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Sample records for characterizing multisegment foot

  1. A wearable system for multi-segment foot kinetics measurement.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Crevoisier, X; Aminian, K

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to design a wearable system for kinetics measurement of multi-segment foot joints in long-distance walking and to investigate its suitability for clinical evaluations. The wearable system consisted of inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes and 3D accelerometers) on toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank, and a plantar pressure insole. After calibration in a laboratory, 10 healthy elderly subjects and 12 patients with ankle osteoarthritis walked 50m twice wearing this system. Using inverse dynamics, 3D forces, moments, and power were calculated in the joint sections among toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank. Compared to those we previously estimated for a one-segment foot model, the sagittal and transverse moments and power in the ankle joint, as measured via multi-segment foot model, showed a normalized RMS difference of less than 11%, 14%, and 13%, respectively, for healthy subjects, and 13%, 15%, and 14%, for patients. Similar to our previous study, the coronal moments were not analyzed. Maxima-minima values of anterior-posterior and vertical force, sagittal moment, and power in shank-hindfoot and hindfoot-forefoot joints were significantly different between patients and healthy subjects. Except for power, the inter-subject repeatability of these parameters was CMC>0.90 for healthy subjects and CMC>0.70 for patients. Repeatability of these parameters was lower for the forefoot-toes joint. The proposed measurement system estimated multi-segment foot joints kinetics with acceptable repeatability but showed difference, compared to those previously estimated for the one-segment foot model. These parameters also could distinguish patients from healthy subjects. Thus, this system is suggested for outcome evaluations of foot treatments. PMID:24657105

  2. Repeatability in the assessment of multi-segment foot kinematics.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Jaspers, Ellen; Atre, Ameya; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-02-01

    A recently published systematic review on 3D multi-segment foot models has illustrated the lack of repeatability studies providing evidence for appropriate clinical decision making. The aim of the current study was to assess the repeatability of the recently published model developed by Leardini et al. [10]. Foot kinematics of six healthy adults were analyzed through a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience and four test sessions. For the majority of the parameters moderate or good repeatability was observed for the within-day and between-day sessions. A trend towards consistently higher within- and between-day variability was observed for the junior compared to the senior clinician. The mean inter-session variability of the relative 3D rotations ranged between 0.9-4.2° and 1.6-5.0° for respectively the senior and junior clinician whereas for the absolute angles this variability increased to respectively 2.0-6.2° and 2.6-7.8°. Mean inter-therapist standard deviations ranged between 2.2° and 6.5° for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.8° and 7.6° for the absolute 3D rotations. The ratio of inter-therapist to inter-trial errors ranged between 1.8 and 5.5 for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.4 and 9.7 for the absolute 3D rotations. Absolute angle representation of the planar angles was found to be more difficult. Observations from the current study indicate that an adequate normative database can be installed in gait laboratories, however, it should be stressed that experience of therapists is important and gait laboratories should therefore be encouraged to put effort in training their clinicians. PMID:22100210

  3. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-07-01

    Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. PMID:22591792

  4. A comparison of multi-segment foot kinematics during level overground and treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Tulchin, Kirsten; Orendurff, Michael; Karol, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Previous work comparing treadmill and overground walking has focused on lower extremity motion and kinetics, with few identified differences. However, a comparison of multi-segment foot kinematics between these conditions has not been previously reported. Sagittal ankle motion using a single rigid body foot model and three-dimensional hindfoot and forefoot kinematics were compared during barefoot, level, overground walking at a self-selected speed and treadmill walking at a similar speed for 20 healthy adults. Slight differences were seen in ankle plantarflexion and hindfoot plantarflexion during first rocker, as well as peak forefoot eversion and abduction, however all changes were less than 3 degrees , and most were within the day-to-day repeatability. These results indicate that foot mechanics as determined using a multi-segment foot model were similar between overground and treadmill walking at similar speeds in healthy adults. Treadmill protocols may provide a controlled method to analyze a patient's ability to adapt to walking at different speeds and surface slopes, which are encountered often during ambulation of daily living. PMID:19854652

  5. Multi-segment foot kinematics after total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis during relatively long-distance gait.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Aminian, K; Crevoisier, X

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) treatments, i.e., ankle arthrodesis (AA) and total ankle replacement (TAR), on the kinematics of multi-segment foot and ankle complex during relatively long-distance gait. Forty-five subjects in four groups (AOA, AA, TAR, and control) were equipped with a wearable system consisting of inertial sensors installed on the tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals. The subjects walked 50-m twice while the system measured the kinematic parameters of their multi-segment foot: the range of motion of joints between tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals in three anatomical planes, and the peaks of angular velocity of these segments in the sagittal plane. These parameters were then compared among the four groups. It was observed that the range of motion and peak of angular velocities generally improved after TAR and were similar to the control subjects. However, unlike AOA and TAR, AA imposed impairments in the range of motion in the coronal plane for both the tibia-calcaneus and tibia-metatarsals joints. In general, the kinematic parameters showed significant correlation with established clinical scales (FFI and AOFAS), which shows their convergent validity. Based on the kinematic parameters of multi-segment foot during 50-m gait, this study showed significant improvements in foot mobility after TAR, but several significant impairments remained after AA. PMID:22763319

  6. Changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics with a heat-mouldable semi-custom foot orthotic device

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semi-custom foot orthoses (SCO) are thought to be a cost-effective alternative to custom-made devices. However, previous biomechanical research involving either custom or SCO has only focused on rearfoot biomechanics. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics during shod walking with and without an SCO. We chose to investigate an SCO device that incorporates a heat-moulding process, to further understand if the moulding process would significantly alter rearfoot, midfoot, or shank kinematics as compared to a no-orthotic condition. We hypothesized the SCO, whether moulded or non-moulded, would reduce peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, arch deformation, and plantar fascia strain as compared to the no-orthoses condition. Methods Twenty participants had retroreflective markers placed on the right limb to represent forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot and shank segments. 3D kinematics were recorded using an 8-camera motion capture system while participants walked on a treadmill. Results Plantar fascia strain was reduced by 34% when participants walked in either the moulded or non-moulded SCO condition compared to no-orthoses. However, there were no significant differences in peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, or medial longitudinal arch angles between any conditions. Conclusions A semi-custom moulded orthotic does not control rearfoot, shank, or arch deformation but does, however, reduce plantar fascia strain compared to walking without an orthoses. Heat-moulding the orthotic device does not have a measurable effect on any biomechanical variables compared to the non-moulded condition. These data may, in part, help explain the clinical efficacy of orthotic devices. PMID:21693032

  7. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  8. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-Foot, Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicated that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was flown to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom s influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  9. Dynamic 3D scanning as a markerless method to calculate multi-segment foot kinematics during stance phase: methodology and first application.

    PubMed

    Van den Herrewegen, Inge; Cuppens, Kris; Broeckx, Mario; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Vander Sloten, Jos; Leardini, Alberto; Peeraer, Louis

    2014-08-22

    Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless dynamic 3D scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface shape instead of distinct landmark points. We propose a 4-segment foot model consisting of the shank (Sha), calcaneus (Cal), metatarsus (Met) and hallux (Hal). These segments are manually selected on a static scan. To track the segments in the dynamic scan, the segments of the static scan are matched on each frame of the dynamic scan using the iterative closest point (ICP) fitting algorithm. Joint rotations are calculated between Sha-Cal, Cal-Met, and Met-Hal. Due to the lower quality scans at heel strike and toe off, the first and last 10% of the stance phase is excluded. The application of the method to 5 healthy subjects, 6 trials each, shows a good repeatability (intra-subject standard deviations between 1° and 2.5°) for Sha-Cal and Cal-Met joints, and inferior results for the Met-Hal joint (>3°). The repeatability seems to be subject-dependent. For the validation, a qualitative comparison with joint kinematics from a corresponding established marker-based multi-segment foot model is made. This shows very consistent patterns of rotation. The ease of subject preparation and also the effective and easy to interpret visual output, make the present technique very attractive for functional analysis of the foot, enhancing usability in clinical practice. PMID:24998032

  10. Electroplating and magnetostructural characterization of multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowires from single electrochemical bath in anodic alumina templates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly hexagonally ordered hard anodic aluminum oxide membranes, which have been modified by a thin cover layer of SiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition method, were used as templates for the synthesis of electrodeposited magnetic Co-Ni nanowire arrays having diameters of around 180 to 200 nm and made of tens of segments with alternating compositions of Co54Ni46 and Co85Ni15. Each Co-Ni single segment has a mean length of around 290 nm for the Co54Ni46 alloy, whereas the length of the Co85Ni15 segments was around 430 nm. The composition and crystalline structure of each Co-Ni nanowire segment were determined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The employed single-bath electrochemical nanowire growth method allows for tuning both the composition and crystalline structure of each individual Co-Ni segment. The room temperature magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Co-Ni nanowire arrays is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. PMID:23735184

  11. Multisegmented ion chamber for CT scanner dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.M.; Cacak, R.K.; Hendee, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A multisegmented, ionization chamber capable of determining dosimetric profiles from a CT scanner has been developed and tested. The chamber consists of a number of 2 mm wide electrically isolated segments from which ionization currents may be measured. Presented here are the performance characteristics of the chamber including energy response, dose linearity, and corrections for ''cross talk'' between segments. Sample dosimetric profiles are depicted for 3 and 6 mm nominal beam widths at two locations in a dosimetric phantom positioned in the x-ray beam of a fourth generation CT scanner. The results agree well with the conventional method of obtaining dosimetry measurements with TLD chips.

  12. Implementation of Joint Multi-Segment Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Marc; Smith, Wyatt; Bugrova, Skella; Silkov, Sergei

    2000-01-01

    The highest level of training for ISS flight is Joint Multi-Segment Training (JMST) simulations. These simulations allow two or more partners to conduct multi-segment training for their respective Mission Control Centers (MCC), include actual crew members, and usually include training facilities in each of the participating International Partner (IP) locations. It is the dress rehearsal for those events that exercise the interface between different IP modules and/or the decision making process between the different MCCs involved. This presentation will describe the challenge of successfully implementing JMST. It will start with a brief overview of who is involved, where they are located, and when JMSTs are required. Finally, it will illustrate many of the complications involved in just running a JMST between MCC-M and MCC-H. The viewer will leave with a much better appreciation for the complexities involved in successfully conducting a JMST of this nature, as well as an idea of how the picture will change as the other partners and payloads become involved.

  13. Electrochemical template synthesis of multisegment nanowires: fabrication and protein functionalization.

    PubMed

    Wildt, Bridget; Mali, Prashant; Searson, Peter C

    2006-12-01

    Multisegment nanowires represent a unique platform for engineering multifunctional nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. For example, the optical and magnetic properties of nanowires can be tailored by modifying the size, shape, and composition of each segment. Similarly, surface modification can be used to tailor chemical and biological properties. In this article, we report on recent work on electrochemical template synthesis of nanogap electrodes, the fabrication of multisegment nanowires with embedded catalysts, and the selective functionalization of multisegment nanowires with proteins. PMID:17129026

  14. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  15. Clinical-pathological characterization of diabetic foot infections: grading the severity of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The present study has 3 aims: (a) to characterize the clinical and pathological features of diabetic foot infections, (b) to show the range of clinical presentations of moderate infections, and (c) to analyze the different behavior of diabetic foot osteomyelitis regarding to its clinical presentation. A definitive diagnosis of the type of infection was made based on intraoperative findings and histopathology. Diabetic foot infections were classified into 2 types: soft tissue and bone infections. Mild infections were always superficial. Severe infections included 75% of necrotizing soft tissue infections. Moderate infections showed ample range of clinical presentations. Eighty-one patients presented osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis was further classified as follows: osteomyelitis without ischemia and without soft tissue involvement (class 1), osteomyelitis with ischemia without soft tissue involvement (class 2), osteomyelitis with soft tissue involvement (class 3), and osteomyelitis with ischemia and soft tissue involvement (class 4). Forty-eight patients (59.3%) with osteomyelitis underwent conservative surgery, 32 (39.5%) had minor amputations including 9 open transmetatarsal amputations, and there was 1 (1.2%) major amputation. The characterization of osteomyelitis into 4 classes showed a statistically significant trend toward increased severity and increased amputation rate and mortality. In conclusion, the clinical presentation of foot infections in diabetic patients is very heterogeneous and can be classified into soft tissue infections (cellulitis, superficial and deep abscesses, and necrotizing soft tissue infections) and osteomyelitis, which was the most frequent type of infection found in the author's series. Their division into 4 classes showed a statistically significant trend toward increased severity, amputation rate, and mortality. The diagnosis of deep soft tissue infections associated with osteomyelitis may be difficult to achieve before surgery. PMID

  16. Characterization and Expression Analysis of MicroRNAs in the Tube Foot of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNA with average length of 22 nucleotides, participating in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by next generation sequencing with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Through the bioinformatic analysis, we identified 260 conserved miRNAs and six novel miRNAs from the tube foot small RNA transcriptome. Quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to characterize the specific expression in the tube foot. The results indicated that four miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-2005 and miR-278-3p, were significantly up-regulated in the tube foot. The target genes of the four specifically expressed miRNAs were predicted in silico and validated by performing qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses with the target genes of these four miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the tube foot. This is the first study to profile the miRNA transcriptome of the tube foot in sea cucumber. This work will provide valuable genomic resources to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation in the tube foot, and will be useful to assist the molecular breeding in sea cucumber. PMID:25372871

  17. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reginald B.; Spanos, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper explores typical robot design issues related to the multisegment robot concept developed by Spanos and Berka (1993) for space-based construction operations. Attention is given to the design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype multisegment robot. Experimental results of motion tests are presented and compared with analytical predictions, showing good agreement.

  18. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Feet » Foot Health Information Surgery When is Foot Surgery Necessary? Many foot problems do not respond ... restore the function of your foot. Types of Foot Surgery Fusions: Fusions are usually performed to treat ...

  19. Moment-Balanced Characteristic Earthquake Model Rates For Multi-Segment Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxall, B.

    2001-12-01

    Characterization of a multi-segment faults for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis requires definition of alternative rupture scenarios that involve different combinations of contiguous fault segments. In general, there are n(n+1)/2 possible rupture sources for a fault with n segments: for example, three rupture sources are possible for a fault having two segments, A and B -- A or B rupturing alone and A+B rupturing together. We have developed a flexible general algorithm for computing earthquake occurrence rates on multi-segment faults according to a generalized form of the characteristic earthquake magnitude-frequency relationship of Youngs and Coppersmith (BSSA, 1985), given estimates of the probabilities of failure of the segmentation barriers along the fault. The computed rates conserve the seismic moment-rate budget for the fault constrained by the geologic slip rates on the individual segments and the segment rupture areas. We have incorporated the algorithm in a Monte Carlo routine for hazard calculation in which the input fault parameters, including the segmentation barrier failure probabilities, are selected from distributions, allowing the often large uncertainties in fault parameters to be propagated through the hazard calculation to provide rigorous estimates of the hazard uncertainty bounds. We explore the sensitivity of the rate and hazard calculations to variations in the input parameters, and in particular to the subjectively assigned probabilities of segmentation barrier failure. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  20. Characterization of Malassezia microbiota in the human external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Makimura, Koichi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Sugita, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Of the fungal skin microbiota, the lipophilic yeast genus Malassezia predominates at all body sites. Of the members of this genus, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis are the most common on the face, limbs, and trunk. In the present study, the Malassezia microbiotas in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot were characterized. M. slooffiae was the most common species in both the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot, followed by M. restricta. Principal component analysis further revealed that the Malassezia microbiota in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot constitute a different cluster from those on the scalp and cheek and in the nasal cavity. Additionally, five new Malassezia phylotypes were detected on the sole of the foot and in the external auditory canal. Our results suggest that a distinctive Malassezia microbiota is present in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot, although the clinical significance of this finding remains unknown. PMID:22500932

  1. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a type SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. R.; Rowe, C. A.; Butcher, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the first to describe characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a South African Territories 2 (SAT 2) foot-and-mouth disease virus (isolate Rho 1/48). Twelve MAbs which neutralized homologous virus were characterized in indirect and sandwich ELISA using purified Rho 1/48 virus particles, subunits, trypsin-treated, and chemically denatured virus. All the MAbs inhibited haemagglutination by parental virus. Binding of the MAbs to 73 SAT 2 field isolates was measured in a sandwich ELISA and defined four distinct antigenic regions. Preliminary characterization of escape mutants selected with some of the MAbs using virus neutralization tests, ELISA, and amino acid sequencing is included. MAbs 2, 25, 40, 48 and 64, reacted with a linear epitope on the VP1 loop region. An amino acid change at position 149 (valine to glutamic acid) was detected in mutants selected by MAb 2 and 40 and this eliminated binding and neutralization by all the other MAb. This epitope was conformation-dependent and was conserved in all 73 isolates of SAT 2 examined. Escape mutants isolated with MAb 41 and 44, had changes at positions 156 (glycine to aspartic acid), or 158 (serine to leucine) respectively. These MAbs bound with Rho 1/48 only out of 73 field strain viruses studies and the reactions of MAbs from the other groups was unaltered. MAb 27, 28 and 37 reacted with a conformation-dependent epitope on VP1 which was not conserved in field isolates. All mutants selected by these MAbs had a single amino acid substitution at position 149 (valine to alanine). The same change was always found in field isolates which did not bind MAbs from this group. MAb 11 reacted with a linear epitope associated with amino acids 147 or 148 on VP1 and showed similar binding characteristics to a conformation dependent MAb 7, no amino acid residue changes were found within VP1 for monoclonal antibody 7 mutants. PMID:7691630

  3. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Athlete's Foot What is Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus, ... fungus growth. Not all fungus conditions are athlete's foot. Other conditions, such as disturbances of the sweat ...

  4. Multisegment Kinematics of the Spinal Column: Soft Tissue Artifacts Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mahallati, Sara; Rouhani, Hossein; Preuss, Richard; Masani, Kei; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-07-01

    A major challenge in the assessment of intersegmental spinal column angles during trunk motion is the inherent error in recording the movement of bony anatomical landmarks caused by soft tissue artifacts (STAs). This study aims to perform an uncertainty analysis and estimate the typical errors induced by STA into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model during trunk bending in different directions by modeling the relative displacement between skin-mounted markers and actual bony landmarks during trunk bending. First, we modeled the maximum displacement of markers relative to the bony landmarks with a multivariate Gaussian distribution. In order to estimate the distribution parameters, we measured these relative displacements on five subjects at maximum trunk bending posture. Then, in order to model the error depending on trunk bending angle, we assumed that the error grows linearly as a function of the bending angle. Second, we applied our error model to the trunk motion measurement of 11 subjects to estimate the corrected trajectories of the bony landmarks and investigate the errors induced into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model. For this purpose, the trunk was modeled as a seven-segment rigid-body system described using 23 reflective markers placed on various bony landmarks of the spinal column. Eleven seated subjects performed trunk bending in five directions and the three-dimensional (3D) intersegmental angles during trunk bending were calculated before and after error correction. While STA minimally affected the intersegmental angles in the sagittal plane (<16%), it considerably corrupted the intersegmental angles in the coronal (error ranged from 59% to 551%) and transverse (up to 161%) planes. Therefore, we recommend using the proposed error suppression technique for STA-induced error compensation as a tool to achieve more accurate spinal column kinematics measurements. Particularly, for intersegmental

  5. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot is the most common type of tinea infection. The fungus or yeast thrives in warm, ...

  6. Foot Drop

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

  7. Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... toenails straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall ... disease, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Good foot care and regular foot checks are an important ...

  8. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot occurs when a certain fungus or yeast grows on the skin of your feet. The same fungus ...

  9. Characterization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function following foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that remains a global threat to livestock species. The induction of neutralizing antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this disease. Although these effort...

  10. Controlled assembly of multi-segment nanowires by histidine-tagged peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aijun A.; Lee, Joun; Jenikova, Gabriela; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V.; Chen, Wilfred

    2006-07-01

    A facile technique was demonstrated for the controlled assembly and alignment of multi-segment nanowires using bioengineered polypeptides. An elastin-like-polypeptide (ELP)-based biopolymer consisting of a hexahistine cluster at each end (His6-ELP-His6) was generated and purified by taking advantage of the reversible phase transition property of ELP. The affinity between the His6 domain of biopolymers and the nickel segment of multi-segment nickel/gold/nickel nanowires was exploited for the directed assembly of nanowires onto peptide-functionalized electrode surfaces. The presence of the ferromagnetic nickel segments on the nanowires allowed the control of directionality by an external magnetic field. Using this method, the directed assembly and positioning of multi-segment nanowires across two microfabricated nickel electrodes in a controlled manner was accomplished with the expected ohmic contact.

  11. Effect Of Interaction On Apertures Of Multisegmented Natural Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Y.; Germanovich, L. N.; Vermilye, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Echelons of multisegmented fluid-driven natural fractures (such as dikes, veins, and sometimes joints) with consecutive overlapping are one of the most common types of structures in the Earth­_s crust. The mechanical behavior of these fractures is quite different from that of single fractures, because of the interaction between the segments. In this work we compute the apertures of a highly segmented calcite vein, with 71 segments, in siltstone (Culpeper Quarry, Virginia) described by Vermilye and Scholz [1995]. The effect of elastic interaction between the segments is considered at three different special scales and accurately evaluated by solving the corresponding system of singular integral equations. For comparison, the case of ignored interaction is also considered. Our results unambiguously suggest that the effect of interaction highly affects the vein apertures. By using two net pressures in the vein as fitting parameters, it is possible to obtain an excellent match of the computed and measured apertures (based on 3,000 data points). This indicates two episodes in the history of vein evolution. Based on the performed simulation, a concept of effective fracture (vein) has been suggested. This is a single fracture of the same overall size (length) as the real vein. It is also pressurized by two net pressures that are determined by fitting the field data. As a result, practically the same net pressures are obtained as by accounting for the full interaction between the vein segments. The concept of effective fracture allows the sufficiently accurate computation of the vein (fracture) apertures, but without considering the interaction between the multiple segments.

  12. Characterization of Legionella pneumophila Isolated from Environmental Water and Ashiyu Foot Spa

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masato; Nakamoto, Masaya; Kimura, Yui; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs are the most common infectious source of Legionella pneumophila in Japan. However, little is known about the association between L. pneumophila and environmental waters other than hot springs. In this study, water samples from 22 environmental water sites were surveyed; of the 22 samples, five were L. pneumophila positive (23%). L. pneumophila was mainly isolated from ashiyu foot spas, a type of hot spring for the feet (3/8, 38%). These isolates had genetic loci or genes that encoded the virulence factors of L. pneumophila. Moreover, these isolates showed higher intracellular growth and stronger cytotoxicity compared with the reference strain. These results suggest that ashiyu foot spa can be the original source for L. pneumophila infection. PMID:23956987

  13. Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foot and take an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicine to relieve pain. See your doctor if ... foot. Use ice and an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicine. See your doctor if the pain doesn' ...

  14. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  15. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  16. Characterization of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen, China, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Zhou, Yuanping; Lu, Hong; Yang, Hong; Feng, Qianjin; Dai, Yingchun; Chen, Long; Yu, Shouyi; Yao, Xiangjie; Zhang, Hailong; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Yujie; Han, Ning; Hu, Guifang; He, Yaqing

    2015-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by human enteroviruses, especially by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). Patients infected with different enteroviruses show varied clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD changed, and the association between pathogens and clinical features. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 2,299 stool or rectal specimens were collected with corresponding patient data. A dynamic view of the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD in Shenzhen city of China was provided. EV71 accounted for the majority proportion of severe HFMD cases and fatalities during 2009-2013. CA16 and EV71 were gradually replaced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) as the most common serotype for mild HFMD since 2010. Myoclonic jerk and vomiting were the most frequent severe symptoms. Nervous system complications, including aseptic encephalitis and aseptic meningitis were observed mainly in patients infected by EV71. Among EV71, CA16, CA6, and CA10 infection, fever and pharyngalgia were more likely to develop, vesicles on the hand, foot, elbow, knee and buttock were less likely to develop in patients infected with CA10. Vesicles on the mouth more frequently occurred in the patients with CA6, but less in the patient with EV71. Associations between diverse enterovirus serotypes and various clinical features were discovered in the present study, which may offer further insight into early detection, diagnosis and treatment of HFMD. PMID:25951788

  17. Evaluating the Cavus Foot.

    PubMed

    Eleswarapu, Ananth S; Yamini, Bakhtiar; Bielski, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    The cavus foot is a deformity characterized by abnormal elevation of the medial arch of the foot. Unique among foot deformities, cavus typically occurs secondary to a spinal cord or neuromuscular pathology, with two-thirds of patients having an underlying neurologic diagnosis. Thus, recognition of cavus foot and appropriate evaluation are essential in the primary care setting. Patients may present with unstable gait, frequent ankle sprains, or pain along the metatarsal heads or the lateral border of the foot. The diagnosis can be confirmed with a lateral weight-bearing radiograph, with several key measurements defining a pes cavus alignment. A thorough history and physical examination should be performed to look for possible secondary causes. The first step in the treatment of cavus deformity is to address the underlying cause. After that, a variety of treatment options are available to alleviate the pain and dysfunction caused by this deformity. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(6):e218-e222.]. PMID:27294497

  18. Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  19. Molecular Characterization of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Containing a 57-Nucleotide Insertion in the 3' Untranslated Region (3'UTR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) virus containing a 57 nt insertion in the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) was generated by a transposon (tn) mediated mutagenesis. Characterization of the mutant virus (A24-3’UTR8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency and...

  20. Evaluation of multi-segmental kinematic modelling in the paediatric foot using three concurrent foot models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various foot models are used in the analysis of foot motion during gait and selection of the appropriate model can be difficult. The clinical utility of a model is dependent on the repeatability of the data as well as an understanding of the expected error in the process of data collection. Kinematic assessment of the paediatric foot is challenging and little is reported about multi-segment foot models in this population. The aim of this study was to examine three foot models and establish their concurrent test-retest repeatability in evaluation of paediatric foot motion during gait. Methods 3DFoot, Kinfoot and the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) were applied concurrently to the right foot and lower limb of 14 children on two testing sessions. Angular data for foot segments were extracted at gait cycle events and peaks and compared between sessions by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Results All foot models demonstrated moderate repeatability: OFM (ICC 0.55, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.77), 3DFoot (ICC 0.47, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.64) and Kinfoot (ICC 0.43, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.59). On the basis of a cut-off of 5°, acceptable mean error over repeated sessions was observed for OFM (SEM 4.61° ± 2.86°) and 3DFoot (SEM 3.88° ± 2.18°) but not for Kinfoot (SEM 5.08° ± 1.53°). Reliability of segmental kinematics varied, with low repeatability (ICC < 0.4) found for 14.3% of OFM angles, 22.7% of 3DFoot angles and 37.6% of Kinfoot angles. SEM greater than 5° was found in 26.2% of OFM, 15.2% of 3DFoot, and 43.8% of Kinfoot segmental angles. Conclusion Findings from this work have demonstrated that segmental foot kinematics are repeatable in the paediatric foot but the level of repeatability and error varies across the segments of the different models. Information on repeatability and test-retest errors of three-dimensional foot models can better inform clinical assessment and

  1. Characterization of the Test Section Walls at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Charles B.; Graves, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    The test section walls of the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are known to move under thermal and pressure loads. Videogrammetry was used to measure wall motion during the summer of 2002. In addition, a laser distancemeter was used to measure the relative distance between the test section walls at a single point. Distancemeter and videogrammetry results were consistent. Data were analyzed as a function of temperature and pressure to determine their effects on wall motion. Data were collected between 50 and 100 F, 0 and 0.315 Mach, and dynamic pressures of 0 and 120 psf. The overall motion of each wall was found to be less than 0.25 in. and less than facility personnel anticipated. The results show how motion depends on the temperature and pressure inside the test section as well is the position of the boundary layer vane. The repeatability of the measurements was +/-0.06 in. This report describes the methods used to record the motion of the test section walls and the results of the data analysis. Future facility plans include the development of a suitable wall restraint system and the determination of the effects of the wall motion on tunnel calibration.

  2. De novo assembly and characterization of foot transcriptome and microsatellite marker development for Paphia textile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Li, Jiakai; Xiao, Shijun; Liu, Xiande

    2016-01-15

    Paphia textile is an important, aquaculture bivalve clam species distributed mainly in China, Philippines, and Malaysia. Recent studies of P. textile have focused mainly on artificial breeding and nutrition analysis, and the transcriptome and genome of P. textile have rarely been reported. In this work, the transcriptome of P. textile foot tissue was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. A total of 20,219,795 reads were generated, resulting in 4.08 Gb of raw data. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 54,852 unigenes with an N50 length of 829 bp. Of these unigenes, 38.92% were successfully annotated based on their matches to sequences in seven public databases. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,571 were assigned Gene Ontology terms, 5448 were classified to Clusters of Orthologous Groups categories, and 6738 were mapped to 228 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. For functional marker development, 5605 candidate simple sequence repeats were identified in the transcriptome and 80 primer pairs were selected randomly and amplified in a wild population of P. textile. A total of 36 loci that exhibited obvious repeat length polymorphisms were detected. The transcriptomic data and microsatellite markers will provide valuable resources for future functional gene analyses, genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci mapping in P. textile. PMID:26546834

  3. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). PMID:24594151

  4. The foot of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H.; Throckmorton, Z.; Congdon, K. A.; Zipfel, B.; Deane, A. S.; Drapeau, M. S. M.; Churchill, S. E.; Berger, L. R.; DeSilva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  5. The foot of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Throckmorton, Z; Congdon, K A; Zipfel, B; Deane, A S; Drapeau, M S M; Churchill, S E; Berger, L R; DeSilva, J M

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  6. Magnetic properties of multisegmented cylindrical nanoparticles with alternating magnetic wire and tube segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Aravena, D.; Corona, R. M.; Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K.; Escrig, J.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic properties in multisegmented cylindrical nanostructures comprised of nanowire and nanotube segments are investigated numerically as a function of their geometry. In this work we report systematic changes in the coercivity and remanence in these systems. Besides, we have found the ideal conditions for a magnetic configuration with two antiparallel domains that could be used to help to stabilize magnetic nanoparticles inside ferromagnetic multisegmented cylindrical nanoparticles. This magnetic behavior is due to the fact that the tube segment reverses its magnetization before the wire segment, allowing the control of the magnetic domain walls motion between two segments. In this way, these magnetic nanoobjects can be an alternative to store information or even perform logic functions.

  7. Development of a multisegment coal mill model using an evolutionary computation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.L.; Wang, J.; Wu, Q.H.

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a multisegment coal mill model that covers the whole milling process from mill startup to shutdown. This multisegment mathematical model is derived through analysis of energy transferring, heat exchange, and mass flow balances. The work presented in the paper focuses on modeling E-type vertical spindle coal mills that are widely used in coal-fired power plants. An evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using the on-site measurement data. The identified parameters are then validated with different sets of online measured data. Validation results indicate that the model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of coal mill dynamics and can be used for prediction of the mill dynamic performance. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  8. Computer-assisted multi-segment gradient optimization in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Eva; Park, Soo Hyun; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R; Desmet, Gert

    2015-02-13

    This study reports simulation and optimization of ion chromatography separations using multi-segment gradient elution. First, an analytical expression for the gradient retention factor under these complex elution profiles was derived. This allows a rapid retention time prediction calculations under different gradient conditions, during computer-assisted method development. Next, these analytical expressions were implemented in an in-house written Matlab(®) routine that searches for the optimal (multi-segment) gradient conditions, either via a four-segment grid search or via the recently proposed one-segment-per-component search, in which the slope is adjusted after the elution of each individual component. Evaluation of the retention time simulation and optimization approaches was performed on a mixture of 18 inorganic anions and different subsets with varying number of compounds. The two considered multi-segment gradient optimization searches resulted in similar proposed gradient profiles, and corresponding chromatograms. Moreover, the resultant chromatograms were clearly superior to the chromatograms obtained from the best simple linear gradient profiles, found via a fine grid search. The proposed approach is useful for automated method development in ion chromatography in which complex elution profiles are often used to increase the separation power. PMID:25596760

  9. Diabetic Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection. You can help avoid foot problems. First, control your blood sugar levels. Good foot hygiene is also crucial: Check your feet every day Wash your feet every day Keep the skin soft and smooth Smooth corns and calluses gently If you can see, reach, ...

  10. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  11. Charcot Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... help prevent recurrence of Charcot foot, development of ulcers, and possibly amputation. In cases with significant deformity, ... instructions for long-term treatment to prevent recurrences, ulcers, and amputation. and or or and or or, ...

  12. Temperature control in wafer-level testing of large multi-segment electromigration test structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamani, Nasser; Lin, Yu-Sang

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes two methods for maintaining a constant metallization temperature throughout a wafer-level isothermal electromigration test of large multisegment test structures where Joule-heating is high and chip to chuck thermal contact is poor. In the first method, an initial calibration of Joule heating versus metal temperature is carried out. During the isothermal electromigration test, the Joule heating is continuously monitored and the chuck temperature is adjusted based on the calibration results to maintain a constant metal temperature. In the second method, temperature sensors are fabricated on the chip and then the sensors are used to monitor the chip temperature directly. The chuck temperature is then adjusted as needed.

  13. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, P. D.; Berka, Reginald B.

    1993-01-01

    A concept of multisegment robot (of a class of large space cranes) is developed for use in space-based construction operations. The robot consists of a collection of segments, which are pinned together to form a snakelike configuration, with a single degree of freedom representing rotation being retained at each pinned connection and with reaction flywheels suspended within each segment for the control necessary to position each body segment. Algorithms are developed for positioning this serpentine robot to a prescribed location and orientation. A multibody dynamics simulation is used to investigate the behavior and interactions of the robot, demonstrating its viability.

  14. Design of multisegmented freeform lens for LED fishing/working lamp with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lai, Min-Feng; Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Gao, Jia-Zhi; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A novel LED fishing/working light is proposed to enhance the lighting efficiency of a fishing boat. The study is focused on the freeform secondary lens design so as to create a lamp that attracts fish and sheds light on the deck for the crew's work. The experimental results show that the proposed multisegmented freeform lens can deliver the proposed aim, giving 3 times as much illuminating power as the traditional high-intensity discharge fishing lamp does with the same input of electrical power. PMID:26479667

  15. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  16. Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also experience foot drop, a weakness of the muscles in the foot and ankle that results in ... and claw toes. The foot is tested for muscle strength, and the patient’s walking pattern and coordination ...

  17. Multi-segment analysis of spinal kinematics during sit-to-stand in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Christe, Guillaume; Redhead, Lucy; Legrand, Thomas; Jolles, Brigitte M; Favre, Julien

    2016-07-01

    While alterations in spinal kinematics have been frequently reported in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), a better characterization of the kinematics during functional activities is needed to improve our understanding and therapeutic solutions for this condition. Recent studies on healthy subjects showed the value of analyzing the spine during sit-to-stand transition (STST) using multi-segment models, suggesting that additional knowledge could be gained by conducting similar assessments in CLBP patients. The objectives of this study were to characterize three dimensional kinematics at the lower lumbar (LLS), upper lumbar (ULS), lower thoracic (LTS) and upper thoracic (UTS) joints during STST, and to test the hypothesis that CLBP patients perform this movement with smaller angle and angular velocity compared to asymptomatic controls. Ten CLBP patients (with minimal to moderate disability) and 11 asymptomatic controls with comparable demographics (52% male, 37.4±5.6 years old, 22.5±2.8kg/m(2)) were tested using a three-dimensional camera-based system following previously proposed protocols. Characteristic patterns of movement were identified at the LLS, ULS and UTS joints in the sagittal plane only. Significant differences in the form of smaller sagittal-plane angle and smaller angular velocity in the patient group compared to the control group were observed at these three joints. This indicated a more rigid spine in the patient group and suggested that CLBP rehabilitation could potentially be enhanced by targeting movement deficits in functional activities. The results further recommended the analysis of STST kinematics using a pelvis-lumbar-thoracic model including lower and upper lumbar and thoracic segments. PMID:27262182

  18. Diabetic Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and ... the blood vessels can also mean that your feet do not get enough blood and oxygen. It ...

  19. Foot Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... of physical activities like running, dancing, biking, or playing basketball, soccer, or tennis. Going too far, too fast or not warming up properly before physical activity can set you up for painful foot injuries. Play it safe. Exercise your feet to increase ...

  20. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  1. Glucose biosensor based on multisegment nanowires exhibiting reversible magnetic control.

    PubMed

    Gerola, Gislaine P; Takahashi, Giovanna S; Perez, Geraldo G; Recco, Lucas C; Pedrosa, Valber A

    2014-11-01

    We describe the amperometric detection of glucose using oriented nanowires with magnetic switching of the bioelectrochemical process. The fabrication process of the nanowires was prepared through controlled nucleation and growth during a stepwise electrochemical deposition, and it was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to study the magnetoswitchable property; this control was accomplished by changing the surface orientation of nanowires. Under the optimal condition, the amperometric response was also linear up to a glucose concentration of 0.1-16.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 81 μA mM(-1). The detection limit was estimated for 4.8×10(-8) mol L(-1), defined from a signal/noise ratio of 3. It also exhibits good reproducibility and high selectivity with insignificant interference from ascorbic acid, acetoaminophen, and uric acid. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect the blood sugar in human serum samples without any pretreatment, and the results were comparatively in agreement with the clinical assay. PMID:25127595

  2. Cylindrical posts of Ag/SiO₂/Au multi-segment layer patterns for highly efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2012-08-10

    We fabricated a regular array of Ag/SiO₂/Au multi-segment cylindrical nanopatterns to create a highly efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using an advanced soft-nanoimprint lithographic technique. The SERS spectra results for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules on the Ag/SiO₂/Au multi-segment nanopatterns show that the highly ordered patterns and interlayer thickness are responsible for enhancing the sensitivity and reproducibility, respectively, The multi-segment nanopattern with a silica interlayer generates significant SERS enhancement (~EF = 1.2 x 10⁶) as compared to that of the bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanopatterns without a dielectric gap (~EF = 1.0 x 10⁴). Further precise control of the interlayer distances between the two metals plays an essential role in enhancing SERS performance for detecting low concentrations of analytes such as fluorescent (Rhodamine 6G) and DNA molecules. Therefore, the highly ordered multi-segment patterns provide great sensitivity and reproducibility of SERS based detection, resulting in a high performance of the SERS substrate. PMID:22802161

  3. Relationship between foot type, foot deformity, and ulcer occurrence in the high-risk diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, William R; Shofer, Jane B; Smith, Douglas G; Sullivan, Katrina; Hayes, Shane G; Assal, Mathieu; Reiber, Gayle E

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized an association between foot type, foot deformity, and foot ulceration and conducted an analysis of a well-characterized, high-risk diabetic population of 398 subjects. The average age was 62 years of age and 74% of the study population were males. Foot-type distributions were 19.5% pes cavus (high arch), 51.5% neutrally aligned (normal arch), and 29.0% pes planus (low arch). We quantified the presence of hallux valgus (23.9%), hammer/claw toes (46.7%), and hallux limitus (24.4%). A significant association was found between foot type and hallux valgus (p = 0.003); pes planus feet had the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (odds ratio [OR] = 2.43, p = 0.0006). Foot type was also significantly associated with fixed hammer/claw toes (p = 0.01); pes cavus feet had the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (OR = 3.89, p = 0.001). Foot type was also significantly associated with hallux limitus (p = 0.006) with pes planus feet having the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (OR = 2.19, p = 0.003). However, foot type was not significantly related to any ulcer outcome (p = 0.7). Fixed hammer/claw toes (OR = 3.91, p = 0.003) and hallux limitus (OR = 3.02, p = 0.006) were associated with increased risk of any ulcer occurrence. This study affirms that foot type and foot deformity are related and that foot deformities are associated with ulcer occurrence. PMID:16586192

  4. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  5. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties. PMID:27378738

  6. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susano, M.; Proenca, M. P.; Moraes, S.; Sousa, C. T.; Araújo, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments’ length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  7. Cavus Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toes All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A cavus or high-arched foot may have ... related problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to ...

  8. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  9. Foot sprain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Mid-foot sprain ... There are many bones and ligaments in your foot. A ligament is a strong flexible tissue that holds bones together. When the foot lands awkwardly, some ligaments can stretch and tear. ...

  10. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  11. Foot Disorders, Foot Posture, and Foot Function: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Thomas J.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Foot disorders are common among older adults and may lead to outcomes such as falls and functional limitation. However, the associations of foot posture and foot function to specific foot disorders at the population level remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between specific foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function. Methods Participants were from the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Quintiles of the modified arch index and center of pressure excursion index from plantar pressure scans were used to create foot posture and function subgroups. Adjusted odds ratios of having each specific disorder were calculated for foot posture and function subgroups relative to a referent 3 quintiles. Results Pes planus foot posture was associated with increased odds of hammer toes and overlapping toes. Cavus foot posture was not associated with the foot disorders evaluated. Odds of having hallux valgus and overlapping toes were significantly increased in those with pronated foot function, while odds of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were significantly decreased in those with supinated function. Conclusions Foot posture and foot function were associated with the presence of specific foot disorders. PMID:24040231

  12. Space Launch System Liftoff and Transition Aerodynamic Characterization in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Erickson, Gary E.; Paulson, John W.; Tomek, William G.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.75% scale force and moment model of the Space Launch System was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to quantify the aerodynamic forces that will be experienced by the launch vehicle during its liftoff and transition to ascent flight. The test consisted of two parts: the first was dedicated to measuring forces and moments for the entire range of angles of attack (0deg to 90deg) and roll angles (0 deg. to 360 deg.). The second was designed to measure the aerodynamic effects of the liftoff tower on the launch vehicle for ground winds from all azimuthal directions (0 deg. to 360 deg.), and vehicle liftoff height ratios from 0 to 0.94. This wind tunnel model also included a set of 154 surface static pressure ports. Details on the experimental setup, and results from both parts of testing are presented, along with a description of how the wind tunnel data was analyzed and post-processed in order to develop an aerodynamic database. Finally, lessons learned from experiencing significant dynamics in the mid-range angles of attack due to steady asymmetric vortex shedding are presented.

  13. Analytical and experimental studies of an optimum multisegment phased liner noise suppression concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawdy, D. T.; Beckemeyer, R. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented from detailed analytical studies made to define methods for obtaining improved multisegment lining performance by taking advantage of relative placement of each lining segment. Properly phased liner segments reflect and spatially redistribute the incident acoustic energy and thus provide additional attenuation. A mathematical model was developed for rectangular ducts with uniform mean flow. Segmented acoustic fields were represented by duct eigenfunction expansions, and mode-matching was used to ensure continuity of the total field. Parametric studies were performed to identify attenuation mechanisms and define preliminary liner configurations. An optimization procedure was used to determine optimum liner impedance values for a given total lining length, Mach number, and incident modal distribution. Optimal segmented liners are presented and it is shown that, provided the sound source is well-defined and flow environment is known, conventional infinite duct optimum attenuation rates can be improved. To confirm these results, an experimental program was conducted in a laboratory test facility. The measured data are presented in the form of analytical-experimental correlations. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment verifies and substantiates the analytical prediction techniques. The results indicate that phased liners may be of immediate benefit in the development of improved aircraft exhaust duct noise suppressors.

  14. Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Leah; Ostovari, Saam; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Talke, Kurt A.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Rahimi, Amin; Hart, Abraham B.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    2015-05-01

    A novel, multi-segmented magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative motion connect front and rear driving modules, so the robot can twist and turn. This permits its navigation over surface discontinuities while maintaining its adhesion to the hull. During operation, the magnetic crawler receives forward and turning velocity commands from either a tele-operator or high-level, autonomous control computer. A low-level, embedded microcomputer handles the commands to the driving motors. This paper presents the development of a simple, low-level, leader-follower controller that permits the rear module to follow the front module. The kinematics and dynamics of the two-module magnetic crawler robot are described. The robot's geometry, kinematic constraints and the user-commanded velocities are used to calculate the desired instantaneous center of rotation and the corresponding central-linkage angle necessary for the back module to follow the front module when turning. The commands to the rear driving motors are determined by applying PID control on the error between the desired and measured linkage angle position. The controller is designed and tested using Matlab Simulink. It is then implemented and tested on an early two-module magnetic crawler prototype robot. Results of the simulations and experimental validation of the controller design are presented.

  15. A multi-segment soft actuator for biomedical applications based on IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Luo, Meng; Li, Dichen; Chen, Hualing

    2015-04-01

    With rapid progress of biomedical devices towards miniaturization, flexibility, multifunction and low cost, the restrictions of traditional mechanical structures become particularly apparent, while soft materials become research focus in broad fields. As one of the most attractive soft materials, Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) is widely used as artificial muscles and actuators, with the advantages of low driving-voltage, high efficiency of electromechanical transduction and functional stabilization. In this paper, a new intuitive control method was presented to achieve the omnidirectional bending movements and was applied on a representative actuation structure of a multi-degree-offreedom soft actuator composed of two segments bar-shaped IPMC with a square cross section. Firstly, the bar-shaped IPMCs were fabricated by the solution casting method, reducing plating, autocatalytic plating method and cut into shapes successively. The connectors of the multi-segment IPMC actuator were fabricated by 3D printing. Then, a new control method was introduced to realize the intuitive mapping relationship between the actuator and the joystick manipulator. The control circuit was designed and tested. Finally, the multi-degree-of-freedom actuator of 2 segments bar-shaped IPMCs was implemented and omnidirectional bending movements were achieved, which could be a promising actuator for biomedical applications, such as endoscope, catheterism, laparoscopy and the surgical resection of tumors.

  16. High temperature in-situ observations of multi-segmented metal nanowires encapsulated within carbon nanotubes by in-situ filling technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Multi-segmented one-dimensional metal nanowires were encapsulated within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through in-situ filling technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental TEM were employed to characterize the as-prepared sample at room temperature and high temperature. The selected area electron diffractions revealed that the Pd4Si nanowire and face-centered-cubic Co nanowire on top of the Pd nanowire were encapsulated within the bottom and tip parts of the multiwall CNT, respectively. Although the strain-induced deformation of graphite walls was observed, the solid-state phases of Pd4Si and Co-Pd remain even at above their expected melting temperatures and up to 1,550 ± 50°C. Finally, the encapsulated metals were melted and flowed out from the tip of the CNT after 2 h at the same temperature due to the increase of internal pressure of the CNT. PMID:22873841

  17. Detection and characterization of viruses causing hand, foot and mouth disease from children in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ling, Beh Poay; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Harmal, Nabil Saad; Yubbu, Putri; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2014-12-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection among infants and children. The major causative agents of HFMD are enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). Recently, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) infections were reported in neighboring countries. Infected infants and children may present with fever, mouth/throat ulcers, rashes and vesicles on hands and feet. Moreover, EV71 infections might cause fatal neurological complications. Since 1997, EV71 caused fatalities in Sarawak and Peninsula Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to identify and classify the viruses which detected from the patients who presenting clinical signs and symptoms of HFMD in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia. From December 2012 until July 2013, a total of 28 specimens were collected from patients with clinical case definitions of HFMD. The HFMD viruses were detected by using semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (snRT-PCR). The positive snRT-PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the viruses were performed. 12 of 28 specimens (42.9%) were positive in snRT-PCR, seven are CVA6 (58.3%), two CVA16 (16.7%) and three EV71 (25%). Based on phylogenetic analysis studies, EV71 strains were identified as sub-genotype B5; CVA16 strains classified into sub-genotype B2b and B2c; CVA6 strains closely related to strains in Taiwan and Japan. In this study, HFMD in Seri Kembangan were caused by different types of Enterovirus, which were EV71, CVA6 and CVA16. PMID:25776590

  18. Foot function is well preserved in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who are optimally managed

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Gordon J.; Rafferty, Danny; Barn, Ruth; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Turner, Debbie E.; Woodburn, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare disease activity, impairments, disability, foot function and gait characteristics between a well described cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and normal healthy controls using a 7-segment foot model and three-dimensional gait analysis. Methods Fourteen patients with JIA (mean (standard deviation) age of 12.4 years (3.2)) and a history of foot disease and 10 healthy children (mean (standard deviation) age of 12.5 years (3.4)) underwent three-dimensional gait analysis and plantar pressure analysis to measure biomechanical foot function. Localised disease impact and foot-specific disease activity were determined using the juvenile arthritis foot disability index, rear- and forefoot deformity scores, and clinical and musculoskeletal ultrasound examinations respectively. Mean differences between groups with associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the t distribution. Results Mild-to-moderate foot impairments and disability but low levels of disease activity were detected in the JIA group. In comparison with healthy subjects, minor trends towards increased midfoot dorsiflexion and reduced lateral forefoot abduction within a 3–5° range were observed in patients with JIA. The magnitude and timing of remaining kinematic, kinetic and plantar pressure distribution variables during the stance phase were similar for both groups. Conclusion In children and adolescents with JIA, foot function as determined by a multi-segment foot model did not differ from that of normal age- and gender-matched subjects despite moderate foot impairments and disability scores. These findings may indicate that tight control of active foot disease may prevent joint destruction and associated structural and functional impairments. PMID:23142184

  19. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Print Bookmark Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle What Is Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized ... is also often found in the midfoot and ankle. Causes Osteoarthritis is considered a “wear and tear” ...

  20. Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common locations for athlete's foot include: Spaces (webs) between the toes, especially between the 4th ... no worm involved.) Between the toes (the interdigital spaces), athlete's foot may appear as inflamed, scaly, and ...

  1. Factors Contributing to Multi-Segment Rupture in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, B.; Williams, C. A.; Fry, B.

    2014-12-01

    We use dynamic prescribed slip (kinematic) modeling to examine the factors contributing to multi-segment rupture in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake. We consider fault geometry and slip distributions from inversions by Beavan et al. (2012) based on geodetic observations and by Elliott et al. (2012) based on geodetic and teleseismic observations. We invert for subevent origin times using strong-motion records and find complex rupture propagation across multiple fault segments. Our inversions suggest that the rupture began on one or two secondary faults with reverse/oblique slip near the hypocenter, consistent with the GNS first motion mechanism. The primary bilateral strike-slip rupture of the Greendale fault, consistent with centroid moment tensor solutions, occurred about 9-10 seconds after the origin time. The strong-motion records provide poor constraints on the timing of rupture of the reverse Hororata fault, which may have occurred about 16-17 seconds after the origin time. Denser strong-motion instrumentation would have provided stronger constraints on the timing of the complex rupture. The relative orientation of the regional stress field and the faulting regime explain the sense of motion and loading of these fault segments. Additionally, dynamic stress changes also created favorable conditions for triggering of the main rupture on the Greendale fault. Current work focuses on evaluating how well the UCERF3 (USGS Open File Report 2013-1165) criteria for forecasting multi-segment ruptures in California apply to this complex rupture in New Zealand.

  2. Does Multi-Segment Rupture Occur on the Wasatch Fault Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duross, C. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) is one of the most-studied normal faults in the Basin and Range Province, but the potential for multi-segment ruptures (MSRs) among its segments is poorly understood. Evaluating the characteristics of surface faulting along the WFZ, including whether paleoseismic data support the possibility of MSRs between adjacent segments, is an important step in understanding normal-fault hazards and improving earthquake-probability studies. Vertical-displacement (VD) data from 16 paleoseismic sites on the central WFZ segments (Brigham City to Levan) indicate a tendency for single-segment ruptures (SSRs), but do not preclude the possibility of MSRs. The VD observations range from 0.5-0.8 to 4.7 m, and the mean VD per earthquake is 2.1±0.97 m (1 sigma), based on 35 measurements. The largest VDs along the WFZ correspond well with the maximum displacements predicted from a displacement - surface-rupture-length (D-SRL) regression for normal faults. However, 86-90% of the WFZ VDs are larger than the average displacements predicted by D-SRL regressions for normal- and all-fault types. When normalized by segment length, over 70% of the VD data fit within a half- ellipse-shaped slip envelope that shows VD decreasing from a maximum of 1.8-3.4 m near the segment centers to ~0.8-2.1 m near the segment ends. Although the VD data support SSRs, several anomalously large VDs near the ends of the segments suggest fault ruptures at least 20 km longer than the mapped segment lengths. Evaluating the potential for MSRs among WFZ paleoearthquakes requires quantifying the uncertainty in the timing of individual events, similarity in the timing of events on adjacent segments (low to high MSR potential), and quality of supporting chronological data (low to high paleoseismic-event confidence). On the four central- most segments (Brigham City to Provo), existing paleoseismic data suggest the possibility of six MSR pairs among 16 post-6500 cal yr B.P. earthquakes. Among the

  3. SKITTER foot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Gene; Jones, David L.; Morris, James; Parham, Martin; Stephens, Jim; Yancey, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    A mechanical design team was formed to design a foot for the lunar utility vehicle SKITTER. The primary design was constrained to be a ski pole design compatible with the existing femur-tibia design legs. The lunar environment had several important effects on the foot design. Three materials were investigated for the SKITTER foot: aluminum alloys, cold worked stainless steel alloys, and titanium alloys. Thin film coatings were investigated as a method of wear reduction for the foot. The performance of the foot is dependent on the action of the legs. The range of motion for the legs was determined to be vertical to 15 degrees above horizontal. An impact analysis was performed for the foot movement, but the results were determined to be inconclusive due to unknown soil parameters. The initial foot design configuration consisted of an annulus attached to the pointed pole. The annulus was designed to prevent excess sinkage. Later designs call for a conical shaped foot with a disk at the point of the tibia attachment. The conical design was analyzed for strength and deflection by two different approaches. A deformable body analysis was performed for the foot under crane load in crane position, and also under actuator load in the vertical position. In both cases, the deflection of the foot was insignificant and the stresses well below the strength of the titanium alloy.

  4. Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Eleanor; Harvala, Heli; Österback, Riikka; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Thomson, Emma; Waris, Matti; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Human coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus. Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16). From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash. We recently reported CVA6-associated eczema herpeticum occurring predominantly in children and young adults in Edinburgh in January and February 2014. To investigate genetic determinants of novel clinical phenotypes of CVA6, we genetically characterized and analysed CVA6 variants associated with eczema herpeticum in Edinburgh in 2014 and those with aHFMD in CAV isolates collected from 2008. A total of eight recombinant forms (RFs) have circulated worldwide over the past 10 years, with the particularly recent appearance of RF-H associated with eczema herpeticum cases in Edinburgh in 2014. Comparison of phylogenies and divergence of complete genome sequences of CVA6 identified recombination breakpoints in 2A-2C, within VP3, and between 5' untranslated region and VP1. A Bayesian temporal reconstruction of CVA6 evolution since 2004 provided estimates of dates and the actual recombination events that generated more recently appearing recombination groups (RF-E, -F, -G and -H). Associations were observed between recombination groups and clinical presentations of herpangina, aHFMD and eczema herpeticum, but not with VP1 or other structural genes. These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection. PMID:25614593

  5. Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Eleanor; Harvala, Heli; Österback, Riikka; Sreenu, Vattipally B.; Thomson, Emma; Waris, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Human coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus. Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16). From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash. We recently reported CVA6-associated eczema herpeticum occurring predominantly in children and young adults in Edinburgh in January and February 2014. To investigate genetic determinants of novel clinical phenotypes of CVA6, we genetically characterized and analysed CVA6 variants associated with eczema herpeticum in Edinburgh in 2014 and those with aHFMD in CAV isolates collected from 2008. A total of eight recombinant forms (RFs) have circulated worldwide over the past 10 years, with the particularly recent appearance of RF-H associated with eczema herpeticum cases in Edinburgh in 2014. Comparison of phylogenies and divergence of complete genome sequences of CVA6 identified recombination breakpoints in 2A–2C, within VP3, and between 5′ untranslated region and VP1. A Bayesian temporal reconstruction of CVA6 evolution since 2004 provided estimates of dates and the actual recombination events that generated more recently appearing recombination groups (RF-E, -F, -G and -H). Associations were observed between recombination groups and clinical presentations of herpangina, aHFMD and eczema herpeticum, but not with VP1 or other structural genes. These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection. PMID:25614593

  6. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. PMID:26672903

  7. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events. PMID:19294983

  8. Plantar Foot Surface Temperatures with Use of Insoles

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michelle; Shurr, Donald G; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Saltzman, Charles L

    2004-01-01

    Purpose- Patients with diabetes are often prescribed foot orthoses to help prevent foot ulcer formation. Orthotics are used to redistribute normal and shear stress. Shear stresses are not easily measurable and considered to be responsible for skin breakdown. Local elevation of skin temperature has been implicated as an early sign of impending ulceration especially in regions of high shear stress. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of commonly prescribed insole materials on local changes in plantar foot temperature during normal gait. Methods- Six commonly used foot orthosis materials were tested using the Thermo Trace™ infrared thermometer to measure foot temperature. Ten healthy adult volunteers without any history of diabetes or abnormal sensation participated in the study. During each trial the subject walked on a treadmill with the test material in the dominant foot's shoe, for six minutes at a speed of four miles per hour and rested for six minutes between trials. Four locations on the foot (hallux, first and fifth metatarsal heads, and heel) and the contralateral bicep temperatures were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 minutes during the rest period. The order of material and skin location testing was randomized. Results- Significant differences were found between baseline temperatures and foot temperatures for all materials. However, no differences were found between materials for any location on the foot. Conclusion- Previous studies have attempted to characterize materials based on laboratory and clinical testing, while other studies have attempted to characterize the effect of pressure on skin temperature. However, no study has previously attempted to characterize foot orthosis materials based on foot temperatures. This study compared foot temperatures of healthy adults based on the material tested. Although this study was unable to distinguish between materials based on foot temperatures, it was able to show a rise in foot temperature with any

  9. Slip history of the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake rupture along the North Anatolian fault system: Implications for recurrence behavior of multisegment earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hisao; Ã-Zaksoy, Volkan; YıLdirim, Cengiz

    2010-04-01

    Recent research shows that active fault systems produce multisegment earthquakes; however, we have yet to understand the faulting behavior of various spatial patterns of segments. We conducted a three-dimensional trenching survey to reconstruct the detailed slip history of a fault segment that ruptured as one of the multisegment ruptures along the North Anatolian fault system. The trench site, on the Gerede segment, recorded a maximum right-lateral slip of up to 6 m that was associated with the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake (M 7.4). Fault exposures show evidence of four paleoearthquakes. Radiocarbon dates, a refined probability density distribution, and correlation with historical earthquakes place the mean repeat time at ˜330 years. Four discrete paleoslips yield a slip per event of 5.0 ± 0.8 m with a coefficient of variation of 0.2. Our research suggests that multisegment earthquakes exhibit various spatial patterns, regardless of recurrence with quasiperiodicity and characteristic slip. Coincidentally, the fault geometry exhibits extremely linear traces, suggesting simple stress accumulation and release through earthquake cycles. Furthermore, the 1944 event did not occur in a single segment, and the Gerede segment probably ruptured within a slip-pulse-like rupture during a multisegment earthquake. A comparable geological slip rate of ˜17 mm a-1 based on a GPS-based strain rate supports the persistence of macroscopic asperity through recent geological time. Therefore we conclude that a segment with simple fault geometry along a strike-slip fault system plays an important role in forecasting the timing of future multisegment earthquakes, but the spatial extent of such earthquakes needs to be explored further.

  10. Characterization of Coxsackievirus A6- and Enterovirus 71-Associated Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing, China, from 2013 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Sun, Ying; Du, Yiwei; Yan, Yuxiang; Huo, Da; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fen; Lin, Changying; Liang, Zhichao; Jia, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Quanyi; He, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Etiology surveillance of Hand Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing showed that Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) became the major pathogen of HFMD in 2013 and 2015. In order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of CVA6-associated HFMD, a comparison study among CVA6-, EV71- (Enterovirus 71), and CVA16- (Coxsackievirus A16) associated HFMD was performed. Methods: Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations among CVA6-, EV71- and CVA16-associated mild or severe cases were compared from 2013 to 2015. VP1 gene of CVA6 and EV71 from mild cases, severe cases were sequenced, aligned, and compared with strains from 2009 to 2015 in Beijing and strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbor-joining method. Results: CVA6 became the predominant causative agent of HFMD and accounted for 35.4 and 36.9% of total positive cases in 2013 and 2015, respectively. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 305 severe cases and 7 fatal cases were reported. CVA6 and EV71 were responsible for 57.5% of the severe cases. Five out six samples from fatal cases were identified as EV71. High fever, onychomadesis, and decrustation were the typical symptoms of CVA6-associated mild HFMD. CVA6-associated severe cases were characterized by high fever with shorter duration and twitch compared with EV71-associated severe cases which were characterized by poor mental condition, abnormal pupil, and vomiting. Poor mental condition, lung wet rales, abnormal pupil, and tachycardia were the most common clinical features of fatal cases. The percentage of lymphocyte in CVA6-associated cases was significantly lower than that of EV71. High percentage of lymphocyte and low percentage of neutrophils were the typical characteristics of fatal cases. VP1 sequences between CVA6- or EV71-associated mild and severe cases were highly homologous. Conclusion: CVA6 became one of the major pathogens of HFMD in 2013 and 2015 in Beijing

  11. High-power diode-end-pumped laser with multi-segmented Nd-doped yttrium vanadate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y J; Chen, Y F

    2013-07-01

    A Nd:YVO4 crystal consisting of three segments with different doping concentrations is originally developed for power scaling in diode-end-pumped solid-state laser. We systematically make a comparison of laser characteristics between the multi-segmented and conventional composite crystals to show the feasibility of using gain medium with multiple doping concentrations for power scale-up in end-pumped laser without introducing significant thermally accompanied effects. We further construct a dual-end-pumped actively Q-switched oscillator at 1064 nm to verify the usefulness of our crystal design, where the largest pulse energy of 1.06 mJ and the highest output power of 45 W are efficiently generated. PMID:23842393

  12. Optimal Design of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Using Multisegmented Magnet Array for Small Form Factor Optical Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2007-05-01

    For a small form factor optical disk drive (SFFODD), a high-performance actuator satisfying the requirements for small size, high speed, and low-power consumption simultaneously is required. In this paper, we propose a rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) using a multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) for the SFFODD. The VCM is designed to move the entire system including miniaturized optical components, which are necessary in reading and writing data. To increase the actuating force of the VCM, the MSMA, a novel magnetic circuit, is adopted because it can provide a higher flux density than a conventional magnet array in the rotary-type VCM. To obtain the best performance from the VCM in the limit of actuator size, design optimization is performed. The manufactured actuator with optimally designed parameters is described and the potential performance of track seeking is evaluated and presented.

  13. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... pounding their feet endure from... Foot Injuries in Olympic Athletes and Beyond Foot and ankle surgeons offer ... for athletes of all levels. The 2012 Summer Olympics have arrived, and according to foot and ankle ...

  14. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  15. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 33. Kim PJ, Steinberg JS. Complications of the diabetic foot. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2013;42:833-847. PMID: 24286952 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24286952 . Read More Diabetes Diabetes and nerve damage Leg or foot amputation Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes and ...

  16. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  17. Biomechanics of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Prost, William J.

    1979-01-01

    The foot goes through a complex series of biomechanical movements in a normal gait cycle, which result in smooth and coordinated propulsion. Various biomechanical faults may result in abnormal motion of the foot, the most important of which is abnormal pronation, causing the foot to be unstable in propulsion, leading to hypermobility of the joints, and eventual subluxation with static deformities. This abnormal motion must be treated, usually be biomechanical orthotic devices, sometimes combined with surgery. Emphasis is laid on the early recognition and correction of biomechanical faults to prevent deformities.

  18. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  19. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV

  20. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  1. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer has healed. These devices will take the pressure off of the ulcer area. This will help speed healing. Be sure to wear shoes that do not put a lot of pressure on only one part of your foot. Wear ...

  2. Foot pain causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 58. LeCursi N. Sports shoes and orthoses. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ... Ligamentous Injuries of the Foot and Ankle. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  3. Leg or foot amputation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your high blood pressure Diabetes - foot ulcers Dietary fats explained Fast food ... by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic ...

  4. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  5. Multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping process of multi coupled activities based on valid information evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yunxia; Qiu, Shenghai

    2013-01-01

    Complex product development will inevitably face the design planning of the multi-coupled activities, and overlapping these activities could potentially reduce product development time, but there is a risk of the additional cost. Although the downstream task information dependence to the upstream task is already considered in the current researches, but the design process overall iteration caused by the information interdependence between activities is hardly discussed; especially the impact on the design process' overall iteration from the valid information accumulation process. Secondly, most studies only focus on the single overlapping process of two activities, rarely take multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping process of multi coupled activities into account; especially the inherent link between product development time and cost which originates from the overlapping process of multi coupled activities. For the purpose of solving the above problems, as to the insufficiency of the accumulated valid information in overlapping process, the function of the valid information evolution (VIE) degree is constructed. Stochastic process theory is used to describe the design information exchange and the valid information accumulation in the overlapping segment, and then the planning models of the single overlapping segment are built. On these bases, by analyzing overlapping processes and overlapping features of multi-coupling activities, multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping planning models are built; by sorting overlapping processes and analyzing the construction of these planning models, two conclusions are obtained: (1) As to multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping of multi coupled activities, the total decrement of the task set development time is the sum of the time decrement caused by basic overlapping segments, and minus the sum of the time increment caused by multiple overlapping segments; (2) the total increment of development cost is the sum of the cost

  6. [The infected diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Voide, C; Trampuz, A; Orasch, C

    2012-10-31

    Disorders of local immunity associated with diabetes, neuropathy, vascular disease and pressure lesions all contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot infections are frequently encountered, comprising multifactorial pathology and high morbidity and mortality rates. Microbiological sampling is indicated only when infection is suspected clinically, that is, when a lesion presents a minimum of two of the following six signs: erythema, heat, pain, tumefaction, induration or purulent discharge. PMID:23117963

  7. Prehensile Foot Restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willits, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed prehensile foot restraint enables such workers as astronauts and divers to maintain fixed positions in zero gravity or in buoyancy with minimal effort. With foot restraint worker devotes attention fully to task at hand, with little concern about holding on to supporting structure. Claw near toe of shoe grips rail. Wearer uses flexible shaft, first to lock claw tightly on bar; then, when work is done, to open claw. Underwater or in space, device boosts productivity.

  8. Diabetic foot risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M Gail

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that results in foot complications for many people world-wide. In 2014, the World Health Organization estimated the global prevalence of diabetes in adults to be 9%. To ascertain the risk that an individual patient might develop a diabetic foot ulcer that could lead to an amputation, clinicians are strongly encouraged to perform a risk assessment. Monteiro-Soares and Dinis-Ribeiro have presented a new DIAbetic FOot Risk Assessment with the acronym DIAFORA. It is different from other risk assessments in that it predicts the risk of developing both diabetic foot ulcers and amputation specifically. The risk variables were derived by regression analysis based on a data set of 293 patients from a high-risk setting, a Hospital Diabetic Foot Clinic, who had diabetes and a diabetic foot ulcers. Clear descriptions of the risk variables are provided as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the risk categories. As an added benefit, likelihood ratios are provided that will help clinicians determine the risk of amputation for individual patients. Having a risk assessment form is important for clinician use and examples exist. A question is raised about the effectiveness of risk assessment and how effectiveness might be determined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26825436

  9. Application of modern-control-design methodologies to a multi-segmented deformable-mirror system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, E.M.

    1991-05-23

    The multi-segmented deformable mirror system is proposed as an element for a portion of a ballistic missile defense system. The size of the mirror required for this defense function requires that the mirror be developed in segments, and then these segments should be phased together to produce one continuous, large optic. The application of multivariable control system synthesis techniques to provide closed-loop wavefront control of the deformable mirror system is the problem discussed in this thesis. The method of H at infinity control system synthesis using loop-shaping techniques was used to develop a controller that meets a robust performance specification. The number and location of sensors was treated as a design variable, and the structured singular value (mu) was used to determine the performance robustness of the deformable mirror system. Decentralized control issues are also addressed through the use of necessary conditions in an effort to determine a suitable decentralized control structure with performance similar to that of the centralized controller.

  10. Construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O/JPN/2010 isolated in Japan in 2010.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Onozato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Seiichi; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Manabu; Morioka, Kazuki; Kanno, Toru

    2016-06-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan was constructed and designated pSVL-f02. Transfection of Cos-7 or IBRS-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. The recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. Pigs were experimentally infected with the parental virus or the recombinant virus recovered from pSVL-f02 transfected cells. There were no significant differences in clinical signs or antibody responses between the two groups, and virus isolation and viral RNA detection from clinical samples were similar. Virus recovered from transfected cells therefore retained the in vitro characteristics and the in vivo pathogenicity of their parental strain. This cDNA clone should be a valuable tool to analyze determinants of pathogenicity and mechanisms of virus replication, and to develop genetically engineered vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus. PMID:27234555

  11. Charcot foot syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoate, W J

    2015-06-01

    Charcot foot syndrome is an uncommon complication of diabetes but is potentially devastating in its consequences. Outcome is made worse by widespread professional ignorance leading to delayed diagnosis, but it is also hampered by lack of understanding of its causes and lack of treatments with proven effectiveness, other than offloading. There remains a desperate need for studies into its causes as well as comparative audit and trials designed to determine the best treatment for this difficult condition. Such work can probably only be effectively carried out through the establishment of multicentre networks. Nevertheless, improved understanding in recent years of the likely role of inflammatory pathways has raised awareness of the multiple ways in which the effects of neuropathy may be manifest in the development of the Charcot foot. This awareness is also leading to the realization that similar processes may conceivably contribute to the refractoriness of other foot diseases in diabetes, including both chronic unhealing ulcers and osteomyelitis. PMID:25818542

  12. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Constructing the forms for the foundation of the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000. The first step was to pour the foundation for the tunnel and the housing which would encase the wind tunnel.

  13. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Balinda, S N; Belsham, G J; Masembe, C; Sangula, A K; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed. PMID:20003615

  14. Characterization of VP1 gene of coxsackievirus A16 prevalent among hand foot mouth disease suffered children in Taizhou, P. R. China, between 2010 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhilong; Zha, Jie

    2016-02-01

    A total of 453 strains of Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were screened out of 1,509 hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) samples collected in Taizhou during the period from 2010 to 2013. And between first quarter of 2011 and first quarter of 2013, an outbreak of CV-A16 was found among the HFMD sufferers in Taizhou. Phylogenic analysis of VP1 sequences indicated a major CV-A16 sub-group in Taizhou, whose change pattern of effective population sizes was found to be similar to the pattern of the actual percentage changes of CV-A16 during the outbreak over the same period. More importantly, the sub-group all displayed a Leu (L) to Met (M) mutation at site-23 of capsid VP1 which might be correlated with the outbreak of CV-A16 in Taizhou. PMID:26174468

  15. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  16. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 are most ...

  17. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  18. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn Against Taking Part in Growing Surgery ... members of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, who specialize in foot surgery, are taking ...

  19. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Print Bookmark What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical specialists of the podiatric ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  20. Richard H. Foote

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Richard H. Foote, a world renowned specialist on the taxonomy of fruit flies and a widely respected former leader of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, ARS, USDA, died on February 9, 2002. A summary of his career and his most important contributions to entomological research and the fi...

  1. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  2. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  3. Real-time visual communication to aid disaster recovery in a multi-segment hybrid wireless networking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    When natural disasters or other large-scale incidents occur, obtaining accurate and timely information on the developing situation is vital to effective disaster recovery operations. High-quality video streams and high-resolution images, if available in real time, would provide an invaluable source of current situation reports to the incident management team. Meanwhile, a disaster often causes significant damage to the communications infrastructure. Therefore, another essential requirement for disaster management is the ability to rapidly deploy a flexible incident area communication network. Such a network would facilitate the transmission of real-time video streams and still images from the disrupted area to remote command and control locations. In this paper, a comprehensive end-to-end video/image transmission system between an incident area and a remote control centre is proposed and implemented, and its performance is experimentally investigated. In this study a hybrid multi-segment communication network is designed that seamlessly integrates terrestrial wireless mesh networks (WMNs), distributed wireless visual sensor networks, an airborne platform with video camera balloons, and a Digital Video Broadcasting- Satellite (DVB-S) system. By carefully integrating all of these rapidly deployable, interworking and collaborative networking technologies, we can fully exploit the joint benefits provided by WMNs, WSNs, balloon camera networks and DVB-S for real-time video streaming and image delivery in emergency situations among the disaster hit area, the remote control centre and the rescue teams in the field. The whole proposed system is implemented in a proven simulator. Through extensive simulations, the real-time visual communication performance of this integrated system has been numerically evaluated, towards a more in-depth understanding in supporting high-quality visual communications in such a demanding context.

  4. [Presentation of a flap web space laterodigital in cleft foot].

    PubMed

    Szwebel, J; Haddad, R; Mitrofanoff, M

    2012-08-01

    Cleft foot deformity is characterized by the absence of one or more median rays of the foot. This rare polymorphous congenital anomaly occurs more frequently in males, with a frequent autosomal dominant type of transmission. The purpose of surgical treatment is to narrow the width of the foot, but also to improve its global aesthetic look. Toe reparation, and more specifically web space reconstruction, provide the main technical challenges. We present an adaptation to the foot of a laterodigital cutaneous flap published by Barsky in 1964 for commissural reconstruction in cleft hand syndroms. The anatomical structure of fingers and toes commisures being different, this flap seems more adapted to the surgery of the foot. We gathered seven patients' files treated for ectrodactyly of the foot with this technique by the same surgeon from 2005 to 2008. No particular postoperative complications were noted, and the patients all expressed their satisfaction regarding the improvement of the appearance of their foot. We recommend to add the use of this flap in the "tool box" of the surgeon in charge of the management of foot deformities. PMID:20947236

  5. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  6. Prevalence and characterization of enterovirus infections among pediatric patients with hand foot mouth disease, herpangina and influenza like illness in Thailand, 2012.

    PubMed

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  7. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajesh-Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesions, blisters. PMID:26155357

  8. [Diabetic foot infections].

    PubMed

    Ryšková, Lenka

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are serious problems in persons with diabetes, about 10 to 25 % of patients with dia-betes develop a foot ulcer and 60 % of them are infected. DFIs cause morbidity, limit mobility, worsen patients quality of life. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with Gram-positive cocci (especially staphylococci), Gram-negative bacilli and obligate anaerobes. Successful therapy of DFI requires proper topical care and often includes surgical interventions but appropriate antibiotic treatment plays a key role. Initial antimicrobial therapy of these infections is usually empirical, the antibiotic regimen should be based on the severity of the infection. Definitive therapy should then be tailored according to the results of culture and susceptibility tests from a reliably obtained specimen. PMID:26258977

  9. The neuropathic diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, and result in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are likely to be of neuropathic origin and, therefore, are eminently preventable. Individuals with the greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of their feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb-threatening, or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identification of causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with nonremovable casts, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patient's adherence to the strategy used for pressure relief. PMID:17179926

  10. Use of social network analysis to characterize the pattern of animal movements in the initial phases of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Pelaez, A; Pfeiffer, D U; Soares-Magalhães, R J; Guitian, F J

    2006-09-15

    Aggregated movement data do not take into account the relative position of the units within a higher-level structure. Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory provide a tool to organise and analyse relational data overcoming the limitations of standard methods where the position of individuals/observations does not affect the result of the analysis. Some recorded movements of cattle and sheep during the initial phase of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the UK, before the ban on animal movements was imposed, are analysed descriptively using SNA. With the data available, a directed dichotomized network with 653 nodes and 797 arches was analysed. Most of the 10 nodes with the highest betweenness (3 farms, 4 markets and 3 dealers) were identified as key players in the initial spread of the infection. Three groups of nodes with distinctive proportion of k < or = 2 neighbours would result in three different theoretical outbreak dimensions assuming that the infection is only disseminated by the movements included in the network: no spread, spread up to 7% and around 25%. There are three hierarchical clusters with 308, 215 and 130 nodes, respectively. Farms in cluster 1 appear to be more similar in their movement patterns to non-farm holdings than to farms in clusters 2 and 3. Relative betweenness, k-neighbours and structural equivalence using hierarchical clustering were able to identify key actors in the evolution of the initial phases of the FMD outbreak such as markets, dealers and farms with atypical movement patterns. Holdings with high betweenness, large number of k < or = 2 neighbours and with movement pattern as in cluster 1 should be targeted in disease control activities once primary actors like markets, dealers and slaughter houses have been contained. PMID:16769142

  11. Nanochannel-Directed Growth of One-Dimensional Multi-Segment Heterojunctions of Metallic Au1-xGex and Semiconducting Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiangdong; Meng, Guowen; Qin, Shengyong; Xu, Qiaoling; Chu, Zhaoqin; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Kong, Mingguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of multi-segment nanowire (NW) junctions of Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} and Ge inside the nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide template. The one-dimensional heterostructures are grown with a low-temperature chemical vapor deposition process, assisted by electrodeposited Au nanowires (AuNWs). The Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth process occurs simultaneously in multiple locations along the nanochannel, which leads to multi-segment Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}/Ge heterojunctions. The structures of the as-grown hybrid NWs, analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping, show clear compositional modulation with variable modulation period and controllable junction numbers. Remarkably, both GeNW and Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}NW segments are single crystalline with abrupt interfaces and good crystallographic coherences. The electronic and transport properties of individual NW junctions are measured by using a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscope, which confirms the semiconducting nature of Ge segments and the metallic behavior of Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} segments, respectively. The high yield of multiple segment NW junctions of a metal-semiconductor can facilitate the applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics that harness multiple functionalities of heterointerfaces.

  12. Combining Multiple Data Acquisition Systems to Study Corticospinal Output and Multi-segment Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, Michael J; Bailey, Aaron Z; Keir, Peter J; Potvin, Jim; Bergel, Tim; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques allow for an in-depth investigation into the neural mechanisms that underpin human behavior. To date, the use of TMS to study human movement, has been limited by the challenges related to precisely timing the delivery of TMS to features of the unfolding movement and, also, by accurately characterizing kinematics and kinetics. To overcome these technical challenges, TMS delivery and acquisition systems should be integrated with an online motion tracking system. The present manuscript details technical innovations that integrate multiple acquisition systems to facilitate and advance the use of TMS to study human movement. Using commercially available software and hardware systems, a step-by-step approach to both the hardware assembly and the software scripts necessary to perform TMS studies triggered by specific features of a movement is provided. The approach is focused on the study of upper limb, planar, multi-joint reaching movements. However, the same integrative system is amenable to a multitude of sophisticated studies of human motor control. PMID:26780153

  13. Pharmacological Characterization of the αvβ6 Integrin Binding and Internalization Kinetics of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Derived Peptide A20FMDV2.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hafeji, Maryam; Rogers, Rebecca; Ludbrook, Steve B; Marshall, John F; Flint, David J; Pyne, Susan; Denyer, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    A20FMDV2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding integrin. It has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. In a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3H]A20FMDV2), its high affinity (K(D): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at least 85-fold) for αvβ6 over the other members of the RGD integrin family was confirmed. [3H]A20FMDV2 αvβ6 binding could be fully reversed only in the presence of EDTA, whereas a partial reversal was observed in the presence of excess concentrations of an RGD-mimetic small molecule (SC-68448) or unlabelled A20FMDV2. Using flow cytometry on bronchial epithelial cells, the ligand-induced internalization of αvβ6 by A20FMDV2 and latency-associated peptide-1 was shown to be fast (t(1/2): 1.5 and 3.1 min, respectively), concentration-dependent (EC50: values 1.1 and 3.6 nmol/l, respectively) and was followed by a moderately slow return of integrin to the surface. The results of the radioligand binding studies suggest that the binding of A20FMDV2 to the RGD-binding site on αvβ6 is required to maintain its engagement with the hypothesised A20FMDV2 synergy site on the integrin. In addition, there is evidence from flow cytometric studies that the RGD-ligand engagement of αvβ6 post-internalization plays a role in delaying recycling of the integrin to the cell surface. This mechanism may act as a homeostatic control of membrane αvβ6 following RGD ligand engagement. PMID:26734728

  14. [Neuropathy and diabetic foot ulcers].

    PubMed

    Lobmann, R

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature. Polyneuropathy plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the high rates of major amputations. PMID:25903093

  15. Imaging of diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Robert; Bar-David, Tzvi; Kamen, Stewart; Staron, Ronald B; Leung, David K; Rasiej, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Complications from diabetic foot infections are a leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Nearly 85% of these amputations result from an infected foot ulcer. Osteomyelitis is present in approximately 20% of diabetic foot infections. It is imperative that clinicians make quick and successful diagnoses of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) because a delay in treatment may lead to worsening outcomes. Imaging studies, such as plain films, bone scans, musculoskeletal ultrasound, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scans, aid in the diagnosis. However, there are several mimickers of DFO, which present problems to making a correct diagnosis. PMID:24296017

  16. Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; HOUCK, JEFF

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process. CASE DESCRIPTION A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used. OUTCOMES In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with

  17. Enchondroma of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Stephanie, Stephanie; Choi, Jun Young; Nam, Ji Ho; Suh, Jin Soo

    2015-01-01

    The present study is a review of 20 patients with enchondroma of the foot treated from January 2005 to March 2012. All patients were examined clinically, followed by an evaluation of their enchondroma of the foot radiographically and an assessment of the outcome of their surgical intervention. The patients' sex and age, enchondroma location, findings from imaging studies such as plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, clinical findings, operative findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. The average postoperative follow-up period was 24 months. Eighty percent of the tumors were located in the proximal phalanx and 14 (70%) patients presented with pathologic fracture. The plain radiographs and computed tomography findings revealed 13 (65%) cases of internal calcification and 11 (55%) with endosteal scalloping. A periosteal reaction was seen only in 4 (20%) cases. Magnetic resonance imaging of 11 (55%) patients showed low T1-weighted and high T2-weighted signal intensity in all cases. Internal septa and nodules with low T2-weighted signal intensity were observed in 9 (82%) out of 11 cases, and adjacent soft tissue edema was noted in 9 (82%). All patients underwent curettage of the tumor and bone grafting as their surgical treatment. No recurrence or postoperative complications were observed during the 24-month follow-up period. Enchondroma of the foot most frequently involves the proximal phalangeal bone and is often associated with pathologic fracture. The unique clinical signs and characteristic radiographic images are easily recognized, making this a relatively easy diagnosis. With appropriate treatment, a good surgical outcome can be expected. PMID:26024560

  18. Melanoma of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Ivan; Bower, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer that is responsible for most skin cancer deaths globally. Tumors arising on the foot continue to be a particular challenge. Patients present later and lesions are frequently misdiagnosed, leading to more advanced disease with an overall poorer prognosis then melanoma elsewhere. In order to improve early recognition, this article reviews the clinical features of the disease along with published algorithms. Emerging assessment techniques such as dermoscopy are also discussed as tools to improve clinical decision making. Contemporary drug therapies in the treatment of advanced disease are also discussed. PMID:27215160

  19. Search the Foot and Ankle: Interactive Foot Diagram

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Print Bookmark Search the Foot and Ankle Foot conditions in this region: Bunions (Hallux Valgus) » ... Injuries » Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) » Tarsal Coalition » Ankle Fractures » Ankle Sprain » Chronic Ankle Instability » Equinus » Gout » ...

  20. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  1. 20-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Construction of a typical model used in the 20-Foot Spin Tunnel. >From 'Characteristics of Nine Research Wind Tunnels of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory': 'Dynamic models are used for free-spinning tunnel tests. A dynamic model is one for which geometric similarity between model and airplane is extended to obtain geometric similarity of the paths of motion of corresponding points by maintaining constant, in addition to the scale ratio of linear dimensions, three other ratios, that of force, mass, and time. In model testing, however, complete similarity can generally not be duplicated and some compromise is necessary. For free-spinning-model tests in the NACA 20-foot tunnel, the ratio of inertia to frictional or viscous forces (Reynolds number) is not maintained constant, but the ratio of inertia to gravity forces (Froude number) is maintained constant.' 'Models used in the spin tunnel until recently [this report was written in 1957] were made primarily of balsa and reinforced with hardwood. Now, plastic models are being used almost entirely, because they are more durable and when properly constructed are no heavier than balsa models. The models are constructed accurately to scale by pressing plastic material and class cloth into a previously constructed mold. A typical mod is shown in [this picture]. The model is swung as a torsional pendulum and is ballasted to obtain dynamic similarity by placing lead weights in suitable locations within the model wings and fuselage. Corrections are made for the effect of ambient and entrapped air.'

  2. The diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Charles A; Roukis, Thomas S

    2007-10-01

    Lower extremity complications are common in patients with diabetes and include neuropathy, ulceration, infection, and peripheral arterial disease. Foot infections represent the single most common cause of hospitalization and lower extremity amputation in persons with diabetes. Foot ulceration as a result of diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy, rigid osseous deformities and soft-tissue contractures, repetitive trauma from unprotected ambulation, and peripheral vascular disease can all lead to a limb- or life-threatening infection. Antibiotic therapy for diabetic soft-tissue and osseous infections is usually inadequate as an isolated form of therapy. The mainstay of treatment involves well-planned surgical procedures, including extensive and properly placed incisions to perform adequate drainage of abscesses and débridement of necrotic soft-tissue and osseous structures from which deep cultures are obtained for specific antibiotic coverage. Initial antibiotic therapy should provide broad-spectrum coverage, and when final culture results are available the regimen should be revised to organism-specific coverage. Detailed and timely evaluation of the vascularity of the limb is paramount, followed by timely vascular reconstruction involving various endovascular and open surgical procedures to restore pulsatile flow to the full extent of the limb. PMID:17936480

  3. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  4. Multi-segment detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Peter K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A plurality of stretcher detector segments are connected in series whereby detector signals generated when a bubble passes thereby are added together. Each of the stretcher detector segments is disposed an identical propagation distance away from passive replicators wherein bubbles are replicated from a propagation path and applied, simultaneously, to the stretcher detector segments. The stretcher detector segments are arranged to include both dummy and active portions thereof which are arranged to permit the geometry of both the dummy and active portions of the segment to be substantially matched.

  5. 20-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1941-01-01

    The large structure on the left of the photograph is the Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel in which dynamic scale models of modern airplanes are tested to determine their spinning characteristics and ability to recover from spins from movement of the control surfaces. From the information obtained in this manner, the spin recovery characteristics of the full-scale airplane may be predicted. The large sphere on the right is 60 feet in diameter and houses the NACA 12-Foot Free-Flight Wind Tunnel in which dynamic scale models of airplanes are flown in actual controlled flight to provide information from which the stability characteristics of the full-scale airplane may be predicted.

  6. Foot-type analysis and plantar pressure differences between obese and nonobese adolescents during upright standing.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Capodaglio, Paolo; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pau, Massimiliano; Patrizi, Alessandra; Tringali, Gabriella; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of obesity on foot-type and plantar pressure distribution in adolescents. Ten obese adolescents (obese group; BMI: 35.45±4.73 kg/m) and eight normal-weighted adolescents (control group; BMI: 18.67±2.46 kg/m) were recruited. Both groups were evaluated while standing using the Pedar-X in-shoe system. Foot-ground contact was characterized using contact area, peak of force and pressure calculated for the subareas of the foot. The analysis showed that obese participants had significantly higher area of contact in forefoot and midfoot (only in medial area) regions in comparison with the control group, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed for the rearfoot region. As far as the maximum pressure and force was concerned, similar results were obtained for both groups. Obese participants showed higher values for all the regions, with the exception of medial rearfoot area, for which the values were similar between the two groups. The analysis of foot-type distribution displayed that in the obese group high percentage of participants presented flat foot (70%) respect to cavus foot (20%) and normal foot (10%); on the contrary, in the control group, foot-types were markedly different, with 25% of participants with flat foot, 25% with cavus foot and 50% with normal foot. These results are important from a clinical perspective to develop and enhance the rehabilitative options in these patients and to avoid a worsening of their foot abnormalities. Untreated flat foot can in fact be disabling and over time can result in significant difficulties for the patient. PMID:26632774

  7. Subungual exostosis of the foot.

    PubMed

    de Palma, L; Gigante, A; Specchia, N

    1996-12-01

    Eleven subungual exostoses of the foot (10 on the hallux, 1 on the third toe) were studied. The initial symptom was subungual pain. When a subungual mass of fibrous tissue appeared, the nail was pushed up and in one case the mass became infected. X-rays exhibited a bone mass protruding from the terminal phalanx on the dorsomedial aspect of the toe in all cases. All patients underwent surgical excision of the lesions with partial onychectomy. Three layers were identified in five cases: a cap of fibrous tissue, a middle zone of hyaline cartilage with enchondral ossification, and a deep zone of cancellous bone. In three other cases, the histological pattern was pleomorphic and poorly characterized. The study shows that most subungual bone masses exhibited the pathological features of conventional osteochondromas. Nonetheless, a small number of lesions were pleomorphic and differed from osteochondromas, with abundant fibrous tissue merging irregularly into scattered islets of cartilage that was not organized in columns. Radical excision of the mass achieved complete relief of symptoms and recovery without recurrences in all cases. PMID:8973899

  8. Search the Foot and Ankle: Interactive Foot Diagram

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  9. Complications of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S

    2013-12-01

    The diabetic foot is at high risk for complications because of its role in ambulation. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease can lead to chronic foot ulcers, which are at high risk for infection, in part attributable to areas of high pressure caused by lack of tolerance of the soft tissue and bone and joint deformity. If left untreated, infection and ischemia lead to tissue death, culminating in amputation. Treatment strategies include antibiosis, topical therapies, offloading, debridement, and surgery. A multidisciplinary team approach is necessary in the prevention and treatment of complications of the diabetic foot. PMID:24286952

  10. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  11. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  12. MRI of trauma to the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, E C; Zoga, Adam C

    2006-12-01

    Traumatic injuries involving the foot and ankle are very common. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its unsurpassed ability for soft tissue characterization, its utility in the investigation of these patients with foot and ankle trauma has rapidly expanded over the last decade. MRI has the unique capability to evaluate osseous, ligamentous, tendinous, and muscular injuries about the foot and ankle, with a single imaging study. MRI also allows for characterization of injury based on known biomechanical patterns. Injuries to specific soft tissue structures such as the Lisfranc and Spring ligaments can be accurately assessed on MRI when the imager considers both direct and indirect or supportive findings, allowing appropriate therapeutic intervention and rehabilitation. PMID:17387644

  13. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  14. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  15. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  16. Freeing the foot: integrating the foot core system into rehabilitation for lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Fourchet, François

    2015-04-01

    The intrinsic muscles of the foot play a critical role in the regulation of absorption and propulsion during dynamic activities. Dysfunction of these may lead to an increased demand on the remaining components within the foot core system to maintain dynamic foot control, leading to a more rapid breakdown of these contributors and those proximal to the foot. Training the intrinsic foot muscles through a systematic progression of isolation via the short foot exercise offers the opportunity to reincorporate their contribution into the foot core system. This article discusses the function of the intrinsic foot muscles, their contributions to dynamic foot control, and a progressive training paradigm. PMID:25818718

  17. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... the big toe “pushes off” during walking and running. The sesamoids also serve as a weight-bearing ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running, and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, ...

  18. Living with Diabetes: Foot Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... area and to prevent the ulcer from returning. Poor Circulation Poor circulation (blood flow) can make your foot less ... can control some of the things that cause poor blood flow. Don't smoke; smoking makes arteries ...

  19. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...

  20. Foot Push-Up Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  1. Prevention and management of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Turns, Martin

    2015-03-01

    As part of an annual foot review, trained and competent personnel should examine patients' feet to detect risk factors for ulceration. Foot examination with shoes and stockings removed should include: palpation of foot pulses; testing foot sensations using 10g monofilament or vibration; inspection for significant callus or deformed nails; inspection for any structural deformity; asking about any previous ulceration; checking for signs of ulceration; asking about any pain; and inspecting footwear. Following assessment, a foot risk classification score should be given. The person with diabetes should then be informed of their risk score, with education offered regarding future foot-care management. Diabetic foot complications include ulceration, Charcot foot, painful neuropathy, gangrene and amputation. Risk factors for ulceration include non-palpable pulses, insensate foot, significant callus, deformed nails, history of previous ulcer or amputation, tissue damage or signs of ulceration, foot pain and unsuitable footwear. PMID:25757381

  2. Chronic foot pain in older people.

    PubMed

    Menz, Hylton B

    2016-09-01

    Foot pain is a common accompaniment of advancing age, affecting at least one in four older people. However, management of foot pain is a largely undervalued aspect of geriatric health care, resulting in many older people needlessly enduring chronic foot pain and related disability. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of (i) the prevalence and risk factors for foot pain, (ii) the impact of foot pain on mobility and quality of life, and (iii) the conservative management of foot pain. The available evidence indicates that although foot pain is common and disabling in older people, conservative interventions such as routine foot care, footwear advice and foot orthoses are effective at reducing foot pain and may also assist in maintaining mobility and independence in this age group. PMID:27451329

  3. Synovial sarcoma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Bekarev, Mikhail; Elsinger, Elisabeth C; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Borzykowski, Ross M; Geller, David S

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old male who underwent lung lobectomy for presumed lung cancer. Thereafter, he presented with a painful mass between the third and fourth metatarsal heads in the foot that was assumed to be Morton's neuroma. After extensive oncologic evaluation, the foot mass was diagnosed as a synovial sarcoma. In retrospect, his lung lesion was understood to be metastatic disease. PMID:23632071

  4. Nine toes; Mirror Foot Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Vlahovic, Aleksandar M; Pistignjat, Boris S; Vlahovic, Natasa S

    2015-01-01

    Mirror foot is a very rare congenital anomaly, with only a few papers presenting definitive treatment for this entity. There are limited management recommendations. Most cases are treated before walking age. In our case, there were no associated developmental defects of the leg. The child underwent complex rays resection with medial foot reconstruction. After 7.5 years of followup, definitive surgical treatment was performed with satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:26229172

  5. [Gap junction and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-rong; Tao, Jian; Wang, Yun-kai

    2015-11-01

    Gap junctions play a critical role in electrical synchronization and exchange of small molecules between neighboring cells; connexins are a family of structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions. Hyperglycemia changes the structure gap junction proteins and their expression, resulting in obstruction of neural regeneration, vascular function and wound healing, and also promoting vascular atherosclerosis. These pathogenic factors would cause diabetic foot ulcers. This article reviews the involvement of connexins in pathogenesis of diabetic foot. PMID:26822053

  6. Homosexual foot fetishism.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, M S; Williams, C J; Calhan, C

    1994-12-01

    262 respondents from an organization for homosexual foot fetishists provide information from a broader sample than clinical cases and allow examination of the effects of sexual preference on fetishism. Data show a wide range of feet/footwear objects to be arousing. Such interests were often associated with particular types of men, yet interests were subject to change over time. Fetishistic arousal rested on both sensual and symbolic aspects of the fetish. Symbolically, it was the theme of "masculinity" that made male feet/footwear arousing, showing parallels to "femininity" evoked by female feet/footwear for male heterosexual fetishists. For many of the respondents, fetishism did not seem to be a substitute for living persons. Respondents had intimate relationships and were able to incorporate their fetish interests into stable relationships and less intimate ones. Considerable involvement in sadomasochistic practices was also found as was involvement in the gay world. Finally, nothing about a fetishistic interest seemed to preclude the development of subcultural forms around the practice. PMID:7872858

  7. Mouth in Foot Disease.

    PubMed

    Melton, Katie S; DeRosa, Daniel C; Agee, Willie A; Pires, Valerie L; Yim, Duke G; Ngauy, Viseth

    2015-09-01

    Toothpicks are commonly used household items that rarely cause serious injury or infection. Toothpick-related injuries often occur due to ingestion with subsequent trauma/infection at distal sites within the gastrointestinal tract; however, cardiovascular, pleural, and soft tissue infections have been reported. Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus found in oral flora associated with bite wound infections. A few case reports describe E. corrodens osteomyelitis from toothpick puncture wounds. We report a case of foot cellulitis and abscess in an elderly diabetic after toothpick puncture injury that was unresponsive to empiric antibiotics. Wound cultures grew E. corrodens and rare Peptostreptococcus species. E. corrodens is resistant to first-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, and metronidazole. This case highlights the insidious nature of E. corrodens infections and the need to tailor empiric antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections based on the mechanism of injury. In addition, this case stresses the importance of protective footwear in diabetics and serves as a cautionary tale regarding the use of seemingly innocuous toothpicks. PMID:26793413

  8. Mouth in Foot Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeRosa, Daniel C; Agee, Willie A; Pires, Valerie L; Yim, Duke G; Ngauy, Viseth

    2015-01-01

    Toothpicks are commonly used household items that rarely cause serious injury or infection. Toothpick-related injuries often occur due to ingestion with subsequent trauma/infection at distal sites within the gastrointestinal tract; however, cardiovascular, pleural, and soft tissue infections have been reported. Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus found in oral flora associated with bite wound infections. A few case reports describe E. corrodens osteomyelitis from toothpick puncture wounds. We report a case of foot cellulitis and abscess in an elderly diabetic after toothpick puncture injury that was unresponsive to empiric antibiotics. Wound cultures grew E. corrodens and rare Peptostreptococcus species. E. corrodens is resistant to first-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, and metronidazole. This case highlights the insidious nature of E. corrodens infections and the need to tailor empiric antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections based on the mechanism of injury. In addition, this case stresses the importance of protective footwear in diabetics and serves as a cautionary tale regarding the use of seemingly innocuous toothpicks. PMID:26793413

  9. [Update on diabetic foot infections].

    PubMed

    Pascale, Renato; Vitale, Mario; Esposito, Silvano; Noviello, Silvana

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common non-transmitted disease and currently 346 million people are affected in the world. According to the World Health Organization about 15% of diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer in need of medical care. Infection is a serious complication and in the western world it is the major responsible cause of lower limb amputation. In the 84% of cases amputation is the final step in the treatment of a non-healing foot ulcer. So, it's clear that, in order to reduce amputation rate, it's important to prevent foot ulcer formation and improve the treatment of lesion. In this review we report the most recent international literature as regards epidemiology, etiology, classification, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of infected diabetic foot ulcers. The purpose of our work is to remark the multifactorial features of this pathology and the role of infectious disease specialist in a multidisciplinary team for the treatment of infected diabetic foot ulcers. The knowledge of microbiology on one hand, and the need of a complex and long term antibiotic therapy on the other, point out the importance of infectious disease specialist to facilitate, if possible, the healing of a infected diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:22992555

  10. [Unexplained pain in the ankle and foot. Consider transient osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Snijders, G F; van Bokhoven, S C; van Zadelhoff, J T H; Swierstra, B A; Poelkens, F; Martens, H A

    2016-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis is an increasingly recognized condition that causes severe pain in weight-bearing joints and is characterized by otherwise unexplained bone-marrow oedema on MRI. We present two patients, a 40-year-old man and a 60-year-old woman, with longstanding severe pain in the foot and ankle. Both had invalidating pain with only mild swelling of the foot or ankle. Laboratory investigation was unremarkable, and conventional X-ray showed osteopenia of the bones involved. In both cases, consecutive MRIs showed migrating bone marrow oedema. The patients were treated with analgesics, immobilization of the body parts concerned and an intravenous bisphosphonate. PMID:27165454

  11. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Gross, Michael T; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors' mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  12. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  13. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  14. Management of ischemic diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, C; Ferraresi, R; Bassetti, M; Sganzaroli, A B; Galenda, P; Fattori, S; De Prisco, R; Simonetti, D; Bona, F

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot pathology represent the more disabling complication of diabetes. More the 1 million of diabetes patients undergo a lower limb amputation per year; 85% of these amputation are preceded by un ulcer that can be avoided by a prevention program. Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the only independent cause of major amputation in diabetic population, can be correctly treated when an early diagnosis is made. Both endoluminal and surgical revascularization procedures can be applied in diabetes with high rate of success when performed by skilled operator. Infection of diabetic foot, in particular in patients suffering from peripheral artery disease (PVD), may rapidly evolves in severe local or systemic infection putting the patient at high risk of major amputation or death. Together with an early diagnosis of infection and ischemia it is mandatory to apply a correct medical and surgical treatment protocol with the aim to control infection and to improve blood perfusion to the foot. In case of infection surgical procedure should be applied first while revascularization procedure will follow soonest. Antibiotic therapy should be chosen considering different local biological pattern and different type of infection. Reconstructive surgery, the last step in treatment of any diabetic foot lesion, must obtain a functional residual foot or a stump that will allow the patient to go back walking soonest with residual good walking capacity. PMID:24126511

  15. Genomic and biological variability of foot and mouth disease virus serotype A: Exploration of the 'quasispecies' nature of RNA viruses and characterization of A24 variants in naive and vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, systemic disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animal species and is caused by FMDV. The quasispecies nature of FMDV, and other RNA viruses is a hallmark of RNA virus genetics. Thus, investigation of the potential hypervariability of FMDV is relevant to...

  16. [Adjuvant treatment of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Lo Pardo, Dante; Pezzuti, Gabriela; Selleri, Carmine; Pepe, Stefano; Esposito, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    A diabetic infected foot with erythema and fluctuation can suspect that the infection has passed the fascial compartmental, a condition that requires surgical drainage. Elective amputation may be considered for patients who have recurrent ulcers, irreversible loss of function or injuries that require long-term treatment in the hospital. If the diabetic infected foot appears ischemic it requires a treatment of revascularization. The outcome of revascularization is related with the extension of the damaged artery. The debridement removes the bacterial colonies, promotes granulation tissue and its reepithelialization, also facilitates the collection of samples for microbiological analyses. This procedure can be performed with the classic sharp instruments or with advanced autolytic dressings, maggots or ultrasonic equipment. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of infected diabetic foot is controversial because studies in this area are few and methodologically questionable. The same conclusion was reached also for the use of growth factors and skin substitutes. PMID:22982696

  17. Foot Comfort for the Fashionable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Modellista Footwear's new shoe line uses Tempur(TM) material, which conforms to each wearer's unique foot shape to absorb shock and cushion the foot. The foam's properties allow the shoe to change with the wearer's foot as it shrinks and swells throughout the day. Scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center originally developed temper foam in the early 1970s to relieve the intense pressure of G-forces experienced by astronauts during rocket launches. Tempur-Pedic, Inc., further developed the foam and granted Modellista a license to use it in footwear. The Modellista collection is the first shoe design and construction to be certified by the Space Awareness Alliance. The shoes, with designs ranging from traditional clog shapes to sling backs and open-toe sandals, are currently available nationwide at select specialty shoe stores and through catalogs. Tempur(TM) is a registered trademark of Tempur-Pedic, Inc.

  18. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  19. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  20. Multi-segment trunk models used to investigate the crunch factor in golf and their relationship with selected swing and launch parameters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher; Chivers, Paola; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus

    2016-10-01

    The use of multi-segment trunk models to investigate the crunch factor in golf may be warranted. The first aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the trunk and lower trunk for crunch factor-related variables (trunk lateral bending and trunk axial rotation velocity). The second aim was to determine the level of association between crunch factor-related variables with swing (clubhead velocity) and launch (launch angle). Thirty-five high-level amateur male golfers (Mean ± SD: age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years, registered golfing handicap = 5 ± 1.9) without low back pain had kinematic data collected from their golf swing using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 500 Hz. Clubhead velocity and launch angle were collected using a validated real-time launch monitor. A positive relationship was found between the trunk and lower trunk for axial rotation velocity (r(35) = .47, P < .01). Cross-correlation analysis revealed a strong coupling relationship for the crunch factor (R(2) = 0.98) between the trunk and lower trunk. Using generalised linear model analysis, it was evident that faster clubhead velocities and lower launch angles of the golf ball were related to reduced lateral bending of the lower trunk. PMID:26930121

  1. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  2. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features ... chap 16. Read More Compartment syndrome Leg or foot amputation Peripheral artery disease - legs Type 1 diabetes ...

  3. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Field Hockey Football Injuries Golf Injuries Lacrosse Rugby Running Soccer Softball Tennis Volleyball Find an ACFAS Physician ... Foot and Ankle Although golf does not involve running or jumping, injuries can occur to the foot ...

  4. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...

  5. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. More About Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Describes causes of the disease, its symptoms, ...

  6. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    MedlinePlus

    ... AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find an Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeon Page Content The Orthopaedic Distinction Who are Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeons? Orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons are ...

  7. OAKLAND 50-FOOT DEEPENING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Web site posting major public documents for the "Oakland Harbor Navigation Improvement (-50 Foot) Project." Site includes the following project documents: Notice of Availability; Final Environmental Impact Statement/Report; Revisions to the Final EIS/R; and Final Feasibility Stud...

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  9. Billet planting, 8-foot rows, residue updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practices are continually tested and upgraded to maximize sugarcane yield in Louisiana. Over the past 3 years extensive research went in to comparing the industry standard 6-foot row spacing to a wider, 8 foot row. Each 8 foot row was double drilled with seed canes that were 2-3 feet apart....

  10. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  13. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  16. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Text Size ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  2. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  3. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  12. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  15. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  16. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  17. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. PMID:26260010

  18. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay; Bramble, Dennis; Davis, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The foot is a complex structure with many articulations and multiple degrees of freedom that play an important role in static posture and dynamic activities. The evolutionary development of the arch of the foot was coincident with the greater demands placed on the foot as humans began to run. The movement and stability of the arch is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. However, the intrinsic muscles are largely ignored by clinicians and researchers. As such, these muscles are seldom addressed in rehabilitation programmes. Interventions for foot-related problems are more often directed at externally supporting the foot rather than training these muscles to function as they are designed. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for understanding the function of the foot. We begin with an overview of the evolution of the human foot with a focus on the development of the arch. This is followed by a description of the foot intrinsic muscles and their relationship to the extrinsic muscles. We draw the parallels between the small muscles of the trunk region that make up the lumbopelvic core and the intrinsic foot muscles, introducing the concept of the foot core. We then integrate the concept of the foot core into the assessment and treatment of the foot. Finally, we call for an increased awareness of the importance of the foot core stability to normal foot and lower extremity function. PMID:24659509

  19. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  20. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. The 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel was built to study spinning characteristics of aircraft. It was an open throat tunnel capable of a maximum speed of 80 mph. NACA engineer Charles H. Zimmerman designed the tunnel starting in 1928. Construction was completed in December 1929. It was one of two tunnels which replaced the original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (The other was the 7x10-Foot Wind Tunnel.). In NACA TR 387 (p. 499), Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris report that 'the tunnel passages are constructed of 1/8-inch sheet iron, stiffened with angle iron and bolted together at the corners. The over-all dimensions are: Height 31 feet 2 inches; length, 20 feet 3 inches; width, 10 feet 3 inches.' The tunnel was partially constructed in the Langley hanger as indicated by the aircraft in the background. Published in NACA TR 387, 'The Vertical Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,' by Carl J. Wenzinger and Thomas A. Harris, 1931.

  1. [Diabetic foot infections: microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Noviello, Silvana; Esposito, Isabella; Pascale, Renato; Esposito, Silvano; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of wound infection is based on clinical signs and local and/or systemic inflammation. Therefore, the examination has a major role in the diagnosis of infected lesions of the foot. Once the clinical diagnosis of infection is made, the next step is to determine the etiology with the aim to undertake a rational and appropriate treatment. The most reliable method for assessing microbiological etiology is the specimen of material from infected lesion to perform a bacterioscopic examination and culture. The microorganisms involved in the etiology of diabetic foot depends on the type of injury and on specific patient features (antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalization). The most frequently detected pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Mild infections are mostly caused by Gram positive cocci, with a prevalence of S. aureus. Moderate infections are mostly supported by pyogenic Gram positive cocci, but also Gram-negative bacteria can be involved. In severe infections the etiology is polymicrobial. As regards the involvement of fungi in diabetic foot infections data are few and mostly conflicting. PMID:22982694

  2. [Infected lesions of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Vitale, Mario; Zeppa, Pio; Esposito, Isabella; Esposito, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic foot lesions are the result of a complex set of factors including peripheral neuropathy, trauma, joint deformities and perfusion abnormalities. The foot becomes vulnerable and insensitive to minor injuries caused by excessive pressure, mechanically or minimum thermal insults that can determine the primum movens of a foot ulcer. Due to the trauma, the subcutaneous tissues are exposed to bacterial colonization. Therefore, the wound can develop an infection. So, the first step in the treatment of the lesion is the evaluation of tissue damage, in order to guide therapy and prognosis. Wagner's classification, used by over 25 years, is still one of the best known systems of lesion classification; however, it is giving way to the most recent Texas's classification. However, in both systems infection have a minority role. Therefore, the Infectious Diseases Society of America has developed a classification system that divides infections in mild, moderate and severe. The purpose of this classification is to recognize the severe patients because they require immediate hospitalization, parenteral antibiotic therapy and specific instrumental examinations. PMID:22982693

  3. Universal footing with jetting system

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.S.

    1988-08-02

    A universal footing and jetting system is described for supporting marine structures on various types of seafloor materials, comprising: (a) a spud-can structure forming an enlarged footing base particularly useful in soft type sediments and operable to be mounted beneath a marine structure to provide a foundation therefor in seafloor sediments; (b) a high-strength spike means mounted on the bottom of the spud-can structure which is operable to indent into coral and rock type seafloors for stability against sliding and for supporting the marine structure thereon; (c) a jetting system for distributing fluid under pressure to a plurality of jet nozzles positioned about top, bottom, and side surfaces of the spud-can; the plurality of jet nozzles being selectively operative for directing jet flow in upwardly, downwardly and sideways directions; (d) at least one high pressure source for supplying fluid under pressure to the jetting system; (e) the fluid under pressure being operable to be expelled from the jet nozzles about the spud-can surfaces for causing fluidization and boiling of seafloor soils in the immediate area adjacent to and surrounding the spud-can structure for penetration and self burial of the universal footing into the seafloor.

  4. Modeling the intrinsic dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Mushayabasa, Steady; Posny, Drew; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the transmission and spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Our models incorporate relevant biological and ecological factors, vaccination effects, and seasonal impacts during the complex interaction among susceptible, vaccinated, exposed, infected, carrier, and recovered animals. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction numbers. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the analytical findings. PMID:27105988

  5. Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Zayegh, Aladin; Begg, Rezaul K.; Wahab, Yufridin

    2012-01-01

    Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis. PMID:23012576

  6. Laboratory evaluation of footings for lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, Koon M.; Golis, Kelly M.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory experiments with diffferent footing shapes for lunar telescopes. These experiments used a variety of soils including some to simulate regolith response. Based on what is known of regolith and regolith-structure interaction, a shallow-multiple-contact points footing foundation can be adequately designed to support lunar telescopes. Plane-strain load-displacement tests were conducted with different footings and different lunar simulants in a deep transparent plexiglass container. The model footings considered include the rectangular, hemispherical, and spudcan designs. Simulants used to reproduce the mechanical properties of the lunar regolith were fly ash, crushed basalt with and without glass, and a processed lunar simulant. Load-displacement curves were obtained for the different footings in Ottawa sand and in the crushed basalt with glass. The spudcan footing was found to be self-digging and yet stiff, thus providing excellent lateral stability in a large variety of soils.

  7. Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Easley, M E; Weinfeld, S B

    1998-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle by specific sites of involvement (ankle, hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot), modes of presentation, methods of management, and outcome. A summary of treatment and results for 50 ankles, 22 hindfeet, 131 midfeet, and 18 forefeet is presented. Nondisplaced neuropathic ankle fractures typically healed uneventfully with casting and bracing. For displaced ankle fractures, closed reduction and casting generally resulted in loss of reduction and progressive deterioration; better results were obtained with open reduction and internal fixation, using supplemental Kirschner wires and screws. Ankles with Charcot neuroarthropathy and preexisting arthritis typically required arthrodesis. Of the ankles with neuropathic avascular talar necrosis, approximately 1/3 did well with nonoperative intervention and 2/3 required surgery. Chronic, unstable, malaligned Charcot ankles often required arthrodesis. Neuropathic calcaneal fractures were managed successfully nonoperatively. For feet with transverse tarsal joint involvement (Schon Type IV), management was more complex. Nonoperative treatment was successful for less than 1/2. Two thirds of the feet with midtarsus involvement (Schon Types I, II, and III) were managed successfully nonoperatively; 1/3 required surgery for recurrent ulceration, instability, or osteomyelitis. Half of the feet with forefoot neuroarthropathy required surgery for malalignment, ulceration, and/or difficulty with shoewear or braces. This review has established patterns of Charcot involvement of the foot and ankle with corresponding methods of treatment and subsequent responses. From this extensive clinical experience with 221 neuropathic fractures or Charcot joints, recommendations were derived to assist in selecting appropriate management options. PMID:9584374

  8. Functional analysis of the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Vereecke, Evie E; D'Août, Kristiaan; Payne, Rachel; Aerts, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos, and compares it with the human foot. Gibbons and bonobos are both highly arboreal species, yet they have a different locomotor behaviour. Gibbon locomotion is almost exclusively arboreal and is characterized by speed and mobility, whereas bonobo locomotion entails some terrestrial knuckle-walking and both mobility and stability are important. We examine if these differences in locomotion are reflected in their foot myology. Therefore, we have executed detailed dissections of the lower hind limb of two bonobo and three gibbon cadavers. We took several measurements on the isolated muscles (mass, length, physiological cross sectional area, etc.) and calculated the relative muscle masses and belly lengths of the major muscle groups to make interspecific comparisons. An extensive description of all foot and ankle muscles is given and differences between gibbons, bonobos and humans are discussed. No major differences were found between the foot and ankle musculature of both apes; however, marked differences were found between the ape and human foot. The human foot is specialized for solely one type of locomotion, whereas ape feet are extremely adaptable to a wide variety of locomotor modes. Apart from providing interesting anatomical data, this study can also be helpful for the interpretation of fossil (pre)hominids. PMID:15857366

  9. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 1: Structure and Function of the Asymptomatic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Hillstrom, Howard J.; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B.; PT, Betty (Shingpui) Chow; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? Aim To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Methods Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMatII gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Conclusions Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. PMID:23107625

  10. The diabetic foot: a review.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Régnault De La Mothe, G

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical findings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24126512

  11. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Schematic drawing of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris describe the tunnel in NACA TR No. 387: 'The tunnel has an open jet, an open test chamber, and a closed return passage. ... The air passes through the test section in a downward direction then enters the exit cone and passes through the first set of guide vanes to a propeller. From here it passes, by way of the return passage, through the successive sets of guide vanes at the corners, then through the honeycomb, and finally through the entrance cone.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual spin of an airplane. Satisfactory air flow has been attained with a velocity that is uniform over the jet to within 0.5%. The turbulence present in the tunnel has been compared with that of several other tunnels by means of the results of sphere drag tests and was found to average well with the values of those tunnels. Included also in the report are comparisons of results of stable autorotation and of rolling-moment tests obtained both in the vertical tunnel and in the old horizontal 5-foot atmospheric tunnel.' The design of a vertical tunnel having a 5-foot diameter jet was accordingly started by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928. Actual construction of the new tunnel was completed in 1930, and the calibration tests were then made.'

  12. Identifying foot fractures and dislocations.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Fiona; Brown, Craig

    2014-10-01

    As the roles of emergency nurse practitioners expand, more patients with minor injuries are being managed independently by nursing staff. Injuries to the foot and ankle are common among such patients, and X-rays are frequently performed to aid their diagnoses. Some of these fractures and dislocations are subtle and difficult to identify, so practitioners must adopt a structured approach to reading X-rays. This article describes some of these injuries and offers advice, including X-ray illustrations, on how to identify them. PMID:25270819

  13. [Management of diabetic foot infections].

    PubMed

    Esposito, Silvano; Russo, Enrico; Noviello, Silvana; Leone, Sebastiano

    2012-01-01

    All infected diabetic foot wounds require antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment is influenced by the patient's features as the vascular status, the leukocyte function and the kidney activity. The initial antibiotic regimen is usually chosen empirically and it can be modified on the basis of the microbiological information obtained subsequently. The initial empiric therapy should be based, on one hand, on the grade of infected lesion and, secondly, on the epidemiological data. Almost all of the mild/moderate infected wounds can be treated with antibiotics with a spectrum of activity limited to Gram-positive cocci. Treatment with oral antibiotics is sufficient in most cases in patients with mild/moderate infections. With severe infections is more appropriate to use a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Furthermore it is safer to start a parenteral therapy, possibly modifying it into an oral administration if the patient has stabilized. The most frequently pathogen observed in diabetic foot infections is Staphylococcus aureus. It is important to understand whether there are elements that may lead to the suspicion of MRSA infection in order to establish an appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:22982695

  14. On Sound Footing: The Health of Your Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe On Sound Footing The Health of Your Feet Your feet ... search Features A Bang to the Brain On Sound Footing Wise Choices Links Foot Health Tips Use ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions hand-foot-genital syndrome hand-foot-genital syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a rare condition that ...

  16. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  17. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  20. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  1. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  2. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Bookmark Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle Depending on the sport, your feet and ankles can certainly take a beating from repetitive play. ... communities: Copyright © 2016 | American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | ...

  3. Comparative Anatomy of the Hand and Foot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an activity to articulate comparison of the hand and foot. Students carefully cut out corresponding hand/foot parts (carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges) from enlarged diagrams and paste them on paper for comparative analysis. Sample student inferences and diagrams used for the activity are provided. (JN)

  4. Basketball injuries of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    McDermott, E P

    1993-04-01

    Foot and ankle injuries in basketball are discussed in three unrelated categories in this article. This includes a practical differential diagnosis of ankle sprains, acute conditions of the mid and hindfoot, overuse syndromes of nerve entrapment, fascial strain, synovitis, joint subluxation, and inflammation resulting from repetitive stress. The diagnosis and treatment of tendon inflammation of the extrinsic foot musculature is also reviewed. PMID:8097679

  5. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methods and practices that prevent the effects of frost heave by one of the following methods: (1) Conventional footings. Conventional footings must be placed below the frost line depth for the site unless an... frost line depth is not available from the LAHJ, a registered professional engineer,...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methods and practices that prevent the effects of frost heave by one of the following methods: (1) Conventional footings. Conventional footings must be placed below the frost line depth for the site unless an... frost line depth is not available from the LAHJ, a registered professional engineer,...

  7. Small joint arthroscopy in foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing; Yuen, Chi Pan

    2015-03-01

    The clinical application of small joint arthroscopies (metatarsophalangeal joint, Lisfranc joint, Chopart joint, and interphlangeal joint) in the foot has seen significant advancements in the past decades. This article reviews the clinical indications, technical details, outcomes, and potential complications of small joint arthroscopies of the foot. PMID:25726488

  8. A comparison of haemolytic responses in fore-foot and rear-foot distance runners.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Stuart; McDonald, Kirsty A; Dawson, Brian; Stearne, Sarah M; Green, Ben A; Rubenson, Jonas; Clemons, Tristan D; Peeling, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the haemolytic effects of an interval-based running task in fore-foot and rear-foot striking runners. Nineteen male distance runners (10 fore-foot, 9 rear-foot) completed 8 × 3 min repeats at 90% vVO2peak on a motorised treadmill. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were analysed for serum haptoglobin to quantify the haemolytic response to running. Vertical ground reaction forces were also captured via a force plate beneath the treadmill belt. Haptoglobin levels were significantly decreased following exercise (P = 0.001) in both groups (but not between groups), suggesting that the running task created a haemolytic stress. The ground reaction force data showed strong effect sizes for a greater peak force (d = 1.20) and impulse (d = 1.37) in fore-foot runners, and a greater rate of force development (d = 2.74) in rear-foot runners. The lack of difference in haptoglobin response between groups may be explained by the trend for fore-foot runners to experience greater peak force and impulse during the stance phase of their running gait, potentially negating any impact of the greater rate of force development occurring from the rear-foot runners' heel strike. Neither type of runner (fore-foot or rear-foot) appears more susceptible to technique-related foot-strike haemolysis. PMID:26618486

  9. The diabetic foot management - recent advance.

    PubMed

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic ulceration of the foot represents a major global medical, social and economic problem. It is the commonest major end-point of diabetic complications. Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in foot ulceration and may act alone, together, or in combination with other factors such as microvascular disease, biomechanical abnormalities, limited joint mobility and increased susceptibility to infection. In the diabetic foot, distal sensory polyneuropathy is seen most commonly. The advent of insulin overcame the acute problems of ketoacidosis and infection, but could not prevent the vascular and neurological complications. Management of diabetic neuropathic ulcer by appropriate and timely removal of callus, control of infection and reduction of weight bearing forces. Management of diabetic ischaemic foot are medical management, surgical management and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenosed and occluded lower extremity arteries. Foot ulceration in persons with diabetes is the most frequent precursor to amputation. PMID:25638739

  10. An overview of the Charcot foot pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Kaynak, Gökhan; Birsel, Olgar; Güven, Mehmet Fatih; Öğüt, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Charcot arthropathy of the foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes that remains to be a challenging issue for the foot and ankle surgeons. Charcot foot fails to be an obvious diagnostic option that comes to mind, even in a pathognomonic clinical appearance. The rarity of the disorder, more common pathologies that mimic the condition, and the self-limiting prognosis deviate the clinician from the right diagnosis. The clinical challenges in the diagnosis of Charcot foot require in-depth investigations of its enigmatic nature to establish useful guidelines. Yet, this goal seems to be beyond reach, without a holistic view of the immense literature concerning the pathophysiology of the disorder. The primary objective of this article is to put together and review the recent advancements about the etiology and intrinsic mechanisms of diabetic Charcot foot. PMID:23919113

  11. Smart fabric sensors for foot motion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Salcedo, Lina Maria

    Smart Fabrics or fabrics that have the characteristics of sensors are a wide and emerging field of study. This thesis summarizes an investigation into the development of fabric sensors for use in sensorized socks that can be used to gather real time information about the foot such as gait features. Conventional technologies usually provide 2D information about the foot. Sensorized socks are able to provide angular data in which foot angles are correlated to the output from the sensor enabling 3D monitoring of foot position. Current angle detection mechanisms are mainly heavy and cumbersome; the sensorized socks are not only portable but also non-invasive to the subject who wears them. The incorporation of wireless features into the sensorized socks enabled a remote monitoring of the foot.

  12. Comorbid Depression and Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Maydick, Diane R; Acee, Anna M

    2016-02-01

    In the United States, 9.3% of the population, or 29.1 million people have diabetes, and depression affects 20% to 40% of these individuals. Diabetic foot ulcers are a common and serious complication of diabetes and one of the most costly. It is estimated that 2% to 3% of persons with diabetes will develop diabetic foot ulcers each year. There is an association between depression and the development of diabetic foot ulcers. The estimated costs associated with managing diabetes, depression, and diabetic foot ulcers place a substantial burden on the U.S. healthcare system and society. Patients should be screened and evaluated by professionals qualified in the diagnosis and management of depression and diabetic foot ulcers. To be effective, an interprofessional approach that includes the patient and significant others should be used. PMID:26835804

  13. Molecular characterization of a 13-amino acid deletion in VP1 (1D) protein and novel amino acid substitutions in 3D polymerase protein of foot and mouth disease virus subtype A/Iran87

    PubMed Central

    Jelokhani-Niaraki, Saber; Hashemnejad, Khadije; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Lotfi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the VP1 (1D) and partial 3D polymerase (3Dpol) coding regions of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine strain A/Iran87, a highly passaged isolate (~150 passages), was determined and aligned with previously published FMDV serotype A sequences. Overall analysis of the amino acid substitutions revealed that the partial 3Dpol coding region contained four amino acid alterations. Amino acid sequence comparison of the VP1 coding region of the field isolates revealed deletions in the highly passaged Iranian isolate (A/Iran87). The prominent G-H loop of the FMDV VP1 protein contains the conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide, which is a well-known ligand for a specific cell surface integrin. Despite losing the RGD sequence of the VP1 protein and an Asp26→Glu substitution in a beta sheet located within a small groove of the 3Dpol protein, the virus grew in BHK 21 suspension cell cultures. Since this strain has been used as a vaccine strain, it may be inferred that the RGD deletion has no critical role in virus attachment to the cell during the initiation of infection. It is probable that this FMDV subtype can utilize other pathways for cell attachment. PMID:22122902

  14. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    PubMed

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. PMID:24119779

  15. Reconstruction of Mirror Foot with Dysplastic Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Shyam, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Mirror foot is a rare congenital anomaly associated with duplication of the structures of the foot. Verghese et al have classified these feet into three types. Type three is associated with a Dysplastic tibia of which only 5 have been reported. Surgical management has been reported in only two of these five cases which are in the form of amputation. Case Report: We would like to present the reconstruction of a Mirror foot associated with a dysplastic tibia. Our case which is only the sixth reported case attempts to present a surgical reconstruction to a plantigrade foot. Reconstruction was attempted in this case since the child showed a good quadriceps function at the knee. Reconstruction consisted of excision of the preaxial polydactyly to achieve a more cosmetic appearance to the foot as well as improve the ability to wear foot wear. The dysplastic tibia was osteotomized to correct the varus deformity and achieve a plantigtade foot. This helped the child to ambulate more easily with a shoe raise and a brace to maintain the correction achieved. At a five year follow up the child was walking and running with a shoe raise for a 9 cm limb length discrepancy. There was however recurrence of the deformity due to fibular overgrowth. The child’s parents refused further reconstruction and were satisfied with the present function and appearance of the child. Conclusion: Reconstruction can therefore be attempted in these limbs associated with good quadriceps function. PMID:27299070

  16. Ultrasound evaluation of foot deformities in infants.

    PubMed

    Miron, Marie-Claude; Grimard, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Foot deformity in infants is the most common congenital musculoskeletal condition. A precise diagnosis can sometimes be impossible to establish clinically. Radiologic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal abnormalities. However conventional imaging techniques, such as plain radiographs of the foot, are of very little help in this age group because of the lack of ossification of the tarsal bones. US presents a significant advantage because it permits the visualization of cartilaginous structures. This leads to the detailed assessment of foot deformities in infants. Furthermore, US can also be used as a dynamic imaging modality. Different scanning views are beneficial to evaluate the complete anatomy of the foot; depending on the suspected clinical diagnosis, some planes are more informative to display the pathological features of a specific deformity. We describe the US findings of five of the most common foot deformities referred to our pediatric orthopedic clinic (clubfoot, simple metatarsus adductus, skewfoot, and oblique and vertical talus). For each deformity we propose a specific imaging protocol based on US to provide an accurate diagnosis. US is a complementary tool to the clinical examination for determining the diagnosis and the severity of the deformity and also for monitoring the efficacy of treatment. Radiologists investigating foot deformities in infants should consider using US for the detailed assessment of the foot in this age group. PMID:26459012

  17. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb amputation unless a prompt, rational, multidisciplinary approach to therapy is taken. Factors that affect development and healing of diabetic patients' foot ulcers include the degree of metabolic control, the presence of ischemia or infection, and continuing trauma to feet from excessive plantar pressure or poorly fitting shoes. Appropriate wound care for diabetic patients addresses these issues and provides optimal local ulcer therapy with débridement of necrotic tissue and provision of a moist wound-healing environment. Therapies that have no known therapeutic value, such as foot soaking and topical antiseptics, can actually be harmful and should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Family physicians are often primary medical contacts for patients with diabetes. Patients should be screened regularly for diabetic foot complications, and preventive measures should be initiated for those at risk of ulceration. PMID:11398715

  18. Functional Surface of the golden mussel's foot: morphology, structures and the role of cilia on underwater adhesion.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gabriela Rabelo; de Araújo, João Locke Ferreira; Nakamura Filho, Arnaldo; Guañabens, Anna Carolina Paganini; Carvalho, Marcela David de; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão

    2015-09-01

    In this study we characterized the surface morphology and ultrastructure of the foot of the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857), relating its characteristics to the attaching mechanisms of this mollusk. The observation of the foot of this bivalve reveals the presence of micro-scaled cilia with a unique shape, which has a narrowing at its end. This characteristic was associated to the capacity for underwater adhesion to substrates through the employment of van der Waals forces, resembling the adhesion phenomenon of the gecko foot. The temporary attachment during locomotion by means of the foot to substrates was observed to be strong even on smooth surfaces, like glass, or hydrophobic waxy surfaces. Comparing TEM and light microscopy results it was possible to associate the mucous secretions and secreting cells found along the tissues to the production of the byssus inside the groove on the ventral portion of the foot. Not only our experiments, but also the state of the art allowed us to discard the involvement of secretions produced in the foot of the mussel to the temporary adhesion. Through SEM images it was possible to build a virtual three-dimensional model where total foot surface was measured for the estimated calculation of van der Waals forces. Also, some theoretical analysis and considerations have been made concerning the characteristics of the functional surface of L. fortunei foot. PMID:26046265

  19. Factors affecting center of pressure in older adults: the Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although aberrant foot movement during gait has been associated with adverse outcomes in the lower extremities in clinical patients, few studies have analyzed population differences in foot function. The purpose of this study was to assess demographic differences in foot function in a large population-based study of community-dwelling adults. Methods Participants in this study were from the Framingham Foot Study. Walking data were collected from both feet using a Tekscan Matscan pressure mat. Foot function was characterized using the center of pressure excursion index (CPEI). T-tests were used to assess differences between population subsets based on sex, and in men and women separately, age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and in women, past high heel use. Results There were 2111 participants included in this analysis. Significant differences in CPEI were noted by sex (p< 0.0001), by age in women (p = 0.04), and by past high heel use in women (p = 0.04). Conclusions Foot function during gait was affected by sex, as well as by age and shoe-wear in women, but not by BMI or physical activity. Future work will evaluate possible relations between CPEI and outcomes such as falls, sarcopenia, and lower extremity function. PMID:23657058

  20. Intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to control deformation of the longitudinal arch

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Luke A.; Cresswell, Andrew G.; Racinais, Sebastien; Whiteley, Rodney; Lichtwark, Glen

    2014-01-01

    The human foot is characterized by a pronounced longitudinal arch (LA) that compresses and recoils in response to external load during locomotion, allowing for storage and return of elastic energy within the passive structures of the arch and contributing to metabolic energy savings. Here, we examine the potential for active muscular contribution to the biomechanics of arch deformation and recoil. We test the hypotheses that activation of the three largest plantar intrinsic foot muscles, abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum and quadratus plantae is associated with muscle stretch in response to external load on the foot and that activation of these muscles (via electrical stimulation) will generate sufficient force to counter the deformation of LA caused by the external load. We found that recruitment of the intrinsic foot muscles increased with increasing load, beyond specific load thresholds. Interestingly, LA deformation and muscle stretch plateaued towards the maximum load of 150% body weight, when muscle activity was greatest. Electrical stimulation of the plantar intrinsic muscles countered the deformation that occurred owing to the application of external load by reducing the length and increasing the height of the LA. These findings demonstrate that these muscles have the capacity to control foot posture and LA stiffness and may provide a buttressing effect during foot loading. This active arch stiffening mechanism may have important implications for how forces are transmitted during locomotion and postural activities as well as consequences for metabolic energy saving. PMID:24478287

  1. Foot and ankle problems in dancers.

    PubMed

    Kadel, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The dancer's foot and ankle are subjected to high forces and unusual stresses in training and performance. Injuries are common in dancers, and the foot and ankle are particularly vulnerable. Ankle sprains, ankle impingement syndromes, flexor hallucis longus tendonitis, cuboid subluxation, stress fractures, midfoot injuries, heel pain, and first metatarsophalangeal joint problems including hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, and sesamoid injuries will be reviewed. This article will discuss these common foot and ankle problems in dancers and give typical clinical presentation and diagnostic and treatment recommendations. PMID:25442161

  2. Clinical anatomy of the ankle and foot.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Canoso, Juan J; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Vargas, Angélica; Kalish, Robert A

    This paper emphasizes the anatomical substrate of several foot conditions that are seldom discussed in this context. These include the insertional and non-insertional Achilles tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, inferior and posterior heel spurs, foot compartment syndromes, intermetatarsal bursitis and Morton's neuroma. It is a rather superficial anatomical review of an organ that remains largely neglected by rheumatologists. It is our hope that the cases discussed and the cross examination by instructors and participants will stimulate study of the foot and the attention it deserves. PMID:23228530

  3. Surgical treatment of the Charcot foot.

    PubMed

    Pinzur, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    With the increased number of diabetics worldwide and the increased incidence of morbid obesity in more prosperous cultures, there has become an increased awareness of Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle. Outcome studies would suggest that patients with deformity associated with Charcot Foot arthropathy have impaired health related quality of life. This awareness has led reconstructive-minded foot and ankle surgeons to develop surgical strategies to treat these acquired deformities. This article outlines the current clinical approach to this disabling medical condition. PMID:26813619

  4. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  5. The Occurrence of Ipsilateral or Contralateral Foot Disorders and Hand Dominance: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D. T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Positano, Rock G.; Dines, Joshua S.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Gagnon, David R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2011-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, hand dominance and side of foot disorders has not been described in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether hand dominance was associated with ipsilateral foot disorders among community-dwelling older men and women Methods Data were from the Framingham Foot Study (n=2,089, examined 2002–2008). Hand preference for writing was used to classify hand dominance. Foot disorders and side of disorders were based on a validated foot examination. Generalized linear models with GEE was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for intra-person variability. Results Left-handed people were less likely to have foot pain or any foot disorders ipsilateral, but were more likely to have hallux valgus ipsilateral to the left hand. Among right-handed people, the following statistically significant increased odds of having an ipsilateral foot disorder versus contralateral foot disorder were seen: 30% for Morton’s Neuroma, 18% for hammer toes, 21% for lesser toe deformity, and a 2-fold increased odds of any foot disorder; there was a 17% decreased odds for Tailor’s Bunion, and an 11% decreased odds for pes cavus. Conclusion For the 2089 study participants, certain forefoot disorders were shown to be ipsilateral while other foot disorders were contralateral to the dominant hand. It is possible that the side of the dominant hand was a proxy for biomechanics of the dominant foot that may explain some of the associations with ipsilateral forefoot disorders. PMID:23328848

  6. Psychological variables associated with foot function and foot pain in patients with plantar heel pain.

    PubMed

    Cotchett, Matthew P; Whittaker, Glen; Erbas, Bircan

    2015-05-01

    It is widely accepted that psychological variables are associated with self-reported pain and self-reported physical function in patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the relationship between psychological variables and foot pain and foot function has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. Eighty-four participants with plantar heel pain completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale short version (DASS-21) and Foot Health Status Questionnaire. Using a hierarchical regression analysis, a baseline model with age, sex and BMI explained 10 % of the variability in foot function. The addition of depression and stress in separate models explained an additional 7.3 % and 8.1 % of foot function scores, respectively. In the respective models, depression was a significant predictor (β = -0.28; p = 0.009) as was stress (β = -0.29; p = 0.006). Females drove the effect between stress and foot function (β = -0.50; p = 0.001) and depression and foot function (β = -0.53; p < 0.001). In regression models for foot pain, depression, anxiety and stress did not contribute significantly to pain scores. When the data was stratified by sex, stress (β = -0.36; p = 0.024) and depression (β = -0.41; p = 0.013) were significantly associated with foot pain in females but not in males. For participants with plantar heel pain, stress and depression scores were significantly associated with foot function but not foot pain. When the data was stratified by sex, stress and depression were significant predictors of foot pain and function in females. PMID:24647980

  7. Associations of Foot Posture and Function to Lower Extremity Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, JL; Dufour, AB; Hagedorn, TJ; Hillstrom, Howard; Casey, VA; Hannan, MT

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have implicated foot posture and foot function as risk factors for lower extremity pain. Empirical population-based evidence for this assertion is lacking; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of foot posture and foot function to lower extremity joint pain in a population-based study of adults. Methods Participants were members of the Framingham Foot Study. lower extremity joint pain was determined by the response to the NHANES-type question, “On most days do you have pain, aching or stiffness in your [hips, knees, ankles, or feet]?” Modified Arch Index (MAI) classified participants as having planus, rectus (referent) or cavus foot posture. Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI) classified participants as having over-pronated, normal (referent) or over-supinated foot function. Crude and adjusted (age, gender, BMI) logistic regression determined associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain. Results Participants with planus structure had higher odds of knee (1.57, 95% CI: 1.24– 1.99) or ankle (1.47, 95% CI: 1.05–2.06) pain, whereas those with a cavus foot structure had increased odds of ankle pain only (7.56, 95% CI: 1.99–28.8) and pain at one lower extremity site (1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.80). Associations between foot function and lower extremity joint pain were not statistically significant, except for a reduced risk of hip pain in those with an over-supinated foot function (0.69, 95% CI: 0.51–0.93). Conclusions These findings offer a link between foot posture and lower extremity pain, highlighting the need for longitudinal or intervention studies. PMID:24591410

  8. Foot Reaction Forces during Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, R.; Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Kuklis, M. M.; Humphreys, B.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Musculoskeletal changes, particularly in the lower extremities, are an established consequence of long-duration space flight despite exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that disuse and reduction in load bearing are key to these physiological changes, but no quantitative data characterizing the on-orbit movement environments currently exist. Here we present data from the Foot Experiment (E318) regarding astronaut activity on the ground and on-orbit during typical days from 4 International Space Station (ISS) crew members who flew during increments 6, 8, 11, and 12.

  9. [Congenital rocker-bottom foot (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schulitz, K P; Schumacher, G; Parsch, K

    1977-02-01

    A report was made of 19 patients with rocker-bottom foot operated on during the last 10 years in the Orthopedic Hospital and Out-Patient Clinic of the University of Heidelberg. No additional bone anomalies were present in 6 cases. The remaining malformations occurred together with multiple contractures and in the context of spina bifida cystica. The various malformations of the foot were divided into three groups. This study is particularly concerned with therapy for rocker-bottom foot. Conservative measures are not suitable for types I and Ia while conservative therapy should be attempted in type II. The surgical procedure involves 4 steps: development of the calcancal part of the foot, repositioning of the navicular bone, new adjustment of the ankle and various stabilization measures including the Grice operation and transposition of various tendons. The surgical procedure and the results were discussed. PMID:320773

  10. American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Practice Management Practice Management Education Opportunities Practice Management e-Learning e-Learning CME Transcripts Corporate Relations Faculty Application Research & Publications Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery ACFAS Update Read ...

  11. Hand-foot-mouth disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection caused by Coxsackievirus that usually begins in the throat. Symptoms include; fever, sore throat, ulcers in the throat, headache, and a rash with blisters on the palms of the ...

  12. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... osteoarthritis develops as a result of abnormal foot mechanics such as flat feet or high arches. A ... prescribed to provide support to improve the foot’s mechanics or cushioning to help minimize pain. Bracing. Bracing, ...

  13. Advanced Canard in 12 Foot Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Advanced-concepts model plane with front canards, winglets and pusher propellers, in 12 Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, (page 12), by James Schultz.

  14. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist. PMID:26291149

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  16. The Foot-Reading Cult of Japan.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N; Tubbs, R S

    2013-06-01

    Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo was a Japanese new religious movement referred to as the "foot-reading cult" in the media. Its founder, Fukunaga Hogen, claimed to have divine authority and the ability to diagnose physical illness by studying the soles of an individual's feet. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the history of Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo and Fukunaga's practice of foot reading. PMID:23744366

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications.

    PubMed

    Low, Keynes T A; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  18. [Charcot arthropathy and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    López-Gavito, E; Parra-Téllez, P; Vázquez-Escamilla, J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic degenerative disease, which currently is taking on alarming proportions in the population of our country. Neuropathic arthropathy is one of the most interesting degenerative joint disorders and increasingly common within the orthopedic pathology. It is defined as a progressive degenerative arthropathy, chronic and affecting one or more peripheral joints, and develops as a result of the lack of sensory perception normal in the innervation of joints. As a result the joints of the feet are subjected to trauma and repetitive injury causing a neurotraumatic effect with progressive damage to the joints of the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot. Diagnosis includes a proper medical history, careful examination of the affected limb, conventional X-ray, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in some cases. Conservative treatment includes: drugs, rest of the affected limb, and the use of appliances like total-contact cast, orthotics or special shoes. Surgical treatment depends on the stage of the disease, and may require one or more surgical procedures, in order to achieve a full foot plantar support to prevent ulcers. One of the surgeries performed most often is the fusion of damaged joints. Surgery must be performed only in the coalescence phase of the disease, using internal, or external fixation or both. PMID:27627777

  19. The Jaipur limb and foot.

    PubMed

    Sharp, M

    1994-01-01

    In the 12 years which have elapsed since the United Nations declared 1981 to be the Year of the Disabled, the number of amputees world-wide has risen alarmingly, continuing the pattern of the past 40 years, which have seen innumerable conflicts, large and small, with ever-increasing and indiscriminate use of 'improved' antipersonnel mines which have been sown in enormous numbers in rural areas. Even after fighting has ceased--as in Vietnam, which currently has some 200,000 amputees--fresh injuries are caused daily, often to children, by the long-delayed detonation of these weapons. Much of the research and development in prosthetics since World War II has concentrated on producing artificial limbs suitable for an affluent and industrialized society. These, being made from the most modern materials and incorporating the latest technology, are of necessity expensive even for affluent Americans or Europeans and quite out of reach for the 80 per cent of the world's amputees who live in the developing world and for the vast majority of whom these splendid prostheses may be entirely inappropriate. This article describes a foot and leg specifically designed to fit in with the customs and practices of just such people. PMID:7935168

  20. The 'ABC' of examining foot radiographs.

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Eyiyemi O.; Klass, Benjamin; Bendall, Stephen P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We report a simple systematic method of assessing foot radiographs that improves diagnostic accuracy and can reduce the incidence of inappropriate management of serious forefoot and midfoot injuries, particularly the Lisfranc-type injury. STUDY GROUP AND METHODS: Five recently appointed senior house officers (SHOs), with no casualty or Orthopaedic experience prior to their appointment, were shown a set of 10 foot radiographs and told the history and examination findings recorded in the casualty notes of each patient within 6 weeks of taking up their posts. They were informed that the radiographs might or might not demonstrate an abnormality. They were asked to make a diagnosis and decide on a management plan. The test was repeated after they were taught the 'ABC' method of evaluating foot radiographs. RESULTS: Diagnostic accuracy improved after SHOs were taught a systematic method of assessing foot radiographs. The proportion of correct diagnoses increased from 0.64 to 0.78 and the probability of recognising Lisfranc injuries increased from 0 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: The use of this simple method of assessing foot radiographs can reduce the incidence of inappropriate management of serious foot injuries by casualty SHOs, in particular the Lisfranc type injury. PMID:16263015

  1. Clinical Implications of Diabetes on the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kristy

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Athletic trainers must understand the clinical implications of diabetes on the athletic foot in order to promote proper foot care and footwear and to adapt protocols for treatment and exercise of the affected athlete. Data Sources: The MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched for the years 1984 to 1996 with the terms “diabetes and foot,” “neuropathy,” and “Charcot joint.” Data Synthesis: As more athletes with diabetes participate in sports, athletic trainers must develop the skills and knowledge necessary to manage this metabolic illness. Although the need to keep blood glucose levels carefully controlled is well known, the impact of diabetes on the foot is not as well recognized. Peripheral vascular disease, soft tissue neuropathy, and neuropathic arthropathy are the most common complications of diabetes affecting the foot. However, with proper management, these complications can be minimized, allowing diabetic athletes and nonathletes to lead more normal and functional lives. Conclusions/Recommendations: The athletic trainer can assist the diabetic athlete by promoting proper foot care and footwear and adapting protocols for treatment and exercise. PMID:16558434

  2. The management of the infected diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Carlo; Sganzaroli, Adriana; Galenda, Paolo; Bassetti, Matteo; Ferraresi, Roberto; Gabrielli, Livio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease with a worldwide increasing trend. Foot complications, closely related to neuropathy and obstructive peripheral vascular disease, are responsible for more than 1 million of leg amputations every year. Foot infection can dramatically increase the risk of amputation. Although many ulcer classification systems have been proposed to stratify the severity of the infectious process, the definition of a specific therapeutic approach still remains an unsolved problem. A Diabetic Foot Triage and an Integrated Surgical Protocol are proposed to identify a diagnostic flowchart and a step-by-step surgical protocol that can be applied in the treatment of diabetic foot infection. Considering the rapid climbing of multidrug resistant strains it is very important to rationalize the use of antibiotics utilizing them only for the treatment of true infected ulcers. PAD is widely considered the most important factor conditioning the outcome of a diabetic foot ulcer. Currently no randomized control trials are reported in the international literature directly comparing open versus endovascular revascularisation in diabetic patients with CLI. Insufficient data are available to demonstrate whether open bypass surgery or endovascular interventions are more effective in these patients. A decisional flow chart in choosing the best revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with CLI is proposed. Goals and technical aspects of emergency and elective surgical procedures in diabetic foot are analysed to evaluate critical aspects and to suggest proper surgical choices. PMID:22934545

  3. The Charcot foot: pathophysiology, diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Trieb, K

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic changes in the foot are common with a prevalence of approximately 1%. The diagnosis of neuropathic arthropathy is often delayed in diabetic patients with harmful consequences including amputation. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can avoid an extensive programme of treatment with significant morbidity for the patient, high costs and delayed surgery. The pathogenesis of a Charcot foot involves repetitive micro-trauma in a foot with impaired sensation and neurovascular changes caused by pathological innervation of the blood vessels. In most cases, changes are due to a combination of both pathophysiological factors. The Charcot foot is triggered by a combination of mechanical, vascular and biological factors which can lead to late diagnosis and incorrect treatment and eventually to destruction of the foot. This review aims to raise awareness of the diagnosis of the Charcot foot (diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy and the differential diagnosis, erysipelas, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and describe the ways in which the diagnosis may be made. The clinical diagnostic pathways based on different classifications are presented. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1155-9. PMID:27587513

  4. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  5. SAT Type Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Chimeric Vaccine Elicits Protection in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent development of infectious cDNA clone technology for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Southern African Territories (SAT) viruses has provided a valuable tool for genetic and biological characterization of field and laboratory strains. Recombinant chimeric viruses, containing the capsid-coding...

  6. Natural killer cell dysfunction during acute infection with foot-and-mouth diseaase virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer cells (NK) provide one of the initial barriers of cellular host defense against pathogens, in particular intracellular pathogens. The role of these cells in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection is unknown. Previously, we characterized the phenotype and function of NK cells fr...

  7. Immune Evasion During Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Infection of Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interface between successful pathogens and their hosts is often a tenuous balance. In acute viral infections, this involves induction and inhibition of innate responses. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is considered one of the most contagious viruses known and is characterized by rapid induc...

  8. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after aerosol inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the efforts described in this dissertation was to characterize the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle after simulated natural infection. More specifically, emphasis was placed upon two critical knowledge gaps: identification of the primary site(s) of infectio...

  9. Long distance running and acute effects on plantar foot sensitivity and plantar foot loading.

    PubMed

    Alfuth, Martin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-09-26

    The plantar surface of the foot senses local pressures during stance and locomotion. These foot loading characteristics may be affected by long distance running. Little is known about the physiological effects of sports-related loading on plantar sensitivity and their relationship with plantar foot loading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of long distance running on plantar sensitivity to touch and their relationship with foot loading characteristics. It was hypothesized that plantar sensation would decrease after long distance running and may be related to foot loading characteristics. In 15 middle-aged runners, sensory detection thresholds to light touch and plantar pressures were measured before and after a 10 km run. After the run, no significant changes in sensory perception thresholds were observed so that correlations between foot sensitivity and foot loading could not be calculated. A significant decrease of force-time integrals and maximum forces was demonstrated in the whole foot (-6.2%, p=0.003; -3.9%, p=0.001) and the heel (-10.5%, p=0.003; -8.5%, p=0.002). Furthermore, maximum force was significantly reduced in the lateral midfoot (-6.4%, p=0.002). In conclusion, a sub-maximal 10 km running exercise appears to have no significant acute effects on plantar sensitivity, plantar pressure distribution and peak forces. PMID:21871535

  10. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    PubMed Central

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Azevedo Coste, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15% under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  11. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  13. Foot pathology in insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, S J; Shield, J P; Potter, M J; Baum, J D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Foot pathology is a major source of morbidity in adults with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if children with insulin dependent diabetes have an increased incidence of foot pathology compared with non-diabetic children. DESIGN--Questionnaire, clinical examination, and biomechanical assessment. SUBJECTS--67 diabetic children and a comparison group matched for age, sex, and social class. RESULTS--We found significantly more foot pathology in the children with diabetes (52 children) than the comparison group (28 children); with more biomechanical anomalies (58 children with diabetes, 34 comparison group); and a higher incidence of abnormal skin conditions (53 children with diabetes, 27 comparison group). Forty two children with diabetes had received foot health education compared with 27 in the comparison group, but the study revealed ignorance and misconceptions among the diabetic group, and previous contact with a podiatrist was minimal. CONCLUSIONS--The survey suggests that children with diabetes have an increased incidence of foot pathology justifying greater input of podiatric care in the hope of preventing later problems. PMID:7574860

  14. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Semi-automatic readout equipment installed in the 1950s used for data recording and reduction in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST). A 1957 NACA report on wind tunnel facilities at Langley included these comments on the data recording and reduction equipment for the 8-foot HST: 'The data recording and reduction equipment used for handling steady force and pressure information at the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is similar to that described for the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Very little dynamic data recording equipment, however, is available.' The description of the 16-foot transonic tunnel equipment is as follows: 'A semiautomatic force data readout system provides tabulated raw data and punch card storage of raw data concurrent with the operation of the wind tunnel. Provision is made for 12 automatic channels of strain gage-data output, and eight channels of four-digit manually operated inputs are available for tabulating and punching constants, configuration codes, and other information necessary for data reduction and identification. The data are then processed on electronic computing machines to obtain the desired coefficients. These coefficients and their proper identification are then machine tabulated to provide a printed record of the results. The punched cards may also be fed into an automatic plotting device for the preparation of plots necessary for data analysis.'

  15. Severe Foot Lesions in Dairy Goats Associated with Digital Dermatitis Treponemes.

    PubMed

    Crosby-Durrani, H E; Clegg, S R; Singer, E; Angell, J W; Evans, N J; Carter, S D; Blundell, R J; Duncan, J S

    2016-05-01

    Treponeme-associated foot disease has been described in cattle with digital dermatitis and sheep with contagious ovine digital dermatitis. In this study, severe foot lesions in dairy goats associated with digital dermatitis treponemes (i.e. Treponema medium, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema pedis) were characterized macroscopically, radiographically and histologically. The main macroscopic foot lesion was of extensive solar ulceration with or without exophytic papilliform hyperkeratosis. Radiographically, the distal phalanx and distal sesamoid bones were severely damaged and remodelled. Histologically, the lesion was categorized as a chronic lymphoplasmacytic, suppurative and ulcerative pododermatitis. Immunohistochemistry identified the spirochaetal microorganisms located extracellularly in the superficial horn. Study limitations mean that the treponeme bacteria could not be considered the sole or causal agents in the cases described. PMID:27162082

  16. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Result Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (p<0.001) improvements in pain degree and frequency were noted after 1 and 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. In addition, significant (p<0.05) improvement in balancing ability was found after 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. Conclusion Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot. PMID:26798604

  17. Differences in foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus 1

    PubMed Central

    Rossaneis, Mariana Angela; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Mathias, Thaís Aidar de Freitas; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate differences with regard to foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 1,515 individuals with diabetes mellitus aged 40 years old or older. Poisson regression models were used to identity differences in foot self-care deficit and lifestyle between sexes, adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results: foot self-care deficit, characterized by not regularly drying between toes; not regularly checking feet; walking barefoot; poor hygiene and inappropriately trimmed nails, was significantly higher among men, though men presented a lower prevalence of feet scaling and use of inappropriate shoes when compared to women. With regard to lifestyle, men presented less healthy habits, such as not adhering to a proper diet and taking laboratory exams to check for lipid profile at the frequency recommended. Conclusion: the nursing team should take into account gender differences concerning foot self-care and lifestyle when implementing educational activities and interventions intended to decrease risk factors for foot ulceration. PMID:27533270

  18. Classification of wounds of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D G; Peters, E J

    2001-12-01

    A classification system should be thought of as a diagnostic language. Ideally, this language should be used by a large, diverse population of clinicians to guide therapy and ultimately predict outcome. The diabetic foot ulcer is widely known to be the prime precipitant of lower extremity amputations. Its description and classification is the first step toward widespread standardization of treatment and prevention. This article chronologically describes the major diabetic foot wound classification systems devised over the previous generation, discussing each of their attributes and their shortcomings, with an emphasis on an evidence basis for care. It is our hope that discussions such as this one will ultimately lead to a diagnostic and therapeutic lingua franca for diabetic foot wounds and a commensurate reduction in the unconscionably high prevalence of amputations, which we now currently face. PMID:12643204

  19. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  20. Percutaneous Pediatric Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Uglow, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    The techniques for performing percutaneous osteotomies in treating deformities of the foot in children are presented along with a detailed description of the operative details. The author's use of minimal-access surgery for tibial, os calcis, and midfoot osteotomies is described using a cooled side-cutting burr that has not previously been described for use in the child's foot. The cancellous nature of the bones in the child are easily cut with the burr and the adjacent soft tissues are not damaged. The early experience of the healing times are not impaired and the complications associated with percutaneous scars seem to be negligible. PMID:27524707

  1. Charcot foot associated with chronic alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Arapostathi, Christina; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Jude, Edward B

    2013-01-01

    Two patients without a history of diabetes mellitus but with a history of chronic alcohol abuse were referred to our foot clinic due to pain and deformity of the midfoot. On examination both of the feet of the first patient and the left foot of the second patient were swollen and warm but all the inflammatory markers were negative. Subsequent imaging revealed Charcot deformity and the patients were treated with casting and special shoes. The temperature and the swelling of the feet after the offloading improved. x-Rays which were performed 1 and 2 years after the diagnosis did not show any progression of the Charcot deformity. PMID:23563675

  2. [Syndrome of diabetic foot: modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Plekhanov, A N; Markevich, P S

    2014-01-01

    We summarize the literature data on diagnostics of diabetic foot syndrome including clinical examination and special invasive and non-invasive studies of the vascular system. The main methods are ultrasound dopplerography, X-ray contrast angiography, and ultrasound duplex scanning. Special attention is given to instrumental diagnostics of diabetic neuropathies. The golden standard for the evaluation of the function of the peripheral nervous system is electroneuromyography. Methods for the study of diabetic foot complications, such as osteoarthropathy and trophic ulcers, are discussed. PMID:25782303

  3. Foot and Ankle Injuries in Runners.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Yin, Amy; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Foot and ankle injuries account for nearly one-third of running injuries. Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciopathy, and ankle sprains are 3 of the most common types of injuries sustained during training. Other common injuries include other tendinopathies of the foot and ankle, bone stress injuries, nerve conditions including neuromas, and joint disease including osteoarthritis. This review provides an evidence-based framework for the evaluation and optimal management of these conditions to ensure safe return to running participation and reduce risk for future injury. PMID:26616180

  4. [The infected diabetic foot: diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Nicodème, Jean-Damien; Paulin, Emilie Nicodème; Zingg, Matthieu; Uçkay, Ilker; Malacarne, Sarah; Suva, Domizio

    2015-06-01

    Foot infections are a frequent and potentially harmful complication of diabetes mellitus. In one skin ulceration out of two, further evolution towards infection occurs and often leads to amputation increasing morbidity and health care costs. Skin disruptions, favored by the sensorimotor neuropathy and vascular disease, constitute the initial factors leading to this complication. To ensure effective care, these cases must be managed by a multidisciplinary team in a specialized center. All caretakers involved with patients suffering from diabetes mellitus must be capable of preventing and recognizing diabetic foot infections, as well as informing the patients about this complication and its management. PMID:26211284

  5. Pathology-designed custom molded foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Treating patients with custom foot orthoses for common pathologies is a rewarding experience when the proper steps are taken during foot casting and custom-orthosis prescription writing. This article describes successful methods for orthoses casting and prescription writing for custom-molded orthoses for Achilles tendonitis, pes planus, hallux limitus, plantar fasciitis/heel spurs, lateral ankle instability, metatarsalgia, and pes cavus. In addition, a summary of orthotic laboratory instructions for each pathology-designed custom orthosis is provided, which should be considered by orthotic laboratories. PMID:21276525

  6. Small Joint Arthroscopy in the Foot.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Christopher L; Shane, Amber M; Payne, Trevor; Cavins, Zac

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopy has advanced in the foot and ankle realm, leading to new innovative techniques designed toward treatment of small joint abnormality. A range of abnormalities that are currently widespread for arthroscopic treatment in larger joints continues to be translated to congruent modalities in the small joints. Small joint arthroscopy offers relief from foot ailments with a noninvasive element afforded by arthroscopy. Early studies have found comparable results from arthroscopic soft tissue procedures as well as arthrodesis of the small joints when compared with the standard open approach. PMID:27599441

  7. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  8. Imaging of the diabetic foot diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Loredo, Rebecca; Rahal, Andres; Garcia, Glenn; Metter, Darlene

    2010-10-01

    Multiple diagnostic imaging modalities are available and beneficial for the evaluation of the diabetic foot. There is not yet "one best test" for sorting out the diagnostic dilemmas commonly encountered. The differentiation of cellulitis alone from underlying osteomyelitis and the early detection of abscesses remain important diagnostic goals. Equally important, differentiation of osteomyelitis and neuroarthropathy remains a difficult job. This is often compounded by postoperative diabetic foot states status after reconstruction. Diagnostic evaluation often involves multiple studies that are complementary and that include conventional radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography. PMID:20966452

  9. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookmark Parents: Avoid kids' foot problems with the right shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  10. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  11. [The gold standard in diabetic foot treatment: total contact cast].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Florida Mejía-Mendoza, Melissa Desireé; Ibáñez-Doria, Mónica; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, foot complications remain one of the main health issues, with ulcers representing one of the most common. These ulcerations originate from repetitive trauma on a foot with neuropathy. Inadequate care of the diabetic foot may lead to one of the gravest complications of the diabetic foot: amputation. The key to the treatment of the diabetic foot is the control of comorbidities (glucose levels and vascular disease), debridement, exudate control with the available modern dressings, treatment of infection, and offloading the affected foot. A common error in this basic treatment is the method used for offloading, leading to delayed healing as a result, and maybe even amputation. For this purpose we propose the total contact cast considered the "gold standard" in diabetic foot offloading. The objective of the present review is to present the existing evidence in the medical literature on the effectiveness of its use for healing diabetic foot ulcers and hence preventing amputations. PMID:24481432

  12. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications.

    PubMed

    Turns, Martin

    Diabetic foot problems are a common complication of diabetes mellitus and can lead to morbidity and mortality. Foot disease is the leading cause of non-traumatic lower-limb amputation in the developed world (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2004). Diabetic foot disease is a result of three main pathologies, which can occur singly or in combination. These are: peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease and infection. Consequences of these pathologies are ulceration, Charcot foot, painful neuropathy, gangrene and amputation (NICE, 2004). This article offers a podiatrist perspective of the management of diabetic foot problems, from initial assessment to the management of complex foot disease. Patients with a diabetic foot problem must be assessed thoroughly and referred to the local multidisciplinary team, where appropriate (NICE, 2004). Recurrence of ulcers is common, and therefore good foot health education, adequate footwear and regular podiatry, if required, must be an integral part of the patient's review process (NICE, 2004). PMID:21841646

  13. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  14. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  15. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control. PMID:17365634

  18. Measurement system for 3-D foot coordinates and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhong; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi

    2008-12-01

    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system based on laser-line-scanning principle and the model of the measurement system were presented. Errors caused by nonlinearity of CCD cameras and caused by installation can be eliminated by using the global calibration method for CCD cameras, which based on nonlinear coordinate mapping function and the optimized method. A local foot coordinate system is defined with the Pternion and the Acropodion extracted from the boundaries of foot projections. The characteristic points can thus be located and foot parameters be extracted automatically by the local foot coordinate system and the related sections. Foot measurements for about 200 participants were conducted and the measurement results for male and female participants were presented. 3-D foot coordinates and parameters measurement makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization, and establishment of a feet database for consumers.

  19. Biomechanics of foot/ankle trauma with variable energy impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gallenberger, Kathryn; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A total of 60 pendulum impacts to the plantar surface of 15 lower limb PMHS specimens were conducted. Impact conditions were chosen to obtain data from high velocity tests without injury. For 19 impacts the specimen was initially positioned in 20-deg of dorsiflexion. The remaining impacts used neutral positioning. The foot-ankle response was investigated based on impact energy and velocity. Response was characterized by heel pad and joint stiffness. For neutral tests, axial force vs compression corridors were developed for 2–3 m/s, 4–6 m/s, and 7–63 J impacts. For dorsiflexion tests corridors of 1–3 m/s, 6–8 m/s, 7–20 J, and 80–100 J were developed. These results indicate foot/ankle response is not more sensitive to impact energy than velocity. Injury risk curves were developed for both neutral and dorsiflexion positioning using logistic regression. Strain gage data were used to obtain uncensored force values for injury analysis. In neutral, 50% probability of injury occurred at 6800 N. In dorsiflexion, 50% probability occurred at 7900 N, but the regression was not statistically significant. These preliminary results indicate dorsiflexed specimens fracture at a higher force than neutral specimens. PMID:24406952

  20. Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Bates, K. T.; Savage, R.; Pataky, T. C.; Morse, S. A.; Webster, E.; Falkingham, P. L.; Ren, L.; Qian, Z.; Collins, D.; Bennett, M. R.; McClymont, J.; Crompton, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Footprints are the most direct source of evidence about locomotor biomechanics in extinct vertebrates. One of the principal suppositions underpinning biomechanical inferences is that footprint geometry correlates with dynamic foot pressure, which, in turn, is linked with overall limb motion of the trackmaker. In this study, we perform the first quantitative test of this long-standing assumption, using topological statistical analysis of plantar pressures and experimental and computer-simulated footprints. In computer-simulated footprints, the relative distribution of depth differed from the distribution of both peak and pressure impulse in all simulations. Analysis of footprint samples with common loading inputs and similar depths reveals that only shallow footprints lack significant topological differences between depth and pressure distributions. Topological comparison of plantar pressures and experimental beach footprints demonstrates that geometry is highly dependent on overall print depth; deeper footprints are characterized by greater relative forefoot, and particularly toe, depth than shallow footprints. The highlighted difference between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ footprints clearly emphasizes the need to understand variation in foot mechanics across different degrees of substrate compliance. Overall, our results indicate that extreme caution is required when applying the ‘depth equals pressure’ paradigm to hominin footprints, and by extension, those of other extant and extinct tetrapods. PMID:23516064

  1. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33...

  2. On-the-Job Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... hidden hazards. ◆ Be considerate. Watch out for other workers’ safety. ◆ Follow the rules. Don't cut corners. Use ... workplace. Only one out of four victims of job- related foot injury wear any type of safety shoe or boot, ...

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  4. Imaging of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, H

    1990-09-01

    The foot and ankle are subjected to daily stresses and strains ranging from normal walking activities to the excessive forces encountered in the active sports enthusiast. These traumatic events as well as systemic and local arthritic conditions and tumors can be temporarily or permanently disabling. Early, expedited, and cost-efficient diagnosis is the daily challenge for the radiologist, clinician, and patient. PMID:1975109

  5. Safety Pedal for Foot-Operated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ninged structure prevents inadvertent use. Forward motion of foot on yoke plate necessary to operate brake pedal. Downward force on yoke plate turns locking/releasing laver, which then pushes locking pin into indexing hole. New pedal improves both productivity and safety of power brakes and such other machines as metal shearers and punch presses.

  6. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  7. Health Update: Foot Problems of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses common foot problems of young children and ways parents, child caregivers, and physicians should deal with them. Particular attention is given to care and medical treatment for flat feet, peeling feet, and "w"-sitting in young children. (Author/BB)

  8. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  9. Diabetic foot complications: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Giurini, John M; Lyons, Thomas E

    2005-09-01

    Foot complications in patients with diabetes mellitus are a challenge to the health care industry. A great deal of expenditure is due to the management of diabetic foot complications. This places a great burden on the health care industry. It also places a great burden on those diabetic patients with foot complications and their families. Therefore, their effective management in an efficient manner is crucial to our patients. To deal with these problems, a dedicated, knowledgeable, and experienced multidisciplinary team is key. Intervention at the earliest possible time yields the best outcome. Prevention is the focus for those with no ulcerations. For those with ulcerations, prompt recognition and treatment is key. The importance of classifying ulcerations according to size, depth, presence or absence of infection, and vascular status can not be overstated. Proper offloading is vital for those with neuropathic lesions. Recognition of patients with a component of ischemia and vascular intervention to increase perfusion will aid in wound healing. Of course deep infection requires immediate drainage. All efforts of those in the multidisciplinary team are directed at the restoration and maintenance of an ulcer-free foot which is important in enabling our patients to maintain their ambulatory status. PMID:16100098

  10. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  11. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  12. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  13. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  14. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  15. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening PMID:16878848

  16. The foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Zipfel, Bernhard; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Kidd, Robert S; Carlson, Kristian J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2011-09-01

    A well-preserved and articulated partial foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba, including an associated complete adult distal tibia, talus, and calcaneus, have been discovered at the Malapa site, South Africa, and reported in direct association with the female paratype Malapa Hominin 2. These fossils reveal a mosaic of primitive and derived features that are distinct from those seen in other hominins. The ankle (talocrural) joint is mostly humanlike in form and inferred function, and there is some evidence for a humanlike arch and Achilles tendon. However, Au. sediba is apelike in possessing a more gracile calcaneal body and a more robust medial malleolus than expected. These observations suggest, if present models of foot function are correct, that Au. sediba may have practiced a unique form of bipedalism and some degree of arboreality. Given the combination of features in the Au. sediba foot, as well as comparisons between Au. sediba and older hominins, homoplasy is implied in the acquisition of bipedal adaptations in the hominin foot. PMID:21903807

  17. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  18. How to Eat Right for Your Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feet Flexible How to Eat Right for Your Foot Health Currently selected How to Care for Your Diabetic Feet How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal How to "Read" Your Footprint How Smoking Affects Healing Foot Injury Footwear All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / How ...

  19. 3D morphology of the rear foot from MRI data: technical validation and clinical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stindel, Eric; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Hirsch, Bruce E.; Odhner, Dewey; Couture, Christine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the 3D morphology of the bones of the rear foot using MR data. This work has two subaims: (1) to study the variability of the various computed architectural measures as a result of the subjectivity and variations in the various processing operations; (2) to study the morphology of the bones included in the peritalar complex. Each image data set utilized in this study consists of 60 longitudinal slices of the foot acquired on a 1.5 T commercial GE MR system. Our description of the rear foot morphology is based mainly on the principal axes, which represent the inertia axes of the bones, as well as on the bone surfaces. We use the live-wire method for segmenting and forming the surfaces of the bones. In the first part of this work, we focus on the dependence of the principal axes system on segmentation and on scan orientation. In the second part, we describe the normal morphology of the rear foot considering the four bones (calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, talus) and compare them to a population from the Upper Pleistocene. We conclude that this non-invasive method can be used in live patients to characterize the bone morphology or as a comparative method to classify population of bones. in spite of the variations involved in the various processing operations.

  20. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Interior view of the slotted throat test section installed in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST) in 1950. The slotted region is about 160 inches in length. In this photograph, the sting-type model support is seen straight on. In a NASA report, the test section is described as follows: 'The test section of the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is dodecagonal in cross section and has a cross-sectional area of about 43 square feet. Longitudinal slots are located between each of the 12 wall panels to allow continuous operation through the transonic speed range. The slots contain about 11 percent of the total periphery of the test section. Six of the twelve panels have windows in them to allow for schlieren observations. The entire test section is enclosed in a hemispherical shaped chamber.' John Becker noted that the tunnel's 'final achievement was the development and use in routine operations of the first transonic slotted throat. The investigations of wing-body shapes in this tunnel led to Whitcomb's discovery of the transonic area rule.' James Hansen described the origins of the the slotted throat as follows: 'In 1946 Langley physicist Ray H. Wright conceived a way to do transonic research effectively in a wind tunnel by placing slots in the throat of the test section. The concept for what became known as the slotted-throat or slotted-wall tunnel came to Wright not as a solution to the chronic transonic problem, but as a way to get rid of wall interference (i.e., the mutual effect of two or more meeting waves or vibrations of any kind caused by solid boundaries) at subsonic speeds. For most of the year before Wright came up with this idea, he had been trying to develop a theoretical understanding of wall interference in the 8-Foot HST, which was then being repowered for Mach 1 capability.' When Wright presented these ideas to John Stack, the response was enthusiastic but neither Wright nor Stack thought of slotted-throats as a solution to the transonic problem, only

  1. Racial Differences in Foot Disorders and Foot Type: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe racial differences in the frequency of structural foot disorders and pes planus, and cavus foot types in a large cohort of African American and Caucasian men and women 50+ years old. Methods Of 1,695 Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project participants evaluated for foot disorders/type in 2006–2010, four with lower extremity amputation were excluded, leaving 1,691 available for analyses (mean age 69 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 31.5 kg/m2, 68% women, 31% African American). The most common foot disorders/types were identified using a validated foot examination. Each foot disorder/type was compared by race using logistic regression, controlling for age, BMI, and gender. Effect modification between race (African American versus Caucasian) and age, BMI (categorized as ≥30 [obese] or <30 kg/m2 [non-obese]), gender, and education were examined. Results Hallux valgus (64%), hammer toes (35%), overlapping toes (34%), and pes planus (23%) were common. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans were almost 3 times more likely to have pes planus and were nearly 5 times less likely to have Tailor’s bunions or pes cavus. Among the non-obese, African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to have hallux valgus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39–2.92), hammer toes (aOR=2.64, 95% CI=1.88–3.70), and overlapping toes (aOR=1.53, 95% CI=1.09–2.13). Conclusions Foot disorders are common among adults 50 years of age or older and differ by race. Future research is needed to determine the etiology of foot problems, especially those with racial differences, in order to inform prevention approaches. PMID:22674897

  2. Factors influencing accuracy and reproducibility of body resistance measurements by foot-to-foot impedancemeters.

    PubMed

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Assadi, Imen

    2015-01-01

    The electronics of a BodySignal V2 (Tefal, France) foot-to-foot impedancemeter (FFI) was modified to display the foot-to-foot resistance instead of body fat. This device was connected to electrodes of different sizes mounted on a podoscope permitting photographs of subjects feet soles and electrodes in order to calculate the contact area between feet and electrodes. The foot-to-foot resistance was found to decrease when the contact area of feet with current and voltage electrodes increased. It was also sensitive to feet displacement and a backward move of 5 cm increased the mean resistance by 37 Ω. The resistance reproducibility was tested by asking the subject to repeat measurements 10-times by stepping up and down from the podoscope. The mean SD of these tests was 0.88% of mean resistance, but it fell to 0.47% when feet position was guided and to 0.29% with transverse voltage electrodes. For good reproducibility, it is important that voltage electrodes be small and that the scale design facilitates a correct position of heels on these electrodes. PMID:25365933

  3. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  4. Infrared Thermal Imaging for Automated Detection of Diabetic Foot Complications

    PubMed Central

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. Methods The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). Results No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. Conclusions With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. PMID:24124937

  5. 18. 80 foot pony truss detail of the lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 80 foot pony truss - detail of the lower cord pin connection, typical of the 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, where the vertical lace post joins the upper and lower chords. There are two pair of each 80 foot truss and a single pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. The view also shows the chord eye bar and eye rod along with the diagonal bar and rod members. The rod hanging diagonally to the left is a broken lateral member. A four inch conduit is also in view. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  6. Foot Disorders Associated with Over-Pronated and Over-Supinated Foot Function:The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of musculoskeletal foot disorders differs by race and obesity, and these disorders may be related to pronated (low arch) or supinated (high arch) foot function. This cross-sectional analysis examined relationships of foot disorders and foot function by race and obesity in a community-based observational study of adults 50+ years old with and without osteoarthritis. Methods Members of a prospective cohort study in North Carolina were included in this analysis (N=1466, 67.2% women, 29.5% African American, mean age 68.5 years). Foot disorders were identified with a validated assessment tool, and each foot was categorized as over-pronated, over-supinated, and referent using the center of pressure excursion index from foot pressure scans during normal-paced walking. Logistic regression models estimated associations between foot function and each foot disorder with age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and race as covariates. Results Compared to referent, an over-pronated foot was associated with hallux valgus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.65) and overlapping toes (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.64), especially in the obese. An over-supinated foot was inversely associated with hallux valgus (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97). An over-supinated foot was less likely to be associated with Tailor’s bunions among the obese and was more likely to be associated with plantar fasciitis in Caucasians. Conclusion Foot function was related to hallux valgus and overlapping toes, especially among the obese. In clinical patients as well as in the community of older adults, treatments for both the foot disorder and the pronated/supinated foot are needed. Level of Evidence Level II-2: Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort study. PMID:25037712

  7. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  8. Sex estimation from foot dimensions in an indigenous Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Ghosh, Shila

    2011-01-01

    Dismembered/severed human remains are frequently found in cases of mass disasters and criminal mutilation. Sex estimation from foot dimensions, therefore, has a vital role in establishing personal identity. There is a paucity of literature on this issue from various Indian populations. The "Rajbanshi" is one such indigenous population located in the state of West Bengal, India. The present study attempts to estimate sex from foot length, foot breadth, and foot index among 350 living adult Rajbanshi (175 men and 175 women) individuals (age range: 18-50 years). The study concludes that foot dimensions show significant sex differences. Both sectioning point and regression analyses can be used to estimate sex from foot dimensions. However, multiple regression models appear to have the maximum accuracy in sex differentiation. Although statistically significant sex differences are evident for foot index, its practical utility appears to be limited because of considerable overlap. PMID:21198607

  9. Pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking a diabetic foot infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Ha, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2013-01-01

    An adult with ulcerative colitis and diabetes presented with a painful, swollen, edematous left foot. Diagnostic images and laboratory tests were inconclusive. Antibiotics were started immediately but aggravated his symptoms, and the laboratory results worsened. His foot was debrided twice per protocol for treating diabetic foot ulcers or cellulitis. After debridement, his condition worsened rapidly. Pyoderma gangrenosum was correctly diagnosed on the basis of massive neutrophilic infiltration detected in the biopsy tissue and because the lesion was well-defined and colored deep red to violet, unlike the bullosis diabeticorum blisters observed in the diabetic foot. His foot improved with systemic corticosteroids and topical wound care, and a skin defect was treated with a skin graft. After 9 months, his foot was well healed. Pyoderma gangrenosum can be diagnosed by careful examination and must be distinguished from an ulcerated diabetic foot lesion. PMID:23073270

  10. Hand, foot and mouth disease in Nagpur.

    PubMed

    Saoji, Vikrant A

    2008-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus-A16, a type of enterovirus closely related with the virus that causes herpangina. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. Hand, foot and mouth disease is sporadically reported from India as a mild illness. This report describes four cases of HFMD from Nagpur, Central India, seen between September 2005 and April 2006. All patients presented with a mild febrile prodrome followed by the appearance of aphthous-like oral ulcers and vesicular lesions on the hands and feet. All cases were clinically diagnosed. Coxsackie virus A16 was isolated from the serum of one of the patients. All the patients were in the age group of 3-5 years from different schools. It was a mild illness and all the four patients recovered without any complication. There were no secondary cases in the families. PMID:18388372

  11. Imaging in Foot and Ankle Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Victoria H; Rowbotham, Emma L; Grainger, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    The foot and ankle are commonly involved in a range of arthritides that affect the joints, bones, and soft tissues. Accurate plain film interpretation can often aid the diagnosis and monitor disease progression and treatment response. Ultrasound and MRI afford superior depiction of the soft tissues, and advances over recent years have centered on early detection of synovitis, enabling earlier diagnosis and treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of the imaging techniques of radiography, multidetector computed tomography, ultrasound, and MRI are discussed, as is optimization of these modalities for the assessment of the anatomically complex joints of the foot and ankle. Diagnostic features enabling differentiation between rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative spondyloarthropathies, osteoarthritis, gout, crystal deposition disease, pigmented villonodular synovitis, Charcot arthropathy, septic arthritis, synovial osteochondromatosis, hemophilia, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are also reviewed. PMID:27336451

  12. Extended indications for foot and ankle arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Gross, Christopher E; Lee, Simon; Carreira, Dominic S

    2014-01-01

    Advances in foot and ankle arthroscopy have allowed surgeons to diagnose and treat a broadening array of disorders that were previously limited to open procedures. Arthroscopy of the posterior ankle, subtalar joint, and first metatarsophalangeal joint and tendoscopy can be used to address common foot and ankle ailments, with the potential benefits of decreased pain, fast recovery, and low complication rates. Posterior ankle and subtalar arthroscopy can be used to manage impingement, arthrofibrosis, synovitis, arthritis, fractures, and osteochondral defects. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthroscopy can address osteophytes, chronic synovitis, osteochondral defects, and degenerative joint disease. Tendoscopy is a minimally invasive alternative for evaluation and débridement of the Achilles, posterior tibial, flexor hallucis longus, and peroneal tendons. PMID:24382875

  13. The Charcot foot: medical and surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Ulbrecht, Jan S; Wukich, Dane K

    2008-12-01

    Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy (CN) is among the most devastating complications of neuropathy and now most commonly occurs in the feet of diabetic patients. Because it is relatively rare and because most patients and practitioners do not expect major bone pathology in the absence of significant pain, CN is often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, deep venous thrombosis, or gout. Also, radiographs early in the process are often relatively unremarkable. Although MRI findings are characteristic, treatment should not wait for the MRI result. The hot swollen erythematous neuropathic foot suspected to be CN should be emergently mechanically protected, usually in an irremovable total contact cast. Mechanical protection is the mainstay of conservative therapy, but surgical reconstruction of a deformed foot can usually also be successful. Unless diagnosed very early, significant decrements in quality of life result. Controlled studies are urgently needed to identify best practices. PMID:18990300

  14. [Subintimal angioplasty and diabetic foot revascularisation].

    PubMed

    Pierret, Charles; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Bordier, Lise; Blin, Emmanuel; Duverger, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic wounds foot are responsible for 5-10% minor or major amputation in France. In fact, amputation risk of lower limbs is 15-30% higher for diabetic patients. University of Texas classification (UT) is the reference for diabetic foot wound. It distinguish non ischemic and ischemic wound with more amputation. If ischaemia is combined, revascularization may be considered for salvage of the limb. Some revascularization techniques are well known: as surgical by-pass, angioplasty with or without stent, or hybrid procedures with the both. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique, in assessment for old patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for conventional by-pass or angioplasty. PMID:20980123

  15. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  16. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  17. Diabetic Foot: Surgical Approach in Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Setacci, C.; Sirignano, P.; Mazzitelli, G.; Setacci, F.; Messina, G.; Galzerano, G.; de Donato, G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Critical limb lschemia (CLI) and particularly diabetic foot (DF) are still considered “Cinderella” in our departments. Anyway, the presence of arterial obstructive disease increases the risk of amputation by itself; when it is associated with foot infection, the risk of amputation is greatly increased. Methods. From January 2007 to December 2011, 375 patients with DF infection and CLI have been admitted to our Unit; from 2007 to 2009, 192 patients (Group A) underwent surgical debridement of the lesion followed by a delayed revascularization; from 2010 to 2011, 183 patients (Group B) were treated following a new 4-step protocol: (1) early diagnosis with a 24 h on call DF team; (2) urgent treatment of severe foot infection with an aggressive surgical debridement; (3) early revascularization within 24 hours; (4) definitive treatment: wound healing, reconstructive surgery, and orthesis. We reported rates of mortality, major amputation, and foot healing at 6 months of followup. Results. The majority of patients in both groups were male; no statistical differences in medical history and clinical condition were reported at the baseline. The main difference between the two groups was the mean time from debridement to revascularization (3 days in Group A and 24 hours in Group B). After 6 months of follow-up, mortality was 11% in Group A versus 4.4% in Group B. Major amputation rate was 39.6% and 24.6% in Groups A and B, respectively. Wound healing was achieved in 17.8% in Group A and 20.8% in Group B. Conclusions. This protocol requires a lot of professional skills that should to reach the goal to avoid major amputations in patients with DF. Only an interdisciplinary integrated DF team and an early intervention may significantly impact the outcome of our patients: “Time is Tissue”! PMID:24260718

  18. Diabetic foot: surgical approach in emergency.

    PubMed

    Setacci, C; Sirignano, P; Mazzitelli, G; Setacci, F; Messina, G; Galzerano, G; de Donato, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Critical limb lschemia (CLI) and particularly diabetic foot (DF) are still considered "Cinderella" in our departments. Anyway, the presence of arterial obstructive disease increases the risk of amputation by itself; when it is associated with foot infection, the risk of amputation is greatly increased. Methods. From January 2007 to December 2011, 375 patients with DF infection and CLI have been admitted to our Unit; from 2007 to 2009, 192 patients (Group A) underwent surgical debridement of the lesion followed by a delayed revascularization; from 2010 to 2011, 183 patients (Group B) were treated following a new 4-step protocol: (1) early diagnosis with a 24 h on call DF team; (2) urgent treatment of severe foot infection with an aggressive surgical debridement; (3) early revascularization within 24 hours; (4) definitive treatment: wound healing, reconstructive surgery, and orthesis. We reported rates of mortality, major amputation, and foot healing at 6 months of followup. Results. The majority of patients in both groups were male; no statistical differences in medical history and clinical condition were reported at the baseline. The main difference between the two groups was the mean time from debridement to revascularization (3 days in Group A and 24 hours in Group B). After 6 months of follow-up, mortality was 11% in Group A versus 4.4% in Group B. Major amputation rate was 39.6% and 24.6% in Groups A and B, respectively. Wound healing was achieved in 17.8% in Group A and 20.8% in Group B. Conclusions. This protocol requires a lot of professional skills that should to reach the goal to avoid major amputations in patients with DF. Only an interdisciplinary integrated DF team and an early intervention may significantly impact the outcome of our patients: "Time is Tissue"! PMID:24260718

  19. Therapeutic approach to "diabetic foot" complications.

    PubMed

    Calderini, Cristina; Cioni, Federico; Haddoub, Silvia; Maccanelli, Francesco; Magotti, Maria Grazia; Tardio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The series of ulcers of the lower extremities known as "diabetic foot" is a common complication of diabetes and the chief cause of admission to hospital. The causes may be numerous but the main ones are distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral obliterative arteriopathy, often complicated by infection. In this review, the Authors, after having illustrated the main pathophysiological aspects of the diabetic foot, describe the clinical characteristics of the disease, focusing particularly on the risk of suprainfection and vascular problems. The clinical and therapeutic approach to diabetic foot is also investigated with particular reference to the antibiotic treatment of infections and the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Poor tissue repair, persistent inflammation, the presence of deep abscesses, osteomyelitis and systemic involvement can lead to a very serious clinical picture of gangrene or necrosis, which is initially localised but which can extend widely, requiring minor or major amputation surgery, in order to radically remove the infected tissue. In conclusion, space for discussion is given to the rationale of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, negative pressure wound therapy and other advanced therapies that involve the use of dermoepidermal equivalents and skin substitutes in addition to gels made of platelet-derived growth factors and the epidermal growth factor. Nonetheless, prevention is, of course, of fundamental importance, based on an intensive treat-to-target approach for the treatment of diabetes, on regular examinations of the feet, on the stratification of risk and education of the patient, which has proved successful in reducing the onset of foot lesions in at least 50% of patients. PMID:25567455

  20. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  1. Diabetic foot ulcer due to scedosporium apiospermum.

    PubMed

    D, Vijaya; T, Nagaratnamma; Jv, Sathish

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of diabetic foot ulcer caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a seventy year old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes. Scedosporium apiospermum, the asexual phase of Pseudallescheria boydii a fungus isolated from a variety of natural substrates throughout the world including soil, polluted water, sewage and manure of poultry and cattle. P.boydii is now recognized as a medically important opportunistic fungus. This case has been reported for its rarity. PMID:24392407

  2. Research on the Effect of the Foot Bath and Foot Massage on Residual Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Kito, Kazuko; Suzuki, Keiko

    2016-06-01

    Researchers performed foot baths and massages for residual schizophrenia patients to gauge the effects on psychiatric symptoms. Subjects were six residual schizophrenia patients hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital. Three times a week for 4weeks, they received an 8-minute effleurage massage to their legs after a 10-minute foot bath. The effect of physiological relaxation was identified by a significant decline in heart rate in all cases. The results of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale are as follows: a mean score of 29.0 was measured before treatment, which lowered to 21.5 after treatment, indicating that foot care improved their negative symptoms (p<0.05).The results of the Quality of Life Scale before the foot care intervention, were 10.5 and increased to 34.0 after the intervention, indicating improvement in their quality of life (p<0.05). The results of the two measurements indicate that foot baths and massages were effective in improving psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27256944

  3. Effects of hallux limitus on plantar foot pressure and foot kinematics during walking.

    PubMed

    Van Gheluwe, Bart; Dananberg, Howard J; Hagman, Friso; Vanstaen, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The effects of hallux limitus on plantar foot pressure and foot kinematics have received limited attention in the literature. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effects of limited first metatarsophalangeal joint mobility on plantar foot pressure. It was equally important to identify detection criteria based on plantar pressures and metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics, enabling differentiation between subjects affected by hallux limitus and people with normal hallux function. To further our understanding of the relation between midtarsal collapse and hallux limitus, kinematic variables relating to midtarsal pronation were also included in the study. Two populations of 19 subjects each, one with hallux limitus and the other free of functional abnormalities, were asked to walk at their preferred speed while plantar foot pressures were recorded along with three-dimensional foot kinematics. The presence of hallux limitus, structural or functional, caused peak plantar pressure under the hallux to build up significantly more and at a faster rate than under the first metatarsal head. Additional discriminators for hallux limitus were peak dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, time to this peak value, peak pressure ratios of the first metatarsal head and the more lateral metatarsal heads, and time to maximal pressure under the fourth and fifth metatarsal heads. Finally, in approximately 20% of the subjects, with and without hallux limitus, midtarsal pronation occurred after heel lift, validating the claim that retrograde midtarsal pronation does occur. PMID:16988174

  4. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot. PMID:24611958

  5. The pathway to foot ulceration in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Andrew J M

    2013-09-01

    It should now be possible to achieve a reduction in the incidence of foot ulceration and amputations as knowledge about pathways that result in both these events increases. However, despite the universal use of patient education and the hope of reducing the incidence of ulcers in high-risk patients, there are no appropriately designed large, randomized controlled trials actually confirming that education works. It has been recognized for some years that education as part of a multidisciplinary approach to care of the diabetic foot can help to reduce the incidence of amputations in certain settings. Ultimately, however, a reduction in neuropathic foot problems will only be achieved if we remember that the patients with neuropathic feet have lost their prime warning signal—pain—that ordinarily brings patients to their doctor. Very little training is offered to health care professionals as to how to deal with such patients. Much can be learned about the management of such patients from the treatment of individuals with leprosy: if we are to succeed, we must realize that with loss of pain there is also diminished motivation in the healing of and prevention of injury. PMID:23992891

  6. Dust Resuspension due to Idealized Foot Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Ritesh

    2005-11-01

    The air quality is affected by amount and types of particulate contaminants that are suspended in the air. The resuspension phenomena occur through two mechanisms: mechanical, where kinetic energy is transferred through direct contact from an impacting body or a vibrating surface, and aerodynamic, where dust particles are resuspended by the flow disturbance generated by the body. In this presentation we focus on aerodynamic resuspension of particles caused by walking. The foot movement is idealized and is either towards or away from a floor without touching it. As a first approach, a 15 cm diameter disk having the equivalent area to that of a human foot is used. The ``foot'' movement is driven vertically by a linear servo motor that controls the velocity, acceleration, stroke and deceleration (a typical vertical velocity is 0.5-1.0 m/s). A thin layer of dust is spread on a table relative to which the disk is allowed to move up and down. Flow visualizations show that both the upward and downward movements of the disk play an important role in the dust resuspension. A clear effect of radial jet and vortex dynamics on the particle resuspension is observed during the downward motion. In the wake of the rising disk, the particles were entrained upwards as a starting ring vortex formed. Quantitative PIV measurements will be performed to help further analyze the flow structure of this flow configuration.

  7. Health literacy and diabetic foot ulcer healing

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David J; Hampton, Michelle; Hoffstad, Ole; Malay, D. Scot; Thom, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The adherence by patients to diabetic foot ulcer therapy is often difficult. The goal of this study was to begin to understand how a patient’s health literacy affects their foot ulcer management decisions. Initially using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated diabetics with foot ulcers within 4 weeks of being asked to participate in a longitudinal study. We assessed health literacy using measures of general health literacy, diabetes health literacy, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes numeracy. Individuals enrolled in the study had higher health literacy based on the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (33.8 (SD 2.3) versus 27.3 (SD 9.6); p=0.009) as compared to individuals who previously declined an invitation to enroll in the study. Furthermore, patients with lower Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores had larger (p=0.04) and older (p=0.125) wounds (markers for poorer prognosis). Other measures of literacy showed similar results. In conclusion, those with diminished health literacy were less likely to enroll in an investigational study and had wounds that were less likely to heal. PMID:25923608

  8. Diabetic Foot Biomechanics and Gait Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S.; Najafi, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot complications represent significant morbidity and precede most of the lower extremity amputations performed. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes shown to affect gait. Glycosylation of soft tissues can also affect gait. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the changes in gait for persons with diabetes and highlight the effects of glycosylation on soft tissues at the foot–ground interface. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCOhost® on-line databases were searched for articles pertaining to diabetes and gait. Bibliographies from relevant manuscripts were also searched. Findings Patients with diabetes frequently exhibit a conservative gait strategy where there is slower walking speed, wider base of gait, and prolonged double support time. Glycosylation affects are observed in the lower extremities. Initially, skin thickness decreases and skin hardness increases; tendons thicken; muscles atrophy and exhibit activation delays; bones become less dense; joints have limited mobility; and fat pads are less thick, demonstrate fibrotic atrophy, migrate distally, and may be stiffer. Interpretation In conclusion, there do appear to be gait changes in patients with diabetes. These changes, coupled with local soft tissue changes from advanced glycosylated end products, also alter a patient’s gait, putting them at risk of foot ulceration. Better elucidation of these changes throughout the entire spectrum of diabetes disease can help design better treatments and potentially reduce the unnecessarily high prevalence of foot ulcers and amputation. PMID:20663446

  9. End effector with astronaut foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a foot restraint platform designed primarily for use by an astronaut being rigidly and permanently attached to an end effector which is suitable for attachment to the manipulator arm of a remote manipulating system is described. The foot restraint platform is attached by a brace to the end effector at a location away from the grappling interface of the end effector. The platform comprises a support plate provided with a pair of stirrups for receiving the toe portion of an astronaut's boots when standing on the platform and a pair of heel retainers in the form of raised members which are fixed to the surface of the platform and located to provide abutment surfaces for abutting engagement with the heels of the astronaut's boots when his toes are in the stirrups. The heel retainers preclude a backward sliding movement of the feet on the platform and instead require a lifting of the heels in order to extract the feet. The brace for attaching the foot restraint platform to the end effector may include a pivot or swivel joint to permit various orientations of the platform with respect to the end effector.

  10. Model of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Model of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris wrote in NACA TR 387: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual spin of an airplane. Satisfactory air flow has been attained with a velocity that is uniform over the jet to within 0.5 per cent. The turbulence present in the tunnel has been compared with that of several other tunnels by means of the results of sphere drag tests and was found to average well with the values of those tunnels. Included also in the report are comparisons of results of stable autorotation and of rolling-moment tests obtained both in the vertical tunnel and in the old horizontal 5-foot atmospheric tunnel.' The design of a vertical tunnel having a 5-foot diameter jet was accordingly started by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928. Actual construction of the new tunnel was completed in 1930, and the calibration tests were then made.'

  11. Health literacy and diabetic foot ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Margolis, David J; Hampton, Michelle; Hoffstad, Ole; Malay, D Scot; Thom, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The adherence by patients to diabetic foot ulcer therapy is often difficult. The goal of this study was to begin to understand how a patient's health literacy affects their foot ulcer management decisions. Initially using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated diabetics with foot ulcers within 4 weeks of being asked to participate in a longitudinal study. We assessed health literacy using measures of general health literacy, diabetes health literacy, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes numeracy. Individuals enrolled in the study had higher health literacy based on the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [33.8 (SD 2.3) versus 27.3 (SD 9.6); p = 0.009] as compared to individuals who previously declined an invitation to enroll in the study. Furthermore, patients with lower Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores had larger (p = 0.04) and older (p = 0.125) wounds (markers for poorer prognosis). Other measures of literacy showed similar results. In conclusion, those with diminished health literacy were less likely to enroll in an investigational study and had wounds that were less likely to heal. PMID:25923608

  12. Overview of 6- X 6-foot wind tunnel aero-optics tests. [transonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The splitter-plate arrangement used in tests in the 6 x 6 foot wind tunnel and how it was configured to study boundary layers, both heated and unheated, shear layers over a cavity, separated flows behind spoilers, accelerated flows around a turret, and a turret wake are described. The flows are characterized by examples of the steady-state pressure and of velocity profiles through the various types of flow layers.

  13. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    PubMed

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  14. Characteristics and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyung Wook; Nam, Soo Bong; Kim, Joo Hyung; Kim, Hoon Soo; Choi, Young Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background In East Asia, the foot is the most common site of cutaneous melanoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between cutaneous melanoma of the foot and melanomas of other sites. Methods We studied 52 patients who underwent surgical treatment for cutaneous melanoma of the foot from September 2000 to January 2015. Through a retrospective review of their medical records, we collected data relating to their sex, age, histopathological subtype, Clark level, tumor thickness, lymph node involvement, stage, and survival rate, and we compared these parameters to those of 61 patients treated for melanoma of other sites. Moreover, we analyzed the surgical procedures, complications, and mortality rates associated with cutaneous melanoma on various parts of the foot. Results Melanoma of the foot differed from other melanomas only in the histopathological subtype. Other clinical features, including survival rate, did not differ significantly between the two groups heel was the most common site of melanoma of the foot (22 cases, 42.3%). The method of reconstruction varied depending on the region involved. Conclusions A comparison of melanoma of the foot to other melanomas showed that melanoma of the foot was associated with a significantly different distribution of histological subtypes. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the acral lentiginous subtype was the most common among melanomas of the foot. Furthermore, in contrast with previous studies, we did not find a worse prognosis or lower survival rate for melanoma of the foot in comparison with other melanomas. PMID:26848447

  15. Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

  16. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated natural inoculation methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated using two different strains of FMDV (O1-Manisa and A24-Cruzeiro) at varying doses. Direct intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) and intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) in...

  17. Exploring the role of the lab protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) during viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leader (L) protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) displays two forms, Lab and Lb, through initiation of translation at two in-frame AUG codons positioned 84 nucleotides apart. The short form (Lb) is the most abundant and functionally well characterized form of L. The presence of these tw...

  18. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  19. Analysis of the human and ape foot during bipedal standing with implications for the evolution of the foot.

    PubMed

    Wang, W J; Crompton, R H

    2004-12-01

    The ratio of the power arm (the distance from the heel to the talocrural joint) to the load arm (that from the talocrural joint to the distal head of the metatarsals), or RPL, differs markedly between the human and ape foot. The arches are relatively higher in the human foot in comparison with those in apes. This study evaluates the effect of these two differences on biomechanical effectiveness during bipedal standing, estimating the forces acting across the talocrural and tarsometatarsal joints, and attempts to identify which type of foot is optimal for bipedal standing. A simple model of the foot musculoskeletal system was built to represent the geometric and force relationships in the foot during bipedal standing, and measurements for a variety of human and ape feet applied. The results show that: (1) an RPL of around 40% (as is the case in the human foot) minimizes required muscle force at the talocrural joint; (2) the presence of an high arch in the human foot reduces forces in the plantar musculature and aponeurosis; and (3) the human foot has a lower total of force in joints and muscles than do the ape feet. These results indicate that the proportions of the human foot, and the height of the medial arch are indeed better optimized for bipedal standing than those of apes, further suggesting that their current state is to some extent the product of positive selection for enhanced bipedal standing during the evolution of the foot. PMID:15519591

  20. Investigations of Potential Phenotypes of Foot Osteoarthritis: Cross‐Sectional Analysis From the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Myers, Helen L.; Thomas, Elaine; Downes, Thomas; Peat, George; Roddy, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the existence of distinct foot osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes based on pattern of joint involvement and comparative symptom and risk profiles. Methods Participants ages ≥50 years reporting foot pain in the previous year were drawn from a population‐based cohort. Radiographs were scored for OA in the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, first and second cuneometatarsal, navicular first cuneiform, and talonavicular joints according to a published atlas. Chi‐square tests established clustering, and odds ratios (ORs) examined symmetry and pairwise associations of radiographic OA in the feet. Distinct underlying classes of foot OA were investigated by latent class analysis (LCA) and their association with symptoms and risk factors was assessed. Results In 533 participants (mean age 64.9 years, 55.9% female) radiographic OA clustered across both feet (P < 0.001) and was highly symmetrical (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% confidence interval 2.1, 4.2). LCA identified 3 distinct classes of foot OA: no or minimal foot OA (64%), isolated first MTP joint OA (22%), and polyarticular foot OA (15%). After adjustment for age and sex, polyarticular foot OA was associated with nodal OA, increased body mass index, and more pain and functional limitation compared to the other classes. Conclusion Patterning of radiographic foot OA has provided insight into the existence of 2 forms of foot OA: isolated first MTP joint OA and polyarticular foot OA. The symptom and risk factor profiles in individuals with polyarticular foot OA indicate a possible distinctive phenotype of foot OA, but further research is needed to explore the characteristics of isolated first MTP joint and polyarticular foot OA. PMID:26238801

  1. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  2. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S; Abdulhadi, Nadia N; Coppell, Kirsten J

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002-2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  3. Outbreak of hot-foot syndrome - caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Michl, R K; Rusche, T; Grimm, S; Limpert, E; Beck, J F; Dost, A

    2012-07-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause the hot-foot syndrome, presenting with painful plantar erythematous nodules. Particularly, the mechanically stressed areas of the foot are affected after contact with contaminated water from saunas, swimming pools, hot tubs, etc. We report an outbreak of hot-foot syndrome caused by Pseudomonas in 10 patients. The therapeutic regimens applied reached from local antiseptic therapy to systemic antibiotics. PMID:22187332

  4. 6-Axis Force/Moment Sensor In Humanoid Robot Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai-Faifi, Badrih; Al-Shammary, Maryam; Al-Shehry, Zinab

    2014-07-01

    The foot is the most Important part of the humanoid .Thought the sensor of the robot can understand the environment In which they live, it is important to developed an intelligent foot. In order to walk on uneven terrain safely this poster describes an intelligent foot with 6- axis force/moment sensors for humanoid robot that is one of the solution that can help the robot to walk in uneven terrain safely.

  5. 19. 80 foot pony truss view of upper chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 80 foot pony truss - view of upper chord pin connection at the end post, typical of the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot tress. There are two pair per pony truss for a total of 24. Shown are the vertical lace post, end post, top chord member, and a diagonal member. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  6. Initial misdiagnosis of melanoma located on the foot is associated with poorer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Wiebke; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Roesch, Alexander; Klode, Joachim; Dissemond, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Acral melanoma has been reported to be associated with poorer outcomes than melanoma occurring on other cutaneous sites. It has been suggested that part of this disparity in outcomes may be related to delay in diagnosis. Therefore, we have analyzed the rate of misdiagnoses in patients with melanoma located on the foot and have characterized the influence on the clinical course and survival of the patients. A prospective, computerized melanoma database at the Skin Cancer Center of the University Hospital Essen, Germany was used to identify patients with histologically confirmed melanoma located on the foot between 2002 and July 2013 for subsequent analysis. A cohort of 151 patients diagnosed with primary melanoma located on the foot was identified. One hundred seven patients qualified for subsequent analysis. Forty-two patients were male (39.3%) and 65 (60.7%) were female; the mean age at first diagnosis was 61.6 years (median 66 years). The youngest patient was 19 years, the oldest 88 years old.Of the 107 patients analyzed, 32 (30%) were initially misdiagnosed. Misdiagnoses included chronic wounds, nevi, hematoma, fungal infections, warts, and paronychia. Misdiagnosis caused a median delay in diagnosis of 9 months. The 5-year disease-free survival rate (47.8% vs 72.7%) and the 5-year overall survival rate (63.5% vs 88.4%) were statistically significant lower in the misdiagnosis cohort.The awareness of potentially overlooked melanoma located on the foot has to increase among physicians.To improve early detection and, thus, the prognosis of patients with melanoma located on the foot, taking a biopsy from any suspicious lesion should be taken into consideration as soon as possible. PMID:27442685

  7. Adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 plasma levels in subjects with diabetic foot and possible correlations with clinical variables and cardiovascular co-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It is very suggestive that diabetic foot is characterized by a pronounced inflammatory reaction and the pathogenic significance of this inflammation has received little attention. On this basis the aim of our study was to evaluate plasma levels of adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 in subjects with diabetic foot in comparison with subjects without foot complications. Materials and methods We recruited 34 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and foot ulceration hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events (group A). As controls we recruited 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without foot ulceration (group B) hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events. Adiponectin, Resistin and IL-6 serum levels were evaluated. Results Subjects of group A showed lower median plasma levels of adiponectin [7.7450 (4.47-12.17) μg/ml vs 8.480 (5.15-12.87) μg/ml], higher median plasma levels of IL-6 [3.21 (1.23-5.34) pg/ml vs 2.73 (1.24-3.97 pg/ml)] and of resistin [3.860 (2.96-6.29 ng/ml) vs 3.690 (2.,37-6.5 ng/ml)]. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that diabetic subjects with diabetic foot showed in comparison with diabetics without diabetic foot higher IL-6 and resistin plasma levels, lower adiponectin plasma levels. PMID:20836881

  8. Facts that every vascular surgeon needs to know about the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, M

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes important aspects of the diabetic foot which the vascular surgeon needs to understand to efficiently manage the diabetic foot. Firstly, it emphasises the three main pathologies which come together in the diabetic foot, namely neuropathy, ischemia and immunopathy, the latter predisposing to infection. As a result of neuropathy, the signs and symptoms of tissue breakdown, infection and ischemia may be minimal. Nevertheless the pathology emanating from such clinical events proceeds rapidly without the body being aware of it and the end stage of tissue death and necrosis is quickly reached. It is important to have a prompt system of evaluation and intervention to prevent the rapid progression to necrosis. Thus, secondly, the paper describes a simple rapid assessment of the diabetic foot, which comprises inspection, palpation and sensory testing and leads on to a modern classification and staging of the diabetic foot. This classifies six subdivisions of the diabetic foot: foot with neuropathic ulceration, Charcot foot, neuroischemic foot, critically ischemic foot, acutely ischemic foot and renal ischemic foot and six stages in the natural history of each of these subdivisions: normal foot, high risk foot, ulcerated foot, infected foot, necrotic foot and unsalvageable foot. Thirdly, it describes modern management of the diabetic foot, emphazising wound care and revascularization within the context of a multidisciplinary care team that provides integrated care focused in a diabetic foot clinic, to which patients with diabetes should have easy and rapid access. Members of the team include podiatrist, nurse, orthotist, physician, radiologist and surgeons. PMID:24796920

  9. Role of industries in the care of diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A; Lakshmi, S; Arun, Nanditha; Samith Shetty, A; Snehalatha, C

    2010-09-01

    Diabetic foot disease is a dreaded complication causing severe economic and social burden, mental and physical agony, and severe morbidity and mortality. This complication is largely preventable if the risk factors such as peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease are detected early and appropriate measures are taken to control glycemia, foot pressure, and chances of foot injury. In the case of ulceration, proper microbial control, pressure offloading by debridement, and use of appropriate footwear are mandatory to save the foot. This article focuses on the need for preventive care for diabetic complications demonstrating potentially helpful roles for industry in India. PMID:20705621

  10. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. PMID:27212210

  11. Potential to fall of bipeds using foot kinematics.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Andrew Peter; Merryweather, Andrew; Beschorner, Kurt; Bamberg, Stacy J M

    2013-01-01

    This research compares normal to unexpected slipping gaits of healthy adults to detect potential to fall. Using various x, y, and z position analyses, including a Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), significant differences are shown between normal and unexpected slipping gaits. Our results show that after heel strike of the slipping foot, the recovery foot rapidly changes position to restore balance and lower falling potential. We found RMSE of the recovery foot is significantly greater than the slipping foot, and that potential to fall is easily quantifiable through comparing normal to unexpected gaits. This research provides a solid foundations for a generalized understanding of fall potential for various gaits. PMID:24110795

  12. Factors associated with ulceration and amputation in the neuropathic foot.

    PubMed

    Birke, J A; Patout, C A; Foto, J G

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review selected literature on the relationship of neuropathy and other related factors in foot ulceration and lower extremity amputation. There is strong evidence that sensory loss and mechanical stress are the primary cause of foot ulceration and common factors in the pathway to lower extremity amputation. Foot stress results from extrinsic factors such as footwear and intrinsic factors such as deformity and limited joint mobility. Understanding the interplay of these factors is valuable in identifying persons whose feet are at risk, effectively preventing and treating foot ulcerations and ultimately preventing lower extremity amputation. PMID:10693087

  13. Salient Features of the Maasai Foot: Analysis of 1,096 Maasai Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jin Soo; Seo, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background The Maasai are the most widely known African ethnic group located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. Most spend their days either barefoot or in their traditional shoes made of car tires. Although they walk long distances of up to sixty kilometers a day, they do not suffer from any foot ailments. Little is known about their foot structure and gait. The goal of this investigation was to characterize various aspects of Maasai foot in standing and walking. Methods Foot length, calf circumference, hindfoot alignment, step length, cadence, and walking velocity were obtained from 1,096 adult Maasai people (545 males and 551 females; mean age, 40.28 ± 14.69 years; age range, 16 to 65 years). All included subjects were from rural areas, where the primary terrain was sandy soil, who spend most of their lifetime barefoot, walking. They all denied any medical history or previous symptoms related to foot problems. A trained clinician scanned all feet for deformities. Static (standing) and dynamic (walking) Harris mat footprints were taken to determine the distribution of forefoot pressure patterns during walking. Results The average foot length was 250.14 ± 18.12 mm (range, 210 to 295 mm) and calf circumference was 32.50 ± 3.22 cm (range, 25 to 41 cm). The mean hindfoot alignment was 6.21° ± 1.55° of valgus. Sixty-four subjects (5.84%) had bilateral flat-shaped feet with a low medial longitudinal arch that exactly matched the broad pattern of their static footprints. Step length, cadence, and walking velocity were 426.45 ± 88.73 cm (range, 200 to 690 cm), 94.35 steps/min (range, 72 to 111 steps/min), and 40.16 ± 8.36 m/min (range, 18.20 to 63.36 m/min), respectively. A total of 83.39% subjects showed unilateral or bilateral deformities of multiple toes regardless of age. The most frequent deformity was clawing (98.79%) of which the highest incidence occurred with the fifth toe (93.23%). Dynamic footprints showed even pressure patterns throughout the forefoot

  14. Pitfalls in diagnosing diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Peters, Edgar J

    2016-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of a diabetic foot infection is made based on clinical symptoms and signs, we also use blood laboratory, microbiological and radiological studies to make treatment decisions. All of these diagnostic studies have pitfalls that can lead to a delay in diagnosis. Such delays will likely lead to further tissue damage and to a higher chance of amputation. One of these pitfalls is that some clinicians rely on microbiological, rather than clinical data, to diagnose infection. Though subjective by nature, clinical signs predict outcome of foot infections accurately. Another pitfall is that microbiological data can be misleading. All wounds harbour microorganisms; therefore, a positive wound culture does not mean that a wound is infected. Furthermore, the outcome of cultures of wound swabs does not correlate well with culture results of tissue biopsies. Therapy guidance by wound swab will likely lead to overtreatment of non-pathogenic organisms. Genotyping might have a role in identifying previously unrecognized (combinations of) pathogens in diabetic foot infection, bacteria in sessile phenotype and non-culturable pathogens, e.g. in cases where antibiotics have already been administered. One more pitfall is that the diagnosis of osteomyelitis remains difficult. Although the result of percutaneous bone biopsy is the reference standard for osteomyelitis, some other diagnostic modalities can aid in the diagnosis. A combination of several of these diagnostic tests is probably a good strategy to achieve a higher diagnostic accuracy. Relying on a single test will likely lead to misidentification of patients with osteomyelitis with associated overtreatment and undertreatment. PMID:26813617

  15. The story of a deformed leprous foot.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, Shaurya; Naveen, Sushma; Salunke, Pranjal; Someshwar, Shylaja; Jerajani, Hemangi Rajiv; Joshi, Rajiv

    2016-03-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare adnexal tumour of eccrine ductal proliferation. A 50 year old treated case of leprosy presented with a chronic non healing ulcer of 5 years duration on the deformity laden right foot. Multiple verrucous papules and plaques were seen surrounding the ulcer which showed histopathological findings consistent with ESFA. Although ESFA constitutes a rare association with leprosy, considering the load of treated cases in our country and elsewhere, it may represent an under-reported entity which requires more attention in the post elimination era. PMID:27255064

  16. Foot pain: uncommon presentation of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lamarca, Angela; Hindi, Nadia; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; de Castro, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Acrometastases is an unusual presentation of bone metastases, specially when they are the unique location of bone metastases. The authors report a case of a men diagnosed with a lung adenocarcinoma with a unique lytic acrometastases in his left foot. He has been treated with systemic chemotherapy with good local and systemic response. The most common sites of bone metastases are the vertebrae, pelvis, ribs, sternum and skull. Bone metastases in the distal regions of the extremities are unusual (from 0.007 to 0.3% of all patients with bone metastases), involving more frequently hands than feet. PMID:22802566

  17. Foot pain: uncommon presentation of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamarca, Angela; Hindi, Nadia; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; de Castro, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Acrometastases is an unusual presentation of bone metastases, specially when they are the unique location of bone metastases. The authors report a case of a men diagnosed with a lung adenocarcinoma with a unique lytic acrometastases in his left foot. He has been treated with systemic chemotherapy with good local and systemic response. The most common sites of bone metastases are the vertebrae, pelvis, ribs, sternum and skull. Bone metastases in the distal regions of the extremities are unusual (from 0.007 to 0.3% of all patients with bone metastases), involving more frequently hands than feet. PMID:22802566

  18. Orthobiologics in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheldon S; Montemurro, Nicholas J; Krell, Ethan S

    2016-02-01

    Exploration into the molecular aspects of the healing process has led to the development of autologous and recombinant biologic agents. These products, collectively known as orthobiologics, have the potential to optimize favorable outcomes with respect to bone and soft-tissue restoration and to maximize the natural healing response. These orthobiologics include platelet-derived growth factor, bone morphogenetic proteins, and platelet-rich plasma. Although the usefulness of these growth factors is well described in various fields of surgery, few data exist to support or oppose the specific application of growth factors in foot and ankle surgery. PMID:26803546

  19. Mechanism and Design Analysis of Articulated Ankle Foot Orthoses for Drop-Foot

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Mamat, Azuddin Bin

    2014-01-01

    Robotic technologies are being employed increasingly in the treatment of lower limb disabilities. Individuals suffering from stroke and other neurological disorders often experience inadequate dorsiflexion during swing phase of the gait cycle due to dorsiflexor muscle weakness. This type of pathological gait, mostly known as drop-foot gait, has two major complications, foot-slap during loading response and toe-drag during swing. Ankle foot orthotic (AFO) devices are mostly prescribed to resolve these complications. Existing AFOs are designed with or without articulated joint with various motion control elements like springs, dampers, four-bar mechanism, series elastic actuator, and so forth. This paper examines various AFO designs for drop-foot, discusses the mechanism, and identifies limitations and remaining design challenges. Along with two commercially available AFOs some designs possess promising prospective to be used as daily-wear device. However, the design and mechanism of AFO must ensure compactness, light weight, low noise, and high efficiency. These entailments present significant engineering challenges to develop a new design with wide consumer adoption. PMID:24892102

  20. Diabetic foot-related problems: improving outcomes in the dialysis population using a foot assessment screening tri-algorithm (FAST).

    PubMed

    Crozier, Louise

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the effect of diabetic foot checks on patient awareness, satisfaction, and outcomes. An algorithm was developed based on evidence-based practice, best practice guidelines, and current literature that can be used by nurses and medical staff in the management of foot-related problems in patients with diabetes on dialysis. An educational resource guide was also developed for use when education is required for foot-related problems. PMID:25244893

  1. Development of a Robotic Assembly for Analyzing the Instantaneous Axis of Rotation of the Foot Ankle Complex

    PubMed Central

    Salb, Kelly N.; Wido, Daniel M.; Stewart, Thomas E.; DiAngelo, Denis J.

    2016-01-01

    Ankle instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR) measurements represent a more complete parameter for characterizing joint motion. However, few studies have implemented this measurement to study normal, injured, or pathological foot ankle biomechanics. A novel testing protocol was developed to simulate aspects of in vivo foot ankle mechanics during mid-stance gait in a human cadaveric specimen. A lower leg was mounted in a robotic testing platform with the tibia upright and foot flat on the baseplate. Axial tibia loads (ATLs) were controlled as a function of a vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) set at half body weight (356 N) and a 50% vGRF (178 N) Achilles tendon load. Two specimens were repetitively loaded over 10 degrees of dorsiflexion and 20 degrees of plantar flexion. Platform axes were controlled within 2 microns and 0.008 degrees resulting in ATL measurements within ±2 N of target conditions. Mean ATLs and IAR values were not significantly different between cycles of motion, but IAR values were significantly different between dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. A linear regression analysis showed no significant differences between slopes of plantar flexion paths. The customized robotic platform and advanced testing protocol produced repeatable and accurate measurements of the IAR, useful for assessing foot ankle biomechanics under different loading scenarios and foot conditions. PMID:27099456

  2. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  3. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Robin; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Loth, Eric; Kogler, Géza; Manwaring, Scott D; Tyson, Serena N; Shorter, K Alex; Gilmer, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO) to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot) carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1). Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle. PMID:19527526

  4. Automatic classification of thermal patterns in diabetic foot based on morphological pattern spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Ramirez-Cortes, J.; Renero-Carrillo, F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to characterize and identify patterns of temperature in thermographic images of the human foot plant in support of early diagnosis and follow-up of diabetic patients. Composed feature vectors based on 3D morphological pattern spectrum (pecstrum) and relative position, allow the system to quantitatively characterize and discriminate non-diabetic (control) and diabetic (DM) groups. Non-linear classification using neural networks is used for that purpose. A classification rate of 94.33% in average was obtained with the composed feature extraction process proposed in this paper. Performance evaluation and obtained results are presented.

  5. Stature and sex estimate using foot and shoe dimensions.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Hilmi; Balci, Yasemin; Demirüstü, Canan; Turgut, Akin; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2005-01-29

    The aim of the study was to develop a formula to estimate the stature and sex of an individual using foot and shoe dimensions. To this aim the stature, right and left shoe sizes, and maximum and minimum feet length and width measurements of a target group of 569 individuals were taken. The group was composed of 294 males and 275 females. The highest correlation coefficient was found in length measurements. A notable difference between males and females existed with regard to both right and left foot and shoe length and width averages and shoe sizes (p < 0.001). Among the group, a significant correlation was found in regard to stature and right shoe length (r = 0.591, p < 0.001), with the correlation between stature and right foot length and stature and right shoe length being 0.579 (p < 0.001); as for the female group, there was a significant correlation between stature and right foot length and stature and right shoe length (r = 0.460, p < 0.001). Thus the regression formula obtained are as follows: for the right side: sex = 69.169 + 0.173 (maximum foot length) - 0.368 (maximum foot width) - 0.820 (shoe length) + 0.224 (shoe width) - 1.280 (shoe number). For the left side: sex = 69.551 + 0.276 (maximum foot length) - 0.504 (maximum foot width) - 0.739 (shoe length) + 0.344 (shoe width) - 1.360 (shoe number). In application of the formula, if sex is lower than 0.50, the shoe belongs to a male, if higher, then to female. The formula which was obtained in regression analysis in order to estimate the stature when the measurements of shoe and foot were known. For the right side, stature = 47.93 + 1.083 (maximum foot length) + 0.788 (shoe length) 1.813 (shoe number) (SEE:31.410). For the left side: stature = 47.33 + 1.139 (maximum foot length) + 0.593 (shoe length) x 1.924 (shoe number) (SEE:31.607). It was understood that foot and shoe sizes are a criteria to estimate the stature of a person that there was a strong relationship between foot and shoe length and width

  6. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    PubMed

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group). PMID:26455588

  7. Improved hohlraums for high foot implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Ralph, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Kline, J. L.; Turnbull, D. P.; Call, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Recent High Foot implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), where the laser power is high early in time, have resulted in record neutron yields. In these implosions, there is evidence of low mode radiation drive asymmetries impacting both in-flight and hot spot symmetry. Simulations suggest these asymmetries reduce neutron yield 2-4x, and thus improving the hohlraum should ameliorate implosion performance. To improve symmetry, a hohlraum 1.18x larger with a lower gas fill density has been designed and is being tested. This larger hohlraum with intermediate fill density has performed well for the shorter pulse lengths driving implosions with high-density carbon (HDC) ablators. The challenge here is to maintain the predictability shown by simulation at the longer pulse lengths necessary for plastic ablators. Upcoming shots provide the first tests of drive symmetry and deficit as well as laser backscatter in these larger hohlraums with an intermediate gas fill density using the longer High Foot pulse. Results will be presented and compared to design. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Berendt, Anthony R; Deery, H Gunner; Embil, John M; Joseph, Warren S; Karchmer, Adolf W; LeFrock, Jack L; Lew, Daniel P; Mader, Jon T; Norden, Carl; Tan, James S

    2006-06-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: 1. Foot infections in patients with diabetes cause substantial morbidity and frequent visits to health care professionals and may lead to amputation of a lower extremity. 2. Diabetic foot infections require attention to local (foot) and systemic (metabolic) issues and coordinated management, preferably by a multidisciplinary foot-care team (A-II). The team managing these infections should include, or have ready access to, an infectious diseases specialist or a medical microbiologist (B-II). 3. The major predisposing factor to these infections is foot ulceration, which is usually related to peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral vascular disease and various immunological disturbances play a secondary role. 4. Aerobic Gram-positive cocci (especially Staphylococcus aureus) are the predominant pathogens in diabetic foot infections. Patients who have chronic wounds or who have recently received antibiotic therapy may also be infected with Gram-negative rods, and those with foot ischemia or gangrene may have obligate anaerobic pathogens. 5. Wound infections must be diagnosed clinically on the basis of local (and occasionally systemic) signs and symptoms of inflammation. Laboratory (including microbiological) investigations are of limited use for diagnosing infection, except in cases of osteomyelitis (B-II). 6. Send appropriately obtained specimens for culture before starting empirical antibiotic therapy in all cases of infection, except perhaps those that are mild and previously untreated (B-III). Tissue specimens obtained by biopsy, ulcer curettage, or aspiration are preferable to wound swab specimens (A-I). 7. Imaging studies may help diagnose or better define deep, soft-tissue purulent collections and are usually needed to detect pathological findings in bone. Plain radiography may be adequate in many cases, but MRI (in preference to isotope scanning) is more sensitive and specific, especially for detection of soft-tissue lesions (A-I). 8. Infections

  9. Diabetic foot syndrome--dermatological point of view.

    PubMed

    Troskot, Nina; Duvancić, Tomislav; Kolić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from diabetic foot syndrome, a condition leading to foot ulceration or even amputation of lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy combined with repetitive trauma to the foot and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in the development of foot ulcers. Other major contributive factors include the effects of callus, increased plantar pressures, and local infections. Patient education concerning their disease has a central role in the prevention of foot ulcers. Ordinary preventive measures taken by the patient include regular self-inspections, appropriate daily hygiene of the feet, appropriate footwear to reduce plantar pressures, and medical pedicure performed by a pedicurist experienced in diabetic foot patients. The importance of callus in diabetic patients has been shown in several studies by high predictability of subsequent ulcer development in patients with plantar calluses. For removing callus, urea based preparations are considered to be the treatment of choice. In case of local bacterial and fungal diabetic foot infections, systemic antibiotic and systemic antimycotic therapy is indicated, respectively. Wound dressings of various types are the mainstay in the treatment of chronic foot ulcers with avoidance of occlusive dressings in infected ulcers. Since the vast majority of ulcers and amputations can be prevented in diabetic patients, proper diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are essential. PMID:23837279

  10. Case 6: amputation site on an ulcerated diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Antunes, José Neves Paulos

    2016-03-01

    A patient presented with diabetic gangrene on four toes and a moderately infected ulcer on the dorsum of the foot. Following amputation of the gangrenous toes, it was possible to salvage the remaining foot using a combination of antibiotics, octenilin Wound Irrigation Solution and Octiset. PMID:26949850

  11. Functional limitations due to foot involvement in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ozaras, Nihal; Havan, Nuri; Poyraz, Emine; Rezvanı, Aylin; Aydın, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Spondyloarthritis is a major inflammatory disease followed-up in the rheumatology clinics, foot involvement in spodyloarthritis is common. The functional states of patients with spondyloarthritis are usually evaluated globally. The aim of this study was to assess the foot involvement-related functional limitations in patients with spondyloarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis with foot pain more than 4 weeks who underwent anteroposterior and lateral feet radiography were enrolled into the study. A “clinical findings score” was calculated by assigning 1 point for every finding of swelling, redness, and tenderness. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were used as serum markers for disease activity. Foot radiograms were evaluated using the spondyloarthropathy tarsal radiographic index and the foot-related functional state of patients was determined by the Turkish version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. [Results] There were no relationships between Foot and Ankle Outcome Score subscales and clinical findings score, serum markers, or radiologic score. Pain and symptoms subscale scores were result positively correlated with activity of daily living, sport and recreation, and quality of life subscale scores. [Conclusion] Pain and symptoms are the main determinants of foot-related functional limitations in spondyloarthritis. PMID:27512252

  12. Modelling and gait evaluation of asymmetrical-keel foot prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Allard, P; Trudeau, F; Prince, F; Dansereau, J; Labelle, H; Duhaime, M

    1995-01-01

    The paper documents a new concept in prosthetic foot design. It is based on the capacity of a flexible keel to allow a greater medio-lateral function than previously available. The heel has a complex curvature consisting of a medially concave shape that joins the mid-foot. There a hump acting as a leaf-spring ends at the metatarsal break, with an inwardly curved toe extremity. These curvatures contribute to increased medio-lateral control at heel-strike and propulsion for weight transfer and push-off. Results from finite-element modelling indicate that the asymmetrically shaped keel is at least twice as active in storing energy compared with a completely symmetrical one. A preliminary gait study is carried out for a 24-year-old below-knee amputee fitted with the new design, the SPACE foot and a dynamic elastic response foot with a symmetrical keel. With the SPACE foot, there is a 14% increase in walking speed combined with a reduction in the phasic asymmetries. The absolute difference between the initial and terminal double support is 1.4% for the asymmetrical keel design compared with 4.4% for the symmetrical keel foot prosthesis. The peak ankle power generation burst indicates that the SPACE foot behaves as a dynamic elastic response foot. PMID:7616775

  13. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201.82... Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product...

  15. 17. 80 foot pony truss detail of the lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 80 foot pony truss - detail of the lower pin connection located where an end post joins the first and the last vertical post. There are two pair on each of the five 80 foot trusses for a total of 20. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  16. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201.82... Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.96 - Occupational foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational foot protection. 1926.96 Section 1926.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.96 Occupational foot protection. Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements...

  20. Treatment for Common Running/Walking Foot Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Haar, Calin; Ihlers, Matt; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Whether you are a weekend warrior or a serious athlete, most runners fear the possibility of being injured. For those who are physically active or stand on their feet all day, healthy feet are important Highly conditioned runners spend many hours performing foot maintenance to prevent unnecessary injuries. Some of the common foot injuries are:…

  1. Preventing and treating foot complications associated with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Frank L; Rashid, S Tawqeer; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with a series of macrovascular and microvascular changes that can manifest as a wide range of complications. Foot ulcerations affect ∼2-4% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Risk factors for foot lesions include peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, vascular disease and previous foot ulceration, as well as other microvascular complications, such as retinopathy and end-stage renal disease. Ulceration is the result of a combination of components that together lead to tissue breakdown. The most frequently occurring causal pathways to the development of foot ulcers include peripheral neuropathy and vascular disease, foot deformity or trauma. Peripheral vascular disease is often not diagnosed in patients with diabetes mellitus until tissue loss is evident, usually in the form of a nonhealing ulcer. Identification of patients with diabetes mellitus who are at high risk of ulceration is important and can be achieved via annual foot screening with subsequent multidisciplinary foot-care interventions. Understanding the factors that place patients with diabetes mellitus at high risk of ulceration, together with an appreciation of the links between different aspects of the disease process, is essential to the prevention and management of diabetic foot complications. PMID:26284447

  2. Assessment of foot perfusion in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Hinchliffe, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of foot perfusion is a vital step in the management of patients with diabetic foot ulceration, in order to understand the risk of amputation and likelihood of wound healing. Underlying peripheral artery disease is a common finding in patients with foot ulceration and is associated with poor outcomes. Assessment of foot perfusion should therefore focus on identifying the presence of peripheral artery disease and to subsequently estimate the effect this may have on wound healing. Assessment of perfusion can be difficult because of the often complex, diffuse and distal nature of peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes, as well as poor collateralisation and heavy vascular calcification. Conventional methods of assessing tissue perfusion in the peripheral circulation may be unreliable in patients with diabetes, and it may therefore be difficult to determine the extent to which poor perfusion contributes to foot ulceration. Anatomical data obtained on cross-sectional imaging is important but must be combined with measurements of tissue perfusion (such as transcutaneous oxygen tension) in order to understand the global and regional perfusion deficit present in a patient with diabetic foot ulceration. Ankle-brachial pressure index is routinely used to screen for peripheral artery disease, but its use in patients with diabetes is limited in the presence of neuropathy and medial arterial calcification. Toe pressure index may be more useful because of the relative sparing of pedal arteries from medial calcification but may not always be possible in patients with ulceration. Fluorescence angiography is a non-invasive technique that can provide rapid quantitative information about regional tissue perfusion; capillaroscopy, iontophoresis and hyperspectral imaging may also be useful in assessing physiological perfusion but are not widely available. There may be a future role for specialized perfusion imaging of these patients, including magnetic resonance

  3. Topical review: skin infections in the foot and ankle patient.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Hsu, Jessica W

    2012-07-01

    There are numerous cutaneous disorders that affect the foot, but of these conditions skin infections have the most significant impact on overall patient morbidity and clinical outcome. Skin infections in foot and ankle patients are common, with often devastating consequences if left unrecognized and untreated in both surgical and nonsurgical cases. There is a diverse array of infectious dermatoses that afflict the foot and ankle patient including tinea pedis, onychomycosis, paronychia, pitted keratolysis, verruca, folliculitis, and erysipelas. Prompt diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of these common infectious conditions are critical in managing these dermatoses that can potentially progress to form deep abscesses and osteomyelitis. Infections can be managed with a combination of ventilated shoewear and synthetic substances to keep the feet dry, topical and oral antimicrobial agents, and patient education regarding preventative hygiene measures. The purpose of this review is to aid foot and ankle surgeons and other physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious dermatoses affecting the foot. PMID:22835400

  4. Understanding the nature and mechanism of foot pain

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Fiona; Burns, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of the population are affected by foot pain at any given time. It is often disabling and can impair mood, behaviour, self-care ability and overall quality of life. Currently, the nature and mechanism underlying many types of foot pain is not clearly understood. Here we comprehensively review the literature on foot pain, with specific reference to its definition, prevalence, aetiology and predictors, classification, measurement and impact. We also discuss the complexities of foot pain as a sensory, emotional and psychosocial experience in the context of clinical practice, therapeutic trials and the placebo effect. A deeper understanding of foot pain is needed to identify causal pathways, classify diagnoses, quantify severity, evaluate long term implications and better target clinical intervention. PMID:19144200

  5. A neuromechanical strategy for mediolateral foot placement in walking humans

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Bradford L.; Buffo, Stephanie K.

    2014-01-01

    Stability is an important concern during human walking and can limit mobility in clinical populations. Mediolateral stability can be efficiently controlled through appropriate foot placement, although the underlying neuromechanical strategy is unclear. We hypothesized that humans control mediolateral foot placement through swing leg muscle activity, basing this control on the mechanical state of the contralateral stance leg. Participants walked under Unperturbed and Perturbed conditions, in which foot placement was intermittently perturbed by moving the right leg medially or laterally during the swing phase (by ∼50–100 mm). We quantified mediolateral foot placement, electromyographic activity of frontal-plane hip muscles, and stance leg mechanical state. During Unperturbed walking, greater swing-phase gluteus medius (GM) activity was associated with more lateral foot placement. Increases in GM activity were most strongly predicted by increased mediolateral displacement between the center of mass (CoM) and the contralateral stance foot. The Perturbed walking results indicated a causal relationship between stance leg mechanics and swing-phase GM activity. Perturbations that reduced the mediolateral CoM displacement from the stance foot caused reductions in swing-phase GM activity and more medial foot placement. Conversely, increases in mediolateral CoM displacement caused increased swing-phase GM activity and more lateral foot placement. Under both Unperturbed and Perturbed conditions, humans controlled their mediolateral foot placement by modulating swing-phase muscle activity in response to the mechanical state of the contralateral leg. This strategy may be disrupted in clinical populations with a reduced ability to modulate muscle activity or sense their body's mechanical state. PMID:24790168

  6. A neuromechanical strategy for mediolateral foot placement in walking humans.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Bradford L; Buffo, Stephanie K; Dean, Jesse C

    2014-07-15

    Stability is an important concern during human walking and can limit mobility in clinical populations. Mediolateral stability can be efficiently controlled through appropriate foot placement, although the underlying neuromechanical strategy is unclear. We hypothesized that humans control mediolateral foot placement through swing leg muscle activity, basing this control on the mechanical state of the contralateral stance leg. Participants walked under Unperturbed and Perturbed conditions, in which foot placement was intermittently perturbed by moving the right leg medially or laterally during the swing phase (by ∼50-100 mm). We quantified mediolateral foot placement, electromyographic activity of frontal-plane hip muscles, and stance leg mechanical state. During Unperturbed walking, greater swing-phase gluteus medius (GM) activity was associated with more lateral foot placement. Increases in GM activity were most strongly predicted by increased mediolateral displacement between the center of mass (CoM) and the contralateral stance foot. The Perturbed walking results indicated a causal relationship between stance leg mechanics and swing-phase GM activity. Perturbations that reduced the mediolateral CoM displacement from the stance foot caused reductions in swing-phase GM activity and more medial foot placement. Conversely, increases in mediolateral CoM displacement caused increased swing-phase GM activity and more lateral foot placement. Under both Unperturbed and Perturbed conditions, humans controlled their mediolateral foot placement by modulating swing-phase muscle activity in response to the mechanical state of the contralateral leg. This strategy may be disrupted in clinical populations with a reduced ability to modulate muscle activity or sense their body's mechanical state. PMID:24790168

  7. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words

    PubMed Central

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right. PMID:25852609

  8. Australian Diabetes Foot Network: management of diabetes-related foot ulceration - a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Shan M; Gurr, Joel M; Allard, Bernard P; Holland, Emma L; Horsley, Mark W; Kamp, Maarten C; Lazzarini, Peter A; Nube, Vanessa L; Sinha, Ashim K; Warnock, Jason T; Alford, Jan B; Wraight, Paul R

    2012-08-20

    Appropriate assessment and management of diabetes-related foot ulcers (DRFUs) is essential to reduce amputation risk. Management requires debridement, wound dressing, pressure off-loading, good glycaemic control and potentially antibiotic therapy and vascular intervention. As a minimum, all DRFUs should be managed by a doctor and a podiatrist and/or wound care nurse. Health professionals unable to provide appropriate care for people with DRFUs should promptly refer individuals to professionals with the requisite knowledge and skills. Indicators for immediate referral to an emergency department or multidisciplinary foot care team (MFCT) include gangrene, limb-threatening ischaemia, deep ulcers (bone, joint or tendon in the wound base), ascending cellulitis, systemic symptoms of infection and abscesses. Referral to an MFCT should occur if there is lack of wound progress after 4 weeks of appropriate treatment. PMID:22900873

  9. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  10. [Preventive measures of diabetic foot complications].

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Sarah; Chappuis, Bernhard; Egli, Marc; Hagon-Traub, Isabelle; Schimke, Katrin; Schönenweid, Claude; Peter-Riesch, Bettina

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic foot complications are a public health challenge and preventive measures although simple are often not enforced, as evidenced by the lack of decrease in the rate of ulcers and amputation in Switzerland. This article proposes a risk score to grade individual risk of the diabetic patient and an individualized prevention measures as this risk. We discuss the importance of collaboration of various specialists. Two areas are important, first the early involvement of specialists in revascularization because the diabetic population with feet at risk of ulcération risk nowadays primarily has neuro-ichemic ulcerations and also the close collaboration with podiatrists and orthopedic shoemakers who are full partners of the multidisciplinary team. PMID:27487677

  11. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, Denise Hage; Luchs, Adriana; Machado, Bráulio Caetano; Carmona, Rita de Cássia; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio

    2006-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4) has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laboratory of Adolfo Lutz Institute. Clinical samples were inoculated in three different cell lines, and those which presented cytopathic effect (CPE), were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and "one step" RT-PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis from RT-PCR product, showed a product with 437 bp, which is characteristic of Enterovirus group. Echovirus 4 was identified by IFA. Although HFMD is a viral infection associated mainly with Enterovirus 71 (HEV-71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), our results demonstrate a diversity of serotype related to HFMD and stress the importance of epidemiological surveillance to this disease and its complications. PMID:17119674

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Toxins and Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Role in Pathogenesis and Interest in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infection of foot ulcers is a common, often severe and costly complication in diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are mainly polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen isolated. The numerous virulence factors and toxins produced by S. aureus during an infection are well characterized. However, some particular features could be observed in DFI. The aim of this review is to describe the role of S. aureus in DFI and the implication of its toxins in the establishment of the infection. Studies on this issue have helped to distinguish two S. aureus populations in DFI: toxinogenic S. aureus strains (harboring exfoliatin-, EDIN-, PVL- or TSST-encoding genes) and non-toxinogenic strains. Toxinogenic strains are often present in infections with a more severe grade and systemic impact, whereas non-toxinogenic strains seem to remain localized in deep structures and bone involving diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Testing the virulence profile of bacteria seems to be a promising way to predict the behavior of S. aureus in the chronic wounds. PMID:27399775

  13. Staphylococcus aureus Toxins and Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Role in Pathogenesis and Interest in Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Infection of foot ulcers is a common, often severe and costly complication in diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are mainly polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen isolated. The numerous virulence factors and toxins produced by S. aureus during an infection are well characterized. However, some particular features could be observed in DFI. The aim of this review is to describe the role of S. aureus in DFI and the implication of its toxins in the establishment of the infection. Studies on this issue have helped to distinguish two S. aureus populations in DFI: toxinogenic S. aureus strains (harboring exfoliatin-, EDIN-, PVL- or TSST-encoding genes) and non-toxinogenic strains. Toxinogenic strains are often present in infections with a more severe grade and systemic impact, whereas non-toxinogenic strains seem to remain localized in deep structures and bone involving diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Testing the virulence profile of bacteria seems to be a promising way to predict the behavior of S. aureus in the chronic wounds. PMID:27399775

  14. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy: A Recurrent and Bilateral Foot Drop Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Rodrigues, Maria Lurdes

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy is characterized by acute, painless, recurrent mononeuropathies secondary to minor trauma or compression. A 16-year-old boy had the first episode of right foot drop after minor motorcycle accident. Electromyography revealed conduction block and slowing velocity conduction of the right deep peroneal nerve at the fibular head. After motor rehabilitation, he fully recovered. Six months later he had the second episode of foot drop in the opposite site after prolonged squatting position. Electromyography revealed sensorimotor polyneuropathy of left peroneal, sural, posterior tibial, and deep peroneal nerves and also of ulnar, radial, and median nerves of both upper limbs. Histological examination revealed sensory nerve demyelination and focal thickenings of myelin fibers. The diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy was confirmed by PMP22 deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. He started motor rehabilitation and avoidance of stressing factors with progressive recovery. After one-year followup, he was completely asymptomatic. Recurrent bilateral foot drop history, “sausage-like” swellings of myelin in histological examination, and the results of electromyography led the authors to consider the diagnosis despite negative family history. The authors highlight this rare disease in pediatric population and the importance of high index of clinical suspicion for its diagnosis. PMID:24251057

  15. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  16. Standardizing Foot-Type Classification Using Arch Index Values

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. Method: For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Results: Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Conclusions: Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types. PMID:23729964

  17. Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon

    PubMed Central

    Kasmer, Mark E.; Liu, Xue-cheng; Roberts, Kyle G.; Valadao, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To: 1) determine prevalence of heel-strike in a mid-size city marathon, 2) determine if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and 3) determine if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender. Methods Foot-strike classification (fore-foot strike, mid-foot strike, heel strike, or split-strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1 kilometer (km) mark for 2,112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon. Results 1,991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n=1,865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.0001), with more elite performers being less likely to heel-strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher’s exact test. Additionally, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Conclusions The high prevalence of heel-striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of the majority of mid- to long-distance runners and more importantly, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel strike running pattern. This knowledge can aid the clinician in the appropriate diagnosis, management, and training modifications of the injured runner. PMID:23006790

  18. Foot ulcers in the diabetic patient, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Stephanie C; Driver, Vickie R; Wrobel, James S; Armstrong, David G

    2007-01-01

    Lower extremity complications in persons with diabetes have become an increasingly significant public health concern in both the developed and developing world. These complications, beginning with neuropathy and subsequent diabetic foot wounds frequently lead to infection and lower extremity amputation even in the absence of critical limb ischemia. In order to diminish the detrimental consequences associated with diabetic foot ulcers, a com-mon-sense-based treatment approach must be implemented. Many of the etiological factors contributing to the formation of diabetic foot ulceration may be identified using simple, inexpensive equipment in a clinical setting. Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers can be accomplished in a primary care setting with a brief history and screening for loss of protective sensation via the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Specialist clinics may quantify neuropathy, plantar foot pressure, and assess vascular status with Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial blood pressure indices. These measurements, in conjunction with other findings from the history and physical examination, may enable clinicians to stratify patients based on risk and help determine the type of intervention. Other effective clinical interventions may include patient education, optimizing glycemic control, smoking cessation, and diligent foot care. Recent technological advanced combined with better understanding of the wound healing process have resulted in a myriad of advanced wound healing modalities in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. However, it is imperative to remember the fundamental basics in the healing of diabetic foot ulcers: adequate perfusion, debridement, infection control, and pressure mitigation. Early recognition of the etiological factors along with prompt management of diabetic foot ulcers is essential for successful outcome. PMID:17583176

  19. Gait characteristics following Achilles tendon elongation: the foot rocker perspective.

    PubMed

    Bober, Tadeusz; Dziuba, Alicja; Kobel-Buys, Krystyna; Kulig, Kornelia

    2008-01-01

    The action of three functional rockers, namely the heel, ankle and forefoot rocker, assist the progression of the leg over the supporting foot. The purpose of this case series was to analyze the occurrence of foot rockers during gait in three children with cerebral palsy (CP) who had undergone the tendo-Achilles lengthening (TAL), procedure followed by a clinic- or home-based intervention and in one child with CP without history of surgery. Self-selected gait was video-recorded in a laboratory during six testing sessions at half-year intervals rendering a 3 year period of observation. One child had pre- and post-surgical gait data and the other two had post surgical data only. Sagittal plane knee angular velocity, as well as foot to ground positions, and foot rocker occurrence were analyzed. In a child with history of CP, and without history of surgery, mean angular velocities of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd foot rocker were 3.7, 0.57 and 6.67 rad/s, respectively, and the step length and cadence were normal. In children who underwent TAL the 1st and 2nd rocker was absent, as the initial contact of the foot with the ground was either with foot-flat or forefoot. The mean velocity of the 3rd rocker in children who underwent TAL was lower by approximately 50-80% than that of the nonsurgical case. Furthermore, the characteristic pattern of the knee joint to foot-floor position during gait was not observed in these cases. Foot rocker analysis identified children with abnormal gait characteristics. Following surgery these gait characteristics remained abnormal. PMID:18634352

  20. Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Gurfinkel, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity. PMID:22157121

  1. Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yang; Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Li, Zhiyong; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4years, 66±7.1kg & 1.68±0.13m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8years, 55±4.7kg & 1.6±0.11m) (Indians) and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6years, 66±8.2kg & 1.72±0.18m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5years, 54±5.6kg & 1.62±0.15m)(Chinese) participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system) to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians) for foot length (female p = 0.001), width (female p = 0.001), hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001) and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001) from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes. PMID:26148059

  2. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF): study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational cohort study will describe the prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot OA, relate its occurrence to symptoms, examination findings and life-style-factors, describe the natural history of foot OA, and examine how it presents to, and is diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods All adults aged 50 years and over registered with four general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, will be invited to participate in a postal Health Survey questionnaire. Respondents to the questionnaire who indicate that they have experienced foot pain in the preceding twelve months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed clinical assessment. This assessment will consist of: clinical interview; physical examination; digital photography of both feet and ankles; plain x-rays of both feet, ankles and hands; ultrasound examination of the plantar fascia; anthropometric measurement; and a further self-complete questionnaire. Follow-up will be undertaken in consenting participants by postal questionnaire at 18 months (clinic attenders only) and three years (clinic attenders and survey participants), and also by review of medical records. Discussion This three-year prospective epidemiological study will combine survey data, comprehensive clinical, x-ray and ultrasound assessment, and review of primary care records to identify radiographic phenotypes of foot OA in a population of community-dwelling older adults, and describe their impact on symptoms, function and clinical examination findings

  3. Nephrin Tyrosine Phosphorylation Is Required to Stabilize and Restore Podocyte Foot Process Architecture.

    PubMed

    New, Laura A; Martin, Claire E; Scott, Rizaldy P; Platt, Mathew J; Keyvani Chahi, Ava; Stringer, Colin D; Lu, Peihua; Samborska, Bozena; Eremina, Vera; Takano, Tomoko; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quaggin, Susan E; Jones, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells of the kidney blood filtration barrier that contribute to permselectivity via a series of interdigitating actin-rich foot processes. Positioned between adjacent projections is a unique cell junction known as the slit diaphragm, which is physically connected to the actin cytoskeleton via the transmembrane protein nephrin. Evidence indicates that tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular tail of nephrin initiates signaling events, including recruitment of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins Nck1 and Nck2 that regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation is altered in human and experimental renal diseases characterized by pathologic foot process remodeling, prompting the hypothesis that phosphonephrin signaling directly influences podocyte morphology. To explore this possibility, we generated and analyzed knockin mice with mutations that disrupt nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation and Nck1/2 binding (nephrin(Y3F/Y3F) mice). Homozygous nephrin(Y3F/Y3F) mice developed progressive proteinuria accompanied by structural changes in the filtration barrier, including podocyte foot process effacement, irregular thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and dilated capillary loops, with a similar but later onset phenotype in heterozygous animals. Furthermore, compared with wild-type mice, nephrin(Y3F/Y3F) mice displayed delayed recovery in podocyte injury models. Profiling of nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation dynamics in wild-type mice subjected to podocyte injury indicated site-specific differences in phosphorylation at baseline, injury, and recovery, which correlated with loss of nephrin-Nck1/2 association during foot process effacement. Our results define an essential requirement for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation in stabilizing podocyte morphology and suggest a model in which dynamic changes in phosphotyrosine-based signaling confer plasticity to the podocyte actin cytoskeleton. PMID:26802179

  4. Ostectomy and Medial Plantar Artery Flap Reconstruction for Charcot Foot Ulceration Involving the Midfoot.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichioka, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Charcot foot is a serious complication of diabetes, characterized by deformity and overlying ulceration. The condition most commonly affects the midfoot. However, little information is available on the use of a medial plantar artery flap to treat diabetic midfoot ulceration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the versatility of ostectomy and medial plantar flap reconstruction for midfoot plantar ulceration associated with rocker-bottom deformity secondary to Charcot foot. Four patients underwent ostectomy and medial plantar flap reconstruction. Before flap reconstruction, the devitalized soft tissues and bone were radically resected. After the infection had been controlled, the ulcerated portion was minimally excised, and the bony prominence underlying the ulcer was removed. A medial plantar artery flap was applied to the ulcer. The donor site was covered with a split-thickness skin graft or artificial dermis. In all patients, the ulcers healed and independent ambulation was achieved. However, 1 patient experienced ulcer recurrence, and subsequent infection necessitated a major amputation. Limb salvage is challenging in the setting of deformity and intractable plantar ulceration. The advantages of medial plantar artery flap reconstruction are that tissues with a rich blood supply are used to cover the exposed bone, and the flap can withstand the pressure and shear stress of the patient's body weight. However, a dominant artery in the foot is sacrificed. Therefore, the patency of the dorsalis pedis artery must be confirmed in every patient. The results of the present study have demonstrated that a medial plantar artery can be an effective alternative for diabetic patients with a plantar ulcer secondary to Charcot foot. PMID:26190780

  5. Ultrasound-guided interventions of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) provides excellent delineation of tendons and ligaments in the foot and ankle and provides real-time visualization of a needle during interventions, yielding greater accuracy and efficacy than the traditional blind approach using anatomical landmarks. For this reason, US is rapidly gaining acceptance as the preferred modality for guiding interventions in the foot and ankle where the anatomy is complex, neurovascular structures should be identified, and precise technique is demanded. In the foot and ankle, US is especially useful to guide tendon sheath, bursal, and Achilles paratenon injections, Morton neuroma injections, plantar fascial injections, and joint aspirations and injections. PMID:23487336

  6. Diabetic charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Crystal L; Stapleton, John J; Zgonis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    One of the most devastating foot and/or ankle complications in the diabetic population with peripheral neuropathy is the presence of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN). In recent years, diabetic limb salvage has been attempted more frequently as opposed to major lower extremity amputation for CN of the foot and ankle with ulceration and/or deep infection. Treatment strategies for osteomyelitis in the diabetic population have evolved. This article reviews some of the most common surgical strategies recommended for the diabetic patient with CN of the foot and/or ankle and concomitant osteomyelitis. PMID:25281510

  7. Imaging of soft tissue lesions of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Laura W; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot can be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions can suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis. PMID:19038615

  8. A Rare Cause of Foot Pain With Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Petrera, Massimo; Dwyer, Tim; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell J.

    2013-01-01

    The os vesalianum is an uncommon accessory bone of the foot, located proximally to the base of the fifth metatarsal. It is usually asymptomatic and detected incidentally on radiographs. This is a case of bilateral os vesalianum, symptomatic only in the right foot, in a golf player. After a failed nonoperative treatment, the os vesalianum in the symptomatic foot was excised and the peroneus brevis tendon reattached using a suture anchor. The functional outcome was excellent, and the patient returned to golf 8 weeks after surgery. PMID:24459554

  9. An overview of foot ulceration in older people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moakes, Helen

    2012-09-01

    A patient's whole body is affected by diabetes but in particular this chronic disease can cause foot complications. Damage to the nerve and blood supply to the feet as a result of diabetes causes lack of sensation and ischaemia. These problems can lead to diabetic foot ulceration, which, if left untreated, can result in amputation or even death. An essential part of nurses' role in caring for older patients with diabetes in community, acute and residential settings is learning to recognise the signs of a high-risk diabetic foot, and when and where to get help for its treatment. PMID:23008915

  10. Progress in stem cell therapy for the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Lu, De-Bin; Chen, Bing

    2012-07-01

    The diabetic foot is a common and severe complication of diabetes comprising a group of lesions including vasculopathy, neuropathy, tissue damage and infection. Vasculopathy due to ischemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis, natural history and outcome of the diabetic foot. Despite conventional revascularization interventions including angioplasty, stenting, atherectomy and bypass grafts to vessels, a high incidence of amputation persists. The need to develop alternative therapeutic options is compelling; stem cell therapy aims to increase revascularization and alleviate limb ischemia or improve wound healing by stimulating new blood vessel formation, and brings new hope for the treatment of the diabetic foot. PMID:22221581

  11. Co-Therapy Using Lytic Bacteriophage and Linezolid: Effective Treatment in Eliminating Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Diabetic Foot Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chhibber, Sanjay; Kaur, Tarsem; Sandeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant pathogen in diabetic foot infections and prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) strains further complicates the situation. The incidence of MRSA in infected foot ulcers is 15–30% and there is an alarming trend for its increase in many countries. Diabetes acts as an immunosuppressive state decreasing the overall immune functioning of body and to worsen the situation, wounds inflicted with drug resistant strains represent a morbid combination in diabetic patients. Foot infections caused by MRSA are associated with an increased risk of amputations, increased hospital stay, increased expenses and higher infection-related mortality. Hence, newer, safer and effective treatment strategies are required for treating MRSA mediated diabetic foot infections. The present study focuses on the use of lytic bacteriophage in combination with linezolid as an effective treatment strategy against foot infection in diabetic population. Methodology Acute hindpaw infection with S.aureus ATCC 43300 was established in alloxan induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy of a well characterized broad host range lytic bacteriophage, MR-10 was evaluated alone as well as in combination with linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw foot infection in diabetic mice. The process of wound healing was also investigated. Results and Conclusions A single administration of phage exhibited efficacy similar to linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw infection in diabetic animals. However, combination therapy using both the agents was much more effective in arresting the entire infection process (bacterial load, lesion score, foot myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological analysis). The entire process of tissue healing was also hastened. Use of combined agents has been known to decrease the frequency of emergence of resistant mutants, hence this approach can serve as an effective strategy in treating MRSA mediated

  12. Coming events cast their shadows before: detecting inflammation in the acute diabetic foot and the foot in remission.

    PubMed

    Bharara, Manish; Schoess, Jeffrey; Armstrong, David G

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of diabetic foot complications, most notably wounds, is increasing worldwide. Most people who present for care of a foot wound will become infected. Globally, this results in one major amputation every 30 seconds with over 2500 limbs lost per day. Presently, clinicians assess circulation, neuropathy and plantar pressures to identify the risk of foot ulceration. Several studies have suggested prevention of foot ulcers by identifying individuals at high risk and treating for lower extremity complications. Our group has proposed several diagnostics as well as prevention strategies, especially thermography and thermometry for management of patients with diabetic foot complications. These strategies employ non-invasive assessment of inflammation for acute as well as chronic care for the foot, with the intent to prevent ulceration/re-ulceration and subsequent traumatic amputations. The authors' review some important clinical studies and ongoing research in this area, with the long-term goal to further the role of thermography and thermometry in clinical care for the diabetic foot. PMID:22271717

  13. The influence of beliefs about health and illness on foot care in ugandan persons with diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, Katarina; Beebwa, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming pandemic, particularly affecting Sub-Saharan Africa, and the prevalence of complications is increasing. Diabetic foot disorders are a major source of morbidity and disability. Delay in the health care process due to patients' beliefs may have deleterious consequences for limb and life in persons with diabetic foot ulcers. No previous studies of beliefs about health and illness in persons with diabetic foot ulcers living in Africa have been found. The aim of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness among Ugandans with diabetic foot ulcers that might affect self-care and care seeking behaviour. In an explorative study with consecutive sample semi-structured interviews were held with 14 Ugandan men and women, aged 40-79, with diabetic foot ulcer. Knowledge was limited about causes, management and prevention of diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcers were often detected as painful sores, perceived to heal or improve, and led to stress and social isolation due to smell and reduced mobility. Most lacked awareness of the importance of complete daily foot care and seldom practised self-care. Health was described as absence of disease and pain. Many feared future health and related it to contact with nurses in the professional sector from whom they sought information, blood tests and wound dressings and desired better organised diabetes clinics offering health education and more opening hours. Many have an underutilised potential for self-care and need education urgently, delivered in well-organised diabetes clinics working to raise awareness of the threat and prevent foot ulcers. PMID:24039644

  14. Impaired Foot Plantar Flexor Muscle Performance in Individuals With Plantar Heel Pain and Association With Foot Orthosis Use.

    PubMed

    McClinton, Shane; Collazo, Christopher; Vincent, Ebonie; Vardaxis, Vassilios

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Plantar heel pain is one of the most common foot and ankle conditions seen in clinical practice, and many individuals continue to have persisting or recurrent pain after treatment. Impaired foot plantar flexor muscle performance is a factor that may contribute to limited treatment success, but reliable methods to identify impairments in individuals with plantar heel pain are needed. In addition, foot orthoses are commonly used to treat this condition, but the implications of orthosis use on muscle performance have not been assessed. Objectives To assess ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance in individuals with plantar heel pain using clinically feasible measures and to examine the relationship between muscle performance and duration of foot orthosis use. Methods The rocker-board plantar flexion test (RBPFT) and modified paper grip test for the great toe (mPGTGT) and lesser toes (mPGTLT) were used to assess foot plantar flexor muscle performance in 27 individuals with plantar heel pain and compared to 27 individuals without foot pain who were matched according to age, sex, and body mass. Pain ratings were obtained before and during testing, and self-reported duration of foot orthosis use was recorded. Results Compared to the control group, individuals with plantar heel pain demonstrated lower performance on the RBPFT (P = .001), the mPGTGT (P = .022), and the mPGTLT (P = .037). Longer duration of foot orthosis use was moderately correlated to lower performance on the RBPFT (r = -0.52, P = .02), the mPGTGT (r = -0.54, P = .01), and the mPGTLT (r = -0.43, P = .03). Conclusion Ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance was impaired in individuals with plantar heel pain and associated with longer duration of self-reported foot orthosis use. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):681-688. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6482. PMID:27374013

  15. Functional Foot Symmetry and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Physical Performance in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, J.L.; Hagedorn, TJ; Dufour, AB; Hannan, MT

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies use gait symmetry as a marker of healthy gait, the evidence that gait symmetry exists is limited. Because gait symmetry is thought to arise through laterality (i.e., limb preference) and affects gait retraining efforts, it is important to understand if symmetry exists during gait in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate foot and gait symmetry in the population-based Framingham Foot Study as well as to determine the effects of vertical force symmetry on physical performance measures. Methods Members of the Framingham Foot Study were included in this analysis (N=1333). Foot function and force data were collected using the Tekscan Matscan during self-selected gait, with symmetry evaluated using the symmetry index. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) measures of balance, chair stands and gait speed assessed lower extremity physical function. Participants were evaluated using quartiles of gait speed and foot symmetry to determine the effects of symmetry on lower extremity physical function. Results Individuals with faster gait speed displayed greater foot function asymmetry; individuals with −3.0% to −9.5% asymmetry in foot function performed better on the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Further, with aging, the degree of asymmetry was reduced. Conclusions While this research suggests that a moderate degree of foot asymmetry is associated with better lower extremity function, the causes of vertical force asymmetry are unknown. Future studies should evaluate the causes of foot asymmetry and should track the changes in symmetry that occur with aging. PMID:22560642

  16. A Comparison of Two Injection Locations in Obese Patients Having Lower Leg/Foot Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Strain of Muscle and/or Tendon of Lower Leg; Fracture of Lower Leg; Crushing Injury of Lower Leg; Fracture Malunion - Ankle and/ or Foot; Complete Tear, Ankle and/or Foot Ligament; Pathological Fracture - Ankle and/or Foot; Loose Body in Joint of Ankle and/or Foot

  17. Eccrine carcinoma in the foot of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Grabarević, Zeljko; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Hohsteter, Marko; Artuković, Branka; Hinke-Bruckmann, Angelica; Dzaja, Petar; Hutinec, Zdenka; Seiwerth, Sven; Bata, Ingeborg

    2013-12-01

    A case of eccrine carcinoma of the interdigital foot glands in a 39-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) from Zagreb Zoo is described. The tumor between the toenails of the right forefoot was surgically removed 3 yr before postmortem examination (2003), and the histopathologic diagnosis was compound eccrine carcinoma characterized with glandular tubular and papillary proliferations, mild cellular pleomorphism, proliferation of the myoepithelial cells with mucoid secretions, and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong immunoreactivity to S-100 protein, estrogen, and high-molecular weight cytokeratin. This elephant also had chronic renal fibrosis with uremia. PMID:24450067

  18. Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... Midfoot Ailments of the Heel Ailments of the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot ... Procedures Treatments of the Ankle Treatments of the Big Toe Treatments of the Heel Treatments of the ...

  19. 34. 100 foot through truss looking north from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. 100 foot through truss - looking north from the deck up to an internal top strut, showing the general configuration. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  20. 9. 64 foot pony truss south west bearing abutment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 64 foot pony truss - south west bearing abutment of the first pony, truss, showing the sheet piling and the added 'I' beam support. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  1. 38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification plaque ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification plaque located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  2. 12. 80 foot pony truss looking east from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 80 foot pony truss - looking east from the upstream side, view of a single pony truss showing its general arrangement on replacement piers, circa 1966. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  3. 23. 100 foot through truss looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. 100 foot through truss - looking west from the downstream side, view of a single through truss showing its general arrangement on extended column piers. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  4. 6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  5. 13. GROOVED FOOTING (CONSTRUCTION KEY) EXTENDING ABOVE CEMENT FLOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GROOVED FOOTING (CONSTRUCTION KEY) EXTENDING ABOVE CEMENT FLOOR IN FIRST UNLINED SECTION BEYOND SOUTH PORTAL. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  6. Flood damaged foot bridge at Tamarack Creek on alignment of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Flood damaged foot bridge at Tamarack Creek on alignment of Old Big Oak Flat Road. Looking northeast - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. Back to School Foot Pain (Flip-Flops)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookmark Back to School Foot Pain After wearing flip-flops all summer, students head back to school with ... tests, homework, relationships, and increasingly, their aching feet. Flip-flops are the summer footwear of choice for many ...

  8. Overuse injuries of the foot: imaging presentations of common pathologies.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Michael; Stock, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries of the foot are common, resulting in frequent visits to the primary care physician and orthopaedic surgeon. Radiologic workup often ensues. Morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and Haglund's syndrome are three such entities with classic MRI appearances. PMID:24367843

  9. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  10. A technique for evaluating black-footed ferret habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, Dean E.; Miller, Brian J.; Hanebury, Louis R.; Oakleaf, Bob; Farmer, Adrian H.; Crete, Ron; Dood, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a model and step-by-step procedures for rating a prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) complex for the reintroduction of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). An important factor in the model is an estimate of the number of black-footed ferret families a prairie dog complex can support for a year; thus, the procedures prescribe how to estimate the size of a prairie dog complex and the density of prairie dogs. Other attributes of the model are qualitative: arrangement of colonies, potential for plague and canine distemper, potential for prairie dog expansion, abundance of predators, future resource conflicts and ownership stability, and public and landowner attitudes about prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets. Because of the qualitative attributes in the model, a team approach is recommended for ranking complexes of prairie dogs for black-footed ferret reintroduction.

  11. IET. Exhaust stack foundation under construction. Reinforced concrete footings for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Exhaust stack foundation under construction. Reinforced concrete footings for duct at right of stack. Foundation is in octagonal shape. Date: October 29, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12711 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Veena, KM; Jagadishchandra, H; Bhat, Sham S; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of hand foot and mouth disease from Mangalore, South India. How to cite this article: Rao PK, Veena KM, Jagadishchandra H, Bhat SS, Shetty SR. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):220-222. PMID:25206173

  13. VIEW OF MORTARED ROCK FOOTING THAT ONCE SUPPORTED THE TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MORTARED ROCK FOOTING THAT ONCE SUPPORTED THE TWIN FLUME'S OUTLET TO TUMALO FEED CANAL, WITH BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  14. Foot and ankle injuries in the barefoot sports.

    PubMed

    Vormittag, Kara; Calonje, Ronald; Briner, William W

    2009-01-01

    Playing sports barefoot has been contested since the very beginnings of athletic competition. Even today, some data suggest that shoes may limit the adaptive pronation that occurs after footstrike during running gait. This pronation likely protects runners from injury. Boardsport participants who perform their sports barefoot on the water seem to be at risk for foot and ankle injuries. The high-impact forces in gymnastics place participants at risk for foot and ankle injuries, as well. Swimming and diving have a low rate of foot and ankle injuries. The risk of ankle sprain in beach volleyball, which is played barefoot, seems to be lower than that for indoor volleyball, played wearing shoes. Martial arts place competitors at risk for injuries to the foot and ankle from torsional and impact mechanisms. Athletes who hope to return to barefoot competition after injury should perform their rehabilitation in their bare feet. PMID:19741354

  15. 8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER (WHITE ROOM). WHITE ROOM MADE CONNECTION WITH CAPSULE ON LAUNCH VEHICLE. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  16. Ascending infection of foot tendons in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mismar, Ayman; Yousef, Mohammad; Badran, Darwish; Younes, Nidal

    2013-12-01

    Bone and soft tissue infection in the foot of diabetic patients is a well-described issue in the literature. A sound anatomical knowledge of the foot anatomy and compartments is mandatory to understand the mechanisms of infection spread. We describe four cases of diabetic foot infection complicated by long ascending infection. All did not respond initially to antibiotic treatment and the usual surgical debridement and were cured only after excision of the infected tendons. We highlight a rare but serious complication of the diabetic foot disease not commonly seen by the surgical community. We hope that this report raises the awareness of this condition so that a prompt diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment started, thereby reducing the risk of major lower limb amputations. PMID:24043670

  17. Ambulatory measurement of foot kinematics using wearable ultrasonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an ultrasonic-based system for foot parameters measurement has been proposed and investigated. An extended Kalman filtering-based methodology has been developed to extract foot parameters including step length, stride length and cycle time from horizontal displacement during walking. The system comprises of one ultrasonic transmitter (mobile) and four ultrasonic receivers (anchors) with fixed known positions. A Radio Frequency (RF) module is used in our system not only to provide synchronization clock between the mobile and anchors, but also to transmit collected data wirelessly to reduce the wires used. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, the 2-dimensional foot displacement and the foot parameters were measured and validated against the reference camera motion capture system. These experiment results demonstrate the capability of the proposed system being used as a gait analysis tool for rehabilitation and other medical applications. PMID:25571433

  18. 50. FOOT OF WEST STAIRS & CLOCK OVER DOORWAY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. FOOT OF WEST STAIRS & CLOCK OVER DOORWAY FROM NORTH VESTIBULE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  20. 14. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of 70 foot boom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of 70 foot boom crane that unloaded the sugar cane. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  2. Argon beam coagulation in foot and ankle surgery.

    PubMed

    Adams, Melissa L; Steinberg, John S

    2011-01-01

    In this brief report, we introduce the principles, indications, advantages, disadvantages, and surgical techniques involved in the use of argon beam coagulation in foot and ankle surgery. PMID:21907597

  3. Foot Modeling and Smart Plantar Pressure Reconstruction from Three Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ghaida, Hussein Abou; Mottet, Serge; Goujon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor pressure under feet, this study presents a biomechanical model of the human foot. The main elements of the foot that induce the plantar pressure distribution are described. Then the link between the forces applied at the ankle and the distribution of the plantar pressure is established. Assumptions are made by defining the concepts of a 3D internal foot shape, which can be extracted from the plantar pressure measurements, and a uniform elastic medium, which describes the soft tissues behaviour. In a second part, we show that just 3 discrete pressure sensors per foot are enough to generate real time plantar pressure cartographies in the standing position or during walking. Finally, the generated cartographies are compared with pressure cartographies issued from the F-SCAN system. The results show 0.01 daN (2% of full scale) average error, in the standing position. PMID:25400713

  4. 33. Steampowered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Steam-powered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, with south abutment visible at right; view to south. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  5. [Diabetic foot syndrome: modern approaches to its treatment].

    PubMed

    Danilenko, S Iu; Plekhanov, A N; Markevich, P A

    2012-01-01

    Recent data on the results of treatment of diabetic foot syndrome are reported with special reference to its conservative therapy, surgical and endovascular methods. Modern dressing materials are described. PMID:22690559

  6. 28. VIEW OF OCTAGONAL SPREAD FOOTING AND HOLDDOWN RODS 1929, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF OCTAGONAL SPREAD FOOTING AND HOLD-DOWN RODS 1929, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  7. 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Smoke generator for 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT) (left center); Force Test Set-Up in the center. In 1928, the NACA decided to replace its original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT #1) with two tunnels--the 5-foot vertical tunnel and a 7 by 10 foot rectangular throat tunnel. Both were open-throat, closed-return-passage tunnels. While the 5-foot vertical tunnel was to be used mainly for spin tests, the 7x10 was an all-purpose tunnel although the main intent was to study stability and control problems. Construction was completed in the summer of 1930; calibration later that same year. The balance was installed and the tunnel went into operation in early 1931.

  8. 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Force Test set-up in 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT). In 1928, the NACA decided to replace its original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT #1) with two tunnels--the 5-foot vertical tunnel and a 7 by 10 foot rectangular throat tunnel. Both were open-throat, closed-return-passage tunnels and were housed in the same building the first wind tunnel had been located in. While the 5-foot vertical tunnel was to be used mainly for spin tests, the 7x10 was an all-purpose tunnel although the main intent was to study stability and control problems. Construction was completed in the summer of 1930; calibration later that same year. The balance was installed and the tunnel went into operation in early 1931. There was a 6-component balance in this wind tunnel. The balance could support either static or rotation tests.

  9. The black-footed ferret: on the brink of recovery?

    PubMed

    Santymire, Rachel M; Livieri, Travis M; Branvold-Faber, Heather; Marinari, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to save the species from extinction, the last remaining 18 black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) were trapped up from the wild to initiate a captive breeding program. Nearly 30 years later more than 8,000 black-footed ferrets have been produced in captivity and approximately 4,100 animals have been reintroduced into 20 sites in eight US states (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, South Dakota and Montana), Mexico and Canada. However, full recovery of the species has yet to be achieved, mainly due to limited viable habitat, disease and reduced fecundity. This chapter will highlight the advances in the black-footed ferret recovery program over the last 10 years including: (1) adaptive management techniques employed for the captive population; (2) development of new reintroduction sites and associated challenges facing wild black-footed ferrets; and (3) optimization of assisted reproductive techniques to secure the future of this rare species. PMID:25091909

  10. VIEW OF CONCRETE FOOTINGS THAT ONCE SUPPORTED THE TWIN FLUMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE FOOTINGS THAT ONCE SUPPORTED THE TWIN FLUMES AT ROCK CUT BELOW THE KLIPPEL FLUME (NOW KLIPPEL SIPHON). LOOKING WEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  11. Bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis as a novel drug against diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Baby; Dhas, Berlina; Hena, Vimalin; Raj, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) from soil and to characterize and partially purify the bacteriocin. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity against four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens. Methods Genotypic identification was done based on Bergey's manual of systemic bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Colonies were identified by colony morphology and biochemical characterization and also compared with MTCC 121 strain. Further identification was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Inhibitory activities of partially purified bacteriocin on all the DFU isolates were done by agar well diffusion method. The strain was identified to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform, further purified by HPLC and physical, and chemical characterization was performed. Results The four isolates showed high level of resistance to amoxyclav and sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. HPLC purification revealed that the extracts are bacteriocin. The phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the isolate was 99% related to B. subtilis BSF01. The results reveled activity to all the four isolates and high level of activity was seen in case of Klebsiella sp. Conclusions Partially purified bacteriocin was found to have antimicrobial activity against the four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens, which can thus be applied as a better drug molecule on further studies. The strain B. subtilis are found to be safe for use and these antimicrobial peptides can be used as an antimicrobial in humans to treat DFU bacterial pathogens. PMID:24093784

  12. Cutaneous microvascular flow in the foot during simulated variable gravities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. S.; Breit, G. A.; Styf, J. R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Our objective was to understand how weight bearing with varying gravitational fields affects blood perfusion in the sole of the foot. Human subjects underwent whole body tilting at four angles: upright [1 gravitational vector from head to foot (Gz)], 22 degrees (0.38 Gz), 10 degrees (0.17 Gz), and supine (0 Gz), simulating the gravitational fields of Earth, Mars, Moon, and microgravity, respectively. Cutaneous capillary blood flow was monitored on the plantar surface of the heel by laser Doppler flowmetry while weight-bearing load was measured. At each tilt angle, subjects increased weight bearing on one foot in graded load increments of 1 kg beginning with zero. The weight bearing at which null flow first occurred was determined as the closing load. Subsequently, the weight bearing was reduced in reverse steps until blood flow returned (opening load). Mean closing loads for simulated Earth gravity, Mars gravity, Moon gravity, and microgravity were 9.1, 4.6, 4.4, and 3.6 kg, respectively. Mean opening loads were 7.9, 4.1, 3.5, and 3.1 kg, respectively. Mean arterial pressures in the foot (MAP(foot)) calculated for each simulated gravitational field were 192, 127, 106, and 87 mmHg, respectively. Closing load and opening load were significantly correlated with MAP(foot) (r =0.70, 0.72, respectively) and were significantly different (P < 0.001) from each other. The data suggest that decreased local arterial pressure in the foot lowers tolerance to external compression. Consequently, the human foot sole may be more prone to cutaneous ischemia during load bearing in microgravity than on Earth.

  13. Diabetic foot disease is associated with reduced erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Avivit; Livshits, Leonid; Srulevich, Ariel; Raz, Itamar; Yedgar, Shaul; Barshtein, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic foot disease is multifactorial and encompasses microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Abnormal blood rheology may also play a part in its development. Using a cell flow analyser (CFA), we examined the association between erythrocyte deformability and diabetic foot disease. Erythrocytes from diabetic patients with no known microvascular complications (n = 11) and patients suffering from a diabetic foot ulcer (n = 11) were isolated and their average elongation ratio (ER) as well as the ER distribution curve were measured. Average ER was decreased in the diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with diabetes and no complications (1·64 ± 0·07 versus 1·71 ± 0·1; P = 0·036). A significant rise in the percentage of minimally deformable red blood cells RBCs in diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with no complications was observed (37·89% ± 8·12% versus 30·61% ± 10·17%; P = 0·039) accompanied by a significant decrease in the percentage of highly deformable RBCs (12·47% ± 4·43% versus 17·49% ± 8·17% P = 0·046). Reduced erythrocyte deformability may slow capillary flow in the microvasculature and prolong wound healing in diabetic foot patients. Conversely, it may be the low-grade inflammatory state imposed by diabetic foot disease that reduces erythrocyte deformability. Further study of the rheological changes associated with diabetic foot disease may enhance our understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the study of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26018868

  14. Central Causes of Foot Drop: Rare and Underappreciated Differential Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Westhout, Franklin D; Paré, Laura S; Linskey, Mark E

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Peripheral causes of foot drop are well recognized. However, causes stemming from the central nervous system represent rare, important, and underappreciated differential etiologies. Methods: Two cases of foot drop stemming from central causes are described. Patients: The first patient, a 46-year-old man with a remote history of lumbar spine fracture and L4-L5 instrumentation/fusion, presented with progressive weakness and numbness of the left foot, followed within 3 months by similar symptoms in the right foot. Lumbar spine imaging failed to reveal compressive nerve root pathology. Electromyography, nerve conduction studies, and muscle and nerve biopsy suggested a preganglionic lesion and ruled out a peripheral cause. Upper spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed significant spinal stenosis at C4-C7 and T11-T12. Patient 2 was a 66-year-old man with a known left parasagittal convex meningioma diagnosed 2 years prior presented with a progressive right foot drop over 2 months. Spine imaging was normal, and serial brain MRI confirmed a slowly enlarging parasagittal meningioma. Results: Following decompressive laminectomies at C4-C7 and T11-T12, patient 1's gait improved, with marked resolution of his right foot drop and significant improvement on the left. Patient 2 underwent craniotomy for microsurgical tumor resection. At the 2-week follow-up examination, he was taking daily walks. Conclusions: Central causes, although rare, need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot drop. Central causative lesions usually occur at locations where pyramidal tract connections are condensed and specific and the function is somatotopically organized. These cases confirm that good results can be achieved when correctable central causes of foot drop are recognized. PMID:17385271

  15. Ultrasound-guided intervention in the ankle and foot.

    PubMed

    Drakonaki, Eleni E; Allen, Gina M; Watura, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we discuss the main interventions performed in the foot and ankle for Achilles tendinopathy, Morton's neuromas and Plantar fasciitis as well as techniques for intra-articular and peritendinous injections. We present the different imaging techniques and injectable agents that can be used in clinical practice, trying to help the reader decide the most appropriate way of managing the patient with a problem in the ankle and foot. PMID:26537692

  16. Cutaneous microvascular flow in the foot during simulated variable gravities.

    PubMed

    Chang, D S; Breit, G A; Styf, J R; Hargens, A R

    1996-10-01

    Our objective was to understand how weight bearing with varying gravitational fields affects blood perfusion in the sole of the foot. Human subjects underwent whole body tilting at four angles: upright [1 gravitational vector from head to foot (Gz)], 22 degrees (0.38 Gz), 10 degrees (0.17 Gz), and supine (0 Gz), simulating the gravitational fields of Earth, Mars, Moon, and microgravity, respectively. Cutaneous capillary blood flow was monitored on the plantar surface of the heel by laser Doppler flowmetry while weight-bearing load was measured. At each tilt angle, subjects increased weight bearing on one foot in graded load increments of 1 kg beginning with zero. The weight bearing at which null flow first occurred was determined as the closing load. Subsequently, the weight bearing was reduced in reverse steps until blood flow returned (opening load). Mean closing loads for simulated Earth gravity, Mars gravity, Moon gravity, and microgravity were 9.1, 4.6, 4.4, and 3.6 kg, respectively. Mean opening loads were 7.9, 4.1, 3.5, and 3.1 kg, respectively. Mean arterial pressures in the foot (MAP(foot)) calculated for each simulated gravitational field were 192, 127, 106, and 87 mmHg, respectively. Closing load and opening load were significantly correlated with MAP(foot) (r =0.70, 0.72, respectively) and were significantly different (P < 0.001) from each other. The data suggest that decreased local arterial pressure in the foot lowers tolerance to external compression. Consequently, the human foot sole may be more prone to cutaneous ischemia during load bearing in microgravity than on Earth. PMID:8897988

  17. Construction of Foundation for 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Completed foundation for the outer housing for the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000.

  18. Rehabilitation of Ankle and Foot Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Lisa; Hertel, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Foot and ankle injuries are extremely common among athletes and other physically active individuals. Rehabilitation programs that emphasize the use of therapeutic exercise to restore joint range of motion, muscle strength, neuromuscular coordination, and gait mechanics have been shown to have clinical success for patients suffering various foot and ankle pathologies. Rehabilitation programs are discussed for ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, and turf toe. PMID:19945591

  19. Diabetic foot complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Trombetta, Maddalena; Imbriaco, Chiara; Rigolon, Riccardo; Mingolla, Lucia; Zamboni, Federica; Dal Molin, Francesca; Cioccoloni, Dario; Sanga, Viola; Bruti, Massimiliano; Brocco, Enrico; Conti, Michela; Ravenna, Giorgio; Perrone, Fabrizia; Stoico, Vincenzo; Bonora, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vertebral osteomyelitis (or spondylodiscitis) is steadily increasing in Western countries and often results from hematogenous seeding, direct inoculation during spinal surgery, or contiguous spread from an infection in the adjacent soft tissue. We present the case of a 67-year-old white patient with type 2 diabetes who went to Hospital for high fever, back pain, and worsening of known infected ulcers in the left foot. Despite intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical debridement of the foot infection, high fever and lower back pain continued. Bone biopsy and two consecutive blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, revealing serious osteomyelitis in L4 and L5 complicated by an epidural abscess. Contiguous or other distant focuses of infection were not identified. In this case, diabetic foot could be considered as a primary distant focus for vertebral osteomyelitis. Clinicians should consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a ‘possible’ diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by foot infection that is associated with fever and lower back pain. Learning points Vertebral osteomyelitis is increasing in Western countries, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary focus of infection is the genitourinary tract followed by skin, soft tissue, endocarditis, bursitis, septic arthritis, and intravascular access. Diabetic foot could be a rare primary focus of infection for vertebral osteomyelitis, and, however, vertebral osteomyelitis could be a serious, albeit rare, complication of diabetic foot. Clinicians should keep in mind the many potential complications of diabetic foot ulcerations and consider vertebral osteomyelitis as a “possible” diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers associated with nonspecific symptoms such as lower back pain. Early diagnosis and correct management of vertebral osteomyelitis are crucial to improve clinical outcomes

  20. Management of diabetic foot ulcers: evaluation of case studies.

    PubMed

    Torkington-Stokes, Rachel; Metcalf, Daniel; Bowler, Philip

    2016-08-11

    This article explores local barriers to diabetic foot ulcer healing, and describes the use of a dressing designed to manage exudate, infection and biofilm (AQUACEL® Ag+ dressing (AQAg+)) on recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers. The authors consider four case studies that demonstrate how managing local barriers to wound healing with antimicrobial and anti-biofilm dressings in protocols of care can improve outcomes for patients. PMID:27523769