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Sample records for characterizing multisegment foot

  1. A wearable system for multi-segment foot kinetics measurement.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Crevoisier, X; Aminian, K

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to design a wearable system for kinetics measurement of multi-segment foot joints in long-distance walking and to investigate its suitability for clinical evaluations. The wearable system consisted of inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes and 3D accelerometers) on toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank, and a plantar pressure insole. After calibration in a laboratory, 10 healthy elderly subjects and 12 patients with ankle osteoarthritis walked 50m twice wearing this system. Using inverse dynamics, 3D forces, moments, and power were calculated in the joint sections among toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank. Compared to those we previously estimated for a one-segment foot model, the sagittal and transverse moments and power in the ankle joint, as measured via multi-segment foot model, showed a normalized RMS difference of less than 11%, 14%, and 13%, respectively, for healthy subjects, and 13%, 15%, and 14%, for patients. Similar to our previous study, the coronal moments were not analyzed. Maxima-minima values of anterior-posterior and vertical force, sagittal moment, and power in shank-hindfoot and hindfoot-forefoot joints were significantly different between patients and healthy subjects. Except for power, the inter-subject repeatability of these parameters was CMC>0.90 for healthy subjects and CMC>0.70 for patients. Repeatability of these parameters was lower for the forefoot-toes joint. The proposed measurement system estimated multi-segment foot joints kinetics with acceptable repeatability but showed difference, compared to those previously estimated for the one-segment foot model. These parameters also could distinguish patients from healthy subjects. Thus, this system is suggested for outcome evaluations of foot treatments. PMID:24657105

  2. Repeatability in the assessment of multi-segment foot kinematics.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Jaspers, Ellen; Atre, Ameya; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-02-01

    A recently published systematic review on 3D multi-segment foot models has illustrated the lack of repeatability studies providing evidence for appropriate clinical decision making. The aim of the current study was to assess the repeatability of the recently published model developed by Leardini et al. [10]. Foot kinematics of six healthy adults were analyzed through a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience and four test sessions. For the majority of the parameters moderate or good repeatability was observed for the within-day and between-day sessions. A trend towards consistently higher within- and between-day variability was observed for the junior compared to the senior clinician. The mean inter-session variability of the relative 3D rotations ranged between 0.9-4.2° and 1.6-5.0° for respectively the senior and junior clinician whereas for the absolute angles this variability increased to respectively 2.0-6.2° and 2.6-7.8°. Mean inter-therapist standard deviations ranged between 2.2° and 6.5° for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.8° and 7.6° for the absolute 3D rotations. The ratio of inter-therapist to inter-trial errors ranged between 1.8 and 5.5 for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.4 and 9.7 for the absolute 3D rotations. Absolute angle representation of the planar angles was found to be more difficult. Observations from the current study indicate that an adequate normative database can be installed in gait laboratories, however, it should be stressed that experience of therapists is important and gait laboratories should therefore be encouraged to put effort in training their clinicians. PMID:22100210

  3. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-07-01

    Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. PMID:22591792

  4. A comparison of multi-segment foot kinematics during level overground and treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Tulchin, Kirsten; Orendurff, Michael; Karol, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Previous work comparing treadmill and overground walking has focused on lower extremity motion and kinetics, with few identified differences. However, a comparison of multi-segment foot kinematics between these conditions has not been previously reported. Sagittal ankle motion using a single rigid body foot model and three-dimensional hindfoot and forefoot kinematics were compared during barefoot, level, overground walking at a self-selected speed and treadmill walking at a similar speed for 20 healthy adults. Slight differences were seen in ankle plantarflexion and hindfoot plantarflexion during first rocker, as well as peak forefoot eversion and abduction, however all changes were less than 3 degrees , and most were within the day-to-day repeatability. These results indicate that foot mechanics as determined using a multi-segment foot model were similar between overground and treadmill walking at similar speeds in healthy adults. Treadmill protocols may provide a controlled method to analyze a patient's ability to adapt to walking at different speeds and surface slopes, which are encountered often during ambulation of daily living. PMID:19854652

  5. Multi-segment foot kinematics after total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis during relatively long-distance gait.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Aminian, K; Crevoisier, X

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) treatments, i.e., ankle arthrodesis (AA) and total ankle replacement (TAR), on the kinematics of multi-segment foot and ankle complex during relatively long-distance gait. Forty-five subjects in four groups (AOA, AA, TAR, and control) were equipped with a wearable system consisting of inertial sensors installed on the tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals. The subjects walked 50-m twice while the system measured the kinematic parameters of their multi-segment foot: the range of motion of joints between tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals in three anatomical planes, and the peaks of angular velocity of these segments in the sagittal plane. These parameters were then compared among the four groups. It was observed that the range of motion and peak of angular velocities generally improved after TAR and were similar to the control subjects. However, unlike AOA and TAR, AA imposed impairments in the range of motion in the coronal plane for both the tibia-calcaneus and tibia-metatarsals joints. In general, the kinematic parameters showed significant correlation with established clinical scales (FFI and AOFAS), which shows their convergent validity. Based on the kinematic parameters of multi-segment foot during 50-m gait, this study showed significant improvements in foot mobility after TAR, but several significant impairments remained after AA. PMID:22763319

  6. Changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics with a heat-mouldable semi-custom foot orthotic device

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semi-custom foot orthoses (SCO) are thought to be a cost-effective alternative to custom-made devices. However, previous biomechanical research involving either custom or SCO has only focused on rearfoot biomechanics. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics during shod walking with and without an SCO. We chose to investigate an SCO device that incorporates a heat-moulding process, to further understand if the moulding process would significantly alter rearfoot, midfoot, or shank kinematics as compared to a no-orthotic condition. We hypothesized the SCO, whether moulded or non-moulded, would reduce peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, arch deformation, and plantar fascia strain as compared to the no-orthoses condition. Methods Twenty participants had retroreflective markers placed on the right limb to represent forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot and shank segments. 3D kinematics were recorded using an 8-camera motion capture system while participants walked on a treadmill. Results Plantar fascia strain was reduced by 34% when participants walked in either the moulded or non-moulded SCO condition compared to no-orthoses. However, there were no significant differences in peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, or medial longitudinal arch angles between any conditions. Conclusions A semi-custom moulded orthotic does not control rearfoot, shank, or arch deformation but does, however, reduce plantar fascia strain compared to walking without an orthoses. Heat-moulding the orthotic device does not have a measurable effect on any biomechanical variables compared to the non-moulded condition. These data may, in part, help explain the clinical efficacy of orthotic devices. PMID:21693032

  7. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  8. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-Foot, Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicated that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was flown to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom s influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  9. Dynamic 3D scanning as a markerless method to calculate multi-segment foot kinematics during stance phase: methodology and first application.

    PubMed

    Van den Herrewegen, Inge; Cuppens, Kris; Broeckx, Mario; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Vander Sloten, Jos; Leardini, Alberto; Peeraer, Louis

    2014-08-22

    Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless dynamic 3D scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface shape instead of distinct landmark points. We propose a 4-segment foot model consisting of the shank (Sha), calcaneus (Cal), metatarsus (Met) and hallux (Hal). These segments are manually selected on a static scan. To track the segments in the dynamic scan, the segments of the static scan are matched on each frame of the dynamic scan using the iterative closest point (ICP) fitting algorithm. Joint rotations are calculated between Sha-Cal, Cal-Met, and Met-Hal. Due to the lower quality scans at heel strike and toe off, the first and last 10% of the stance phase is excluded. The application of the method to 5 healthy subjects, 6 trials each, shows a good repeatability (intra-subject standard deviations between 1° and 2.5°) for Sha-Cal and Cal-Met joints, and inferior results for the Met-Hal joint (>3°). The repeatability seems to be subject-dependent. For the validation, a qualitative comparison with joint kinematics from a corresponding established marker-based multi-segment foot model is made. This shows very consistent patterns of rotation. The ease of subject preparation and also the effective and easy to interpret visual output, make the present technique very attractive for functional analysis of the foot, enhancing usability in clinical practice. PMID:24998032

  10. Electroplating and magnetostructural characterization of multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowires from single electrochemical bath in anodic alumina templates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly hexagonally ordered hard anodic aluminum oxide membranes, which have been modified by a thin cover layer of SiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition method, were used as templates for the synthesis of electrodeposited magnetic Co-Ni nanowire arrays having diameters of around 180 to 200 nm and made of tens of segments with alternating compositions of Co54Ni46 and Co85Ni15. Each Co-Ni single segment has a mean length of around 290 nm for the Co54Ni46 alloy, whereas the length of the Co85Ni15 segments was around 430 nm. The composition and crystalline structure of each Co-Ni nanowire segment were determined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The employed single-bath electrochemical nanowire growth method allows for tuning both the composition and crystalline structure of each individual Co-Ni segment. The room temperature magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Co-Ni nanowire arrays is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. PMID:23735184

  11. Multisegmented ion chamber for CT scanner dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.M.; Cacak, R.K.; Hendee, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A multisegmented, ionization chamber capable of determining dosimetric profiles from a CT scanner has been developed and tested. The chamber consists of a number of 2 mm wide electrically isolated segments from which ionization currents may be measured. Presented here are the performance characteristics of the chamber including energy response, dose linearity, and corrections for ''cross talk'' between segments. Sample dosimetric profiles are depicted for 3 and 6 mm nominal beam widths at two locations in a dosimetric phantom positioned in the x-ray beam of a fourth generation CT scanner. The results agree well with the conventional method of obtaining dosimetry measurements with TLD chips.

  12. Implementation of Joint Multi-Segment Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Marc; Smith, Wyatt; Bugrova, Skella; Silkov, Sergei

    2000-01-01

    The highest level of training for ISS flight is Joint Multi-Segment Training (JMST) simulations. These simulations allow two or more partners to conduct multi-segment training for their respective Mission Control Centers (MCC), include actual crew members, and usually include training facilities in each of the participating International Partner (IP) locations. It is the dress rehearsal for those events that exercise the interface between different IP modules and/or the decision making process between the different MCCs involved. This presentation will describe the challenge of successfully implementing JMST. It will start with a brief overview of who is involved, where they are located, and when JMSTs are required. Finally, it will illustrate many of the complications involved in just running a JMST between MCC-M and MCC-H. The viewer will leave with a much better appreciation for the complexities involved in successfully conducting a JMST of this nature, as well as an idea of how the picture will change as the other partners and payloads become involved.

  13. Electrochemical template synthesis of multisegment nanowires: fabrication and protein functionalization.

    PubMed

    Wildt, Bridget; Mali, Prashant; Searson, Peter C

    2006-12-01

    Multisegment nanowires represent a unique platform for engineering multifunctional nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. For example, the optical and magnetic properties of nanowires can be tailored by modifying the size, shape, and composition of each segment. Similarly, surface modification can be used to tailor chemical and biological properties. In this article, we report on recent work on electrochemical template synthesis of nanogap electrodes, the fabrication of multisegment nanowires with embedded catalysts, and the selective functionalization of multisegment nanowires with proteins. PMID:17129026

  14. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  15. Clinical-pathological characterization of diabetic foot infections: grading the severity of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The present study has 3 aims: (a) to characterize the clinical and pathological features of diabetic foot infections, (b) to show the range of clinical presentations of moderate infections, and (c) to analyze the different behavior of diabetic foot osteomyelitis regarding to its clinical presentation. A definitive diagnosis of the type of infection was made based on intraoperative findings and histopathology. Diabetic foot infections were classified into 2 types: soft tissue and bone infections. Mild infections were always superficial. Severe infections included 75% of necrotizing soft tissue infections. Moderate infections showed ample range of clinical presentations. Eighty-one patients presented osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis was further classified as follows: osteomyelitis without ischemia and without soft tissue involvement (class 1), osteomyelitis with ischemia without soft tissue involvement (class 2), osteomyelitis with soft tissue involvement (class 3), and osteomyelitis with ischemia and soft tissue involvement (class 4). Forty-eight patients (59.3%) with osteomyelitis underwent conservative surgery, 32 (39.5%) had minor amputations including 9 open transmetatarsal amputations, and there was 1 (1.2%) major amputation. The characterization of osteomyelitis into 4 classes showed a statistically significant trend toward increased severity and increased amputation rate and mortality. In conclusion, the clinical presentation of foot infections in diabetic patients is very heterogeneous and can be classified into soft tissue infections (cellulitis, superficial and deep abscesses, and necrotizing soft tissue infections) and osteomyelitis, which was the most frequent type of infection found in the author's series. Their division into 4 classes showed a statistically significant trend toward increased severity, amputation rate, and mortality. The diagnosis of deep soft tissue infections associated with osteomyelitis may be difficult to achieve before surgery. PMID

  16. Characterization and Expression Analysis of MicroRNAs in the Tube Foot of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNA with average length of 22 nucleotides, participating in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by next generation sequencing with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Through the bioinformatic analysis, we identified 260 conserved miRNAs and six novel miRNAs from the tube foot small RNA transcriptome. Quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to characterize the specific expression in the tube foot. The results indicated that four miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-2005 and miR-278-3p, were significantly up-regulated in the tube foot. The target genes of the four specifically expressed miRNAs were predicted in silico and validated by performing qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses with the target genes of these four miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the tube foot. This is the first study to profile the miRNA transcriptome of the tube foot in sea cucumber. This work will provide valuable genomic resources to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation in the tube foot, and will be useful to assist the molecular breeding in sea cucumber. PMID:25372871

  17. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reginald B.; Spanos, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper explores typical robot design issues related to the multisegment robot concept developed by Spanos and Berka (1993) for space-based construction operations. Attention is given to the design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype multisegment robot. Experimental results of motion tests are presented and compared with analytical predictions, showing good agreement.

  18. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Feet » Foot Health Information Surgery When is Foot Surgery Necessary? Many foot problems do not respond ... restore the function of your foot. Types of Foot Surgery Fusions: Fusions are usually performed to treat ...

  19. Moment-Balanced Characteristic Earthquake Model Rates For Multi-Segment Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxall, B.

    2001-12-01

    Characterization of a multi-segment faults for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis requires definition of alternative rupture scenarios that involve different combinations of contiguous fault segments. In general, there are n(n+1)/2 possible rupture sources for a fault with n segments: for example, three rupture sources are possible for a fault having two segments, A and B -- A or B rupturing alone and A+B rupturing together. We have developed a flexible general algorithm for computing earthquake occurrence rates on multi-segment faults according to a generalized form of the characteristic earthquake magnitude-frequency relationship of Youngs and Coppersmith (BSSA, 1985), given estimates of the probabilities of failure of the segmentation barriers along the fault. The computed rates conserve the seismic moment-rate budget for the fault constrained by the geologic slip rates on the individual segments and the segment rupture areas. We have incorporated the algorithm in a Monte Carlo routine for hazard calculation in which the input fault parameters, including the segmentation barrier failure probabilities, are selected from distributions, allowing the often large uncertainties in fault parameters to be propagated through the hazard calculation to provide rigorous estimates of the hazard uncertainty bounds. We explore the sensitivity of the rate and hazard calculations to variations in the input parameters, and in particular to the subjectively assigned probabilities of segmentation barrier failure. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  20. Characterization of Malassezia microbiota in the human external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Makimura, Koichi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Sugita, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Of the fungal skin microbiota, the lipophilic yeast genus Malassezia predominates at all body sites. Of the members of this genus, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis are the most common on the face, limbs, and trunk. In the present study, the Malassezia microbiotas in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot were characterized. M. slooffiae was the most common species in both the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot, followed by M. restricta. Principal component analysis further revealed that the Malassezia microbiota in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot constitute a different cluster from those on the scalp and cheek and in the nasal cavity. Additionally, five new Malassezia phylotypes were detected on the sole of the foot and in the external auditory canal. Our results suggest that a distinctive Malassezia microbiota is present in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot, although the clinical significance of this finding remains unknown. PMID:22500932

  1. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a type SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. R.; Rowe, C. A.; Butcher, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is the first to describe characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a South African Territories 2 (SAT 2) foot-and-mouth disease virus (isolate Rho 1/48). Twelve MAbs which neutralized homologous virus were characterized in indirect and sandwich ELISA using purified Rho 1/48 virus particles, subunits, trypsin-treated, and chemically denatured virus. All the MAbs inhibited haemagglutination by parental virus. Binding of the MAbs to 73 SAT 2 field isolates was measured in a sandwich ELISA and defined four distinct antigenic regions. Preliminary characterization of escape mutants selected with some of the MAbs using virus neutralization tests, ELISA, and amino acid sequencing is included. MAbs 2, 25, 40, 48 and 64, reacted with a linear epitope on the VP1 loop region. An amino acid change at position 149 (valine to glutamic acid) was detected in mutants selected by MAb 2 and 40 and this eliminated binding and neutralization by all the other MAb. This epitope was conformation-dependent and was conserved in all 73 isolates of SAT 2 examined. Escape mutants isolated with MAb 41 and 44, had changes at positions 156 (glycine to aspartic acid), or 158 (serine to leucine) respectively. These MAbs bound with Rho 1/48 only out of 73 field strain viruses studies and the reactions of MAbs from the other groups was unaltered. MAb 27, 28 and 37 reacted with a conformation-dependent epitope on VP1 which was not conserved in field isolates. All mutants selected by these MAbs had a single amino acid substitution at position 149 (valine to alanine). The same change was always found in field isolates which did not bind MAbs from this group. MAb 11 reacted with a linear epitope associated with amino acids 147 or 148 on VP1 and showed similar binding characteristics to a conformation dependent MAb 7, no amino acid residue changes were found within VP1 for monoclonal antibody 7 mutants. PMID:7691630

  3. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Athlete's Foot What is Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus, ... fungus growth. Not all fungus conditions are athlete's foot. Other conditions, such as disturbances of the sweat ...

  4. Multisegment Kinematics of the Spinal Column: Soft Tissue Artifacts Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mahallati, Sara; Rouhani, Hossein; Preuss, Richard; Masani, Kei; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-07-01

    A major challenge in the assessment of intersegmental spinal column angles during trunk motion is the inherent error in recording the movement of bony anatomical landmarks caused by soft tissue artifacts (STAs). This study aims to perform an uncertainty analysis and estimate the typical errors induced by STA into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model during trunk bending in different directions by modeling the relative displacement between skin-mounted markers and actual bony landmarks during trunk bending. First, we modeled the maximum displacement of markers relative to the bony landmarks with a multivariate Gaussian distribution. In order to estimate the distribution parameters, we measured these relative displacements on five subjects at maximum trunk bending posture. Then, in order to model the error depending on trunk bending angle, we assumed that the error grows linearly as a function of the bending angle. Second, we applied our error model to the trunk motion measurement of 11 subjects to estimate the corrected trajectories of the bony landmarks and investigate the errors induced into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model. For this purpose, the trunk was modeled as a seven-segment rigid-body system described using 23 reflective markers placed on various bony landmarks of the spinal column. Eleven seated subjects performed trunk bending in five directions and the three-dimensional (3D) intersegmental angles during trunk bending were calculated before and after error correction. While STA minimally affected the intersegmental angles in the sagittal plane (<16%), it considerably corrupted the intersegmental angles in the coronal (error ranged from 59% to 551%) and transverse (up to 161%) planes. Therefore, we recommend using the proposed error suppression technique for STA-induced error compensation as a tool to achieve more accurate spinal column kinematics measurements. Particularly, for intersegmental

  5. Foot Drop

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

  6. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot is the most common type of tinea infection. The fungus or yeast thrives in warm, ...

  7. Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... toenails straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall ... disease, heart disease, or high blood pressure. Good foot care and regular foot checks are an important ...

  8. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot occurs when a certain fungus or yeast grows on the skin of your feet. The same fungus ...

  9. Characterization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function following foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that remains a global threat to livestock species. The induction of neutralizing antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this disease. Although these effort...

  10. Controlled assembly of multi-segment nanowires by histidine-tagged peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aijun A.; Lee, Joun; Jenikova, Gabriela; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V.; Chen, Wilfred

    2006-07-01

    A facile technique was demonstrated for the controlled assembly and alignment of multi-segment nanowires using bioengineered polypeptides. An elastin-like-polypeptide (ELP)-based biopolymer consisting of a hexahistine cluster at each end (His6-ELP-His6) was generated and purified by taking advantage of the reversible phase transition property of ELP. The affinity between the His6 domain of biopolymers and the nickel segment of multi-segment nickel/gold/nickel nanowires was exploited for the directed assembly of nanowires onto peptide-functionalized electrode surfaces. The presence of the ferromagnetic nickel segments on the nanowires allowed the control of directionality by an external magnetic field. Using this method, the directed assembly and positioning of multi-segment nanowires across two microfabricated nickel electrodes in a controlled manner was accomplished with the expected ohmic contact.

  11. Effect Of Interaction On Apertures Of Multisegmented Natural Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Y.; Germanovich, L. N.; Vermilye, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Echelons of multisegmented fluid-driven natural fractures (such as dikes, veins, and sometimes joints) with consecutive overlapping are one of the most common types of structures in the Earth­_s crust. The mechanical behavior of these fractures is quite different from that of single fractures, because of the interaction between the segments. In this work we compute the apertures of a highly segmented calcite vein, with 71 segments, in siltstone (Culpeper Quarry, Virginia) described by Vermilye and Scholz [1995]. The effect of elastic interaction between the segments is considered at three different special scales and accurately evaluated by solving the corresponding system of singular integral equations. For comparison, the case of ignored interaction is also considered. Our results unambiguously suggest that the effect of interaction highly affects the vein apertures. By using two net pressures in the vein as fitting parameters, it is possible to obtain an excellent match of the computed and measured apertures (based on 3,000 data points). This indicates two episodes in the history of vein evolution. Based on the performed simulation, a concept of effective fracture (vein) has been suggested. This is a single fracture of the same overall size (length) as the real vein. It is also pressurized by two net pressures that are determined by fitting the field data. As a result, practically the same net pressures are obtained as by accounting for the full interaction between the vein segments. The concept of effective fracture allows the sufficiently accurate computation of the vein (fracture) apertures, but without considering the interaction between the multiple segments.

  12. Characterization of Legionella pneumophila Isolated from Environmental Water and Ashiyu Foot Spa

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masato; Nakamoto, Masaya; Kimura, Yui; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs are the most common infectious source of Legionella pneumophila in Japan. However, little is known about the association between L. pneumophila and environmental waters other than hot springs. In this study, water samples from 22 environmental water sites were surveyed; of the 22 samples, five were L. pneumophila positive (23%). L. pneumophila was mainly isolated from ashiyu foot spas, a type of hot spring for the feet (3/8, 38%). These isolates had genetic loci or genes that encoded the virulence factors of L. pneumophila. Moreover, these isolates showed higher intracellular growth and stronger cytotoxicity compared with the reference strain. These results suggest that ashiyu foot spa can be the original source for L. pneumophila infection. PMID:23956987

  13. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  14. Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foot and take an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicine to relieve pain. See your doctor if ... foot. Use ice and an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicine. See your doctor if the pain doesn' ...

  15. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  16. Characterization of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen, China, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Zhou, Yuanping; Lu, Hong; Yang, Hong; Feng, Qianjin; Dai, Yingchun; Chen, Long; Yu, Shouyi; Yao, Xiangjie; Zhang, Hailong; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Yujie; Han, Ning; Hu, Guifang; He, Yaqing

    2015-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by human enteroviruses, especially by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). Patients infected with different enteroviruses show varied clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD changed, and the association between pathogens and clinical features. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 2,299 stool or rectal specimens were collected with corresponding patient data. A dynamic view of the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD in Shenzhen city of China was provided. EV71 accounted for the majority proportion of severe HFMD cases and fatalities during 2009-2013. CA16 and EV71 were gradually replaced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) as the most common serotype for mild HFMD since 2010. Myoclonic jerk and vomiting were the most frequent severe symptoms. Nervous system complications, including aseptic encephalitis and aseptic meningitis were observed mainly in patients infected by EV71. Among EV71, CA16, CA6, and CA10 infection, fever and pharyngalgia were more likely to develop, vesicles on the hand, foot, elbow, knee and buttock were less likely to develop in patients infected with CA10. Vesicles on the mouth more frequently occurred in the patients with CA6, but less in the patient with EV71. Associations between diverse enterovirus serotypes and various clinical features were discovered in the present study, which may offer further insight into early detection, diagnosis and treatment of HFMD. PMID:25951788

  17. Evaluating the Cavus Foot.

    PubMed

    Eleswarapu, Ananth S; Yamini, Bakhtiar; Bielski, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    The cavus foot is a deformity characterized by abnormal elevation of the medial arch of the foot. Unique among foot deformities, cavus typically occurs secondary to a spinal cord or neuromuscular pathology, with two-thirds of patients having an underlying neurologic diagnosis. Thus, recognition of cavus foot and appropriate evaluation are essential in the primary care setting. Patients may present with unstable gait, frequent ankle sprains, or pain along the metatarsal heads or the lateral border of the foot. The diagnosis can be confirmed with a lateral weight-bearing radiograph, with several key measurements defining a pes cavus alignment. A thorough history and physical examination should be performed to look for possible secondary causes. The first step in the treatment of cavus deformity is to address the underlying cause. After that, a variety of treatment options are available to alleviate the pain and dysfunction caused by this deformity. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(6):e218-e222.]. PMID:27294497

  18. Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  19. Molecular Characterization of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Containing a 57-Nucleotide Insertion in the 3' Untranslated Region (3'UTR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) virus containing a 57 nt insertion in the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) was generated by a transposon (tn) mediated mutagenesis. Characterization of the mutant virus (A24-3’UTR8110) revealed no significant differences in virus growth, translation efficiency and...

  20. Evaluation of multi-segmental kinematic modelling in the paediatric foot using three concurrent foot models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various foot models are used in the analysis of foot motion during gait and selection of the appropriate model can be difficult. The clinical utility of a model is dependent on the repeatability of the data as well as an understanding of the expected error in the process of data collection. Kinematic assessment of the paediatric foot is challenging and little is reported about multi-segment foot models in this population. The aim of this study was to examine three foot models and establish their concurrent test-retest repeatability in evaluation of paediatric foot motion during gait. Methods 3DFoot, Kinfoot and the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) were applied concurrently to the right foot and lower limb of 14 children on two testing sessions. Angular data for foot segments were extracted at gait cycle events and peaks and compared between sessions by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Results All foot models demonstrated moderate repeatability: OFM (ICC 0.55, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.77), 3DFoot (ICC 0.47, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.64) and Kinfoot (ICC 0.43, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.59). On the basis of a cut-off of 5°, acceptable mean error over repeated sessions was observed for OFM (SEM 4.61° ± 2.86°) and 3DFoot (SEM 3.88° ± 2.18°) but not for Kinfoot (SEM 5.08° ± 1.53°). Reliability of segmental kinematics varied, with low repeatability (ICC < 0.4) found for 14.3% of OFM angles, 22.7% of 3DFoot angles and 37.6% of Kinfoot angles. SEM greater than 5° was found in 26.2% of OFM, 15.2% of 3DFoot, and 43.8% of Kinfoot segmental angles. Conclusion Findings from this work have demonstrated that segmental foot kinematics are repeatable in the paediatric foot but the level of repeatability and error varies across the segments of the different models. Information on repeatability and test-retest errors of three-dimensional foot models can better inform clinical assessment and

  1. Characterization of the Test Section Walls at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Charles B.; Graves, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    The test section walls of the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are known to move under thermal and pressure loads. Videogrammetry was used to measure wall motion during the summer of 2002. In addition, a laser distancemeter was used to measure the relative distance between the test section walls at a single point. Distancemeter and videogrammetry results were consistent. Data were analyzed as a function of temperature and pressure to determine their effects on wall motion. Data were collected between 50 and 100 F, 0 and 0.315 Mach, and dynamic pressures of 0 and 120 psf. The overall motion of each wall was found to be less than 0.25 in. and less than facility personnel anticipated. The results show how motion depends on the temperature and pressure inside the test section as well is the position of the boundary layer vane. The repeatability of the measurements was +/-0.06 in. This report describes the methods used to record the motion of the test section walls and the results of the data analysis. Future facility plans include the development of a suitable wall restraint system and the determination of the effects of the wall motion on tunnel calibration.

  2. De novo assembly and characterization of foot transcriptome and microsatellite marker development for Paphia textile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Li, Jiakai; Xiao, Shijun; Liu, Xiande

    2016-01-15

    Paphia textile is an important, aquaculture bivalve clam species distributed mainly in China, Philippines, and Malaysia. Recent studies of P. textile have focused mainly on artificial breeding and nutrition analysis, and the transcriptome and genome of P. textile have rarely been reported. In this work, the transcriptome of P. textile foot tissue was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. A total of 20,219,795 reads were generated, resulting in 4.08 Gb of raw data. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 54,852 unigenes with an N50 length of 829 bp. Of these unigenes, 38.92% were successfully annotated based on their matches to sequences in seven public databases. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,571 were assigned Gene Ontology terms, 5448 were classified to Clusters of Orthologous Groups categories, and 6738 were mapped to 228 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. For functional marker development, 5605 candidate simple sequence repeats were identified in the transcriptome and 80 primer pairs were selected randomly and amplified in a wild population of P. textile. A total of 36 loci that exhibited obvious repeat length polymorphisms were detected. The transcriptomic data and microsatellite markers will provide valuable resources for future functional gene analyses, genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci mapping in P. textile. PMID:26546834

  3. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). PMID:24594151

  4. The foot of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Throckmorton, Z; Congdon, K A; Zipfel, B; Deane, A S; Drapeau, M S M; Churchill, S E; Berger, L R; DeSilva, J M

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  5. The foot of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H.; Throckmorton, Z.; Congdon, K. A.; Zipfel, B.; Deane, A. S.; Drapeau, M. S. M.; Churchill, S. E.; Berger, L. R.; DeSilva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  6. Magnetic properties of multisegmented cylindrical nanoparticles with alternating magnetic wire and tube segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Aravena, D.; Corona, R. M.; Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K.; Escrig, J.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic properties in multisegmented cylindrical nanostructures comprised of nanowire and nanotube segments are investigated numerically as a function of their geometry. In this work we report systematic changes in the coercivity and remanence in these systems. Besides, we have found the ideal conditions for a magnetic configuration with two antiparallel domains that could be used to help to stabilize magnetic nanoparticles inside ferromagnetic multisegmented cylindrical nanoparticles. This magnetic behavior is due to the fact that the tube segment reverses its magnetization before the wire segment, allowing the control of the magnetic domain walls motion between two segments. In this way, these magnetic nanoobjects can be an alternative to store information or even perform logic functions.

  7. Development of a multisegment coal mill model using an evolutionary computation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.L.; Wang, J.; Wu, Q.H.

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a multisegment coal mill model that covers the whole milling process from mill startup to shutdown. This multisegment mathematical model is derived through analysis of energy transferring, heat exchange, and mass flow balances. The work presented in the paper focuses on modeling E-type vertical spindle coal mills that are widely used in coal-fired power plants. An evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using the on-site measurement data. The identified parameters are then validated with different sets of online measured data. Validation results indicate that the model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of coal mill dynamics and can be used for prediction of the mill dynamic performance. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  8. Computer-assisted multi-segment gradient optimization in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Eva; Park, Soo Hyun; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R; Desmet, Gert

    2015-02-13

    This study reports simulation and optimization of ion chromatography separations using multi-segment gradient elution. First, an analytical expression for the gradient retention factor under these complex elution profiles was derived. This allows a rapid retention time prediction calculations under different gradient conditions, during computer-assisted method development. Next, these analytical expressions were implemented in an in-house written Matlab(®) routine that searches for the optimal (multi-segment) gradient conditions, either via a four-segment grid search or via the recently proposed one-segment-per-component search, in which the slope is adjusted after the elution of each individual component. Evaluation of the retention time simulation and optimization approaches was performed on a mixture of 18 inorganic anions and different subsets with varying number of compounds. The two considered multi-segment gradient optimization searches resulted in similar proposed gradient profiles, and corresponding chromatograms. Moreover, the resultant chromatograms were clearly superior to the chromatograms obtained from the best simple linear gradient profiles, found via a fine grid search. The proposed approach is useful for automated method development in ion chromatography in which complex elution profiles are often used to increase the separation power. PMID:25596760

  9. Diabetic Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection. You can help avoid foot problems. First, control your blood sugar levels. Good foot hygiene is also crucial: Check your feet every day Wash your feet every day Keep the skin soft and smooth Smooth corns and calluses gently If you can see, reach, ...

  10. Charcot Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... help prevent recurrence of Charcot foot, development of ulcers, and possibly amputation. In cases with significant deformity, ... instructions for long-term treatment to prevent recurrences, ulcers, and amputation. and or or and or or, ...

  11. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  12. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, P. D.; Berka, Reginald B.

    1993-01-01

    A concept of multisegment robot (of a class of large space cranes) is developed for use in space-based construction operations. The robot consists of a collection of segments, which are pinned together to form a snakelike configuration, with a single degree of freedom representing rotation being retained at each pinned connection and with reaction flywheels suspended within each segment for the control necessary to position each body segment. Algorithms are developed for positioning this serpentine robot to a prescribed location and orientation. A multibody dynamics simulation is used to investigate the behavior and interactions of the robot, demonstrating its viability.

  13. Design of multisegmented freeform lens for LED fishing/working lamp with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lai, Min-Feng; Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Gao, Jia-Zhi; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A novel LED fishing/working light is proposed to enhance the lighting efficiency of a fishing boat. The study is focused on the freeform secondary lens design so as to create a lamp that attracts fish and sheds light on the deck for the crew's work. The experimental results show that the proposed multisegmented freeform lens can deliver the proposed aim, giving 3 times as much illuminating power as the traditional high-intensity discharge fishing lamp does with the same input of electrical power. PMID:26479667

  14. Temperature control in wafer-level testing of large multi-segment electromigration test structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamani, Nasser; Lin, Yu-Sang

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes two methods for maintaining a constant metallization temperature throughout a wafer-level isothermal electromigration test of large multisegment test structures where Joule-heating is high and chip to chuck thermal contact is poor. In the first method, an initial calibration of Joule heating versus metal temperature is carried out. During the isothermal electromigration test, the Joule heating is continuously monitored and the chuck temperature is adjusted based on the calibration results to maintain a constant metal temperature. In the second method, temperature sensors are fabricated on the chip and then the sensors are used to monitor the chip temperature directly. The chuck temperature is then adjusted as needed.

  15. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  16. Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also experience foot drop, a weakness of the muscles in the foot and ankle that results in ... and claw toes. The foot is tested for muscle strength, and the patient’s walking pattern and coordination ...

  17. Multi-segment analysis of spinal kinematics during sit-to-stand in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Christe, Guillaume; Redhead, Lucy; Legrand, Thomas; Jolles, Brigitte M; Favre, Julien

    2016-07-01

    While alterations in spinal kinematics have been frequently reported in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), a better characterization of the kinematics during functional activities is needed to improve our understanding and therapeutic solutions for this condition. Recent studies on healthy subjects showed the value of analyzing the spine during sit-to-stand transition (STST) using multi-segment models, suggesting that additional knowledge could be gained by conducting similar assessments in CLBP patients. The objectives of this study were to characterize three dimensional kinematics at the lower lumbar (LLS), upper lumbar (ULS), lower thoracic (LTS) and upper thoracic (UTS) joints during STST, and to test the hypothesis that CLBP patients perform this movement with smaller angle and angular velocity compared to asymptomatic controls. Ten CLBP patients (with minimal to moderate disability) and 11 asymptomatic controls with comparable demographics (52% male, 37.4±5.6 years old, 22.5±2.8kg/m(2)) were tested using a three-dimensional camera-based system following previously proposed protocols. Characteristic patterns of movement were identified at the LLS, ULS and UTS joints in the sagittal plane only. Significant differences in the form of smaller sagittal-plane angle and smaller angular velocity in the patient group compared to the control group were observed at these three joints. This indicated a more rigid spine in the patient group and suggested that CLBP rehabilitation could potentially be enhanced by targeting movement deficits in functional activities. The results further recommended the analysis of STST kinematics using a pelvis-lumbar-thoracic model including lower and upper lumbar and thoracic segments. PMID:27262182

  18. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  19. Diabetic Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and ... the blood vessels can also mean that your feet do not get enough blood and oxygen. It ...

  20. Foot Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... of physical activities like running, dancing, biking, or playing basketball, soccer, or tennis. Going too far, too fast or not warming up properly before physical activity can set you up for painful foot injuries. Play it safe. Exercise your feet to increase ...

  1. Glucose biosensor based on multisegment nanowires exhibiting reversible magnetic control.

    PubMed

    Gerola, Gislaine P; Takahashi, Giovanna S; Perez, Geraldo G; Recco, Lucas C; Pedrosa, Valber A

    2014-11-01

    We describe the amperometric detection of glucose using oriented nanowires with magnetic switching of the bioelectrochemical process. The fabrication process of the nanowires was prepared through controlled nucleation and growth during a stepwise electrochemical deposition, and it was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to study the magnetoswitchable property; this control was accomplished by changing the surface orientation of nanowires. Under the optimal condition, the amperometric response was also linear up to a glucose concentration of 0.1-16.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 81 μA mM(-1). The detection limit was estimated for 4.8×10(-8) mol L(-1), defined from a signal/noise ratio of 3. It also exhibits good reproducibility and high selectivity with insignificant interference from ascorbic acid, acetoaminophen, and uric acid. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect the blood sugar in human serum samples without any pretreatment, and the results were comparatively in agreement with the clinical assay. PMID:25127595

  2. Cylindrical posts of Ag/SiO₂/Au multi-segment layer patterns for highly efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2012-08-10

    We fabricated a regular array of Ag/SiO₂/Au multi-segment cylindrical nanopatterns to create a highly efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using an advanced soft-nanoimprint lithographic technique. The SERS spectra results for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules on the Ag/SiO₂/Au multi-segment nanopatterns show that the highly ordered patterns and interlayer thickness are responsible for enhancing the sensitivity and reproducibility, respectively, The multi-segment nanopattern with a silica interlayer generates significant SERS enhancement (~EF = 1.2 x 10⁶) as compared to that of the bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanopatterns without a dielectric gap (~EF = 1.0 x 10⁴). Further precise control of the interlayer distances between the two metals plays an essential role in enhancing SERS performance for detecting low concentrations of analytes such as fluorescent (Rhodamine 6G) and DNA molecules. Therefore, the highly ordered multi-segment patterns provide great sensitivity and reproducibility of SERS based detection, resulting in a high performance of the SERS substrate. PMID:22802161

  3. Relationship between foot type, foot deformity, and ulcer occurrence in the high-risk diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, William R; Shofer, Jane B; Smith, Douglas G; Sullivan, Katrina; Hayes, Shane G; Assal, Mathieu; Reiber, Gayle E

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized an association between foot type, foot deformity, and foot ulceration and conducted an analysis of a well-characterized, high-risk diabetic population of 398 subjects. The average age was 62 years of age and 74% of the study population were males. Foot-type distributions were 19.5% pes cavus (high arch), 51.5% neutrally aligned (normal arch), and 29.0% pes planus (low arch). We quantified the presence of hallux valgus (23.9%), hammer/claw toes (46.7%), and hallux limitus (24.4%). A significant association was found between foot type and hallux valgus (p = 0.003); pes planus feet had the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (odds ratio [OR] = 2.43, p = 0.0006). Foot type was also significantly associated with fixed hammer/claw toes (p = 0.01); pes cavus feet had the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (OR = 3.89, p = 0.001). Foot type was also significantly associated with hallux limitus (p = 0.006) with pes planus feet having the highest prevalence as compared with neutrally aligned feet (OR = 2.19, p = 0.003). However, foot type was not significantly related to any ulcer outcome (p = 0.7). Fixed hammer/claw toes (OR = 3.91, p = 0.003) and hallux limitus (OR = 3.02, p = 0.006) were associated with increased risk of any ulcer occurrence. This study affirms that foot type and foot deformity are related and that foot deformities are associated with ulcer occurrence. PMID:16586192

  4. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  5. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susano, M.; Proenca, M. P.; Moraes, S.; Sousa, C. T.; Araújo, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments’ length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  6. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties. PMID:27378738

  7. Cavus Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toes All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A cavus or high-arched foot may have ... related problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to ...

  8. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  9. Foot sprain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Mid-foot sprain ... There are many bones and ligaments in your foot. A ligament is a strong flexible tissue that holds bones together. When the foot lands awkwardly, some ligaments can stretch and tear. ...

  10. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  11. Foot Disorders, Foot Posture, and Foot Function: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Thomas J.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Foot disorders are common among older adults and may lead to outcomes such as falls and functional limitation. However, the associations of foot posture and foot function to specific foot disorders at the population level remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between specific foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function. Methods Participants were from the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Quintiles of the modified arch index and center of pressure excursion index from plantar pressure scans were used to create foot posture and function subgroups. Adjusted odds ratios of having each specific disorder were calculated for foot posture and function subgroups relative to a referent 3 quintiles. Results Pes planus foot posture was associated with increased odds of hammer toes and overlapping toes. Cavus foot posture was not associated with the foot disorders evaluated. Odds of having hallux valgus and overlapping toes were significantly increased in those with pronated foot function, while odds of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were significantly decreased in those with supinated function. Conclusions Foot posture and foot function were associated with the presence of specific foot disorders. PMID:24040231

  12. Space Launch System Liftoff and Transition Aerodynamic Characterization in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Erickson, Gary E.; Paulson, John W.; Tomek, William G.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.75% scale force and moment model of the Space Launch System was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to quantify the aerodynamic forces that will be experienced by the launch vehicle during its liftoff and transition to ascent flight. The test consisted of two parts: the first was dedicated to measuring forces and moments for the entire range of angles of attack (0deg to 90deg) and roll angles (0 deg. to 360 deg.). The second was designed to measure the aerodynamic effects of the liftoff tower on the launch vehicle for ground winds from all azimuthal directions (0 deg. to 360 deg.), and vehicle liftoff height ratios from 0 to 0.94. This wind tunnel model also included a set of 154 surface static pressure ports. Details on the experimental setup, and results from both parts of testing are presented, along with a description of how the wind tunnel data was analyzed and post-processed in order to develop an aerodynamic database. Finally, lessons learned from experiencing significant dynamics in the mid-range angles of attack due to steady asymmetric vortex shedding are presented.

  13. Analytical and experimental studies of an optimum multisegment phased liner noise suppression concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawdy, D. T.; Beckemeyer, R. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented from detailed analytical studies made to define methods for obtaining improved multisegment lining performance by taking advantage of relative placement of each lining segment. Properly phased liner segments reflect and spatially redistribute the incident acoustic energy and thus provide additional attenuation. A mathematical model was developed for rectangular ducts with uniform mean flow. Segmented acoustic fields were represented by duct eigenfunction expansions, and mode-matching was used to ensure continuity of the total field. Parametric studies were performed to identify attenuation mechanisms and define preliminary liner configurations. An optimization procedure was used to determine optimum liner impedance values for a given total lining length, Mach number, and incident modal distribution. Optimal segmented liners are presented and it is shown that, provided the sound source is well-defined and flow environment is known, conventional infinite duct optimum attenuation rates can be improved. To confirm these results, an experimental program was conducted in a laboratory test facility. The measured data are presented in the form of analytical-experimental correlations. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment verifies and substantiates the analytical prediction techniques. The results indicate that phased liners may be of immediate benefit in the development of improved aircraft exhaust duct noise suppressors.

  14. Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Leah; Ostovari, Saam; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Talke, Kurt A.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Rahimi, Amin; Hart, Abraham B.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    2015-05-01

    A novel, multi-segmented magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative motion connect front and rear driving modules, so the robot can twist and turn. This permits its navigation over surface discontinuities while maintaining its adhesion to the hull. During operation, the magnetic crawler receives forward and turning velocity commands from either a tele-operator or high-level, autonomous control computer. A low-level, embedded microcomputer handles the commands to the driving motors. This paper presents the development of a simple, low-level, leader-follower controller that permits the rear module to follow the front module. The kinematics and dynamics of the two-module magnetic crawler robot are described. The robot's geometry, kinematic constraints and the user-commanded velocities are used to calculate the desired instantaneous center of rotation and the corresponding central-linkage angle necessary for the back module to follow the front module when turning. The commands to the rear driving motors are determined by applying PID control on the error between the desired and measured linkage angle position. The controller is designed and tested using Matlab Simulink. It is then implemented and tested on an early two-module magnetic crawler prototype robot. Results of the simulations and experimental validation of the controller design are presented.

  15. A multi-segment soft actuator for biomedical applications based on IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Luo, Meng; Li, Dichen; Chen, Hualing

    2015-04-01

    With rapid progress of biomedical devices towards miniaturization, flexibility, multifunction and low cost, the restrictions of traditional mechanical structures become particularly apparent, while soft materials become research focus in broad fields. As one of the most attractive soft materials, Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) is widely used as artificial muscles and actuators, with the advantages of low driving-voltage, high efficiency of electromechanical transduction and functional stabilization. In this paper, a new intuitive control method was presented to achieve the omnidirectional bending movements and was applied on a representative actuation structure of a multi-degree-offreedom soft actuator composed of two segments bar-shaped IPMC with a square cross section. Firstly, the bar-shaped IPMCs were fabricated by the solution casting method, reducing plating, autocatalytic plating method and cut into shapes successively. The connectors of the multi-segment IPMC actuator were fabricated by 3D printing. Then, a new control method was introduced to realize the intuitive mapping relationship between the actuator and the joystick manipulator. The control circuit was designed and tested. Finally, the multi-degree-of-freedom actuator of 2 segments bar-shaped IPMCs was implemented and omnidirectional bending movements were achieved, which could be a promising actuator for biomedical applications, such as endoscope, catheterism, laparoscopy and the surgical resection of tumors.

  16. High temperature in-situ observations of multi-segmented metal nanowires encapsulated within carbon nanotubes by in-situ filling technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Multi-segmented one-dimensional metal nanowires were encapsulated within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through in-situ filling technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental TEM were employed to characterize the as-prepared sample at room temperature and high temperature. The selected area electron diffractions revealed that the Pd4Si nanowire and face-centered-cubic Co nanowire on top of the Pd nanowire were encapsulated within the bottom and tip parts of the multiwall CNT, respectively. Although the strain-induced deformation of graphite walls was observed, the solid-state phases of Pd4Si and Co-Pd remain even at above their expected melting temperatures and up to 1,550 ± 50°C. Finally, the encapsulated metals were melted and flowed out from the tip of the CNT after 2 h at the same temperature due to the increase of internal pressure of the CNT. PMID:22873841

  17. Detection and characterization of viruses causing hand, foot and mouth disease from children in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ling, Beh Poay; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Harmal, Nabil Saad; Yubbu, Putri; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2014-12-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection among infants and children. The major causative agents of HFMD are enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). Recently, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) infections were reported in neighboring countries. Infected infants and children may present with fever, mouth/throat ulcers, rashes and vesicles on hands and feet. Moreover, EV71 infections might cause fatal neurological complications. Since 1997, EV71 caused fatalities in Sarawak and Peninsula Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to identify and classify the viruses which detected from the patients who presenting clinical signs and symptoms of HFMD in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia. From December 2012 until July 2013, a total of 28 specimens were collected from patients with clinical case definitions of HFMD. The HFMD viruses were detected by using semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (snRT-PCR). The positive snRT-PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the viruses were performed. 12 of 28 specimens (42.9%) were positive in snRT-PCR, seven are CVA6 (58.3%), two CVA16 (16.7%) and three EV71 (25%). Based on phylogenetic analysis studies, EV71 strains were identified as sub-genotype B5; CVA16 strains classified into sub-genotype B2b and B2c; CVA6 strains closely related to strains in Taiwan and Japan. In this study, HFMD in Seri Kembangan were caused by different types of Enterovirus, which were EV71, CVA6 and CVA16. PMID:25776590

  18. Foot function is well preserved in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who are optimally managed

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Gordon J.; Rafferty, Danny; Barn, Ruth; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Turner, Debbie E.; Woodburn, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare disease activity, impairments, disability, foot function and gait characteristics between a well described cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and normal healthy controls using a 7-segment foot model and three-dimensional gait analysis. Methods Fourteen patients with JIA (mean (standard deviation) age of 12.4 years (3.2)) and a history of foot disease and 10 healthy children (mean (standard deviation) age of 12.5 years (3.4)) underwent three-dimensional gait analysis and plantar pressure analysis to measure biomechanical foot function. Localised disease impact and foot-specific disease activity were determined using the juvenile arthritis foot disability index, rear- and forefoot deformity scores, and clinical and musculoskeletal ultrasound examinations respectively. Mean differences between groups with associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the t distribution. Results Mild-to-moderate foot impairments and disability but low levels of disease activity were detected in the JIA group. In comparison with healthy subjects, minor trends towards increased midfoot dorsiflexion and reduced lateral forefoot abduction within a 3–5° range were observed in patients with JIA. The magnitude and timing of remaining kinematic, kinetic and plantar pressure distribution variables during the stance phase were similar for both groups. Conclusion In children and adolescents with JIA, foot function as determined by a multi-segment foot model did not differ from that of normal age- and gender-matched subjects despite moderate foot impairments and disability scores. These findings may indicate that tight control of active foot disease may prevent joint destruction and associated structural and functional impairments. PMID:23142184

  19. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Print Bookmark Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle What Is Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized ... is also often found in the midfoot and ankle. Causes Osteoarthritis is considered a “wear and tear” ...

  20. Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common locations for athlete's foot include: Spaces (webs) between the toes, especially between the 4th ... no worm involved.) Between the toes (the interdigital spaces), athlete's foot may appear as inflamed, scaly, and ...

  1. Factors Contributing to Multi-Segment Rupture in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, B.; Williams, C. A.; Fry, B.

    2014-12-01

    We use dynamic prescribed slip (kinematic) modeling to examine the factors contributing to multi-segment rupture in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake. We consider fault geometry and slip distributions from inversions by Beavan et al. (2012) based on geodetic observations and by Elliott et al. (2012) based on geodetic and teleseismic observations. We invert for subevent origin times using strong-motion records and find complex rupture propagation across multiple fault segments. Our inversions suggest that the rupture began on one or two secondary faults with reverse/oblique slip near the hypocenter, consistent with the GNS first motion mechanism. The primary bilateral strike-slip rupture of the Greendale fault, consistent with centroid moment tensor solutions, occurred about 9-10 seconds after the origin time. The strong-motion records provide poor constraints on the timing of rupture of the reverse Hororata fault, which may have occurred about 16-17 seconds after the origin time. Denser strong-motion instrumentation would have provided stronger constraints on the timing of the complex rupture. The relative orientation of the regional stress field and the faulting regime explain the sense of motion and loading of these fault segments. Additionally, dynamic stress changes also created favorable conditions for triggering of the main rupture on the Greendale fault. Current work focuses on evaluating how well the UCERF3 (USGS Open File Report 2013-1165) criteria for forecasting multi-segment ruptures in California apply to this complex rupture in New Zealand.

  2. Does Multi-Segment Rupture Occur on the Wasatch Fault Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duross, C. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) is one of the most-studied normal faults in the Basin and Range Province, but the potential for multi-segment ruptures (MSRs) among its segments is poorly understood. Evaluating the characteristics of surface faulting along the WFZ, including whether paleoseismic data support the possibility of MSRs between adjacent segments, is an important step in understanding normal-fault hazards and improving earthquake-probability studies. Vertical-displacement (VD) data from 16 paleoseismic sites on the central WFZ segments (Brigham City to Levan) indicate a tendency for single-segment ruptures (SSRs), but do not preclude the possibility of MSRs. The VD observations range from 0.5-0.8 to 4.7 m, and the mean VD per earthquake is 2.1±0.97 m (1 sigma), based on 35 measurements. The largest VDs along the WFZ correspond well with the maximum displacements predicted from a displacement - surface-rupture-length (D-SRL) regression for normal faults. However, 86-90% of the WFZ VDs are larger than the average displacements predicted by D-SRL regressions for normal- and all-fault types. When normalized by segment length, over 70% of the VD data fit within a half- ellipse-shaped slip envelope that shows VD decreasing from a maximum of 1.8-3.4 m near the segment centers to ~0.8-2.1 m near the segment ends. Although the VD data support SSRs, several anomalously large VDs near the ends of the segments suggest fault ruptures at least 20 km longer than the mapped segment lengths. Evaluating the potential for MSRs among WFZ paleoearthquakes requires quantifying the uncertainty in the timing of individual events, similarity in the timing of events on adjacent segments (low to high MSR potential), and quality of supporting chronological data (low to high paleoseismic-event confidence). On the four central- most segments (Brigham City to Provo), existing paleoseismic data suggest the possibility of six MSR pairs among 16 post-6500 cal yr B.P. earthquakes. Among the

  3. SKITTER foot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Gene; Jones, David L.; Morris, James; Parham, Martin; Stephens, Jim; Yancey, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    A mechanical design team was formed to design a foot for the lunar utility vehicle SKITTER. The primary design was constrained to be a ski pole design compatible with the existing femur-tibia design legs. The lunar environment had several important effects on the foot design. Three materials were investigated for the SKITTER foot: aluminum alloys, cold worked stainless steel alloys, and titanium alloys. Thin film coatings were investigated as a method of wear reduction for the foot. The performance of the foot is dependent on the action of the legs. The range of motion for the legs was determined to be vertical to 15 degrees above horizontal. An impact analysis was performed for the foot movement, but the results were determined to be inconclusive due to unknown soil parameters. The initial foot design configuration consisted of an annulus attached to the pointed pole. The annulus was designed to prevent excess sinkage. Later designs call for a conical shaped foot with a disk at the point of the tibia attachment. The conical design was analyzed for strength and deflection by two different approaches. A deformable body analysis was performed for the foot under crane load in crane position, and also under actuator load in the vertical position. In both cases, the deflection of the foot was insignificant and the stresses well below the strength of the titanium alloy.

  4. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. PMID:26672903

  5. Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Eleanor; Harvala, Heli; Österback, Riikka; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Thomson, Emma; Waris, Matti; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Human coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus. Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16). From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash. We recently reported CVA6-associated eczema herpeticum occurring predominantly in children and young adults in Edinburgh in January and February 2014. To investigate genetic determinants of novel clinical phenotypes of CVA6, we genetically characterized and analysed CVA6 variants associated with eczema herpeticum in Edinburgh in 2014 and those with aHFMD in CAV isolates collected from 2008. A total of eight recombinant forms (RFs) have circulated worldwide over the past 10 years, with the particularly recent appearance of RF-H associated with eczema herpeticum cases in Edinburgh in 2014. Comparison of phylogenies and divergence of complete genome sequences of CVA6 identified recombination breakpoints in 2A-2C, within VP3, and between 5' untranslated region and VP1. A Bayesian temporal reconstruction of CVA6 evolution since 2004 provided estimates of dates and the actual recombination events that generated more recently appearing recombination groups (RF-E, -F, -G and -H). Associations were observed between recombination groups and clinical presentations of herpangina, aHFMD and eczema herpeticum, but not with VP1 or other structural genes. These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection. PMID:25614593

  6. Genetic characterization of human coxsackievirus A6 variants associated with atypical hand, foot and mouth disease: a potential role of recombination in emergence and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Eleanor; Harvala, Heli; Österback, Riikka; Sreenu, Vattipally B.; Thomson, Emma; Waris, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Human coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus. Until recently, CVA6 infections were considered as being of minor clinical significance, and only rarely aetiologically linked with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with other species A enteroviruses (particularly EV71 and CVA16). From 2008 onwards, however, CVA6 infections have been associated with several outbreaks worldwide of atypical HFMD (aHFMD) accompanied by a varicelliform rash. We recently reported CVA6-associated eczema herpeticum occurring predominantly in children and young adults in Edinburgh in January and February 2014. To investigate genetic determinants of novel clinical phenotypes of CVA6, we genetically characterized and analysed CVA6 variants associated with eczema herpeticum in Edinburgh in 2014 and those with aHFMD in CAV isolates collected from 2008. A total of eight recombinant forms (RFs) have circulated worldwide over the past 10 years, with the particularly recent appearance of RF-H associated with eczema herpeticum cases in Edinburgh in 2014. Comparison of phylogenies and divergence of complete genome sequences of CVA6 identified recombination breakpoints in 2A–2C, within VP3, and between 5′ untranslated region and VP1. A Bayesian temporal reconstruction of CVA6 evolution since 2004 provided estimates of dates and the actual recombination events that generated more recently appearing recombination groups (RF-E, -F, -G and -H). Associations were observed between recombination groups and clinical presentations of herpangina, aHFMD and eczema herpeticum, but not with VP1 or other structural genes. These observations provided evidence that NS gene regions may potentially contribute to clinical phenotypes and outcomes of CVA6 infection. PMID:25614593

  7. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events. PMID:19294983

  8. Plantar Foot Surface Temperatures with Use of Insoles

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michelle; Shurr, Donald G; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Saltzman, Charles L

    2004-01-01

    Purpose- Patients with diabetes are often prescribed foot orthoses to help prevent foot ulcer formation. Orthotics are used to redistribute normal and shear stress. Shear stresses are not easily measurable and considered to be responsible for skin breakdown. Local elevation of skin temperature has been implicated as an early sign of impending ulceration especially in regions of high shear stress. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of commonly prescribed insole materials on local changes in plantar foot temperature during normal gait. Methods- Six commonly used foot orthosis materials were tested using the Thermo Trace™ infrared thermometer to measure foot temperature. Ten healthy adult volunteers without any history of diabetes or abnormal sensation participated in the study. During each trial the subject walked on a treadmill with the test material in the dominant foot's shoe, for six minutes at a speed of four miles per hour and rested for six minutes between trials. Four locations on the foot (hallux, first and fifth metatarsal heads, and heel) and the contralateral bicep temperatures were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 minutes during the rest period. The order of material and skin location testing was randomized. Results- Significant differences were found between baseline temperatures and foot temperatures for all materials. However, no differences were found between materials for any location on the foot. Conclusion- Previous studies have attempted to characterize materials based on laboratory and clinical testing, while other studies have attempted to characterize the effect of pressure on skin temperature. However, no study has previously attempted to characterize foot orthosis materials based on foot temperatures. This study compared foot temperatures of healthy adults based on the material tested. Although this study was unable to distinguish between materials based on foot temperatures, it was able to show a rise in foot temperature with any

  9. Slip history of the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake rupture along the North Anatolian fault system: Implications for recurrence behavior of multisegment earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hisao; Ã-Zaksoy, Volkan; YıLdirim, Cengiz

    2010-04-01

    Recent research shows that active fault systems produce multisegment earthquakes; however, we have yet to understand the faulting behavior of various spatial patterns of segments. We conducted a three-dimensional trenching survey to reconstruct the detailed slip history of a fault segment that ruptured as one of the multisegment ruptures along the North Anatolian fault system. The trench site, on the Gerede segment, recorded a maximum right-lateral slip of up to 6 m that was associated with the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake (M 7.4). Fault exposures show evidence of four paleoearthquakes. Radiocarbon dates, a refined probability density distribution, and correlation with historical earthquakes place the mean repeat time at ˜330 years. Four discrete paleoslips yield a slip per event of 5.0 ± 0.8 m with a coefficient of variation of 0.2. Our research suggests that multisegment earthquakes exhibit various spatial patterns, regardless of recurrence with quasiperiodicity and characteristic slip. Coincidentally, the fault geometry exhibits extremely linear traces, suggesting simple stress accumulation and release through earthquake cycles. Furthermore, the 1944 event did not occur in a single segment, and the Gerede segment probably ruptured within a slip-pulse-like rupture during a multisegment earthquake. A comparable geological slip rate of ˜17 mm a-1 based on a GPS-based strain rate supports the persistence of macroscopic asperity through recent geological time. Therefore we conclude that a segment with simple fault geometry along a strike-slip fault system plays an important role in forecasting the timing of future multisegment earthquakes, but the spatial extent of such earthquakes needs to be explored further.

  10. Characterization of Coxsackievirus A6- and Enterovirus 71-Associated Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing, China, from 2013 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Sun, Ying; Du, Yiwei; Yan, Yuxiang; Huo, Da; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fen; Lin, Changying; Liang, Zhichao; Jia, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Quanyi; He, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Etiology surveillance of Hand Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing showed that Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) became the major pathogen of HFMD in 2013 and 2015. In order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of CVA6-associated HFMD, a comparison study among CVA6-, EV71- (Enterovirus 71), and CVA16- (Coxsackievirus A16) associated HFMD was performed. Methods: Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations among CVA6-, EV71- and CVA16-associated mild or severe cases were compared from 2013 to 2015. VP1 gene of CVA6 and EV71 from mild cases, severe cases were sequenced, aligned, and compared with strains from 2009 to 2015 in Beijing and strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbor-joining method. Results: CVA6 became the predominant causative agent of HFMD and accounted for 35.4 and 36.9% of total positive cases in 2013 and 2015, respectively. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 305 severe cases and 7 fatal cases were reported. CVA6 and EV71 were responsible for 57.5% of the severe cases. Five out six samples from fatal cases were identified as EV71. High fever, onychomadesis, and decrustation were the typical symptoms of CVA6-associated mild HFMD. CVA6-associated severe cases were characterized by high fever with shorter duration and twitch compared with EV71-associated severe cases which were characterized by poor mental condition, abnormal pupil, and vomiting. Poor mental condition, lung wet rales, abnormal pupil, and tachycardia were the most common clinical features of fatal cases. The percentage of lymphocyte in CVA6-associated cases was significantly lower than that of EV71. High percentage of lymphocyte and low percentage of neutrophils were the typical characteristics of fatal cases. VP1 sequences between CVA6- or EV71-associated mild and severe cases were highly homologous. Conclusion: CVA6 became one of the major pathogens of HFMD in 2013 and 2015 in Beijing

  11. High-power diode-end-pumped laser with multi-segmented Nd-doped yttrium vanadate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y J; Chen, Y F

    2013-07-01

    A Nd:YVO4 crystal consisting of three segments with different doping concentrations is originally developed for power scaling in diode-end-pumped solid-state laser. We systematically make a comparison of laser characteristics between the multi-segmented and conventional composite crystals to show the feasibility of using gain medium with multiple doping concentrations for power scale-up in end-pumped laser without introducing significant thermally accompanied effects. We further construct a dual-end-pumped actively Q-switched oscillator at 1064 nm to verify the usefulness of our crystal design, where the largest pulse energy of 1.06 mJ and the highest output power of 45 W are efficiently generated. PMID:23842393

  12. Optimal Design of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Using Multisegmented Magnet Array for Small Form Factor Optical Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2007-05-01

    For a small form factor optical disk drive (SFFODD), a high-performance actuator satisfying the requirements for small size, high speed, and low-power consumption simultaneously is required. In this paper, we propose a rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) using a multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) for the SFFODD. The VCM is designed to move the entire system including miniaturized optical components, which are necessary in reading and writing data. To increase the actuating force of the VCM, the MSMA, a novel magnetic circuit, is adopted because it can provide a higher flux density than a conventional magnet array in the rotary-type VCM. To obtain the best performance from the VCM in the limit of actuator size, design optimization is performed. The manufactured actuator with optimally designed parameters is described and the potential performance of track seeking is evaluated and presented.

  13. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  14. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... pounding their feet endure from... Foot Injuries in Olympic Athletes and Beyond Foot and ankle surgeons offer ... for athletes of all levels. The 2012 Summer Olympics have arrived, and according to foot and ankle ...

  15. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 33. Kim PJ, Steinberg JS. Complications of the diabetic foot. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2013;42:833-847. PMID: 24286952 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24286952 . Read More Diabetes Diabetes and nerve damage Leg or foot amputation Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes and ...

  16. Biomechanics of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Prost, William J.

    1979-01-01

    The foot goes through a complex series of biomechanical movements in a normal gait cycle, which result in smooth and coordinated propulsion. Various biomechanical faults may result in abnormal motion of the foot, the most important of which is abnormal pronation, causing the foot to be unstable in propulsion, leading to hypermobility of the joints, and eventual subluxation with static deformities. This abnormal motion must be treated, usually be biomechanical orthotic devices, sometimes combined with surgery. Emphasis is laid on the early recognition and correction of biomechanical faults to prevent deformities.

  17. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  18. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  19. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV

  20. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  1. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer has healed. These devices will take the pressure off of the ulcer area. This will help speed healing. Be sure to wear shoes that do not put a lot of pressure on only one part of your foot. Wear ...

  2. Foot pain causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 58. LeCursi N. Sports shoes and orthoses. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ... Ligamentous Injuries of the Foot and Ankle. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  3. Leg or foot amputation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your high blood pressure Diabetes - foot ulcers Dietary fats explained Fast food ... by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic ...

  4. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  5. Multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping process of multi coupled activities based on valid information evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yunxia; Qiu, Shenghai

    2013-01-01

    Complex product development will inevitably face the design planning of the multi-coupled activities, and overlapping these activities could potentially reduce product development time, but there is a risk of the additional cost. Although the downstream task information dependence to the upstream task is already considered in the current researches, but the design process overall iteration caused by the information interdependence between activities is hardly discussed; especially the impact on the design process' overall iteration from the valid information accumulation process. Secondly, most studies only focus on the single overlapping process of two activities, rarely take multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping process of multi coupled activities into account; especially the inherent link between product development time and cost which originates from the overlapping process of multi coupled activities. For the purpose of solving the above problems, as to the insufficiency of the accumulated valid information in overlapping process, the function of the valid information evolution (VIE) degree is constructed. Stochastic process theory is used to describe the design information exchange and the valid information accumulation in the overlapping segment, and then the planning models of the single overlapping segment are built. On these bases, by analyzing overlapping processes and overlapping features of multi-coupling activities, multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping planning models are built; by sorting overlapping processes and analyzing the construction of these planning models, two conclusions are obtained: (1) As to multi-segment and multi-ply overlapping of multi coupled activities, the total decrement of the task set development time is the sum of the time decrement caused by basic overlapping segments, and minus the sum of the time increment caused by multiple overlapping segments; (2) the total increment of development cost is the sum of the cost

  6. Prehensile Foot Restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willits, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed prehensile foot restraint enables such workers as astronauts and divers to maintain fixed positions in zero gravity or in buoyancy with minimal effort. With foot restraint worker devotes attention fully to task at hand, with little concern about holding on to supporting structure. Claw near toe of shoe grips rail. Wearer uses flexible shaft, first to lock claw tightly on bar; then, when work is done, to open claw. Underwater or in space, device boosts productivity.

  7. [The infected diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Voide, C; Trampuz, A; Orasch, C

    2012-10-31

    Disorders of local immunity associated with diabetes, neuropathy, vascular disease and pressure lesions all contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot infections are frequently encountered, comprising multifactorial pathology and high morbidity and mortality rates. Microbiological sampling is indicated only when infection is suspected clinically, that is, when a lesion presents a minimum of two of the following six signs: erythema, heat, pain, tumefaction, induration or purulent discharge. PMID:23117963

  8. Diabetic foot risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M Gail

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that results in foot complications for many people world-wide. In 2014, the World Health Organization estimated the global prevalence of diabetes in adults to be 9%. To ascertain the risk that an individual patient might develop a diabetic foot ulcer that could lead to an amputation, clinicians are strongly encouraged to perform a risk assessment. Monteiro-Soares and Dinis-Ribeiro have presented a new DIAbetic FOot Risk Assessment with the acronym DIAFORA. It is different from other risk assessments in that it predicts the risk of developing both diabetic foot ulcers and amputation specifically. The risk variables were derived by regression analysis based on a data set of 293 patients from a high-risk setting, a Hospital Diabetic Foot Clinic, who had diabetes and a diabetic foot ulcers. Clear descriptions of the risk variables are provided as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the risk categories. As an added benefit, likelihood ratios are provided that will help clinicians determine the risk of amputation for individual patients. Having a risk assessment form is important for clinician use and examples exist. A question is raised about the effectiveness of risk assessment and how effectiveness might be determined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26825436

  9. Application of modern-control-design methodologies to a multi-segmented deformable-mirror system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, E.M.

    1991-05-23

    The multi-segmented deformable mirror system is proposed as an element for a portion of a ballistic missile defense system. The size of the mirror required for this defense function requires that the mirror be developed in segments, and then these segments should be phased together to produce one continuous, large optic. The application of multivariable control system synthesis techniques to provide closed-loop wavefront control of the deformable mirror system is the problem discussed in this thesis. The method of H at infinity control system synthesis using loop-shaping techniques was used to develop a controller that meets a robust performance specification. The number and location of sensors was treated as a design variable, and the structured singular value (mu) was used to determine the performance robustness of the deformable mirror system. Decentralized control issues are also addressed through the use of necessary conditions in an effort to determine a suitable decentralized control structure with performance similar to that of the centralized controller.

  10. Construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O/JPN/2010 isolated in Japan in 2010.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Onozato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Seiichi; Fukai, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Manabu; Morioka, Kazuki; Kanno, Toru

    2016-06-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan was constructed and designated pSVL-f02. Transfection of Cos-7 or IBRS-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. The recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. Pigs were experimentally infected with the parental virus or the recombinant virus recovered from pSVL-f02 transfected cells. There were no significant differences in clinical signs or antibody responses between the two groups, and virus isolation and viral RNA detection from clinical samples were similar. Virus recovered from transfected cells therefore retained the in vitro characteristics and the in vivo pathogenicity of their parental strain. This cDNA clone should be a valuable tool to analyze determinants of pathogenicity and mechanisms of virus replication, and to develop genetically engineered vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus. PMID:27234555

  11. Charcot foot syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoate, W J

    2015-06-01

    Charcot foot syndrome is an uncommon complication of diabetes but is potentially devastating in its consequences. Outcome is made worse by widespread professional ignorance leading to delayed diagnosis, but it is also hampered by lack of understanding of its causes and lack of treatments with proven effectiveness, other than offloading. There remains a desperate need for studies into its causes as well as comparative audit and trials designed to determine the best treatment for this difficult condition. Such work can probably only be effectively carried out through the establishment of multicentre networks. Nevertheless, improved understanding in recent years of the likely role of inflammatory pathways has raised awareness of the multiple ways in which the effects of neuropathy may be manifest in the development of the Charcot foot. This awareness is also leading to the realization that similar processes may conceivably contribute to the refractoriness of other foot diseases in diabetes, including both chronic unhealing ulcers and osteomyelitis. PMID:25818542

  12. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Constructing the forms for the foundation of the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000. The first step was to pour the foundation for the tunnel and the housing which would encase the wind tunnel.

  13. Characterization of VP1 gene of coxsackievirus A16 prevalent among hand foot mouth disease suffered children in Taizhou, P. R. China, between 2010 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhilong; Zha, Jie

    2016-02-01

    A total of 453 strains of Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were screened out of 1,509 hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) samples collected in Taizhou during the period from 2010 to 2013. And between first quarter of 2011 and first quarter of 2013, an outbreak of CV-A16 was found among the HFMD sufferers in Taizhou. Phylogenic analysis of VP1 sequences indicated a major CV-A16 sub-group in Taizhou, whose change pattern of effective population sizes was found to be similar to the pattern of the actual percentage changes of CV-A16 during the outbreak over the same period. More importantly, the sub-group all displayed a Leu (L) to Met (M) mutation at site-23 of capsid VP1 which might be correlated with the outbreak of CV-A16 in Taizhou. PMID:26174468

  14. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Balinda, S N; Belsham, G J; Masembe, C; Sangula, A K; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed. PMID:20003615

  15. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  16. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  17. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 are most ...

  18. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn Against Taking Part in Growing Surgery ... members of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, who specialize in foot surgery, are taking ...

  19. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Print Bookmark What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical specialists of the podiatric ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  20. Richard H. Foote

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Richard H. Foote, a world renowned specialist on the taxonomy of fruit flies and a widely respected former leader of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, ARS, USDA, died on February 9, 2002. A summary of his career and his most important contributions to entomological research and the fi...

  1. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  2. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  3. Real-time visual communication to aid disaster recovery in a multi-segment hybrid wireless networking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    When natural disasters or other large-scale incidents occur, obtaining accurate and timely information on the developing situation is vital to effective disaster recovery operations. High-quality video streams and high-resolution images, if available in real time, would provide an invaluable source of current situation reports to the incident management team. Meanwhile, a disaster often causes significant damage to the communications infrastructure. Therefore, another essential requirement for disaster management is the ability to rapidly deploy a flexible incident area communication network. Such a network would facilitate the transmission of real-time video streams and still images from the disrupted area to remote command and control locations. In this paper, a comprehensive end-to-end video/image transmission system between an incident area and a remote control centre is proposed and implemented, and its performance is experimentally investigated. In this study a hybrid multi-segment communication network is designed that seamlessly integrates terrestrial wireless mesh networks (WMNs), distributed wireless visual sensor networks, an airborne platform with video camera balloons, and a Digital Video Broadcasting- Satellite (DVB-S) system. By carefully integrating all of these rapidly deployable, interworking and collaborative networking technologies, we can fully exploit the joint benefits provided by WMNs, WSNs, balloon camera networks and DVB-S for real-time video streaming and image delivery in emergency situations among the disaster hit area, the remote control centre and the rescue teams in the field. The whole proposed system is implemented in a proven simulator. Through extensive simulations, the real-time visual communication performance of this integrated system has been numerically evaluated, towards a more in-depth understanding in supporting high-quality visual communications in such a demanding context.

  4. [Presentation of a flap web space laterodigital in cleft foot].

    PubMed

    Szwebel, J; Haddad, R; Mitrofanoff, M

    2012-08-01

    Cleft foot deformity is characterized by the absence of one or more median rays of the foot. This rare polymorphous congenital anomaly occurs more frequently in males, with a frequent autosomal dominant type of transmission. The purpose of surgical treatment is to narrow the width of the foot, but also to improve its global aesthetic look. Toe reparation, and more specifically web space reconstruction, provide the main technical challenges. We present an adaptation to the foot of a laterodigital cutaneous flap published by Barsky in 1964 for commissural reconstruction in cleft hand syndroms. The anatomical structure of fingers and toes commisures being different, this flap seems more adapted to the surgery of the foot. We gathered seven patients' files treated for ectrodactyly of the foot with this technique by the same surgeon from 2005 to 2008. No particular postoperative complications were noted, and the patients all expressed their satisfaction regarding the improvement of the appearance of their foot. We recommend to add the use of this flap in the "tool box" of the surgeon in charge of the management of foot deformities. PMID:20947236

  5. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  6. Prevalence and characterization of enterovirus infections among pediatric patients with hand foot mouth disease, herpangina and influenza like illness in Thailand, 2012.

    PubMed

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  7. [Diabetic foot infections].

    PubMed

    Ryšková, Lenka

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are serious problems in persons with diabetes, about 10 to 25 % of patients with dia-betes develop a foot ulcer and 60 % of them are infected. DFIs cause morbidity, limit mobility, worsen patients quality of life. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with Gram-positive cocci (especially staphylococci), Gram-negative bacilli and obligate anaerobes. Successful therapy of DFI requires proper topical care and often includes surgical interventions but appropriate antibiotic treatment plays a key role. Initial antimicrobial therapy of these infections is usually empirical, the antibiotic regimen should be based on the severity of the infection. Definitive therapy should then be tailored according to the results of culture and susceptibility tests from a reliably obtained specimen. PMID:26258977

  8. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajesh-Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesions, blisters. PMID:26155357

  9. The neuropathic diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, and result in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are likely to be of neuropathic origin and, therefore, are eminently preventable. Individuals with the greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of their feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb-threatening, or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identification of causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with nonremovable casts, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patient's adherence to the strategy used for pressure relief. PMID:17179926

  10. Use of social network analysis to characterize the pattern of animal movements in the initial phases of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Pelaez, A; Pfeiffer, D U; Soares-Magalhães, R J; Guitian, F J

    2006-09-15

    Aggregated movement data do not take into account the relative position of the units within a higher-level structure. Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory provide a tool to organise and analyse relational data overcoming the limitations of standard methods where the position of individuals/observations does not affect the result of the analysis. Some recorded movements of cattle and sheep during the initial phase of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the UK, before the ban on animal movements was imposed, are analysed descriptively using SNA. With the data available, a directed dichotomized network with 653 nodes and 797 arches was analysed. Most of the 10 nodes with the highest betweenness (3 farms, 4 markets and 3 dealers) were identified as key players in the initial spread of the infection. Three groups of nodes with distinctive proportion of k < or = 2 neighbours would result in three different theoretical outbreak dimensions assuming that the infection is only disseminated by the movements included in the network: no spread, spread up to 7% and around 25%. There are three hierarchical clusters with 308, 215 and 130 nodes, respectively. Farms in cluster 1 appear to be more similar in their movement patterns to non-farm holdings than to farms in clusters 2 and 3. Relative betweenness, k-neighbours and structural equivalence using hierarchical clustering were able to identify key actors in the evolution of the initial phases of the FMD outbreak such as markets, dealers and farms with atypical movement patterns. Holdings with high betweenness, large number of k < or = 2 neighbours and with movement pattern as in cluster 1 should be targeted in disease control activities once primary actors like markets, dealers and slaughter houses have been contained. PMID:16769142

  11. Nanochannel-Directed Growth of One-Dimensional Multi-Segment Heterojunctions of Metallic Au1-xGex and Semiconducting Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiangdong; Meng, Guowen; Qin, Shengyong; Xu, Qiaoling; Chu, Zhaoqin; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Kong, Mingguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of multi-segment nanowire (NW) junctions of Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} and Ge inside the nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide template. The one-dimensional heterostructures are grown with a low-temperature chemical vapor deposition process, assisted by electrodeposited Au nanowires (AuNWs). The Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth process occurs simultaneously in multiple locations along the nanochannel, which leads to multi-segment Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}/Ge heterojunctions. The structures of the as-grown hybrid NWs, analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping, show clear compositional modulation with variable modulation period and controllable junction numbers. Remarkably, both GeNW and Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}NW segments are single crystalline with abrupt interfaces and good crystallographic coherences. The electronic and transport properties of individual NW junctions are measured by using a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscope, which confirms the semiconducting nature of Ge segments and the metallic behavior of Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} segments, respectively. The high yield of multiple segment NW junctions of a metal-semiconductor can facilitate the applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics that harness multiple functionalities of heterointerfaces.

  12. Combining Multiple Data Acquisition Systems to Study Corticospinal Output and Multi-segment Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, Michael J; Bailey, Aaron Z; Keir, Peter J; Potvin, Jim; Bergel, Tim; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques allow for an in-depth investigation into the neural mechanisms that underpin human behavior. To date, the use of TMS to study human movement, has been limited by the challenges related to precisely timing the delivery of TMS to features of the unfolding movement and, also, by accurately characterizing kinematics and kinetics. To overcome these technical challenges, TMS delivery and acquisition systems should be integrated with an online motion tracking system. The present manuscript details technical innovations that integrate multiple acquisition systems to facilitate and advance the use of TMS to study human movement. Using commercially available software and hardware systems, a step-by-step approach to both the hardware assembly and the software scripts necessary to perform TMS studies triggered by specific features of a movement is provided. The approach is focused on the study of upper limb, planar, multi-joint reaching movements. However, the same integrative system is amenable to a multitude of sophisticated studies of human motor control. PMID:26780153

  13. Pharmacological Characterization of the αvβ6 Integrin Binding and Internalization Kinetics of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Derived Peptide A20FMDV2.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hafeji, Maryam; Rogers, Rebecca; Ludbrook, Steve B; Marshall, John F; Flint, David J; Pyne, Susan; Denyer, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    A20FMDV2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding integrin. It has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. In a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3H]A20FMDV2), its high affinity (K(D): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at least 85-fold) for αvβ6 over the other members of the RGD integrin family was confirmed. [3H]A20FMDV2 αvβ6 binding could be fully reversed only in the presence of EDTA, whereas a partial reversal was observed in the presence of excess concentrations of an RGD-mimetic small molecule (SC-68448) or unlabelled A20FMDV2. Using flow cytometry on bronchial epithelial cells, the ligand-induced internalization of αvβ6 by A20FMDV2 and latency-associated peptide-1 was shown to be fast (t(1/2): 1.5 and 3.1 min, respectively), concentration-dependent (EC50: values 1.1 and 3.6 nmol/l, respectively) and was followed by a moderately slow return of integrin to the surface. The results of the radioligand binding studies suggest that the binding of A20FMDV2 to the RGD-binding site on αvβ6 is required to maintain its engagement with the hypothesised A20FMDV2 synergy site on the integrin. In addition, there is evidence from flow cytometric studies that the RGD-ligand engagement of αvβ6 post-internalization plays a role in delaying recycling of the integrin to the cell surface. This mechanism may act as a homeostatic control of membrane αvβ6 following RGD ligand engagement. PMID:26734728

  14. [Neuropathy and diabetic foot ulcers].

    PubMed

    Lobmann, R

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature. Polyneuropathy plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the high rates of major amputations. PMID:25903093

  15. Imaging of diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Robert; Bar-David, Tzvi; Kamen, Stewart; Staron, Ronald B; Leung, David K; Rasiej, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Complications from diabetic foot infections are a leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Nearly 85% of these amputations result from an infected foot ulcer. Osteomyelitis is present in approximately 20% of diabetic foot infections. It is imperative that clinicians make quick and successful diagnoses of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) because a delay in treatment may lead to worsening outcomes. Imaging studies, such as plain films, bone scans, musculoskeletal ultrasound, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scans, aid in the diagnosis. However, there are several mimickers of DFO, which present problems to making a correct diagnosis. PMID:24296017

  16. Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    NEVILLE, CHRISTOPHER; HOUCK, JEFF

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process. CASE DESCRIPTION A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used. OUTCOMES In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with

  17. Enchondroma of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Stephanie, Stephanie; Choi, Jun Young; Nam, Ji Ho; Suh, Jin Soo

    2015-01-01

    The present study is a review of 20 patients with enchondroma of the foot treated from January 2005 to March 2012. All patients were examined clinically, followed by an evaluation of their enchondroma of the foot radiographically and an assessment of the outcome of their surgical intervention. The patients' sex and age, enchondroma location, findings from imaging studies such as plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, clinical findings, operative findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. The average postoperative follow-up period was 24 months. Eighty percent of the tumors were located in the proximal phalanx and 14 (70%) patients presented with pathologic fracture. The plain radiographs and computed tomography findings revealed 13 (65%) cases of internal calcification and 11 (55%) with endosteal scalloping. A periosteal reaction was seen only in 4 (20%) cases. Magnetic resonance imaging of 11 (55%) patients showed low T1-weighted and high T2-weighted signal intensity in all cases. Internal septa and nodules with low T2-weighted signal intensity were observed in 9 (82%) out of 11 cases, and adjacent soft tissue edema was noted in 9 (82%). All patients underwent curettage of the tumor and bone grafting as their surgical treatment. No recurrence or postoperative complications were observed during the 24-month follow-up period. Enchondroma of the foot most frequently involves the proximal phalangeal bone and is often associated with pathologic fracture. The unique clinical signs and characteristic radiographic images are easily recognized, making this a relatively easy diagnosis. With appropriate treatment, a good surgical outcome can be expected. PMID:26024560

  18. Melanoma of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Ivan; Bower, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer that is responsible for most skin cancer deaths globally. Tumors arising on the foot continue to be a particular challenge. Patients present later and lesions are frequently misdiagnosed, leading to more advanced disease with an overall poorer prognosis then melanoma elsewhere. In order to improve early recognition, this article reviews the clinical features of the disease along with published algorithms. Emerging assessment techniques such as dermoscopy are also discussed as tools to improve clinical decision making. Contemporary drug therapies in the treatment of advanced disease are also discussed. PMID:27215160

  19. Search the Foot and Ankle: Interactive Foot Diagram

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Print Bookmark Search the Foot and Ankle Foot conditions in this region: Bunions (Hallux Valgus) » ... Injuries » Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) » Tarsal Coalition » Ankle Fractures » Ankle Sprain » Chronic Ankle Instability » Equinus » Gout » ...

  20. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  1. 20-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Construction of a typical model used in the 20-Foot Spin Tunnel. >From 'Characteristics of Nine Research Wind Tunnels of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory': 'Dynamic models are used for free-spinning tunnel tests. A dynamic model is one for which geometric similarity between model and airplane is extended to obtain geometric similarity of the paths of motion of corresponding points by maintaining constant, in addition to the scale ratio of linear dimensions, three other ratios, that of force, mass, and time. In model testing, however, complete similarity can generally not be duplicated and some compromise is necessary. For free-spinning-model tests in the NACA 20-foot tunnel, the ratio of inertia to frictional or viscous forces (Reynolds number) is not maintained constant, but the ratio of inertia to gravity forces (Froude number) is maintained constant.' 'Models used in the spin tunnel until recently [this report was written in 1957] were made primarily of balsa and reinforced with hardwood. Now, plastic models are being used almost entirely, because they are more durable and when properly constructed are no heavier than balsa models. The models are constructed accurately to scale by pressing plastic material and class cloth into a previously constructed mold. A typical mod is shown in [this picture]. The model is swung as a torsional pendulum and is ballasted to obtain dynamic similarity by placing lead weights in suitable locations within the model wings and fuselage. Corrections are made for the effect of ambient and entrapped air.'

  2. The diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Charles A; Roukis, Thomas S

    2007-10-01

    Lower extremity complications are common in patients with diabetes and include neuropathy, ulceration, infection, and peripheral arterial disease. Foot infections represent the single most common cause of hospitalization and lower extremity amputation in persons with diabetes. Foot ulceration as a result of diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy, rigid osseous deformities and soft-tissue contractures, repetitive trauma from unprotected ambulation, and peripheral vascular disease can all lead to a limb- or life-threatening infection. Antibiotic therapy for diabetic soft-tissue and osseous infections is usually inadequate as an isolated form of therapy. The mainstay of treatment involves well-planned surgical procedures, including extensive and properly placed incisions to perform adequate drainage of abscesses and débridement of necrotic soft-tissue and osseous structures from which deep cultures are obtained for specific antibiotic coverage. Initial antibiotic therapy should provide broad-spectrum coverage, and when final culture results are available the regimen should be revised to organism-specific coverage. Detailed and timely evaluation of the vascularity of the limb is paramount, followed by timely vascular reconstruction involving various endovascular and open surgical procedures to restore pulsatile flow to the full extent of the limb. PMID:17936480

  3. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  4. Multi-segment detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Peter K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A plurality of stretcher detector segments are connected in series whereby detector signals generated when a bubble passes thereby are added together. Each of the stretcher detector segments is disposed an identical propagation distance away from passive replicators wherein bubbles are replicated from a propagation path and applied, simultaneously, to the stretcher detector segments. The stretcher detector segments are arranged to include both dummy and active portions thereof which are arranged to permit the geometry of both the dummy and active portions of the segment to be substantially matched.

  5. 20-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1941-01-01

    The large structure on the left of the photograph is the Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel in which dynamic scale models of modern airplanes are tested to determine their spinning characteristics and ability to recover from spins from movement of the control surfaces. From the information obtained in this manner, the spin recovery characteristics of the full-scale airplane may be predicted. The large sphere on the right is 60 feet in diameter and houses the NACA 12-Foot Free-Flight Wind Tunnel in which dynamic scale models of airplanes are flown in actual controlled flight to provide information from which the stability characteristics of the full-scale airplane may be predicted.

  6. Foot-type analysis and plantar pressure differences between obese and nonobese adolescents during upright standing.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Capodaglio, Paolo; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pau, Massimiliano; Patrizi, Alessandra; Tringali, Gabriella; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of obesity on foot-type and plantar pressure distribution in adolescents. Ten obese adolescents (obese group; BMI: 35.45±4.73 kg/m) and eight normal-weighted adolescents (control group; BMI: 18.67±2.46 kg/m) were recruited. Both groups were evaluated while standing using the Pedar-X in-shoe system. Foot-ground contact was characterized using contact area, peak of force and pressure calculated for the subareas of the foot. The analysis showed that obese participants had significantly higher area of contact in forefoot and midfoot (only in medial area) regions in comparison with the control group, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed for the rearfoot region. As far as the maximum pressure and force was concerned, similar results were obtained for both groups. Obese participants showed higher values for all the regions, with the exception of medial rearfoot area, for which the values were similar between the two groups. The analysis of foot-type distribution displayed that in the obese group high percentage of participants presented flat foot (70%) respect to cavus foot (20%) and normal foot (10%); on the contrary, in the control group, foot-types were markedly different, with 25% of participants with flat foot, 25% with cavus foot and 50% with normal foot. These results are important from a clinical perspective to develop and enhance the rehabilitative options in these patients and to avoid a worsening of their foot abnormalities. Untreated flat foot can in fact be disabling and over time can result in significant difficulties for the patient. PMID:26632774

  7. Subungual exostosis of the foot.

    PubMed

    de Palma, L; Gigante, A; Specchia, N

    1996-12-01

    Eleven subungual exostoses of the foot (10 on the hallux, 1 on the third toe) were studied. The initial symptom was subungual pain. When a subungual mass of fibrous tissue appeared, the nail was pushed up and in one case the mass became infected. X-rays exhibited a bone mass protruding from the terminal phalanx on the dorsomedial aspect of the toe in all cases. All patients underwent surgical excision of the lesions with partial onychectomy. Three layers were identified in five cases: a cap of fibrous tissue, a middle zone of hyaline cartilage with enchondral ossification, and a deep zone of cancellous bone. In three other cases, the histological pattern was pleomorphic and poorly characterized. The study shows that most subungual bone masses exhibited the pathological features of conventional osteochondromas. Nonetheless, a small number of lesions were pleomorphic and differed from osteochondromas, with abundant fibrous tissue merging irregularly into scattered islets of cartilage that was not organized in columns. Radical excision of the mass achieved complete relief of symptoms and recovery without recurrences in all cases. PMID:8973899

  8. Search the Foot and Ankle: Interactive Foot Diagram

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  9. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  10. Complications of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S

    2013-12-01

    The diabetic foot is at high risk for complications because of its role in ambulation. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease can lead to chronic foot ulcers, which are at high risk for infection, in part attributable to areas of high pressure caused by lack of tolerance of the soft tissue and bone and joint deformity. If left untreated, infection and ischemia lead to tissue death, culminating in amputation. Treatment strategies include antibiosis, topical therapies, offloading, debridement, and surgery. A multidisciplinary team approach is necessary in the prevention and treatment of complications of the diabetic foot. PMID:24286952

  11. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  12. MRI of trauma to the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, E C; Zoga, Adam C

    2006-12-01

    Traumatic injuries involving the foot and ankle are very common. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its unsurpassed ability for soft tissue characterization, its utility in the investigation of these patients with foot and ankle trauma has rapidly expanded over the last decade. MRI has the unique capability to evaluate osseous, ligamentous, tendinous, and muscular injuries about the foot and ankle, with a single imaging study. MRI also allows for characterization of injury based on known biomechanical patterns. Injuries to specific soft tissue structures such as the Lisfranc and Spring ligaments can be accurately assessed on MRI when the imager considers both direct and indirect or supportive findings, allowing appropriate therapeutic intervention and rehabilitation. PMID:17387644

  13. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  14. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  15. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  16. Freeing the foot: integrating the foot core system into rehabilitation for lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Fourchet, François

    2015-04-01

    The intrinsic muscles of the foot play a critical role in the regulation of absorption and propulsion during dynamic activities. Dysfunction of these may lead to an increased demand on the remaining components within the foot core system to maintain dynamic foot control, leading to a more rapid breakdown of these contributors and those proximal to the foot. Training the intrinsic foot muscles through a systematic progression of isolation via the short foot exercise offers the opportunity to reincorporate their contribution into the foot core system. This article discusses the function of the intrinsic foot muscles, their contributions to dynamic foot control, and a progressive training paradigm. PMID:25818718

  17. Living with Diabetes: Foot Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... area and to prevent the ulcer from returning. Poor Circulation Poor circulation (blood flow) can make your foot less ... can control some of the things that cause poor blood flow. Don't smoke; smoking makes arteries ...

  18. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...

  19. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... the big toe “pushes off” during walking and running. The sesamoids also serve as a weight-bearing ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running, and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, ...

  20. Foot Push-Up Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  1. Chronic foot pain in older people.

    PubMed

    Menz, Hylton B

    2016-09-01

    Foot pain is a common accompaniment of advancing age, affecting at least one in four older people. However, management of foot pain is a largely undervalued aspect of geriatric health care, resulting in many older people needlessly enduring chronic foot pain and related disability. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of (i) the prevalence and risk factors for foot pain, (ii) the impact of foot pain on mobility and quality of life, and (iii) the conservative management of foot pain. The available evidence indicates that although foot pain is common and disabling in older people, conservative interventions such as routine foot care, footwear advice and foot orthoses are effective at reducing foot pain and may also assist in maintaining mobility and independence in this age group. PMID:27451329

  2. Prevention and management of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Turns, Martin

    2015-03-01

    As part of an annual foot review, trained and competent personnel should examine patients' feet to detect risk factors for ulceration. Foot examination with shoes and stockings removed should include: palpation of foot pulses; testing foot sensations using 10g monofilament or vibration; inspection for significant callus or deformed nails; inspection for any structural deformity; asking about any previous ulceration; checking for signs of ulceration; asking about any pain; and inspecting footwear. Following assessment, a foot risk classification score should be given. The person with diabetes should then be informed of their risk score, with education offered regarding future foot-care management. Diabetic foot complications include ulceration, Charcot foot, painful neuropathy, gangrene and amputation. Risk factors for ulceration include non-palpable pulses, insensate foot, significant callus, deformed nails, history of previous ulcer or amputation, tissue damage or signs of ulceration, foot pain and unsuitable footwear. PMID:25757381

  3. Synovial sarcoma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Bekarev, Mikhail; Elsinger, Elisabeth C; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Borzykowski, Ross M; Geller, David S

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old male who underwent lung lobectomy for presumed lung cancer. Thereafter, he presented with a painful mass between the third and fourth metatarsal heads in the foot that was assumed to be Morton's neuroma. After extensive oncologic evaluation, the foot mass was diagnosed as a synovial sarcoma. In retrospect, his lung lesion was understood to be metastatic disease. PMID:23632071

  4. [Gap junction and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-rong; Tao, Jian; Wang, Yun-kai

    2015-11-01

    Gap junctions play a critical role in electrical synchronization and exchange of small molecules between neighboring cells; connexins are a family of structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions. Hyperglycemia changes the structure gap junction proteins and their expression, resulting in obstruction of neural regeneration, vascular function and wound healing, and also promoting vascular atherosclerosis. These pathogenic factors would cause diabetic foot ulcers. This article reviews the involvement of connexins in pathogenesis of diabetic foot. PMID:26822053

  5. Nine toes; Mirror Foot Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Vlahovic, Aleksandar M; Pistignjat, Boris S; Vlahovic, Natasa S

    2015-01-01

    Mirror foot is a very rare congenital anomaly, with only a few papers presenting definitive treatment for this entity. There are limited management recommendations. Most cases are treated before walking age. In our case, there were no associated developmental defects of the leg. The child underwent complex rays resection with medial foot reconstruction. After 7.5 years of followup, definitive surgical treatment was performed with satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:26229172

  6. Homosexual foot fetishism.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, M S; Williams, C J; Calhan, C

    1994-12-01

    262 respondents from an organization for homosexual foot fetishists provide information from a broader sample than clinical cases and allow examination of the effects of sexual preference on fetishism. Data show a wide range of feet/footwear objects to be arousing. Such interests were often associated with particular types of men, yet interests were subject to change over time. Fetishistic arousal rested on both sensual and symbolic aspects of the fetish. Symbolically, it was the theme of "masculinity" that made male feet/footwear arousing, showing parallels to "femininity" evoked by female feet/footwear for male heterosexual fetishists. For many of the respondents, fetishism did not seem to be a substitute for living persons. Respondents had intimate relationships and were able to incorporate their fetish interests into stable relationships and less intimate ones. Considerable involvement in sadomasochistic practices was also found as was involvement in the gay world. Finally, nothing about a fetishistic interest seemed to preclude the development of subcultural forms around the practice. PMID:7872858

  7. Mouth in Foot Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeRosa, Daniel C; Agee, Willie A; Pires, Valerie L; Yim, Duke G; Ngauy, Viseth

    2015-01-01

    Toothpicks are commonly used household items that rarely cause serious injury or infection. Toothpick-related injuries often occur due to ingestion with subsequent trauma/infection at distal sites within the gastrointestinal tract; however, cardiovascular, pleural, and soft tissue infections have been reported. Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus found in oral flora associated with bite wound infections. A few case reports describe E. corrodens osteomyelitis from toothpick puncture wounds. We report a case of foot cellulitis and abscess in an elderly diabetic after toothpick puncture injury that was unresponsive to empiric antibiotics. Wound cultures grew E. corrodens and rare Peptostreptococcus species. E. corrodens is resistant to first-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, and metronidazole. This case highlights the insidious nature of E. corrodens infections and the need to tailor empiric antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections based on the mechanism of injury. In addition, this case stresses the importance of protective footwear in diabetics and serves as a cautionary tale regarding the use of seemingly innocuous toothpicks. PMID:26793413

  8. Mouth in Foot Disease.

    PubMed

    Melton, Katie S; DeRosa, Daniel C; Agee, Willie A; Pires, Valerie L; Yim, Duke G; Ngauy, Viseth

    2015-09-01

    Toothpicks are commonly used household items that rarely cause serious injury or infection. Toothpick-related injuries often occur due to ingestion with subsequent trauma/infection at distal sites within the gastrointestinal tract; however, cardiovascular, pleural, and soft tissue infections have been reported. Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus found in oral flora associated with bite wound infections. A few case reports describe E. corrodens osteomyelitis from toothpick puncture wounds. We report a case of foot cellulitis and abscess in an elderly diabetic after toothpick puncture injury that was unresponsive to empiric antibiotics. Wound cultures grew E. corrodens and rare Peptostreptococcus species. E. corrodens is resistant to first-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, aminoglycosides, clindamycin, and metronidazole. This case highlights the insidious nature of E. corrodens infections and the need to tailor empiric antibiotics for skin and soft tissue infections based on the mechanism of injury. In addition, this case stresses the importance of protective footwear in diabetics and serves as a cautionary tale regarding the use of seemingly innocuous toothpicks. PMID:26793413

  9. [Update on diabetic foot infections].

    PubMed

    Pascale, Renato; Vitale, Mario; Esposito, Silvano; Noviello, Silvana

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common non-transmitted disease and currently 346 million people are affected in the world. According to the World Health Organization about 15% of diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer in need of medical care. Infection is a serious complication and in the western world it is the major responsible cause of lower limb amputation. In the 84% of cases amputation is the final step in the treatment of a non-healing foot ulcer. So, it's clear that, in order to reduce amputation rate, it's important to prevent foot ulcer formation and improve the treatment of lesion. In this review we report the most recent international literature as regards epidemiology, etiology, classification, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of infected diabetic foot ulcers. The purpose of our work is to remark the multifactorial features of this pathology and the role of infectious disease specialist in a multidisciplinary team for the treatment of infected diabetic foot ulcers. The knowledge of microbiology on one hand, and the need of a complex and long term antibiotic therapy on the other, point out the importance of infectious disease specialist to facilitate, if possible, the healing of a infected diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:22992555

  10. [Unexplained pain in the ankle and foot. Consider transient osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Snijders, G F; van Bokhoven, S C; van Zadelhoff, J T H; Swierstra, B A; Poelkens, F; Martens, H A

    2016-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis is an increasingly recognized condition that causes severe pain in weight-bearing joints and is characterized by otherwise unexplained bone-marrow oedema on MRI. We present two patients, a 40-year-old man and a 60-year-old woman, with longstanding severe pain in the foot and ankle. Both had invalidating pain with only mild swelling of the foot or ankle. Laboratory investigation was unremarkable, and conventional X-ray showed osteopenia of the bones involved. In both cases, consecutive MRIs showed migrating bone marrow oedema. The patients were treated with analgesics, immobilization of the body parts concerned and an intravenous bisphosphonate. PMID:27165454

  11. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  12. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Gross, Michael T; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors' mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  13. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  14. Management of ischemic diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, C; Ferraresi, R; Bassetti, M; Sganzaroli, A B; Galenda, P; Fattori, S; De Prisco, R; Simonetti, D; Bona, F

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot pathology represent the more disabling complication of diabetes. More the 1 million of diabetes patients undergo a lower limb amputation per year; 85% of these amputation are preceded by un ulcer that can be avoided by a prevention program. Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the only independent cause of major amputation in diabetic population, can be correctly treated when an early diagnosis is made. Both endoluminal and surgical revascularization procedures can be applied in diabetes with high rate of success when performed by skilled operator. Infection of diabetic foot, in particular in patients suffering from peripheral artery disease (PVD), may rapidly evolves in severe local or systemic infection putting the patient at high risk of major amputation or death. Together with an early diagnosis of infection and ischemia it is mandatory to apply a correct medical and surgical treatment protocol with the aim to control infection and to improve blood perfusion to the foot. In case of infection surgical procedure should be applied first while revascularization procedure will follow soonest. Antibiotic therapy should be chosen considering different local biological pattern and different type of infection. Reconstructive surgery, the last step in treatment of any diabetic foot lesion, must obtain a functional residual foot or a stump that will allow the patient to go back walking soonest with residual good walking capacity. PMID:24126511

  15. Genomic and biological variability of foot and mouth disease virus serotype A: Exploration of the 'quasispecies' nature of RNA viruses and characterization of A24 variants in naive and vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, systemic disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animal species and is caused by FMDV. The quasispecies nature of FMDV, and other RNA viruses is a hallmark of RNA virus genetics. Thus, investigation of the potential hypervariability of FMDV is relevant to...

  16. Foot Comfort for the Fashionable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Modellista Footwear's new shoe line uses Tempur(TM) material, which conforms to each wearer's unique foot shape to absorb shock and cushion the foot. The foam's properties allow the shoe to change with the wearer's foot as it shrinks and swells throughout the day. Scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center originally developed temper foam in the early 1970s to relieve the intense pressure of G-forces experienced by astronauts during rocket launches. Tempur-Pedic, Inc., further developed the foam and granted Modellista a license to use it in footwear. The Modellista collection is the first shoe design and construction to be certified by the Space Awareness Alliance. The shoes, with designs ranging from traditional clog shapes to sling backs and open-toe sandals, are currently available nationwide at select specialty shoe stores and through catalogs. Tempur(TM) is a registered trademark of Tempur-Pedic, Inc.

  17. [Adjuvant treatment of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Lo Pardo, Dante; Pezzuti, Gabriela; Selleri, Carmine; Pepe, Stefano; Esposito, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    A diabetic infected foot with erythema and fluctuation can suspect that the infection has passed the fascial compartmental, a condition that requires surgical drainage. Elective amputation may be considered for patients who have recurrent ulcers, irreversible loss of function or injuries that require long-term treatment in the hospital. If the diabetic infected foot appears ischemic it requires a treatment of revascularization. The outcome of revascularization is related with the extension of the damaged artery. The debridement removes the bacterial colonies, promotes granulation tissue and its reepithelialization, also facilitates the collection of samples for microbiological analyses. This procedure can be performed with the classic sharp instruments or with advanced autolytic dressings, maggots or ultrasonic equipment. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of infected diabetic foot is controversial because studies in this area are few and methodologically questionable. The same conclusion was reached also for the use of growth factors and skin substitutes. PMID:22982696

  18. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  19. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  20. Multi-segment trunk models used to investigate the crunch factor in golf and their relationship with selected swing and launch parameters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher; Chivers, Paola; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus

    2016-10-01

    The use of multi-segment trunk models to investigate the crunch factor in golf may be warranted. The first aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the trunk and lower trunk for crunch factor-related variables (trunk lateral bending and trunk axial rotation velocity). The second aim was to determine the level of association between crunch factor-related variables with swing (clubhead velocity) and launch (launch angle). Thirty-five high-level amateur male golfers (Mean ± SD: age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years, registered golfing handicap = 5 ± 1.9) without low back pain had kinematic data collected from their golf swing using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 500 Hz. Clubhead velocity and launch angle were collected using a validated real-time launch monitor. A positive relationship was found between the trunk and lower trunk for axial rotation velocity (r(35) = .47, P < .01). Cross-correlation analysis revealed a strong coupling relationship for the crunch factor (R(2) = 0.98) between the trunk and lower trunk. Using generalised linear model analysis, it was evident that faster clubhead velocities and lower launch angles of the golf ball were related to reduced lateral bending of the lower trunk. PMID:26930121

  1. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  2. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features ... chap 16. Read More Compartment syndrome Leg or foot amputation Peripheral artery disease - legs Type 1 diabetes ...

  3. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Field Hockey Football Injuries Golf Injuries Lacrosse Rugby Running Soccer Softball Tennis Volleyball Find an ACFAS Physician ... Foot and Ankle Although golf does not involve running or jumping, injuries can occur to the foot ...

  4. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...

  5. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. More About Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Describes causes of the disease, its symptoms, ...

  6. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    MedlinePlus

    ... AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find an Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeon Page Content The Orthopaedic Distinction Who are Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeons? Orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons are ...

  7. OAKLAND 50-FOOT DEEPENING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Web site posting major public documents for the "Oakland Harbor Navigation Improvement (-50 Foot) Project." Site includes the following project documents: Notice of Availability; Final Environmental Impact Statement/Report; Revisions to the Final EIS/R; and Final Feasibility Stud...

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  12. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  15. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Text Size ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  1. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  2. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  11. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  14. Billet planting, 8-foot rows, residue updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practices are continually tested and upgraded to maximize sugarcane yield in Louisiana. Over the past 3 years extensive research went in to comparing the industry standard 6-foot row spacing to a wider, 8 foot row. Each 8 foot row was double drilled with seed canes that were 2-3 feet apart....

  15. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  16. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  17. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. PMID:26260010

  18. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay; Bramble, Dennis; Davis, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The foot is a complex structure with many articulations and multiple degrees of freedom that play an important role in static posture and dynamic activities. The evolutionary development of the arch of the foot was coincident with the greater demands placed on the foot as humans began to run. The movement and stability of the arch is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. However, the intrinsic muscles are largely ignored by clinicians and researchers. As such, these muscles are seldom addressed in rehabilitation programmes. Interventions for foot-related problems are more often directed at externally supporting the foot rather than training these muscles to function as they are designed. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for understanding the function of the foot. We begin with an overview of the evolution of the human foot with a focus on the development of the arch. This is followed by a description of the foot intrinsic muscles and their relationship to the extrinsic muscles. We draw the parallels between the small muscles of the trunk region that make up the lumbopelvic core and the intrinsic foot muscles, introducing the concept of the foot core. We then integrate the concept of the foot core into the assessment and treatment of the foot. Finally, we call for an increased awareness of the importance of the foot core stability to normal foot and lower extremity function. PMID:24659509

  19. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  20. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. The 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel was built to study spinning characteristics of aircraft. It was an open throat tunnel capable of a maximum speed of 80 mph. NACA engineer Charles H. Zimmerman designed the tunnel starting in 1928. Construction was completed in December 1929. It was one of two tunnels which replaced the original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (The other was the 7x10-Foot Wind Tunnel.). In NACA TR 387 (p. 499), Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris report that 'the tunnel passages are constructed of 1/8-inch sheet iron, stiffened with angle iron and bolted together at the corners. The over-all dimensions are: Height 31 feet 2 inches; length, 20 feet 3 inches; width, 10 feet 3 inches.' The tunnel was partially constructed in the Langley hanger as indicated by the aircraft in the background. Published in NACA TR 387, 'The Vertical Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,' by Carl J. Wenzinger and Thomas A. Harris, 1931.

  1. Universal footing with jetting system

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.S.

    1988-08-02

    A universal footing and jetting system is described for supporting marine structures on various types of seafloor materials, comprising: (a) a spud-can structure forming an enlarged footing base particularly useful in soft type sediments and operable to be mounted beneath a marine structure to provide a foundation therefor in seafloor sediments; (b) a high-strength spike means mounted on the bottom of the spud-can structure which is operable to indent into coral and rock type seafloors for stability against sliding and for supporting the marine structure thereon; (c) a jetting system for distributing fluid under pressure to a plurality of jet nozzles positioned about top, bottom, and side surfaces of the spud-can; the plurality of jet nozzles being selectively operative for directing jet flow in upwardly, downwardly and sideways directions; (d) at least one high pressure source for supplying fluid under pressure to the jetting system; (e) the fluid under pressure being operable to be expelled from the jet nozzles about the spud-can surfaces for causing fluidization and boiling of seafloor soils in the immediate area adjacent to and surrounding the spud-can structure for penetration and self burial of the universal footing into the seafloor.

  2. [Diabetic foot infections: microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Noviello, Silvana; Esposito, Isabella; Pascale, Renato; Esposito, Silvano; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of wound infection is based on clinical signs and local and/or systemic inflammation. Therefore, the examination has a major role in the diagnosis of infected lesions of the foot. Once the clinical diagnosis of infection is made, the next step is to determine the etiology with the aim to undertake a rational and appropriate treatment. The most reliable method for assessing microbiological etiology is the specimen of material from infected lesion to perform a bacterioscopic examination and culture. The microorganisms involved in the etiology of diabetic foot depends on the type of injury and on specific patient features (antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalization). The most frequently detected pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Mild infections are mostly caused by Gram positive cocci, with a prevalence of S. aureus. Moderate infections are mostly supported by pyogenic Gram positive cocci, but also Gram-negative bacteria can be involved. In severe infections the etiology is polymicrobial. As regards the involvement of fungi in diabetic foot infections data are few and mostly conflicting. PMID:22982694

  3. [Infected lesions of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Vitale, Mario; Zeppa, Pio; Esposito, Isabella; Esposito, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic foot lesions are the result of a complex set of factors including peripheral neuropathy, trauma, joint deformities and perfusion abnormalities. The foot becomes vulnerable and insensitive to minor injuries caused by excessive pressure, mechanically or minimum thermal insults that can determine the primum movens of a foot ulcer. Due to the trauma, the subcutaneous tissues are exposed to bacterial colonization. Therefore, the wound can develop an infection. So, the first step in the treatment of the lesion is the evaluation of tissue damage, in order to guide therapy and prognosis. Wagner's classification, used by over 25 years, is still one of the best known systems of lesion classification; however, it is giving way to the most recent Texas's classification. However, in both systems infection have a minority role. Therefore, the Infectious Diseases Society of America has developed a classification system that divides infections in mild, moderate and severe. The purpose of this classification is to recognize the severe patients because they require immediate hospitalization, parenteral antibiotic therapy and specific instrumental examinations. PMID:22982693

  4. Modeling the intrinsic dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Mushayabasa, Steady; Posny, Drew; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the transmission and spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Our models incorporate relevant biological and ecological factors, vaccination effects, and seasonal impacts during the complex interaction among susceptible, vaccinated, exposed, infected, carrier, and recovered animals. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction numbers. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the analytical findings. PMID:27105988

  5. Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Zayegh, Aladin; Begg, Rezaul K.; Wahab, Yufridin

    2012-01-01

    Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis. PMID:23012576

  6. Laboratory evaluation of footings for lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, Koon M.; Golis, Kelly M.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory experiments with diffferent footing shapes for lunar telescopes. These experiments used a variety of soils including some to simulate regolith response. Based on what is known of regolith and regolith-structure interaction, a shallow-multiple-contact points footing foundation can be adequately designed to support lunar telescopes. Plane-strain load-displacement tests were conducted with different footings and different lunar simulants in a deep transparent plexiglass container. The model footings considered include the rectangular, hemispherical, and spudcan designs. Simulants used to reproduce the mechanical properties of the lunar regolith were fly ash, crushed basalt with and without glass, and a processed lunar simulant. Load-displacement curves were obtained for the different footings in Ottawa sand and in the crushed basalt with glass. The spudcan footing was found to be self-digging and yet stiff, thus providing excellent lateral stability in a large variety of soils.

  7. Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Easley, M E; Weinfeld, S B

    1998-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle by specific sites of involvement (ankle, hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot), modes of presentation, methods of management, and outcome. A summary of treatment and results for 50 ankles, 22 hindfeet, 131 midfeet, and 18 forefeet is presented. Nondisplaced neuropathic ankle fractures typically healed uneventfully with casting and bracing. For displaced ankle fractures, closed reduction and casting generally resulted in loss of reduction and progressive deterioration; better results were obtained with open reduction and internal fixation, using supplemental Kirschner wires and screws. Ankles with Charcot neuroarthropathy and preexisting arthritis typically required arthrodesis. Of the ankles with neuropathic avascular talar necrosis, approximately 1/3 did well with nonoperative intervention and 2/3 required surgery. Chronic, unstable, malaligned Charcot ankles often required arthrodesis. Neuropathic calcaneal fractures were managed successfully nonoperatively. For feet with transverse tarsal joint involvement (Schon Type IV), management was more complex. Nonoperative treatment was successful for less than 1/2. Two thirds of the feet with midtarsus involvement (Schon Types I, II, and III) were managed successfully nonoperatively; 1/3 required surgery for recurrent ulceration, instability, or osteomyelitis. Half of the feet with forefoot neuroarthropathy required surgery for malalignment, ulceration, and/or difficulty with shoewear or braces. This review has established patterns of Charcot involvement of the foot and ankle with corresponding methods of treatment and subsequent responses. From this extensive clinical experience with 221 neuropathic fractures or Charcot joints, recommendations were derived to assist in selecting appropriate management options. PMID:9584374

  8. Functional analysis of the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Vereecke, Evie E; D'Août, Kristiaan; Payne, Rachel; Aerts, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos, and compares it with the human foot. Gibbons and bonobos are both highly arboreal species, yet they have a different locomotor behaviour. Gibbon locomotion is almost exclusively arboreal and is characterized by speed and mobility, whereas bonobo locomotion entails some terrestrial knuckle-walking and both mobility and stability are important. We examine if these differences in locomotion are reflected in their foot myology. Therefore, we have executed detailed dissections of the lower hind limb of two bonobo and three gibbon cadavers. We took several measurements on the isolated muscles (mass, length, physiological cross sectional area, etc.) and calculated the relative muscle masses and belly lengths of the major muscle groups to make interspecific comparisons. An extensive description of all foot and ankle muscles is given and differences between gibbons, bonobos and humans are discussed. No major differences were found between the foot and ankle musculature of both apes; however, marked differences were found between the ape and human foot. The human foot is specialized for solely one type of locomotion, whereas ape feet are extremely adaptable to a wide variety of locomotor modes. Apart from providing interesting anatomical data, this study can also be helpful for the interpretation of fossil (pre)hominids. PMID:15857366

  9. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 1: Structure and Function of the Asymptomatic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Hillstrom, Howard J.; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B.; PT, Betty (Shingpui) Chow; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? Aim To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Methods Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMatII gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Conclusions Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. PMID:23107625

  10. The diabetic foot: a review.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Régnault De La Mothe, G

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical findings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24126512

  11. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Schematic drawing of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris describe the tunnel in NACA TR No. 387: 'The tunnel has an open jet, an open test chamber, and a closed return passage. ... The air passes through the test section in a downward direction then enters the exit cone and passes through the first set of guide vanes to a propeller. From here it passes, by way of the return passage, through the successive sets of guide vanes at the corners, then through the honeycomb, and finally through the entrance cone.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual spin of an airplane. Satisfactory air flow has been attained with a velocity that is uniform over the jet to within 0.5%. The turbulence present in the tunnel has been compared with that of several other tunnels by means of the results of sphere drag tests and was found to average well with the values of those tunnels. Included also in the report are comparisons of results of stable autorotation and of rolling-moment tests obtained both in the vertical tunnel and in the old horizontal 5-foot atmospheric tunnel.' The design of a vertical tunnel having a 5-foot diameter jet was accordingly started by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928. Actual construction of the new tunnel was completed in 1930, and the calibration tests were then made.'

  12. Identifying foot fractures and dislocations.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Fiona; Brown, Craig

    2014-10-01

    As the roles of emergency nurse practitioners expand, more patients with minor injuries are being managed independently by nursing staff. Injuries to the foot and ankle are common among such patients, and X-rays are frequently performed to aid their diagnoses. Some of these fractures and dislocations are subtle and difficult to identify, so practitioners must adopt a structured approach to reading X-rays. This article describes some of these injuries and offers advice, including X-ray illustrations, on how to identify them. PMID:25270819

  13. [Management of diabetic foot infections].

    PubMed

    Esposito, Silvano; Russo, Enrico; Noviello, Silvana; Leone, Sebastiano

    2012-01-01

    All infected diabetic foot wounds require antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment is influenced by the patient's features as the vascular status, the leukocyte function and the kidney activity. The initial antibiotic regimen is usually chosen empirically and it can be modified on the basis of the microbiological information obtained subsequently. The initial empiric therapy should be based, on one hand, on the grade of infected lesion and, secondly, on the epidemiological data. Almost all of the mild/moderate infected wounds can be treated with antibiotics with a spectrum of activity limited to Gram-positive cocci. Treatment with oral antibiotics is sufficient in most cases in patients with mild/moderate infections. With severe infections is more appropriate to use a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Furthermore it is safer to start a parenteral therapy, possibly modifying it into an oral administration if the patient has stabilized. The most frequently pathogen observed in diabetic foot infections is Staphylococcus aureus. It is important to understand whether there are elements that may lead to the suspicion of MRSA infection in order to establish an appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:22982695

  14. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  15. On Sound Footing: The Health of Your Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe On Sound Footing The Health of Your Feet Your feet ... search Features A Bang to the Brain On Sound Footing Wise Choices Links Foot Health Tips Use ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions hand-foot-genital syndrome hand-foot-genital syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a rare condition that ...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  20. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  1. Comparative Anatomy of the Hand and Foot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an activity to articulate comparison of the hand and foot. Students carefully cut out corresponding hand/foot parts (carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges) from enlarged diagrams and paste them on paper for comparative analysis. Sample student inferences and diagrams used for the activity are provided. (JN)

  2. Basketball injuries of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    McDermott, E P

    1993-04-01

    Foot and ankle injuries in basketball are discussed in three unrelated categories in this article. This includes a practical differential diagnosis of ankle sprains, acute conditions of the mid and hindfoot, overuse syndromes of nerve entrapment, fascial strain, synovitis, joint subluxation, and inflammation resulting from repetitive stress. The diagnosis and treatment of tendon inflammation of the extrinsic foot musculature is also reviewed. PMID:8097679

  3. Small joint arthroscopy in foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing; Yuen, Chi Pan

    2015-03-01

    The clinical application of small joint arthroscopies (metatarsophalangeal joint, Lisfranc joint, Chopart joint, and interphlangeal joint) in the foot has seen significant advancements in the past decades. This article reviews the clinical indications, technical details, outcomes, and potential complications of small joint arthroscopies of the foot. PMID:25726488

  4. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methods and practices that prevent the effects of frost heave by one of the following methods: (1) Conventional footings. Conventional footings must be placed below the frost line depth for the site unless an... frost line depth is not available from the LAHJ, a registered professional engineer,...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methods and practices that prevent the effects of frost heave by one of the following methods: (1) Conventional footings. Conventional footings must be placed below the frost line depth for the site unless an... frost line depth is not available from the LAHJ, a registered professional engineer,...

  6. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  7. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Bookmark Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle Depending on the sport, your feet and ankles can certainly take a beating from repetitive play. ... communities: Copyright © 2016 | American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | ...

  8. A comparison of haemolytic responses in fore-foot and rear-foot distance runners.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Stuart; McDonald, Kirsty A; Dawson, Brian; Stearne, Sarah M; Green, Ben A; Rubenson, Jonas; Clemons, Tristan D; Peeling, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the haemolytic effects of an interval-based running task in fore-foot and rear-foot striking runners. Nineteen male distance runners (10 fore-foot, 9 rear-foot) completed 8 × 3 min repeats at 90% vVO2peak on a motorised treadmill. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were analysed for serum haptoglobin to quantify the haemolytic response to running. Vertical ground reaction forces were also captured via a force plate beneath the treadmill belt. Haptoglobin levels were significantly decreased following exercise (P = 0.001) in both groups (but not between groups), suggesting that the running task created a haemolytic stress. The ground reaction force data showed strong effect sizes for a greater peak force (d = 1.20) and impulse (d = 1.37) in fore-foot runners, and a greater rate of force development (d = 2.74) in rear-foot runners. The lack of difference in haptoglobin response between groups may be explained by the trend for fore-foot runners to experience greater peak force and impulse during the stance phase of their running gait, potentially negating any impact of the greater rate of force development occurring from the rear-foot runners' heel strike. Neither type of runner (fore-foot or rear-foot) appears more susceptible to technique-related foot-strike haemolysis. PMID:26618486

  9. Comorbid Depression and Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Maydick, Diane R; Acee, Anna M

    2016-02-01

    In the United States, 9.3% of the population, or 29.1 million people have diabetes, and depression affects 20% to 40% of these individuals. Diabetic foot ulcers are a common and serious complication of diabetes and one of the most costly. It is estimated that 2% to 3% of persons with diabetes will develop diabetic foot ulcers each year. There is an association between depression and the development of diabetic foot ulcers. The estimated costs associated with managing diabetes, depression, and diabetic foot ulcers place a substantial burden on the U.S. healthcare system and society. Patients should be screened and evaluated by professionals qualified in the diagnosis and management of depression and diabetic foot ulcers. To be effective, an interprofessional approach that includes the patient and significant others should be used. PMID:26835804

  10. The diabetic foot management - recent advance.

    PubMed

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic ulceration of the foot represents a major global medical, social and economic problem. It is the commonest major end-point of diabetic complications. Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in foot ulceration and may act alone, together, or in combination with other factors such as microvascular disease, biomechanical abnormalities, limited joint mobility and increased susceptibility to infection. In the diabetic foot, distal sensory polyneuropathy is seen most commonly. The advent of insulin overcame the acute problems of ketoacidosis and infection, but could not prevent the vascular and neurological complications. Management of diabetic neuropathic ulcer by appropriate and timely removal of callus, control of infection and reduction of weight bearing forces. Management of diabetic ischaemic foot are medical management, surgical management and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenosed and occluded lower extremity arteries. Foot ulceration in persons with diabetes is the most frequent precursor to amputation. PMID:25638739