Sample records for charcoal rot disease

  1. DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: CHARCOAL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield losses due to charcoal rot occur regularly. Yield losses of 20-30% due to root and stem infections of soybean caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Macrophomina phaseolina have been reported in some fields in years highly favorable for disease development. This bulletin summarizes the...

  2. Charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot is reported occasionally on alfalfa in the U.S. and has also been found in Australia, Pakistan, Uganda, east Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The fungus causing the disease is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical countries. It causes disease on more than 500 crop and we...

  3. Comparsion of Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes in the Presence of Charcoal Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic significance in the United States causing significant yield losses. Twenty four soybean genotypes in maturity groups 3, 4 and 5 were evaluated in 2002 and 2003 using five methods of disea...

  4. Charcoal Rot Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes and Prelimary Genetic Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic importance in the United States that causes significant yield losses. In 2002 (30), 2003 (30), 2004 (44) and 2005 (81) a total of 185 soybean genotypes in maturity groups III, IV and V we...

  5. Charcoal Rot Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes Using a Colony Forming Unit Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic significance in the United States and around the world. Yield losses will remain high until resistant genotypes are developed. Progress in developing resistant genotypes is hampered beca...

  6. Production of (-)-Botryodiplodin, but not Phaseolinone, by the Soybean Charcoal Rot Disease Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot disease, which causes significant losses in crops grown in hot, relatively dry areas, is caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina produces a phytotoxin believed to play a role in helping establish infections. Siddiqui et al. [Experentia 35, 1222 (1979)] purified and...

  7. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina causes more yield loss in soybean than most other diseases in the southern U.S.A. There are no commercial genotypes marketed as resistant to charcoal rot of soybean. Reactions of 27 maturity group (MG) III, 29 Early MG IV, 34 Late MG IV, and 59 MG V gen...

  8. Resistance to charcoal rot identified in ancestral soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, is an economically important disease on soybean and other crops including maize, sorghum, and sunflowers. Without effective cultural or chemical options to control charcoal rot in soybean, finding sources of genetic resistance is o...

  9. Effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in suppression of charcoal rot disease of chickpea.

    PubMed

    Khare, Ekta; Arora, Naveen Kumar

    2010-07-01

    The production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), by rhizobacteria, has been associated with plant growth promotion, especially root initiation and elongation. Isolate TO3 selected from 103 fluorescent pseudomonads, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed maximum production of IAA. Isolate TO3 having biocontrol activity against Macrophomina phaseolina also showed production of siderophore and HCN was used to screen the role of bacterial IAA in reducing the level of charcoal rot disease occurrence in chickpea. Four IAA defective stable mutants of isolate TO3 having biocontrol activity against M. phaseolina were developed through 5-bromouracil mutagenesis. Mutant TO(52) showed 76.47% reduction in production of IAA. Standard IAA was used in similar concentration as present in cell-free culture supernatant of wild isolate TO3 and its mutant TO(52). The in vitro and in vivo study showed that IAA-defective mutant TO(52) caused reduced biocontrol and plant growth promotory activity than wild isolate TO3. Standard IAA showed comparable biocontrol activity to the culture supernatant. To some extent better biocontrol and growth promotory activity in supernatant than standard IAA indicates the synergistic role of siderophore and HCN. The study clearly reports the role of bacterial IAA in suppression of charcoal rot disease of chickpea. PMID:20049597

  10. Effects of directed fungicides sprays and potash form on charcoal rot of soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of fungicides to control charcoal rot of soybean was conducted in a field planted annually to soybean or snap bean since 2002 with moderate to high seedling disease losses to charcoal rot. Treatments were applied on 18 Jul at 60 psi and on 7 Aug at 80 psi using a high-pressure hydraulic ...

  11. Soybean Seed Composition in Cultivars Differing in Resistance to Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] cultivars of maturity group (MG) IV were selected based on their susceptibility to charcoal rot disease caused by a soilborne fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Seed composition and nitrogen fixation in soybean has not been well investigated under charcoal rot infestat...

  12. Resistance to toxin-mediated fungal infection: role of lignins, isoflavones, other seed phenolics, sugars and boron in the mechanism of resistance to charcoal rot disease in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effects of charcoal rot and drought on total seed phenol, isoflavones, sugars, and boron in susceptible (S) and moderately resistant (MR) soybean genotypes to charcoal rot pathogen. A field experiment was conducted for two years under ir...

  13. Nitric Oxide Production by Necrotrophic Pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the Host Plant in Charcoal Rot Disease of Jute: Complexity of the Interplay between Necrotroph–Host Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2?,7?-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  14. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  15. Role of antibiosis in suppression of charcoal rot disease by soybean endophyte Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, M; Govindasamy, V; Annapurna, K

    2007-07-01

    Four defective (AFM(-)) mutants of Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15 that no longer produced the peptide antifungal metabolites were developed through ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and used for in vivo experimentation. Reduced percentage of seed germination by mutants DM1 and DM2 (22.5% and 25%, respectively) and a high percent of disease incidence (69.3% and 67%, respectively) compared to wild-strain HKA-15 (80% seed germination and 27% disease incidence) indirectly indicated the role of peptide metabolite on disease suppression. Plants treated with AFM(-) clones showed stunted growth and the presence of pepperlike microsclerotia in the stem tissues. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies clearly showed the effect of peptide antibiosis on hyphal morphology. Exposure to crude extracts of antibiotics produced abnormal contraction of fungal cytoplasm, granulation, and fragmentation of hyphal mycelia and cell lysis. The presence of bacterial cells in the lumen of degrading fungal mycelium suggested a direct involvement of Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15 in the lysis of Rhizoctonia bataticola. PMID:17554471

  16. Effects of Seed Treatment, In-Furrow Sprays, and Herbicides Treatments on Charcoal Rot of June-Planted Soybean, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of chemical and biological fungicides to control charcoal rot of soybean was conducted in a field planted annually to soybean or snap bean since 2002 with moderate to high seedling disease losses to charcoal rot. Seed treatment slurries were created by adding distilled water to the test ...

  17. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).

    PubMed

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2009-05-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. PMID:21564800

  18. A GREENHOUSE METHOD FOR SCREENING FOR RESISTANCE TO CHARCOAL ROT IN SOYBEANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid causes charcoal rot disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and several other susceptible host species. The pathogen invades the roots, colonizes the vascular system, and interferes with water transport. Under conditions favorable for disease, such...

  19. Fungicide, herbicide, and genotype effects on charcoal rot and phomopsis seed decay in soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield limiting diseases such as charcoal rot and Phomopsis seed decay have significant impact on the economic potential for soybeans because there are few methods for management of these diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate application of the herbicide lactofen, the fungicide azo...

  20. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed and of these 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 44 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in MS. All optimized loci were poly...

  1. Relationships of nonstructural carbohydrates to resistance to charcoal rot in sorghum

    E-print Network

    Tenkouano, Abdou

    1990-01-01

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Plant Breeding REIATIONSHIPS OF NONSTRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATES TO RESISTANCE TO CHARCOAL ROT IN SORGHUM A Thesis By Abdou Tenkouano Approved as to style and content by: re c . Miller (Chairman f Committee...) R chard A. rederiksen (Member) rrell T. s (Member) om C thren (Member) G. A. R e ead of Department) May 1990 ABSTRACT Relationships of Nonstructural Carbohydrates to Resistance to Charcoal Rot in Sorghum (May 1990) Abdou Tenkouano...

  2. Seasonal progress of charcoal rot and its impact on soybean productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on yield of soybean were evaluated in the field using two genotypes each in maturity groups III and IV. Four separate experiments were established in an area of a field fumigated with methyl bromide. The experiments were: 1) artificiall...

  3. FIRST REPORT OF CHARCOAL ROT (MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA) ON SUNFLOWER IN NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September, 1998 symptoms suggestive of charcoal rot were observed on oilseed sunflower plants in western North Dakota (ND) and western South Dakota (SD). Symptoms, first observed on plants approaching physiological maturity, consisted of silver-gray lesions girdling the stem at the soil line, p...

  4. FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley Diseases caused by root rots figure prominently amongst the most-studied pathologies of forest trees. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world than

  5. Suppression of charcoal rot of chickpea by fluorescent Pseudomonas under saline stress condition.

    PubMed

    Khare, Ekta; Singh, Sachin; Maheshwari, D K; Arora, Naveen K

    2011-05-01

    The ability of fluorescent Pseudomonas strain EKi, in production of biocontrol and plant growth promotory (PGP) metabolites under saline stress was evaluated. Strain EKi could tolerate NaCl up to 1,550 mM and showed biocontrol of Macrophomina phaseolina (76.19%) in the presence of up to 400 mM NaCl. Strain EKi was able to produce IAA, siderophore and pyocyanin with gradual reduction of up to 76.31, 45.46, and 48.99%, respectively, as NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 500 mM. Reduced growth rate resulted in delayed induction of IAA, siderophore and pyocyanin by the PGPR. Thin layer chromatography of chloroform extract from non-stressed and salt stressed EKi, and inhibition of M. phaseolina by purified pyocyanin clearly indicated its role in biocontrol. In vitro and in vivo results showed the growth promotion and charcoal rot disease suppression of chickpea by strain EKi under both non-stressed and saline stress. There was 76.75 and 65.25% reduction of disease incidence in non-saline and saline conditions, respectively, in vitro conditions. In presence of M. phaseolina strain EKi brought about 67.65 and 58.45% reduction of disease incidence in non-saline and saline soil, respectively. PMID:21331555

  6. Control of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina by extracts of Datura metel.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Arshad; Saddique, Amna

    2012-01-01

    Methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of Datura metel were found highly effective in suppressing against Macrophomina phaseolina, the cause of charcoal rot disease. These extracts were further subjected to successive fractionation with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the concentrations (3.125-200?mg?mL?¹) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of leaf extract, and n-hexane fraction of fruit extract completely inhibited the target fungal growth. Two compounds A and B from the n-hexane fraction of fruit extract and compound C from n-butanol fraction of leaf extract were obtained by TLC. Compound B exhibited the best antifungal activity with an MIC value of 7.81?µg?mL?¹ that was at par with that of commercial fungicide mancozeb (80% w/w). This study concludes that M. phaseolina can be effectively controlled by natural antifungal compounds in n-hexane fraction of methanolic fruit extract of D. metel. PMID:22004473

  7. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in charcoal rot fungal populations impacted by crop rotations.

    PubMed

    Brooker, N; Lord, J R; Long, J; Jayawardhana, A

    2008-01-01

    The application of molecular markers enables scientists to clarify the genetic relationships among fungi who are difficult to classify or partition into sub-species using traditional morphological or physiological criteria. One such fungus is Macrophomina phaseolina, a plant pathogenic soil-borne fungus that is the causative agent of Charcoal Rot on soybeans and 500 other plant species world-wide. This plant pathogenic fungus is a very heterogeneous species and disease population dynamics and pathogen genetic diversity are poorly understood. Using a multi-variant Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) approach for the analysis of genomic data, valuable insight into cultural and environmental pressures that shape the fungal genome was possible. Fungal isolates from 12-year rotated field plots ranging from 1-3 years of crop rotations of the same plant type(s), rotation duration and plant maturity groups provided a unique opportunity to survey M. phaseolina isolates taken from the different crop rotation conditions. Using different data interval partitioning of amplified restriction fragments it was possible to see trends associated with the specific cropping history of the fungal isolates. AFLP neutral primers of intermediate and large amplified products using 20-bp intervals were the most efficient and reliable for demonstrating intra-population dynamics. Results indicate that the highest amount of M. phaseolina genetic diversity was conclusively found in fungal isolates taken from three-year rotation plots. Lesser amounts of genetic diversity were found in two-year rotated and non-rotated fungal isolates. Insight gained from this study may now be incorporated into a larger understanding of how crop rotation and the availability of hosts shape and influence the genetic variability within Macrophomina isolates and populations. This information can then be used to make better-informed decisions regarding crop protection strategies against this diverse and economically important fungal pathogen. PMID:19226737

  8. Evaluation of bacteria isolated from rice rhizosphere for biological control of charcoal rot of sorghum caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Humayun, Pagidi; Kiran, Bandru Keerthi; Kannan, Iyer Girish Kumar; Vidya, Meesala Sree; Deepthi, Kanala; Rupela, Om

    2011-06-01

    A total of 360 bacteria, isolated from the rhizospheres of a system of rice intensification (SRI) fields, were characterized for the production of siderophore, fluorescence, indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and solubilization of phosphorus. Of them, seven most promising isolates (SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360) were screened for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina (causes charcoal rot in sorghum) by dual culture assay, blotter paper assay and in greenhouse. All the seven isolates inhibited M. phaseolina in dual culture assay, whereas six isolates solubilized phosphorous (except SRI-360), all seven produced siderophore, four produced fluorescence (except SRI-178, -229 and -305), six produced IAA (except SRI-305) and five produced HCN (except SRI-158 and -305). In the blotter paper assay, no charcoal rot infection was observed in SRI-156-treated sorghum roots, indicating complete inhibition of the pathogen, while the roots treated with the other isolates showed 49-76% lesser charcoal rot infection compared to the control. In the antifungal activity test (in green house on sorghum), all the isolates increased shoot dry mass by 15-23% and root dry mass by 15-20% (except SRI-158 and -360), over the control. In order to confirm the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits of the isolates, the green house experiment was repeated but, in the absence of M. phaseolina. The results further confirmed the PGP traits of the isolates as evidenced by increases in shoot and root dry mass, 22-100% and 5-20%, respectively, over the control. The sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the isolates SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360 were matched with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Brevibacterium antiquum, Bacillus altitudinis, Enterobacter ludwigii, E. ludwigii, Acinetobacter tandoii and P. monteilii, respectively in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected bacterial isolates have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal rot disease in sorghum. PMID:25187130

  9. SSR-based detection of genetic variability in the charcoal root rot pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tarakanta; Sharma, Tilak R; Singh, Nagendra K

    2005-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal root or collar rot, is an important plant pathogen especially in soybean and cotton. Single primers of simple sequence repeats (SSR) or microsatellite markers have been used for the characterization of genetic variability of different populations of M. phaseolina obtained from soybean and cotton grown in India and the USA. Genetic similarity between isolates was calculated, and cluster analysis was used to generate a dendrogram showing relationships between isolates collected from the two hosts. Forty isolates could be clustered into three major groups corresponding to their hosts and geographical region. The wide distribution of microsatellites in M. phaseolina genome was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis of the PCR products generated by direct amplification of inter SSR regions DNA. This is the first report of the use of microsatellite markers to characterize the charcoal root rot pathogen. The SSR fingerprints (0.25-3.5 kb) generated using DNA from different populations of M. phaseolina of two hosts indicated that these repeats are interspersed within the genome of this pathogen. The variability found within closely related isolates of M. phaseolina indicated that such microsatellites are useful in population studies and represents a step towards identification of potential isolate diagnostic markers specific to soybean and cotton. PMID:15736865

  10. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  11. Greenhouse evaluation of commercial soybean cultivars adapted to the northern United States for resistance to charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty (30) and sixty-seven (67) commercially available soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars from Wisconsin (Maturity group (MG) I-II) and Indiana (MG II-III), respectively, were evaluated for charcoal rot (CR; Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid) resistance using a cut-stem greenhouse assay. ...

  12. Plant Disease Lesson: Brown root rot

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fred Brooks (American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program; )

    2002-09-23

    This plant disease lesson on brown root rot (caused by the fungus Phellinus noxius) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  13. Black rot of grapes Black rot is an important disease of grapes in the

    E-print Network

    Black rot of grapes Black rot is an important disease of grapes in the northeastern United States on the lower leaves, in mid- to late-June. Spray programs for black rot typically begin once grape shoots are 1" in length and end by the time grapes start to color (veraison). The most important control period is from 1

  14. DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: BROWN STEM ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield losses due to brown stem rot occur regularly. Yield losses of 16-30% due to root and stem infections of soybean caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Phialophora gregata have been reported in some fields in years highly favorable for disease development. This bulletin summarizes the ...

  15. Plant growth-promotion (PGP) activities and molecular characterization of rhizobacterial strains isolated from soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) plants against charcoal rot pathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, D K

    2011-11-01

    Charcoal rot disease, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, leads to significant yield losses of soybean crops. One strategy to control charcoal rot is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing bacteria. Rhizobacteria A(5)F and FPT(7)21 and Pseudomonas sp. strain GRP(3) were characterized for their plant growth-promotion activities against the pathogen. Rhizobacterium FPT(7)21 exhibited higher antagonistic activity against the pathogen on dual plate assay compared to strain A(5)F and GRP(3). FPT(7)21 and GRP(3) gave decreased disease intensity in terms of average number of pathogen-infested plants. Lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) activities were estimated in extracts of plants grown from seeds that were treated with rhizobacteria, and inoculated with spore suspension of M. phaseolina. The activity of these enzymes after challenge with the test pathogen increased. Strains FPT(7)21 and GRP(3) exhibited maximum increases in LOX, PAL and POD activity (U mg(-1) fresh leaf wt) compared to strain A(5)F. PMID:21833548

  16. Genetic differentiation of charcoal rot pathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina, into specific groups using URP-PCR.

    PubMed

    Jana, T K; Singh, N K; Koundal, K R; Sharma, T R

    2005-02-01

    Forty isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina, a pathogen causing charcoal dry root rot of soybean, cotton, and chickpea, were genetically characterized with universal rice primers (URP; primers derived from DNA repeat sequences in the rice genome) using polymerase chain reaction (URP-PCR). Out of 12 URPs used in this study, 5 primers were effective in producing polymorphic fingerprint patterns from the DNA of M. phaseolina isolates. Three primers (URP-2F, URP-6R, and URP-30F) were quite informative and produced high levels of polymorphism among the isolates of M. phaseolina. Analysis of the entire fingerprint profiles using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) clearly differentiated M. phaseolina isolates obtained from soybean, cotton, and chickpea hosts into specific groups. In this study, we found for the first time transferability and use of PCR primers derived from plant genomes to generate host-specific fingerprint profiles of M. phaseolina, a broad host range plant pathogenic fungus. These results demonstrate that URPs are sensitive and technically simple to use for assaying genetic variability in M. phaseolina populations. PMID:16091774

  17. Biocontrol potential of soybean bacterial endophytes against charcoal rot fungus, Rhizoctonia bataticola.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, M; Swarnalakshmi, K; Govindasamy, V; Lee, Young Keun; Annapurna, K

    2009-04-01

    A total of 137 bacterial isolates from surface sterilized root, stem, and nodule tissues of soybean were screened for their antifungal activity against major phytopathogens like Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium udam, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Nine bacterial endophytes suppressed the pathogens under in vitro plate assay. These were characterized biochemically and identified at the genus level based on their partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Eight of the isolates belonged to Bacillus and one to Paenibacillus. The phylogenetic relationship among the selected isolates was studied and phylogenetic trees were generated. The selected isolates were screened for biocontrol traits like production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes, antibiotics, and plant growth promoting traits like indole 3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen fixation. A modified assessment scheme was used to select the most efficient biocontrol isolates Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15 (HKA-15) and Bacillus sp. HKA-121 (HKA-121) as potential candidates for charcoal rot biocontrol as well as soybean plant growth promotion. PMID:19067044

  18. Detection of double stranded RNA in phytopathogenic Macrophomina phaseolina causing charcoal rot in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pooja; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2012-03-01

    One hundred one isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina from various hosts and eco-geographical locations were employed for elucidating relationships among genetic diversity and virulence. Highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic, and hypovirulent cluster bean specific isolates were identified. In order to correlate respective phenotypes of plant pathogenic fungus multiple and complex patterns of dsRNA elements were analyzed. Double-stranded ribonucleic acids (dsRNA) are ubiquitous in all major groups and most of them have vast potential as biological control agents for fungi. Rate of virulence and its further association could ascertain by host plant and their fungal genotypes. Variability of the fungal genotypes decides the link between the complexity of dsRNA with different variants and the change in virulence pattern. Double-stranded RNA was identified in approximately 21.7% of M. phaseolina isolates from charcoal rot infected cluster bean varieties. After recurrent laboratory transfer on culture media, the preponderance of the isolates harboring dsRNAs developed degenerate culture phenotypes and showed reduced virulence (hypovirulence) to cluster bean. Macrophomina has successfully showed diversified and reproducible banding profile in dsRNA containing/free isolates. This is the first report of hypovirulence and detection of dsRNA in Macrophomina phaseolina isolates of cluster bean origin. PMID:21695431

  19. Registration of soybean germplasm line 'DT 97-4290' with moderate resistance to Charcoal Rot. Manuscript file name: "reg of soy germplasm DT 97-4290.DOC"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘DT97-4290’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was developed as a maturity group IV germplasm line by the USDA-ARS, Stoneville, MS. It was released in December 2004 because of its high yield potential and moderate resistance to charcoal rot [caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.] and southe...

  20. Plant Disease Lesson: Take-all root rot

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William W. Bockus (Kansas State University; )

    2000-10-20

    This plant disease lesson on take-all root rot (caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  1. Plant Disease Lesson: Brown rot of stone fruits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University; )

    2000-10-25

    This plant disease lesson on Brown rot of stone fruits (caused by Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  2. Physiologically stressed cells of fluorescent pseudomonas EKi as better option for bioformulation development for management of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Khare, Ekta; Arora, Naveen K

    2011-06-01

    Bioformulation that supports the inoculant under storage condition and on application to field is of prime importance for agroindustry. Pseudomonas strain EKi having biocontrol activity against Macrophomina phaseolina was used in the study. EKi cells were pretreated by carbon starvation, osmotic stress (NaCl), and freeze drying conditions, and talc-based bioformulation was developed. Combined pretreatment with carbon starvation and osmotic stress was given to Pseudomonas cells. Bioformulation of untreated, freeze dried (FD), carbon starved, osmotic stressed, and combined pre-treated cells showed 50.36, 44.76, 45.95, 34.82, and 27.27% reduction in CFU counts after 6 months of storage. The osmotic stressed cells showed one over-expressed protein (11.5 kDa) in common with carbon starved cells responsible for its better shelf life. The plant growth promotory activity of bioformulations was determined taking Cicer arietinum as a test crop in M. phaseolina infested field. Carbon starved + osmotic stressed cells showed maximum enhancement of dry weight (272.56%) followed by osmotic stressed (230.74%), untreated (155.70%), FD (88.93%), and carbon starved (59.34%) cells over uninoculated control. Carbon starved + osmotic stressed, osmotic stressed, untreated, FD, and carbon starved cells showed 156.60, 100, 75, 40, and 16.67% reduction of charcoal rot disease over uninoculated control. The results clearly showed that combined pretreatment by carbon starvation and osmotic stress provides the bacteria potential of rapid adaptation to different environment conditions. PMID:21479797

  3. Beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.).

    PubMed

    Shweta, Bhatia; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Arora, Daljit Singh; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-09-01

    Rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. Two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as PS1 and PS2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. After 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both PS1 and PS2 caused clear inhibition zones in dual cultures, restricting the growth of M. phaseolina by 71% and 74%, respectively. Both the strains were capable of producing siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and causing phosphate solubilization under normal growth conditions. These strains, when used as inoculants in groundnut, enhanced germination up to 15% and 30% with subsequent increase in grain yield by 66% and 77%, respectively. Conversely, when the pathogen alone was testeds 57% decrease in yield was recorded. Thus the studies revealed the potential of the two pseudomonads not only as biocontrol agents against M. phaseolina, but also as a good growth promoter for groundnut. PMID:18852515

  4. Genetic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions for charcoal rot in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a leading agronomic crop and it is contributing to food and agricultural security with expanding production in diverse regions around the world. Although soybean is attacked by several diseases and pests, and progress has been made in understanding and managing some of these pathogens and...

  5. Degradation of organic matter from black shales and charcoal by the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune and release of DOC and heavy metals in the aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Wengel, Marcus; Kothe, Erika; Schmidt, Christian M; Heide, Klaus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2006-08-15

    We investigated the degradation of refractory organic matter (OM) by the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune to understand the release of dissolved organic compounds, heavy metals and sulfur. The investigated OM consisted of: charcoal, the short time end product of high temperature wood alteration in the absence of oxygen and composed mainly of pure OM; and black shales composed of clay minerals, quartz, sulfides and OM formed geogenically in an abiotic long-term process. In both cases, the OM fraction contains mainly polyaromatic hydrocarbons. We investigated the degradation of these fractions by a wood-rotting basidiomycete, which is able to produce exoenzymes like peroxidases and laccases. These enzymes can perform radical reactions to oxidize OM (like lignin) and therefore hypothetically are able to degrade OM from charcoal and/or low grade metamorphic black shales. Release of new components into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) could be detected in both cases. The attack on OM in the case of black shales coincided with the release of the heavy metals Fe, Mn and Ni. By following sulfur concentrations throughout the experiment, it was shown that heavy metal release is not due to pyrite oxidation. Ground black shale and charcoal samples were inoculated with S. commune in a diluted minimal medium containing aspartic acid and glucose. The aqueous and solid phases were sampled after 1, 7, 28 and 84 days. DOC was measured as non purgeable carbon and characterized by size exclusion chromatography and UV detection. Carbon concentrations of the solid phase were determined by element analyses. After initial decrease of the DOC concentrations due to the degradation of the carbon source provided with the medium, DOC increased up to 80 mg/l after 84 days. Carbon decreased in the solid fraction confirming that this carbon was released as DOC by the fungus. The newly generated DOC formed larger agglomerations than the DOC of the growth medium. The investigation proved that the degradation of persistent carbon sources, such as charcoal and black shale, is accelerated by fungal activity. Consequently, the associated release of heavy metals is also accelerated by the fungus. Main products of the biological degradation processes were organic heavy metal complexes which can enter the environment. PMID:16483638

  6. Induce systemic resistance in lupine against root rot diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abeer A; Ghoneem, K M; El-Metwally, M A; Abd El-Hai, K M

    2009-02-01

    Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: chitosan (CHI), Salicylic Acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L(-1) and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L(-1) and HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L(-1) was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L(-1) proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L(-1) or HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment. PMID:19579949

  7. Plant Disease Lesson: Monosporascus Root Rot and Vine Decline of Melons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ray D. Martyn (Purdue University; )

    2002-06-12

    This plant disease lesson on Monosporascus root rot and vine decline of melons (MRR/VD), also referred to as sudden wilt, sudden death, melon collapse, Monosporascus wilt, and black pepper root rot (caused by the fungus Monosporascus cannonballus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  8. First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

  9. First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae; Park, Mi-Jeong

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

  10. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  11. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  12. Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot disease of blueberry with gypsum and compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot disease of blueberry caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi is becoming more prevalent as a consequence of widespread adoption of drip irrigation. This creates higher moisture content in the root zone more conducive for the pathogen. Options for disease control under organic management are limi...

  13. FIRST REPORT OF FROSTY POD ROT (= MONILIASIS DISEASE) CAUSED BY MONILIOPHTHORA RORERI ON CACAO IN BELIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) Evans et al. causes frosty pod rot (FPR), a highly destructive cacao disease restricted to tropical America. In Belize, the disease was detected in a small farm in the Maya Mopán Village, Stann Creek District in September 2004 and later on four additional farms. Charac...

  14. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals produced by B. sonorensis for suppression of charcoal rot of Arachis hypogaea L.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Urja; Saraf, Meenu

    2014-10-24

    Bacillus sonorensis MBCU2 isolated from vermicompost-amended soil from Gujarat, India showed most antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture screening. The culture supernatant of MBCU2 completely suppressed the mycelia growth of pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of allelochemicals in the culture filtrate. Results of scanning electron microscopy revealed that MBCU2 caused morphological alteration in mycelia of M. phaseolina as evident by hyphal lysis and perforation. Lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin) produced by MBCU2 were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Pot trial studies conducted by seed bacterization with MBCU2 resulted in statistically significant increase in Arachis hypogaea L. vegetative growth parameters such as root length (91%), shoot length (252%), fresh weight (71%), dry weight (57%), number of pod (128%), and number of seed (290%) in M. phaseolina infested soil over control as well as decreased M. phaseolina disease severity. We suggest that allelochemicals production can be linked to the mechanism of protection of A. hypogaea L. from M. phaseolina by B. sonorensis MBCU2. PMID:25346523

  15. Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

  16. Fumigation of the Brown Root rot Disease Area with Agricultural Fumigant - Dazomet1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuen-Hsu Fu; Tun-Tschu Chang; Ming-Yuan Sun; Bau-Yuan Hu; Wen-Wei Hsiao

    (Abstract) Trees in the tree specimen garden of Liukuei Research Center of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute was infected by tree brown root rot disease. The infected tree species included Swietenia mahogoni (L.) Jacq., Castilla elastica Cerv., Catalpa speciosa Warde ex Ergelm, Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., Terminalia catappa Linn., Nageia nagi (Thunb.)O. Ktze, and Spathodea cam- panulata Beauv. The total infected

  17. Chapter 6.Diseases Which Challenge Global Wheat Production- Root, Crown, and Culm Rots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With few exceptions, root, crown, and culm rots are especially prevalent in cropping systems characterized by high residue retention, reduced tillage, or high frequency of host crops. Most of these diseases are not yet effectively managed by genetic resistance, fungicides, or biological agents. Opti...

  18. Regulation of Biosurfactant Production by Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas fluorescens 5064, the Cause of Broccoli Head Rot Disease 

    E-print Network

    Cui, Xiaohui

    Broccoli head rot is a destructive disease found in most broccoli production areas. The main pathogen is the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. P. fluorescens 5064, which was first isolated from an infected broccoli head ...

  19. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  20. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  1. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  2. Interaction between sugarcane and Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot: Understanding disease resistance at transcription level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Viswanathan; A. Ramesh Sundar; P. Malathi; P. R. Rahul; V. Ganesh Kumar; R. Banumathy; P. T. Prathima; M. Raveendran; K. K. Kumar; P. Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    Detailed studies were taken up on host pathogen interaction between sugarcane and Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot at the transcription level with a set of sugarcane varieties varying in disease resistance. A set of gene\\u000a specific primers were designed to detect transcripts of resistance gene analogues (RGA’s), defense-related genes, transcription\\u000a factors and signaling pathway genes induced during the host-pathogen interaction.

  3. Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Tariq; Nawaz Khan, Salik; Javaid, Arshad

    2010-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by a fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. Fusarium inoculation showed 80% disease incidence with 54 disease lesions per corm. Recommended dose of the chemical fungicide carbendazim significantly reduced the disease incidence to 13% and number of lesions to six per corm. Plant extract treatments exhibited variable effects on the incidence and severity of the disease. In general, all the test plant extracts managed the corm-rot disease to some extent. Aqueous bulb extracts of A. sativum and A. cepa and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale showed better disease management potential than that of the recommended dose of carbendazim. Fusarium inoculation significantly declined shoot growth. In general, carbendazim, as well as aqueous extracts, enhanced shoot growth to variable extents as compared to the Fusarium control. PMID:19557652

  4. Collar rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collar rot of lentil is an important seedling disease particularly under high moisture and high temperature conditions. It is caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. The pathogen has an extremely wide host range, and produces sclerotia, which can survive in the soil for many years. Infe...

  5. Occurrence, genetic diversity and pathogenicity characteristics of Pseudomonas viridiflava inducing alfalfa bacterial wilt and crown root rot disease in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Heydari; Gholam Khodakaramian; Doustmorad Zafari

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), the world' sm ost influential forage crop, is infected by many diseases such as alfalfa bacterial wilt disease. The causal agent of bacte- rial crown and root rot and wilt disease is Pseudomonas viridiflava, which is a substantial pathogen of alfalfa worldwide. This pathogen spreads through the xylem and under field conditions, plants show growth stunting, chlorosis

  6. Corky root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

  7. Management of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Sugarbeet - Fungicide Efficacy and Identification of Environmental Parameters for Disease Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugarbeet. This disease has recently been increasing in occurrence and severity in sugarbeet production areas in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Since the intraspecific groups AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-...

  8. The effect of temperature on Rhizoctonia disease development and fungicide efficacy in controlling Rhizoctonia root rot on sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugarbeet. Since the intraspecific group AG 2-2 IIIB is considered to be more virulent than AG 2-2 IV, our objectives were to monitor disease development of AG 2-2 IIIB infection at four different soil temperatures un...

  9. The effect of temperature on Rhizoctonia disease development and fungicide efficacy in controlling Rhizoctonia root rot on sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugarbeet. This disease has recently been increasing in occurrence and severity in sugarbeet production areas in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Since the intraspecific groups AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-...

  10. Adaptive expression of host cell wall degrading enzymes in fungal disease: an example from Fusarium root rot of medicinal Coleus.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, A

    2013-12-15

    Quantity of extracellular proteins and activities two cell wall degrading enzymes pectinase and cellulase were determined in the culture filtrate of Fusarium solani, the causal organism of root rot of Coleus forskohlii. Substitution of carbon source in the medium with either pectin or carboxymethyl cellulose led to the increased production of extracellular proteins by the fungus. Pectinase and cellulase activity in the culture filtrate was detected only when the growth medium contained substituted carbon source in the form of pectin and CMC, respectively. Pectinase activity was highest after 5 days incubation and then decreased gradually with time but cellulase activity showed a steady time dependent increase. In vitro virulence study showed the requirement of both the enzymes for complete expression of rot symptoms on Coleus plants. Thus the present study established the adaptive, substrate dependent expression of the two enzymes by the fungus and also their involvement in the root rot disease of Coleus forskohlii. PMID:24517025

  11. Transgenic Amorphophallus konjac expressing synthesized acyl-homoserine lactonase (aiiA) gene exhibit enhanced resistance to soft rot disease.

    PubMed

    Ban, Huifang; Chai, Xinli; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Yi; Zou, Yulan; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2009-12-01

    Amorphophallus konjac is an important economic crop widely used in health products and biomaterials. However, this monocotyledonous plant's production is seriously restricted by soft rot disease. Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains generate an endocellular acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA), which has inhibitory effect on soft rot pathogen through disrupting the signal molecules (N-acylhomoserine lactones, AHL) of their Quorum Sensing system. The aim of our study is to obtain transgenic A. konjac expressing AiiA protein and exhibiting resistance to soft rot. But till now, there is not any report about exogenous gene transformation in A. konjac. In this research, an Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was constructed. An aiiA gene was synthesized according to the codon usage in A. konjac. Embryogenic callus was infected with the A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pU1301 plus synthesized aiiA gene. After antibiotics screening, 34 plants were obtained. PCR analysis showed that positive amplified fragments were present in 21 out of these 34 lines. Southern blot analysis indicated that aiiA gene had integrated into the genome of A. konjac. Western blotting demonstrated that the target protein of interest was reactive with the antibody against AiiA. Further disease resistance detection revealed that all of the tested transgenic A. konjac lines exhibited high resistance to soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Ecc) SCG1. The protocol is useful for the quality improvement of A. konjac through genetic transformation. PMID:19898849

  12. Cabbage Production in Tanzania: Challenges Faced by Smallholder Farmers in the Management of Black Rot Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said M. S. Massomo; Robert B. Mabagala; Carmen N. Mortensen; John Hockenhull; Ignas S. Swai

    2005-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, has increasingly become the major constraint to sustained production of cabbage in Tanzania. On-farm surveys were carried out in northern Tanzania to gain an insight on cabbage production practices in relation to the prevalence of black rot. The studies revealed a rapid increase in cabbage acreage characterized by inappropriate cultural practices and

  13. Charcoal burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bakic, M.C.

    1988-12-27

    A combustible fuel apparatus is described comprising: side walls formed contiguous with and extending upward from a base and converging to form a closed container, having stacked charcoal fuel particles therein. The base may be placed directly on a substantially horizontal surface and the container may be ignited and substantially burned to ash, and the charcoal fuel particles may be ignited and sufficiently burned for cooking, wherein the charcoal fuel particles are stacked on the base in a relatively stable position prior to the igniting of the container, and are maintained in a relatively stable position during and after the igniting and burning of the container, whereby a mound of ignited charcoal fuel particles remains on the substantially horizontal surface after the burning of the container, the mound having a configuration substantially similar to the shape of the container prior to the combustion thereof.

  14. Antifungal activity of chitinases produced by some fluorescent pseudomonads against Colletotrichum falcatum Went causing red rot disease in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, R; Samiyappan, R

    2001-03-01

    Chitinase production and growth of certain fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere on different subtrates were studied. When chitin was substituted for glycerol in King's B medium, 3 of the 4 strains showed enhanced bacterial multiplication. Bacterial cells grown on chitin-containing medium showed enhanced antifungal activity against Colletotrichum falcatum Went causing red rot disease in sugarcane. Chitinase production was significantly higher when chitin was amended to King's B medium. Higher chitinase production was also recorded when fluorescent pseudomonad strains were grown in the medium containing crab-shell chitin. Cell-free bacterial culture filtrate from chitin-containing medium significantly inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. These cell-free conditioned media contained 3 to 7 polypeptides. Western blot analysis revealed five isoforms of chitinase with molecular masses of 47, 36, 32, 20 and 18.5 kDa. A possible role of chitinases in red rot disease management is discussed. PMID:11297362

  15. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650–660), far red (720–730) and blue (440–450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

  16. Charcoal Rot of Plants in East Texas.

    E-print Network

    Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

    1949-01-01

    elata (60) Acacia melanoxylon (60) Acalypha wilkesiana (60) Acer sp. in U.S. (60) Albizzia sp. (60) Alhizzia falcata (60) Albizzia moluccana (60) Albizzia stipulata (60) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in U.S. (26, 60; PDR 30:3R**) Allium sativo...

  17. Pythium Root Rot (and Feeder Root Necrosis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium species cause a number of diseases on corn. Among the Pythium diseases, root rot presents the least conspicuous aboveground symptoms. Broadly defined, root rot also includes feeder root necrosis. At least 16 species of Pythium are known to cause root rot of corn. These include P. acanthicu...

  18. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to three seed borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-borne diseases of soybeans caused by Phomopsis longicolla (Phomopsis seed decay), Cercospora kukuchii (purple seed stain), and M. phaseolina (charcoal rot) are economically important seed-borne diseases that affect seed quality. Commercial cultivars marketed as resistant to all the three disea...

  19. Nitrogen Fertilizer Affects the Severity of Anthracnose Crown Rot Disease of Greenhouse Grown Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the severity of anthracnose crown rot was evaluated in three greenhouse studies. Strawberry plants were fertilized three times weekly with a modified Hoagland's Nutrient Solution containing the treatments and inoculated eight weeks after treat...

  20. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  1. Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endophytes of Panax notoginseng with antagonistic characteristics towards pathogens of root-rot disease complex.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Cao, Yong Hong; Cheng, Ming Hui; Huang, Ying; Mo, Ming He; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jian Zhong; Yang, Fa Xiang

    2013-02-01

    Endophytes play an important role in protection of host plants from infection by phytopathogens. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from five different parts (root, stem, petiole, leaf and seed) of Panax notoginseng and evaluated for antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Ralstonia sp. and Meloidogyne hapla, three major pathogens associated with root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. From 1000 endophytic bacterial strains evaluated in vitro, 104 strains exhibited antagonistic properties against at least one of these three pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these 104 antagonistic bacteria belong to four clusters: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. Members of the Firmicutes, in particular the Bacillus spp., were predominant in all analyzed tissues. The root was the main reservoir for antagonistic bacteria. Of the 104 antagonists, 51 strains showed antagonistic activities to one pathogen only, while 43 and 10 displayed the activities towards two and all three pathogens, respectively. The most dominant species in all tissues were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus, which were represented by eight strains with broad antagonistic spectrum to the all three test pathogens of root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. PMID:22987248

  2. Root Interactions in a Maize/Soybean Intercropping System Control Soybean Soil-Borne Disease, Red Crown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Man; Xu, Ruineng; Wang, Xiurong; Pan, Ruqian; Kim, Hye-Ji; Liao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. Principal Findings In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum). The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices. PMID:24810161

  3. Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot BP-75-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Diplodia Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Diplodia ear rot, caused Diplodia ear rot. Hybrid susceptibility and weather also contribute to disease development. This bulletin

  4. TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT

    E-print Network

    TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT INTRODUCTION A sometimes devastating root rot fungus. Armillaria root rot usually becomes apparent when indigenous forests are cleared for afforestation large indigenous trees In forestry situations, Armillaria root rot has been recorded on both pines

  5. Effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro and its effects on disease severity of soybean in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina culture growth in vitro and the disease severity of charcoal rot in soybean at Stoneville, MS and Jackson, TN. Glyphosate inhibited M. phaseolina growth in a linear dose dependent manner when ...

  6. Effect of certain cultural practices on susceptibility of potato tubers to soft rot disease caused by Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamal A. M. Abo-Elyousr; M. A. Sallam; M. H. Hassan; A. D. Allam

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia soft rot causes destructive and serious damage to many vegetable crops including potato in the field, transit and storage periods. The effect of certain cultural practices on the susceptibility of potato tubers to soft rot bacteria was studied and the results of this work can be summarised in the following: potato tubers harvested on 1 May first exhibited the

  7. FIELD AND GREENHOUSE EVALUATION OF BEAN GERMPLASM FOR ROOT ROT AND OTHER DISEASES IN NEW YORK, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot is a significant production constraint in beans worldwide in both temperate and tropical soils leading to complete crop loss under severe conditions. Two trials were conducted on common bean lines under root rot conditions in the field at the Cornell’s Vegetable Research Farm near Geneva, N...

  8. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Zhong; Nan, Zhi Biao

    2007-06-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, 'standing milkvetch' (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of stunted plants with reddish-brown stems and yellow and necrotic leaf blades. An Embellisia sp. was isolated from symptomatic stem, leaf blade, petiole, and root tissues at varying frequencies of up to 90%. Single-spore isolates grew very slowly on PCA, PDA, V-8 and, wheat hay decoction agar. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation of seeds, dipping 2-day-old pre-germinated seedlings in inoculum and spraying inoculum on 6-month-old plants. Symptoms on test plants included yellow leaf lesions, brown lesions on stems and petioles, stunted side-shoots with yellow, small, distorted and necrotic leaves, shoot blight, bud death, crown rot, root rot, and plant death. The disease is named as 'yellow stunt and root rot' of A. adsurgens to distinguish it from diseases caused by other known pathogens. Embellisia sp. is also pathogenic to A. sinicus but not to 11 other tested plant species. PMID:17492492

  9. Biological Control of Phacidiopycnis Rot in ‘d’Anjou’ Pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis rot, caused by Phacidiopycnis piri, is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of pears (Pyrus) in the U.S. and a major disease of ‘d’Anjou’ pears grown in Washington State. Phacidiopycnis rot can originate from infection of wounds on the fruit. In this study, two biocontrol...

  10. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2014-12-10

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80 %, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment. PMID:25492807

  11. Rapid and sensitive detection of Sclerotium rolfsii associated with collar rot disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius by species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Pravi, V; Jeeva, M L; Archana, P V

    2014-09-01

    Collar rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is an economically important disease prevailing in all Amorphophallus growing areas. The pathogen propagules surviving in soil and planting material are the major sources of inoculum. A nested PCR assay has been developed for specific detection of S. rolfsii in soil and planting material. The PCR detection limit was 10 pg in conventional assay whereas 0.1 pg in nested assay. The primers designed were found to be highly specific and could be used for accurate identification of pathogen up to species level. The protocol was standardized for detection of the pathogen in artificially and naturally infected field samples. PMID:24788585

  12. Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Scott A.

    Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Expected yield per acre2 118 126 39 62 23 149 158 49 70 29 soils represent soils capable of producing corn and soybeans with yields about 20% higher than average

  13. Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

  14. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  15. Influence of the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the development of peanut pod rot disease in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Elsayed Abdalla; Gamal Mahmoud Abdel-Fattah

    2000-01-01

    Glomus mosseae   and the two pod rot pathogens Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani and subsequent effects on growth and yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were investigated in a greenhouse over a 5-month period. At plant maturity, inoculation with F. solani and\\/or R. solani significantly reduced shoot and root dry weights, pegs and pod number and seed weight of

  16. TOWARDS INTEGRATED CONTROL OF FROSTY POD ROT (MONILIOPHTHORA RORERI) OF CACAO: A MODEL PROGRAMME FOR PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a major biological constraint to cocoa production in Latin America. The pathogen is still in an invasive phase and poses a continuing threat to other cocoa growing areas of Latin America (Brazil and Bolivia), having recently invade...

  17. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  18. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

  19. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. PMID:23376194

  20. Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland

    E-print Network

    Sanborn, Paul

    ) (Figure 1). This inland rainforest shares the dominant tree species of western redcedar (Thuja plicata of the uppermost charcoal found at each site, but the severity of heart-rots in the dominant redcedars (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don) prevented independent confirmation of stand ages by dendrochronology. Sites

  1. Identification of soil-borne pathogens in a common bean root rot nursery in Isabela, Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been completed on the root rot complex of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Caribbean, while yield losses of over 50% due to root rot disease have been reported worldwide. In this study, the predominant root rot pathogens in a 40-year old common bean root rot nurser...

  2. Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of subarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani and is one of the most severe soil-borne diseases of sugarbeet in Minnesota and North Dakota. Rhizoctonia root and crown rot may reduce yield significantly, and diseased beets may cause problems in storage piles. Fields with...

  3. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, R.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T. [Radian Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The volatile organic sampling train (VOST) is currently one the leading methodologies available for the sampling and analysis of volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) and products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from stationary sources at very low levels. However, revisions to the original method are necessary to maintain VOST as a viable regulatory tool. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. The following carbon-based candidate sorbents were considered: Tenax-GR (a graphitized Tenax); a Petroleum-based Charcoal; Ambersorbe XE-340 (hydrophobic carbonized resin bead); Anasorb 747 (beaded active carbon with very regular pore size); Carbosieve{reg_sign} S-III (carbon molecular sieve); and a Beaded Activated Charcoal (BAC) (with a very regular pore size). The results indicated that Tenax-GR showed significantly poorer performance than the other candidates in preliminary experimental results. Ambersorb did not retain the gaseous volatile organic compounds tested as well as the others and recovery of vinyl chloride was very low at all levels of spiking. Carbosieve was eliminated as a candidate replacement because of cost and handling problems. The petroleum-based charcoal was eliminated because of difficulties in handling a finely-divided powder. The availability of Anasorb 747 proved to be the deciding factor between it and the BAC. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb{reg_sign} 747 a good choice for replacement of SKC Lot 104. 1 tab.

  4. First Report of Charcoal Rot of Sunflower in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid 'Pioneer 63M82') was observed with uneven maturation in west central Minnesota near Aldrich (Todd County) in late September, 2009. The field's soil type was sandy loam and cropping history was oats in 2008 preceded by four years of alfalfa. M...

  5. Charcoal filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  6. Combination of oral activated charcoal plus low protein diet as a new alternative for handling in the old end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Musso, C G; Michelangelo, H; Reynaldi, J; Martinez, B; Vidal, F; Quevedo, M; Parot, M; Waisman, G; Algranati, L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic dialysis is a valid therapeutic option in very elderly ESRD patients, even though the decision to dialyze or not has little impact on survival. Additionally, very old patients usually do not agree with starting chronic dialysis. Even though, activated charcoal is a cheap treatment for working as adsorbent for nitrogenous products its utility is very limited. We studied the combination of a low protein diet and oral activated charcoal to reduce serum urea and creatinine levels in very old ESRD patients who had refused to start chronic dialysis. Nine lucid, very old > 80 years, ESRD patients who had refused to start dialysis were prescribed a treatment based on a combination of a very low protein diet and oral activated charcoal (30 gram/day). None of the patients had anuria, oliguria, edema, significant metabolic acidosis or hyperkalemia. None of them had significant gastrointestinal symptoms. After one week and ten months of charcoal use significant decrease in blood urea and creatinine levels was observed and none of them required emergency dialysis during this time. In conclusion, in patients more than 80 years of age low protein diet and oral activated charcoal may control the uremic symptoms effectively. PMID:20061701

  7. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  8. Cotton Root-Rot and Its Control.

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, (Walter Naphtali) Walter N.

    1931-01-01

    -rot is caused by a fungus, Phynztctotrichum omnivorum, which attacks the roots of susceptible plants and causes them, to decay. The vegetative strands of the fungus are found on the diseased roots, and the spore-mat stage is formed on the surface of the soil... above the affected roots. Resting bodies, or sclerotia, are formed in the soil near the diseased roots, and aid in the survival of the fungus. Root-rot spreads from plant to plant chiefly along the roots rather than by independent growth for long...

  9. 510 Plant Disease / Vol. 97 No. 4 Etiology of Moldy Core, Core Browning, and Core Rot of Fuji Apple in China

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    , whereas primarily Trichothecium but also Fusarium and Penicillium spp. caused wet core rot. Core browning., Penicillium funiculosum, P. expansum, P. ramulosum, and P. sp. (aff. dendriticum) (3,35). During

  10. Do jasmonates play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced local bioprotection of Medicago truncatula against root rot disease caused by Aphanomyces euteiches?

    PubMed

    Hilou, Adama; Zhang, Haoqiang; Franken, Philipp; Hause, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Bioprotective effects of mycorrhization with two different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis, against Aphanomyces euteiches, the causal agent of root rot in legumes, were studied in Medicago truncatula using phenotypic and molecular markers. Previous inoculation with an AM-fungus reduced disease symptoms as well as the amount of pathogen within roots, as determined by the levels of A. euteiches rRNA or transcripts of the gene sterol C24 reductase. Inoculation with R. irregularis was as efficient as that with F. mosseae. To study whether jasmonates play a regulatory role in bioprotection of M. truncatula by the AM fungi, composite plants harboring transgenic roots were used to modulate the expression level of the gene encoding M. truncatula allene oxide cyclase 1, a key enzyme in jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Neither an increase nor a reduction in allene oxide cyclase levels resulted in altered bioprotection by the AM fungi against root infection by A. euteiches. These data suggest that jasmonates do not play a major role in the local bioprotective effect of AM fungi against the pathogen A. euteiches in M. truncatula roots. PMID:23812608

  11. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-print Network

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  12. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P. [Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  13. Heparin adsorption on activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Cooney, D O

    1977-12-01

    By vitro studies have shown that sodium heparin adsorbs significantly at pH 7.4 conditions onto a typical activated charcoal. These results imply that enhanced heparin removal from blood should be anticipated in hemoperfusion systems that utilize uncoated charcoals. PMID:608319

  14. Cultivar response against root-infecting fungi and efficacy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in controlling soybean root rot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ehteshamul-Haque; V. Sultana; J. Ara; M. Athar

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted in the greenhouse to examine the resistance of three soybean cultivars against root-infecting fungi, and to determine the role of five strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in protecting the roots from these fungal pathogens. In this study soybean cv RAWAL was found to be less susceptible against charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina than cvs PARC and BRAGG.

  15. The Sweet Pepper Ferredoxin-Like Protein ( pflp ) Conferred Resistance Against Soft Rot Disease in Oncidium Orchid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Hui Liau; Jian-Cheng Lu; Venkatesh Prasad; Hsin-hao Hsiao; Su-Juan You; Jent-turn Lee; Ning-Sun Yang; Hsiang-En Huang; Teng-Yung Feng; Wen-Huei Chen; Ming-Tsair Chan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic engineering to date has not been used to introduce disease resistance genes into the orchid gene pool. The ferredoxin-like protein gene originally isolated from sweet pepper is thought to function as a natural defense against infection due to its antimicrobial properties. Hence it was reasoned that introduction of this gene might produce Oncidium plants resistant to Erwinia carotovora, the

  16. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  17. Stachbotrys Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

  18. Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

  19. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this s...

  20. Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot expansion within a growing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infestations is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this study was to use airborne multispectral imagery...

  1. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  2. Monilia mumecola , a new brown rot fungus on Prunus mume in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Harada; Shigeo Nakao; Masahito Sasaki; Yumi Sasaki; Yukako Ichihashi; Teruo Sano

    2004-01-01

    In 1982, an anamorphic fungus in the genus Monilia was first isolated as the causal agent of brown rot disease of Japanese apricot or mume ( Prunus mume) in Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Inoculation of flowers, shoots, and fruit of P. mume with the fungus reproduced brown rot disease symptoms similar to those found in nature. The fungus somewhat resembled

  3. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within a growing season using airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a serious and destructive disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infections is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  4. The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajola, A O

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

  5. Activated charcoal: the untold story.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Richard M; Robertson, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Introduction. To identify the prevalence and appropriateness of prescribing activated charcoal in the management of acute poisoning and to document patient compliance with treatment.Methods. A prospective study was conducted, between October 1998 and September 1999, on patients attending our accident and emergency department, with a history of overdose. Overdoses were classified as potentially toxic or non-toxic according to the history and/or information received from the National Poisons Information Service.Results. Two hundred and seventy five patients presented following overdose; 17% within one hour, 102 were prescribed charcoal (37.1%) but of these, 40 (39%) refused it, and of the 62 patients (61%) who accepted charcoal only 15 (24.2%) took all that was prescribed. Patients were 5.4 times more likely to take charcoal if they had taken a potentially toxic overdose. Of those who presented within one hour and were judged to have taken a potentially toxic overdose, only three patients took the full-prescribed amount.Conclusion. We report a substantially greater proportion of patients (39%) refusing charcoal than previously reported (9.9%). The widespread availability of TOXBASE Copyright should help redress this discrepancy. PMID:12633621

  6. Charcoal signatures defined by multivariate analysis of charcoal records from 10 lakes in northwest Wisconsin (USA)

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Charcoal signatures defined by multivariate analysis of charcoal records from 10 lakes in northwest online 20 November 2010 Keywords: Fire history Charcoal analysis Fire regime Wisconsin Sand plain CHAR Charster We show how sedimentary charcoal records from multiple sites within a single landscape can be used

  7. Apple Fruit Rot Alert Brown Rot Warning Continues

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    1 Apple Fruit Rot Alert Brown Rot Warning Continues Necrotic Leaf Blotch on Goldens Botrytis Bunch and size and quality are excellent. Fall-bearing red raspberries are beginning to ripen. Early grape. -Pecknold Necrotic Leaf Blotch On Goldens: Generally we first start noticing necrotic leaf blotch (NLB

  8. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Sepetdjian; Najat Saliba; Alan Shihadeh

    2010-01-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in

  9. Herbicide Effects on Sugarcane Growth, Pythium Root Rot, and Pythium arrhenomanes.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, N; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L

    1998-06-01

    ABSTRACT Six herbicides were evaluated for their effects on Pythium root rot and growth of sugarcane in greenhouse experiments and on in vitro mycelial growth rate of Pythium arrhenomanes. Pendimethalin and atrazine were most inhibitory to mycelial growth, but neither reduced root rot severity. Asulam, atrazine, and metribuzin were not phytotoxic to sugarcane and did not affect root rot symptom severity in clay loam or silt loam field soils. Atrazine and metribuzin increased shoot number, and atrazine increased total shoot weight for treated plants in silt loam soil. Glyphosate, pendimethalin, and terbacil were phytotoxic to sugarcane. These herbicides increased root rot severity, but the extent to which growth reductions resulted from increased disease severity or from direct herbicide injury was not clear. Adverse effects on plant growth and root rot severity were greater in clay loam than in silt loam soil. The results suggest that sugarcane injury from some herbicides is compounded by increased severity of root rot. PMID:18944905

  10. REPLACEMENT OF CHARCOAL IN VOST

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile rganic ampling rain VOST), or sampling volatile organics from has proven to be a original performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. n addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has b...

  11. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  12. Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

  13. Effect of Cultural Practices and Fungicides on Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in the Carolinas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Southeastern U.S. To develop strategies to manage Phytophthora fruit rot, we evaluated the effects of two cultural practices (raised bare ground and plastic mulched ...

  14. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  15. Cultural Practices and Chemical Treatments Affect Phytophthora Root Rot Severity of Blueberries Grown in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of commercial blueberries and is most severe when blueberries are grown in wet soils with poor drainage. Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot include small, yellow or red leaves, lack of new growth, root necrosis, and a smaller than normal root system. Inf...

  16. TESTING BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AND INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE FOR THE CONTROL OF APHANOMYCES ROOT ROT OF SUGARBEET.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling damping off and chronic root rot of sugarbeet caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides has caused increasing losses to U.S. producers. Lack of effective control measures for Aphanomyces root rot prompted the initiation of a program aimed at the discovery of new, safe components for disease ...

  17. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  18. Experimental Sugar Beet Cultivars Evaluated for Resistance Bacterial Root Rot in Idaho, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, a study was conducted to identify resistan...

  19. Effect of actigard and other new fungicides on phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. Between 2003 and 2008, we observed many watermelon farms in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, where growers did not harvest the crop due to severe fruit rot. The Natio...

  20. Survival of southern highbush blueberry cultivars in Phytophthora Root Rot Infested fields in South Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of commercial blueberries and is most severe when blueberries are grown in wet soils with poor drainage. Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot include small, yellow or red leaves, lack of new growth, root necrosis, and a smaller root system than healthy plan...

  1. Effect of climate on the distribution of Fusarium species causing crown rot of wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot is one of the most widespread root and crown diseases of wheat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the U.S. Fusarium crown rot occurrence and distribution has been associated with temperature and precipitation. Our objectives were to characterize crown rot severity and distributio...

  2. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

  3. Evaluation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for Suppression of Sheath Rot Disease and for Enhancement of Grain Yields in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivel, N.; Gnanamanickam, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains antagonistic to Sarocladium oryzae, the sheath rot (Sh-R) pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.), were evaluated in greenhouse and field tests for suppression of Sh-R severity and enhancement of grain yields of rice. Imprints of rice seedlings and a direct-observation technique of staining roots with fluorochromes confirmed the association of P. fluorescens with roots and the ability of the strain to move along shoot tips. In greenhouse tests, P. fluorescens-treated rice plants (cv. IR 20) showed a 54% reduction in the length of Sh-R lesions. In three field tests, treatment with P. fluorescens reduced the severity of Sh-R by 20 to 42% in five rice cultivars. Bacterization of rice cultivars with P. fluorescens enhanced plant height, number of tillers, and grain yields from 3 to 160%. Images PMID:16347428

  4. Biomass gasifier and charcoal producer

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.

    1986-04-22

    A gasifier is described for continuous conversion of biomass into charcoal and combustible gas, the gasifier consisting of: a hollow generator having an open top for receiving a continuous supply of the biomass and continuous, unimpeded gravitation of the biomass in the generator; a generally horizontal, flat, slotted grate mounted in the generator and occupying substantially the entire cross-section of the hollow generator for rotation about an essentially upright axis and disposed to receive the biomass thereupon, presenting a char-bed of the biomass on the grate when the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis adjacent the grate; a downdraft air supply pipe extending vertically downwardly into and through the biomass in the generator and provided with tubular tuyeres in the generator disposed to force a continuous supply of combustion-supporting air into and through the char-bed adequate to provide a high exothermic reaction rate and combustion efficiency and production of charcoal on the grate from the biomass; stationary members connected to the generator, above the grate and extending into the char-bed for retarding rotation thereof and breaking the charcoal into separate lumps against the surfaces of which the air impinges, the members being proximal to the grate for shearing the lumps against the slots of the grate to disintegrate the lumps into charcoal particles, and forcing the particles downwardly through the slots and substantially reducing the residence time of the char-bed in the generator; and means for withdrawing the particles and the gas generated during pyrolysis from the generator beneath the grate.

  5. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

  6. A comparative analysis of emissions from bagasse charcoal and wood charcoal

    E-print Network

    Ramírez, Andrés, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western hemisphere and is in need of cheap cooking fuel source. Currently, lump charcoal, the cooking fuel of Haiti, is made by carbonizing trees in ditches before selling the charcoal ...

  7. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R. M.; Hearing, S.; Goldsmith, D. J.; Keevil, B.; Venning, M. C.; Ackrill, P.

    1995-01-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined dialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion. During combined treatment, the mean extraction rate of haemodialysis was 62%, compared with 48% for charcoal haemoperfusion. In summary, activated charcoal given by mouth may be unable to prevent a rise in blood levels and the development of complications after substantial theophylline overdose. If theophylline is to be removed from the blood, a combination of charcoal haemoperfusion and haemodialysis will give the best clearance, but haemodialysis alone may be effective. PMID:7784283

  8. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Higgins, R M; Hearing, S; Goldsmith, D J; Keevil, B; Venning, M C; Ackrill, P

    1995-04-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined dialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion. During combined treatment, the mean extraction rate of haemodialysis was 62%, compared with 48% for charcoal haemoperfusion. In summary, activated charcoal given by mouth may be unable to prevent a rise in blood levels and the development of complications after substantial theophylline overdose. If theophylline is to be removed from the blood, a combination of charcoal haemoperfusion and haemodialysis will give the best clearance, but haemodialysis alone may be effective. PMID:7784283

  9. Black Rot of the Grape

    E-print Network

    Price, R. H.

    1892-01-01

    . .............................. J. W. CARSON,. .Assistant to Director. ............................. J. M. CARSON,. .Assistant Agriculturist. ........................ P. S. TILSON, M. S. .Assistant in Chemistry. Texas ~gaieultuaal Ex~e~imcnt Station. BLACK ROT OF THE GRAPE.... (Physalospora Bidwellii. Sachs.) (R. H. PRICE, B. 8.) 11 Ull otht upo' men Perhaps no other subject in Vegetable Pathology has attracted so wide attention since 1885 as the Black Rot of the grape and its treat- ment. This may be due to the serious loss...

  10. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches. PMID:25883287

  11. GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA FOR REDUCING PINK ROT, DRY ROT, LATE BLIGHT, AND SPROUTING ON POTATO TUBERS IN STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink rot of potato, incited primarily by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato-growing regions of the world including North America. The primary mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protecte...

  12. Charcoal/Nitrogen Adsorption Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Refrigerator with no wear-related moving parts produces 0.5 W of cooling at 118 K. When fully developed, refrigerator needs no electrical power, and life expectancy of more than 10 yr, operates unattended to cool sensitive infrared detectors for long periods. Only moving parts in adsorption cryocooler are check valves. As charcoal is cooled in canister, gas pressure drops, allowing inlet check valve to open and admit more nitrogen. When canister is heated, pressure rises, closing inlet valve and eventually opening outlet valve.

  13. Prevalence and aetiology of Phytophthora foot rot of black pepper in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N.-V. Truong; L. W. Burgess; E. C. Y. Liew

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper is a high value export crop in Vietnam. The production of black pepper, however, is reduced remarkably by Phytophthora\\u000a foot rot disease. Although the disease was first reported in 1952, the identity of the causal organism has never been conclusively\\u000a determined. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the causal agent associated with Phytophthora foot rot

  14. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke ABSTRACT Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  15. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1985-09-30

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

  16. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

  17. Activated charcoal microcapsules and their applications.

    PubMed

    Chandy, T; Sharma, C P

    1998-10-01

    Activated charcoal, long known to the ancients as a substance of therapeutic value in a variety of maladies, has recently been "rediscovered" to be of great value in medical applications. Activated charcoal hemoperfusion is effective in blood purification for removal of various circulating toxic materials and waste metabolites, directly. However, particulate release and platelet adhesion prevent its continued clinical use. Polymeric coatings or microencapsulation of charcoal within polymers have improved their blood compatibility. Chitosan encapsulated activated charcoal (ACCB) beads have been extensively investigated in our group for the removal of various toxins such as urea, creatinine, uric acid, bilirubin, etc. This article highlights various methods of microencapsulation procedures of activated charcoal and the importance of this novel material for a variety of biomedical applications. Further, this review provides an insight to the future perspectives for using them in clinical practice. PMID:9777464

  18. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. We investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different pho...

  19. Sclerotinia stem and crown rot of chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold of chickpea is caused by three soil borne fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, S. minor and S. trifoliorum, causing either stem rot and crown rot. Stem infection, usually above ground and initiated by ascospores through carpogenic germination of scleroia produces stem rot, whereas crown infe...

  20. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  1. Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

    1995-12-31

    In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

  2. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhong Li; Zhi Biao Nan

    2007-01-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, ‹standing milkvetch’ (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of\\u000a stunted plants with reddish-brown

  3. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean ( Vicia faba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Indira Devi; N. C. Talukdar; K. Chandradev Sharma; K. Jeyaram; M. Rohinikumar

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease\\u000a suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria\\u000a from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity\\u000a against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of

  4. Chemical control of pink rot of potato ( Phytophthora erythroseptica PethyB.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Torres; C. Martin; J. Henfling

    1985-01-01

    Field trials have been carried out for seven years to control pink rot (Phytophthora erythroseptica) at the International Potato Center (CIP). This disease has been a serious problem in the maintenance of a germplasm collection\\u000a at the CIP’s Experimental Station at Huancayo, Peru (3300 m.a. s.l.). Pink rot annually causes serious loss of germplasm accessions,\\u000a particularly diploid cultivars. Protective and

  5. Improved resistance to bacterial soft rot by protoplast fusion between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Ren; M. H. Dickson; E. D. Earle

    2000-01-01

    Erwinia soft rot is a destructive disease of Brassica rapa vegetables. Reliable sources of resistance and control methods are limited, so development of highly resistant breeding lines\\u000a is desirable. Protoplasts from B. rapa and B. oleracea genotypes selected for resistance to soft rot were fused in order to combine different sources of resistance. Twelve somatic\\u000a hybrids (synthetic B. napus) were

  6. Development and evaluation of a model for management of brown rot in organic apple orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imre J. Holb; Barbara Balla; Ferenc Abonyi; Mónika Fazekas; Péter Lakatos; József M. Gáll

    2011-01-01

    Temporal development of brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) on fruits was analysed in two organic apple orchards on three apple cultivars in Eastern Hungary from 2002 to 2006. The\\u000a three-parameter logistic function gave the best fit to brown rot over four non-linear growth functions in all cultivars, years\\u000a and orchards. Depending on location, year and cultivar, disease increased continuously from 6

  7. Absorption of the Radioactive Emanations by Charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rutherford

    1906-01-01

    THE interesting property of certain kinds of charcoal, notably that of the cocoa-nut, of rapidly absorbing gases, except the inert gases belonging to the argon family, is now well known since the recent experiments of Sir James Dewar.

  8. Converting sugarcane waste into charcoal for Haiti

    E-print Network

    Toussaint, Etienne Clement

    2007-01-01

    In Haiti, most families have traditionally relied on wood and wood-derived charcoal as their primary fuel source for indoor cooking. This resource has proven to be unsustainable, however, as over 90% of the Haitian countryside ...

  9. Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti

    E-print Network

    Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

    2005-01-01

    The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

  10. Fluidized bed charcoal particle production system

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.

    1985-04-09

    A fluidized bed charcoal particle production system, including apparatus and method, wherein pieces of combustible waste, such as sawdust, fragments of wood, etc., are continuously disposed within a fluidized bed of a pyrolytic vessel. Preferably, the fluidized bed is caused to reach operating temperatures by use of an external pre-heater. The fluidized bed is situated above an air delivery system at the bottom of the vessel, which supports pyrolysis within the fluidized bed. Charcoal particles are thus formed within the bed from the combustible waste and are lifted from the bed and placed in suspension above the bed by forced air passing upwardly through the bed. The suspended charcoal particles and the gaseous medium in which the particles are suspended are displaced from the vessel into a cyclone mechanism where the charcoal particles are separated. The separated charcoal particles are quenched with water to terminate all further charcoal oxidation. The remaining off-gas is burned and, preferably, the heat therefrom used to generate steam, kiln dry lumber, etc. Preferably, the bed material is continuously recirculated and purified by removing tramp material.

  11. Blossom-end rot Blossom-end rot

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    with the root's ability to take up nutrients. Garden soils may also have low levels of calcium. This can tomatoes in well-drained soil high in organic matter with a soil pH between 6.5 and 7.5. #12;MSU that the rot can occur even when there is an ample supply of calcium in the soil, stems or leaves. Actively

  12. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  13. First report of Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cryptogea, on spinach in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 and 2007, commercially grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea) in California’s coastal Salinas Valley (Monterey County) was affected by an unreported root rot disease. Disease was limited to patches along the edges of fields. Affected plants were stunted with chlorotic older leaves. As disease pro...

  14. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  15. Penicillium Implicatum Causes a Destructive Rot of Pomegranate Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Labuda; K. Hudec; E. Piecková; J. Mezey; R. Bohovi?; S. Mátéová; S. S. Luká?

    2004-01-01

    In this study Penicillium implicatum Biourge was found to be the cause of a destructive rot of stored pomegranate (Punica granata) fruits. This species has not previously been reported to cause disease of the fruit. The ability of the strain to decay\\u000a pomegranates as well as some varieties of apples (Jonagold, Selena and Vanda) under laboratory conditions after inoculation\\u000a with

  16. Biodiversity of complexes of mycotoxigenic fungal species associated with Fusarium ear rot of maize and Aspergillus rot of grape.

    PubMed

    Logrieco, A; Moretti, A; Perrone, G; Mulè, G

    2007-10-20

    Fusarium ear rot of maize and Aspergillus rot of grape are two examples of important plant diseases caused by complexes of species of mycotoxigenic fungi. These complexes of species tend to be closely related, produce different classes of mycotoxins, and can induce disease under different environmental conditions. The infection of maize and grape with multiple fungal species and the resulting production of large classes of mycotoxins is an example of mutual aggressiveness of microorganisms toward host species as well as to humans and animals that eat feed or food derived from the infected and contaminated plants. Infection of crop plant with a complex of microbial species certainly represents a greater threat to a crop plant and to human and animal health than infection of the plant with a single fungal species. PMID:17765992

  17. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi Robert Rileya , Asaf A. Salamova , Daren W. Brownb , Laszlo G. Nagyc January 12, 2014) Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood

  18. Stem Rot of Garlic (Allium sativum) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk

    2010-06-01

    Stem rot disease was found in garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivated from 2008 to 2010 in the vegetable gardens of some farmers in Geumsan-myon, Jinju City, Gyeongnam province in Korea. The initial symptoms of the disease were typical water-soaked spots, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. White mycelial mats had spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia had formed over the mycelial mats on the stem. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, 1~3 mm in size, and tan to brown in color. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was 30?. The diameter of the hyphae ranged from approximately 4 to 8 µm. Typical clamp connection structures were observed in the hyphae of the fungus, which was grown on PDA medium for 4 days. On the basis of the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity of the fungus on the host plants, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of stem rot disease in garlic caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:23956646

  19. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  20. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ndiaye

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal\\/Niger\\/rotation\\/millet\\/isolate characterization\\/fonio\\/compost amendment \\/ bioagent\\/ Clonostachysrosea \\/solarization<\\/span><\\/o:p><\\/span>Cowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in the

  1. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p < 0.0005), the Cmax by 77% (p < 0.0005), and the amount of pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p < 0.0005). When charcoal was administered 2 h after pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion. PMID:9029746

  2. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Indira Devi, S; Talukdar, N C; Chandradev Sharma, K; Jeyaram, K; Rohinikumar, M

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference fungal pathogens of plant roots. Fifteen fluorescent pseudomonas isolates produced inhibition zone (8-29 mm) of the fungal growth in dual plate assay and IAA like substances (24.1-66.7 ?g/ml) and soluble P (12.7-56.80 ?g/ml) in broth culture. Among the isolates, RFP 36 caused a marked increase in seed germination, seedling biomass and control of the root borne pathogens of broad bean. PCR-RAPD analysis of these isolates along with five MTCC reference fluorescent pseudomonas strains indicated that the RFP-36 belonged to a distinct cluster and the PCR of its genomic DNA with antibiotic specific primers Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol suggested possible occurrence of gene for the potent antibiotics. Overall, the result of the study indicated the potential of the isolate RFP 36 as a microbial inoculant with multiple functions for broad bean. PMID:22282623

  3. Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mala Trivedi; Rajesh K. Tiwari; Om P. Dhawan

    2006-01-01

    Collar rot, caused byRhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation\\u000a for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were\\u000a assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed

  4. Grapevine bunch rots: impacts on wine composition, quality, and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.

    PubMed

    Steel, Christopher C; Blackman, John W; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2013-06-01

    Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these being Botrytis cinerea (gray mold); however, there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and fungi found in subtropical climates (e.g., Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola ). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimize wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odors and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex affects wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimize wine faults and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified. PMID:23675852

  5. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  6. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  7. Cultivar selection for sugarbeet root rot resistance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

  8. Genetic studies on collar rot resistance in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Dhawan, Om Prakash; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Sattar, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The collar rot disease has been reported recently and occurs at the 10-12-leaf stage of plants of opium poppy. Infected plants topple down and dry prematurely due to fast rotting at the collar region. The inoculum for this study was multiplied on the cornmeal-sand culture. Genetic ratios were calculated by the chi-square test. Inheritance studies on this disease show a monogenic pattern of segregation with the ratio of 3 : 1 at F2, 1 : 2 : 1 at F3 and 1 : 1 at the backcross. Such genetic ratios clearly indicate that a single recessive gene (rs-1) is responsible for disease resistance in opium poppy. The inference drawn on the basis of the present study will be a great help in the future breeding programme of opium poppy for collar rot resistance. PMID:16110184

  9. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  10. The Mitochondrial Genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa are closely related basidiomycetes that cause two important diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): frosty pod rot and the witches' broom disease, respectively. A comparison of the complete mitochondrial genomes of these pathogens shows a high degr...

  11. Evaluating spectral measures derived from airborne multispectral imagery for detecting cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for more than 100 years, but effective practices for its control are still lacki...

  12. Evaluating unsupervised and supervised image classification methods for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for over a century, but effective practices for its control are still lacking. R...

  13. Coated charcoal hemoperfusion for the removal galactose in rats.

    PubMed

    Nasielski, P; Chang, T M

    1978-05-01

    Microencapsulated activated charcoal has been used in this report to remove galactose from aqueous solution in-vitro and from blood of galactosemic rats. Coconut charcoal is not effective in removing galactose, whereas petroleum-based activated charcoal is very effective. PMID:689757

  14. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  15. Hardware Accelerated Real Time Charcoal Rendering Aditi Majumder M. Gopi

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    Hardware Accelerated Real Time Charcoal Rendering Aditi Majumder M. Gopi Department of Computer. The effects include characteristics of charcoal draw- ings like broad grainy strokes and smooth tonal variations that are achieved by smudging the charcoal by hand. Further, we also gen- erate the closure effect

  16. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  17. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  18. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  19. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  20. Short Paper Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with

    E-print Network

    Whitlock, Cathy L.

    Short Paper Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with a particle dispersal model February 2007 Abstract To aid interpreting the source area of charcoal in lake-sediment records, we compare charcoal deposition from an experimental fire to predictions from a particle dispersal model. This provides

  1. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  2. Antagonistic effects of metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on the different growth phases of Phytophthora capsici, foot rot pathogen of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diby Paul; Y. R. Sarma

    2006-01-01

    Foot rot of black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici causes heavy crop losses. Ecofriendly biological control was given high priority in the Integrated Disease Management programs (IDM). Strains of P. fluorescens which were antagonistic to P. capsici, the foot rot pathogen in black pepper produced inhibitory metabolites. Up to 72% inhibition of mycelial growth of P. capsici was observed in

  3. Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot BP-77-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Gibberella Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Photos by Charles Woloshuk Gibberella ear rot, or Gib ear rot, is caused by the fungus, Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum

  4. Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisson, Harriet E.

    1980-01-01

    Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

  5. Estimation of charcoal (char) in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Skjernstad; J. A. Taylor; R. J. Smernik

    1999-01-01

    A method for the semiquantitative estimation of charcoal (char) in soils is reported. The technique, performed on the <53 ?m fraction of soils, utilizes the highly aromatic nature of char and its relative stability to two hours of high energy ultraviolet photo?oxidation compared to other soil carbon fractions. The proportion of char in the <53 ?m fraction is estimated as

  6. Characterization of acetylated wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ohkoshi; Atsushi Kato; Kentaro Suzuki; Noriko Hayashi; Mitsuro Ishihara

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the decay of acetylated wood due to brown-rot and white-rot fungi by analysis\\u000a of chemical composition, X-ray measurements, and13C-NMR spectroscopy. The decay by brown-rot fungus became inhibited at a weight percent gain (WPG) due to acetylation of more\\u000a than 10%, and the mass loss (LOSS) due to decay became zero at a

  7. Evaluation of a diverse red clover collection for clover rot resistance (Sclerotinia trifoliorum).

    PubMed

    Vleugels, T; Baert, J; Van Bockstaele, E

    2013-01-01

    Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikks. causes clover rot (clover cancer, Sclerotinia crown and root rot), an important disease in European red clover crops (Trifolium pratense L). The fungus infects plants in autumn through ascospores and entire fields can be destroyed by early spring. Although previous studies have evaluated various red clover populations for clover rot resistance, screening was often performed with one local isolate on just a few local varieties, often cultivars. Until today, no large collections of diverse red clover accessions have been screened. In this study, we studied the variation in clover rot susceptibility among 122 red clover accessions, including 85 accessions from the NPGS-USDA core collection. Cultivars (both diploid and tetraploid), landraces and wild accessions were included and different S. trifoliorum isolates were used. In a field experiment, plant yield, branching and susceptibility to mildew, rust and virus disease were scored for 122 red clover accessions. A similar collection of germplasm was screened for clover rot resistance by a bio-test on young plants using a mixture of five aggressive S. trifoliorum isolates. The effects of the variety type, ploidy level, growth habit, resistance to other diseases and levels of isoflavones (available for the NPGS-USDA collection) on clover rot susceptibility were determined. Possible sources of resistance were identified. Our red clover accessions differed significantly in susceptibility but no accession was completely resistant Three accessions (Maro, Tedi and No. 292) were significantly less susceptible than the other accessions. Intensive branching or a prostrate growth habit did not render plants more resistant. Accessions resistant to mildew or viruses were not more resistant to clover rot and accessions with high levels of isoflavones were not better protected against clover rot. On the other hand, tetraploid cultivars were on average 10% less susceptible than diploid cultivars. Cultivars were generally less susceptible than landraces and wild accessions. Allocating sources of resistance for breeding purposes is difficult. The best way to improve clover rot resistance may be to select and intercross resistant plants from cultivars with low susceptibility. PMID:25151826

  8. Purdue extension www.btny.purdue.edu

    E-print Network

    Purdue extension BP-42-W www.btny.purdue.edu Charcoal rot Andreas Westphal, T. Scott Abney, and Gregory Shaner Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University diseases of soybean Charcoal the beginning of flower- ing. Despite its wide distribution, charcoal rot is less of a concern for soybean

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  10. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels. PMID:20127546

  11. Application of Genomic and Quantitative Genetic Tools to Identify Candidate Resistance Genes for Brown Rot Resistance in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Parfitt, Dan E.; Bostock, Richard M.; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar ‘Dr. Davis’ and a brown rot resistant introgression line, ‘F8,1–42’, derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

  12. [Paraquat poisoning and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal].

    PubMed

    López Lago, A M; Rivero Velasco, C; Galban Rodríguez, C; Mariño Rozados, A; Piñeiro Sande, N; Ferrer Vizoso, E

    2002-06-01

    Paraquat is a common herbicide in Spain. In our country there are a few cases of this intoxication and it presents a high mortality even if the patients ingest a minimal amount. We present two cases of accidental poisoning with paraquat. These patients were admitted three hours after ingestion of toxin. They were treated with with orogastric lavage, activated charcoal, N-acetylcysteine, Fuller's earth, cathartics, support measures and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal. With these treatments both patients had a undetectable levels of paraquat 48 hours after and improvement of their symptoms, gastric and intestinal predominantly . We present the graphics of evolution of the plasma and urine levels of paraquat in both patients. We review the different aspects of treatment and update of this poisoning. PMID:12152392

  13. Texas Plant Diseases Handbook.

    E-print Network

    Horne, C. Wendell; Amador, Jose M.; Johnson, Jerral D.; McCoy, Norman L.; Philley, George L.; Lee, Thomas A. Jr.; Kaufman, Harold W.; Jones, Roger K.; Barnes, Larry W.; Black, Mark C.

    1988-01-01

    Solanum melongena Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot (fungus - Phomopsis vexans): This disease is char acterized by circul ar brownlsh spots on fruit and 1 eaves. On the fruit, soft, sunken spots become rotted and shrivel led. Spray with approved fungi cide...

  14. Preparation of charcoal from cherry stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Valle, Carlos J.; Gómez-Corzo, Manuel; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Pastor-Villegas, José; Rojas-Cervantes, María L.

    2006-06-01

    Cherry stones (CS) are carbonised at 400-1000 °C for 0-4 h in N 2 and the charcoals obtained are characterised to gain information about their chemical composition and porous texture, with a view to their use in the preparation of activated carbon. Depending on the heating conditions, the products obtained may possess a low ash content and a high fixed carbon content and are essentially microporous and macroporous solids.

  15. Prostacyclin eliminates the bioincompatibility of charcoal haemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Weston, M J; Woods, H F; Bunting, S; Moncada, S; Vane, J R

    1979-01-01

    During charcoal haemoperfusion (CHP) in dogs, use of prostacyclin (PGI2) in addition to heparin reduced the loss of platelets (25 +/- 6 vs 83 +/- 2%), the formation of platelet aggregates as judged by screen filtration pressure (65 +/- 6 vs 249 +/- 25mm Hg) and fibrinogen consumption (20 +/- 5 vs 46 +/- 6%). Prostacyclin also delayed neutralisation of heparin during CHP. This improvement of biocompatibility may now allow a proper assessment of CHP in liver failure. PMID:398492

  16. QTL analysis for Fusarium root rot resistance in snap bean under greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR), caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (syn.F. phaseoli T. Aoki & O’Donnell, F. cuneirostrum O’Donnell & T. Aoki), is considered as one of the most economically important and widespread fungal diseases of common bean (1). Progress in breeding for FRR resistance has been h...

  17. Assessing cotton defoliation, regrowth control and root rot infection using remote sensing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton defoliation and post-harvest destruction are important cultural practices for cotton production. Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton yield and lint quality. This paper presents an overview and summary of the methodologies and results on the use of remote s...

  18. BLUEBERRY FRUIT VOLATILES AS A POTENTIAL MARKER FOR RESISTANCE TO ANTHRACNOSE FRUIT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry fruit produce antimicrobial volatiles including trans-2-hexenal that may confer resistance to anthracnose fruit rot, an important postharvest disease caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. To test the hypothesis that aromatic volatiles in blueberry fruit may be associated with postharvest frui...

  19. Fusarium Crown Rot:What’s known, what’s new

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot is one of the most widespread pathogens on wheat in the Inland Pacific Northwest. This popular article shows growers what the symptoms look like, major research findings on the disease over the last 30 years, recent work on surveys, development of resistant varieties, and methods...

  20. Identification of QTL for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in Soybean Plant Introduction 194639

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a difficult disease to manage, although some gains have been made through breeding for quantitative resistance. The objective was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling partial ...

  1. CONTROL OF GREEN MOLD AND SOUR ROT OF STORED LEMONS BY BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...

  2. Prospects for Inhibition of Lignin Degrading Enzymes to Control Ganoderma White Rot of Oil Palm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell R. M. Paterson; Sariah Meon; M. A. Zainal Abidina; N. Limab

    Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as \\

  3. Pre-Breeding for root rot resistance using root morphology traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani can be a major yield-limiting disease in minimal tillage or direct-seeded cereal production systems. Reduced tillage greatly influences the plant residue retained on the soil surfaces. This retained residue (green bridge) provides increased d...

  4. Progress in mapping QTL for Sclerotinia stalk rot tolerance in a sunflower recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stalk rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to Sclerotinia should facilitate the development of marker-assisted selection strategies for enhancing resistance. In thi...

  5. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT IN FRASER FIR PLANTATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1999, 19 plots of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) with a disease focus were established in commercial plantings grown for Christmas tree production in the mountains of five western North Carolina counties. Progress of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi as estimated by mortality wa...

  6. Crop damage from Sclerotinia crown rot and risk factors in pyrethrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor, is a prevalent disease in pyrethrum fields in Australia. Management involves the application of fungicides during the rosette stage of plant development during autumn to early spring in fields approaching first-harvest, althoug...

  7. First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...

  8. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RHIZOCTONIA ORYZAE AND RHIZOCTONIA ROOT ROT IN DIRECT-SEEDED CEREALS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia oryzae causes root rot and stunting of wheat, barley, and other small grains, and is widely distributed in eastern Washington. The spatial distribution of both the pathogen and disease were studied over two seasons in a 36-ha field north of Pullman, WA. The field was direct-seeded with s...

  9. BLUEBERRY FRUIT VOLATILES AS A POTENTIAL MARKER FOR SUPPRESSION OF ANTHRACNOSE FRUIT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various volatile natural products are known to have antifungal activities. Blueberry fruit produce aromatic volatiles including trans-2-hexenal that may confer resistance to Anthracnose Ripe Rot, an important postharvest disease caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. To test the hypothesis that aromatic...

  10. Deployment of novel sources of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stalk rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower-growing areas worldwide. The progress of traditional breeding for Sclerotinia resistance, which relies on incorporating genetic factors from various partially resistant breeding lines, has been very slow...

  11. INCREASED INCIDENCE OF ERWINIA SOFT-ROT ON CALLA LILIES IN THE PRESENCE OF PHOSPHORUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia soft-rot is an important disease of many ornamental crops. In particular, it is one of the most limiting factors on greenhouse calla lily production. In preliminary experiments, it was observed that addition of phosphorous to the soil-less mix used for greenhouse forcing of tubers of calla...

  12. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within and across growing seasons using remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore Shear (Duggar), is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern U.S. More recently, a fungicide, flutriafol, has been evaluated in Texas and was found to have the potential for controlling ...

  13. Ground-based technologies for cotton root rot control: Results from a three-year experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall goal of this research is to develop ground-based technologies for disease detection and mapping which can maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of CRR (cotton root rot) treatments. Accurately mapping CRR could facilitate a much more economical solution than treating entire fields. Th...

  14. LIMITED FUNGICIDE APPLICATIONS AFFECT BERRY ROT SEVERITY AND RESVERATROL CONTENT OF MUSCADINE GRAPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry rot diseases reduce yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but those losses may be minimized by fungicide applications. The fungicides, myclobutanil, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole, were applied sequentially to two muscadine cultivars every ten days beginning at early bloom and stopping at pr...

  15. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  16. A homoeopathic drug controls mango fruit rot caused by Pestalotia mangiferae Henn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Khanna; S. Chandra

    1978-01-01

    Summary Effect of 1–200 potencies of ten homoeopathic drugs on the spore germination ofPestalotia mangiferae, the causal organism of banana fruit rot, was studied. On the basis of results of in vivo studies with inhibitory doses of drugs, Lycopodium clavatum potency 190 has been recommended for the control of the disease.

  17. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in commercial sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 commercial sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ro...

  18. Identification and characterization of peanut oxalate genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  19. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in experimental sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 experimental sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ...

  20. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  1. Charcoal deposition and redeposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary charcoal, diatom and phytolith records of the past 1500 years at Elk Lake, Minnesota, in combination with sediment trap studies and a transect of surface sediment samples, document the mechanisms by which previously deposited charcoal is redeposited and finally buried in this lake. The frequent correspondence of high diatom concentrations and peaks of phytolith and charcoal fragments suggest that currents and turbulence related to lake circulation are responsible for winnowing charcoal and phytoliths from shallow water depositional sites to deeper areas of the lake. High diatom concentrations in the record relate to increased nutrient fluxes also supplied by circulation. Despite the fact that the watershed and area around Elk Lake has not been burned since AD 1922, charcoal continues to reach the profundal zone from littoral source areas in Elk Lake. The variable redeposition of within-lake charcoal requires evaluation before fire-history records can be related to global, regional or even local fire events.

  2. Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot in Allium tuberosum Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kang, Dong-Wan; Song, Won-Doo; Choi, Okhee

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we characterized sporadically occurring sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Roth.) in farm fields in Sacheon, Korea. The initial symptom of the disease was water-soaked, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. Further, mycelial mats spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia formed on the scaly stem and leaves. The sclerotia were globoid, 1~3 mm, and white to brown. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) was 30?. The diameter of the hypae ranged from 4 to 8 µm. Clamp connection was observed on PDA medium after 5 days of incubation. Based on the mycological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot in Chinese chive caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:22783108

  3. Effect of oral activated charcoal on quinine elimination.

    PubMed Central

    Lockey, D; Bateman, D N

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repeated dose oral activated charcoal on quinine elimination has been studied following a therapeutic (600 mg) dose of quinine bisulphate to seven normal volunteers. Activated charcoal lowered quinine half-life from 8.23 +/- 0.57 s.d. h to 4.55 +/- 0.15 s.d. h (P less than 0.001) and increased its oral clearance by 56%. Activated charcoal may have a role in the management of quinine poisoning. PMID:2706191

  4. Removal of bacteria from blood by charcoal hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Marks, D H; Medina, F; Lee, S; Blackmon, A; Schuschereba, S T

    1988-01-01

    E. coli bacteria were successfully removed from contaminated RBC/plasma by using a special matrix of micro-encapsulated albumin activated charcoal (ACAC). Efficacy of removing the bacteria was directly related to the amount of time the contaminated blood was in contact with the charcoal. The data indicated that the bacteria adhered to the ACAC, but that the charcoal was not bactericidal. PMID:3052639

  5. Analysis of chemical competition for binding sites on activated charcoal

    E-print Network

    Gallerani, Susan Jane

    1981-01-01

    : Industrial Hygiene ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL CCMPEZITION FOR BINDING SITES ON ACTUATED CHARCOAL A Thesis SUSAN JANE CALLEK&11 Approved as to style and cxntent by: (airman of Caranittee) (~) (H of Department) August 1981 Analysis of Ch~ ~tion for Binding... Sites on Activated Charcoal. ~ 1981) Susan Jane Gallerani, B. S. , University of Massachusetts Chairman of Advisory Ccxanittee: Dr. ralph J. Vernon The effects of sampling order of two chemicals absorbed on activated charcoal were investigated...

  6. 9 CFR 71.3 - Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...known to exist in the United States: foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African...atrophic rhinitis, contagious ecthyma, foot rot, infectious keratitis, ram...actinobacillosis, contagious ecthyma, foot rot, and shipping fever:...

  7. Detection of potato brown rot and ring rot by electronic nose: from laboratory to real scale.

    PubMed

    Biondi, E; Blasioli, S; Galeone, A; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; Lucchese, C; Braschi, I

    2014-11-01

    A commercial electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with a metal oxide sensor array was trained to recognize volatile compounds emitted by potatoes experimentally infected with Ralstonia solanacearum or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, which are bacterial agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively. Two sampling procedures for volatile compounds were tested on pooled tubers sealed in 0.5-1 L jars at room temperature (laboratory conditions): an enrichment unit containing different adsorbent materials (namely, Tenax(®) TA, Carbotrap, Tenax(®) GR, and Carboxen 569) directly coupled with the e-nose (active sampling) and a Radiello(™) cartridge (passive sampling) containing a generic Carbograph fiber. Tenax(®) TA resulted the most suitable adsorbent material for active sampling. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 57.4 and 81.3% total samples as healthy or diseased, when using active and passive sampling, respectively. These results suggested the use of passive sampling to discriminate healthy from diseased tubers under intermediate and real scale conditions. 80 and 90% total samples were correctly classified by LDA under intermediate (100 tubers stored at 4°C in net bag passively sampled) and real scale conditions (tubers stored at 4°C in 1.25 t bags passively sampled). Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensorial analysis data under laboratory conditions highlighted a strict relationship between the disease severity and the responses of the e-nose sensors, whose sensitivity threshold was linked to the presence of at least one tuber per sample showing medium disease symptoms. At intermediate and real scale conditions, data distribution agreed with disease incidence (percentage of diseased tubers), owing to the low storage temperature and volatile compounds unconfinement conditions adopted. PMID:25127615

  8. paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Vannière, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

  9. Influences of charcoal and bamboo charcoal amendment on soil-fluoride fractions and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2012-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in tea plants pose a potential health risk to humans who drink tea. It has been demonstrated that tea plant fluoride is closely related to the available fluoride in soil. But approaches that could be used to regulate the availability of fluoride in soil have been rarely seen. This study aims to investigate how the addition of charcoal and bamboo charcoal affected soil fluoride availability and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants. In a microcosm experiment, tea plants were grown in the tea garden soil mixed with different amounts of charcoal and bamboo charcoal [that is, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 % (w/w)]. Soil-fluoride fractions and fluoride accumulated in tea plants were determined using the sequential extraction and ion selective electrode method. Obtained results showed that both charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions significantly enhanced the concentrations of Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluoride, but significantly reduced the concentrations of water-soluble and exchangeable fluoride (p < 0.05) in soil. Charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions also significantly decreased the amounts of fluoride in tea roots and tea leaves (p < 0.05). However, the additions of charcoal and bamboo charcoal had no impacts on the tea quality, as indexed by the concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and caffeine in tea leaves. These results suggested that application of charcoal and bamboo charcoal may provide a useful method to reduce the availability of fluoride in soil and the subsequent fluoride uptake by tea plants. PMID:22580712

  10. Archaeological charcoal: natural or human impact on the vegetation Charcoals from aprehistorie fire-set pit in the Austrian Alps -dendro-dates,

    E-print Network

    Nicolussi, Kurt

    Archaeological charcoal: natural or human impact on the vegetation Charcoals from aprehistorie fire into the dolomite rock. Copper ore was exploited in the pit MaukE in prehistory. Large quantities of charcoal were: Alpen Reliefkarte - Tirol Atlas). MATERIALS AND METHODS Out of the assemblage of charcoals (completely

  11. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  12. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  14. Short Paper Soil charcoal stability over the Holocene across boreal northeastern North America

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    Short Paper Soil charcoal stability over the Holocene across boreal northeastern North America Available online 31 July 2011 Keywords: Anthracomass Boreal Holocene Macroscopic soil charcoal Taphonomy The analysis of macroscopic wood charcoal fragments extracted from soils is frequently used

  15. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  16. Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory Report Review of Technologies for the Production and Use of Charcoal

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and Use of Charcoal Daniel M. Kammen1 & Debra J. Lew2 Energy and Resources Group & Goldman School Charcoal consumption____________________________________________________2 Rural and Urban uses of woodfuels and charcoal______________________________3 Environmental Impacts

  17. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  18. Assessing the mineralisation of charcoal carbon in temperate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascough, P. L.; Tilston, E.; Garnett, M.

    2012-04-01

    Charcoal is pyrolized biomass characterized by its high C content and environmental recalcitrance. Recently 'biochar' has emerged as a concept as a means of long-term C sequestration with a sequestration potential that is comparable with current global anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions (5.5-9.5 Pg C yr-1 and 5.4 Pg C yr-1, respectively). However, charcoal is not a permanent C sink and estimates of charcoal degradation rates vary from the decadal or centennial timescales, with soil residence times in the order of thousands of years. Possible mechanisms of charcoal degradation include biotically and abiotically-mediated transformation and mineralization processes, resulting in a range of products of varying recalcitrance, including CO2. In soil science the decomposition of organic matter is routinely estimated by measuring CO2 efflux, but a key obstacle for the quantification of charcoal-derived CO2 is the accurate and precise apportionment of C sources arising from slow decomposition rates. Moreover, the addition of charcoal to soil can promote decomposition of indigenous soil organic matter and the concomitant increase in CO2 production does not therefore necessarily demonstrate mineralization of the charcoal C. Radiocarbon (14C) offers significant benefits in this regard as a sensitive technique for C source apportionment. We used the 14C content of CO2 respired by a surface soil to quantify the rate of charcoal mineralization, thus demonstrating the efficacy and sensitivity of our 14C approach for estimating charcoal degradation. During incubation the variations in charcoal-derived C mineralization are consistent with the loss of more labile components in the charcoal with a maximum of 2.1% of the evolved CO2-C being attributable to mineralisation of charcoal C. Extrapolation to an annual basis suggests that the loss rate of charcoal C is <1%, supporting the view that rates of charcoal C respiration are slow in temperate woodland soil. Implications for biogeochemical cycling of charcoal C are discussed in context of previous and ongoing work in this field.

  19. Charcoal as an alternative energy source. sub-project: briquetting of charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Enstad, G.G.

    1982-02-02

    Charcoal briquettes have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It appears most realistic to use binders in solution. Binders of this kind have been examined and the briquettes' mechanical properties measured. Most promising are borresperse, gum arabic, dynolex, and wood tar.

  20. Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to Gibberella ear rot, in corn, caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Ali, M Liakat; Taylor, Jeff H; Jie, Liu; Sun, Genlou; William, Manilal; Kasha, Ken J; Reid, Lana M; Pauls, K Peter

    2005-06-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of corn (Zea mays) grown in northern climates. Infected corn is lower yielding and contains toxins that are dangerous to livestock and humans. Resistance to ear rot in corn is quantitative, specific to the mode of fungal entry (silk channels or kernel wounds), and highly influenced by the environment. Evaluations of ear rot resistance are complex and subjective; and they need to be repeated over several years. All of these factors have hampered attempts to develop F. graminearum resistant corn varieties. The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to the genes for resistance to Gibberella ear rot. A recombinant inbred (RI) population, produced from a cross between a Gibberella ear rot resistant line (CO387) and a susceptible line (CG62), was field-inoculated and scored for Gibberella ear rot symptoms in the F4, F6, and F7 generations. The distributions of disease scores were continuous, indicating that resistance is probably conditioned by multiple loci. A molecular linkage map, based on segregation in the F5 RI population, contained 162 markers distributed over 10 linkage groups and had a total length of 2237 cM with an average distance between markers of 13.8 cM. Composite interval mapping identified 11 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Gibberella ear rot resistance following silk inoculation and 18 QTLs following kernel inoculation in 4 environments that accounted for 6.7%-35% of the total phenotypic variation. Only 2 QTLs (on linkage group 7) were detected in more than 1 test for silk resistance, and only 1 QTL (on linkage group 5) was detected in more than 1 test for kernel resistance, confirming the strong influence of the environment on these traits. The majority of the favorable alleles were derived from the resistant parent (CO387). The germplasm and markers for QTLs with significant phenotypic effects may be useful for marker-assisted selection to incorporate Gibberella ear rot resistance into commercial corn cultivars. PMID:16121248

  1. Using airborne imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and untreated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over a century. Recent field studies have shown that Topguard fungicide has considerable promise for controlling this disease. With the authorization (Section 18 exe...

  2. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Parsons; G. P. Munkvold

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and

  3. Determining Tolerance in Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici using Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southeastern United States. Various rootstocks have been used for grafting watermelon in Asia and Europe to manage soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium ...

  4. Revised phylogeny and novel horizontally acquired virulence determinants of the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    PubMed

    Nykyri, Johanna; Niemi, Outi; Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot bacteria and, potentially, other bacteria as well. PMID:23133391

  5. Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot bacteria and, potentially, other bacteria as well. PMID:23133391

  6. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that

  7. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  8. Effect of orally administered activated charcoal on vancomycin clearance.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R L; Roon, R A; Koup, J R; Smith, A L

    1987-01-01

    Vancomycin is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic that has concentration-dependent efficacy and toxicity. Recent literature indicates that orally administered activated charcoal can enhance the clearance of intravenously administered drugs. To evaluate the effects of activated charcoal on vancomycin clearance, six healthy male volunteers received vancomycin (1 g) intravenously with and without activated charcoal coadministration. In a randomized crossover sequence, subjects were given 50 g of activated charcoal immediately before the vancomycin infusion was begun and 15 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h afterwards, or an equal volume of water. Multiple doses of charcoal did not have a statistically significant effect on any pharmacokinetic parameter for vancomycin. Mean control values +/- standard deviation for vancomycin clearance, elimination half-life, and 24-h urinary recovery were 6.4 +/- 1.0 liters/h, 6.6 +/- 1.5 h, and 856 +/- 116 mg, respectively. Mean values for the same parameters were 6.4 +/- 1.0 liters/h, 6.0 +/- 0.9 h, and 897 +/- 130 mg when activated charcoal was given. We conclude that multiple doses of orally administered activated charcoal do not enhance vancomycin clearance in subjects with normal renal function when serum concentrations are within the therapeutic range. The results of this investigation cannot be extrapolated to patients with toxic vancomycin concentrations or renal dysfunction. The use of activated charcoal in these populations warrants further study. PMID:3606073

  9. Charcoal-Burning Suicides and Strategies for Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. F. Yip; Dominic T. S. Lee

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper examines the emergence of a new method of suicide in Hong Kong by carbon monoxide poisoning generated by the burning of charcoal. In just 6 years, it has become the second most common means of suicide after jumping from heights. The profile of these charcoal-burning suicide victims is different from that of other suicide deaths. It seems

  10. Thermal desorption of atmospheric organic pollutants enriched on charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Senf; F. Stapf; B. Diisedau; H. Frank

    1988-01-01

    A technique of thermal vacuum desorption of charcoal, used in passive dosimeters to enrich organic pollutants of toxicological importance, is described. It combines the advantages of the classic procedure of using highly active charcoal followed by solvent desorption and the environmental one-step procedure of analyzing the whole thermally desorbed sample. For pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, ether, benzene and ethanol,

  11. The use of charcoal in in vitro culture – A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Pan; J. van Staden

    1998-01-01

    Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media. Its addition to culture medium may promote or inhibit in vitro growth, depending on species and tissues used. The effects of activated charcoal may be attributed to establishing a darkened environment; adsorption of undesirable\\/inhibitory substances; adsorption of growth regulators and other organic compounds, or the release of growth promoting substances present

  12. Theorizing Access: Forest Profits along Senegal's Charcoal Commodity Chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse C. Ribot

    1998-01-01

    The questions at the centre of this article are: who profits from commercial forestry, and how? Through access mapping with commodity chain analysis, this study examines the distribution of benefits from Senegal's charcoal trade and the multiple market mechanisms underpinning that distribution. Benefits from charcoal are derived from direct control over forest access, as well as through access to markets,

  13. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  14. Repeat charcoal hemoperfusion treatments in life threatening carbamazepine overdose.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, G; Meert, K L; Valentini, R P

    1999-11-01

    A 16-month-old female experienced a massive carbamazepine ingestion resulting in a peak serum carbamazepine concentration of 55 microg/ml. Clinical manifestations included generalized seizures, coma, shock, and gastrointestinal hypomotility. Gut decontamination was attempted using multiple-dose activated charcoal and cathartics. Because of the severity of illness, charcoal hemoperfusion was initiated. The patient underwent three sessions of charcoal hemoperfusion, each utilizing a fresh cartridge, with one session immediately following the other. Serum carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide concentrations decreased from 54 microg/ml to 23 microg/ml, and 30 microg/ml to 17 microg/ml, respectively, during charcoal hemoperfusion. There were no complications. The patient recovered completely and was discharged on the 4th hospital day. Charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for life-threatening carbamazepine intoxication, especially when drug-induced gastrointestinal hypomotility prevents elimination via the gut. PMID:10603119

  15. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C.M. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Lycoming, NY (United States); Scala, F.R. [Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

  17. First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

  18. Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John A. Johnson (University of New Brunswick; )

    1989-06-06

    The fungi which cause rot and decay in our forests are vital members of the ecosystem. By decomposing the hard woody stems of trees they help recycle important nutrients, minerals, and carbohydrates. Unlike many organisms which are easy to see, the fungi are often hidden under bark or within living stems and their presence is not obvious. This laboratory exercise provides instructors with information about where to find and how to visualize and manipulate fungi which cause rot and decay, while discovering how ubiquitous and important they are.

  19. Influence of charcoal burning induced pyrolysis on soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Nicolay, Alexander; Pötzsch, Bastian; Fritzsche, Marie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Lusatia, Northeastern Germany, the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kilns in the forests north of Cottbus. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained around Cottbus from several thousand charcoal kilns which had internal diameters up to 20 m. For the study site with 35 km2 area, the until now prospected total ground area below the charcoal kilns which was potentially affected by the pyrolysis is about 0,5 km2. Historic data indicates that the pyrolysis in the charcoal kiln took up to several weeks, for the kilns with a diameter of 20 m about 20 days. To characterize the depth of thermal alteration of soils below the kiln our current focus is on the differentiation of the iron hydroxides by small-scale vertical analysis of soil profiles. The study site is situated 16 km northeast of Cottbus at the opencast mine Jänschwalde. Field work was done during the archaeological rescue excavation of a charcoal kiln in a 50 m long trench crossing an about 15 m wide charcoal kiln. One vertical profile outside the charcoal kiln and two vertical profiles below the charcoal kiln were chosen for analysis. The magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ on the undisturbed profile and ex situ on stepwise heated samples (105, 350, 550, 750 and 950°C). The total iron content was quantified ex situ by x-ray fluorescence. Our first results indicate a change in the magnetic susceptibility in the contact area of the mineral soil and the charcoal kiln. The influence of the pyrolysis on the soil is restricted to areas where the soil was not shielded against the heat by ash or organic material.

  20. Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

    2000-01-01

    Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

  1. Field assessment of plant derivative compounds for managing fungal soybean diseases.

    PubMed

    Brooker, N L; Long, J H; Stephan, S M

    2000-12-01

    Natural plant-derived compounds are currently being explored as alternatives for pest control in sustainable agriculture. This study explored the use of two compounds, sesamol and carbenoxolone, in the management of the fungal soybean disease charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina). Previous studies have determined that sesamol and carbenoxolone compounds significantly inhibited fungal pathogen growth and plant disease in vitro. In order to assess the field efficacy of these compounds for fungal disease control, 2 years of field testing of these compounds have been conducted in southeast Kansas. Field treatments of the compounds sesamol and carbenoxolone at three concentrations, 0, 500 and 1000 microg/ml, were applied foliarly at four distinct plant developmental stages. Treatments were applied to plots in random triplicate array and the experiment was repeated during the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons. Disease assessments were based on visual disease ratings, plant mortality and soybean yield analysis. Data were recorded weekly for each treatment plot and statistically analysed using analysis of variance. Results indicate that sesamol and carbenoxolone treatments significantly decreased disease symptoms (11-12%) and plant mortality (24-28%) while significantly increasing soybean yields (18-38%). These results support that plant-derived compounds can have a significant impact on soybean disease management and yield under field conditions. PMID:11171257

  2. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

  3. Development of a ROT22 - DATAMAP interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, K. R.; Waak, T.; Brieger, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    This report (Contract NAS2-10331- Mod 10), outlines the development and validation of an interface between the three-dimensional transonic analysis program ROT22 and the Data from Aeromechanics Test and Analytics-Management and Analysis Package (DATAMAP). After development of the interface, the validation is carried out as follows. First, the DATAMAP program is used to analyze a portion of the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) data. Specifically, records 2872 and 2873 are analyzed at an azimuth of 90 deg, and record 2806 is analyzed at 60 deg. Trim conditions for these flight conditions are then calculated using the Bell performance prediction program ARAM45. Equivalent shaft, pitch, and twist angles are calculated from ARAM45 results and used as input to the ROT22 program. The interface uses the ROT22 results and creates DATAMAP information files from which the surface pressure contours and sectional pressure coefficients are plotted. Twist angles input to ROT22 program are then iteratively modified in the tip region until the computed pressure coefficients closely match the measurements. In all cases studied, the location of the shock is well predicted. However, the negative pressure coefficients were underpredicted. This could be accounted for by blade vortex interaction effects.

  4. FUSARIUM BULB ROT OF ONION AND GARLIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium proliferatum is a hyphomycetous fungal pathogen with a wide host range, including onion and garlic. In garlic, invasion by the fungus results in water-soaked lesions, then a progressive tan-brown rot of the cloves. In onion, the fungus may be confined to the outer layers of the bulb, wher...

  5. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  6. Hands-On Whole Science. What Rots?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Presents activities on the science of garbage to help elementary students learn to save the earth. A rotting experiment teaches students what happens to apple slices sealed in plastic or buried in damp soil. Other activities include reading stories on the subject and conducting classroom composting or toxic materials projects. (SM)

  7. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  8. Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

  9. Charcoal hemoperfusion in the treatment of phenytoin overdose.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, C; Nishi, R; Uekihara, S; Hayano, S; Otagiri, M

    2000-02-01

    In the case of phenytoin, a drug that is generally highly protein bound, there is a lack of consensus on the use of charcoal hemoperfusion in cases of overdose. We performed charcoal hemoperfusion on a phenytoin-overdosed patient to assess the effectiveness of this treatment. The plasma concentrations of total and free phenytoin fell rapidly, from 40.0 microg/mL and 3.6 microg/mL to 16.2 microg/mL and 1.5 microg/mL, respectively, after 3 hours of hemoperfusion. The total phenytoin elimination half-life was 3.9 hours. The fraction of protein-bound phenytoin was constant (90.8% +/- 0.5%) before, during, and after the procedure. The relations between the in vitro protein binding and adsorption of phenytoin to activated charcoal were also examined. Interestingly, bound phenytoin was found to dissociate from plasma proteins in the presence of activated charcoal and subsequently became adsorbed to the activated charcoal. Considering that phenytoin is bound to albumin with a large number of binding sites (n = 6) and a small binding constant (K = 6 x 10(3/)mol/L), the extent of adsorption to activated charcoal may depend on the magnitude of the binding constant of the drug to plasma proteins. The current results suggest that charcoal hemoperfusion is effective for the removal of drugs that bind to plasma proteins with a low binding constant. PMID:10676735

  10. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  11. Tubular bamboo charcoal for anode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Biao

    2014-12-01

    The anode material plays a significant role in determining the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, the bamboo charcoal tube is proposed as a novel anode substrate by carbonizing the natural bamboo. Its surface functional groups, biocompatibility and internal resistance are thoroughly investigated. Performance of the MFCs with a conventional graphite tube anode and a bamboo charcoal tube anode is also compared. The results indicate that the tubular bamboo charcoal anode exhibits advantages over the graphite tube anode in terms of rougher surface, superior biocompatibility and smaller total internal resistance. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis for the bamboo charcoal reveals that the introduced C-N bonds facilitate the electron transfer between the biofilm and electrodes. As a result, the MFC with a bamboo charcoal tube anode achieves a 50% improvement in the maximum power density over the graphite tube case. Furthermore, scale-up of the bamboo charcoal tube anode is demonstrated by employing a bundle of tubular bamboo charcoal to reach higher power output.

  12. Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

    1979-01-01

    Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

  13. Control of potato soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum by Moroccan actinobacteria isolates.

    PubMed

    Baz, M; Lahbabi, D; Samri, S; Val, F; Hamelin, G; Madore, I; Bouarab, K; Beaulieu, C; Ennaji, M M; Barakate, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum are dreadful causal agents of potato soft rot. Actually, there are no efficient bactericides used to protect potato against Pectobacterium spp. Biological control using actinobacteria could be an interesting approach to manage this disease. Thus, two hundred actinobacteria isolated from Moroccan habitats were tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro 4 environmental Pectobacterium strains and the two reference strains (P. carotovorum CFBP 5890 and P. atrosepticum CFBP 5889). Eight percent of these isolates were active against at least one of the tested pathogens and only 2% exhibited an antimicrobial activity against all tested Pectobacterium strains. Four bioactive isolates having the greatest pathogen inhibitory capabilities and classified as belonging to the genus Streptomyces species through 16S rDNA analysis were subsequently tested for their ability to reduce in vivo soft rot symptoms on potato slices of Bintje, Yukon Gold, Russet and Norland cultivars caused by the two pathogens P. carotovorum and P. atrosepticum. This test was carried out by using biomass inoculums and culture filtrate of the isolates as treatment. Among these, strain Streptomyces sp. OE7, reduced by 65-94% symptom severity caused by the two pathogens on potato slices. Streptomyces OE7 showed a potential for controlling soft rot on potato slices and could be useful in an integrated control program against potato soft rot pathogens in the objective to reduce treatments with chemical compounds. PMID:22806806

  14. The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Aime; W. Phillips-Mora

    2005-01-01

    The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao )—the source of chocolate—in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moni- liophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environ- mental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relation- ships of

  15. INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON PLANT FROM SOUTH END OF BEACH, probably 1901. (From the Robert Teagle Private Collection, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  17. Formation of charcoal from biomass in a sealed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Szabo, P.; Varhegyi, G.; Zelei, B. (Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1502 (Hungary))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, samples o cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and nine species of whole biomass are pyrolyzed in sealed reactors. Very high charcoal yields (e.g., 40% from cellulose, 48% from Eucalyptus gummifera) were obtained. Higher sample loading (sample mass per unit reactor volume) increased charcoal yield and the associated exothermic heat release and lowered the reaction onset temperature. These effects were induced by the vapor-phase concentrations of the volatile products, and not the system pressure. Addition of water catalyzed the reaction and increased the char yield. These observations suggest that charcoal formation is autocatalyzed by water, an initial pyrolysis product. When whole biomass was used as a feedstock, higher charcoal yields were obtained from species with high lignin and/or low hemicellulose content.

  18. The effect of charcoal tube geometry on breakthrough volume

    E-print Network

    Strange, Jay B.

    1989-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CHARCOAL TUBE GEOMETRY ON BREAKTHROUGH VOLUME A Thesis by JAY B. STRANGE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1989 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECT OF CHARCOAL TUBE GEOMETRY ON BREAKTHROUGH VOLUME A Thesis by JAY B. STRANGE Approved as to style and content by: Richa B. Ko en (Chair of Co ittee) John P. Wagner (Member) K. Bennett...

  19. Removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewaters by bone charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dahbi; M. Azzi; M. de la Guardia

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto bone charcoal was studied as a function of time, amount of charcoal, pH, concentration\\u000a of chromium and sample volume. The cross interference with other elements was also investigated. Tests were carried out with\\u000a solutions of chromium(VI) at concentrations between 5 and 25 mg · L–1. Chromium removal efficiencies higher than 90% were achieved at

  20. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Screening and identification of resistance to bacterial soft rot in Brassica rapa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Ren; Rixana Petzoldt; Michael H. Dickson

    2001-01-01

    Mist-chamber, field, and detached leaf inoculation procedures identified plants resistant to bacterial soft rot [Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, (Ecc)] in Brassica rapa and related species. The mist-chamber seedling inoculation provided the best correlation of mean disease severity ratings\\u000a with the field plant inoculation (r = 0.67**) and was used to identify resistant materials. The optimum mist-chamber incubation conditions to distinguish

  2. Global Control in Pseudomonas fluorescens Mediating Antibiotic Synthesis and Suppression of Black Root Rot of Tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Laville; Christophe Voisard; Christoph Keel; Monika Maurhofer; Genevieve Defago; Dieter Haas

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 colonizes plant roots, produces several secondary metabolites in stationary growth phase, and suppresses a number of plant diseases, including Thielaviopsis basicola-induced black root rot of tobacco. We discovered that mutations in a P. fluorescens gene named gacA (for global antibiotic and cyanide control) pleiotropically block the production of the secondary metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl), HCN, and pyoluteorin. The

  3. Management Of Citrus Diseases Caused By Phytophthora Spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santa Olga Cacciola; Gaetano Magnano di San Lio

    The complex of citrus diseases caused by Phytophthora spp. is reviewed, with reference to the damages caused by Phytophtora root rot, gummosis and brown rot of fruits. Some aspects\\u000a of the biology and ecology of P. citrophthora and P. nicotianae are revised, like the inoculum dissemination, the fungus reproduction and epidemiology. The symptomatic diagnosis of main\\u000a diseases like foot rot

  4. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric, E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.u [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  5. Fluorine gettering by activated charcoal in a radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, L.K.; Toth, L.M.

    1988-10-01

    Activated charcoal has been shown to be an effective gettering agent for the fluorine gas that is liberated in a radiation environment. Even though activated charcoal is a commonly used getter, little is known about the radiation stability of the fluorine-charcoal product. This work has shown that not only is the product stable in high gamma radiation fields, but also that radiation enhances the capacity of the charcoal for the fluorine. The most useful application of this work is with the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt because the radioactive components (fission products and actinides) cause radiolytic damage to the solid LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (64.5, 30.3, 5.0, 0.13 mol %, respectively) resulting in the liberation of fluorine gas. This work has also demonstrated that the maximum damage to the fuel salt by approx.3 /times/ 10/sup 7/ R/h gamma radiation is approximately 2%, at which point the rate of recombination of fluorine with active metal sites within the salt lattice equals the rate of fluorine generation. The enhanced reactivity of the activated charcoal and radiation stability of the product ensures that the gettered fluorine will stay sequestered in the charcoal.

  6. REGISTRATION OF EL53 SUGARBEET GERMPLASM WITH SMOOTH-ROOT AND MODERATE RESISTANCE TO RHIZOCTONIA CROWN AND ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EL53 sugarbeet germplasm is substantially derived from previously released smooth-rooted, low soil tare germplasm releases with two additional cycles of selection for freedom from Rhizoctonia crown and root rot disease. Previous low soil tare releases have been uniformly susceptible to Rhizoctonia ...

  7. Difference between chitosan and oligochitosan in growth of Monilinia fructicola and control of brown rot in peach fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitosan (CS) and oligochitosan (OCS), as natural antifungal agents, have been primarily used as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The effectiveness of these two agents on the growth of Monilinia fructicola to control brown rot has not yet been...

  8. Characterization of two peanut oxalate oxidase genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  9. The Interaction between Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and Cylindrocladium Black Rot (CBR) in Runner Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR), caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum, and root-knot nematode, caused by Meloidogyne arenaria, are important soilborne diseases on peanut. Greenhouse and microplot experiments were conducted with the runner peanut genotypes C724-19-15 (resistant to M. arenaria), Geor...

  10. The Salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344 grows to 50-fold greater populations in the pres...

  11. Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for biological control of Sclerotium root and stem rot and Ralstonia wilt of chili pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sawai Boukaew; Samerchai Chuenchit; Vasun Petcharat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen Streptomyces spp. for biological control of root and stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), the very destructive diseases of chili pepper in Thailand. About 265 isolates of Streptomyces spp. were tested for their inhibitory effects on S. rolfsii mycelial growth on dual culture plates. Then, 14 promising isolates were

  12. Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

    2010-01-01

    Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

  13. Postharvest jasmonic acid treatment of sugarbeet roots reduces rot due to Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium claviforme, and Phoma betae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although jasmonic acid (JA) and JA derivatives are known to activate plant defense mechanisms and provide protection against postharvest fungal diseases for several horticultural crops, JA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots against common causal organisms of storage rot is unkno...

  14. First report of Lasmenia sp. causing rachis necrosis, flower abortion, fruit rot and leaf spots on rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rambutan is an exotic tropical fruit that has increased in commercial importance for growers in Puerto Rico. In 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on both leaves and inflorescences were observed. A total of 276 diseased samples from these plant parts were collected at commercial orchards, Agricult...

  15. Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and non-treated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over 100 years. A fungicide, flutriafol, has shown considerable promise for controlling this disease in field studies in the last few years. With the temporary authorization for use of the fungicide to contr...

  16. Phosphonate applied by trunk injection controls stem canker and decreases Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) incidence in cocoa in Sulawesi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. McMahon; A. Purwantara; A. Wahab; M. Imron; S. Lambert; P. J. Keane; D. I. Guest

    2010-01-01

    Stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora are serious diseases of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, causing high yield losses for smallholders, possibly exceeded only by losses due to the cocoa\\u000a pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella. Potassium phosphonate (phosphite) applied by trunk injection has been demonstrated to effectively control canker and

  17. TRICHODERMA OVALISPORUM, A NOVEL BIOCONTROL AGENT OF FROSTY POD ROT (MONILIOPHTHORA RORERI) OF COCOA (THEOBROMA CACAO): FROM DISCOVERY TO FIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-national research programme was initiated in 1998 to identify and develop biocontrol agents of the fungal disease frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Latin America. As part of this study, surveys were carried out in the centre of origin of cocoa, other Theob...

  18. Biological control of root rot of cauliflower (caused by Pythium ultimumvar. ultimum) using selected antagonistic rhizospheric strains of Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hani M. A. Abdelzaher

    2003-01-01

    Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) with a root rot disease were found in a field in Kidwan village, 3 km south of El?Minia city, Egypt, during January 2001. Cauliflower plants showed wilting soon after transplanting. In addition, cauliflower seedlings collected from the same field showed browning lesions at the basal part of the stem and the root system and eventually

  19. Plasmatic TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha levels during charcoal hemoperfusion in chronic renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Davì, G; Orlandi, M; Picone, F; Galione, G; Meringolo, C; Mazzola, A; Tomasi, V; Capodicasa, G; Strano, A

    1983-03-01

    6 patients with end-stage renal disease underwent hemoperfusion with charcoal columns, for 60 min. Blood samples anticoagulated with 2% EDTA/aspirin solution were obtained from arteriovenous fistulas in the basal condition, 5 min after a bolus injection of heparin (7,500 U), at the end of hemoperfusion, and 30 min after. The study was repeated few days later, in the same patients, two hours after 100 mg aspirin by mouth. TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were assayed with RIA in unextracted (U) and extracted (E) and chromatographed platelet poor plasma (PPP). Platelet counts before and after hemoperfusion were also performed. Low levels of the two prostaglandins were found in plasma; this could be related to the procedures for collection and processing of plasma samples; no significant differences were observed between extracted and unextracted samples: there were slightly higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in unextracted samples. After charcoal hemoperfusion there was only a slight and not significant increase of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha; low dose aspirin did not modify significantly plasma levels of the two prostaglandins before hemoperfusion but it reduced TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha levels after charcoal hemoperfusion. The platelet count fell (-22%) after charcoal hemoperfusion with heparin alone and in similar manner after low-dose aspirin pretreatment (-24%, 7%). PMID:6573692

  20. Characterization of a brown rot fungus isolated from dwarf flowering almond in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2007-03-01

    The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25? and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

  1. The Influence of Moisture and Temperature on Cotton Root Rot.

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Dana, B. F. (Bliss F.)

    1928-01-01

    at the surface and at the six-inch depth. Period Covered This study covers five seasons, 1923-1927. The root rot data w collected during the intervening period between the first appearance root rot and frost. Root rot development continues after frost..., but : study based on above-ground symptoms must be concluded wher tops are killed by frost. Fortunately, the five-year period includes nificant variations in rainfall, temperature and root rot for the diffc years and the various parts of the several growing...

  2. Avocado diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Zentmyer

    1984-01-01

    Several fungi can cause diseases of avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)) of which Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is the most serious. Phytophthora root rot causes extensive losses of avocado trees in nearly every country where avocados are grown. The fungus can be isolated from soil and roots by using selective agar media containing antibiotic chemicals and by using various types of baits

  3. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A.; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  4. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A; Brown, Daren W; Nagy, Laszlo G; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Walton, Jonathan D; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-07-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  5. Fungus Threatens the Viability of Cotton For more than a century, the fungal disease cotton root

    E-print Network

    Fungus Threatens the Viability of Cotton For more than a century, the fungal disease cotton root rot has been one of the most destructive cotton diseases in Texas. Cotton root rot reduces yield. With the disease essentially eliminating harvestable cotton on affected acres, economic losses from the disease

  6. Cultivar Selection for Sugar Beet Root Rot Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

  7. Feasibility of bioremediation by white-rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pointing

    2001-01-01

    The ligninolytic enzymes of white-rot fungi have a broad substrate specificity and have been implicated in the transformation and mineralization of organopollutants with structural similarities to lignin. This review presents evidence for the involvement of these enzymes in white-rot fungal degradation of munitions waste, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bleach plant effluent, synthetic dyes, synthetic polymers, and wood preservatives.

  8. Assessment of the elution of charcoal, cellulose acetate, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters.

    PubMed

    Agyei-Aye, K; Appleton, S; Rogers, R A; Taylor, C R

    2004-08-01

    This experiment was designed to study the release of cellulose acetate fibers, charcoal, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters. For the first time in such studies, efforts were made to identify the particles that were eluted using other analytical techniques in addition to light microscopy. Other corrective measures were also implemented. During the studies it was found that trimming of larger filters to fit smaller filter housings introduced cellulose acetate-like particles from the fibers of the filter material. Special, custom made-to-fit filters were used instead. Tools such as forceps that were used to retrieve filters from their housings were also found to introduce fragments onto the filters. It is believed that introduction of such debris may have accounted for the very large number of cellulose acetate and charcoal particles that had been reported in the literature. Use of computerized particle-counting microscopes appeared to result in excessive number of particles. This could be because the filter or smoke pads used for such work do not have the flat and level surfaces ideal for computerized particle-counting microscopes. At the high magnifications that the pads were viewed for particles, constant focusing of the microscope would be essential. It was also found that determination of total particles by using extrapolation of particle count by grid population usually gave extremely high particle counts compared to the actual number of particles present. This could be because particle distributions during smoking are not uniform. Lastly, a less complex estimation of the thickness of the particles was adopted. This and the use of a simple mathematical conversion coupled with the Cox equation were utilized to assess the aerodynamic diameters of the particles. Our findings showed that compared to numbers quoted in the literature, only a small amount of charcoal, cellulose acetate shards, and other particles are released. It was also shown that those particles would have a low likelihood of reaching the lung. PMID:16036754

  9. Antagonistic Bacillus species as a biological control of ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minjae; Yun, Hye Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a biocontrol system for ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum. Methods In total, 392 bacteria isolated from ginseng roots and various soils were screened for their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen, and a bacterial isolate (B2-5) was selected as a promising candidate for the biocontrol because of the strong antagonistic activity of the bacterial cell suspension and culture filtrate against pathogen. Results The bacterial isolate B2-5 displayed an enhanced inhibitory activity against the pathogen mycelial growth with a temperature increase to 25°C, produced no pectinase (related to root rotting) and no critical rot symptoms at low [106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] and high (108 CFU/mL) inoculum concentrations. In pot experiments, pretreatment with the bacterial isolate in the presumed optimal time for disease control reduced disease severity significantly with a higher control efficacy at an inoculum concentration of 106 CFU/mL than at 108 CFU/mL. The establishment and colonization ability of the bacterial isolates on the ginseng rhizosphere appeared to be higher when both the bacterial isolate and the pathogen were coinoculated than when the bacterial isolate was inoculated alone, suggesting its target-oriented biocontrol activity against the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen hyphae were twisted and shriveled by the bacterial treatment, which may be a symptom of direct damage by antifungal substances. Conclusion All of these results suggest that the bacterial isolate has good potential as a microbial agent for the biocontrol of the ginseng root rot caused by F. cf. incarnatum. PMID:24748838

  10. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

  11. The stability and functional properties of charcoal in Ghanaian agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Tom; Sohi, Saran

    2014-05-01

    Weathering of biochar will lead to its eventual mineralisation to CO2, but how does this happen and how quickly will the biochar break down? This study focuses on the fate of charcoal, as an analogue for biochar, over a ten year period in rural Ghana. The objectives of the work were to determine the stability of charcoal over this timeframe, the change in its functional properties and to calibrate or validate recently established approaches to age biochar artificially. The study showed that the oxygen-to-carbon ratio of charcoal surfaces generally increases over time. Gradually the oxidation penetrates the subsurface layers, causing surface layers to erode and exposing previously un-aged surfaces to degradation.

  12. Treatment of quinine overdosage with repeated oral charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, L F; Hamilton, A R; Heyworth, R

    1989-01-01

    In five symptomatic patients with acute quinine poisoning the mean admission plasma concentration was 11.1 mg l-1. After treatment with repeated oral charcoal 50 g 4 hourly, plasma quinine concentrations fell rapidly with a mean half-life of 8.1 +/- 1.1 h (s.d.) compared with more than 24 h in a previous report in similarly poisoned patients. The visual impairment which was expected in a patient with cardiotoxicity and a plasma quinine concentration of 12.6 mg l-1 did not occur, but late treatment with charcoal was of no obvious benefit in another patient who was already blind. Repeated oral charcoal has been shown to increase the rate of elimination of a therapeutic dose of quinine in healthy volunteers. It appears to be the only practical means of enhancing the removal of this drug after overdosage and should reduce the risk of potentially disastrous complications. PMID:2706192

  13. Isoniazid overdose: pharmacokinetics and effects of oral charcoal in treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefkin, A D; Albertson, T E; Corbett, M G

    1987-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of isoniazid following overdose in two patients is described. One patient was treated with haemodialysis for seizures and persistent coma without obvious immediate clinical improvement. In addition, three volunteer subjects were given isoniazid orally on two separate occasions. Isoniazid elimination pharmacokinetics were determined with and without concominant charcoal. Oral activated charcoal totally prevented the absorption of isoniazid. Current recommendations for treatment of isoniazid overdoses include intravenous pyridoxine (one gram IV pyridoxine for each gram of ingested isoniazid), intravenous diazepam or phenobarbital for continued seizures, and gastric decontamination with lavage and activated charcoal (1 g/kg). Extraordinary measures such as early haemodialysis and haemoperfusion should be reserved for those patients with persistent coma or refractory seizures. PMID:3692494

  14. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  15. Heparin-cellulose-charcoal composites for drug detoxification prepared using room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Joon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Simmons, Trevor J; Martin, Jeffrey G; Mousa, Shaker A; Snezhkova, Elisaveta A; Sarnatskaya, Veronika V; Nikolaev, Vladimir G; Linhardt, Robert J

    2008-10-28

    We report novel heparin-cellulose-charcoal composites prepared using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) to enhance the biocompatibility and blood compatibility of activated charcoal beads while decreasing the size of their active pores. PMID:18931773

  16. Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal

    E-print Network

    Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

    2006-01-01

    In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

  17. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance the resistance of peach fruit to brown rot.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zengxin; Yang, Lingyu; Yan, Haixia; Kennedy, John F; Meng, Xianghong

    2013-04-15

    The effects of chitosan and oligachitosan on resistance induction of peach fruit against brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola were investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan showed significant effect on controlling this disease. Moreover, chitosan and oligochitosan delayed fruit softening and senescence. The two antifungal substances enhanced antioxidant and defense-related enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ?-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI), and they also stimulated the transcript expression of POD and GLU. These findings suggest that the effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on disease control and quality maintenance of peach fruit may be associated with their antioxidant property and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. PMID:23544538

  18. Charcoal's physical properties are key to understanding its environmental behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, Caroline; Brewer, Catherine; Dugan, Brandon; Liu, Zuolin; Gonnermann, Helge; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Davies, Christian; Panzacchi, Pietro; Gao, Xiaodong; Pyle, Lacey

    2014-05-01

    Charcoal is a highly porous, low density material whose physical properties play a key role in its soil behavior and its environmental fate. In considering biochar, some of its most sought-after environmental effects are a result of its physical characteristics, not its chemical or biological properties. For example, the ability of biochar to retain soil water is widely attributed to its porosity. However, charcoal physical properties are so poorly understood that they are sometimes not characterized at all in the current literature. Here we outline a suite of basic physical properties of charcoal and the likely environmental effects of their variations, with a focus on the interactions between charcoal and water. The most basic physical property of charcoal, its particle size, likely plays a role in its ability to alter the rate of drainage in soils. Particle morphology is also relevant, affecting how particles of soil and char can pack together. Bulk densities of charcoal and soil mixtures can be used to generate a simple estimate of the efficiency of char-soil packing. Charcoal density is an additionally important property and can be measured in a number of ways. Density almost certainly controls the tendency of chars to sink or float, and to erode or remain on the land surface. However, charcoal density can vary by almost a factor of 10 depending on the measurement technique used. We discuss two simple techniques available for measuring char density and the value of information provided by each approach. Finally, we report a simple, fast technique to measure total char porosity, including all pores from nanometers to 10s of micrometers in size. Porosity is at least one of the key controls on the ability of biochar to improve plant-available water, and techniques to measure it have previously been limited to the smallest fraction of pores (N2 sorption) or have required expensive, hazardous procedures (Hg porosimetry). We show that char porosity varies primarily as a function of feedstock and secondarily as a function of pyrolysis conditions.

  19. Predicting the efficiency of activated charcoal for filtering radon

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E.; Christensen, R.N. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In order to accurately assess the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of radon from flowing air, a literature survey was performed to identify the models and relevant data that were available. It was found that by modifying the mathematical model of equilibrium stage theory used by Strong and Levins, the output rate of an activated charcoal filter exposed to a step function input in the radon rate at time zero with a given carrier gas flow velocity could be predicted. This paper outlines the modifications made to Strong and Levins's model and presents predictions for the filter output from the modified model.

  20. RECYCLE AND REUSE OF CHARCOAL MADE FROM EXCESS SLUDGE IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun

    Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

  1. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  2. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to the charcoal that is produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile organic co...

  3. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  4. Impacts upon soil quality and plant growth of bamboo charcoal addition to composted sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Hua; Yingxu Chen; Weixiang Wu

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the effects of bamboo charcoal on soil contaminant accumulation, soil fertility and plant growth were investigated. The results indicated that sludge composted with bamboo charcoal (BCS) significantly increased plant growth and decreased the mobility of Zn, Cu and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), compared with the composted sludge without bamboo charcoal (CS), with lower absorption and less accumulation

  5. 5. CHARCOAL AS A FIRE PROXY CATHY WHITLOCK (whitlock@oregon.uoregon.edu)

    E-print Network

    Whitlock, Cathy L.

    5. CHARCOAL AS A FIRE PROXY CATHY WHITLOCK (whitlock@oregon.uoregon.edu) Department of Geography, SUNY Buffalo NY 14261-0023 USA Keywords: charcoal analysis, fire history, lake-sediment records Introduction Charcoal analysis of lake sediments is used to reconstruct long-term variations in fire occur

  6. Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus"

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus" Johannes Lehmann1 * and Saran Sohi2 Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only

  7. Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence

    E-print Network

    Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence and area burned Montana State University, USA Abstract Reconstructing specific fire-history metrics with charcoal records has been difficult, in part because calibration data sets are rare.We calibrated charcoal accumulation

  8. Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire in the Swiss Alps Á Abstract: The correct interpretation of charcoal records in a palaeoecological context requires the understanding of the sources and transport of charcoal particles. Conventionally, it is assumed that macroscopic

  9. Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 17901809 Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal records

    E-print Network

    Higuera, Philip E.

    Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 1790­1809 Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal; received in revised form 15 March 2007; accepted 21 March 2007 Abstract Interpreting sediment-charcoal records is challenging because there is little information linking charcoal production from fires

  10. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER (PROJECT SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simu-lator was constructed and tested to de-termine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that pro-duced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile or-ganic ...

  11. Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences between Abstract To evaluate the influence of long-distance transport of charcoal particles on the detection of local wildfires from lake sediment sequences, we tracked three consecutive years of charcoal deposition

  12. Properties of charcoal derived from hazelnut shell and the production of briquettes using pyrolytic oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirba?

    1999-01-01

    Hazelnut shells were converted to charcoal and to liquid, and gaseous products using pyrolysis at different temperatures. The chemical compositions and yields of the charcoals were determined as functions of the carbonization temperature. Higher heating values (HHVs) were estimated using both ultimate and proximate analyses. Hazelnut shells and the derived charcoal were densified to briquettes using pyrolytic oil or tar

  13. Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    #12;Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological of charcoal kilns are numerous in the mountain forest areas, whether these are actual or potential, ali over the eastern Pyrenees and in particular in Ariege and in the Catalan mountains. Charcoal kilns can thus be used

  14. Use of charcoal haemoperfusion in the management of severely poisoned patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Vale; A J Rees; B Widdop; R Goulding

    1975-01-01

    The clinical use of uncoated charcoal haemoperfusion systems, despite their efficacy, has hitherto been prevented by the occurrence of a number of adverse effects including charcoal embolism and marked thrombocytopenia. Charcoal coated with a synthetic hydrogel overcomes many of the disadvantages associated with the use of uncoated material in that there is a much reduced thrombocytopenia and no evidence of

  15. Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration

    E-print Network

    Higuera, Philip E.

    Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration with tree manuscript accepted 5 February 2004 Abstract: Interpretations of charcoal records from small hollows lack-history records is unclear. To evaluate this potential, we examined charcoal records in 210 Pb-dated cores from 12

  16. Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal M. Moskal-del Hoyo a,*, M. Wachowiak b,1

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal M. Moskal-del Hoyo a,*, M. Wachowiak b,1 , R February 2010 Keywords: Wood charcoal Fungal attack Biodeterioration Deadwood collection Anthracology Archaeobotany a b s t r a c t During the analysis of wood charcoal remains from archaeological sites

  17. Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Chapter 23 Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon Conversion Efficiencies of Kilns SN Swami, C Steiner, WG Teixeira, and J Lehmann 23.1 Introduction Charcoal 1999) and use of charcoal in agriculture is common in Brazil and widespread in Asia (Steiner et al

  18. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING) - PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  19. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  20. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  1. Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in southern Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Willcox

    1999-01-01

    Charcoal analysis of three archaeological sites in southern Syria in the vicinity of the Jebel al Arab (formerly Jebel Druze) indicates that during the Early Bronze Age an association consisting predominately of Pistacia, deciduous oak and almond was exploited. During the Middle Bronze Age these taxa diminish and are partially replaced by more steppic species or introduced wood such as

  2. Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    An earth system model of intermediate complexity (CLIMate and BiosphERe - CLIMBER-2) and a land surface model (JSBACH), which dynamically represent vegetation, are used to simulate natural fire dynamics through the last 8000 yr. Output variables of the fire model (burned area and fire carbon emissions) are used to compare model results with sediment-based charcoal reconstructions. Several approaches for processing model output are also tested. Charcoal data are reported in Z-scores with a base period of 8000-200 BP in order to exclude the strong anthropogenic forcing of fire during the last two centuries. The model-data comparison reveals a robust correspondence in fire activity for most regions considered, while for a few regions, such as Europe, simulated and observed fire histories show different trends. The difference between modelled and observed fire activity may be due to the absence of anthropogenic forcing (e.g. human ignitions and suppression) in the model simulations, and also due to limitations inherent to modelling fire dynamics. The use of spatial averaging (or Z-score processing) of model output did not change the directions of the trends. However, Z-score-transformed model output resulted in higher rank correlations with the charcoal Z-scores in most regions. Therefore, while both metrics are useful, processing model output as Z-scores is preferable to areal averaging when comparing model results to transformed charcoal records.

  3. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  4. Evaluating Waste Charcoal as Potential Rubber Composite Filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, charcoal in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural products was evaluated as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated styrene-butadiene lat...

  5. Pigeon navigation: Charcoal filter removes relevant information from environmental air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans G. Wallraff; Augusto Foà

    1981-01-01

    Homing pigeons were displaced and kept until they were released in airtight containers ventilated with environmental air that could be passed through: (a) a filter made of fiberglass paper retaining large portions of the solid and liquid aerosol particles, (b) an additional filter consisting of activated charcoal, or (c) no filter (controls). Before its release, each bird was taken out

  6. Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA1

    E-print Network

    Hart, Justin

    ) charcoal, quantified charcoal mass, and radiocarbon-dated charcoal macrofossils in 10 soil cores to develop), a finding that may be evidence of a patchy fire regime in the study area. AMS radiocarbon dating of the five cal yr BP (calibrated years before 1950). Charcoal in surface soils was not dated but one deep sample

  8. Charcoal accumulation following a recent fire in the Cascade Range, northwestern USA, and its relevance for fire-history studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. Gardner; Cathy Whitlock

    2001-01-01

    Stratigraphic records of macroscopic charcoal particles (>125 &mgr;m in diameter) are widely used as a means of reconstructing past fire events, yet fire-history studies rest on assumptions about the processes by which charcoal is transported and deposited in lake sediments. In order to clarify the interpretation of charcoal data, charcoal abundance in sediment cores was examined from 36 lakes within

  9. Size parameters, size-class distribution and area-number relationship of microscopic charcoal: relevance for fire reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willy Tinner; Feng Sheng Hu

    2003-01-01

    Charcoal analysis was conducted on sediment cores from three lakes to assess the relationship between the area and number of charcoal particles. Three charcoal-size parameters (maximum breadth, maximum length and area) were measured on sediment samples representing various vegetation types, including shrub tundra, boreal forest and temperate forest. These parameters and charcoal size-class distributions do not differ statistically between two

  10. Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066

  11. Transgenic potatoes expressing a novel cationic peptide are resistant to late blight and pink rot.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Hancock, Robert E; Kay, William W; Misra, Santosh

    2004-04-01

    Potato is the world's largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy for disease control has become an international imperative. Here we describe a strategy for engineering potato plants exhibiting strong protection against these exceptionally virulent pathogens without deleterious effects on plant yield or vigor. The small, naturally occurring antimicrobial cationic peptide, temporin A, was N-terminally modified (MsrA3) and expressed in potato plants. MsrA3 conveyed strong resistance to late blight and pink rot phytopathogens in addition to the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora. Transgenic tubers remained disease-free during storage for more than 2 years. These results provide a timely, sustainable, effective, and environmentally friendly means of control of potato diseases while simultaneously preventing storage losses. PMID:15198205

  12. Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Tiwari, Rajesh K; Dhawan, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Collar rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed and capsule straw yield per plant, oil and protein content of seeds, peroxidase activity in leaves, morphine content of capsule straw and DSI for collar rot showed high heritability as well as genetic advance. Highly significant negative correlation between DSI and seed yield clearly shows that as the disease progresses in plants, seed yield declines, chiefly due to premature death of infected plants as well as low seed and capsule setting in the survived population of susceptible plants. Similarly, a highly significant negative correlation between peroxidase activity and DSI indicated that marker-assisted selection of disease-resistant plants based on high peroxidase activity would be effective and survived susceptible plants could be removed from the population to stop further spread. PMID:16424606

  13. Epidemiology / pidmiologie Epidemiology of sclerotinia rot of carrot caused by

    E-print Network

    Boland, Greg J.

    and improved management of sclerotinia rot of carrot. Key words: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Daucus carota sclerotiorum, Daucus carota, maladie de la carotte, pourriture humide, pourriture blanche, épi- démiologie

  14. Oral activated charcoal in the treatment of intoxications. Role of single and repeated doses.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, P J; Olkkola, K T

    1988-01-01

    Activated charcoal has an ability to adsorb a wide variety of substances. This property can be applied to prevent the gastrointestinal absorption of various drugs and toxins and to increase their elimination, even after systemic absorption. Single doses of oral activated charcoal effectively prevent the gastrointestinal absorption of most drugs and toxins present in the stomach at the time of charcoal administration. Known exceptions are alcohols, cyanide, and metals such as iron and lithium. In general, activated charcoal is more effective than gastric emptying. However, if the amount of drug or poison ingested is very large or if its affinity to charcoal is poor, the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal can be saturated. In such cases properly performed gastric emptying is likely to be more effective than charcoal alone. Repeated dosing with oral activated charcoal enhances the elimination of many toxicologically significant agents, e.g. aspirin, carbamazepine, dapsone, dextropropoxyphene, cardiac glycosides, meprobamate, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and theophylline. It also accelerates the elimination of many industrial and environmental intoxicants. In acute intoxications 50 to 100g activated charcoal should be administered to adult patients (to children, about 1 g/kg) as soon as possible. The exceptions are patients poisoned with caustic alkalis or acids which will immediately cause local tissue damages. To avoid delays in charcoal administration, activated charcoal should be a part of first-aid kits both at home and at work. The 'blind' administration of charcoal neither prevents later gastric emptying nor does it cause serious adverse effects provided that pulmonary aspiration in obtunded patients is prevented. In severe acute poisonings oral activated charcoal should be administered repeatedly, e.g. 20 to 50g at intervals of 4 to 6 hours, until recovery or until plasma drug concentrations have fallen to non-toxic levels. In addition to increasing the elimination of many drugs and toxins even after their systemic absorption, repeated doses of charcoal also reduce the risk of desorbing from the charcoal-toxin complex as the complex passes through the gastrointestinal tract. Charcoal will not increase the elimination of all substances taken. However, as the drug history in acute intoxications is often unreliable, repeated doses of oral activated charcoal in severe intoxications seem to be justified unless the toxicological laboratory has identified the causative agent as not being prone to adsorption by charcoal. The role of repeated doses of oral activated charcoal in chronic intoxication has not been clearly defined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3285126

  15. Relation of Soil Acidity to Cotton Root Rot.

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1937-01-01

    R79-437-6m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. 13. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BllAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS LLETIN NO. 545 JUNE, 1937 DIVISION OF PLANT PATHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY AND DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY RELATION OF SOIL ACIDITY... TO COTTON ROOT ROT AGRICLZTURAL AND BECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. \\VALTON, President Cotton plants grown in containers of soils varying naturally in hydrogen-ion concentration (a measure of soil acidity) were inocu- lated with cotton root rot...

  16. Impact of Brassicaceae Cover Crops on Pea Root Rot (Aphanomyces

    E-print Network

    .3.1 Soil moisture 15 3.3.2 Soil temperature 15 3.3.3 Soil types 15 3.4 Control of pea root rot 15 3 crop on pea root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches) in subsequent peas Abstract The soil-borne pathogen persist in soil for many years without a host plant and is very difficult to control due to its long

  17. GammaScorpion: mobile gamma-ray tomography system for early detection of basal stem rot in oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Jaafar; Hassan, Hearie; Shari, Mohamad Rabaie; Mohd, Salzali; Mustapha, Mahadi; Mahmood, Airwan Affendi; Jamaludin, Shahrizan; Ngah, Mohd Rosdi; Hamid, Noor Hisham

    2013-03-01

    Detection of the oil palm stem rot disease Ganoderma is a major issue in estate management and production in Malaysia. Conventional diagnostic techniques are difficult and time consuming when using visual inspection, and destructive and expensive when based on the chemical analysis of root or stem tissue. As an alternative, a transportable gamma-ray computed tomography system for the early detection of basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palms due to Ganoderma was developed locally at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang, Malaysia. This system produces high quality tomographic images that clearly differentiate between healthy and Ganoderma infected oil palm stems. It has been successfully tested and used to detect the extent of BSR damage in oil palm plantations in Malaysia without the need to cut down the trees. This method offers promise for in situ inspection of oil palm stem diseases compared to the more conventional methods.

  18. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The result of the current study suggests the superiority of our integrated approach to control the sclerotia forming pathogen R. solani compared to the individual treatment either by an antagonist or by a fungicide or by mustard oil cake. PMID:25595298

  19. Phenolic constituents of Celosia cristata L. susceptible to spinach root rot pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaolin; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Tahara, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    Cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone, 1), known as a host-specific attractant towards the zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides, a cause of root rot and damping-off diseases of Chenopodiaceae, was found in the Amaranthaceae plant, Celosia cristata, that is susceptible to the pathogen. The content of 1 in Celosia seedlings was quantified as 1.4 microg/g fresh weight. A new isoflavone, cristatein (5-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 2), and five known flavonoids were also identified. PMID:17031042

  20. Seed-borne Fungal Diseases of Onion, and their control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuray Özer; N. Desen Köycü

    Aspergillus niger, Botrytis aclada and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae are relevant seed-borne fungi of onion (Allium cepa L.) and are known as causal agents of black mould, neck rot and basal rot diseases, respectively. These pathogens can be transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings, sets or bulbs. They eventually kill the entire plant through degradation of the tissues. Different

  1. DISEASE CONTROL VIA UNDERSTANDING MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum), a self fertile (homothallic) ascomycete, causes wheat head blight and corn ear rot, destructive diseases that impose a serious economic toll on North American farmers. Damage includes both yield loss due to kernel rot and reduced quality resulting fr...

  2. PROFITABLE SOYBEAN DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN OHIO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A summary of disease management strategies for Ohio soybean growers is presented including current information on identification of disease problems, disease resistant soybeans, and agronomic practices for controlling disease. The major diseases of soybeans seed rot and root pathogens include Phytop...

  3. Release of SR98 Sugarbeet Germplasm with High Levels of Resistance to Rhizoctonia Damping-Off, Crown and Root Rot, and Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SR98 (PI 655951) is a sugarbeet germplasm with smooth, low soil tare root and high levels of resistance to damping-off and crown and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG2-2). Previous smooth–root releases have been highly susceptible to diseases caused by R. solani, and the SR98 has incorporate...

  4. Biocontrol agents in combination with Moringa oleifera extract for integrated control of Sclerotium-caused cowpea damping-off and stem rot

    E-print Network

    , Trichoderma harzia- num, Vigna unguiculata Abstract Damping-off and stem rot disease-causing Sclerotium, Trichoderma Kd 63, Trichoderma IITA 508 and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated as seed treatments, soil drench/v). Seed treatments using Trichoderma Kd 63, and soil sprinkle using Trichoderma IITA 508 had

  5. ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

  6. Registration of D95-5048 Soybean Germplasm Line Resistant to Phytophthora Rot and Soybean Cyst Nematode Races 3 and 14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean germplasm line D95-5048 was released in May 2005. The objective was to provide private and public soybean breeders with a parent to develop high yielding, multiple pest resistant cultivars. Phytophthora rot (PR) and soybean cyst nematode (SCN) continue to be serious yield-limiting diseases...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF PCR-BASED SCAR MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHOMA SCLEROTIODES, THE CAUSE OF BROWN ROOT ROT OF ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown root rot of forage legumes is caused by the soilborne fungal organism Phoma sclerotioides. The disease has caused severe mortality rates in alfalfa crops grown in southwest Wyoming. In order to circumvent the lengthy process required for proper identification of the pathogen, a fast and effi...

  8. Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koutb, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition. PMID:23956668

  9. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. PMID:25560914

  10. Integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.

    PubMed

    Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control. PMID:22580305

  11. Contact burn by charcoal in an attempted suicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y Ying; W. S Ho

    2001-01-01

    A 23-yr-old lady was inadvertently burned during an attempted suicide. After quarrelling with her boyfriend, she attempted to commit suicide by using alcohol, benzodiazepine and burning charcoal within her sealed bedroom. Her left leg fell over the edge of the bed while she was half-conscious, that resulted in direct contact with the hot pot causing 1% full thickness burn and

  12. On the Palladium-On-Charcoal Disproportionate of Rosin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhan-Qian Song; Eugene Zavarin; Duane F. Zinkel

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the composition of gum rosin during disproportionate in the presence of 5% palladium-on-charcoal have been determined by gas chromatography. The principal reaction product was dehydro-abietic acid. The exocyclic vinyl group of the pimaric\\/isopimaric-type resin acids was hydrogenated completely. Only a small amount of dihydroabietic acids was formed. Eight dihydro resin acids were identified. No tetrahydro resin acids were

  13. Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Marlon, Jennifer; Power, Mitch

    2014-05-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes. Brücher, T., Brovkin, V., Kloster, S., Marlon, J. R., and Power, M. J.: Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 6429-6458, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-6429-2013, 2013.

  14. Adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad J. Iqbal; Muhammad N. Ashiq

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption of industrially important dyes namely bromophenol blue, alizarine red-S, methyl blue, methylene blue, eriochrome black-T, malachite green, phenol red and methyl violet from aqueous media on activated charcoal has been investigated. The effect of shaking time, pH and temperature on the adsorption behaviour of these dyes has been studied. It was noted that adsorption of all the dyes on

  15. The charcoal effect in Boreal forests: mechanisms and ecological consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Wardle; O. Zackrisson; M.-C. Nilsson

    1998-01-01

    Wildfire is the principal disturbance regime in northern Boreal forests, where it has important rejuvenating effects on soil\\u000a properties and encourages tree seedling regeneration and growth. One possible agent of this rejuvenation is fire-produced\\u000a charcoal, which adsorbs secondary metabolites such as humus phenolics produced by ericaceous vegetation in the absence of\\u000a fire, which retard nutrient cycling and tree seedling growth.

  16. Apparatus for converting paper mill waste sludge into charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1993-08-31

    In apparatus for the production of charcoal from a mixture of wood and waste sludge from a paper mill, the apparatus is described comprising: (a) a furnace having an inlet for the reception of wood; a chimney for the release of hot gases from the furnace, and an outlet for charcoal; (b) a grinding mill having an inlet for the reception of the waste sludge and an outlet for ground sludge; (c) a cyclone separator having an inlet, a gaseous outlet and an outlet for solids; (d) a system of conduits inter-connecting said furnace, said cyclone separator, and said grinding mill in which hot gases from said furnace chimney are conducted to said grinding mill for initiating the drying of the waste sludge, the gases and ground waste sludge are conducted to said cyclone separator inlet for the separation of the gases from the ground waste sludge; and said system further including (e) blower means having an inlet connected to said cyclone separator gaseous outlet for effecting the movement of the hot furnace gases through said grinding mill, and said blower having an outlet for returning the gases to said furnace; (f) ground waste sludge conveying means connected between said cyclone separator and said furnace for depositing the ground waste sludge in said furnace; and (g) conveying means connected to said furnace outlet for removing the charcoal generated in said furnace.

  17. Charcoal production from wood and cellulose: implications to radiocarbon dates and accelerator target production

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, S.W.; Donahue, D.J.; Long, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the direct pyrolysis of wood (Juniperus monosperma) in vacuo, charcoal yields between 25% and 40% were obtained at temperatures of greater than 300 degrees C in runs of 35 minutes, and /sup 13/C fractionation as determined from the difference between the delta/sup 13/C of the wood and charcoal amounted to approximately -2.5%. Pyrolysis of holocellulose (I) to charcoal in vacuo or in a flowing Ar atm. resulted in the production of charcoal in a yield between 25% and 40% and /sup 13/C fractionation of 0.6-0.8%. Experiments on pyrolysis of I in sealed, evacuated tubes indicated that the charcoal yields of less than or equal to 60% and fractionation of approximately -0.5% were obtained at temperatures of 550-600 degrees C. Reheating of charcoal under the vacuum revealed no loss of mass and no alteration of C isotopic composition.

  18. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering. PMID:23599492

  19. Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

  20. ON THE \\ grad div + s curl rot" OPERATOR DANIELE BOFFI (1) AND LUCIA GASTALDI (2)

    E-print Network

    Gastaldi, Lucia

    ON THE \\ grad div + s curl rot" OPERATOR DANIELE BOFFI (1) AND LUCIA GASTALDI (2) (1) Dipartimento the term s curl rot u is understood as a penalization parameter. 1 #12; 2 DANIELE BOFFI AND LUCIA GASTALDI

  1. Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

  2. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...

  3. Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

    2006-01-01

    Charcoal has numerous physical and chemical properties that allow it to influence a variety of ecological processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate how several ecological properties of charcoal vary as a function of formation temperature and the source of woody material from which it is formed in ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa\\/Psuedotsuga menziesii) ecosystems. We generated charcoal in

  4. Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Pennise; Kirk R. Smith; Jacob P. Kithinji; Maria Emilia Rezende; Tulio Jardim Raad; Junfeng Zhang; Chengwei Fan

    2001-01-01

    Airborne emissions from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in Kenya and Brazil were measured during typical operating conditions. Emission factors were determined for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total nonmethane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total suspended particulates (TSP) along with charcoal production efficiency and charcoal and fuelwood carbon and energy contents. The conversion of

  5. Differential regulation of defense-related gene expression in response to red rot pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum infection in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Prathima, P T; Raveendran, M; Kumar, K K; Rahul, P R; Kumar, V Ganesh; Viswanathan, R; Sundar, A Ramesh; Malathi, P; Sudhakar, D; Balasubramaniam, P

    2013-09-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum imposing a considerable economic loss annually in all sugarcane-producing countries. In this study, we analyzed the early resistance response of sugarcane to red rot fungus by comparing the differences between control and inoculated stalk tissues. Differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DD-RT-PCR) was employed to identify altered expression of genes in disease-resistant cv Co 93009, in response to pathogen infection. DD-RT-PCR identified 300 differentially expressed transcripts of which 112 were selected for further analysis. Cloning and sequence analysis of the isolated cDNA fragments resulted in functional categorization of these clones into five categories, of which the defense/stress/signaling group was the largest, with clones homologous to genes known to be actively involved in various pathogenesis-related functions in plant species. This group showed overexpression of several transcripts related to ethylene-mediated and jasmonic acid pathway of plant defense mechanisms. Of the 112 expressed sequence tags, validation of expression was carried out for five important genes whose role in plant defense mechanisms is well established. This is the first report of Colletotrichum-mediated gene regulation in sugarcane which has provided a set of candidate genes for detailed molecular dissection of signaling and defense responses in tropical sugarcane during the onset of red rot resistance. PMID:23861092

  6. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  7. [Theophylline poisoning in childhood: depurative therapy using a combination of activated charcoal and a saline cathartic].

    PubMed

    Chiossi, M; Rosati, U; Renna, S; Lattere, M; De Santis, L

    1989-10-01

    The Authors describe two cases of theophylline poisoning and discuss advantages of activated charcoal and magnesium hydroxide therapy. This treatment seems to be better in patients for whom hemoperfusion could be delayed. In fact, activated charcoal can determine a real decrease in serum theophylline as experimental data show. Patients who overdose with slow release theophylline preparation should receive multiple oral doses of activated charcoal; they should also receive multiple oral doses of cathartic, both saline or sorbitol like. There is a lack of references about the activated charcoal plus magnesium hydroxide regimen particularly in childhood. The Authors discuss their own experience. PMID:2615728

  8. Recovery and Determination of Adsorbed Technetium on Savannah River Site Charcoal Stack Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, Kristy G.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Farmer, Orville T.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2008-03-01

    Experimental results are provided for the sample analyses for technetium (Tc) in charcoal samples placed in-line with a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing stack effluent stream as a part of an environmental surveillance program. The method for Tc removal from charcoal was based on that originally developed with high purity charcoal. Presented is the process that allowed for the quantitative analysis of 99Tc in SRS charcoal stack samples with and without 97Tc as a tracer. The results obtained with the method using the 97Tc tracer quantitatively confirm the results obtained with no tracer added. All samples contain 99Tc at the pg g-1 level.

  9. Charcoal morphometry for paleoecological analysis: The effects of fuel type and transportation on morphological parameters1

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Alastair J.; Belcher, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. • Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. • Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. • Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems. PMID:25202644

  10. Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

  11. Soybean fungal soil-borne diseases: a parameter for measuring the effect of agricultural intensification on soil health.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Brandán, C; Huidobro, J; Grümberg, B; Scandiani, M M; Luque, A G; Meriles, J M; Vargas-Gil, S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of agricultural intensification on soil microbial diversity, chemical and physical parameters, and the decrease of the incidence of sudden death syndrome (Fusarium crassistipitatum) and charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) in soybean. Soils under different management systems were evaluated during 2 crop cycles: soybean monoculture for 24 and 11 years, soybean-maize rotation for 15 and 4 years, 1 year of soybean, and native vegetation. The incidence of both soil-borne diseases was higher under monoculture than under rotation. Increased populations of potential biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp., fluorescent pseudomonads) were associated with rotation treatments, especially in 2010-2011. The comparison of agricultural vs. native vegetation soil and the average of agricultural cycles showed that microbial biomass carbon and glomalin-related soil protein were higher in the rotation system than in monoculture (50% and 77%, respectively). Furthermore, from the community-level functional diversity (Biolog Eco plates), McIntosh index showed lower functional diversity in monoculture than in rotation and native vegetation plots. Agricultural intensification reduced microbial biomass carbon, glomalin-related soil protein, organic matter, total nitrogen, aggregate stability, and yield, and increased bulk density. Soil quality degradation was associated with the establishment of soil-borne pathogens and increased soybean plant susceptibility to disease. PMID:24498984

  12. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 2; The effect of contaminants on the CH sub 3 I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Research Co., Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Research Chemistry Branch Pinawa, Manitob, R0E 1L0 (CA))

    1991-05-01

    The effect of various contaminants, namely NO{sub 2} SO{sub 2}, 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)), and NH{sub 3}, on the radioiodine removal efficiency of triethylenediamine (TEDA)-impregnated charcoal filters has been studied, and an attempt was made to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The effects of the contaminants on the CH{sub 3}I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal under dry and humid conditions are described. Based on our results, the efficiency of TEDA charcoal is degraded most by NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} has a negligible effect, and MEK produces a mild degradation. The degree of degradation parallels the contaminant's ability to be chemisorbed on the TEDA impregnant. The combined effect of water vapor and a contaminant of the charcoal efficiency is different for each contaminant. Nitrogen dioxide absorbed under dry conditions is more effective in degrading the CH{sub 2}I removal efficiency of the charcoal that when absorbed under humid conditions. On the other hand, a completely opposite result is observed for SO{sub 2}. The MEK contaminant behaves similarly to SO{sub 2} but the effect of humidity was less significant than for SO{sub 2}. Ammonia has no effect on the efficiency of the charcoal regardless of humidity.

  13. Selenium Induces Manganese-dependent Peroxidase Production by the White-Rot Fungus Bjerkandera adusta

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Selenium Induces Manganese-dependent Peroxidase Production by the White-Rot Fungus Bjerkandera, selenium (Se) induction of the ligninolytic enzyme manganese- dependent peroxidase (MnP) production-rot fungi. Keywords Lipid peroxidation . Manganese peroxidase . Selenium . White-rot fungi Abbreviations Ag

  14. BEET ROOT-ROT INDUCING ISOLATES OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM FROM COLORADO AND MONTANA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, a rot of the root top of sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum has been confirmed only in Texas, USDA, to date. Isolates of Fusarium were obtained from beets with tip rot symptoms from Montana and Colorado. Isolates were identified and tested for pathogenicity on sugar beet. ...

  15. White rot fungi and their role in remediating oil-contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. El-Nawawy; M. T. Balba; N. Al-Awadhi

    1998-01-01

    White rot fungi, which utilize lignin as an energy source, possess the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants using peroxidases enzymes. This ability led to several studies that focused on the development of bio-treatment systems using white rot fungi. Three strains of white rot fungi, namely Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Coriolus versicolor, have been tested for

  16. Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...

  17. The salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine.

    PubMed

    Goudeau, Danielle M; Parker, Craig T; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia; Brandl, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

  18. The Salmonella Transcriptome in Lettuce and Cilantro Soft Rot Reveals a Niche Overlap with the Animal Host Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Goudeau, Danielle M.; Parker, Craig T.; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

  19. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications 18 January 2010 Keywords: biomass burning carbon cycle charcoal black carbon climate human impact and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after thermal and chemical oxidative treatments

  20. The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

    1995-12-31

    White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

  1. Biocontrol agents in combination with Moringa oleifera extract for integrated control of Sclerotium caused cowpea damping-off and stem rot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Adandonon; T. A. S. Aveling; N. Labuschagne; M. Tamo

    2006-01-01

    Damping-off and stem rot disease-causing Sclerotium rolfsii has been reported as a destructive soil-borne pathogen of numerous crops, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Trials were conducted to test the efficacy of biocontrol agents alone or combined with Moringa\\u000a oleifera leaf extracts for the control of the disease. In the laboratory, PDA was amended with Moringa leaf extract, and mycelial

  2. Detection of hidden pre-industrial charcoal kilns by high-resolution LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decade, systematic archaeological excavations in the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany) have revealed one of the largest, archaeologically excavated pre-industrial charcoal production area in Central Europe. Many of the charcoal kiln relics are easy to detect by survey as they lie close to the surface and charcoal pieces hint on their existence. In the excavations the remains of the charcoal kilns are distinct, black circles in the light-coloured sands. To date, in the former Königlich-Taubendorfer Forst c. 800 remains of charcoal hearths have been excavated and documented by archaeologists in an area of about 20 km2. Further c. 300 charcoal hearths are prospected by survey. Unfortunately, the spatial information about the charcoal kiln sites in Lower Lusatia (and elsewhere) is incomplete since we only have data from the archaeological excavation and prospection in the directly affected mining district. To fill this gap, we decided to test the applicability of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data for charcoal kiln prospection. The particularly improved quality of the recent high-resolution light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enabled the computer-aided detection of charcoal kilns and their evaluation using a geographical information system (GIS). Following data processing, the charcoal kilns are visible as buttons-like shapes in the shaded-relief maps (SRM). The characteristic shapes arise because the kiln plates are some centimetres to decimetres higher than the ditches around them. Numerous ground checks confirmed the applicability of the prospection by ALS data. But, we also assume that c. 10% of the charcoal kilns remain unidentified. A 26.6 km2 study area in the Tauerscher Forst, a forest about 10 km northwest of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde, was selected for prospection using a 1 m resolution ALS data set from the year 2011. Today, the area is forested with pine, and no archaeological excavation has been carried out so far. In the study area 2300 charcoal kiln sites can be clearly identified and 261 more features are ambiguous. Together with the excavated and prospected sites in the Königlich-Taubendorfer Forst we now have proof of at least 3400 circular charcoal kilns with diameters up to 18 metres. However, the study area represents only a very small part of Lower Lusatia and an even smaller portion of the North German Lowland - both areas of potential charcoal kiln findings. We thus conclude that historical charcoal production sites are underestimated components of modern landscapes and that most of these sites are hidden legacies which are not detected so far due to destruction and/or the lack of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM).

  3. Effectiveness of commercially available aqueous activated charcoal products.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P; Heller, M B

    1987-12-01

    A human research project was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of five commercially available aqueous activated charcoal products in 25-g amounts--Acta-Char, Actidose-Aqua, Insta-Char, Liqui-Char, and Super-Char. Seven healthy adult human fasting volunteers participated. The study was double-blinded and subjects served as their own controls. Aspirin 2,592 mg was administered to each subject in the control phase to establish baseline aspirin absorption as measured by serial serum salicylate levels. During each of the five study phases 2,592 mg aspirin and a specific brand of activated charcoal were administered to the subjects and serial serum salicylate levels were drawn. Aspirin absorption was calculated using the trapezoidal rule for measuring the area under the concentration-time curve. Total aspirin absorption was reduced as follows: Super-Char, 57.76%; Actidose-Aqua, 50.42%; Insta-Char, 39.55%; Liqui-Char, 33.40%; and Acta-Char, 27.46%. Although there were large apparent differences in the adsorptive capacities of the products, the only statistically significant difference was between Super-Char and Acta-Char. The failure to show statistical differences in the face of large apparent differences may have been a reflection of type II beta error due to the small sample size. The most common factor responsible for the apparent differences in the adsorptive capacities of the products was most likely the surface area of the activated charcoals that were used. The higher surface area products, Super-Char (3,150 m2/g) and Actidose-Aqua (1,500 m2/g) prevented the absorption of aspirin more effectively than the other three products that had surface areas of 950 m2/g. PMID:3688595

  4. Comparing modeled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruecher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes.

  5. Uncertainty evaluation in radon concentration measurement using charcoal canister.

    PubMed

    Panteli?, G; Savkovi?, M Eremi?; Zivanovi?, M; Nikoli?, J; Raja?i?, M; Todorovi?, D

    2014-05-01

    Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. The contributions to the final measurement uncertainty are identi?ed, based on the equation for radon activity concentration calculation. Different methods for setting the region of interest for gamma spectrometry of canisters were discussed and evaluated. The obtained radon activity concentration and uncertainties do not depend on peak area determination method. PMID:24444699

  6. Flowrate effects upon adsorption in a charcoal sampling tube

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Fredric Newell

    1984-01-01

    Darby all provided technical and editor1al assistance towards ensuring clar1ty and cons1stency in this written work. His expert1se in fluid flow in packed beds made Dr. Darby invaluable in that specific aspect of the research. Mr. Richard Melcher... ) N. C. Ellis (Head of Department) May 1984 Flowrate Effects Upon Adsorption in a Charcoal Sampling Tube. (May 1984) Fredric Newell Bolton, B. S, , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Richard B. Konzen, Ph. D. Sixty 150 mg 20...

  7. The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Underhill, D.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Lu, Xing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Haiyan; Pan, Ruqian; Tian, Jiang; Li, Shuxian; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. Principal Findings We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. Conclusions Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils. PMID:22442737

  9. Screening of white-rot fungi for their ability to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martens; F. Zadrazil

    1998-01-01

    Soil samples from an agricultural field contaminated with 10 ppm14C-benz(a)anthracene in glass tubes were brought into contact with cultures of wood-rotting fungi, precultivated on wheat straw substrate.\\u000a Forty-five strains of white-rot fungi and four brown-rot fungi were tested for their ability to colonize the soil and to mineralize14C-benz(a)anthracene to14CO2 within a 20-week incubation time. Twenty-two white-rot fungi and all brown-rot

  10. Diversity study on Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikks., the causal agent of clover rot in red clover crops (Trifolium pratense L.).

    PubMed

    Vleugels, T; Baert, J; De Riek, J; Heungens, K; Malengier, M; Cnops, G; Van Bockstaele, E

    2010-01-01

    Since the 16th century, red clover has been an important crop in Europe. Since the 1940s, the European areal of red clover has been severely reduced, due to the availability of chemical fertilizers and the growing interest in maize. Nowadays there is a growing interest in red clover again, although some setbacks still remain. An important setback is the low persistence of red clover crops. Clover rot, caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss., is a major disease in Europe and reduces the persistence of red clover crops severely. The fungus infects clover plants through ascospores in the autumn, the disease develops during the winter and early spring and can kill many plants in this period. In early spring, black sclerotia, serving as surviving bodies, are formed on infected plants. Sclerotia can survive up to 7 years in the soil (Ohberg, 2006). The development of clover rot is highly dependent on the weather conditions: a humid fall, necessary for the germination of the ascospores and an overall warm winter with short periods of frost are favourable for the disease. Cold and dry winters slow the mycelial growth down too much and prevent the disease from spreading. Clover rot is difficult to control and completely resistant red clover varieties have yet to be developed. Because of the great annual variation in disease severity, plant breeders cannot use natural infection as an effective means to screen for resistant material. Breeding for resistant cultivars is being slowed down by the lack of a bio-test usable in breeding programs. When applying artificial infections, it is necessary to have an idea of the diversity of the pathogen. A diverse population will require resistance screening with multiple isolates. The objective of this research is to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates from the pathogen S. trifoliorum from various European countries. We assessed diversity using a species identification test based on the sequence of the beta-tubulin gene, vegetative compatibility grouping and AFLP. PMID:21534473

  11. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  12. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

  13. Notes and Discussion Legacy of Charcoaling in a Western Highland Rim Forest in Tennessee

    E-print Network

    Hart, Justin

    of post-European settlement landscapes throughout the Eastern Deciduous Forest Region (Raup, 1966; CrononNotes and Discussion Legacy of Charcoaling in a Western Highland Rim Forest in Tennessee ABSTRACT.--Forests for a forest on the Western Highland Rim in Tennessee. Fires used in hearths to produce charcoal were intense

  14. Constraints on the enhancement of elimination of drugs with activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Turk, J; Aks, S E; Hryhorczuk, D O

    1993-12-01

    Both extracorporeal hemoperfusion through charcoal-containing columns and repeated oral administration of charcoal can accelerate clearance of some drugs or toxins from the systemic circulation. The efficacy of these 2 interventions is limited by a variety of factors, and the complex kinetic equations describing charcoal-induced clearance provide little practical clinical guidance about the potential efficacy of charcoal in accelerating clearance of a specific drug or toxin without previous empiric data. We derive here simple rules that place an upper limit on the maximal fraction of an absorbed dose of drug that can be removed (FRmax) by charcoal in terms of the volume of distribution (Vd), a parameter which is known for most drugs. For 4 h of hemoperfusion, a theoretical upper limit of FRmax is (1/Vd), where Vd is expressed in L/kg of body weight, and actual fractional removal (FR) will not exceed [1/(2 x Vd)]. Drug removal by 24 h of repeated po administration of charcoal exhibits similar relationships between FRmax and Vd, when charcoal-induced clearance derives primarily from removal of drug from blood perfusing in gastrointestinal mucosa. These relationships offer a simple means to evaluate the potential efficacy of acceleration of drug clearance by activated charcoal for drugs with a known value for Vd, and the relationships indicate that such interventions are impractical for drugs with very large values for Vd, such as tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:8303814

  15. Effects of carbonization parameters of Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal on capturing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsing; Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000(°)C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000(°)C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorpt on capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

  16. Evolution, adaptation and survival: the very slow death of the American charcoal iron industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Schallenberg

    1975-01-01

    The last charcoal iron blast furnace in the United States shut down in 1945. The most obvious reason for the extraordinary longevity of this industry was the almost unlimited supply of virgin timber in the United States. Although an obvious explanation, it is deceptive. The much more crucial reason for the longevity of the American charcoal iron industry was the

  17. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2?h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

  18. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Kharbat, E.; Goplakrishnan, C.

    1992-12-01

    Digital image processing, is employed in this remarch study in order to visually investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated char/coal particles as well as the effect of interactivecombustion in two-particle char/coal arrays. Preliminary experiments are conducted on miniature isolated candles as well as two-candle arrays.

  19. Carbon Sequestration and Fertility after Centennial Time Scale Incorporation of Charcoal into Soil

    PubMed Central

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m?2) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m?2). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters’ estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

  20. Sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron in soils amended with charcoal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2006-11-01

    Charcoal derived from the partial combustion of vegetation is ubiquitous in soils and sediments and can potentially sequester organic contaminants. To examine the role of charcoal in the sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron pesticide in soil, synthetic charcoals were produced through carbonization of red gum (Eucalyptus spp.) wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (referred to as charcoals BC450 and BC850, respectively, in this paper). Pore size distribution analyses revealed that BC850 contained mainly micropores (pores approximately 0.49 nm mean width), whereas BC450 was essentially not a microporous material. Short-term equilibration (< 24 h) tests were conducted to measure sorption and desorption of diuron in a soil amended with various amounts of charcoals of both types. The sorption coefficients, isotherm nonlinearity, and apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis markedly increased with increasing content of charcoal in the soil, more prominently in the case of BC850, presumably due to the presence of micropores and its relatively higher specific surface area. The degree of apparent sorption-desorption hystersis (hysteresis index) showed a good correlation with the micropore volume of the charcoal-amended soils. This study indicates that the presence of small amounts of charcoal produced at high temperatures (e.g., interior of wood logs during a fire) in soil can have a marked effect on the release behavior of organic compounds. Mechanisms of this apparent hysteretic behavior need to be further investigated. PMID:17061832

  1. How to Collect Archaeological Wood and Charcoal for Dendrochronological (Tree-Ring) Analysis

    E-print Network

    Manning, Sturt

    1 How to Collect Archaeological Wood and Charcoal for Dendrochronological (Tree-Ring) Analysis and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University analyzes wood and charcoal from archaeological as you can if different timbers or samples are found. More is always best in dendrochronology: it allows

  2. A simple method for microtome sectioning of prehistoric charcoal specimens, embedded in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Igersheim; O. Cichocki

    1996-01-01

    A simple method for microtome sectioning of prehistoric charcoal, embedded in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, HEMA (= glycol methacrylate, GMA), is described in detail. Procedures for dehydrating, embedding, polymerization and sectioning are, with the exception of some modifications due to the specific texture of charcoal and the relatively large size of the specimens, identical with those used for recent botanical specimens. The

  3. ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM CHARCOAL LIGHTER FLUID AND REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. ...

  4. Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

    1991-08-01

    The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

  5. Comparison of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in prevention of drug absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Neuvonen; M. Vartiainen; O. Tokola

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in the prevention of drug absorption was studied in 6 healthy adult volunteers, using a randomized, cross-over design. Paracetamol 1000 mg, tetracycline 500 mg and aminophylline 350 mg were ingested on an empty stomach with 100 ml water. Then, after 5 or 30 min, the subjects ingested, either activated charcoal suspension (50

  6. Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

  7. Effect of activated charcoal on absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone, carbamazepine and phenylbutazone in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Neuvonen; E. Elonen

    1980-01-01

    The effect of activated charcoal, given as a water suspension, on the absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone 200 mg, carbamazepine 400 mg and phenylbutazone 200 mg, was studied in five healthy volunteers, using a randomized crossover design. Absorption of the drugs was almost completely prevented (more than 95%) when charcoal 50 g was ingested within five minutes of taking the

  8. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 1; The adsorption and desorption behavior of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Research Co., Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Research Chemistry Branch Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (CA))

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on triethylenediamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoals, used in nuclear reactors to safeguard against the release of airborne radioiodine, which show high efficiency under various reactor operation and accident conditions when the are new. However, during normal operation, charcoal filters are continuously degraded (or weathered) due to the adsorption of moisture and other air contaminants. The effect of weathering on the efficiency of charcoal for removing radioiodine is of great interest. The results of a study on the adsorption behavior of various contaminants NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK)) and NH{sub 3} on TEDA charcoal are presented. This study is an attempt to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The adsorption and desorption of characteristics of these contaminants range from completely irreversible (NO{sub 2}) to completely reversible (NH{sub 3}). The effect of absorbed water (or humidity) on absorption is different for each contaminant. Absorbed water increases the absorption rate and capacity of TEDA charcoal for NO{sub 2}. However, it appears that SO{sub 2} is absorbed as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the wet charcoal. Absorbed water slightly reduces the adsorption capacity of the charcoal for MEK, but does not affect the absorption of NH{sub 3}.

  9. Fine-mapping of qRfg2, a QTL for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongfeng; Liu, Yongjie; Guo, Yanling; Yang, Qin; Ye, Jianrong; Chen, Shaojiang; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-02-01

    Stalk rot is one of the most devastating diseases in maize worldwide. In our previous study, two QTLs, a major qRfg1 and a minor qRfg2, were identified in the resistant inbred line '1145' to confer resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. In the present study, we report on fine-mapping of the minor qRfg2 that is located on chromosome 1 and account for ~8.9% of the total phenotypic variation. A total of 22 markers were developed in the qRfg2 region to resolve recombinants. The progeny-test mapping strategy was developed to accurately determine the phenotypes of all recombinants for fine-mapping of the qRfg2 locus. This fine-mapping process was performed from BC(4)F(1) to BC(8)F(1) generations to narrow down the qRfg2 locus into ~300 kb, flanked by the markers SSRZ319 and CAPSZ459. A predicted gene in the mapped region, coding for an auxin-regulated protein, is believed to be a candidate for qRfg2. The qRfg2 locus could steadily increase the resistance percentage by ~12% across different backcross generations, suggesting its usefulness in enhancing maize resistance against Gibberella stalk rot. PMID:22048640

  10. The ‘Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus’: noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Elisabeth; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Many cryptic species have recently been discovered in fungi, especially in fungal plant pathogens. Cryptic fungal species co-occurring in sympatry may occupy slightly different ecological niches, for example infecting the same crop plant but specialized on different organs or having different phenologies. Identifying cryptic species in fungal pathogens of crops and determining their ecological specialization are therefore crucial for disease management. Here, we addressed this question in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, the agent of gray mold on a wide range of plants. On grape, B. cinerea causes severe damage but is also responsible for noble rot used for processing sweet wines. We used microsatellite genotyping and clustering methods to elucidate whether isolates sampled on gray mold versus noble rot symptoms in three French regions belong to genetically differentiated populations. The inferred population structure matched geography rather than the type of symptom. Noble rot symptoms therefore do not seem to be caused by a specific B. cinerea population but instead seem to depend essentially on microclimatic conditions, which has applied consequences for the production of sweet wines. PMID:24062804

  11. The 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus': noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Elisabeth; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-09-01

    Many cryptic species have recently been discovered in fungi, especially in fungal plant pathogens. Cryptic fungal species co-occurring in sympatry may occupy slightly different ecological niches, for example infecting the same crop plant but specialized on different organs or having different phenologies. Identifying cryptic species in fungal pathogens of crops and determining their ecological specialization are therefore crucial for disease management. Here, we addressed this question in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, the agent of gray mold on a wide range of plants. On grape, B. cinerea causes severe damage but is also responsible for noble rot used for processing sweet wines. We used microsatellite genotyping and clustering methods to elucidate whether isolates sampled on gray mold versus noble rot symptoms in three French regions belong to genetically differentiated populations. The inferred population structure matched geography rather than the type of symptom. Noble rot symptoms therefore do not seem to be caused by a specific B. cinerea population but instead seem to depend essentially on microclimatic conditions, which has applied consequences for the production of sweet wines. PMID:24062804

  12. Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

    2014-05-01

    In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

  13. Effect of potting mix microbial carrying capacity on biological control of rhizoctonia damping-off of radish and rhizoctonia crown and root rot of poinsettia.

    PubMed

    Krause, M S; Madden, L V; Hoitink, H A

    2001-11-01

    ABSTRACT Potting mixes prepared with dark, highly decomposed Sphagnum peat, with light, less decomposed Sphagnum peat, or with composted pine bark, all three of which were colonized by indigenous microorganisms, failed to consistently suppress Rhizoctonia damping-off of radish or Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of poinsettia. Inoculation of these mixes with Chryseobacterium gleum (C(299)R(2)) and Trichoderma hamatum 382 (T(382)) significantly reduced the severity of both diseases in the composted pine bark mix in which both biocontrol agents maintained high populations over 90 days. These microorganisms were less effective against damping-off in the light and dark peat mixes, respectively, in which populations of C(299)R(2) declined. In contrast, crown and root rot, a disease that is severe late in the crop, was suppressed in all three types of mixes. High populations of T(382) in all three mixes late during the cropping cycle may have contributed to control of this disease. PMID:18943449

  14. Tree diseases and landscape processes: the challenge of landscape

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    in Adirondack Park, New York [4] and the role of laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii, in stand in California [6] (Box 1) and beech bark disease in the Catskill Mountains, New York [7]. Although fine

  15. Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

    For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

  16. Lipid hemodialysis versus charcoal hemoperfusion in imipramine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Asbach, H W; Holz, F; Möhring, K; Schüler, H W

    1977-09-01

    Previous experimental results have demonstrated the possibility of eliminating imipramine (14 C-IP) by hemodialysis. A simultaneous uptake of the substance by the polyvinyl chloride extracorporeal blood lines could be shown. Based on these results the imipramine absorption capacity of the blood lines and of the artificial kidney (Hollow Fiber Artificial Kidney, HFAK, Model 4) were studied. Imipramine (IP) absorption capacity of a usual blood-line set (arterial and venous, surface area 86,000 mm) was estimated to be 43 mg, and that of the HFAK to be 207 mg. Charcoal hemoperfusion (300 gm of coated activated coconut charcoal) eliminated more than 90% of IP from the blood within 3 hr if the initial IP blood concentration was 2 mg/ml. In comparison, lipid hemodialysis using 20% soybean oil as dialysate eliminated 95% of IP from the blood when the initial IP blood concentration was 1 mg/ml and 98% when the initial IP blood concentration was 2 mg/ml. In vivo studies on the elimination of IP by lipid (10%) hemodialysis demonstrated a substantial removal of the substance. Within 2 hr of treatment, 12% of the administered dose (75% of the LD50) was eliminated. PMID:560937

  17. Wide Variation in Virulence and Genetic Diversity of Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Strawberry in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M.; Barbetti, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR. PMID:23405226

  18. Brown marmorated stink bug on brown rot-infected fruit

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Agriculture and Natural Resources Committee on the impact of the BMSB on New Jersey. Read the news story hereBrown marmorated stink bug on brown rot-infected fruit Report to the New Jersey State Board) continues to be a problem for both growers and homeowners alike. As in 2010, growers in New Jersey

  19. Production and Degradation of Oxalic Acid by Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Eduardo; Agosin, Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi. PMID:16348522

  20. CONTROL OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROT IN PUMPKIN AND ZUCCHINI WITH PHOSPHONATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments in the greenhouse were conducted to determine the efficacy of two products containing potassium phosphate/dipotassium phosphonate (FNX-100 and FNX-2500) against Phytophthora root and stem rot in pumpkin and zucchini. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of crop variety, ap...

  1. New Friut and Vegetable Website Brown Rot Warning

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    1 Facts for Fancy Fruit INDEX New Friut and Vegetable Website Brown Rot Warning Necrotic Leaf Blotch On Goldens Potato Leafhopper Codling Moth European Red Mites Cane Borers More on Grape Leaf, depending on variety and location. Raspberries harvest is underway in central and northern areas. Blueberry

  2. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: widespread distribution of race 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early spring of 2012 with prolonged wet soil conditions in many parts of the country resulted in reports of poor performance of alfalfa due to Aphanomyces root rot (ARR). Varieties with resistance to ARR are available, although fewer varieties have resistance to both race 1 and race 2 of the pat...

  3. EVIDENCE FOR CLEAVAGE OF LIGNIN BY A BROWN ROT FUNGUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradation by brown-rot fungi is quantitatively one of the most important fates of lignocellulose in nature. It has long been thought that these fungi do not degrade lignin significantly, and that their activities on this abundant aromatic biopolymer are limited to minor oxidative modifications....

  4. Root Rot Detection in Sugar Beet Using Digital Multispectral Video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen Hope; Lloyd Coulter; Douglas Stow; Seth Peterson; Dawn Service; Alan Telck; David Melin

    A study to determine whether root rot infestations can be detected using high spatial resolution digital multispectral video (DMSV) data was conducted in the Imperial Valley of California. DMSV data were collected on two dates over 25 fields during the summer of 1999 using a light aircraft. The DMSV images included four spectral bands centered on 530 nm, 570 nm,

  5. BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  6. Ground-based technologies for cotton root rot control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymatotrichum, or cotton root rot (CRR), is a fungus currently affecting broadleaf crops including cotton in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. The ability of CRR to lie dormant in the soil for several years tends to negate the effects of crop rotation, and it remains a problem for cotton...

  7. CROP AND WEED HOSTS OF THE PINK ROT PATHOGEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora erythroseptica (Pe), cause of pink rot of potato, is known to infect at least 31 different host plants. Wheat and barley are two of these reported hosts that are grown almost exclusively in rotation with potato in eastern Idaho. Additionally, wheat,barley, and seed of other crops foun...

  8. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  9. MINERALIZATION OF RECALCITRANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade lignin, a structurally complex, naturally occurring and environmentally persistent, non-repeating heteropolyrner. revious studies have shown that this fungus is also able-to degrade a wide variety of synthetic or...

  10. Biochemical and physiological responses of oil palm to bud rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Chacón, Andrés Leonardo; Camperos-Reyes, Jhonatan Eduardo; Ávila Diazgranados, Rodrigo Andrés; Romero, Hernán Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, global consumption of palm oil has increased significantly, reaching almost 43 million tons in 2010. The sustainability of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) cultivation has been compromised because of the bud rot disease whose initial symptoms are caused by Phytophthora palmivora. There was a significant incidence of the disease, from an initial stage 1 of the disease to the highest stage 5, that affected photosynthetic parameters, content of pigments, sugars, polyamines, enzymatic antioxidant activities, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and ?-(1,3) glucanase (?-Gluc, EC 3.2.1.39). In healthy palms photosynthesis was 13.29 ?mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in average, while in stage 5 the average photosynthesis was around 3.66 ?mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1). Additionally, total chlorophyll was reduced by half at the last stage of the disease. On the contrary, the contents of putrescine, spermine and spermidine increased three, nine and twelve times with respect to stage 5, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and ?-(1,3) glucanase showed an increase as the severity of the disease increased, with the latter increasing from 0.71 EAU in healthy palms to 2.60 EAU in plants at stage 5 of the disease. The peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) enzymatic activity and the content of spermidine were the most sensitive indicators of disease. PMID:23796724

  11. Comparison of pollen-slide and sieving methods in lacustrine charcoal analyses for local and regional fire history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Carcaillet; Martine Bouvier; Bianca Fréchette; Alayn C. Larouche; Pierre J. H. Richard

    2001-01-01

    The charcoal content from laminated lake sediments in Québec, Canada, was estimated from pollen slides and by a sieving method. The resulting charcoal series are compared to estimate the suitability of these two methods to provide a local or regional fire history. The replication of five different charcoal series from the sieving method shows that this method is suitable for

  12. Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne sediments (Central

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 2631­2643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne Abstract In order to link the charcoal record from sedimentary archives with the combustion processes emitted in the area of Lake Lucerne (Central Europe) throughout the last 7200 years. Charcoal

  13. Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa Copyright (2005) by Robert Eric Bailis #12;1 Abstract Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa Robert Eric

  14. Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility in the tropics2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility of different organic amendments, bitter manioc peel (M), sawdust (Sw) and charcoal6 (Ch), on soil nutrient were lowest in9 unamended soil. The application of a mixture of manioc peel and charcoal (M+Ch)10

  15. Burrowing activity of the geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus1 (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) in the presence of charcoal2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Glossoscolecidae) in the presence of charcoal2 3 Stéphanie TOPOLIANTZ, Jean-François PONGE4 5 Muséum National d where charcoal plays an important role in soil fertility. We studied14 the burrowing activity:w) mixture of charcoal and soil16 (CHAR+soil). We measured the volume of empty burrows and those filled

  16. The RBINS Quaternary charcoal collections : the example of three neolithic sites of Hesbaye (5150-4950 BC, Belgium).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The RBINS Quaternary charcoal collections : the example of three neolithic sites of Hesbaye (5150 present the same kind of organisation: a village stricto-sensu and a distant house. The charcoal analyses, the environment was more opened and diversified because of man activities. Key Words: Charcoal analyses, Early

  17. CHARCOAL AND MICROCHARCOAL :CONTINENTAL AND MARINE RECORDS 4th International Meeting of Anthracology, Brussels , 8-13 September 2008

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CHARCOAL AND MICROCHARCOAL :CONTINENTAL AND MARINE RECORDS 4th International Meeting by the scientific committee, in press 1 Charcoal analysis of lime kiln remains in Southern France: an original of the fireplace. This is why charcoal analysis plays an important role when attempting to understand this activity

  18. Protocol to Sterilize & Charcoal-Germinate Maize Seeds 1 PROTOCOL TO STERILIZE AND CHARCHOAL-GERMINATE MAIZE SEEDS

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    Protocol to Sterilize & Charcoal-Germinate Maize Seeds 1 PROTOCOL TO STERILIZE AND CHARCHOAL plates De-colorizing charcoal (Acros Organics) available from Fisher, Catalog # AC17153-0010 Materials: Autoclaved forceps and spoon (for scooping charcoal) *Prior to germination, autoclave forceps, spoon

  19. Production of Charcoals from Cultural Waste of Mushroom and Soybean Hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshiki; Miyamoto, Kazumichi; Machida, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Takeru; Horikoshi, Kenichi; Okamoto, Masashi

    In order to utilize cultural waste of mushroom and soybean hull as coke, conversion from dry cultural waste of mushroom (DCWM) and soybean hull (SH) into charcoal by carbonization at 400-800°C, and conversion from them into formed charcoal were investigated. The thermogravimetry tendency of DCWM was intermediate between xylan and lignin, and that of SH was intermediate between cellulose and xylan. Carbonization of DCWM and SH led to make charcoal with high carbon content and higher heating value than raw material. Regarding charcoal carbonized at 800°C, carbon contents of DCWM and SH were 56 and 72%, higher heating values of them were 20.59 and 25.52 MJ/kg, respectively. It was affected by high ash content of DCWM and SH, that carbon contents and higher heating values of these charcoals were lower than coke. On utilization charcoal of DCWM and SH as coke, a preventative method must be taken regarding lower heating value of these than coke. By hot-press forming at 160°C 98MPa from charcoal carbonized at 250°C of DCWM or SH, these charcoal pellets could be produced. And by carbonization at 300-800°C of the pellet formed at 70°C 98MPa from DCWM, carbonized pellet could be produced. In the same manner for producing carbonized pellet of DCWM, the carbonized pellet of SH could be produced, but maximum temperature of carbonization was about 400°C, from the phenomena that puff occur on the pellet in the process of carbonization of it at 500°C. From these results, it is considered effective for increasing energy density of biomass, to convert from raw material into charcoal or formed charcoal.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SOIL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON THE UTILIZATION OF A WHITE-ROT, WOOD ROTTING FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wood rotting fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been selected as a candidate species to be used as a degrader of hazardous waste organic constituents found in liquids and soils. The selection of the species is attributable to its rapid growth, its ability to degrade lign...

  1. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

  2. Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995–2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. Methods and Findings We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996–2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997–1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998–2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999–2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999–2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006–2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in Taiwan and Hong Kong but appeared to be greatest in people aged 15–24 y in Japan and people aged 25–64 y in the Republic of Korea. The lack of specific codes for charcoal-burning suicide in the International Classification of Diseases and variations in coding practice in different countries are potential limitations of this study. Conclusions Charcoal-burning suicides increased markedly in some East/Southeast Asian countries (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore) in the first decade of the 21st century, but such rises were not experienced by all countries in the region. In countries with a rise in charcoal-burning suicide rates, the timing, scale, and sex/age pattern of increases varied by country. Factors underlying these variations require further investigation, but may include differences in culture or in media portrayals of the method. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24691071

  3. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel

    PubMed Central

    Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  4. The effect of yogurt on acetaminophen absorption by activated charcoal and burnt toast.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Wells, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Although acetaminophen overdose can be treated with N-acetylcysteine, activated charcoal is useful in preventing absorption of acetaminophen from the gut. Mixing activated charcoal with yogurt may make the dose more palatable. We investigated effects of yogurt on absorption of acetaminophen by burnt toast or activated charcoal in intestinal fluid using an in vitro model. The aliquots of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were supplemented with high concentrations of acetaminophen after adjusting the pH to 7.2 (to mimic intestinal fluid). Then specimens were treated with various dosages (15 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, or 50 mg/mL) of activated charcoal or burnt toast. A small amount of fluid was withdrawn at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min and acetaminophen concentrations were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). We also treated other aliquots of PBS buffer containing acetaminophen with activated charcoal and yogurt or burnt toast and yogurt. Then small aliquots were withdrawn at specific time intervals to determine concentrations of acetaminophen. Activated charcoal was very effective in removing acetaminophen from intestinal fluids and the presence of yogurt insignificantly affected such absorptions. In contrast, burnt toast had a modest effect on removing acetaminophen from fluids but yogurt significantly increased the capability of burnt toast to absorb acetaminophen. However, the activated charcoal/yogurt combination is more effective than the burnt toast/yogurt combination for absorbing acetaminophen. PMID:18022931

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of the Onion Center Rot Pathogen Pantoea ananatis PA4 and Maize Brown Stalk Rot Pathogen P. ananatis BD442

    PubMed Central

    Weller-Stuart, Tania; Chan, Wai Yin; Venter, Stephanus N.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Duffy, Brion; Goszczynska, Teresa; Cowan, Don A.; de Maayer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is an emerging phytopathogen that infects a broad spectrum of plant hosts. Here, we present the genomes of two South African isolates, P. ananatis PA4, which causes center rot of onion, and BD442, isolated from brown stalk rot of maize. PMID:25103759

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of the Onion Center Rot Pathogen Pantoea ananatis PA4 and Maize Brown Stalk Rot Pathogen P. ananatis BD442.

    PubMed

    Weller-Stuart, Tania; Chan, Wai Yin; Coutinho, Teresa A; Venter, Stephanus N; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion; Goszczynska, Teresa; Cowan, Don A; de Maayer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is an emerging phytopathogen that infects a broad spectrum of plant hosts. Here, we present the genomes of two South African isolates, P. ananatis PA4, which causes center rot of onion, and BD442, isolated from brown stalk rot of maize. PMID:25103759

  7. Structural characterization of charcoal size-fractions from a burnt Pinus pinea forest by FT-IR, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ornella Francioso; Santiago Sanchez-Cortes; Sergio Bonora; Maria Lorena Roldán; Giacomo Certini

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal is mainly composed by aromatic C but is characterized by several degrees of aromaticity, which complicate its identification and quantification in natural environments by conventional analyses. Charcoal is an almost ubiquitous component of soil, although often occurring in minor amounts. Hence, there is a great interest in studying the charcoal structure and understanding the behavior of charcoal in soils.

  8. Mechanisms of charcoal degradation during its initial stages of decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2010-05-01

    Future climatic changes might result in an increased potential for wildfires, whereby incorporation of charred biomass into soil would increase. The incomplete combustion of biomass results in the production of a chemically heterogeneous class of highly condensed compounds known as pyrogenic C (PyC), which is generally considered resistant to microbial degradation. Recently, studies based on short-term laboratory incubations with soil have indicated that PyC can also eventually degrade (Baldock and Smernik, 2002; Hamer et al., 2004) and it is now widely accepted that a significant quantity of these resistant fraction of soil must have undergone degradation in terrestrial environments. Charcoal has been shown to decompose faster in the initial stages (first 2-3 months) and stabilize later (Kuzyakov et al., 2009). However, studies describing charcoal transformation processes remain scarce. The different potential degradation mechanisms have not yet been studied in combination, and therefore the relative importance for PyC degradation has not been evaluated. We are conducting an incubation experiment to study the biological, chemical and physical degradation/stabilization processes of PyC in soil under controlled conditions. We use Pinus ponderosa 13C/15N labeled (13C: 800 per mil, 15N: 4.2 atom %) wood and charcoal (pyrolysed at 450 °C under N2 atmosphere). We incubate soil from Lägeren forest (Wettingen, Switzerland) with three kind of organic inputs, labeled wood, char and no littler control. The decomposition rates would be estimated based on 13C of CO2 entrapped in NaOH. Time course destructive sampling would be done during the study. Lyophilized soil subsamples will be used for analysis of the amount of 13C incorporation in the microbial biomass using fumigation extraction method and phospholipids fatty acid analysis (PLFA). The remaining PyC in the soil would be characterized for the changes in its chemistry at the molecular level using Benzenepolycarboxlic acid (BPCA) molecular marker method and 13C 15N NMR. This communication aims to report the first four months results of this study at a higher time resolution. The outcome of this study would facilitate in elucidating the potential decomposition rate of charcoal and consequent changes in its physical, chemical and biological properties in the soil during the initial stages of decomposition. In addition, application of highly labeled 13C PyC would enable us in this study to trace the transformation products. References Baldock, J.A., and Smernik, R.J. (2002). Chemical composition and bioavailability of thermally, altered Pinus resinosa (Red Pine) wood. Organic Geochemistry 33, 1093-1109. Hamer, U., Marschner, B., Brodowski, S., and Amelung, W. (2004). Interactive priming of black carbon and glucose mineralisation. Organic Geochemistry 35, 823-830. Kuzyakov, Y., Subbotina, I., Chen, H.Q., Bogomolova, I., and Xu, X.L. (2009). Black carbon decomposition and incorporation into soil microbial biomass estimated by C-14 labeling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41, 210-219.

  9. Aluminum removal with hemodialysis, hemofiltration and charcoal hemoperfusion in uremic patients after desferrioxamine infusion. A comparison of efficiency.

    PubMed

    Weiss, L G; Danielson, B G; Fellström, B; Wikström, B

    1989-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of aluminum removal in uremic patients during extracorporeal treatment, 17 patients with endstage renal failure were given a desferrioxamine infusion of 40 mg/kg body weight after an ordinary dialysis treatment. Forty-eight hours later 7 patients were treated with hemodialysis, 6 with hemofiltration and 4 with a combination of hemodialysis and hemoperfusion. The clearance of aluminum was measured at different intervals. It was found that the aluminum clearance was 75 +/- 18 ml/min in hemofiltration compared to 30 +/- 10 ml/min in hemodialysis (p less than 0.001). A combination of hemodialysis and hemoperfusion with a charcoal column containing 100 g activated charcoal in series gave a total aluminum clearance of 56 +/- 11 ml/min. The total amount of aluminum in the ultrafiltrate after hemofiltration was found to be approximately 3 times as high (1,728 +/- 156 micrograms) as the total amount of aluminum in the hemodialysis water that had passed a single pass system during a 4-hour dialysis (576 +/- 104 micrograms). Our results indicate that hemofiltration or a combination of hemodialysis and hemoperfusion should be used to remove aluminum in patients with signs of severe aluminum accumulation such as encephalopathy or painful bone disease, because these methods are 2-3 times as effective as ordinary hemodialysis. In patients where aluminum has been accumulated but no severe symptoms occur hemodialysis gives a significant clearance of the aluminum desferrioxamine complex. PMID:2918944

  10. Criticality safety study of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1996-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the practicality of developing a power reactor consisting of a graphite lattice with circulating molten uranium salt as fuel for application in central power stations. When the experiment was terminated in 1969, approximately 4710 kg of salt containing approximately 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 g of plutonium, and various fission products were transferred to two fuel drain tanks (FDTs). The almost 30.5 kg of Uranium 233 in the salt is the primary fissile constituent, but about 0.93 kg of Uranium 235 is also present. In April 1994, a gas sample from the MSRE off-gas system (OGS) indicated that uranium had migrated from the FDTs into the OGS. Further investigation revealed a likely accumulation of approximately 2.6 kg of uranium in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), which is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell (CBC) below ground level outside the MSRE building. The nuclear criticality safety (NCS) situation was further complicated by the CBC being filled with water up to the overflow pipe, which completely submerged the ACB. Thus there was not only an increased risk of criticality because of water reflection in the ACB, but also because of potential moderation in the ACB in case of water inleakage. Leakage into the ACB would result in a direct path for water between the CBC and the OGS or FDTs, thus increasing the risk of criticality in these areas. When uranium was discovered in the ACB, a number of steps, detailed in this report, were immediately taken to try to understand and ameliorate the situation. After all the actions were completed, a validation of the results obtained for the ACB was performed.

  11. Responses of the root rot fungus Collybia fusipes to soil waterlogging and oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Camy, Cécile; Dreyer, Ervin; Delatour, Claude; Marçais, Benoît

    2003-09-01

    Collybia fusipes is a common root rot fungus in mature pedunculate oak forest, that causes drastic destruction of the tree root systems, especially in dry or mildly waterlogged soils. We wanted to check, under controlled conditions or in forest ecosystems, whether reduced O2 during saturation of the soil by water could interact with disease evolution. Susceptibility of waterlogged oak seedlings to C. fusipes was tested in a greenhouse and the survival of the pathogen in woody substrates was assessed in hydromorphic soils in a forest. A direct and detrimental effect of soil waterlogging on C. fusipes survival was evidenced both under controlled conditions and in forest stands. Growth of C. fusipes mycelium on agar media was monitored under low O2 mole fraction and compared to that of Armillaria mellea and Heterobasidion annosum. A drastic reduction in mycelial growth was evidenced in C. fusipes and H. annosum but not in A. mellea. PMID:14563138

  12. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

  13. Expression analysis of defense-related genes in Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) species with different levels of compatibility to the soft rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Kavitha; G. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivars are susceptible to soft rot disease caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. We analyzed changes in transcript levels of 41 genes in the highly susceptible ginger cultivar varada, a less susceptible\\u000a wild accession (wild ginger), and a Pythium aphanidermatum-resistant relative, Z. zerumbet, following treatment with Pythium aphanidermatum or one of three signaling molecules: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic

  14. Genes tagging and molecular diversity of red rot susceptible/tolerant sugarcane hybrids using c-DNA and unigene derived markers.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Singh, R B; Singh, S P; Sharma, M L

    2012-04-01

    Sugarcane is an important international commodity as a valuable agricultural crop especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Two bulked DNA used to screen polymorphic primers from commercial hybrids (varieties) with moderately resistant and highly susceptible to red rot disease. Among 145 simple sequence repeat and unigene primers screened, 37 (25%) were found to be highly robust and polymorphic with Polymorphism Information Content values ranging from 0.50 to 1.00 with the mean value of 0.82. Among these microsatellites, twenty one were used in the study of genetic relationships and marker identification in sugarcane varieties for red rot resistance. A total of 105 polymorphic DNA bands were identified, with their fragment size ranging from 54 to 1,280 bp. Jaccard's similarity coefficient value recorded between closely related hybrids was 0.986 while lowest coefficient value of 0.341 was detected with distantly related hybrids. The average similarity coefficient among these hybrids was 0.663. Cluster analysis resulted in a dendrogram with two major clusters separating the moderately resistant varieties from highly susceptible varieties. Three group specific fragments amplified by unigene Saccharum microsatellite primers viz; two markers UGSM316(850) and UGSM316(60) were closely associated with moderately resistant varieties by appearing bands in this region but the bands were absent in highly susceptible varieties. Similarly UGSM316(400) marker was tightly linked with highly susceptible varieties by amplifying uniformly in sugarcane varieties showing highly susceptible reaction to red rot but it was absent in moderately resistant varietal groups. Validation of red rot resistance/susceptibility associated markers on a group of different mapping populations for red rot resistant/susceptible traits is in progress. PMID:22805949

  15. Identification of potential protein markers of noble rot infected grapes.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Millioni, Renato; Franchin, Cinzia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Simonato, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    The evaluation of Botrytis cinerea as noble rot on withered grapes is of great importance to predict the wine sensory/organoleptic properties and to manage the winemaking process of Amarone, a passito dry red wine. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of grapes infected by noble rot under withering conditions to identify possible markers of fungal infection. 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed that protein profiles of infected and not infected grape samples are significantly different in terms of number of spots and relative abundance. Protein identification by MS analysis allowed to identify only in infected berries proteins of B. cinerea that represent potential markers of the presence of the fungus in the withered grapes. PMID:25722151

  16. Waste treatment of kraft effluents by white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The residual lignin in unbleached kraft pulp is commonly removed to afford a fully bleached pulp through a multi-stage bleaching process consisting of chlorination and alkaline-extraction stages. The effluent from such a bleaching process is of growing environmental concern because it shows a dark brown color and contains numerous chlorinated organic substances. Moreover, this effluent is not easily recycled within a mill recovery system because of the potential corrosion problems created by its high chlorine content. White-rot fungi have even heavily modified lignin such as kraft lignin and atoms demonstrated that kraft bleaching effluent can be rot fungi, in particular, Trametes versicolor and this review lecture, the possibility of the application of kraft effluents will be discussed.

  17. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

  18. Assessment of saccharification efficacy in the cellulase system of the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jake Tewalt; Jonathan Schilling

    2010-01-01

    Brown rot fungi uniquely degrade wood by creating modifications thought to aid in the selective removal of polysaccharides\\u000a by an incomplete cellulase suite. This naturally successful mechanism offers potential for current bioprocessing applications.\\u000a To test the efficacy of brown rot cellulases, southern yellow pine wood blocks were first degraded by the brown rot fungus\\u000a Gloeophyllum trabeum for 0, 2, 4,

  19. The use of Trichoderma species to control strawberry fruit rots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tronsmo; C. Dennis

    1977-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the growth and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma species against Botrytis cinerea and Mucor\\u000a mucedo (strawberry fruit pathogens) was studied. Five strongly antagonistic isolates were further used in field experiments.\\u000a The incidence of pre-harvest rots caused by B. cinerea and the rate of post-harvest spoilage were similarly reduced when strawberry\\u000a flowers were sprayed either with the

  20. Laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. V. Garzillo; M. C. Colao; C. Caruso; C. Caporale; D. Celletti; V. Buonocore

    1998-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes trogii excretes a main laccase showing a molecular mass of 70?kDa, acidic isoelectric point and N-terminal sequence homol-ogous to\\u000a that of several phenol oxidases. The purified enzyme oxidizes a number of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds; recalcitrant\\u000a molecules may be converted into substrates by introducing, in the correct position, o-?or p-orienting ring-activating groups.