value of 26.80 × 10(3)/(mol s) on acetaldehyde, demonstrating ist-ALDH, a catalytically active enzyme by comparing with other ALDHs. These studies indicated that ist-ALDH was a potential enzymatic product for acetaldehyde detoxification. PMID:21858493

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel RNA involved in cellular growth regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Moats-Staats, B M; Jarvis, H W; D'Ercole, A J; Stiles, A D

    1994-01-01

    During the course of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (oligo) inhibition experiments investigating the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the WI-38 cell cycle, we found that a sense-strand oligo (S oligo), used as a control, inhibited DNA synthesis 90 to 95%. S1 nuclease protection assays demonstrated that this S oligo formed intracellular duplexes with WI-38 RNA, and Northern (RNA) hybridization analyses demonstrated specific hybridization of this 32P-labeled S oligo to 1.8-, 2.3-, and 3.2-kb RNAs. We have cloned and sequenced a 2,251-bp cDNA, designated BB1, corresponding to the 2.3-kb RNA. Decoding of the BB1 cDNA sequence reveals several open reading frames arranged in a motif similar to that seen in proteins subject to translational control mechanisms. Homology searches of nucleic acid and protein data bases reveal no significant homology of BB1 with known sequences other than a 234-bp region in the BB1 5' untranslated region that shared 97% homology with a region in the 3' untranslated region of the human cdc42 mRNA. S1 nuclease protection analyses performed with IGF-I gene fragments and computer homology searches demonstrated that the BB1 RNA does not derive from transcription from the opposite strand of the IGF-I gene. Northern hybridization analyses of RNA extracted from serum-starved HeLa S3 cells demonstrated that steady-state BB1 RNA levels increased upon serum growth stimulation, with steady-state levels peaking 4 h after release from the block induced by serum starvation. Antisense oligo inhibition experiments using specific BB1 antisense oligos targeted to the putative open reading frames of the BB1 RNA reduce DNA synthesis of HeLa S3 cells to 15% of control levels, indicating that the BB1 RNA is essential for cell cycle traversal and, as such, encodes a growth-reguLating gene product. Images PMID:7513047

  17. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) nuts: cloning, characterization and their impact on oil composition.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Sánchez-García, Alicia; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms by which macadamia nuts accumulate the unusual palmitoleic and asclepic acyl moieties, which constitute up to 20% of the fatty acids in some varieties, are still unknown. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (EC 3.1.2.14) are intraplastidial enzymes that terminate the synthesis of fatty acids in plants and that facilitate the export of the acyl moieties to the endoplasmic reticulum where they can be used in the production of glycerolipids. Here, we have investigated the possible role of acyl-ACP thioesterase activity in the composition of macadamia kernel oil. Accordingly, two acyl-ACP thioesterases were cloned from developing macadamia kernels, one of the FatA type and the other of the FatB type. These enzymes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant thioesterases were purified, characterized kinetically and assayed with a variety of substrates, demonstrating the high specificity of macadamia FatA towards 16:1-ACP. Acyl-ACP thioesterase activity was also characterized in crude extracts from two different varieties of macadamia, Cate and Beaumont, which accumulate different amounts of n-7 fatty acids. The impact of acyl-ACP thioesterase activities on the oil composition of these kernels is discussed in the light of these results. PMID:21071236

  18. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from Camelina sativa: cloning, enzymatic characterization and implication in seed oil fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Manuel Fernando; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are intraplastidial enzymes that terminate de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in the plastids of higher plants by hydrolyzing the thioester bond between ACP and the fatty acid synthesized. Free fatty acids are then esterified with coenzyme A prior to being incorporated into the glycerolipids synthesized through the eukaryotic pathway. Acyl-ACP thioesterases belong to the TE14 family of thioester-active enzymes and can be classified as FatAs and FatBs, which differ in their amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. Here, the FatA and FatB thioesterases from Camelina sativa seeds, a crop of interest in plant biotechnology, were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The mature proteins encoded by these genes were characterized biochemically after they were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. C. sativa contained three different alleles of both the FatA and FatB genes. These genes were expressed most strongly in expanding tissues in which lipids are very actively synthesized, such as developing seed endosperm. The CsFatA enzyme displayed high catalytic efficiency on oleoyl-ACP and CsFatB acted efficiently on palmitoyl-ACP. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of C. sativa oil was discussed in the light of these results. PMID:25212866

  19. Infectious cDNA clones of four viroids in Coleus blumei and molecular characterization of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongmei; Gao, Rui; Qin, Lv; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui; Hou, Wanying; Li, Shifang

    2014-02-13

    Four viroid species infecting Coleus blumei, named Coleus blumei viroid 1-4 (CbVd-1-CbVd-4), and two tentative new viroid species, named CbVd-5 and CbVd-6, have been characterized, for two of which (CbVd-5 and CbVd-6, first reported in 2009), there is no established bioassay. Here, infectious clones were used as inoculums sources and the biological properties of CbVd-1, -3, -5 and -6 were assessed. When dimeric CbVd (+) RNAs synthesized in vitro were bioassayed, the first detection time for the four CbVds was different, ranging from 45 to 300 days. In addition, we confirmed that CbVd-5 and CbVd-6 can be transmitted via seeds. Molecular characterization of their progeny from slash-inoculated plants one year after inoculation demonstrated that the genetic diversity of CbVd populations may depend on the infected coleus plants and on the viroid genotype. PMID:24291215

  20. Cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of plastidial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; E.C. 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the first step of glycerolipid assembly within the stroma of the chloroplast. In the present study, the sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.) stromal GPAT was cloned, sequenced and characterized. We identified a single ORF of 1344base pairs that encoded a GPAT sharing strong sequence homology with the plastidial GPAT from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATS1, At1g32200). Gene expression studies showed that the highest transcript levels occurred in green tissues in which chloroplasts are abundant. The corresponding mature protein was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and biochemical characterization. In vitro assays using radiolabelled acyl-ACPs and glycerol-3-phosphate as substrates revealed a strong preference for oleic versus palmitic acid, and weak activity towards stearic acid. The positional fatty acid composition of relevant chloroplast phospholipids from sunflower leaves did not reflect the in vitro GPAT specificity, suggesting a more complex scenario with mixed substrates at different concentrations, competition with other acyl-ACP consuming enzymatic reactions, etc. In summary, this study has confirmed the affinity of this enzyme which would partly explain the resistance to cold temperatures observed in sunflower plants. PMID:25618244

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus. PMID:25174962

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus. PMID:25174962

  3. Identification, cDNA Cloning, and Characterization of Luteinizing Hormone Beta Subunit (lhb) Gene in Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive hormones play a significant role in the gonadal development and gametogenesis process of animals. In the present study luteinizing hormone beta, (lhb) subunit gene was cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. The lhb full-length of cDNA sequence is 629 bp which consists of 43bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) 447bp, ORF(open reading frame) and 139 bp of 3'-UTR respectively. The coding region of lhb gene encoded a peptide of 148 amino acids. The coding sequence of lhb gene consist of a single N-linked glycosylation site (NET) and 12 cysteine knot residues. Phylogenetic analysis of C. catla Lhβ deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with Carassius auratus followed by Gobiocypris rarus. 3D structure Lhβ protein comprises of five β-sheets and six coils/loops. The qPCR results revealed lhb mRNA is mainly expressed in the pituitary, ovary while moderate expression was observed in brain and testis. To best our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification, molecular characterization and structural information regarding luteinizing hormone in Indian major carp. PMID:26980432

  4. Cloning, functional expression and partial characterization of the glucose kinase from Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    Concha, M I; León, G

    2000-05-01

    The complete glcK gene from the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum, encoding a glucose kinase, was analyzed and expressed. The partial characterization of the recombinant enzyme confirmed that it belongs to a group of glucose kinases involved in carbon catabolite repression. Multiple sequence alignments were used to deduce a new consensus sequence for this family of bacterial proteins, characterized by several conserved Cys residues. This sequence was more specific and allowed the detection of the first eukaryotic protein of this family. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and the substrates protected the enzyme from this inhibition, suggesting the presence of Cys residues in or close to the active site. PMID:10779719

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of the pgm gene encoding phosphoglucomutase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, M; Kleckner, N

    1994-01-01

    We report here the identification and characterization of pgm, a gene in Escherichia coli that encodes the enzyme phosphoglucomutase, specifically required for the catalysis of the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. The predicted amino acid sequence of the pgm gene is highly conserved in E. coli, Acetobacter xylinum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rabbits, and humans. pgm deletion mutant strains are deficient in phosphoglucomutase activity. Images PMID:8083177

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, Pierre; Giros, Bruno; Martres, Marie-Pascale; Bouthenet, Marie-Louise; Schwartz, Jean-Charles

    1990-09-01

    A dopamine receptor has been characterized which differs in its pharmacology and signalling system from the D1 or D2 receptor and represents both an autoreceptor and a postsynaptic receptor. The D3 receptor is localized to limbic areas of the brain, which are associated with cognitive, emotional and endocrine functions. It seems to mediate some of the effects of antipsychotic drugs and drugs used against Parkinson's disease, that were previously thought to interact only with D2 receptors.

  7. Identification and characterization of CTX-M-15 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST101 in a Hungarian university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Melegh, Szilvia; Schneider, György; Horváth, Marianna; Jakab, Ferenc; Emődy, Levente; Tigyi, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates derived from the teaching hospitals of University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary in the time period 2004-2008. Molecular typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of common β-lactamase genes (bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)) and virulence associated traits (hypermucoviscosity, magA, k2a, rmpA, siderophores, type 1 and 3 fimbria, biofilm formation, serum resistance) were performed for 102 isolates. The results showed the presence of three major ciprofloxacin resistant CTX-M-15 producing clones (ST15 n = 69, ST101 n = 10, and ST147 n = 9), of which ST15 was predominant and universally widespread. Considering distribution in time and place, ST101 and ST147 were detected at fewer inpatient units and within a narrower time frame, as compared to ST15. Beside major clones, eleven minor clones were identified, and were shown to harbour the following β-lactamase genes: six clones carried bla(CTX-M), four clones harboured bla(SHV-5) and one clone possessed both bla(CTX-M) and ESBL type bla(SHV). Among the SHV-5 producing K. pneumoniae clones a novel sequence type was found, namely ST1193, which harboured a unique infB allele. Different virulence factor content and peculiar antimicrobial susceptibility profile were characteristic for each clone. In contrast to major clone isolates, which showed high level resistance to ciprofloxacin, minor clone isolates displayed significantly lower MIC values for ciprofloxacin suggesting a role for fluoroquinolones in the dissemination of the major K. pneumoniae clones. This is the first description of the CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae clone ST101 in Hungary. PMID:26551567

  8. Why Clone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How might cloning be used in medicine? Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers learn about human disease comes from studying animal models such as mice. Often, animal models are ...

  9. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  10. Cloning, expression and characterization of the proteinase from human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Tigue, N J; Matharu, P J; Roberts, N A; Mills, J S; Kay, J; Jupp, R

    1996-01-01

    After the U53 gene encoding the proteinase from human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was sequenced, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the activity of the purified, recombinant HHV-6 proteinase was characterized quantitatively by using synthetic peptide substrates mimicking the release and maturation cleavage sites in the polyprotein precursors of HHV-6, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), murine CMV, and Epstein-Barr virus. Despite sharing 40% identity with other betaherpesvirus proteinases such as human CMV proteinase, the one-chain HHV-6 enzyme was distinguished from these two-chain proteinases by the absence of an internal autocatalytic cleavage site. PMID:8648756

  11. Cloning, characterization and sub-cellular localization of gamma subunit of T-complex protein-1 (chaperonin) from Leishmania donovani

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskar,; Kumari, Neeti; Goyal, Neena

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study presents cloning and characterization of TCP1{gamma} gene from L. donovani. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCP1{gamma} is a subunit of T-complex protein-1 (TCP1), a chaperonin class of protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LdTCP{gamma} exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LdTCP{gamma} co-localized with actin, a cytoskeleton protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The data suggests that this gene may have a role in differentiation/biogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on this chapronin in Leishmania. -- Abstract: T-complex protein-1 (TCP1) complex, a chaperonin class of protein, ubiquitous in all genera of life, is involved in intracellular assembly and folding of various proteins. The gamma subunit of TCP1 complex (TCP1{gamma}), plays a pivotal role in the folding and assembly of cytoskeleton protein(s) as an individual or complexed with other subunits. Here, we report for the first time cloning, characterization and expression of the TCP1{gamma} of Leishmania donovani (LdTCP1{gamma}), the causative agent of Indian Kala-azar. Primary sequence analysis of LdTCP1{gamma} revealed the presence of all the characteristic features of TCP1{gamma}. However, leishmanial TCP1{gamma} represents a distinct kinetoplastid group, clustered in a separate branch of the phylogenic tree. LdTCP1{gamma} exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. The non-dividing stationary phase promastigotes exhibited 2.5-fold less expression of LdTCP1{gamma} as compared to rapidly dividing log phase parasites. The sub-cellular distribution of LdTCP1{gamma} was studied in log phase promastigotes by employing indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The protein was present not only in cytoplasm but it was also localized in nucleus, peri-nuclear region, flagella, flagellar pocket and apical region. Co-localization of LdTCP1{gamma} with actin suggests

  12. NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Two Paralogs from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satiander; Lattoo, Surrinder K.; Dhar, Niha; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a highly reputed medicinal plant, synthesizes a large array of steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Although its chemical profile and pharmacological activities have been studied extensively during the last two decades, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. Cytochrome P450 reductase is the most imperative redox partner of multiple P450s involved in primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We describe here the cloning and characterization of two paralogs of cytochrome P450 reductase from W. somnifera. The full length paralogs of WsCPR1 and WsCPR2 have open reading frames of 2058 and 2142 bp encoding 685 and 713 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that grouping of dual CPRs was in accordance with class I and class II of eudicotyledon CPRs. The corresponding coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins, purified and characterized. Recombinant proteins of both the paralogs were purified with their intact membrane anchor regions and it is hitherto unreported for other CPRs which have been purified from microsomal fraction. Southern blot analysis suggested that two divergent isoforms of CPR exist independently in Withania genome. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both genes were widely expressed in leaves, stalks, roots, flowers and berries with higher expression level of WsCPR2 in comparison to WsCPR1. Similar to CPRs of other plant species, WsCPR1 was un-inducible while WsCPR2 transcript level increased in a time-dependent manner after elicitor treatments. High performance liquid chromatography of withanolides extracted from elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in two of the key withanolides, withanolide A and withaferin A, possibly indicating the role of WsCPR2 in withanolide biosynthesis

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of the allatotropin precursor and receptor in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Lismont, Els; Vleugels, Rut; Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Zels, Sven; Tobe, Stephen S.; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Verlinden, Heleen

    2015-01-01

    Allatotropins (ATs) are pleiotropic neuropeptides initially isolated from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. In 2008, the first receptor for AT-like peptides (ATR) was characterized in Bombyx mori. Since then, ATRs have also been characterized in M. sexta, Tribolium castaneum, Aedes aegypti and Bombus terrestris. These receptors show sequence similarity to vertebrate orexin (ORX) receptors. When generating an EST-database of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) central nervous system, we found cDNA sequences encoding the Schgr-AT precursor and a fragment of its putative receptor. This receptor cDNA has now been completed and functionally expressed in mammalian cell lines. Activation of this receptor, designated as Schgr-ATR, by Schgr-AT caused an increase in intracellular calcium ions, as well as cyclic AMP (cAMP), with an EC50 value in the nanomolar range. In addition, the transcript distribution of both the Schgr-AT precursor and Schgr-ATR was investigated by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, we found more evidence for the myotropic and allatostimulatory actions of Schgr-AT in the desert locust. These data are discussed and situated in a broader context by comparison with literature data on AT and ATR in insects. PMID:25814925

  14. Characterization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone and a GFP reporter derivative of the oncolytic picornavirus SVV-001.

    PubMed

    Poirier, John T; Reddy, P Seshidhar; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Li, Shawn S; Stump, Kristine L; Burroughs, Kevin D; Hallenbeck, Paul L; Rudin, Charles M

    2012-12-01

    Seneca Valley virus (SVV-001) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for a subset of human cancers with neuroendocrine differentiation. To characterize further the specificity of SVV-001 and its patterns and kinetics of intratumoral spread, bacterial plasmids encoding a cDNA clone of the full-length wild-type virus and a derivative virus expressing GFP were generated. The full-length cDNA of the SVV-001 RNA genome was cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the control of the T7 core promoter sequence to create an infectious cDNA clone, pNTX-09. A GFP reporter virus cDNA clone, pNTX-11, was then generated by cloning a fusion protein of GFP and the 2A protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus immediately following the native SVV-001 2A sequence. Recombinant GFP-expressing reporter virus, SVV-GFP, was rescued from cells transfected with in vitro RNA transcripts from pNTX-11 and propagated in cell culture. The proliferation kinetics of SVV-001 and SVV-GFP were indistinguishable. The SVV-GFP reporter virus was used to determine that a subpopulation of permissive cells is present in small-cell lung cancer cell lines previously thought to lack permissivity to SVV-001. Finally, it was shown that SVV-GFP administered to tumour-bearing animals homes in to and infects tumours whilst having no detectable tropism for normal mouse tissues at 1×10(11) viral particles kg(-1), a dose equivalent to that administered in ongoing clinical trials. These infectious clones will be of substantial value in further characterizing the biology of this virus and as a backbone for the generation of additional oncolytic derivatives. PMID:22971818

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of 3q21 breakpoints from leukemia-associated t(3;3)(q21;q26)

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, K.; Pekarsky, Y.; Zabarovsky, E.

    1994-09-01

    A variety of rearrangements of 3q21, including deletion, translocation with 3q26 and other chromosomes, and inversion of 3q21-3q26, have been associated with hematological malignancy. To begin characterization of the 3q21 breakpoint region, the der3q- and der3q+ chromosomes from 2 separate leukemia patients carrying t(3;3)(q21;q26) have been isolated in hybrid cell lines, and the der3q- chromosomes analyzed extensively. In both cases, the 3q26 breakpoints occur between the EAP and EVI1 genes without direct rearrangement of either gene. In 3q21, 2 NotI linking clones have been identified that are physically linked on a 50 kb NotI fragment that spans both 3q21 breakpoints. To characterize this region further, an 80 kb P1 clone containing both NotI clones has been isolated from the Dupont total human P1 library. The breakpoints have been localized within this clone to SacI fragments of 1 kb and 0.8 kb that are separated by 9 kb. This is preliminary evidence suggesting that the 3q21 leukemia breakpoints may be generally more clustered than those within 3q26. Rare restriction site mapping of the P1 clone shows a high density of sites and suggests a GC-rich and therefore potentially gene-rich region. Sequence analysis of the breakpoint fragments has so far yielded no homologies with known genes; however, preliminary analysis around the NotI site 35 kb centromeric to the breakpoints shows homology with several transcription factor genes. Isolation of all genes within the P1 clone is in progress.

  16. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the R locus of maize: Annual progress report for period September 29, 1986-September 28, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Dellaporta, S.L.

    1987-07-01

    Last year we reported on the isolation of a molecular clone of the R locus of maize using an Ac transposon tagging strategy. During the past year we have confirmed the identity of this clone and have begun a molecular analysis of several R alleles. Our main focus continues to be on the analysis of R-r, an allele containing both seed (S) and plant (P) components. Genomic blot analysis and gene cloning experiments suggest that the R-r allele may be organized as a triplication. In addition to (P) and (S), there appears to be a third cryptic component we refer to as (Q). We are attempting to clone the complete R-r allele by chromosome walking techniques to determine the molecular organization of R-r. The second objective of our research on R is to understand the mechanism of tissue-specific regulation of anthocyanin. We are characterizing several R alleles that condition different pigmentation patterns in plant and seed tissues. In order to determine the allelic differences among tissue-specific components we have obtained genomic clones and are performing DNA sequence analysis to regions of several tissue-specific components that may be responsible for these allelic differences. 1 ref.

  17. Cloning and characterization of peanut allene oxide cyclase gene involved in salt-stressed responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Wang, Y G; Wang, S P; Li, H J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the full-length cDNA encoding allene oxide cyclase (AhAOC) was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The deduced amino acid sequence of AhAOC showed high homology with other plant AOCs. The transcript of AhAOC was found to be abundantly expressed in roots. Expression analysis demonstrated that AhAOC was induced by abscisic acid, methyl-jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, salinity, polyethylene glycol, and cold stresses, particularly by high salinity. Overexpression of AhAOC in rice increased root elongation and plant height compared with expression in control plants and conferred tolerance against salinity. Thus, the AhAOC gene may play an important role in increasing the expression of transcription factors (MYB2 and OsONAC045) and functional genes (DREB1F and LEA3) in transgenic rice under salt stress as well as improve stress tolerance through the accumulation of compatible solutes (proline and soluble sugar). The AhAOC gene is a potential resource for enhancing salt tolerance in crop species. PMID:25867379

  18. Isolation, partial characterization, and cloning of an extracellular chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Xie, L Q; Li, J T; Sun, X H; Zhang, H; Du, Q; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S H; Pan, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii is a well-known biocontrol agent of fungal phytopathogens, as well as insect pests. A 42-kDa chitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycosyl hydrolases was isolated and partially characterized. Chitinase was purified using successive column chromatography on phenyl-sepharose, DEAE-sepharose, and CM-sepharose. The enzyme showed the highest activity at 40°C and pH 4.6. Enzyme activity was strongly activated in the presence of Mg(2+). The purified enzyme showed inhibitory activity of spore germination against several plant pathogens, particularly Fusarium moniliforme. The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were resolved by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Protein modeling and comparative investigation of different chitinase amino acids showed that chitinases are conserved in parasitic fungi. PMID:25867374

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-12-20

    Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. PMID:25447532

  20. Cloning and characterization of the Pichia pastoris MET2 gene as a selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Thor, Der; Xiong, See; Orazem, Claire C; Kwan, An-Chun; Cregg, James M; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2005-07-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a new biosynthetic gene, MET2, from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The predicted product of PpMET2 is significantly similar to its Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart, ScMET2, which encodes homoserine-O-transacetylase. The ScMET2 was able to complement the P. pastoris met2 strain; however, the converse was not true. Expression vectors based on PpMET2 for the intracellular and secreted production of foreign proteins and corresponding auxotrophic strains were constructed and tested for use in heterologous expression. The expression vectors and corresponding strains provide greater flexibility when using P. pastoris for recombinant protein expression. PMID:15996626

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of First Organic Matrix Protein from Sclerites of Red Coral, Corallium rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Debreuil, Julien; Tambutté, Éric; Zoccola, Didier; Deleury, Emeline; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Samson, Michel; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We report here for the first time the isolation and characterization of a protein from the organic matrix (OM) of the sclerites of the alcyonarian, Corallium rubrum. This protein named scleritin is one of the predominant proteins extracted from the EDTA-soluble fraction of the OM. The entire open reading frame (ORF) was obtained by comparing amino acid sequences from de novo mass spectrometry and Edman degradation with an expressed sequence tag library dataset of C. rubrum. Scleritin is a secreted basic phosphorylated protein which exhibits a short amino acid sequence of 135 amino acids and a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. From specific antibodies raised against peptide sequences of scleritin, we obtained immunolabeling of scleroblasts and OM of the sclerites which provides information on the biomineralization pathway in C. rubrum. PMID:22505718

  2. Cloning and characterization of the gene cluster required for beauvericin biosynthesis in Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhuo, Ying; Jia, Xiaopeng; Liu, Jintao; Gao, Hong; Song, Fuhang; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    Beauvericin, a cyclohexadepsipeptide-possessing natural product with synergistic antifungal, insecticidal, and cytotoxic activities. We isolated and characterized the fpBeas gene cluster, devoted to beauvericin biosynthesis, from the filamentous fungus Fusarium proliferatum LF061. Targeted inactivation of the F. proliferatum genomic copy of fpBeas abolished the production of beauvericin. Comparative sequence analysis of the FpBEAS showed 74% similarity with the BbBEAS that synthesizes the cyclic trimeric ester beauvericin in Beauveria bassiana, which assembles N-methyl-dipeptidol monomer intermediates by the programmed iterative use of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules. Differences between the organization of the beauvericin loci in F. proliferaturm and B. bassiana revealed the mechanism for high production of beauvericin in F. proliferatum. Our work provides new insights into beauvericin biosynthesis, and may lead to beauvericin overproduction and creation of new analogs via synthetic biology approaches. PMID:23832252

  3. Genomic cloning and characterization of the rat glutathione S-transferase-A3-subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fotouhi-Ardakani, N; Batist, G

    1999-01-01

    The rat glutathione S-transferase-A3-subunit (GSTA3) gene is a member of the class Alpha GSTs, which we have previously reported to be overexpressed in anti-cancer-drug-resistant cells. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the entire rat GSTA3 (rGST Yc1) subunit gene. The rat GSTA3 subunit gene is approximately 15 kb in length and consists of seven exons interrupted by introns of different lengths. Exon 1, with a length of 219 bp, contains only the 5'-untranslated region of the gene. Each exon-intron splicing junction exhibited the consensus sequence for a mammalian splice site. The transcription start site and exon 1 of rat GSTA3 were characterized by a combination of primer extension and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Position +1 was identified 219 bp upstream of the first exon-intron splicing junction. The proximal promoter region of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene does not contain typical TATA or CAAT boxes. A computer-based search for potential transcription-factor binding sites revealed the existence of a number of motifs such as anti-oxidant-responsive element, ras-response element, activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, cAMP-response-element-binding protein, Barbie box and E box. The functional activity of the regulatory region of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene was shown by its ability to drive the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in rat mammary carcinoma cells, and its activity was greater in melphalan-resistant cells known to have transcriptional activation of this gene by previous studies. The structure of the gene, with a large intron upstream of the translation-initiation site, may explain why the isolation of this promoter has been so elusive. This information will provide the opportunity to examine the involvement of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene in drug resistance and carcinogenesis. PMID:10215608

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tyrosine phosphatase from Monosiga brevicollis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Benjamin F; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe

    2014-10-31

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is thought to be a unique feature of multicellular animals. Interestingly, the genome of the unicellular protist Monosiga brevicollis reveals a surprisingly high number and diversity of protein tyrosine kinases, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), and phosphotyrosine-binding domains. Our study focuses on a hypothetical SH2 domain-containing PTP (SHP), which interestingly has a predicted structure that is distinct from SHPs found in animals. In this study, we isolated cDNA of the enzyme and discovered that its actual sequence was different from the predicted sequence as a result of non-consensus RNA splicing. Contrary to the predicted structure with one SH2 domain and a disrupted phosphatase domain, Monosiga brevicollis SHP (MbSHP) contains two SH2 domains and an intact PTP domain, closely resembling SHP enzymes found in animals. We further expressed the full-length and SH2 domain-truncated forms of the enzyme in Escherichiacoli cells and characterized their enzymatic activities. The double-SH2 domain-truncated form of the enzyme effectively dephosphorylated a common PTP substrate with a specific activity among the highest in characterized PTPs, while the full-length and the N-terminal SH2 domain-truncated forms of the enzyme showed much lower activity with altered pH dependency and responses to ionic strength and common PTP inhibitors. This indicates that SH2 domains suppress the catalytic activity. SHP represents a highly conserved ancient PTP, and studying MbSHP should provide a better understanding about the evolution of tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:25445586

  5. Genomic cloning and characterization of the rat glutathione S-transferase-A3-subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi-Ardakani, N; Batist, G

    1999-05-01

    The rat glutathione S-transferase-A3-subunit (GSTA3) gene is a member of the class Alpha GSTs, which we have previously reported to be overexpressed in anti-cancer-drug-resistant cells. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the entire rat GSTA3 (rGST Yc1) subunit gene. The rat GSTA3 subunit gene is approximately 15 kb in length and consists of seven exons interrupted by introns of different lengths. Exon 1, with a length of 219 bp, contains only the 5'-untranslated region of the gene. Each exon-intron splicing junction exhibited the consensus sequence for a mammalian splice site. The transcription start site and exon 1 of rat GSTA3 were characterized by a combination of primer extension and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Position +1 was identified 219 bp upstream of the first exon-intron splicing junction. The proximal promoter region of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene does not contain typical TATA or CAAT boxes. A computer-based search for potential transcription-factor binding sites revealed the existence of a number of motifs such as anti-oxidant-responsive element, ras-response element, activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, cAMP-response-element-binding protein, Barbie box and E box. The functional activity of the regulatory region of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene was shown by its ability to drive the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in rat mammary carcinoma cells, and its activity was greater in melphalan-resistant cells known to have transcriptional activation of this gene by previous studies. The structure of the gene, with a large intron upstream of the translation-initiation site, may explain why the isolation of this promoter has been so elusive. This information will provide the opportunity to examine the involvement of the rat GSTA3 subunit gene in drug resistance and carcinogenesis. PMID:10215608

  6. Cloning and characterization of an 11S legumin, Car i 4, a major allergen in pecan.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Irsigler, Andre; Dhanarajan, Pushparani; Ayuso, Rosalia; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-09-14

    Among tree nut allergens, pecan allergens remain to be identified and characterized. The objective was to demonstrate the IgE-binding ability of pecan 11S legumin and characterize its sequential IgE-binding epitopes. The 11S legumin gene was amplified from a pecan cDNA library and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The native 11S legumin in pecan extract was identified by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Sequential epitopes were determined by probing the overlapping peptides with three serum pools prepared from different patients' sera. A three-dimensional model was generated using almond legumin as a template and compared with known sequential epitopes on other allergenic tree nut homologues. Of 28 patients tested by dot blot, 16 (57%) bound to 11S legumin, designated Car i 4. MS/MS sequencing of native 11S legumin identified 33 kDa acidic and 20-22 kDa basic subunits. Both pecan and walnut seed protein extracts inhibited IgE binding to recombinant Car i 4, suggesting cross-reactivity with Jug r 4. Sequential epitope mapping results of Car i 4 revealed weak, moderate, and strong reactivity of serum pools against 10, 5, and 4 peptides, respectively. Seven peptides were recognized by all three serum pools, of which two were strongly reactive. The strongly reactive peptides were located in three discrete regions of the Car i 4 acidic subunit sequence (residues 118-132, 208-219, and 238-249). Homology modeling of Car i 4 revealed significant overlapping regions shared in common with other tree nut legumins. PMID:21718052

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of woodchuck retinoic acid-inducible gene I.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi; Liu, Qin; Li, Meng-Meng; Li, Fang-Hui; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Jun-Zhong; Lu, Yin-Ping; Liu, Jia; Wu, Jun; Zheng, Xin; Lu, Meng-Ji; Wang, Bao-Ju; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important innate immune RNA sensor and can induce antiviral cytokines, e.g., interferon-β (IFN-β). Innate immune response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a pivotal role in viral clearance and persistence. However, knowledge of the role that RIG-I plays in HBV infection is limited. The woodchuck is a valuable model for studying HBV infection. To characterize the molecular basis of woodchuck RIG-I (wRIG-I), we analyzed the complete coding sequences (CDSs) of wRIG-I, containing 2778 base pairs that encode 925 amino acids. The deduced wRIG-I protein was 106.847 kD with a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.07, and contained three important functional structures [caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), DExD/H-box helicases, and a repressor domain (RD)]. In woodchuck fibroblastoma cell line (WH12/6), wRIG-I-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) down-regulated RIG-I and its downstrean effector-IFN-β transcripts under RIG-I' ligand, 5'-ppp double stranded RNA (dsRNA) stimulation. We also measured mRNA levels of wRIG-I in different tissues from healthy woodchucks and in the livers from woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)-infected woodchucks. The basal expression levels of wRIG-I were abundant in the kidney and liver. Importantly, wRIG-I was significantly up-regulated in acutely infected woodchuck livers, suggesting that RIG-I might be involved in WHV infection. These results may characterize RIG-I in the woodchuck model, providing a strong basis for further study on RIG-I-mediated innate immunity in HBV infection. PMID:27376800

  8. Localization and Characterization of 170 BAC-derived clones and mapping of Ninety-Four Microsatellites in the Hessian Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-four microsatellites from enriched genomic libraries of Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) were localized to 170 cognate clones in a Hessian fly bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. These microsatellite-positive BAC clones were physically mapped to polytene chromosomes by fl...

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and regulation of two different NADH-glutamate synthase cDNAs in bean nodules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary ammonia assimilation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nodules. Two different types of cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT were isolated from two independent nodule cDNA libraries. The full-length cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGA...

  10. Purification, characterization, and molecular cloning of a novel amine:pyruvate transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis JS17.

    PubMed

    Shin, J-S; Yun, H; Jang, J-W; Park, I; Kim, B-G

    2003-06-01

    A transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis JS17 showing activity toward chiral amines was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic properties were characterized. The transaminase showed an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography and a subunit mass of 50 kDa by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, suggesting a dimeric structure. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5.4 and its absorption spectrum exhibited maxima at 320 and 405 nm. The optimal pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 9.2 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Pyruvate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate increased enzyme stability whereas (S)-alpha-methylbenzylamine reversibly inactivated the enzyme. The transaminase gene was cloned from a V. fluvialis JS17 genomic library. The deduced amino acid sequence (453 residues) showed significant homology with omega-amino acid:pyruvate transaminases (omega-APT) from various bacterial strains (80 identical residues with four omega-APTs). However, of 159 conserved residues in the four omega-APTs, 79 were not conserved in the transaminase from V. fluvialis JS17. Taken together with the sequence homology results, and the lack of activity toward beta-alanine (a typical amino donor for the omega-APT), the results suggest that the transaminase is a novel amine:pyruvate transaminase that has not been reported to date. PMID:12687298

  11. Characterization and gene cloning of a novel serine protease with nematicidal activity from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei-Lei; Liu, Li-Jun; Shi, Mei; Song, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Chang-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2 is a biocontrol fungus with inhibitory ability against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, a crude extract of strain SMF2 in a solid ferment exhibited strong nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita, and a novel serine protease SprT with nematicidal activity was purified from the crude extract. Protease SprT has a molecular mass of 31 kDa, a pH optimum of 8.5, and a temperature optimum of 60-65 degrees C. It had good thermostability, and was stable in an alkaline environment. SprT could degrade bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and gelatin, and its activity was enhanced by many metal ions. The cuticles of nematodes treated by protease SprT obviously crimpled. Purified protease SprT could kill juveniles of M. incognita and inhibit egg hatch, suggesting that it is involved in the nematicidal process of T. pseudokoningii SMF2. The full-length cDNA gene-encoding protease SprT was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence analysis showed that SprT is a monodomain subtilase containing 284 amino acid residues. It had higher identities and a closer relation to the nematicidal serine proteases (59-69%) from nematode parasitic fungi than to the serine proteases (<50%) from Trichoderma. Protease SprT represents the first well-characterized subtilase with nematicidal activity from Trichoderma. PMID:19702879

  12. Characterization of an abaecin-like antimicrobial peptide identified from a Pteromalus puparum cDNA clone.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaojing; Ye, Gongyin; Cheng, Xiongying; Yu, Chunyan; Altosaar, Illimar; Hu, Cui

    2010-09-01

    Abaecin is a major antimicrobial peptide, initially identified from the honeybee. In our effort to discover new antimicrobial peptides from the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum, we identified an antibacterial cDNA clone that codes a fragment with high amino acid sequence similarity to abaecin. The proline-rich peptide (YVPPVQKPHPNGPKFPTFP, named PP30) was chemically synthesized and characterized in this study. Antimicrobial assays indicated that the cationic peptide was active against both Gram-negative and positive bacteria, but not active against fungi tested. No hemolytic activity was observed against human erythrocytes after 1h incubation at concentration of 125 microM or below. The antibacterial activity of PP30 against Escherichia coli was attenuated in the presence of increasing concentrations of NaCl. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination of PP30-treated E. coli cells showed morphological changes in the cells and extensive damage to the cell membranes. The circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies indicated that PP30 formed random coil structures in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 50% TFE and 25 mM SDS solution. Expression analysis of the gene coding for the peptide indicated that its expression was upregulated upon bacterial infection, indicating that the gene may play a role in preventing potential infection by microorganisms during parasitization in Pieris rapae. PMID:20466006

  13. Cloning and characterization of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Reddy, Maryada V; Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram

    2012-08-01

    A human homologue of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein was cloned and characterized from the human filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Sequence analysis showed that W. bancrofti HMGB1 (WbHMGB1) and B. malayi HMGB1 (BmHMGB1) proteins share 99 % sequence identity. Filarial HMGB1 showed typical architectural sequence characteristics of HMGB family of proteins and consisted of only a single HMG box domain that had significant sequence similarity to the pro-inflammatory B box domain of human HMGB1. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages and human promyelocytic leukemia cells, rBmHMGB1 induced secretion of significant levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IL-6. Functional analysis also showed that the filarial HMGB1 proteins can bind to supercoiled DNA similar to other HMG family of proteins. BmHMGB1 protein is expressed in the adult and microfilarial stages of the parasite and is found in the excretory secretions of the live parasites. These findings suggest that filarial HMGB1 may have a significant role in lymphatic pathology associated with lymphatic filariasis. PMID:22402610

  14. A new lipase as a pharmaceutical target for battling infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus: Gene cloning and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Aişe; Tanriseven, Aziz; Sezen, I Yavuz; Çelik, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus lipases along with other cell-wall-associated proteins and enzymes (i.e., catalase, coagulase, protease, hyaluronidase, and β-lactamase) play important roles in the pathogenesis of S. aureus and are important subject of drug targeting. The appearance of antibiotic-resistant types of pathogenic S. aureus (e.g., methicillin-resistant S. aureus, MRSA) is a worldwide medical problem. In the present work, a novel lipase from a newly isolated MRSA strain from a cow with subclinical mastitis was cloned and biochemically characterized. The mature part of the lipase was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. It displays a high lipase activity at pH 8.0 and 25 °C using p-nitrophenyl palmitate and has a preference for medium-long-chain substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters (pNPC10-C16). Furthermore, in search of inhibitors, the effect of farnesol on the growth of S. aureus and the lipase activity was also studied. Farnesol inhibits the growth of S. aureus and is a mixed-type inhibitor with Ki and Ki (') values of 0.2 and 1.2 mmol L(-1), respectively. A lipase with known properties could not only serve as a template for developing inhibitors for S. aureus but also a valuable addition to enzyme toolbox of biocatalysis. The discovery of this lipase can be potentially important and could provide a new target for pharmaceutical intervention against S. aureus infection. PMID:25385356

  15. PhAP protease from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: Gene cloning, recombinant production in E. coli and enzyme characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, D.; Giuliani, M.; De Santi, C.; Bergamasco, N.; Amoresano, A.; Carpentieri, A.; Parrilli, E.; Tutino, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    Cold-adapted proteases have been found to be the dominant activity throughout the cold marine environment, indicating their importance in bacterial acquisition of nitrogen-rich complex organic compounds. However, few extracellular proteases from marine organisms have been characterized so far, and the mechanisms that enable their activity in situ are still largely unknown. Aside from their ecological importance and use as model enzyme for structure/function investigations, cold-active proteolytic enzymes offer great potential for biotechnological applications. Our studies on cold adapted proteases were performed on exo-enzyme produced by the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. By applying a proteomic approach, we identified several proteolytic activities from its culture supernatant. PhAP protease was selected for further investigations. The encoding gene was cloned and the protein was recombinantly produced in E. coli cells. The homogeneous product was biochemically characterised and it turned out that the enzyme is a Zn-dependent aminopeptidase, with an activity dependence from assay temperature typical of psychrophilic enzymes.

  16. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition studies of a γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Viviana; Vullo, Daniela; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2016-02-15

    We have cloned, purified and characterized the γ-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) present in the genome of the Antarctic bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea, which is an obligate psychrophile. The enzyme shows a significant catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction of CO2 hydration to bicarbonate and protons, with the following kinetic parameters: kcat of 6.0×10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/Km of 4.7×10(6)M(-1)×s(-1). This activity was inhibited by the sulfonamide CA inhibitor (CAI) acetazolamide, with a KI of 502nM. A range of anions was also investigated for their inhibitory action against the new enzyme CpsCA. Perchlorate, tetrafluoroborate, fluoride and bromide were not inhibitory, whereas cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, hydrogensulfide, carbonate and bicarbonate showed KIs in the range of 1.4-4.4mM. Diethyldithiocarbamate was a better inhibitor (KI of 0.58mM) whereas sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid were the most effective inhibitors detected, with KIs ranging between 8 and 38μM. The present study may shed some more light regarding the role that γ-CAs play in the life cycle of psychrophilic bacteria as the Antarctic one investigated here. PMID:26778292

  17. Cloning and characterization of two thermo- and salt-tolerant oligoalginate lyases from marine bacterium Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuemei; Li, Shangyong; Wu, Ying; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Two new alginate lyase genes, oalY1 and oalY2, have been cloned from the newly isolated marine bacterium Halomonas sp. QY114 and expressed in Escherichia coli The deduced alginate lyases, OalY1 and OalY2, belonged to polysaccharide lyase (PL) family 17 and showed less than 45% amino acid identity with all of the characterized oligoalginate lyases. OalY1 and OalY2 exhibited the highest activities at 45°C and 50°C, respectively. Both of them showed more than 50% of the highest activity at 60°C, and 20% at 80°C. In addition, they were salt-dependent and salt-tolerant since both of them showed the highest activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and preserved 63% and 68% of activity in the presence of 3 M NaCl. Significantly, OalY1 and OalY2 could degrade both polyM and polyG blocks into alginate monosaccharides in an exo-lytic type, indicating that they are bifunctional alginate lyases. In conclusion, our study indicated that OalY1 and OalY2 are good candidates for alginate saccharification application, and the salt-tolerance may present an exciting new concept for biofuel production from native brown seaweeds. PMID:27030725

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of DXS and DXR Genes in the Terpenoid Biosynthetic Pathway of Tripterygium wilfordii

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yuru; Su, Ping; Zhao, Yujun; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiujuan; Liu, Yujia; Zhang, Xianan; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-01

    1-Deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) genes are the key enzyme genes of terpenoid biosynthesis but still unknown in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Here, three full-length cDNA encoding DXS1, DXS2 and DXR were cloned from suspension cells of T. wilfordii with ORF sizes of 2154 bp (TwDXS1, GenBank accession no.KM879187), 2148 bp (TwDXS2, GenBank accession no.KM879186), 1410 bp (TwDXR, GenBank accession no.KM879185). And, the TwDXS1, TwDXS2 and TwDXR were characterized by color complementation in lycopene accumulating strains of Escherichia coli, which indicated that they encoded functional proteins and promoted lycopene pathway flux. TwDXS1 and TwDXS2 are constitutively expressed in the roots, stems and leaves and the expression level showed an order of roots > stems > leaves. After the suspension cells were induced by methyl jasmonate, the mRNA expression level of TwDXS1, TwDXS2, and TwDXR increased, and triptophenolide was rapidly accumulated to 149.52 µg·g−1, a 5.88-fold increase compared with the control. So the TwDXS1, TwDXS2, and TwDXR could be important genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. PMID:26512659

  19. Cloning and characterization of a Verticillium wilt resistance gene from Gossypium barbadense and functional analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xingfen; Yang, Shuo; Chi, Jina; Zhang, Guiyin; Ma, Zhiying

    2011-11-01

    Verticillium wilt causes enormous loss to yield or quality in many crops. In an effort to help controlling this disease through genetic engineering, we first cloned and characterized a Verticillium wilt resistance gene (GbVe) from cotton (Gossypium barbadense) and analyzed its function in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its nucleotide sequence is 3,819 bp long, with an open reading frame of 3,387 bp, and encoding an 1,128-aa protein precursor. Sequence analysis shows that GbVe produces a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein. It shares identities of 55.9% and 57.4% with tomato Ve1 and Ve2, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the Ve gene expression pattern was different between the resistant and susceptible cultivars. In the resistant Pima90-53, GbVe was quickly induced and reached to a peak at 2 h after inoculation, two-fold higher than that of control. We localized the GbVe-GFP fusion protein to the cytomembrane in onion epidermal cells. By inserting GbVe into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, T(3) transgenic lines were obtained. Compared with the wild-type control, GbVe-overexpressing plants had greater levels of resistance to V. dahliae. This suggests that GbVe is a useful gene for improving the plant resistance against fungal diseases. PMID:21739145

  20. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold‑adapted GDSL family esterase from Photobacterium sp. strain J15.

    PubMed

    Shakiba, Mehrnoush Hadaddzadeh; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Leow, Thean Chor

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding for a novel cold-adapted enzyme from family II of bacterial classification (GDSL family) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Photobacterium sp. strain J15 in an Escherichia coli system, yielding a recombinant 36 kDa J15 GDSL esterase which was purified in two steps with a final yield and purification of 38.6 and 15.3 respectively. Characterization of the biochemical properties showed the J15 GDSL esterase had maximum activity at 20 °C and pH 8.0, was stable at 10 °C for 3 h and retained 50 % of its activity after a 6 h incubation at 10 °C. The enzyme was activated by Tween-20, -60 and Triton-X100 and inhibited by 1 mM Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), while β-mercaptoethanol and Dithiothreitol (DTT) enhanced activity by 4.3 and 5.4 fold respectively. These results showed the J15 GDSL esterase was a novel cold-adapted enzyme from family II of lipolytic enzymes. A structural model constructed using autotransporter EstA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a template revealed the presence of a typical catalytic triad consisting of a serine, aspartate, and histidine which was verified with site directed mutagenesis on active serine. PMID:26475626