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1

Charcoal Rot Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes Using a Colony Forming Unit Index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic significance in the United States and around the world. Yield losses will remain high until resistant genotypes are developed. Progress in developing resistant genotypes is hampered beca...

2

Charcoal Rot Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes and Prelimary Genetic Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic importance in the United States that causes significant yield losses. In 2002 (30), 2003 (30), 2004 (44) and 2005 (81) a total of 185 soybean genotypes in maturity groups III, IV and V we...

3

Comparsion of Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes in the Presence of Charcoal Rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic significance in the United States causing significant yield losses. Twenty four soybean genotypes in maturity groups 3, 4 and 5 were evaluated in 2002 and 2003 using five methods of disea...

4

Production of (-)-Botryodiplodin, but not Phaseolinone, by the Soybean Charcoal Rot Disease Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Charcoal rot disease, which causes significant losses in crops grown in hot, relatively dry areas, is caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina produces a phytotoxin believed to play a role in helping establish infections. Siddiqui et al. [Experentia 35, 1222 (1979)] purified and...

5

Charcoal Rot of Plants in East Texas.  

E-print Network

8152 in contrast with 55 per- cent of the plants with charcoal rot in the Purple Hull variety in 1943 (91). Bean l Phaseolus vulgaris J In beans and cowpeas, the sclerotia are abundant under the bark of the stems and taproots (Figure 4). M...- loupe produced spores on bean stems (42). Watermelon f Cifrullus vulgaris1 About 75 percent of the Black Diamond watermelon plants in one field in September 1948 had been killed by charcoal rot. One watermelon fruit showed black rot with the inner...

Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

1949-01-01

6

Effects of directed fungicides sprays and potash form on charcoal rot of soybeans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evaluation of fungicides to control charcoal rot of soybean was conducted in a field planted annually to soybean or snap bean since 2002 with moderate to high seedling disease losses to charcoal rot. Treatments were applied on 18 Jul at 60 psi and on 7 Aug at 80 psi using a high-pressure hydraulic ...

7

Resistance to toxin-mediated fungal infection: role of lignins, isoflavones, other seed phenolics, sugars and boron in the mechanism of resistance to charcoal rot disease in soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effects of charcoal rot and drought on total seed phenol, isoflavones, sugars, and boron in susceptible (S) and moderately resistant (MR) soybean genotypes to charcoal rot pathogen. A field experiment was conducted for two years under ir...

8

Nitric Oxide Production by Necrotrophic Pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the Host Plant in Charcoal Rot Disease of Jute: Complexity of the Interplay between Necrotroph–Host Plant Interactions  

PubMed Central

M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2?,7?-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

2014-01-01

9

Effects of Seed Treatment, In-Furrow Sprays, and Herbicides Treatments on Charcoal Rot of June-Planted Soybean, 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evaluation of chemical and biological fungicides to control charcoal rot of soybean was conducted in a field planted annually to soybean or snap bean since 2002 with moderate to high seedling disease losses to charcoal rot. Seed treatment slurries were created by adding distilled water to the test ...

10

A GREENHOUSE METHOD FOR SCREENING FOR RESISTANCE TO CHARCOAL ROT IN SOYBEANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid causes charcoal rot disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and several other susceptible host species. The pathogen invades the roots, colonizes the vascular system, and interferes with water transport. Under conditions favorable for disease, such...

11

Seasonal progress of charcoal rot and its impact on soybean productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on yield of soybean were evaluated in the field using two genotypes each in maturity groups III and IV. Four separate experiments were established in an area of a field fumigated with methyl bromide. The experiments were: 1) artificiall...

12

FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases  

E-print Network

FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world than, and basidiomycetes. Root and butt rots, instead, are exclusively caused by fungi belonging to the homo

California at Berkeley, University of

13

AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in charcoal rot fungal populations impacted by crop rotations.  

PubMed

The application of molecular markers enables scientists to clarify the genetic relationships among fungi who are difficult to classify or partition into sub-species using traditional morphological or physiological criteria. One such fungus is Macrophomina phaseolina, a plant pathogenic soil-borne fungus that is the causative agent of Charcoal Rot on soybeans and 500 other plant species world-wide. This plant pathogenic fungus is a very heterogeneous species and disease population dynamics and pathogen genetic diversity are poorly understood. Using a multi-variant Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) approach for the analysis of genomic data, valuable insight into cultural and environmental pressures that shape the fungal genome was possible. Fungal isolates from 12-year rotated field plots ranging from 1-3 years of crop rotations of the same plant type(s), rotation duration and plant maturity groups provided a unique opportunity to survey M. phaseolina isolates taken from the different crop rotation conditions. Using different data interval partitioning of amplified restriction fragments it was possible to see trends associated with the specific cropping history of the fungal isolates. AFLP neutral primers of intermediate and large amplified products using 20-bp intervals were the most efficient and reliable for demonstrating intra-population dynamics. Results indicate that the highest amount of M. phaseolina genetic diversity was conclusively found in fungal isolates taken from three-year rotation plots. Lesser amounts of genetic diversity were found in two-year rotated and non-rotated fungal isolates. Insight gained from this study may now be incorporated into a larger understanding of how crop rotation and the availability of hosts shape and influence the genetic variability within Macrophomina isolates and populations. This information can then be used to make better-informed decisions regarding crop protection strategies against this diverse and economically important fungal pathogen. PMID:19226737

Brooker, N; Lord, J R; Long, J; Jayawardhana, A

2008-01-01

14

Disease notes - Bacterial root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

15

Plant growth-promotion (PGP) activities and molecular characterization of rhizobacterial strains isolated from soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) plants against charcoal rot pathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina.  

PubMed

Charcoal rot disease, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, leads to significant yield losses of soybean crops. One strategy to control charcoal rot is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing bacteria. Rhizobacteria A(5)F and FPT(7)21 and Pseudomonas sp. strain GRP(3) were characterized for their plant growth-promotion activities against the pathogen. Rhizobacterium FPT(7)21 exhibited higher antagonistic activity against the pathogen on dual plate assay compared to strain A(5)F and GRP(3). FPT(7)21 and GRP(3) gave decreased disease intensity in terms of average number of pathogen-infested plants. Lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) activities were estimated in extracts of plants grown from seeds that were treated with rhizobacteria, and inoculated with spore suspension of M. phaseolina. The activity of these enzymes after challenge with the test pathogen increased. Strains FPT(7)21 and GRP(3) exhibited maximum increases in LOX, PAL and POD activity (U mg(-1) fresh leaf wt) compared to strain A(5)F. PMID:21833548

Choudhary, D K

2011-11-01

16

Registration of soybean germplasm line 'DT 97-4290' with moderate resistance to Charcoal Rot. Manuscript file name: "reg of soy germplasm DT 97-4290.DOC"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘DT97-4290’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was developed as a maturity group IV germplasm line by the USDA-ARS, Stoneville, MS. It was released in December 2004 because of its high yield potential and moderate resistance to charcoal rot [caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.] and southe...

17

Brown Root Rot Disease in American Samoa's Tropical Rain Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham causes root and lower stem rot of woody plants throughout the South Pacific region. Its hosts include rubber, mahogany, cacao, and many timber, fruit, and landscape trees. Though endemic to the Tropics, no reports were found describing brown root rot disease in na­ tive forests, exclusively. Incidence, distribution, and host range of P. noxius were measured

Fred E. Brooks

2002-01-01

18

Recombinant Protein for Biocontrol of Brown Rot Disease in Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Egypt, potato has an important position among all vegetable crops. Potato crop is infected with the brown rot disease producing a major problem which caused by Ralstonia. Solanacearum. Soil samples were collected from Gharbia governorate, bacterial isolation was carried out using suitable media. Many bacterial isolates were obtained and used for bioagent against R. solanacearum. One isolate among all

S. S. Kabeil; Elsayed E. Hafez; Ayman S. Daba; M. A. El-Saadani

2009-01-01

19

Genetic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions for charcoal rot in soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean is a leading agronomic crop and it is contributing to food and agricultural security with expanding production in diverse regions around the world. Although soybean is attacked by several diseases and pests, and progress has been made in understanding and managing some of these pathogens and...

20

First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea  

PubMed Central

In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae

2014-01-01

21

Spatial Analysis of Basal Stem Rot disease using Geographical Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal stem rot disease (BSR) is a common disease in Malaysian Oil palm. At present effective and sustainable management strategies to control BSR are hampered mainly by a lack of understanding of mechanisms of disease establishment, development and spread. The present paper is an attempt to apply spatial analysis methods to investigate the behavior of BSR. This proposal will focus

Tengku Mohd Azahara; Patrice Boursier; Idris Abu Seman

22

Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease ( Ganoderma boninense ) in oil palm plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative

A. Susanto; P. S. Sudharto; R. Y. Purba

2005-01-01

23

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

24

Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot disease of blueberry with gypsum and compost  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root rot disease of blueberry caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi is becoming more prevalent as a consequence of widespread adoption of drip irrigation. This creates higher moisture content in the root zone more conducive for the pathogen. Options for disease control under organic management are limi...

25

Lettuce black root rot — a disease caused by Chalara elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce plants in several fields in south-eastern Queensland were affected by a black root rot resulting in slow growth, small\\u000a head size and harvest reductions. Isolation and pathogenicity tests showed Chalara elegans was the causal fungus. The host range included bean and cucurbits but not capsicum, celery, cotton, eggplant, parsley,\\u000a radish or tomato. The weed Sonchus oleraceus was a natural

R G. O’Brien

1994-01-01

26

Isolation and identification of allelochemicals produced by B. sonorensis for suppression of charcoal rot of Arachis hypogaea L.  

PubMed

Bacillus sonorensis MBCU2 isolated from vermicompost-amended soil from Gujarat, India showed most antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture screening. The culture supernatant of MBCU2 completely suppressed the mycelia growth of pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of allelochemicals in the culture filtrate. Results of scanning electron microscopy revealed that MBCU2 caused morphological alteration in mycelia of M. phaseolina as evident by hyphal lysis and perforation. Lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin) produced by MBCU2 were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Pot trial studies conducted by seed bacterization with MBCU2 resulted in statistically significant increase in Arachis hypogaea L. vegetative growth parameters such as root length (91%), shoot length (252%), fresh weight (71%), dry weight (57%), number of pod (128%), and number of seed (290%) in M. phaseolina infested soil over control as well as decreased M. phaseolina disease severity. We suggest that allelochemicals production can be linked to the mechanism of protection of A. hypogaea L. from M. phaseolina by B. sonorensis MBCU2. PMID:25346523

Pandya, Urja; Saraf, Meenu

2014-10-24

27

Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

28

Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w\\/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by

Tariq Riaz; Salik Nawaz Khan; Arshad Javaid

2010-01-01

29

Mapping and identifying basal stem rot disease in oil palms in North Sumatra with QuickBird imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of remote sensing technology and precision agriculture in the oil palm industry is in development. This study\\u000a investigated the potential of high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery, which has a synoptic overview, for detecting oil\\u000a palms infected by basal stem rot disease and for mapping the disease. Basal stem rot disease poses a major threat to the oil\\u000a palm

Heri Santoso; Totok Gunawan; Retnadi Heru Jatmiko; Witjaksana Darmosarkoro; Budiman Minasny

2011-01-01

30

Regulation of Biosurfactant Production by Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas fluorescens 5064, the Cause of Broccoli Head Rot Disease   

E-print Network

Broccoli head rot is a destructive disease found in most broccoli production areas. The main pathogen is the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. P. fluorescens 5064, which was first isolated from an infected broccoli head ...

Cui, Xiaohui

31

Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

32

Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-12-01

33

BLACK ROOT ROT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

34

Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium proliferatum isolates from rice with Fusarium sheath rot disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty samples of unpolished (rough) rice collected in Arkansas and Texas during the 1995 harvesting season from fields exhibiting\\u000a Fusarium sheath rot disease or panicle blight were previously shown to include 8 samples positive for fumonisin B1(FB1) in the range 2.2–5.2 ppm, and moniliformin (MON), but no beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol, its derivatives or zearalenone\\u000a were detected. Fifteen cultures of F.

H. K. Abbas; R. D. Cartwright; W. Xie; C. J. Mirocha; J. L. Richard; T. J. Dvorak; G. L. Sciumbato; W. T. Shier

1999-01-01

35

Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by a fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. Fusarium inoculation showed 80% disease incidence with 54 disease lesions per corm. Recommended dose of the chemical fungicide carbendazim significantly reduced the disease incidence to 13% and number of lesions to six per corm. Plant extract treatments exhibited variable effects on the incidence and severity of the disease. In general, all the test plant extracts managed the corm-rot disease to some extent. Aqueous bulb extracts of A. sativum and A. cepa and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale showed better disease management potential than that of the recommended dose of carbendazim. Fusarium inoculation significantly declined shoot growth. In general, carbendazim, as well as aqueous extracts, enhanced shoot growth to variable extents as compared to the Fusarium control. PMID:19557652

Riaz, Tariq; Nawaz Khan, Salik; Javaid, Arshad

2010-07-01

36

Intelligent electronic nose system for basal stem rot disease detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural industry has been, for a long time, dependent upon human expertise in using odour for classification, grading, differentiating and discriminating different types of produce. Odour as a parameter of differentiation can also be used to determine the state of health of crops, although this is not favourable when dealing with detecting plant disease that may pose health threats

M. A. Markom; A. H. Adom; M. N. Ahmad; Wahyu Hidayat; A. H. Abdullah; N. Ahmad Fikri

2009-01-01

37

Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas–vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a

Christopher R. E. Coggins; Charles L. Gaworski

2008-01-01

38

The effect of temperature on Rhizoctonia disease development and fungicide efficacy in controlling Rhizoctonia root rot on sugarbeet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugarbeet. Since the intraspecific group AG 2-2 IIIB is considered to be more virulent than AG 2-2 IV, our objectives were to monitor disease development of AG 2-2 IIIB infection at four different soil temperatures un...

39

Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.  

PubMed

Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents. PMID:15750748

Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

2005-01-01

40

Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders.  

PubMed

Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection and spraying of lettuce, LOPAT characteristics, FAME analysis, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, as well as DNA-DNA hybridization. Ninety-eight isolates (66%) exhibited a fluorescent pigmentation and were associated with the genus Pseudomonas. Fifty-five of them induced an HR+ (hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves) response. The other 43 fluorescent isolates were most probably saprophytic bacteria and about half of them were able to cause rot on potato tuber slices. BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the Pseudomonas midrib rot isolates. The delineated BOX-PCR patterns matched quite well with Pseudomonas morphotypes defined on the basis of colony appearance and variation in fluorescent pigmentation. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses allowed most of the fluorescent isolates to be allocated to Pseudomonas, and they belonged to either the Pseudomonas fluorescens group, Pseudomonas putida group, or the Pseudomonas cichorii/syringae group. In particular, the isolates allocated to this latter group constituted the vast majority of HR+ isolates and were identified as P. cichorii by DNA-DNA hybridization. They were demonstrated by spray-inoculation tests on greenhouse-grown lettuce to induce the midrib rot disease and could be re-isolated from lesions of inoculated plants. Four HR+ non-fluorescent isolates associated with one sample that showed an atypical midrib rot were identified as Dickeya sp. PMID:19157742

Cottyn, Bart; Heylen, Kim; Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanhouteghem, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Bleyaert, Peter; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Maes, Martine

2009-05-01

41

Ganoderma disease of oil palm—A white rot perspective necessary for integrated control  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi such as Ganoderma, are extraordinary organisms capable exclusively of degrading lignin to carbon dioxide and water: celluloses are then available as nutrients for the fungus. Oil palm (OP) is a highly significant crop in many countries and is prone to a rot caused by the fungus. It is necessary to consider this mode of attack as a

R. R. M. Paterson

2007-01-01

42

Charcoal burner  

SciTech Connect

A combustible fuel apparatus is described comprising: side walls formed contiguous with and extending upward from a base and converging to form a closed container, having stacked charcoal fuel particles therein. The base may be placed directly on a substantially horizontal surface and the container may be ignited and substantially burned to ash, and the charcoal fuel particles may be ignited and sufficiently burned for cooking, wherein the charcoal fuel particles are stacked on the base in a relatively stable position prior to the igniting of the container, and are maintained in a relatively stable position during and after the igniting and burning of the container, whereby a mound of ignited charcoal fuel particles remains on the substantially horizontal surface after the burning of the container, the mound having a configuration substantially similar to the shape of the container prior to the combustion thereof.

Bakic, M.C.

1988-12-27

43

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease.  

PubMed

Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

2015-01-01

44

Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).  

PubMed

Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

2014-01-01

45

A New stalk rot disease of sugarcane caused by phaeocytostroma sacchari in india  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual stalk rot was noticed in sugarcane varieties at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, and in clones of\\u000a sugarcane germplasm at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Kannur, at maturity stage of the crop. Affected cane\\u000a stalks showed straw coloured rind discolouration. Internally, orange-brown rotting was noticed at nodal regions, which extended\\u000a further to internodal region emitting a distinctive

R. Viswanathan; M. N. Premachandran; M. Balamuralikrishnan; R. Jothi

2003-01-01

46

Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoospores or germinating encysted zoospores of the pathogen Phytophthora erythroseptica can cause new infections via tuber eyes, lenticels and cracks and cuts that result from tuber harvesting operations; infection\\u000a courts that theoretically could be protected using microbial antagonists. Ten microbial antagonists that reduce Fusarium dry\\u000a rot, late blight and\\/or sprouting in storage were assayed for efficacy against pink rot on

David A. Schisler; Patricia J. Slininger; Jeff S. Miller; Lynn K. Woodell; Shane Clayson; Nora Olsen

2009-01-01

47

Glomus intraradices , Pseudomonas alcaligenes , and Bacillus pumilus : effective agents for the control of root-rot disease complex of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Bacillus pumilus on the root-rot disease complex caused by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the root-rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in chickpea was assessed by quantifying differences in the shoot dry mass, pod number, nodulation, and shoot content of chlorophyll,\\u000a nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Inoculation of plants with G. intraradices, P. alcaligenes

M. Sayeed Akhtar; Zaki A. Siddiqui

2008-01-01

48

Nitrogen Fertilizer Affects the Severity of Anthracnose Crown Rot Disease of Greenhouse Grown Strawberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the severity of anthracnose crown rot was evaluated in three greenhouse studies. Strawberry plants were fertilized three times weekly with a modified Hoagland's Nutrient Solution containing the treatments and inoculated eight weeks after treat...

49

Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to three seed borne diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed-borne diseases of soybeans caused by Phomopsis longicolla (Phomopsis seed decay), Cercospora kukuchii (purple seed stain), and M. phaseolina (charcoal rot) are economically important seed-borne diseases that affect seed quality. Commercial cultivars marketed as resistant to all the three disea...

50

Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endophytes of Panax notoginseng with antagonistic characteristics towards pathogens of root-rot disease complex.  

PubMed

Endophytes play an important role in protection of host plants from infection by phytopathogens. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from five different parts (root, stem, petiole, leaf and seed) of Panax notoginseng and evaluated for antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Ralstonia sp. and Meloidogyne hapla, three major pathogens associated with root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. From 1000 endophytic bacterial strains evaluated in vitro, 104 strains exhibited antagonistic properties against at least one of these three pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these 104 antagonistic bacteria belong to four clusters: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. Members of the Firmicutes, in particular the Bacillus spp., were predominant in all analyzed tissues. The root was the main reservoir for antagonistic bacteria. Of the 104 antagonists, 51 strains showed antagonistic activities to one pathogen only, while 43 and 10 displayed the activities towards two and all three pathogens, respectively. The most dominant species in all tissues were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus, which were represented by eight strains with broad antagonistic spectrum to the all three test pathogens of root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. PMID:22987248

Ma, Li; Cao, Yong Hong; Cheng, Ming Hui; Huang, Ying; Mo, Ming He; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jian Zhong; Yang, Fa Xiang

2013-02-01

51

Genetic characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing soft rot disease of potato in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectobacterium wasabiae has a narrow host range, having previously only been associated with Japanese horseradish. However, recent characterisation\\u000a of Pectobacterium causing soft rotting in New Zealand has identified putative P. wasabiae isolates pathogenic to potato. In this study, phylogenetic reconstruction of acnA and mdh DNA sequences and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) were used to confirm the identity of

Andrew R. Pitman; Sally A. Harrow; Sandra B. Visnovsky

2010-01-01

52

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT  

E-print Network

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT INTRODUCTION A sometimes devastating root rot fungus. Armillaria root rot usually becomes apparent when indigenous forests are cleared for afforestation large indigenous trees In forestry situations, Armillaria root rot has been recorded on both pines

53

Root Interactions in a Maize/Soybean Intercropping System Control Soybean Soil-Borne Disease, Red Crown Rot  

PubMed Central

Background Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. Principal Findings In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum). The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices. PMID:24810161

Gao, Xiang; Wu, Man; Xu, Ruineng; Wang, Xiurong; Pan, Ruqian; Kim, Hye-Ji; Liao, Hong

2014-01-01

54

Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.  

PubMed

The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

2012-04-01

55

Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot BP-75-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Diplodia Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Diplodia ear rot, caused Diplodia ear rot. Hybrid susceptibility and weather also contribute to disease development. This bulletin

Holland, Jeffrey

56

Irrigation management: effects of soybean diseases on seed composition in genotypes differing in their disease resistance under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Nutritional qualities of soybean seed are determined by the quantity and quality of seed composition components (protein, oil, fatty acids, isoflavones, and minerals). Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseol...

57

Effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro and its effects on disease severity of soybean in the field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina culture growth in vitro and the disease severity of charcoal rot in soybean at Stoneville, MS and Jackson, TN. Glyphosate inhibited M. phaseolina growth in a linear dose dependent manner when ...

58

Reaction of selected soybean cultivars to Rhizoctonia root rot and other damping-off disease agents.  

PubMed

Eight soybean cultivars; Giza 21. Giza 22, Giza 35, Giza 82, Giza 83, Crawford, Holladay and Toamo were evaluated to Rhizoctonia root rot using agar plate and potted plant techniques. Data cleared that, in agar plate assay all soybean cultivars were moderately susceptible (MS), although the differences between them were significant (P=0.05). Generally, in potted assay, the reactions were resistant (R) or moderately resistant (MR) to root rots. Also, the differences between cultivars were significant (P=0.05). These cultivars were inoculated under greenhouse conditions with Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii Generally, G21 had the least pre-emergence damping-off followed by Giza 35, Crawford and Giza 83 with averages of 19.0, 20.0, 20.5 and 21.5%, respectively. In case of post-emergence, Giza 35 had the least values, followed by Giza 21, Crawford and Giza 82 with averages 3.95, 4.10, 4.10 and 4.25%, respectively. Under naturally infested soil in the field conditions the reactions of the same cultivars to damping-off were evaluated in two successive seasons. In 2002 season, G35 had the least pre-emergence damping-off % followed by Giza 21 and Giza 22 with averages of 22.61, 24.33 and 29.33%, respectively. Also, G35 had the least post-emergence damping-off % followed by Toamo and Giza 21 with averages of 9.40, 10.33 and 10.41%, respectively. In 2003 season, the same trend was appeared with light grade where Giza 35 had the least pre-emergence damping of % followed by Giza 22 and Giza 21 with averages of 30.67, 31.00 and 36.67%, respectively and Giza 35 was the most resistant cultivar against post-emergence damping-off, followed by Giza 21 and Giza 22 with averages of 10.91, 11.32 and 11.80%, respectively. Generally, Giza 21 significantly surpassed the other cultivars in plant height, number of pods per plant and 100-seed weight. Moreover, also it had second grade with the other traits. PMID:16637203

Amer, M A

2005-01-01

59

Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China.  

PubMed

An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, 'standing milkvetch' (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of stunted plants with reddish-brown stems and yellow and necrotic leaf blades. An Embellisia sp. was isolated from symptomatic stem, leaf blade, petiole, and root tissues at varying frequencies of up to 90%. Single-spore isolates grew very slowly on PCA, PDA, V-8 and, wheat hay decoction agar. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation of seeds, dipping 2-day-old pre-germinated seedlings in inoculum and spraying inoculum on 6-month-old plants. Symptoms on test plants included yellow leaf lesions, brown lesions on stems and petioles, stunted side-shoots with yellow, small, distorted and necrotic leaves, shoot blight, bud death, crown rot, root rot, and plant death. The disease is named as 'yellow stunt and root rot' of A. adsurgens to distinguish it from diseases caused by other known pathogens. Embellisia sp. is also pathogenic to A. sinicus but not to 11 other tested plant species. PMID:17492492

Li, Yan Zhong; Nan, Zhi Biao

2007-06-01

60

Biological soil treatment with Trichoderma harzianum to control root rot disease of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in newly reclaimed lands in Nobaria province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmentation of soil with different biological treatments i.e., Trichoderma harzianum cultured on sugar cane bagasse, Trichoderma harzianum (spore suspension 5 × 10 cfu\\/ml) and plant guard (biocide), successfully controlled Fusarium solani, F. oxysporium and Macrophomina phaseolina, the main pathogens of root rot disease on grapevines in Nobaria province. Complete reduction of these pathogens was recorded at 4 ml\\/l of plant Guard. Meanwhile, T. harzianum

Riad S. R. El-Mohamedy; E. H. Ziedan; A. M. Abdalla

2010-01-01

61

An investigation of the etiology of the root rot-wilt disease of muskmelon in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

E-print Network

disease syndrome. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee chairperson, Dr. R. D. Martyn for his support, guidance, and friendship throughout the course of this research. Special thanks to my committee members: Dr. M. E. Miller for his... greenhouse study showing susceptibility of four cucurbitaceous plants to Fusarium soiani f. sp. cucurbitae. . . . 59 . . . 61 15 Symptom of root rot on muskmelon plants grown in naturally-infested soil under field conditions, showing a vascular...

Champaco, Ethel Reyes

2012-06-07

62

Isolation, characterization, and formulation of antagonistic bacteria for the management of seedlings damping-off and root rot disease of cucumber.  

PubMed

Antagonistic bacteria are common soil inhabitants with potential to be developed into biofungicides for the management of seedling damping-off, root rot, and other soil-borne diseases of various crops. In this study, antagonistic bacteria were isolated from a commercial potato field and screened for their growth inhibition of fungal and oomycete pathogens in laboratory tests. The biocontrol potential of the 3 most effective antagonistic bacteria from the in vitro tests was evaluated against seedling damping-off and root rot of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. Based on phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, and sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA gene, the 3 antagonistic bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (isolate 9A-14), Pseudomonas sp. (isolate 8D-45), and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 8B-1). All 3 bacteria promoted plant growth and suppressed Pythium damping-off and root rot of cucumber seedlings in growth-room assays. Both pre- and post-planting application of these bacteria to an infested peat mix significantly increased plant fresh masses by 113%-184% and percentage of healthy seedlings by 100%-290%, and decreased damping-off and root rot severity by 27%-50%. The peat and talc formulations of these antagonistic bacteria applied as seed or amendment treatments to the infested peat mix effectively controlled Pythium damping-off and root rot of cucumber seedlings and enhanced plant growth. The survival of all 3 antagonistic bacteria in peat and talc formulations decreased over time at room temperature, but the populations remained above 10(8) CFU/g during the 180-day storage period. The peat formulation of a mixture of 3 bacteria was the best seed treatment, significantly increasing the plant fresh masses by 245% as compared with the Pythium control, and by 61.4% as compared with the noninfested control. This study suggests that the indigenous bacteria from agricultural soils can be developed and formulated as biofungicides for minimizing the early crop losses caused by seedling damping-off and root rot diseases. PMID:24392923

Khabbaz, Salah Eddin; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

2014-01-01

63

Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.  

PubMed

The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80 %, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment. PMID:25492807

Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

2014-12-10

64

Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans  

E-print Network

Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Expected yield per acre2 119 127 39 62 23 149 159 49 70 29 capable of producing corn and soybeans with yields about 20% higher than average soils. Low productivity

65

Identification of Ganoderma, the causal agent of basal stem rot disease in oil palm using a molecular method.  

PubMed

From comparison of the alignments of the internally transcribed spacers (ITS) of ribosomal DNA from Ganoderma associated with oil palm basal stem rot (BSR) and other Ganoderma species, two specific primer pairs were selected to provide a specific DNA amplification of pathogenic Ganoderma in oil palm. Each primer pair produced a single PCR product of about 450 bp (for primer pair IT1-IT2) and 334 bp (for primer pair IT1-IT3) when oil palm Ganoderma DNA was used. No PCR amplification product was observed when other Ganoderma species DNA was used in PCR amplification with these primer pairs. Three specific restriction enzyme sites were identified in the ITS and intergenic spacer (IGS1) regions. The restriction enzymes MluI, SacI and HinfI were used to digest the ITS-PCR product and restriction enzymes TfiI, ScaI and HincII were used to digest the IGS1-PCR product. Of the three restriction enzymes used in each rDNA region, MluI specifically digested the ITS regions, and TfiI specifically digested the IGS1 region of oil palm Ganoderma. Analysis of the published ITS nucleotide sequences of 31 Ganoderma species showed that the MluI restriction site was not present in other Ganoderma species. The use of both specific primers and restriction enzyme analysis can be applied as a standard protocol to identify pathogenic Ganoderma in oil palm. In this study, the use of specific primers and PCR-RFLP analyses of the rDNA gave consistent results for the characterisation of pathogenic Ganoderma, and indicated that Ganoderma strains associated with BSR disease in oil palms belong to a single species. PMID:15750749

Utomo, C; Werner, S; Niepold, F; Deising, H B

2005-01-01

66

Identification of Ganoderma , the causal agent of basal stem rot disease in oil palm using a molecular method  

Microsoft Academic Search

From comparison of the alignments of the internally transcribed spacers (ITS) of ribosomal DNA from Ganoderma associated with oil palm basal stem rot (BSR) and other Ganoderma species, two specific primer pairs were selected to provide a specific DNA amplification of pathogenic Ganoderma in oil palm. Each primer pair produced a single PCR product of about 450 bp (for primer

C. Utomo; S. Werner; F. Niepold; H. B. Deising

2005-01-01

67

The association of Tarsonemus mites (Acari: Heterostigmata) with different apple developmental stages and apple core rot diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine

Lené Van der Walt; Robert A. Spotts; Eddie A. Ueckermann; Francois J. Smit; Tamaryn Jensen; Adéle McLeod

2011-01-01

68

Genome Sequence of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum Strain CFBP6276, Causing Blackleg and Soft Rot Diseases on Potato Plants and Tubers  

PubMed Central

Pectobacterium atrosepticum strain CFBP6276 is a pectinolytic enterobacterium causing blackleg and soft rot of the stem and tuber of Solanum tuberosum. Its virulence is under the control of quorum sensing, with N-acylhomoserine lactones as communication signals. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. atrosepticum strain CFBP6276. PMID:23788545

Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Beury-Cirou, Amélie

2013-01-01

69

Black Rot of the Grape  

E-print Network

of the Labrusca and the Riparia families in particular, as to lead many to discard these valuable "table families" from their vineyard@. NATURE OF THE DISEASE. Black Rot is caused by the growth of a plant upon the affected parts of the grape. This plant can...

Price, R. H.

1892-01-01

70

Spacelab Charcoal Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

1995-01-01

71

VOST charcoal specification study  

SciTech Connect

The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

1995-07-01

72

Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland  

E-print Network

) (Figure 1). This inland rainforest shares the dominant tree species of western redcedar (Thuja plicata of the uppermost charcoal found at each site, but the severity of heart-rots in the dominant redcedars (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don) prevented independent confirmation of stand ages by dendrochronology. Sites

Sanborn, Paul

73

Fungitoxicity of some higher plants and synergistic activity of their essential oils against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley.  

PubMed

Twenty five plant species were screened for their volatile components against hyphal growth and sclerotia formation of Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides (CA), Lippia alba (LA), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were found to be strongly toxic. Their volatile active factors were isolated in the form of essential oils which were tested for toxicity individually and in six combinations (1:1 v/v) viz. CA-LA, LA-AI, CA-AI, CA-EG, and EG-AI. The oil combinations were found to be more fungitoxic than the individual oils. The CA-LA, LA-AI, EG-AI, and CA-EG combinations exhibited a broad fnngitoxic spectrum while CA-AI, LA-EG combinations possessed a narrow range of toxicity. None of the six oil combinations showed phytotoxic behaviour on seed germination, seedling growth and general morphology of Hordeum vulgare. PMID:18697732

Singh, R K

74

Fusarium graminearum Possesses Virulence Factors Common to Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Seedling Rot of Soybean but Differing in Their Impact on Disease Severity.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium graminearum is a toxigenic fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot on cereal crops worldwide. This fungus also causes damping-off and crown and root rots at the early stage of crop development in soybean cultivated in North and South America. Several F. graminearum genes were investigated for their contribution to FHB in cereals but no inherent study is reported for the dicotyledonous soybean host. In this study we determined the disease severity on soybean seedlings of five single gene disrupted mutants of F. graminearum, previously characterized in wheat spike infection. Three of these mutants are impaired on a specific function as the production of deoxynivalenol (DON, ?tri5), lipase (?Fgl1), and xylanase (?xyl03624), while the remaining two are MAP kinase mutants (?FgOS-2, ?gpmk1), which are altered in signaling pathways. The mutants that were reduced in virulence (?tri5, ?Fgl1, and ?FgOS-2) or are avirulent (?gpmk1) on wheat were correspondently less virulent or avirulent in soybean seedlings, as shown by the extension of lesions and seedling lengths. The ?xyl03624 mutant was as virulent as the wild type mirroring the behavior observed in wheat. However, a different ranking of symptom severity occurred in the two hosts: the ?FgOS-2 mutant, that infects wheat spikelets similarly to ?tri5 and ?Fgl1 mutants, provided much reduced symptoms in soybean. Differently from the other mutants, we observed that the ?FgOS-2 mutant was several fold more sensitive to the glyceollin phytoalexin suggesting that its reduced virulence may be due to its hypersensitivity to this phytoalexin. In conclusion, lipase and DON seem important for full disease symptom development in soybean seedlings, OS-2 and Gpmk1 MAP kinases are essential for virulence, and OS-2 is involved in conferring resistance to the soybean phytoalexin. PMID:24779355

Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Castiglioni, Carla; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Favaron, Francesco

2014-11-01

75

VOST charcoal specification study  

SciTech Connect

The volatile organic sampling train (VOST) is currently one the leading methodologies available for the sampling and analysis of volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) and products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from stationary sources at very low levels. However, revisions to the original method are necessary to maintain VOST as a viable regulatory tool. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. The following carbon-based candidate sorbents were considered: Tenax-GR (a graphitized Tenax); a Petroleum-based Charcoal; Ambersorbe XE-340 (hydrophobic carbonized resin bead); Anasorb 747 (beaded active carbon with very regular pore size); Carbosieve{reg_sign} S-III (carbon molecular sieve); and a Beaded Activated Charcoal (BAC) (with a very regular pore size). The results indicated that Tenax-GR showed significantly poorer performance than the other candidates in preliminary experimental results. Ambersorb did not retain the gaseous volatile organic compounds tested as well as the others and recovery of vinyl chloride was very low at all levels of spiking. Carbosieve was eliminated as a candidate replacement because of cost and handling problems. The petroleum-based charcoal was eliminated because of difficulties in handling a finely-divided powder. The availability of Anasorb 747 proved to be the deciding factor between it and the BAC. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb{reg_sign} 747 a good choice for replacement of SKC Lot 104. 1 tab.

Fuerst, R.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T. [Radian Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

76

Charcoal filter testing  

SciTech Connect

In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-08-01

77

Tolerance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora capsici is distributed worldwide, and is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Fruit rot, caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. Resistance to fruit rot o...

78

Gene Genealogies and AFLP Analyses in the Fusarium oxysporum Complex Identify Monophyletic and Nonmonophyletic Formae Speciales Causing Wilt and Rot Disease.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The monophyletic origin of host-specific taxa in the plant-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum complex was tested by constructing nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based phylogenies for 89 strains representing the known genetic and pathogenic diversity in 8 formae speciales associated with wilt diseases and root and bulb rot. We included strains from clonal lineages of F. oxysporum f. spp. asparagi, dianthi, gladioli, lilii, lini, opuntiarum, spinaciae, and tulipae. Putatively nonpathogenic strains from carnation and lily were included and a reference strain from each of the three main clades identified previously in the F. oxysporum complex; sequences from related species were used as outgroups. DNA sequences from the nuclear translation elongation factor 1alpha and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal RNA genes were combined for phylogenetic analysis. Strains in vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) shared identical sequences and AFLP profiles, supporting the monophyly of the two single-VCG formae speciales, lilii and tulipae. Identical genotypes were also found for the three VCGs in F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae. In contrast, multiple evolutionary origins were apparent for F. oxysporum f. spp. asparagi, dianthi, gladioli, lini, and opuntiarum, although different VCGs within each of these formae speciales often clustered close together or shared identical EF-1alpha and mtSSU rDNA haplotypes. Kishino-Hasegawa analyses of constraints forcing the monophyly of these formae speciales supported the exclusive origin of F. oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum but not the monophyly of F. oxysporum f. spp. asparagi, dianthi, gladioli, and lini. Most of the putatively nonpathogenic strains from carnation and lily, representing unique VCGs, were unrelated to F. oxysporum f. spp. dianthi and lilii, respectively. Putatively nonpathogenic or rot-inducing strains did not form exclusive groups within the molecular phylogeny. Parsimony analyses of AFLP fingerprint data supported the gene genealogy-based phylogram; however, AFLP-based phylogenies were considerably more homoplasious than the gene genealogies. The predictive value of the forma specialis naming system within the F. oxysporum complex is questioned. PMID:18944511

Baayen, R P; O'Donnell, K; Bonants, P J; Cigelnik, E; Kroon, L P; Roebroeck, E J; Waalwijk, C

2000-08-01

79

Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder  

E-print Network

The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

Ang, Dexter W

2005-01-01

80

Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P. [Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

1993-12-31

81

First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

82

Monitoring cotton root rot progression within a growing season using airborne multispectral imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a serious and destructive disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infections is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

83

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

84

Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST  

SciTech Connect

EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

1993-01-01

85

The First Report of Postharvest Stem Rot of Kohlrabi Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea  

PubMed Central

In March 2014, a kohlrabi stem rot sample was collected from the cold storage room of Daegwallyong Horticultural Cooperative, Korea. White and fuzzy mycelial growth was observed on the stem, symptomatic of stem rot disease. The pathogen was isolated from the infected stem and cultured on potato dextrose agar for further fungal morphological observation and to confirm its pathogenicity, according to Koch's postulates. Morphological data, pathogenicity test results, and rDNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 4) showed that the postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi was caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi in Korea. PMID:25606016

Kim, Joon-Young; Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Afroz, Tania; Hahm, Young-Il

2014-01-01

86

Charcoal signatures defined by multivariate analysis of charcoal records from 10 lakes in northwest Wisconsin (USA)  

E-print Network

Charcoal signatures defined by multivariate analysis of charcoal records from 10 lakes in northwest online 20 November 2010 Keywords: Fire history Charcoal analysis Fire regime Wisconsin Sand plain CHAR Charster We show how sedimentary charcoal records from multiple sites within a single landscape can be used

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

87

Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin to livestock 3. Mycotoxin testing 4. How to minimize losses and handle diseased grain after harvest 5. How these levels. detecting Mycotoxins An ultraviolet lamp, or black light, is often used as an initial screen

Holland, Jeffrey

88

Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

89

Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

90

Field response of some asparagus varieties to rust, Fusarium crown root rot, and violet root rot.  

PubMed

Research was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some asparagus genotypes against three most important fungal diseases: 1) asparagus rust caused by Puccinia asparagi D.C.; 2) Fusarium crown and root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) f.sp. asparagi (Cohen & Heald) and Fusarium proliferatum (Matstush.) Nirenberg; 3) violet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia violacea Tul. The object of this research was also to found an eventual correlation between the plant susceptibility to asparagus rust and the sensibility to Fusarium crown root rot and violet root rot attacks. Resistant genotypes to rust should be less susceptible to attacks from F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi, F. proliferatum and R. violacea, a fungal complex causing the plant decline. Asparagus genotypes were compared in a randomized complete block experiment design, replicated four times, in order to search that ones showing the best behaviour to escape the diseases. Phytopathological observations were carried out on November when the control plots showed 100% infected plants. The pathogens were isolated and identified. The diseased plants were registered. According to symptom evaluation scales, all the plants were grouped into infection classes, calculating frequency and McKinney index. Wishing to learn something about the infection trend of F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi or R. violacea in relation to P. asparagi attack, the relative curvilinear regressions were calculated. The Italian cultivars "Marte" and "Grande" showed significantly the best behaviour in terms of resistance to asparagus rust, exhibiting 37% and 42% of diseased plants. The McKinney index was 9.1% and 15.6%, respectively. The susceptible plots showed 100% of infected plants and different McKinney index: 46% for "Eros", about 60% for "H 519", "Atlas" and "Golia", over 70% for the remainder. "Marte" and "Grande" showed good tolerance to F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and to R. violacea exhibiting up to 100% of healthy plants. The regression between plants affected by asparagus rust and those diseased by Fusarium crown root rot showed a linear equation with a regression coefficient b = 1.186 and a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.98. The regression between infection caused by rust and that caused by violet root rot exhibited a regression coefficient b = 1.03 and a coefficient of correlation R2 = 0.9. "Marte" and "Grande" exhibited the best behaviour against the rust attacks. Plants without rust were tolerant to pathogens causing plant decline. PMID:15151301

Fiume, F; Fiume, G

2003-01-01

91

Mapping cotton root rot infestations over a 10-year interval with airborne multispectral imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot, caused by the pathogen Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate information regarding temporal changes of cotton root rot infestations within fields is important for the management and c...

92

The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

93

First report of Fusarium torulosum causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen species of Fusarium have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, eight species have been reported in the northern United S...

94

Cultural Practices and Chemical Treatments Affect Phytophthora Root Rot Severity of Blueberries Grown in Southern Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of commercial blueberries and is most severe when blueberries are grown in wet soils with poor drainage. Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot include small, yellow or red leaves, lack of new growth, root necrosis, and a smaller than normal root system. Inf...

95

Identification and Characterisation of Bacteria Causing Soft-rot in Agave tequilana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave tequilana is the raw material for the production of the alcoholic beverage tequila. A bacterial disease has affected the A. tequilana crop in recent years. Previous reports based on colony and cell morphology, Gram stain and potato rot indicated that Erwinia sp. is the main pathogen. We isolated a several bacterial isolates capable of producing soft-rot symptoms in greenhouse

I. Jiménez-Hidalgo; G. Virgen-Calleros; O. Mart'inez-de la Vega; G. Vandemark; V. Olalde-Portugal

2004-01-01

96

Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

97

ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES  

E-print Network

ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Medford, Oregon (USA) CONFERENCEPROCEEDINGS #12;ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Working Party 7.02.01 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS M. Garbelotto & P

California at Berkeley, University of

98

Fungal fruit rots of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the symptoms, etiology, and control of the three main fungal fruit rots of kiwifruit in New Zealand is reviewed. Field rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, affects immature fruits on the vines. Storage rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affects harvested fruits during cold storage. Ripe rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, affects harvested fruits during post-storage ripening.

S. R. Pennycook

1985-01-01

99

REPLACEMENT OF CHARCOAL IN VOST  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Method 0030, the Volatile rganic ampling rain VOST), or sampling volatile organics from has proven to be a original performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. n addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has b...

100

Activated Charcoal—Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Poisoned patients were first treated with charcoal more than 150 years ago. Despite its almost universal acceptance today, activated charcoal's role has been overshadowed by the emphasis on treating poisoned patients first with gastric emptying. We review the current use of activated charcoal and recent studies that suggest that activated charcoal may be the single most effective treatment in many types of poisoning. New explanations for the mechanisms of action include “back diffusion” and disruption of enterohepatic loops. Clinical data endorse a new and aggressive role for activated charcoal in the management of poisoned and overdosed patients. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3538661

Derlet, Robert W.; Albertson, Timothy E.

1986-01-01

101

Blossom-end rot Blossom-end rot  

E-print Network

tomatoes in well-drained soil high in organic matter with a soil pH between 6.5 and 7.5. #12;MSU that the rot can occur even when there is an ample supply of calcium in the soil, stems or leaves. Actively these spots from developing. The conditions that cause blossom-end rot are closely linked to inconsistent soil

Liu, Taosheng

102

Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

1997-10-01

103

First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

104

The Influence of Moisture and Temperature on Cotton Root Rot.  

E-print Network

dying from the disease during these years of 29.0, 18.1, 9.8, 9 and 22.3. I'he determination of the presence of root rot was based on above- ~und symptoms and almost entirely on wilting. This symptom, while iable in the field identification...I. -._ -I - _, _ CAMPUS. - TOBER, DIVISION OF PLANT PAT :Y AND PHYSIOLOGI THE INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE ON COTTON ROOT ROT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Dana, B. F. (Bliss F.)

1928-01-01

105

A comparative analysis of emissions from bagasse charcoal and wood charcoal  

E-print Network

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western hemisphere and is in need of cheap cooking fuel source. Currently, lump charcoal, the cooking fuel of Haiti, is made by carbonizing trees in ditches before selling the charcoal ...

Ramírez, Andrés, 1982-

2005-01-01

106

GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA FOR REDUCING PINK ROT, DRY ROT, LATE BLIGHT, AND SPROUTING ON POTATO TUBERS IN STORAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink rot of potato, incited primarily by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato-growing regions of the world including North America. The primary mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protecte...

107

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2011-01-01

108

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2014-01-01

109

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2013-01-01

110

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2010-01-01

111

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2012-01-01

112

Charcoal hemoperfusion in bupropion overdose.  

PubMed

Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication for depression, with seizures as its major side effect. In the literature, there are insufficient data about hemodialysis following bupropion overdose. A 23-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency department with acute change in mental status and seizure after deliberate self-poisoning with approximately 25-30 tablets of bupropion hydrochloride. Her Glasgow coma scale score was 8/15. The patient underwent hemodialysis about 4 hours later. After 4 hours of extracorporeal treatment, she became conscious and was extubated. We present a case of full recovery after charcoal hemoperfusion following a bupropion overdose. PMID:24636552

Akdemir, H?z?r Ufuk; Cal??kan, Fatih; Duran, Latif; Kat?, Celal; Güngörer, Bülent; Ocak, Metin

2014-10-01

113

Charcoal/Nitrogen Adsorption Cryocooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Refrigerator with no wear-related moving parts produces 0.5 W of cooling at 118 K. When fully developed, refrigerator needs no electrical power, and life expectancy of more than 10 yr, operates unattended to cool sensitive infrared detectors for long periods. Only moving parts in adsorption cryocooler are check valves. As charcoal is cooled in canister, gas pressure drops, allowing inlet check valve to open and admit more nitrogen. When canister is heated, pressure rises, closing inlet valve and eventually opening outlet valve.

Bard, Steven

1987-01-01

114

Rhizoctonia and Bacterial Root Rot in Sugarbeet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root rot in sugarbeet can cause losses approaching 50% or more in Idaho. To assess the distribution of root rot fungi and their relationship to bacterial root rot, commercial sugar beet roots were collected at harvest time in the Intermountain West (IMW). Isolations for both fungi and bacteria wer...

115

Co-inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. We investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different pho...

116

CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke ABSTRACT Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

117

Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping  

SciTech Connect

Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

1985-09-30

118

Toads and Red-hot Charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOADS are associated with some wonderful myths, and my scepticism was naturally great when my friend Mr. H. Martin Leake assured me, while on a visit to Cawnpore in October of 1915, that toads would eat red-hot charcoal. An after-dinner demonstration, however, soon dispelled my doubts. Small fragments of charcoal heated to a glowing red were thrown on the cement

W. N. F. Woodland

1920-01-01

119

Relationships between Nectria coccinea and white rot fungi undLehrstuhl fur Anatomie, Physiologie und Pathologie der Pflanzen  

E-print Network

Relationships between Nectria coccinea and white rot fungi I K. J. LANG undLehrstuhl fur Anatomie fungi cause severe financial losses by destroying the wood. Amongst others Fomes fomentarius is of great and wood decomposition. White rot fungi are to find in all beech stands where beech bark disease is pre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, ‹standing milkvetch’ (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of\\u000a stunted plants with reddish-brown

Yan Zhong Li; Zhi Biao Nan

2007-01-01

121

Antifungal activity of n-tributyltin acetate against some common yam rot fungi.  

PubMed Central

The antifungal activity of n-tributyltin acetate (TBTA) was examined in relation to combating yam rot disease. TBTA exhibited a significant effect in vitro and in vivo on four yam rot fungal isolates tested. However, the in vitro toxicity of TBTA was drastically reduced when 2.5% Tween 80 was the solvent instead of 25% acetone, as indicated by the MICs of 156.0 and 5.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:1610202

Olurinola, P F; Ehinmidu, J O; Bonire, J J

1992-01-01

122

Improved resistance to bacterial soft rot by protoplast fusion between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erwinia soft rot is a destructive disease of Brassica rapa vegetables. Reliable sources of resistance and control methods are limited, so development of highly resistant breeding lines\\u000a is desirable. Protoplasts from B. rapa and B. oleracea genotypes selected for resistance to soft rot were fused in order to combine different sources of resistance. Twelve somatic\\u000a hybrids (synthetic B. napus) were

J. P. Ren; M. H. Dickson; E. D. Earle

2000-01-01

123

Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

124

Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.  

PubMed

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

2012-01-01

125

Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato  

PubMed Central

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Ali, M. E.; Mian, I. H.; Akanda, A. M.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

2012-01-01

126

ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES International Conference  

E-print Network

#12;ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO;Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Working Party 7.02.01 M

California at Berkeley, University of

127

Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal  

SciTech Connect

In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

1995-12-31

128

Absorption of the Radioactive Emanations by Charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE interesting property of certain kinds of charcoal, notably that of the cocoa-nut, of rapidly absorbing gases, except the inert gases belonging to the argon family, is now well known since the recent experiments of Sir James Dewar.

E. Rutherford

1906-01-01

129

Adsorption characteristics of cellulose acetate coated charcoals.  

PubMed

The permeability of cellulose triacetate membrane coated activated charcoal is enhanced by treatment with KOH. The adsorption data for creatinine in aqueous solution before and after deacetylation are given. In order to study the usefulness of hemoperfusion associated with dialysis for removal of uremic toxins, some experiments were performed on the adsorption by coated and deacetylated charcoal of molecules of various molecular weights (from 113 to 40,000). Although the adsorption capacity of uncoated charcoal was better, the coated material still shows good properties in the adsorption of glucagon (mol wt 3485). The results on in vitro experiments of vitamin B12 removal by coated charcoal cartridge and CDAK Model 3 dialyzer confirms the usefulness of adsorption technique toward medium molecular weight compounds. PMID:1176475

Denti, E; Luboz, M P; Tessore, V

1975-03-01

130

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti  

E-print Network

The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01

131

A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

132

Fluidized bed charcoal particle production system  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed charcoal particle production system, including apparatus and method, wherein pieces of combustible waste, such as sawdust, fragments of wood, etc., are continuously disposed within a fluidized bed of a pyrolytic vessel. Preferably, the fluidized bed is caused to reach operating temperatures by use of an external pre-heater. The fluidized bed is situated above an air delivery system at the bottom of the vessel, which supports pyrolysis within the fluidized bed. Charcoal particles are thus formed within the bed from the combustible waste and are lifted from the bed and placed in suspension above the bed by forced air passing upwardly through the bed. The suspended charcoal particles and the gaseous medium in which the particles are suspended are displaced from the vessel into a cyclone mechanism where the charcoal particles are separated. The separated charcoal particles are quenched with water to terminate all further charcoal oxidation. The remaining off-gas is burned and, preferably, the heat therefrom used to generate steam, kiln dry lumber, etc. Preferably, the bed material is continuously recirculated and purified by removing tramp material.

Sowards, N.K.

1985-04-09

133

Cotton Root-rot.  

E-print Network

excelsa, Pinus sylvestri.s, Strobw, P. Laricio, Larix Europoea, Acer platanoides. Fagus. This disease manifests itself by the blackening of the roots and rootlets. The Cotylcdons have a spotted appearance. Warm and moist weather causes the fungus... Persimmon (Diospyros Kaki) grafted on the native Per- simmon (D. Tri~~iniana), Silver Maple (Acer dasycarpum), Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera). Of this list the China and Paper Mulberry trees suffer most. In August, 1888, the roots of a number...

Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

1889-01-01

134

Relationships of nonstructural carbohydrates to resistance to charcoal rot in sorghum  

E-print Network

was reported by Mains (42). He showed that any alteration of carbohydrate supply reduces or sup- presses infection of maize and oat +vena ~sat a L. ) leaves by Pu~cci g ~sor hi and g, coronata, respectively. Rust species are considered to be essentially...

Tenkouano, Abdou

2012-06-07

135

New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

1999-07-01

136

Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.  

PubMed

We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p < 0.0005), the Cmax by 77% (p < 0.0005), and the amount of pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p < 0.0005). When charcoal was administered 2 h after pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion. PMID:9029746

Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

1997-02-01

137

Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods  

SciTech Connect

The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

Emrich, W.

1985-01-01

138

Evaluating unsupervised and supervised image classification methods for mapping cotton root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for over a century, but effective practices for its control are still lacking. R...

139

Evaluating spectral measures derived from airborne multispectral imagery for detecting cotton root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for more than 100 years, but effective practices for its control are still lacki...

140

Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

141

The Mitochondrial Genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa are closely related basidiomycetes that cause two important diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): frosty pod rot and the witches' broom disease, respectively. A comparison of the complete mitochondrial genomes of these pathogens shows a high degr...

142

A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

143

Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

2006-05-01

144

Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

145

Hardware Accelerated Real Time Charcoal Rendering Aditi Majumder M. Gopi  

E-print Network

Hardware Accelerated Real Time Charcoal Rendering Aditi Majumder M. Gopi Department of Computer. The effects include characteristics of charcoal draw- ings like broad grainy strokes and smooth tonal variations that are achieved by smudging the charcoal by hand. Further, we also gen- erate the closure effect

Majumder, Aditi

146

49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

2012-10-01

147

49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

2011-10-01

148

Short Paper Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with  

E-print Network

Short Paper Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with a particle dispersal model February 2007 Abstract To aid interpreting the source area of charcoal in lake-sediment records, we compare charcoal deposition from an experimental fire to predictions from a particle dispersal model. This provides

Whitlock, Cathy L.

149

49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

2010-10-01

150

49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

2014-10-01

151

49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

2013-10-01

152

Estimation of charcoal (char) in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the semiquantitative estimation of charcoal (char) in soils is reported. The technique, performed on the <53 ?m fraction of soils, utilizes the highly aromatic nature of char and its relative stability to two hours of high energy ultraviolet photo?oxidation compared to other soil carbon fractions. The proportion of char in the <53 ?m fraction is estimated as

J. O. Skjernstad; J. A. Taylor; R. J. Smernik

1999-01-01

153

Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

Brisson, Harriet E.

1980-01-01

154

Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment  

E-print Network

Abstract Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global and outline 11 1.1 Introduction ­ water scarcity and wastewater pollution 11 1.2 Objectives 13 1Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment Pollutant Removal and Recycling Opportunities

155

Effect of biocontrol agents and biofertilizers on root rot, yield, harvest index and nutrient uptake of cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava is an important subsidiary food and industrial raw material in the tropics. Root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, poses a serious threat to cassava cultivation in Tamil Nadu, India. Field experiments (2008–09) were conducted to study the effect of biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and biofertilizers (Azospirillum, vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) on root rot,

A. C. Hridya; G. Byju; Raj Sekhar Misra

2012-01-01

156

Evaluation of a diverse red clover collection for clover rot resistance (Sclerotinia trifoliorum).  

PubMed

Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikks. causes clover rot (clover cancer, Sclerotinia crown and root rot), an important disease in European red clover crops (Trifolium pratense L). The fungus infects plants in autumn through ascospores and entire fields can be destroyed by early spring. Although previous studies have evaluated various red clover populations for clover rot resistance, screening was often performed with one local isolate on just a few local varieties, often cultivars. Until today, no large collections of diverse red clover accessions have been screened. In this study, we studied the variation in clover rot susceptibility among 122 red clover accessions, including 85 accessions from the NPGS-USDA core collection. Cultivars (both diploid and tetraploid), landraces and wild accessions were included and different S. trifoliorum isolates were used. In a field experiment, plant yield, branching and susceptibility to mildew, rust and virus disease were scored for 122 red clover accessions. A similar collection of germplasm was screened for clover rot resistance by a bio-test on young plants using a mixture of five aggressive S. trifoliorum isolates. The effects of the variety type, ploidy level, growth habit, resistance to other diseases and levels of isoflavones (available for the NPGS-USDA collection) on clover rot susceptibility were determined. Possible sources of resistance were identified. Our red clover accessions differed significantly in susceptibility but no accession was completely resistant Three accessions (Maro, Tedi and No. 292) were significantly less susceptible than the other accessions. Intensive branching or a prostrate growth habit did not render plants more resistant. Accessions resistant to mildew or viruses were not more resistant to clover rot and accessions with high levels of isoflavones were not better protected against clover rot. On the other hand, tetraploid cultivars were on average 10% less susceptible than diploid cultivars. Cultivars were generally less susceptible than landraces and wild accessions. Allocating sources of resistance for breeding purposes is difficult. The best way to improve clover rot resistance may be to select and intercross resistant plants from cultivars with low susceptibility. PMID:25151826

Vleugels, T; Baert, J; Van Bockstaele, E

2013-01-01

157

Application of Genomic and Quantitative Genetic Tools to Identify Candidate Resistance Genes for Brown Rot Resistance in Peach  

PubMed Central

The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar ‘Dr. Davis’ and a brown rot resistant introgression line, ‘F8,1–42’, derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Parfitt, Dan E.; Bostock, Richard M.; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

2013-01-01

158

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

159

Ectomycorrhizae establishment on Douglas-fir seedlings following chloropicrin treatment to control laminated-root rot disease: Assessment 4 and 5 years after outplanting 1 Disclaimer, United States: This paper reports the results of research only. Mention of a pesticide does not constitute a recommendation for use by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, nor does it imply registration under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended. Also, mention of a commercial or proprietary product does not constitute recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminated-root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb., is a serious disease affecting Douglas-fir and other commercially important species of conifers in northwestern North America. Recent work has shown that this fungus is successfully reduced or eliminated by the fumigant chloropicrin. However, the effect of this biocide on nontarget organisms, including ectomycorrhizae, is uncertain. Following an initial assessment of organisms

Hugues B Massicotte; Linda E. Tackaberry; Elaine R Ingham; Walter G Thies

1998-01-01

160

Monitoring cotton root rot progression within and across growing seasons using remote sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore Shear (Duggar), is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern U.S. More recently, a fungicide, flutriafol, has been evaluated in Texas and was found to have the potential for controlling ...

161

Identification and characterization of peanut oxalate genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

162

Identified a sugar beet variety that shows natural resistance to crown and root rot  

E-print Network

in pesticide costs each year. With 160,000 acres devoted to sugar beets in Michigan, the fourth largest pro· Identified a sugar beet variety that shows natural resistance to crown and root rot disease/MSU Kurt Stepnitz/MSU #12;Identified a sugar beet variety that shows natural resistance to crown and root

163

Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

164

CONTROL OF GREEN MOLD AND SOUR ROT OF STORED LEMONS BY BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...

165

Identification of QTL for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in Soybean Plant Introduction 194639  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a difficult disease to manage, although some gains have been made through breeding for quantitative resistance. The objective was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling partial ...

166

Prospects for Inhibition of Lignin Degrading Enzymes to Control Ganoderma White Rot of Oil Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as \\

Russell R. M. Paterson; Sariah Meon; M. A. Zainal Abidina; N. Limab

167

SOURCES OF PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM ROOT ROT IN THE PISUM CORE COLLECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is one of the most important fungal diseases of pea and is found in most pea growing areas around the world. Currently, no commercial cultivars are resistant to this pathogen. Availability of new sources of partial resistance could provide ...

168

Rhizoctonia solani as a component in the bottom rot complex of glasshouse lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal parts of maturing glasshouse lettuce can be attacked by several soil fungi, which cause bottom rot. Until recently quintozene was generally applied against this disease complex. The study of the causal fungi - especially Rhizoctonia solani - and their control was undertaken in view of the need for quintozene replacing fungicides.A survey revealed that Botrytis cinerea was the

T. Kooistra

1983-01-01

169

Influence of ground cover on development of phytophthora crown and root rot of apple trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ground cover with fall rye, perennial rye grass, oats, canola, quack grass, and timothy grass on percent mortality and disease severity ratings of phytophthora crown and root rot of apple trees was determined over five years under orchard conditions in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Fall rye and perennial rye grass significantly (P = 0.05) reduced

R. S. Utkhede; E. J. Hogue

1999-01-01

170

Detection of potato brown rot and ring rot by electronic nose: from laboratory to real scale.  

PubMed

A commercial electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with a metal oxide sensor array was trained to recognize volatile compounds emitted by potatoes experimentally infected with Ralstonia solanacearum or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, which are bacterial agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively. Two sampling procedures for volatile compounds were tested on pooled tubers sealed in 0.5-1 L jars at room temperature (laboratory conditions): an enrichment unit containing different adsorbent materials (namely, Tenax(®) TA, Carbotrap, Tenax(®) GR, and Carboxen 569) directly coupled with the e-nose (active sampling) and a Radiello(™) cartridge (passive sampling) containing a generic Carbograph fiber. Tenax(®) TA resulted the most suitable adsorbent material for active sampling. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 57.4 and 81.3% total samples as healthy or diseased, when using active and passive sampling, respectively. These results suggested the use of passive sampling to discriminate healthy from diseased tubers under intermediate and real scale conditions. 80 and 90% total samples were correctly classified by LDA under intermediate (100 tubers stored at 4°C in net bag passively sampled) and real scale conditions (tubers stored at 4°C in 1.25 t bags passively sampled). Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensorial analysis data under laboratory conditions highlighted a strict relationship between the disease severity and the responses of the e-nose sensors, whose sensitivity threshold was linked to the presence of at least one tuber per sample showing medium disease symptoms. At intermediate and real scale conditions, data distribution agreed with disease incidence (percentage of diseased tubers), owing to the low storage temperature and volatile compounds unconfinement conditions adopted. PMID:25127615

Biondi, E; Blasioli, S; Galeone, A; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; Lucchese, C; Braschi, I

2014-11-01

171

Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

1998-11-01

172

Fungus Threatens the Viability of Cotton For more than a century, the fungal disease cotton root  

E-print Network

Fungus Threatens the Viability of Cotton For more than a century, the fungal disease cotton root rot has been one of the most destructive cotton diseases in Texas. Cotton root rot reduces yield to screen new classes of fungicides to control for cotton root rot. Beginning in 2005, AgriLife Extension

173

Charcoal deposition and redeposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary charcoal, diatom and phytolith records of the past 1500 years at Elk Lake, Minnesota, in combination with sediment trap studies and a transect of surface sediment samples, document the mechanisms by which previously deposited charcoal is redeposited and finally buried in this lake. The frequent correspondence of high diatom concentrations and peaks of phytolith and charcoal fragments suggest that currents and turbulence related to lake circulation are responsible for winnowing charcoal and phytoliths from shallow water depositional sites to deeper areas of the lake. High diatom concentrations in the record relate to increased nutrient fluxes also supplied by circulation. Despite the fact that the watershed and area around Elk Lake has not been burned since AD 1922, charcoal continues to reach the profundal zone from littoral source areas in Elk Lake. The variable redeposition of within-lake charcoal requires evaluation before fire-history records can be related to global, regional or even local fire events.

Platt, Bradbury J.

1996-01-01

174

Prevalence of Erwinia soft rot affecting cut foliage, Dracaena sanderiana ornamental industry and solution towards its management.  

PubMed

The study was carried out under net house conditions at Green Farms Ltd, Marawila to determine the occurrence and severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in Dracaena sanderiana plants and to formulate the possible control measures. Field experiment was carried out to manage the soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants. Three different soil treatments with vermicompost, cow dung and poultry manure were tested to manage the disease and plots without application were kept as control. Percent disease incidence, disease reduction and growth parameters were recorded and data were statistically analyzed. Higher percentage of disease reduction was observed in vermicompost (80%) treated plots than those with cow dung (60%) and poultry manure treated. Sprinkler application of water was found favorable to spread soft rot disease and watering through horse pope had lessened the disease incidence significantly. Moreover plant height, shoot and root biomass, number of leaves per plant, leaf length and leaf width were significantly high in vermicompost media. Weeding, removal of diseased leaves and plants, and avoiding sprinkler irrigation were helpful to reduce the disease spread from plant to plant. Vermicompost is the best substrate for suppression of the disease and promoting the growth of plant. Among the different water management practices tested to reduce the disease severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants, water irrigated through the horse pipe was effective compare to sprinkler application. In-vitro experiment conducted to manage the Erwinia soft rot disease by using bio-agent, Pseudomonas fluorescens was found effective to reduce the growth of Erwinia under in-vitro conditions. PMID:23878983

Kayalvily, Thio Desiya; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, Arne; Mikunthan, G

2012-01-01

175

Flowrate effects upon adsorption in a charcoal sampling tube  

E-print Network

to a wide variety of chemical agents. Materials used as solid sorbents include activated charcoal, silica gel, and porous polymers, among others. In field sampling, these sorbents are generally found as a supported packing or bed within a glass tube... present in the air volume sampled. (1) The most widely used of the sorbents noted above is activated charcoal for collection of gaseous vapors. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended a standard size charcoal...

Bolton, Fredric Newell

1984-01-01

176

Rhizoctonia damping off stem canker and root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

177

Identification of sources of resistance to sugarcane red rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, adversely affects sugarcane stand establishment in Louisiana by rotting planted stalks. Since cultivar resistance is the most effective control method, a study was conducted to identify sources of resistance to red rot and evaluate variability within Sacc...

178

7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky...

2010-01-01

179

7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky...

2010-01-01

180

Archaeological charcoal: natural or human impact on the vegetation Charcoals from aprehistorie fire-set pit in the Austrian Alps -dendro-dates,  

E-print Network

Archaeological charcoal: natural or human impact on the vegetation Charcoals from aprehistorie fire into the dolomite rock. Copper ore was exploited in the pit MaukE in prehistory. Large quantities of charcoal were: Alpen Reliefkarte - Tirol Atlas). MATERIALS AND METHODS Out of the assemblage of charcoals (completely

Nicolussi, Kurt

181

Short Paper Soil charcoal stability over the Holocene across boreal northeastern North America  

E-print Network

Short Paper Soil charcoal stability over the Holocene across boreal northeastern North America Available online 31 July 2011 Keywords: Anthracomass Boreal Holocene Macroscopic soil charcoal Taphonomy The analysis of macroscopic wood charcoal fragments extracted from soils is frequently used

Asselin, Hugo

182

Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory Report Review of Technologies for the Production and Use of Charcoal  

E-print Network

and Use of Charcoal Daniel M. Kammen1 & Debra J. Lew2 Energy and Resources Group & Goldman School Charcoal consumption____________________________________________________2 Rural and Urban uses of woodfuels and charcoal______________________________3 Environmental Impacts

Kammen, Daniel M.

183

Systems of Hess-Appel'rot Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct higher-dimensional generalizations of the classical Hess- Appel’rot rigid body system. We give a Lax pair with a spectral parameter leading to an algebro-geometric integration of this new class of systems, which is closely related to the integration of the Lagrange bitop performed by us recently and uses Mumford relation for theta divisors of double unramified coverings. Based on the basic properties satisfied by such a class of systems related to bi-Poisson structure, quasi-homogeneity, and conditions on the Kowalevski exponents, we suggest an axiomatic approach leading to what we call the “class of systems of Hess-Appel’rot type”.

Dragovi?, Vladimir; Gaji?, Borislav

2006-07-01

184

Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fungi which cause rot and decay in our forests are vital members of the ecosystem. By decomposing the hard woody stems of trees they help recycle important nutrients, minerals, and carbohydrates. Unlike many organisms which are easy to see, the fungi are often hidden under bark or within living stems and their presence is not obvious. This laboratory exercise provides instructors with information about where to find and how to visualize and manipulate fungi which cause rot and decay, while discovering how ubiquitous and important they are.

John A. Johnson (University of New Brunswick;)

1989-06-06

185

Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193  

PubMed Central

Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot bacteria and, potentially, other bacteria as well. PMID:23133391

Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

2012-01-01

186

Charcoal as an alternative energy source. sub-project: briquetting of charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal briquettes have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It appears most realistic to use binders in solution. Binders of this kind have been examined and the briquettes' mechanical properties measured. Most promising are borresperse, gum arabic, dynolex, and wood tar.

Enstad, G.G.

1982-02-02

187

Rhizome rot of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) caused by Pythium myriotylum in Fiji and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on the etiology of rhizome rot of ginger are presented for Fiji and Australia. In Fiji, the disease generally\\u000a develops during hot, wet conditions in March and April, and often causes losses of more than 50% in seed crops. In Australia,\\u000a the disease was observed for the first time during the wet summer of 2007–08, almost totally destroying the

G. R. Stirling; U. Turaganivalu; A. M. Stirling; M. F. Lomavatu; M. K. Smith

2009-01-01

188

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

2014-01-01

189

The Study of Electromagnetic Shielding Efficient of cement mortar with bamboo-charcoal ingredient.  

E-print Network

??This research mainly focuses on the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of bamboo -charcoal, using cement mortar with bamboo-charcoal ingredient replacing parts of thin aggregates weight, and… (more)

Yen, Zih-huan

2008-01-01

190

The use of charcoal in in vitro culture – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media. Its addition to culture medium may promote or inhibit in vitro growth, depending on species and tissues used. The effects of activated charcoal may be attributed to establishing a darkened environment; adsorption of undesirable\\/inhibitory substances; adsorption of growth regulators and other organic compounds, or the release of growth promoting substances present

M. J. Pan; J. van Staden

1998-01-01

191

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

192

Theorizing Access: Forest Profits along Senegal's Charcoal Commodity Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The questions at the centre of this article are: who profits from commercial forestry, and how? Through access mapping with commodity chain analysis, this study examines the distribution of benefits from Senegal's charcoal trade and the multiple market mechanisms underpinning that distribution. Benefits from charcoal are derived from direct control over forest access, as well as through access to markets,

Jesse C. Ribot

1998-01-01

193

Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1987-07-01

194

The effect of charcoal tube geometry on breakthrough volume  

E-print Network

TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIST OF TABLES. LIST OF FIGURES. . . . vi viii ix INTRODUCTION. LITERATURE REVIEW. Activated Carbon. Adsorption Theory. Fluid Flow in a Packed Bed Adsorption Rate. Charcoal Tubes and Breakthrough Volume. . The Problem... Concentrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 INTRODUCTION Activated carbon (charcoal) is the preferred adsorbing media used for industrial hygiene sampling involving organic solvent vapors. The preferred air sampling method for most organic solvent vapors...

Strange, Jay B.

1989-01-01

195

Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that

Eric Johnson

2009-01-01

196

Changes in Molecular Size Distribution of Cellulose during Attack by White Rot and Brown Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of cotton cellulose depolymerization by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated with solid-state cultures. The degree of polymerization (DP; the average number of glucosyl residues per cellulose molecule) of cellulose removed from soil-block cultures during degradation by P. placenta was first determined viscosimetrically. Changes in molecular size distribution of cellulose attacked by either fungus were then determined by size exclusion chromatography as the tricarbanilate derivative. The first study with P. placenta revealed two phases of depolymerization: a rapid decrease to a DP of approximately 800 and then a slower decrease to a DP of approximately 250. Almost all depolymerization occurred before weight loss. Determination of the molecular size distribution of cellulose during attack by the brown rot fungus revealed single major peaks centered over progressively lower DPs. Cellulose attacked by P. chrysosporium was continuously consumed and showed a different pattern of change in molecular size distribution than cellulose attacked by P. placenta. At first, a broad peak which shifted at a slightly lower average DP appeared, but as attack progressed the peak narrowed and the average DP increased slightly. From these results, it is apparent that the mechanism of cellulose degradation differs fundamentally between brown and white rot fungi, as represented by the species studied here. We conclude that the brown rot fungus cleaved completely through the amorphous regions of the cellulose microfibrils, whereas the white rot fungus attacked the surfaces of the microfibrils, resulting in a progressive erosion. PMID:16348694

Kleman-Leyer, Karen; Agosin, Eduardo; Conner, Anthony H.; Kirk, T. Kent

1992-01-01

197

Development of a ROT22 - DATAMAP interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report (Contract NAS2-10331- Mod 10), outlines the development and validation of an interface between the three-dimensional transonic analysis program ROT22 and the Data from Aeromechanics Test and Analytics-Management and Analysis Package (DATAMAP). After development of the interface, the validation is carried out as follows. First, the DATAMAP program is used to analyze a portion of the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) data. Specifically, records 2872 and 2873 are analyzed at an azimuth of 90 deg, and record 2806 is analyzed at 60 deg. Trim conditions for these flight conditions are then calculated using the Bell performance prediction program ARAM45. Equivalent shaft, pitch, and twist angles are calculated from ARAM45 results and used as input to the ROT22 program. The interface uses the ROT22 results and creates DATAMAP information files from which the surface pressure contours and sectional pressure coefficients are plotted. Twist angles input to ROT22 program are then iteratively modified in the tip region until the computed pressure coefficients closely match the measurements. In all cases studied, the location of the shock is well predicted. However, the negative pressure coefficients were underpredicted. This could be accounted for by blade vortex interaction effects.

Shenoy, K. R.; Waak, T.; Brieger, J. T.

1986-01-01

198

Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In September 2009, Trichoderma rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreening with 5...

199

Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal  

SciTech Connect

Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

Merritt, C.M. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Lycoming, NY (United States); Scala, F.R. [Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-05-01

200

Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

201

Repeat charcoal hemoperfusion treatments in life threatening carbamazepine overdose.  

PubMed

A 16-month-old female experienced a massive carbamazepine ingestion resulting in a peak serum carbamazepine concentration of 55 microg/ml. Clinical manifestations included generalized seizures, coma, shock, and gastrointestinal hypomotility. Gut decontamination was attempted using multiple-dose activated charcoal and cathartics. Because of the severity of illness, charcoal hemoperfusion was initiated. The patient underwent three sessions of charcoal hemoperfusion, each utilizing a fresh cartridge, with one session immediately following the other. Serum carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide concentrations decreased from 54 microg/ml to 23 microg/ml, and 30 microg/ml to 17 microg/ml, respectively, during charcoal hemoperfusion. There were no complications. The patient recovered completely and was discharged on the 4th hospital day. Charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for life-threatening carbamazepine intoxication, especially when drug-induced gastrointestinal hypomotility prevents elimination via the gut. PMID:10603119

Deshpande, G; Meert, K L; Valentini, R P

1999-11-01

202

Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

2000-01-01

203

Control of potato soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum by Moroccan actinobacteria isolates.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum are dreadful causal agents of potato soft rot. Actually, there are no efficient bactericides used to protect potato against Pectobacterium spp. Biological control using actinobacteria could be an interesting approach to manage this disease. Thus, two hundred actinobacteria isolated from Moroccan habitats were tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro 4 environmental Pectobacterium strains and the two reference strains (P. carotovorum CFBP 5890 and P. atrosepticum CFBP 5889). Eight percent of these isolates were active against at least one of the tested pathogens and only 2% exhibited an antimicrobial activity against all tested Pectobacterium strains. Four bioactive isolates having the greatest pathogen inhibitory capabilities and classified as belonging to the genus Streptomyces species through 16S rDNA analysis were subsequently tested for their ability to reduce in vivo soft rot symptoms on potato slices of Bintje, Yukon Gold, Russet and Norland cultivars caused by the two pathogens P. carotovorum and P. atrosepticum. This test was carried out by using biomass inoculums and culture filtrate of the isolates as treatment. Among these, strain Streptomyces sp. OE7, reduced by 65-94% symptom severity caused by the two pathogens on potato slices. Streptomyces OE7 showed a potential for controlling soft rot on potato slices and could be useful in an integrated control program against potato soft rot pathogens in the objective to reduce treatments with chemical compounds. PMID:22806806

Baz, M; Lahbabi, D; Samri, S; Val, F; Hamelin, G; Madore, I; Bouarab, K; Beaulieu, C; Ennaji, M M; Barakate, Mustapha

2012-01-01

204

Charcoal suspension for tumor labelling modifies macrophage activity in mice.  

PubMed

We have previously developed a charcoal suspension for injection into human breast cancers in order to facilitate their location during surgery. We observed that charcoal particles were ingested by intra and peritumoral macrophages, some of which carried the particles at some distance from the injection site. We studied the influence of the formulation parameters of the charcoal suspension for intratumoral injection on in vitro and in vivo activation and in vivo mobilization of mouse peritoneal macrophages after intra-peritoneal injection of 2 mL of each preparation. The influence of the charcoal origin (peat vs wood), granulometry, suspension vehicle (water for parenteral injection, vs saline), concentration and excipients were studied. Micronized peat charcoal in water for injection at the highest studied concentration reduced macrophage activation in vitro and in vivo. However, macrophage mobilization was weaker than after thioglycolate injection and did not seem to be charcoal dose-dependent. The additives incorporated in the charcoal suspension led in vivo to increased peritoneal macrophage activation and mobilization (mannitol, and glucose), only increased activation (polysorbate 80 and pluronic F68) or mobilization (dextran 40, egg lecithin, and cabosil), or inhibited both activation and mobilization (cremophor EL). PMID:10698356

Bonhomme-Faivre, L; Depraetere, P; Savelli, M P; Amdidouche, D; Bizi, E; Seiller, M; Orbach-Arbouys, S

2000-01-21

205

Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

1980-01-01

206

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

207

Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR  

SciTech Connect

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-10-01

208

Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

2006-06-01

209

Conduciveness of different soilless growing media to Pythium root and crown rot of cucumber under near-commercial conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrates made from rockwool, coir dust, pumice and perlite were compared for conduciveness to Pythium root and crown rot in cucumber under near-commercial conditions. Rockwool slabs of 7 cm height were more conducive to the Pythium disease than coir dust slabs, pumice or perlite under these conditions. Temperature, oxygen concentration and water content were determined in the substrates to explain

Dirk Jan van der Gaag; Gerrit Wever

2005-01-01

210

First report of Lasmenia sp. causing rachis necrosis, flower abortion, fruit rot and leaf spots on rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rambutan is an exotic tropical fruit that has increased in commercial importance for growers in Puerto Rico. In 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on both leaves and inflorescences were observed. A total of 276 diseased samples from these plant parts were collected at commercial orchards, Agricult...

211

Difference between chitosan and oligochitosan in growth of Monilinia fructicola and control of brown rot in peach fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chitosan (CS) and oligochitosan (OCS), as natural antifungal agents, have been primarily used as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The effectiveness of these two agents on the growth of Monilinia fructicola to control brown rot has not yet been...

212

Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America  

PubMed Central

Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

2010-01-01

213

PCR/RFLP BASED METHOD FOR DETECTION OF RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM RACE 3/BIOVAR2 CAUSING BROWN ROT OF POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

R. solanacearum has a broad host range and can be subdivided into 4 races and 5 biovars according to the plant host and biochemical properties. R. solanacearum race 3/biovar 2 primarily infects potato and is the phenotype responsible for recent outbreaks of potato brown rot disease in several count...

214

Postharvest jasmonic acid treatment of sugarbeet roots reduces rot due to Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium claviforme, and Phoma betae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although jasmonic acid (JA) and JA derivatives are known to activate plant defense mechanisms and provide protection against postharvest fungal diseases for several horticultural crops, JA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots against common causal organisms of storage rot is unkno...

215

The Salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344 grows to 50-fold greater populations in the pres...

216

Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea  

PubMed Central

The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25? and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae

2007-01-01

217

Characterization of a brown rot fungus isolated from dwarf flowering almond in Korea.  

PubMed

The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25? and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae; Kim, Seong Hwan

2007-03-01

218

Formation of charcoal from biomass in a sealed reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, samples o cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and nine species of whole biomass are pyrolyzed in sealed reactors. Very high charcoal yields (e.g., 40% from cellulose, 48% from Eucalyptus gummifera) were obtained. Higher sample loading (sample mass per unit reactor volume) increased charcoal yield and the associated exothermic heat release and lowered the reaction onset temperature. These effects were induced by the vapor-phase concentrations of the volatile products, and not the system pressure. Addition of water catalyzed the reaction and increased the char yield. These observations suggest that charcoal formation is autocatalyzed by water, an initial pyrolysis product. When whole biomass was used as a feedstock, higher charcoal yields were obtained from species with high lignin and/or low hemicellulose content.

Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Szabo, P.; Varhegyi, G.; Zelei, B. (Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1502 (Hungary))

1992-04-01

219

24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON PLANT FROM SOUTH END OF BEACH, probably 1901. (From the Robert Teagle Private Collection, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

220

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

221

Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review  

PubMed Central

The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones.

Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, MCM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, JM; Sledz, W

2015-01-01

222

Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi  

PubMed Central

Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A.; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

2014-01-01

223

Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi.  

PubMed

Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A; Brown, Daren W; Nagy, Laszlo G; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Walton, Jonathan D; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S; Grigoriev, Igor V

2014-07-01

224

Removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewaters by bone charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto bone charcoal was studied as a function of time, amount of charcoal, pH, concentration\\u000a of chromium and sample volume. The cross interference with other elements was also investigated. Tests were carried out with\\u000a solutions of chromium(VI) at concentrations between 5 and 25 mg · L–1. Chromium removal efficiencies higher than 90% were achieved at

S. Dahbi; M. Azzi; M. de la Guardia

1999-01-01

225

Fluorine gettering by activated charcoal in a radiation environment  

SciTech Connect

Activated charcoal has been shown to be an effective gettering agent for the fluorine gas that is liberated in a radiation environment. Even though activated charcoal is a commonly used getter, little is known about the radiation stability of the fluorine-charcoal product. This work has shown that not only is the product stable in high gamma radiation fields, but also that radiation enhances the capacity of the charcoal for the fluorine. The most useful application of this work is with the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt because the radioactive components (fission products and actinides) cause radiolytic damage to the solid LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (64.5, 30.3, 5.0, 0.13 mol %, respectively) resulting in the liberation of fluorine gas. This work has also demonstrated that the maximum damage to the fuel salt by approx.3 /times/ 10/sup 7/ R/h gamma radiation is approximately 2%, at which point the rate of recombination of fluorine with active metal sites within the salt lattice equals the rate of fluorine generation. The enhanced reactivity of the activated charcoal and radiation stability of the product ensures that the gettered fluorine will stay sequestered in the charcoal.

Felker, L.K.; Toth, L.M.

1988-10-01

226

Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

SciTech Connect

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.u [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)

2009-11-15

227

Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests. PMID:24168046

Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

2014-03-01

228

Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA1  

E-print Network

Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA. J. Torrey) charcoal, quantified charcoal mass, and radiocarbon-dated charcoal macrofossils in 10 soil cores to develop

Hart, Justin

229

Induction of apoptotic cell death leads to the development of bacterial rot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas cichorii is the major causal agent of bacterial rot of lettuce. Collapse and browning symptoms were observed in lettuce leaf tissue from 15 to 24 h after inoculation (HAI) with P. cichorii; superoxide anion generation was detected at 1 to 6 HAI; and cell death was induced at 6 HAI, reaching a maximum at approximately 9 and 12 HAI. Heterochromatin condensation and DNA laddering also were observed within 3 HAI. Pharmacological studies showed that induction of cell death and DNA laddering was closely associated with de novo protein synthesis, protein kinase, intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNase, serine protease, and caspase III-like protease. Moreover, chemicals, which inhibited the induction of cell death and DNA laddering, also suppressed the development of disease symptoms. These results suggest that apoptotic cell death might be closely associated with the development of bacterial rot caused by P. cichorii. PMID:16529373

Kiba, Akinori; Sangawa, Yasutaka; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Yao, Nan; Park, Pyoyun; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Yasufumi

2006-02-01

230

Feasibility of bioremediation by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ligninolytic enzymes of white-rot fungi have a broad substrate specificity and have been implicated in the transformation and mineralization of organopollutants with structural similarities to lignin. This review presents evidence for the involvement of these enzymes in white-rot fungal degradation of munitions waste, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bleach plant effluent, synthetic dyes, synthetic polymers, and wood preservatives.

S. Pointing

2001-01-01

231

Take-All Root Rot of Turfgrass  

E-print Network

can be lifted easily from the soil because of the poor root system. Nodes may be discolored. The yel - lowish foliage eventually dies and turns brown. Take-all root rot may be mistaken for Rhizoctonia brown patch or chinch bug injury on St.... Augustine - grass. If you suspect your grass has possibility of these other problems. Chinch bug infestation. To check for chinch bugs, mix 2 tablespoons of a liquid dishwashing detergent in a gallon of water and use a water - ing can to pour it evenly...

Krausz, Joseph P.

2005-04-21

232

Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

233

Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance the resistance of peach fruit to brown rot.  

PubMed

The effects of chitosan and oligachitosan on resistance induction of peach fruit against brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola were investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan showed significant effect on controlling this disease. Moreover, chitosan and oligochitosan delayed fruit softening and senescence. The two antifungal substances enhanced antioxidant and defense-related enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ?-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI), and they also stimulated the transcript expression of POD and GLU. These findings suggest that the effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on disease control and quality maintenance of peach fruit may be associated with their antioxidant property and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. PMID:23544538

Ma, Zengxin; Yang, Lingyu; Yan, Haixia; Kennedy, John F; Meng, Xianghong

2013-04-15

234

Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables. PMID:23404399

Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

2013-01-01

235

Fine-Scale Genetic Structure of Monilinia fructicola During Brown Rot Epidemics Within Individual Peach Tree Canopies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the fine-scale genetic structure of populations of the brown rot pathogen Monilinia fructicola within individual peach tree canopies to better understand within-tree plant pathogen diversity and to complement previous work on spatio-temporal development of brown rot disease at the canopy level. Across 3 years in a total of six trees, we monitored disease development, collected isolates from every M. fructicola symptom during the course of the season, and created high-resolution three-dimensional maps of all symptom and isolate locations within individual canopies using an electromagnetic digitizer. Each canopy population (65 to 173 isolates per tree) was characterized using a set of 13 microsatellite markers and analyzed for evidence of spatial genetic autocorrelation among isolates during the epidemic phase of the disease. Results showed high genetic diversity (average uh = 0.529) and high genotypic diversity (average D = 0.928) within canopies. The percentage of unique multilocus haplotypes within trees was greater for blossom blight isolates (78.2%) than for fruit rot isolates (51.3%), indicating a greater contribution of clonal reproduction during the pre-harvest epidemic. For fruit rot isolates, between 54.2 and 81.7% of isolates were contained in one to four dominant clonal genotypes per tree having at least 10 members. All six fruit rot populations showed positive and significant spatial genetic autocorrelation for distance classes between 0.37 and 1.48 m. Despite high levels of within-tree pathogen diversity, the contribution of locally available inoculum combined with short-distance dispersal is likely the main factor generating clonal population foci and associated spatial genetic clustering within trees. PMID:25317843

Everhart, Sydney; Scherm, Harald

2014-10-15

236

The stability and functional properties of charcoal in Ghanaian agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of biochar will lead to its eventual mineralisation to CO2, but how does this happen and how quickly will the biochar break down? This study focuses on the fate of charcoal, as an analogue for biochar, over a ten year period in rural Ghana. The objectives of the work were to determine the stability of charcoal over this timeframe, the change in its functional properties and to calibrate or validate recently established approaches to age biochar artificially. The study showed that the oxygen-to-carbon ratio of charcoal surfaces generally increases over time. Gradually the oxidation penetrates the subsurface layers, causing surface layers to erode and exposing previously un-aged surfaces to degradation.

Maxfield, Tom; Sohi, Saran

2014-05-01

237

The effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing sheep  

E-print Network

The effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing- 1227). The activated charcoal (AC) was an alternative additive tried by some beef operators in Japan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal  

E-print Network

In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

2006-01-01

239

Charcoal's physical properties are key to understanding its environmental behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal is a highly porous, low density material whose physical properties play a key role in its soil behavior and its environmental fate. In considering biochar, some of its most sought-after environmental effects are a result of its physical characteristics, not its chemical or biological properties. For example, the ability of biochar to retain soil water is widely attributed to its porosity. However, charcoal physical properties are so poorly understood that they are sometimes not characterized at all in the current literature. Here we outline a suite of basic physical properties of charcoal and the likely environmental effects of their variations, with a focus on the interactions between charcoal and water. The most basic physical property of charcoal, its particle size, likely plays a role in its ability to alter the rate of drainage in soils. Particle morphology is also relevant, affecting how particles of soil and char can pack together. Bulk densities of charcoal and soil mixtures can be used to generate a simple estimate of the efficiency of char-soil packing. Charcoal density is an additionally important property and can be measured in a number of ways. Density almost certainly controls the tendency of chars to sink or float, and to erode or remain on the land surface. However, charcoal density can vary by almost a factor of 10 depending on the measurement technique used. We discuss two simple techniques available for measuring char density and the value of information provided by each approach. Finally, we report a simple, fast technique to measure total char porosity, including all pores from nanometers to 10s of micrometers in size. Porosity is at least one of the key controls on the ability of biochar to improve plant-available water, and techniques to measure it have previously been limited to the smallest fraction of pores (N2 sorption) or have required expensive, hazardous procedures (Hg porosimetry). We show that char porosity varies primarily as a function of feedstock and secondarily as a function of pyrolysis conditions.

Masiello, Caroline; Brewer, Catherine; Dugan, Brandon; Liu, Zuolin; Gonnermann, Helge; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Davies, Christian; Panzacchi, Pietro; Gao, Xiaodong; Pyle, Lacey

2014-05-01

240

Selection of potential antagonists against asparagus crown and root rot caused by Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

Crown and root rot is one of the most important diseases of asparagus crop worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum are the two species more frequently associated to this complex and their prevalence depends on the production area. The control of the disease on asparagus crop is difficult to achieve because its perennial condition and the long survival of the pathogen in the soil as chlamydospores or as mycelium in infected plant debris. Furthermore, Fusarium spp. are easily disseminated with asparagus propagation materials. Thus, control measures should aim at obtaining seedlings protection for longer than achieved with conventional pre-planting chemical treatments. The effectiveness of fungal antagonists on the control of diseases caused by soil borne fungi has been reported. The potential of Trichoderma spp. as a biological control agent against diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in tomato and asparagus has been studied . It has been suggested that microorganisms isolated from the root or rhizosphere of a specific crop may be better adapted to that crop and may provide better disease control than organisms originally isolated from other plant species. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the potential of fungal isolates from symptomless asparagus plants as biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot. PMID:19226757

Rubio-Pérez, E; Molinero-Ruiz, M L; Melero-Vara, J M; Basallote-Ureba, M J

2008-01-01

241

Black rot of grapes Black rot is an important disease of grapes in the  

E-print Network

treatments are needed to protect fruit from spores produced by infected leaves. Mature leaves and coloring during rains beginning in spring, usually after bud break. Leaves, blossoms, and young fruit" in length and end by the time grapes start to color (veraison). The most important control period is from 1

242

Problems with activated charcoal and alumina as sorbents for medical use.  

PubMed

Although activated charcoal and alumina have been used extensively as sorbents in uremic patients, the following problems remain to be solved: 1) elution of SO4--from activated charcoal which does not adsorb it; 2) production of methylguanidine from creatinine on the surface of activated charcoal; 3) production of lipoperoxide from fatty acids by chemical reaction of activated charcoal; 4) adsorption of Ca++ and Mg++ when alumina adsorbs inorganic phosphate. These problems are studied in vitro and clinically. PMID:533423

Maeda, K; Saito, A; Kawaguchi, S; Sezaki, R; Niwa, T; Naotsuka, M; Kobayashi, K; Asada, H; Yamamoto, Y; Ohta, K

1979-11-01

243

RECYCLE AND REUSE OF CHARCOAL MADE FROM EXCESS SLUDGE IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun

244

Activated charcoal – A novel burn rate enhancer of aluminized composite propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the discovery of activated charcoal as an effective burn rate enhancer of aluminized composite solid propellant. Experiments were carried out using a strand burner at pressures ranging from 10 to 70bar with varying fractions of activated charcoal. The results show that with the addition of activated charcoal in an aluminized composite propellant higher burn rates (in excess

Sumit Verma; P. A. Ramakrishna

2010-01-01

245

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

246

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

247

Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological approach  

E-print Network

#12;Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological of charcoal kilns are numerous in the mountain forest areas, whether these are actual or potential, ali over the eastern Pyrenees and in particular in Ariege and in the Catalan mountains. Charcoal kilns can thus be used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments of Highly Weathered Soils and Amazonian  

E-print Network

15 Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments of Highly Weathered Soils and Amazonian Dark Earths 14853, USA and Wolfgang Zech1 15.1 Introduction The abundance of charcoal and highly aromatic humic material (black carbon, pyrogenic carbon, charcoal) are a key factor for the persistence of soil organic

Lehmann, Johannes

249

Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence  

E-print Network

Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence and area burned Montana State University, USA Abstract Reconstructing specific fire-history metrics with charcoal records has been difficult, in part because calibration data sets are rare.We calibrated charcoal accumulation

250

Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire  

E-print Network

Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire in the Swiss Alps Á Abstract: The correct interpretation of charcoal records in a palaeoecological context requires the understanding of the sources and transport of charcoal particles. Conventionally, it is assumed that macroscopic

Richner, Heinz

251

Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences  

E-print Network

Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences between Abstract To evaluate the influence of long-distance transport of charcoal particles on the detection of local wildfires from lake sediment sequences, we tracked three consecutive years of charcoal deposition

Asselin, Hugo

252

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER (PROJECT SUMMARY)  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simu-lator was constructed and tested to de-termine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that pro-duced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile or-ganic ...

253

5. CHARCOAL AS A FIRE PROXY CATHY WHITLOCK (whitlock@oregon.uoregon.edu)  

E-print Network

5. CHARCOAL AS A FIRE PROXY CATHY WHITLOCK (whitlock@oregon.uoregon.edu) Department of Geography, SUNY Buffalo NY 14261-0023 USA Keywords: charcoal analysis, fire history, lake-sediment records Introduction Charcoal analysis of lake sediments is used to reconstruct long-term variations in fire occur

Whitlock, Cathy L.

254

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 17901809 Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal records  

E-print Network

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 1790­1809 Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal; received in revised form 15 March 2007; accepted 21 March 2007 Abstract Interpreting sediment-charcoal records is challenging because there is little information linking charcoal production from fires

Higuera, Philip E.

255

Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal M. Moskal-del Hoyo a,*, M. Wachowiak b,1  

E-print Network

Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal M. Moskal-del Hoyo a,*, M. Wachowiak b,1 , R February 2010 Keywords: Wood charcoal Fungal attack Biodeterioration Deadwood collection Anthracology Archaeobotany a b s t r a c t During the analysis of wood charcoal remains from archaeological sites

Blanchette, Robert A.

256

Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration  

E-print Network

Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration with tree manuscript accepted 5 February 2004 Abstract: Interpretations of charcoal records from small hollows lack-history records is unclear. To evaluate this potential, we examined charcoal records in 210 Pb-dated cores from 12

Higuera, Philip E.

257

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to the charcoal that is produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile organic co...

258

Use of charcoal haemoperfusion in the management of severely poisoned patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical use of uncoated charcoal haemoperfusion systems, despite their efficacy, has hitherto been prevented by the occurrence of a number of adverse effects including charcoal embolism and marked thrombocytopenia. Charcoal coated with a synthetic hydrogel overcomes many of the disadvantages associated with the use of uncoated material in that there is a much reduced thrombocytopenia and no evidence of

J A Vale; A J Rees; B Widdop; R Goulding

1975-01-01

259

Properties of charcoal derived from hazelnut shell and the production of briquettes using pyrolytic oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazelnut shells were converted to charcoal and to liquid, and gaseous products using pyrolysis at different temperatures. The chemical compositions and yields of the charcoals were determined as functions of the carbonization temperature. Higher heating values (HHVs) were estimated using both ultimate and proximate analyses. Hazelnut shells and the derived charcoal were densified to briquettes using pyrolytic oil or tar

Ayhan Demirba?

1999-01-01

260

Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon  

E-print Network

Chapter 23 Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon Conversion Efficiencies of Kilns SN Swami, C Steiner, WG Teixeira, and J Lehmann 23.1 Introduction Charcoal 1999) and use of charcoal in agriculture is common in Brazil and widespread in Asia (Steiner et al

Lehmann, Johannes

261

Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus"  

E-print Network

Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus" Johannes Lehmann1 * and Saran Sohi2 Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only

Lehmann, Johannes

262

Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon-chromium steel under charcoal protection  

E-print Network

Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon- chromium steel under charcoal protection during-carbon-chromium bearing steel is often annealed in a sealed pot with a small amount of charcoal without physically contacting it. The charcoal is supposed to provide non-contact protection by simultaneously preventing

Volinsky, Alex A.

263

Replacement of Charcoal Sorbent in the Sampling of Volatile Organics from Stationary Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 0030 for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources (VOST) specifies the use of petroleum-based charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data

L. D. Johnson; R. G. Fuerst; A. L. Foster; J. T. Bursey

1996-01-01

264

Determination of Carbon Disulfide at the Workplace by Sampling on Charcoal Tubes—Problems and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to check the reliability and comparability of different analytical methods for ambient monitoring of carbon disulfide (CS2). A stationary sampling system, consisting of a charcoal sampling tube and pump, and two personal sampling systems, consisting of a charcoal sampling tube and a portable pump and of a diffusive charcoal sampler have been compared. The

Th. Göen; J. Müller; J. Angerer; H. Drexler

2002-01-01

265

Release of offensive odorants from the combustion of barbecue charcoals.  

PubMed

A number of offensive odorants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, and ammonia were measured along with several reference pollutants (like benzene (B), CS(2), SO(2), CO, and total hydrocarbon (THC)) from combusted fumes of barbecue charcoals produced from five different countries (Korea, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the US). Although the emission concentrations of most odorants were generally below the reference guideline set by the malodor prevention law in Korea, the mean concentration of some aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) and ammonia exceeded those guidelines. As such, aldehydes were the most dominant odorant released from charcoal combustion followed by VOC and ammonia. If odorant levels of charcoal products are compared, there are great distinctions between the products of different countries. If comparison is made using the concept of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), the magnitude of SOI for the charcoal products from the five different countries varied in the order of 4.30 (Korea), 3.10 (Indonesia), 2.97 (China), 2.76 (Malaysia), and 2.76 (the US). PMID:22424818

Mahmudur Rahman, Md; Kim, Ki-Hyun

2012-05-15

266

Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in southern Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal analysis of three archaeological sites in southern Syria in the vicinity of the Jebel al Arab (formerly Jebel Druze) indicates that during the Early Bronze Age an association consisting predominately of Pistacia, deciduous oak and almond was exploited. During the Middle Bronze Age these taxa diminish and are partially replaced by more steppic species or introduced wood such as

George Willcox

1999-01-01

267

Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

268

Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earth system model of intermediate complexity (CLIMate and BiosphERe - CLIMBER-2) and a land surface model (JSBACH), which dynamically represent vegetation, are used to simulate natural fire dynamics through the last 8000 yr. Output variables of the fire model (burned area and fire carbon emissions) are used to compare model results with sediment-based charcoal reconstructions. Several approaches for processing model output are also tested. Charcoal data are reported in Z-scores with a base period of 8000-200 BP in order to exclude the strong anthropogenic forcing of fire during the last two centuries. The model-data comparison reveals a robust correspondence in fire activity for most regions considered, while for a few regions, such as Europe, simulated and observed fire histories show different trends. The difference between modelled and observed fire activity may be due to the absence of anthropogenic forcing (e.g. human ignitions and suppression) in the model simulations, and also due to limitations inherent to modelling fire dynamics. The use of spatial averaging (or Z-score processing) of model output did not change the directions of the trends. However, Z-score-transformed model output resulted in higher rank correlations with the charcoal Z-scores in most regions. Therefore, while both metrics are useful, processing model output as Z-scores is preferable to areal averaging when comparing model results to transformed charcoal records.

Brücher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

2014-04-01

269

Adsorption of dysprosium ions on activated charcoal from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dysprosium ions onto activated charcoal from aqueous solution has been investigated in relation to pertinent variables, such as shaking time, pH, concentration of dysprosium ions, and temperature. The conditions leading to maximum adsorption have been established. The adsorption of dysprosium ions obeys the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm equations. Thermodynamic quantities, namely AH and AS, have been

Riaz Qadeer; Javed Hanif

1995-01-01

270

Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

Karch, Ed; And Others

271

Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

272

Pigeon navigation: Charcoal filter removes relevant information from environmental air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homing pigeons were displaced and kept until they were released in airtight containers ventilated with environmental air that could be passed through: (a) a filter made of fiberglass paper retaining large portions of the solid and liquid aerosol particles, (b) an additional filter consisting of activated charcoal, or (c) no filter (controls). Before its release, each bird was taken out

Hans G. Wallraff; Augusto Foà

1981-01-01

273

Effect of Activated Charcoal on the Swarming of Proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE swarming of species of Proteus on solid culture media is a well known and often troublesome phenomenon (Fig. 1). It may be suppressed in various ways1, and considerable attention has been paid to possible factors involved in this peculiar zonal growth2-8. This communication reports the effect of activated charcoal on the swarming of five strains of Proteus. The strains

D. G. Smith

1966-01-01

274

Experiments in waterlogging and sedimentology of charcoal: results and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil charcoal has a sporadic occurrence in sedimentary rocks since Devonian time. It is moderately common as a component of the organic material found in a wide variety of facies, but there are also some notable concentrations which occur locally. These occurrences have considerable palaeobotanical and palaeoecological value because the process of charring may result in excellent preservation of plant

Gary J. Nichols; Jenny A. Cripps; Margaret E. Collinson; Andrew C. Scott

2000-01-01

275

A simple method for vapor dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes.  

PubMed

A method for vapor-dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes (CST) that does not require the expense and effort of a test chamber was used to test the desorption efficiency (DE) of seven solvent vapors, representing six classes of solvents as follows: aromatic hydrocarbons (m-xylene); ether/alcohol (2-ethoxyethanol); vinyl monomers (styrene monomer, vinyl acetate); aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane); aliphatic esters (n-butyl acetate); and aliphatic acrylic monomers (methyl methacrylate). The quantities of the solvents used in these experiments would represent eight-hour exposures to concentrations of approximately 0.2 to 10 ppm. The vapor-dosing experimental system consisted of a loaded filter cassette connected directly to a CST. Vapor was generated by injecting liquid solvent onto the glass fiber filter and drawing air through the system. The solvent was desorbed from the filter and charcoal for analysis. Vapor desorption efficiency was determined from the fraction of the injected solvent evaporated from the filter and the amount recovered from the charcoal. The measured DEs were similar to those reported for liquid dosed charcoal. Vapor dosing of sorbent tubes is more representative of samples collected for industrial hygiene exposure assessment. The system is simple to use and applicable for vapor dosing of any sorbent tube. PMID:7872204

Thomas, M L; Cohen, B S

1995-01-01

276

Transgenic potatoes expressing a novel cationic peptide are resistant to late blight and pink rot.  

PubMed

Potato is the world's largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy for disease control has become an international imperative. Here we describe a strategy for engineering potato plants exhibiting strong protection against these exceptionally virulent pathogens without deleterious effects on plant yield or vigor. The small, naturally occurring antimicrobial cationic peptide, temporin A, was N-terminally modified (MsrA3) and expressed in potato plants. MsrA3 conveyed strong resistance to late blight and pink rot phytopathogens in addition to the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora. Transgenic tubers remained disease-free during storage for more than 2 years. These results provide a timely, sustainable, effective, and environmentally friendly means of control of potato diseases while simultaneously preventing storage losses. PMID:15198205

Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Hancock, Robert E; Kay, William W; Misra, Santosh

2004-04-01

277

Degradation of the Fluoroquinolone Enrofloxacin by Wood-Rotting Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The veterinary fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin was degraded in vitro by four species of wood-rotting fungi growing on wetted wheat straw containing carbonyl-14C-labeled drug. A maximum 14CO2 production of 17% per week was observed with the brown rot fungusGloeophyllum striatum, resulting in up to 53% after 8 weeks. However, rates reached at most 0.2 and 0.9% per week, if enrofloxacin was preadsorbed

RAINER MARTENS; HEINZ-GEORG WETZSTEIN; FRANTISEK ZADRAZIL; MARINA CAPELARI; PETER HOFFMANN; ANDNORBERT SCHMEER

1996-01-01

278

The effect of low flowrates on the adsorption efficiency of hexane on charcoal  

E-print Network

THE NILKES MI RAN APPENDIX C ? CALCULATION QF REYNOLDS NUMBERS APPENDIX D ? LOG-LOG PLOT OF PRESSURE DROP VERSUS SUPERFICIAL VELOCITY FOR THE CHARCOAL SAMPLE TUBE USED IN THIS RESEARCH. . . APPENDIX E ? CHARACTERISTICS OF SKC ACTIVATED COCONUT CHARCOAL... of activation. Activation is accomplished by first heating the charcoal to 170'C to remove water vapor. The charcoal is then heated to 275'C to remove acetic acid, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The charcoal is then heated to 400-600~C to decompose...

Easley, Larry David

1981-01-01

279

Easy Gardening.....Disease Control  

E-print Network

Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System E-508 05-09 -1- DISEASE CONTROL ? DISEASE CONTROL ? DISEASE C Easy Gardening 9 areas where the same vegetable or vegeta- bles from the same plant family have been planted in the past 24 months. Plants of the same... and prevent many root diseases and fruit rots. When possible, train the vegetables to grow upright on cages or trellises. This keeps the fruit from contacting the ground and reduces fruit rots. Plant disease-resistant varieties when they are available...

Johnson, Jerral; Johnson, Jerral

2009-05-29

280

Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.  

PubMed

An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The result of the current study suggests the superiority of our integrated approach to control the sclerotia forming pathogen R. solani compared to the individual treatment either by an antagonist or by a fungicide or by mustard oil cake. PMID:25595298

Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

2015-02-01

281

Systematic delineation of Phymatotrichum root rot occurrence in cotton using remotely-sensed data  

E-print Network

in 1929, using a hand held camera and black and whi te film (55). Bawden in 1933 demonstrated the differential affects of photography of diseased plants and healthy plants with infrared film (8). Colwell and other investigators (10, 11, 13) suggested... of the Blackland prairie with three basic soil regions: Houston Black Clay, the Brazos River bottom, and Nilson Clay series. (27) 2) Cotton is widely grown in the county and a high loss situation due to Phymatotrichum root rot occurs in this area. Falls County...

Smith, Brandon Dewitt

2012-06-07

282

The effect of activated charcoal on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.  

PubMed

Activated charcoal (AC) is a sorbent that has been shown to remove urinary toxins like urea and indoxyl sulfate. Here, the influence of AC on kidney function of rats with experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) is investigated. CRF was induced in rats by feeding adenine (0.75%) for four weeks. As an intervention, AC was added to the feed at concentrations of 10%, 15% or 20%. Adenine treatment impaired kidney function: it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and vanin-1. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, phosphate and uric acid. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were adversely affected. Most of these changes were significantly ameliorated by dietary administration of AC at a concentration of 20%, while effects induced by lower doses of dietary AC on adenine nephrotoxicity were not statistically significant. The results suggest that charcoal is a useful sorbent agent in dietary adenine-induced CRF in rats and that its usability as a nephroprotective agent in human kidney disease should be studied. PMID:24412558

Ali, Badreldin H; Alza'abi, Mohamed; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Waly, Mostafa I; Beegam, Sumaya; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Brand, Susanne; Schupp, Nicole

2014-03-01

283

Size parameters, size-class distribution and area-number relationship of microscopic charcoal: relevance for fire reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal analysis was conducted on sediment cores from three lakes to assess the relationship between the area and number of charcoal particles. Three charcoal-size parameters (maximum breadth, maximum length and area) were measured on sediment samples representing various vegetation types, including shrub tundra, boreal forest and temperate forest. These parameters and charcoal size-class distributions do not differ statistically between two

Willy Tinner; Feng Sheng Hu

2003-01-01

284

Charcoal accumulation following a recent fire in the Cascade Range, northwestern USA, and its relevance for fire-history studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic records of macroscopic charcoal particles (>125 &mgr;m in diameter) are widely used as a means of reconstructing past fire events, yet fire-history studies rest on assumptions about the processes by which charcoal is transported and deposited in lake sediments. In order to clarify the interpretation of charcoal data, charcoal abundance in sediment cores was examined from 36 lakes within

Jennifer J. Gardner; Cathy Whitlock

2001-01-01

285

Analyses of genetic diversity among maize inbred lines differing for resistance to pink borer and post-flowering stalk rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of the diverse sources of resistance is an important issue among the breeders for developing pest and disease\\u000a free hybrids, to reduce the inoculum load, to prolong the life of inbred lines\\/hybrids and to reduce the cost of cultivation.\\u000a Molecular diversity analysis was carried out among 23 maize inbred lines with respect to post flowering stalk rot and pink

Sujay Rakshit; H. B. Santosh; J. C. Sekhar; Rabindra Nath; Meena Shekhar; G. K. Chikkappa; R. N. Gadag; Sain Dass

2011-01-01

286

A guanylyl cyclase-like gene is associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance in maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in northern climates. The infected maize grain contains toxins that are very harmful to livestock and humans. A\\u000a maize gene that encodes a putative 267-amino acid guanylyl cyclase-like protein (ZmGC1) was characterized and shown to be\\u000a associated with resistance

J. Yuan; M. Liakat Ali; J. Taylor; J. Liu; G. Sun; W. Liu; P. Masilimany; A. Gulati-Sakhuja; K. P. Pauls

2008-01-01

287

Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.  

PubMed

Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

2014-07-01

288

ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

289

Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance. PMID:24859975

Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

2014-08-01

290

Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.  

PubMed

Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. PMID:25560914

Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

2015-03-16

291

Integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.  

PubMed

The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control. PMID:22580305

Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

2012-07-01

292

Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.  

PubMed

In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P < 0.05) relationships were observed between brown rot and insect injury and between brown rot and the cumulative number of trapped C. pomonella. At the harvest assessment, two additional significant correlations were between brown rot and bird injury and between brown rot and growth cracks. In every case, correlation coefficients were larger in organic than in integrated blocks. Although it is well established that brown rot in pome fruits is closely associated with fruit injuries, this is the first study to provide season-long progress data on different injury types and quantitative analyses of their relative importance at different times in the growing season and across two distinct management systems. PMID:18943241

Holb, I J; Scherm, H

2008-01-01

293

[Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].  

PubMed

The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D < 0.05 mm) at the 9% addition rate was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The fine bamboo charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate. PMID:25509086

Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

2014-08-01

294

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

295

Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

296

XIII IUFRO Conference on "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees"  

E-print Network

XIII IUFRO Conference on "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees" September 4th ­ 10th 2011 Firenze ­ S of Forestry Research Organization, Working Party 7.02.01 "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees" scientific

California at Berkeley, University of

297

Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes. Brücher, T., Brovkin, V., Kloster, S., Marlon, J. R., and Power, M. J.: Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 6429-6458, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-6429-2013, 2013.

Brücher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Marlon, Jennifer; Power, Mitch

2014-05-01

298

The charcoal effect in Boreal forests: mechanisms and ecological consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire is the principal disturbance regime in northern Boreal forests, where it has important rejuvenating effects on soil\\u000a properties and encourages tree seedling regeneration and growth. One possible agent of this rejuvenation is fire-produced\\u000a charcoal, which adsorbs secondary metabolites such as humus phenolics produced by ericaceous vegetation in the absence of\\u000a fire, which retard nutrient cycling and tree seedling growth.

D. A. Wardle; O. Zackrisson; M.-C. Nilsson

1998-01-01

299

Adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of industrially important dyes namely bromophenol blue, alizarine red-S, methyl blue, methylene blue, eriochrome black-T, malachite green, phenol red and methyl violet from aqueous media on activated charcoal has been investigated. The effect of shaking time, pH and temperature on the adsorption behaviour of these dyes has been studied. It was noted that adsorption of all the dyes on

Muhammad J. Iqbal; Muhammad N. Ashiq

2007-01-01

300

Apparatus for converting paper mill waste sludge into charcoal  

SciTech Connect

In apparatus for the production of charcoal from a mixture of wood and waste sludge from a paper mill, the apparatus is described comprising: (a) a furnace having an inlet for the reception of wood; a chimney for the release of hot gases from the furnace, and an outlet for charcoal; (b) a grinding mill having an inlet for the reception of the waste sludge and an outlet for ground sludge; (c) a cyclone separator having an inlet, a gaseous outlet and an outlet for solids; (d) a system of conduits inter-connecting said furnace, said cyclone separator, and said grinding mill in which hot gases from said furnace chimney are conducted to said grinding mill for initiating the drying of the waste sludge, the gases and ground waste sludge are conducted to said cyclone separator inlet for the separation of the gases from the ground waste sludge; and said system further including (e) blower means having an inlet connected to said cyclone separator gaseous outlet for effecting the movement of the hot furnace gases through said grinding mill, and said blower having an outlet for returning the gases to said furnace; (f) ground waste sludge conveying means connected between said cyclone separator and said furnace for depositing the ground waste sludge in said furnace; and (g) conveying means connected to said furnace outlet for removing the charcoal generated in said furnace.

Williams, R.M.

1993-08-31

301

Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...

302

Diaporthaceae associated with root and crown rot of maize.  

PubMed

Several isolates of coelomycetous fungi with pigmented conidia were consistently isolated from diseased roots of Zea mays in irrigated plots monitored in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Based on their morphology, these isolates could be identified as representative of Stenocarpella macrospora, S. maydis, and Phaeocytostroma ambiguum. Although species of Stenocarpella are well-known as causal agents of cob and stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in South Africa, the occurrence and importance of P. ambiguum is less well documented and understood. To determine the role of P. ambiguum as a root pathogen of maize, pathogenicity tests were conducted under glasshouse conditions at 18 °C night and 28 °C day temperatures using a pasteurised soil, river sand and perlite medium and a 0.5 % sand-bran inoculum. Based on these results, P. ambiguum was shown to be a primary pathogen of maize, but to be less virulent than the positive control, S. maydis. Furthermore, to clarify the higher-level phylogeny of these fungal genera, isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS & LSU). Partial gene sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene were added to confirm the species monophyly. To resolve the generic placement of Phaeocytostroma, additional species such as P. sacchari, P. plurivorum and P. megalosporum were also added to the analysis. Based on these results, Stenocarpella and Phaeocytostroma were shown to be two well defined genera, belonging to Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae, being closely allied to Phomopsis (Diaporthe). All three genera were also observed to form alpha as well as beta conidia, and although this phenomenon is well documented for Phomopsis and Phaeocytostroma, it is a new observation for Stenocarpella. In spite of the differences in conidial pigmentation, no support could be obtained for polyphyly in Diaporthaceae, suggesting that as observed in Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales), conidial pigmentation is not informative at the family level in Diaporthales. PMID:22679583

Lamprecht, Sandra C; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Tewoldemedhin, Yared T; Marasas, Walter F O

2011-06-01

303

Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria  

PubMed Central

Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria. PMID:23781227

Davidsson, Pär R.; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E. T.

2013-01-01

304

Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria.  

PubMed

Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria. PMID:23781227

Davidsson, Pär R; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E T

2013-01-01

305

Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31

306

The salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine.  

PubMed

Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

Goudeau, Danielle M; Parker, Craig T; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia; Brandl, Maria T

2013-01-01

307

The Salmonella Transcriptome in Lettuce and Cilantro Soft Rot Reveals a Niche Overlap with the Animal Host Intestine  

PubMed Central

Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

Goudeau, Danielle M.; Parker, Craig T.; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia

2013-01-01

308

Effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media was investigated. Activated charcoal acidified an aqueous sucrose (5%) solution and culture media by about 1 to 2 units after autoclaving. Sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media and\\/or aqueous sucrose (5%) solutions containing activated charcoal (buffered to pH 5.8) was dependent on both the

M. J. Pan; J. van Staden

1999-01-01

309

Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments and Fertilization of a Highly Weathered Tropical Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal is a major component of stable SOM in terras pretas alsocalled Amazonian Dark Earths (Glaser et al. 2001a, b; Glaser 2007). Apart from charcoal, special microbes could contribute\\u000a to the formation of the highlystable SOM in terra preta (Woods and McCann 1999). However, this is stillmatter of speculation. There could be a link between the high amounts of charcoal

JJ Birk; C Steiner; WC Teixiera; W Zech; B Glaser

310

Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal has numerous physical and chemical properties that allow it to influence a variety of ecological processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate how several ecological properties of charcoal vary as a function of formation temperature and the source of woody material from which it is formed in ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa\\/Psuedotsuga menziesii) ecosystems. We generated charcoal in

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2006-01-01

311

40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10...

2013-07-01

312

40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10...

2014-07-01

313

40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10...

2012-07-01

314

Recovery and Determination of Adsorbed Technetium on Savannah River Site Charcoal Stack Samples  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results are provided for the sample analyses for technetium (Tc) in charcoal samples placed in-line with a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing stack effluent stream as a part of an environmental surveillance program. The method for Tc removal from charcoal was based on that originally developed with high purity charcoal. Presented is the process that allowed for the quantitative analysis of 99Tc in SRS charcoal stack samples with and without 97Tc as a tracer. The results obtained with the method using the 97Tc tracer quantitatively confirm the results obtained with no tracer added. All samples contain 99Tc at the pg g-1 level.

Lahoda, Kristy G.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Farmer, Orville T.; Ballou, Nathan E.

2008-03-01

315

Charcoal morphometry for paleoecological analysis: The effects of fuel type and transportation on morphological parameters1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. • Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. • Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. • Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems. PMID:25202644

Crawford, Alastair J.; Belcher, Claire M.

2014-01-01

316

Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

1998-09-01

317

Cultivar response to Fusarium storage rot as affected by two methods of seed origin propagation; Clonal selection and in vitro culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progeny tubers from seed potatoes originating from either a traditional clonal selection method or the more modernin vitro tissue culture method of propagation were tested for storage rot response following inoculation of three tuber sites with\\u000a twoFusarium species. Significant differences were found among disease responses for the twoFusarium species and for the four cultivars tested. Disease symptoms were less severe

1992-01-01

318

The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 2; The effect of contaminants on the CH sub 3 I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal  

SciTech Connect

The effect of various contaminants, namely NO{sub 2} SO{sub 2}, 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)), and NH{sub 3}, on the radioiodine removal efficiency of triethylenediamine (TEDA)-impregnated charcoal filters has been studied, and an attempt was made to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The effects of the contaminants on the CH{sub 3}I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal under dry and humid conditions are described. Based on our results, the efficiency of TEDA charcoal is degraded most by NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} has a negligible effect, and MEK produces a mild degradation. The degree of degradation parallels the contaminant's ability to be chemisorbed on the TEDA impregnant. The combined effect of water vapor and a contaminant of the charcoal efficiency is different for each contaminant. Nitrogen dioxide absorbed under dry conditions is more effective in degrading the CH{sub 2}I removal efficiency of the charcoal that when absorbed under humid conditions. On the other hand, a completely opposite result is observed for SO{sub 2}. The MEK contaminant behaves similarly to SO{sub 2} but the effect of humidity was less significant than for SO{sub 2}. Ammonia has no effect on the efficiency of the charcoal regardless of humidity.

Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Research Co., Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Research Chemistry Branch Pinawa, Manitob, R0E 1L0 (CA))

1991-05-01

319

Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissues of ornamental plants showing symptoms of leaf spot, crown and root rot. The aim of this study was to identify these Calonectria spp. using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calonectria spp., C. pseudomexicana sp. nov. and C. tunisiana sp. nov., were recognised. Calonectria mexicana and C. polizzii are newly reported for the African continent. Pathogenicity tests with all four Calonectria spp. showed that they are able to cause disease on seedlings of Callistemon spp., Dodonaea viscosa, Metrosideros spp. and Myrtus communis. PMID:22403477

Lombard, L; Polizzi, G; Guarnaccia, V; Vitale, A; Crous, P W

2011-12-01

320

Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. Principal Findings We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. Conclusions Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils. PMID:22442737

Gao, Xiang; Lu, Xing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Haiyan; Pan, Ruqian; Tian, Jiang; Li, Shuxian; Liao, Hong

2012-01-01

321

Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the  

E-print Network

Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications 18 January 2010 Keywords: biomass burning carbon cycle charcoal black carbon climate human impact and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after thermal and chemical oxidative treatments

Gilli, Adrian

322

CONTROL OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROT IN PUMPKIN AND ZUCCHINI WITH PHOSPHONATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments in the greenhouse were conducted to determine the efficacy of two products containing potassium phosphate/dipotassium phosphonate (FNX-100 and FNX-2500) against Phytophthora root and stem rot in pumpkin and zucchini. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of crop variety, ap...

323

Thesis summary Comparative phylogeography of two rotting-log-  

E-print Network

Thesis summary Comparative phylogeography of two rotting-log- dependent springtails from the Great of biodiversity; and (3) to evaluate the degree of phylogeographical congruence between the two springtail species phylogeographical predictions were formulated. Individuals of each springtail species were intensively sampled

Garrick, Ryan

324

The Character of Normal Temperature Straw-Rotting Microbial Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study degradation capability and optimal condition of produced endoglucanase (CMCcase), the microbial community with efficient cellulose degrading ability in 28°C was studied. Microbial community came from rotted rice straw which was enriched and domesticated by improved Mandels medium. The standard cellulase activity assays were used to determine cellulase activity, degradation products were analyzed by gas chromatography mass

Chang-li LIU; Xiao-fen WANG; Xiao-juan WANG; Pei-pei LI; Zong-jun CUI

2010-01-01

325

Pseudomonas marginalis Associated with Soft Rot of Zantedeschia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Krejzar V., Mertelík J., Pánková I., Kloudová K., K?dela V. ( 2008): Pseudomonas marginalis associated with soft rot of Zantedeschia spp. Plant. Protect. Sci., 44: 85-90. For the first time in the Czech Republic, bacteria identified as Pseudomonas marginalis, Pectobacterium caro - tovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pseudomonas putida were isolated from tubers of Zantedeschia spp. with symptoms of tuber soft

Václav KREJZAR; Josef MERTELÍK; Iveta PÁNKOVÁ

326

BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

327

MINERALIZATION OF RECALCITRANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade lignin, a structurally complex, naturally occurring and environmentally persistent, non-repeating heteropolyrner. revious studies have shown that this fungus is also able-to degrade a wide variety of synthetic or...

328

The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Underhill, D.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-08-01

329

Wide Variation in Virulence and Genetic Diversity of Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Strawberry in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR. PMID:23405226

Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M.; Barbetti, Martin J.

2013-01-01

330

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SOIL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON THE UTILIZATION OF A WHITE-ROT, WOOD ROTTING FUNGUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The wood rotting fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been selected as a candidate species to be used as a degrader of hazardous waste organic constituents found in liquids and soils. The selection of the species is attributable to its rapid growth, its ability to degrade lign...

331

Commercial charcoal production in the Ibarapa district of southwestern Nigeria: forestry dividends and welfare implications.  

PubMed

Logging activities have long provided both wood fuel and charcoal for household and commercial use in rural and urban communities in developing countries. However, logging problems range from deforestation to threatened household air quality from burning wood and charcoal. This exploratory case study triangulated 15 in-depth interviews among charcoal bulk buyers and the workers, observations of workers at two èédú (charcoal) commercial depots in Igbo-Ora and of workers in the forest, and review of studies in academic database. Three categories of people are working in the business ranging from the producers in the forests (alaake) to the bulk buyers (olowo) in the middle and the wholesalers (ajagunta) in the city. A small team of 4-8 people can produce three pickup truck loads of charcoal in 2 weeks, and a large team between 7-8 loads. The olowo and the alaake have associations, membership cards, and meet to discuss business progress and regulate members' economic behavior. Close to 35,000 bags of charcoal of 450 pickup trucks may make the journey weekly from Ibarapa. Overall, the charcoal business is informal, and the local people also frown at cutting any useful indigenous trees ascertaining that an individual's actions may affect the whole community. The role of community health educators is important in the dissemination of effects of deforestation through charcoal production. PMID:22192943

Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

2010-01-01

332

Production of charcoal from sawdust in a fluidized bed. [from wood refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is reported for disposing of wood refuse and recovering valuable wood by-products without polluting the environment by mixing the wood refuse with inert granulated bed material to form a fluidizable mixture which is heated in a fluidized bed pyrolyzer until charcoal and other by-products are formed. Upon discharge of the charcoal and bed material, the inert material is

Grimmett

1975-01-01

333

Notes and Discussion Legacy of Charcoaling in a Western Highland Rim Forest in Tennessee  

E-print Network

of post-European settlement landscapes throughout the Eastern Deciduous Forest Region (Raup, 1966; CrononNotes and Discussion Legacy of Charcoaling in a Western Highland Rim Forest in Tennessee ABSTRACT.--Forests for a forest on the Western Highland Rim in Tennessee. Fires used in hearths to produce charcoal were intense

Hart, Justin

334

URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

335

Is vitrification in charcoal a result of high temperature burning of wood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘vitrified’ is used to describe the glassy appearance of some charcoals recovered in the archaeological record. It has been generally considered that this phenomenon is a result of wood being subjected to high temperatures similar to the role of temperature in the formation of glass and pottery. Charcoals displaying characteristics of vitrification from three distinct archaeological contexts were

Laura C. McParland; Margaret E. Collinson; Andrew C. Scott; Gill Campbell; Robyn Veal

2010-01-01

336

Carbon Sequestration and Fertility after Centennial Time Scale Incorporation of Charcoal into Soil  

PubMed Central

The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m?2) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m?2). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters’ estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

2014-01-01

337

ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM CHARCOAL LIGHTER FLUID AND REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. ...

338

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

339

The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 1; The adsorption and desorption behavior of contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on triethylenediamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoals, used in nuclear reactors to safeguard against the release of airborne radioiodine, which show high efficiency under various reactor operation and accident conditions when the are new. However, during normal operation, charcoal filters are continuously degraded (or weathered) due to the adsorption of moisture and other air contaminants. The effect of weathering on the efficiency of charcoal for removing radioiodine is of great interest. The results of a study on the adsorption behavior of various contaminants NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK)) and NH{sub 3} on TEDA charcoal are presented. This study is an attempt to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The adsorption and desorption of characteristics of these contaminants range from completely irreversible (NO{sub 2}) to completely reversible (NH{sub 3}). The effect of absorbed water (or humidity) on absorption is different for each contaminant. Absorbed water increases the absorption rate and capacity of TEDA charcoal for NO{sub 2}. However, it appears that SO{sub 2} is absorbed as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the wet charcoal. Absorbed water slightly reduces the adsorption capacity of the charcoal for MEK, but does not affect the absorption of NH{sub 3}.

Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Research Co., Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Research Chemistry Branch Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (CA))

1991-05-01

340

A simple method for microtome sectioning of prehistoric charcoal specimens, embedded in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for microtome sectioning of prehistoric charcoal, embedded in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, HEMA (= glycol methacrylate, GMA), is described in detail. Procedures for dehydrating, embedding, polymerization and sectioning are, with the exception of some modifications due to the specific texture of charcoal and the relatively large size of the specimens, identical with those used for recent botanical specimens. The

A. Igersheim; O. Cichocki

1996-01-01

341

Comparison of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in prevention of drug absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in the prevention of drug absorption was studied in 6 healthy adult volunteers, using a randomized, cross-over design. Paracetamol 1000 mg, tetracycline 500 mg and aminophylline 350 mg were ingested on an empty stomach with 100 ml water. Then, after 5 or 30 min, the subjects ingested, either activated charcoal suspension (50

P. J. Neuvonen; M. Vartiainen; O. Tokola

1983-01-01

342

Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

1991-08-01

343

Effect of activated charcoal on absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone, carbamazepine and phenylbutazone in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal, given as a water suspension, on the absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone 200 mg, carbamazepine 400 mg and phenylbutazone 200 mg, was studied in five healthy volunteers, using a randomized crossover design. Absorption of the drugs was almost completely prevented (more than 95%) when charcoal 50 g was ingested within five minutes of taking the

P. J. Neuvonen; E. Elonen

1980-01-01

344

Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.  

PubMed

Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. PMID:25048757

Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

2014-11-30

345

How to Collect Archaeological Wood and Charcoal for Dendrochronological (Tree-Ring) Analysis  

E-print Network

1 How to Collect Archaeological Wood and Charcoal for Dendrochronological (Tree-Ring) Analysis and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University analyzes wood and charcoal from archaeological as you can if different timbers or samples are found. More is always best in dendrochronology: it allows

Manning, Sturt

346

Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles  

SciTech Connect

Digital image processing, is employed in this remarch study in order to visually investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated char/coal particles as well as the effect of interactivecombustion in two-particle char/coal arrays. Preliminary experiments are conducted on miniature isolated candles as well as two-candle arrays.

Annamalai, K.; Kharbat, E.; Goplakrishnan, C.

1992-12-01

347

Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

348

Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

2014-05-01

349

Self-clearing dielectric elastomer actuators using charcoal-powder electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study found that compliant electrodes using charcoal powder enable self clearing property to dielectric elastomer actuator. Charcoal powder is applied as compliant electrodes by smearing on a 100% bi-axially pre-stretched dielectric elastomer membrane (VHB 9473), with nominal pre-stretched thickness of 62.3 ?m. This DEA using charcoal-powder electrodes can sustain up 10 kV without terminal breakdown, while those using graphite or silver grease break down at slightly above 2 kV. It is noted that this DEA using charcoal-powder has maximum areal strain at about 45 % at 4 kV, beyond which the strain does not increase further for reduced electrical conductivity. The dielectric elastomer actuator using the charcoal-powder electrodes generate less actuation strain than that using the graphite. However, the former can produce a large actuation stress as it can driven to a higher driving voltage without pre-mature breakdown.

Lau, Gih-Keong; Chua, Soo-Lim; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian Wei Yee

2012-04-01

350

Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

2014-05-01

351

Role of Rot in bacterial autolysis regulation of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325.  

PubMed

Autolysis is an important process in cell wall turnover in Staphylococcus aureus, performed by several peptidoglycan hydrolases or so-called autolysins and controlled by many regulators. Rot is a global regulator that regulates numerous virulence genes, including genes encoding lipase, hemolysins, proteases and genes related to cell surface adhesion. The aim of our study was to determine whether Rot has the ability to regulate autolysis. We compared Triton-X-100-induced autolysis of S. aureus NCTC8325 and its rot knock-out mutant. We found that the rot mutant showed increased autolysis rates. By examining the transcript level of several autolysins and some known regulators responsible for regulating autolysis using real-time RT-PCR assays, we found that transcription of two autolysins (lytM, lytN) and one regulatory operon (lrgAB) was changed in the rot mutant. An in vitro approach was undertaken to determine which of these genes are directly controlled by Rot. Rot proteins were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Gel mobility shift DNA binding assays were used and showed that in-vitro-purified Rot can directly bind to the promoter region of lytM, lytN, lrgA and lytS. We also tested biofilm formation of the rot mutant, and it showed enhancement in biofilm formation. Taken together, our results reveal that Rot affects autolysis by directly regulating autolysins LytM and LytN, and, via a regulatory system, LrgAB. PMID:23774059

Chu, Xinmin; Xia, Rui; He, Nianan; Fang, Yuting

2013-09-01

352

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne sediments (Central  

E-print Network

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 2631­2643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne Abstract In order to link the charcoal record from sedimentary archives with the combustion processes emitted in the area of Lake Lucerne (Central Europe) throughout the last 7200 years. Charcoal

Gilli, Adrian

353

CHARCOAL AND MICROCHARCOAL :CONTINENTAL AND MARINE RECORDS 4th International Meeting of Anthracology, Brussels , 8-13 September 2008  

E-print Network

CHARCOAL AND MICROCHARCOAL :CONTINENTAL AND MARINE RECORDS 4th International Meeting by the scientific committee, in press 1 Charcoal analysis of lime kiln remains in Southern France: an original of the fireplace. This is why charcoal analysis plays an important role when attempting to understand this activity

Boyer, Edmond

354

Comparison of pollen-slide and sieving methods in lacustrine charcoal analyses for local and regional fire history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charcoal content from laminated lake sediments in Québec, Canada, was estimated from pollen slides and by a sieving method. The resulting charcoal series are compared to estimate the suitability of these two methods to provide a local or regional fire history. The replication of five different charcoal series from the sieving method shows that this method is suitable for

Christopher Carcaillet; Martine Bouvier; Bianca Fréchette; Alayn C. Larouche; Pierre J. H. Richard

2001-01-01

355

Towards transferable functions for extraction of Non-timber Forest Products: A case study on charcoal production in Tanzania  

E-print Network

on charcoal production in Tanzania M. Schaafsma a, , S. Morse-Jones a , P. Posen a , R.D. Swetnam b , A-surveyed areas. We illustrate the empirical application of this approach in an analysis of charcoal production. The total flow of charcoal benefits is estimated at USD 14 million per year, providing an important source

Vermont, University of

356

The RBINS Quaternary charcoal collections : the example of three neolithic sites of Hesbaye (5150-4950 BC, Belgium).  

E-print Network

The RBINS Quaternary charcoal collections : the example of three neolithic sites of Hesbaye (5150 present the same kind of organisation: a village stricto-sensu and a distant house. The charcoal analyses, the environment was more opened and diversified because of man activities. Key Words: Charcoal analyses, Early

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel  

PubMed Central

Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B.

2013-01-01

358

Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.  

PubMed

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

1996-01-01

359

Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.  

PubMed

The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected. PMID:15750744

Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

2005-01-01

360

Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

2010-01-01

361

Decolorization of Azo Dyes by White Rot Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a White rot fungi (WRF) produce various isoforms of extracellular peroxidases (lignin peroxidase-LiP and manganese peroxidase-MnP)\\u000a and phenoloxidases (laccases), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.\\u000a This ligninolytic system of WRF is directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds and dyes. Liquid fermentation\\u000a or solid-state fermentation techniques can be used for enzyme production.

Emrah Ahmet Erkurt; Hatice Atacag Erkurt; Ali Unyayar

362

Charcoal as evidence of fire regimes in the Pleistocene of the California Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal has been recovered from a range of late Pleistocene sites both in Santa Cruz Island and Santa Rosa Island, belonging to the California Channel Islands. Sediments have been dated using radiocarbon measurements based on wood charcoal, fungal sclerotia, glassy carbon and fecal pellets and are given as calendar years bp. Charcoal assemblages from samples dating from 24,694 to 12,900 years are dominated by coniferous wood charcoal. Little angiosperm charcoal was recovered in any of the samples. Fungal sclerotia are frequent in a number of samples from a range of ages both on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. Fecal pellets are common in most samples and abundant in others. Some of the fecal pellets have hexagonal sides and are likely to represent termite frass. The sediments are fluvial in origin and the distribution of charcoal is irregular. The charcoal records a significant record of fire before the earliest documented human arrival on the islands and there is no evidence for a catstrophic fire triggered by a cometary impact at the onset of the younger Dryas, 12,900 cal years bp.

Scott, A. C.; Hardiman, M.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, R. S.

2012-04-01

363

Mechanisms of charcoal degradation during its initial stages of decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climatic changes might result in an increased potential for wildfires, whereby incorporation of charred biomass into soil would increase. The incomplete combustion of biomass results in the production of a chemically heterogeneous class of highly condensed compounds known as pyrogenic C (PyC), which is generally considered resistant to microbial degradation. Recently, studies based on short-term laboratory incubations with soil have indicated that PyC can also eventually degrade (Baldock and Smernik, 2002; Hamer et al., 2004) and it is now widely accepted that a significant quantity of these resistant fraction of soil must have undergone degradation in terrestrial environments. Charcoal has been shown to decompose faster in the initial stages (first 2-3 months) and stabilize later (Kuzyakov et al., 2009). However, studies describing charcoal transformation processes remain scarce. The different potential degradation mechanisms have not yet been studied in combination, and therefore the relative importance for PyC degradation has not been evaluated. We are conducting an incubation experiment to study the biological, chemical and physical degradation/stabilization processes of PyC in soil under controlled conditions. We use Pinus ponderosa 13C/15N labeled (13C: 800 per mil, 15N: 4.2 atom %) wood and charcoal (pyrolysed at 450 °C under N2 atmosphere). We incubate soil from Lägeren forest (Wettingen, Switzerland) with three kind of organic inputs, labeled wood, char and no littler control. The decomposition rates would be estimated based on 13C of CO2 entrapped in NaOH. Time course destructive sampling would be done during the study. Lyophilized soil subsamples will be used for analysis of the amount of 13C incorporation in the microbial biomass using fumigation extraction method and phospholipids fatty acid analysis (PLFA). The remaining PyC in the soil would be characterized for the changes in its chemistry at the molecular level using Benzenepolycarboxlic acid (BPCA) molecular marker method and 13C 15N NMR. This communication aims to report the first four months results of this study at a higher time resolution. The outcome of this study would facilitate in elucidating the potential decomposition rate of charcoal and consequent changes in its physical, chemical and biological properties in the soil during the initial stages of decomposition. In addition, application of highly labeled 13C PyC would enable us in this study to trace the transformation products. References Baldock, J.A., and Smernik, R.J. (2002). Chemical composition and bioavailability of thermally, altered Pinus resinosa (Red Pine) wood. Organic Geochemistry 33, 1093-1109. Hamer, U., Marschner, B., Brodowski, S., and Amelung, W. (2004). Interactive priming of black carbon and glucose mineralisation. Organic Geochemistry 35, 823-830. Kuzyakov, Y., Subbotina, I., Chen, H.Q., Bogomolova, I., and Xu, X.L. (2009). Black carbon decomposition and incorporation into soil microbial biomass estimated by C-14 labeling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41, 210-219.

Singh, Nimisha; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

2010-05-01

364

[Caring for families of charcoal-burning suicide patients].  

PubMed

Charcoal-burning is the second major cause of suicide death in Taiwan. Predicting the variable damage and sequelae in this suicide mode is difficult due to the rapid combination of carbon monoxide with red blood cells. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) may result in significantly extended recovery times, causing additional stress to the family. Nurses may help increase family understanding and support and guide family members to more positive intra-family interactions, shared perspectives on the recovery process, and resource seeking behavior by depicting subsequent family life and helping the entire family develop coping strategies those allow all members to effect cognitive, emotional and behavioral change. This result may help families of attempted suicide individuals recover successfully. PMID:24310557

Pien, Feng-Chen; Feng, Hsin-Pei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

2013-12-01

365

A screening method for detecting iron reducing wood-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plate assay using the Fe(II) selective dye, ferrozine, for detecting wood-rot fungi with Fe(III) reductive abilities, was developed. The assay is fast, simple and, in most cases, more sensitive than the corresponding liquid medium test. The brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Laetiporeus sulphureus, displayed higher iron reductive capabilities than white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma australe and Ceriporiopsis

Claudia Oviedo; David Contreras; Juanita Freer; Jaime Rodríguez

2003-01-01

366

Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved. PMID:16345675

Highley, Terry L.

1980-01-01

367

Recent rotting of the peat surface at Barnstable Saltmarsh, MA  

SciTech Connect

The large saltmarsh at Barnstable, Cape Cod, MA has three distinct zones; a well developed high marsh with widely spaced creeks and pans; an established midmarsh with many more pans and creeks, and a low marsh of inter tidal sand flats newly colonized by Spartina alterniflora. Early in marsh developed, S.a. colonizes low marsh sand flats on ridges'' or levees creating natural depressions. As time passes, the grass tufts trap more sediment allowing for their lateral expansion as they vertically accrete. Creeks systems become more defined and depressions eventually close off to form pans, and established midmarsh. Core data from the midmarsh suggests that subsequent marsh development does not proceed in such a simple manner. Some pan cores contain peat in their bottoms that is identical to the peat of the surrounding marsh. Comparison of 1960 and 1992 aerial photographs shows that not only are many midmarsh pans expanding due to rotting of the surrounding peat, but some pans that were sealed in 1960 are now open, reestablishing connections to nearby creeks and channels. This seems to indicate that the pans can rot the marsh back and expand. From the 1992 data it is apparent that marsh development involves competing growth and erosional processes. A linear progression from low marsh to high marsh does not occur. Instead, the developing marsh may go through periods of growth and recession and eventually develop into high marsh and that rotting of the marsh surface plays a significant part in this development.

Polissar, P.J.; Pack, S. (Hampshire Coll., Amherst, MA (United States). School of Natural Science)

1993-03-01

368

Criticality safety study of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the practicality of developing a power reactor consisting of a graphite lattice with circulating molten uranium salt as fuel for application in central power stations. When the experiment was terminated in 1969, approximately 4710 kg of salt containing approximately 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 g of plutonium, and various fission products were transferred to two fuel drain tanks (FDTs). The almost 30.5 kg of Uranium 233 in the salt is the primary fissile constituent, but about 0.93 kg of Uranium 235 is also present. In April 1994, a gas sample from the MSRE off-gas system (OGS) indicated that uranium had migrated from the FDTs into the OGS. Further investigation revealed a likely accumulation of approximately 2.6 kg of uranium in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), which is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell (CBC) below ground level outside the MSRE building. The nuclear criticality safety (NCS) situation was further complicated by the CBC being filled with water up to the overflow pipe, which completely submerged the ACB. Thus there was not only an increased risk of criticality because of water reflection in the ACB, but also because of potential moderation in the ACB in case of water inleakage. Leakage into the ACB would result in a direct path for water between the CBC and the OGS or FDTs, thus increasing the risk of criticality in these areas. When uranium was discovered in the ACB, a number of steps, detailed in this report, were immediately taken to try to understand and ameliorate the situation. After all the actions were completed, a validation of the results obtained for the ACB was performed.

Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

1996-09-01

369

The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...

370

Original article A method for describing disease patterns  

E-print Network

period on three experimental farms. Eight diseases were analysed: clinical mastitis, lameness, placental. At the lactation level, eight disease patterns were defined: high incidence of disease other than mastitis (1predominantly mastitis plus milk fever (2), predomi- nantly foot rot (3), very low incidence of disease (4

Boyer, Edmond

371

40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 454.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10...

2011-07-01

372

40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 454.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10...

2010-07-01

373

Combustion efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions from charcoal production kilns in the tropics  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal is one of the major energy resources in tropical countries. We investigate the combustion processes in charcoal production kilns in Zambia and Brazil. The Zambian kilns were made of earth and there was sufficient air for combustion inside the kilns. The Brazilian kilns were made of bricks which limited the available oxygen. The combustion efficiency and the concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6} alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic compounds produced were monitored throughout the combustion processes. The contributions of charcoal production processes to the atmospheric sources of these gases were estimated. The strategies for improving charcoal yield and reducing emissions of carbon-containing compounds are discussed.

Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.; Babbitt, R.E. [Intermountain Research Station, Missoula, MT (United States)

1995-12-01

374

Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti  

E-print Network

Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2005-01-01

375

Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of microbial activity in soil, whereas the addition of this fraction to fungal inoculum stimulated the growth and activity of cultured fungi (as measured by serial dilution and plating). Our results suggest that high VM charcoals can contain a bioavailable C source which may increase microbial activity and inhibit inorganic N availability, whereas a comparatively lower VM content charcoal does not appear to be readily available for microbial consumption. We conclude that VM is an important charcoal property which can cause various effects on soil biological properties and warrants further investigation. Our findings also provide insight into charcoal’s effect on N cycling since the immobilization of N observed under laboratory conditions serves as a possible explanation for the adverse effect of high VM charcoal on plant growth, as reported here and in previous short-term studies across a range of ecosystems. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether the observed effects persist in the long-term.

McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2010-12-01

376

Effect of Saline Cathartics on Gastrointestinal Transit Time of Activated Charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of saline cathartics on the gastrointestinal transit time of activated charcoal were investigated in six healthy volunteers. The study shows that the mean gastrointestinal transit times of charcoal alone were 29.3 h and 24.4, 15.4, 17.3 and 17.5 h with sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, magnesium sulphate alone and Andrew's Liver Salt respectively. Some volunteers complained of slight abdominal

O. E. Orisakwe; E. Ogbonna

1993-01-01

377

The effect of temperature and relative humidity levels upon charcoal tube sampling for vinyl choloride  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY LEVELS UPON CHARCOAL TUBE SAMPLING FOR VINYL CHLORIDE A Thesis by GERALD DANIEL McCASKILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY LEVELS UPON CHARCOAL TUBE SAMPLING FOR VINYL CHLORIDE A Thesis by GERALD DANIEL McCASKILL Approved as to style and content...

McCaskill, Gerald Daniel

1983-01-01

378

Some investigations of the reaction of activated charcoal with fluorine and uranium hexafluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1969 shutdown of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge, radiolytically generated fluorine (F2) and 233-uranium hexafluoride (233UF6) migrated from the fuel storage tanks through gas piping to a charcoal bed. This report addresses the carbon–fluorine–uranium chemistry under conditions reproducing those found in the charcoal beds. Laboratory analysis of the reaction products has been extensive and

G. D. Del Cul; L. D. Trowbridge; L. M. Toth; J. N. Fiedor

2000-01-01

379

Pliocene charcoals from Shanxi Province of China and their application to studies of prehistoric wildfires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoals collected from the middle-late Pliocene sediments of the Taigu Basin, Shanxi Province, China, have been identified\\u000a as Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae), Prunus sp., Maloidoxylon sp. (Rosaceae), and Maclura sp. (Moraceae). These taxa, along with the previously known fossils, indicate the occurrence of temperate climate and local\\u000a wildfire at that time. Charcoals of trees and\\/or shrubs and the morphological changes of

YeMing Cheng; XiaoMei Jiang; ChengSen Li; YuFei Wang

2011-01-01

380

Differences in Radiocarbon Age between Shell and Charcoal from a Holocene Shellmound in Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Berkeley shellmound, the oldest well-dated archaeological site in the San Francisco Bay region, contains shell and charcoal ranging in age from ca. 1200 to 5700 cal yr B.P. Radiocarbon ages of marine shell and charcoal collected from fifteen stratigraphic levels in the West Berkeley shellmound suggest changes in the14C content of San Francisco Bay surface waters relative to

B. Lynn Ingram

1998-01-01

381

Soil Charcoal to Assess the Impacts of Past Human Disturbances on Tropical Forests  

PubMed Central

The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: “recent” charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n?=?16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while “ancient” charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n?=?43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental factors on species composition. PMID:25391134

Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B.; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J.

2014-01-01

382

Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01

383

Estimation of emissions from charcoal lighter fluid and review of alternatives. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. VOCs contribute to the formation of ozone; therefore, the ozone nonattainment issue has focused attention on VOCs emitted from many sources. VOCs are emitted when charcoal lighter fluid is used, but these emissions are difficult to quantify. Evaporative VOC losses occur from the lighter fluid prior to ignition, and combustion VOC losses occur from burning lighter-fluid-soaked charcoal briquettes. This study evaluates tests conducted to date on charcoal lighter fluid emissions. The information is most complete for evaporative VOC losses. The estimates vary greatly, however, based on the length of time between application of the lighter fluid and ignition. The limited tests conducted to date have not distinguished lighter fluid from charcoal-briquette combustion emissions.

Campbell, D.L.; Stockton, M.B.

1990-01-01

384

Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station s U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBAs service life. A history of in-flight TCCS operations is presented as well as a discussion of the charcoal sampling procedures and chemical analysis results. A projected service life derived from the observed charcoal loading is provided. Recommendations for better managing TCCS resources are presented.

Perry, J. L.; Cole, H. E.; Cramblitt, E. L.; El-Lessy, H. N.; Manuel, S.; Tucker, C. D.

2003-01-01

385

Application of the Biospeckle Method for Monitoring Bull’s Eye Rot Development and Quality Changes of Apples Subjected to Various Storage Methods—Preliminary Studies  

PubMed Central

In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull’s eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars ‘Pinova’ and ‘Topaz’, susceptible to bull’s eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of ‘Pinova’ and 21% of ‘Topaz’ apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions. PMID:22737003

Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

386

Application of the biospeckle method for monitoring bull's eye rot development and quality changes of apples subjected to various storage methods-preliminary studies.  

PubMed

In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull's eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars 'Pinova' and 'Topaz', susceptible to bull's eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of 'Pinova' and 21% of 'Topaz' apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions. PMID:22737003

Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

387

POST HARVEST APPLICATIONS OF ZOXAMIDE AND PHOSPHITE FOR CONTROL OF POTATO TUBER ROTS CAUSED BY OOMYCETES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato storage tuber rots caused by the late blight and pink rot pathogens can cause severe economic losses warranting the need for effective post-harvest fungicide applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selective post-harvest fungicides in reducing tuber infections...

388

Interpreting diplodiosis: bioactive metabolites in Stenocarpella maydis ear rot of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stenocarpella maydis is a fungal pathogen of major importance that causes a dry-rot of maize ears and is associated with a neuromycotoxicosis in cattle grazing harvested maize fields in southern Africa and Argentina. Chemical investigations of S. maydis rotted kernels at harvest in Illinois led to t...

389

Influence of Rhizoctonia-Bacterial root rot complex on storability of sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The root rot complex, caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, can lead to yield loss in the field but may also lead to problems with sucrose loss in storage. Thus, studies were conducted to investigate if placing sugar beet roots suffering from root rot together with healthy roo...

390

Evaluation of Wild Helianthus Species for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stalk Rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ultimate goal of this project is to evaluate a broad range of wild Helianthus species for Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance. Wild sunflower germplasm is largely unexplored in terms of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance, but wild Helianthus species are considerably more difficult to work with in fie...

391

Evaluation of Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC11 for Biocontrol of Crown Rot and Anthracnose of Banana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC11, and 250 'g/ml each of thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil reduced crown rot of banana caused by a Fusarium sp. by 0-88% and 73-88%, respectively, in laboratory experiments. ESC11 alone did not significantly reduce rot, mold, or anthracnose in most field trials. TBZ an...

392

Influence of rhizoctonia-bacterial root rot complex on storability of sugarbeet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Rhizoctonia-bacterial root rot complex can lead to yield loss in the field but may also lead to problems with sucrose loss in storage. Thus, studies were conducted to investigate if placing sugarbeet roots suffering from root rot together with healthy roots could compromise the ability of the h...

393

EFFECT OF RHIZOBIUM STRAINS AND BIOFERTILIZERS ON FOOT, ROOT ROT AND YIELD OF BUSH BEAN IN SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM INFESTED SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glasshouse experiment was carried out to find out the effect of Rhizobium strains and biofertilizers on foot and root rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and yield of Bush bean. Six Rhizobium strains and three biofertilizers were used for seed treatment. Rhizobium strains (BINAR P36 and BINAR P6) and BINA biofertilizer resulted maximum reduction of seed rot, and foot and root rot

K M Khalequzzaman; I Hossain

2008-01-01

394

Phylogenetic analysis of ligninolytic peroxidases: preliminary insights into the alternation of white-rot and brown-rot fungi in their lineage  

PubMed Central

White-rot and brown-rot fungi employ different mechanisms to degrade lignocellulose. These fungi are not monophyletic and even alternate in their common lineage. To explore the reason for this, seventy-six ligninolytic peroxidases (LPs), including 14 sequences newly identified from available basidiomycetous whole-genome and EST databases in this study, were utilized for phylogenetic and selective pressure analyses. We demonstrate that LPs were subjected to the mixed process of concerted and birth-and-death evolution. After the duplication events of original LPs, various LP types may originate from mutation events of several key residues driven by positive selection, which may change LP types and even rot types in a small fraction of wood-decaying fungi. Our findings provide preliminary insights into the cause for the alternation of the two fungal rot types within the same lineage. PMID:24772372

Zhou, Li-Wei; Wei, Yu-Lian; Dai, Yu-Cheng

2014-01-01

395

Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood.  

PubMed

The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) react to produce hydroxyl radicals (.OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on defined media by reducing Fe(3+) and O(2) with two extracellular hydroquinones, 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ) and 4,5-dimethoxycatechol (4,5-DMC). However, it has never been shown that the hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood. We grew G. trabeum on spruce blocks and found that 2,5-DMHQ and 4,5-DMC were each present in the aqueous phase at concentrations near 20 microM after 1 week. We determined rate constants for the reactions of 2,5-DMHQ and 4,5-DMC with the Fe(3+)-oxalate complexes that predominate in wood undergoing brown rot, finding them to be 43 l mol(-1) s(-1) and 65 l mol(-1) s(-1) respectively. Using these values, we estimated that the average amount of hydroquinone-driven .OH production during the first week of decay was 11.5 micromol g(-1) dry weight of wood. Viscometry of the degraded wood holocellulose coupled with computer modelling showed that a number of the same general magnitude, 41.2 micromol oxidations per gram, was required to account for the depolymerization that occurred in the first week. Moreover, the decrease in holocellulose viscosity was correlated with the measured concentrations of hydroquinones. Therefore, hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry is one component of the biodegradative arsenal that G. trabeum expresses on wood. PMID:17107562

Suzuki, Melissa R; Hunt, Christopher G; Houtman, Carl J; Dalebroux, Zachary D; Hammel, Kenneth E

2006-12-01

396

Overexpression of the Brassica rapa transcription factor WRKY12 results in reduced soft rot symptoms caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum in Arabidopsis and Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), an important vegetable crop, can succumb to diseases such as bacterial soft rot, resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. To overcome crop loss caused by bacterial soft rot, a gene from Chinese cabbage was isolated and characterised in this study. We isolated the BrWRKY12 gene from Chinese cabbage, which is a group II member of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily. The 645-bp coding sequence of BrWRKY12 translates to a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 24.4 kDa, and BrWRKY12 was exclusively localised in the nucleus. Transcripts of BrWRKY12 were induced by Pcc infection in Brassica. Heterologous expression of BrWRKY12 resulted in reduced susceptibility to Pcc but not to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis. Defence-associated genes, such as AtPDF1.2 and AtPGIP2, were constitutively expressed in transgenic lines overexpressing BrWRKY12. The expression of AtWKRY12, which is the closest orthologue of BrWRKY12, was down-regulated by Pcc in Arabidopsis. However, the Atwrky12-2 mutants did not show any difference in response to Pcc, pointing to a difference in function of WRKY12 in Brassica and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, BrWRKY12 in Chinese cabbage also exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot and increased the expression of defence-associated genes. In summary, BrWRKY12 confers enhanced resistance to Pcc through transcriptional activation of defence-related genes. PMID:24552622

Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Nam, H; Lee, Y M; Song, K; Choi, C; Ahn, I; Park, S R; Lee, Y H; Hwang, D J

2014-09-01

397

Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT (1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), 3,4,3'4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4'5'-hexachlorobiphenyl 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), and benzo(a)pyrene to carbon dioxide. Model studies, based on the use of DDT, suggest that the ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to metabolize these compounds is dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus.

J. A. Bumpus; M. Tien; D. Wright; S. D. Aust

1985-01-01

398

Phanerozoic concentrations of atmospheric oxygen reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of the Earth's atmospheric oxygen concentration (pO2) are thought to be closely tied to the evolution of life, with strong feedbacks between uni- and multicellular life and oxygen. On the geologic timescale, pO2 is regulated by the burial of organic carbon and sulphur, as well as by weathering. Reconstructions of atmospheric O2 for the past 400million years have therefore been based on geochemical models of carbon and sulphur cycling. However, these reconstructions vary widely, particularly for the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic eras. Here we show that the abundance of charcoal in mire settings is controlled by pO2, and use this proxy to reconstruct the concentration of atmospheric oxygen for the past 400million years. We estimate that pO2 was continuously above 26% during the Carboniferous and Permian periods, and that it declined abruptly around the time of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. During the Triassic and Jurassic periods, pO2 fluctuated cyclically, with amplitudes up to 10% and a frequency of 20-30million years. Atmospheric oxygen concentrations have declined steadily from the middle of the Cretaceous period to present-day values of about 21%. We conclude, however, that variation in pO2 was not the main driver of the loss of faunal diversity during the Permo-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction events.

Glasspool, Ian J.; Scott, Andrew C.

2010-09-01

399

A 560Year Record of Santa Ana Fires Reconstructed from Charcoal Deposited in the Santa Barbara Basin, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic charcoal from varved Santa Barbara Basin sediments was used to reconstruct a 560-yr record (A.D. 1425 to 1985) of Santa Ana fires. Comparison of large (>3750 ?m2) charcoal with documented fire records in the Santa Barbara Ranger District shows that high accumulations correspond to large fires (>20,000 ha) that occurred during Santa Ana conditions. The charcoal record reconstructed a

Scott A. Mensing; Joel Michaelsen; Roger Byrne

1999-01-01

400

Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067

Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

2014-06-01

401

Biodegradation of environmental contaminants using white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi are a common, naturally-occurring class of wood-degrading fungi that evolved to degrade lignin. Extensive research conducted since the early 1980s has shown that many of the same mechanisms used by the fungi for lignin degradation also promote the degradation of several carbon-based environmental contaminants. These contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, chlorinated solvents, PCBs, explosives, cyanide, dyes and others. The fungi use an extra-cellular, free-radical, nonspecific mode of degradation, which allows them to degrade both soluble and insoluble contaminants, whether they are absorbed or in solution. The extra-cellular substances secreted by the fungi include several enzymes (which catalyze the initial oxidation of contaminant molecules), hydrogen ions (to maintain a slightly acidic pH), electrons (to maintain a charge balance and to reduce contaminant through the breaking of chemical bonds), and the fungi secrete veratryl alcohol (a free-radical mediator that catalyzes reductions) and oxalate (an organic acid that is a highly effective reductant). Application of white rot fungi for the remediation of contaminated soils involves mixing fungal-inoculated substrates with the soil. The materials are moistened during mixing to provide an environment that is conducive to fungal growth. The soil/substrate mixture is then placed in a biocell and aerated to promote contaminant degradation. Case histories of bench-scale tests and field applications are presented.

White, R.B.; Aust, S.D. (Utah State Univ., Midvale, UT (United States))

1994-08-01

402

Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes from White-Rot Fungi.  

PubMed

The development of alternative energy sources by applying lignocellulose-based biofuel technology is critically important because of the depletion of fossil fuel resources, rising fossil fuel prices, security issues regarding the fossil fuel supply, and environmental issues. White-rot fungi have received much attention in recent years for their valuable enzyme systems that effectively degrade lignocellulosic biomasses. These fungi have powerful extracellular oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes that degrade lignin and cellulose biopolymers, respectively. Lignocellulosic biomasses from either agricultural or forestry wastes are abundant, low-cost feedstock alternatives in nature but require hydrolysis into simple sugars for biofuel production. This review provides a complete overview of the different lignocellulose biomasses and their chemical compositions. In addition, a complete list of the white-rot fungi-derived lignocellulolytic enzymes that have been identified and their molecular structures, mechanism of action in lignocellulose hydrolysis, and biochemical properties is summarized in detail. These enzymes include ligninolytic enzymes (laccase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase) and cellulolytic enzymes (endo-glucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and beta-glucosidase). The use of these fungi for low-cost lignocellulolytic enzyme production might be attractive for biofuel production. PMID:25487116

Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Heese, Klaus

2014-12-01

403

Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Peach in China  

PubMed Central

In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), ?-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China. PMID:21980371

Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D.; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi

2011-01-01

404

Expression of anti-sclerotinia scFv in transgenic Brassica napus enhances tolerance against stem rot.  

PubMed

Canola is an important agricultural crop imparting a significant contribution to global oilseed production. As such, optimizing yield and quality is of paramount importance and canola production can be significantly affected by sclerotinia stem rot. The utility of recombinant antibody technology in plant protection has been explored by many researchers and shows promise for the generation of new lines of agriculturally significant crops with greater resistance to diseases. The objective of the current study was to generate recombinant pathogen specific antibody (scFv)-expressing transgenic Brassica napus plants with increased tolerance to the phytopathogenic fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transgenic canola (B. napus) lines expressing S. sclerotiorum-specific scFv antibody showed a significant level of tolerance towards S. sclerotiorum as compared to their non-transformed counterparts. Both incidence and progression of S. sclerotiorum-induced disease symptoms were reduced in plants expressing the recombinant scFv. PMID:20933110

Yajima, William; Verma, Shiv Shankar; Shah, Saleh; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Liang, Yue; Kav, Nat N V

2010-12-31

405

A signal-to-noise index to quantify the potential for peak detection in sediment-charcoal records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal peaks in lake-sediment records are commonly used to reconstruct fire histories spanning thousands of years, but quantitative methods for evaluating the suitability of records for peak detection are largely lacking. We present a signal-to-noise index (SNI) that quantifies the separation of charcoal peaks (signal) from other variability in a record (noise). We validate the SNI with simulated and empirical charcoal records and show that an SNI > 3 consistently identifies records appropriate for peak detection. The SNI thus offers a means to evaluate the suitability of sediment-charcoal records for reconstructing local fires. MATLAB and R functions for calculating SNI are provided.

Kelly, Ryan F.; Higuera, Philip E.; Barrett, Carolyn M.; Hu, Feng Sheng

2011-01-01

406

Charcoal-Induced Granuloma That Mimicked a Nodal Metastasis on Ultrasonography and FDG-PET/CT after Neck Dissection.  

PubMed

Charcoal can be used for preoperative localization of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Charcoal remains stable without causing foreign body reactions during as hort period. However, foreign body reactions may develop if charcoal is left in situ for more than 6 months. We reported a case of charcoal granuloma mimicking local recurrence on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography and ultrasonography in a 47-year-old woman who had cervical lymph node dissection due to metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. PMID:25598690

Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Won-Jin; Choi, Nami; Roh, Hong Gee; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Na Ra; Moon, Sung Gyu; Chung, Hyun Woo; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Jung-Hyun

2015-01-01

407

Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences between local and regional fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

evaluate the influence of long-distance transport of charcoal particles on the detection of local wildfires from lake sediment sequences, we tracked three consecutive years of charcoal deposition into traps set within seven boreal lakes in northeastern Canada. Peaks in macroscopic charcoal accumulation (>150 µm) were linked to both local (inside the watershed) and regional wildfires. However, regional fires were characterized by higher proportions of small particles (<0.1 mm2) in charcoal assemblages. We conclude that the analysis of particle size distribution is useful to discriminate "true" local fires from regional wildfires.

Oris, France; Ali, Adam A.; Asselin, Hugo; Paradis, Laure; Bergeron, Yves; Finsinger, Walter

2014-10-01

408

Charcoal-Induced Granuloma That Mimicked a Nodal Metastasis on Ultrasonography and FDG-PET/CT after Neck Dissection  

PubMed Central

Charcoal can be used for preoperative localization of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Charcoal remains stable without causing foreign body reactions during as hort period. However, foreign body reactions may develop if charcoal is left in situ for more than 6 months. We reported a case of charcoal granuloma mimicking local recurrence on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography and ultrasonography in a 47-year-old woman who had cervical lymph node dissection due to metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

Choi, Jin Woo; Choi, Nami; Roh, Hong Gee; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Na Ra; Moon, Sung Gyu; Chung, Hyun Woo; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Jung-Hyun

2015-01-01

409

Identification of qRBS1, a QTL involved in resistance to bacterial seedling rot in rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial seedling rot (BSR), a destructive disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.), is caused by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. To identify QTLs for resistance to BSR, we conducted a QTL analysis using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between Nona Bokra (resistant) and Koshihikari (susceptible). Comparison of the levels of BSR in the CSSLs and their recurrent parent, Koshihikari, revealed that a region on chromosome 10 was associated with resistance. Further genetic analyses using an F5 population derived from a cross between a resistant CSSL and Koshihikari confirmed that a QTL for BSR resistance was located on the short arm of chromosome 10. The Nona Bokra allele was associated with resistance to BSR. Substitution mapping in the Koshihikari genetic background demonstrated that the QTL, here designated as qRBS1 (quantitative trait locus for RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL SEEDLING ROT 1), was located in a 393-kb interval (based on the Nipponbare reference genome sequence) defined by simple sequence repeat markers RM24930 and RM24944. PMID:23797600

Mizobuchi, R; Sato, H; Fukuoka, S; Tsushima, S; Imbe, T; Yano, M

2013-09-01

410

Enhancement of Cylindrocladium crotalariae Root Rot by Meloidogyne arenaria (Race 2) on a Peanut Cultivar Resistant to Both Pathogens.  

PubMed

Two populations of Meloidogyne arenaria (race 2, incompatible on peanut) enhanced development of Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) on CBR-resistant peanut cv. NC 3033 in greenhouse factorial experiments. Nematode populations 256 and 486 (0, 10(3), 10 eggs per 15-cm pot) were tested in all combinations with Cylindrocladium crotalariae (0, 0.5, 5, 50 microsclerotia per cm(3) of soil). Root-rot index increased in the presence of either population. Positions but not slope values of inoculum density-disease curves were changed by both populations, indicating increased efficiency of microsclerotia when peanuts were grown in the presence of these nematodes. Although little or no reproduction occurred with either nematode population on NC 3033, larvae of 256 and 486 penetrated roots. Meloidogyne arenaria 486 did not induce root galls and was not snccessful in establishing feeding sites. Meloidogyne arenaria 256 produced a few very small eliptical galls and had a range of success in establishing a feeding site, varying from no giant cell development to large giant cell with production of a few eggs. PMID:19300770

Diomande, M; Black, M C; Beute, M K; Barker, K R

1981-07-01

411

Differences in crystalline cellulose modification due to degradation by brown and white rot fungi.  

PubMed

Wood-decaying basidiomycetes are some of the most effective bioconverters of lignocellulose in nature, however the way they alter wood crystalline cellulose on a molecular level is still not well understood. To address this, we examined and compared changes in wood undergoing decay by two species of brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Meruliporia incrassata, and two species of white rot fungi, Irpex lacteus and Pycnoporus sanguineus, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The overall percent crystallinity in wood undergoing decay by M. incrassata, G. trabeum, and I. lacteus appeared to decrease according to the stage of decay, while in wood decayed by P. sanguineus the crystallinity was found to increase during some stages of degradation. This result is suggested to be potentially due to the different decay strategies employed by these fungi. The average spacing between the 200 cellulose crystal planes was significantly decreased in wood degraded by brown rot, whereas changes observed in wood degraded by the two white rot fungi examined varied according to the selectivity for lignin. The conclusions were supported by a quantitative analysis of the structural components in the wood before and during decay confirming the distinct differences observed for brown and white rot fungi. The results from this study were consistent with differences in degradation methods previously reported among fungal species, specifically more non-enzymatic degradation in brown rot versus more enzymatic degradation in white rot. PMID:23063184

Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Howell, Caitlin; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Goodell, Barry; Jellison, Jody

2012-10-01

412

Effects of resins and activated charcoal on the absorption of digoxin, carbamazepine and frusemide.  

PubMed Central

1. The interference of resins and activated charcoal with the absorption of digoxin, carbamazepine and frusemide was studied. 2. In a cross-over study consisting of four phases, single doses of colestipol hydrochloride (10 g), cholestyramine (8 g), activated charcoal (8 g) or water only were given to six healthy volunteers immediately after the simultaneous ingestion of digoxin (0.25 mg), carbamazepine (400 mg) and frusemide (40 mg). Plasma and urine concentrations of the test drugs and the urine volumes were determined up to 72 h. 3. The absorption of digoxin was not reduced by colestipol, moderately (30-40%, P less than 0.05) reduced by cholestyramine and greatly (96%) by charcoal. 4. The absorption of carbamazepine was not decreased by cholestyramine, slightly (10%) by colestipol and greatly (90%) by activated charcoal. 5. The absorption and the diuretic effect of frusemide were significantly diminished by all agents. The bioavailability was reduced by colestipol 80%, by cholestyramine 95% and by activated charcoal 99.5%. 6. The interference with the gastrointestinal absorption of most of the basic drugs by colestipol and cholestyramine seems to be minimal. On the other hand, the resins may seriously impair the absorption of certain acidic drugs, for example frusemide. PMID:3358884

Neuvonen, P J; Kivistö, K; Hirvisalo, E L

1988-01-01

413

Tailoring the characteristics of carbonized wood charcoal by using different heating rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the characteristics of charcoals generated from White Lauan ( Pentacmecontorta) and Punah ( Tetrameristaglabra) by using different carbonization temperatures and heating rates. The scanning electron micrographs showed vestured pits in the White Lauan and raphide crystals in Punah as their respective anatomical characteristics. A slower heating rate resulted in a lower temperature to obtain the same amount of weight loss, regardless of the species being tested. A greater charcoal yield was obtained at a higher heating rate. The specific surface area was smaller in the charcoal produced at a higher carbonization temperature, but the heating rate had little effected. For both wood species, the axial compressive strength of the charcoal increased as the carbonization temperature was increased. The X-ray diffractograms of White Lauan and Punah woods heated at 1200°C indicated thermal decomposition of the crystal structure of cellulose, but no appreciable structural changes occurred under the tested heating rate conditions. Overall, the heating rate affected the charcoal yield but not the specific surface area, compressive strength, and crystal structure.

Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Oh, Choong-Hyeon; Park, Byung-Ho; Kang, Joo-Hyon

2014-05-01

414

Structure of Rot, a global regulator of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile pathogen that can infect human tissue by producing a large arsenal of virulence factors that are tightly regulated by a complex regulatory network. Rot, which shares sequence similarity with SarA homologues, is a global regulator that regulates numerous virulence genes. However, the recognition model of Rot for the promoter region of target genes and the putative regulation mechanism remain elusive. In this study, the 1.77?Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rot is reported. The structure reveals that two Rot molecules form a compact homodimer, each of which contains a typical helix-turn-helix module and a ?-hairpin motif connected by a flexible loop. Fluorescence polarization results indicate that Rot preferentially recognizes AT-rich dsDNA with ~30-base-pair nucleotides and that the conserved positively charged residues on the winged-helix motif are vital for binding to the AT-rich dsDNA. It is proposed that the DNA-recognition model of Rot may be similar to that of SarA, SarR and SarS, in which the helix-turn-helix motifs of each monomer interact with the major grooves of target dsDNA and the winged motifs contact the minor grooves. Interestingly, the structure shows that Rot adopts a novel dimerization model that differs from that of other SarA homologues. As expected, perturbation of the dimer interface abolishes the dsDNA-binding ability of Rot, suggesting that Rot functions as a dimer. In addition, the results have been further confirmed in vivo by measuring the transcriptional regulation of ?-toxin, a major virulence factor produced by most S. aureus strains. PMID:25195759

Zhu, Yuwei; Fan, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Xuguang; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

2014-09-01

415

Relation of the Occurrence of Cotton Root Rot to the Chemical Composition of Soils.  

E-print Network

:~p$ne$$ 9 -FK~( Q9"y.a *e4*&; I * Relation of the occurrence of Cotton Root7*'. Rot to the Chemical Composition of Soils -- AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Soils in which cotton root rot generally occurs.... It has been found in about 200 counties of Texas (16), including practically all of the State except the Panhandle and parts of the mountainous country near the New Mexico line. Cotton root rot affects not only cotton, but a large variety of other...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1935-01-01

416

Internal Rot Detection with the Use of Low-Frequency Flaw Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of rot detection in standing timber or stocked wood is very important in forest management. Rot flaw detection used for that purpose is represented by invasive and non-invasive devices. Non-invasive devices are very accurate, but due to the cost and complicated operation they have not been applied on a large scale in forest management. Taking into account the practical needs of foresters a prototype of low-frequency flaw was developed. The principle of its operation is based on the difference in acoustic wave propagation in sound wood and wood with rot.

Proskórnicki, Marek; Ligus, Grzegorz

2014-12-01

417

Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high negative charge of charcoal results from surface oxidation processes over time. This charge varies over quite a wide range of values according to soil type, which might be explained by the nature of the charred wood. The surface soil horizons at kiln site show a completely desaturated exchange complex, comparable to the reference soils. However, the raise of the base saturation in the underlying horizons reflects the past liming effect of ashes produced by wood charring that has been completely erased from the topsoil in 200 years. Exchangeable K+ in the topsoil layers of kiln sites is very low, which can be related to an enhanced selectivity for Mg++ and Ca++ on the exchange complex of old charred material. Similarly, very little Pav is extracted from charcoal-enriched horizons, suggesting that Pav is either reduced in quantity or in availability. Our data clearly highlight the long-term effect of the accumulation of charred material on the evolution of soil chemical properties due to charcoal ageing and nutrient leaching.

Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

2014-05-01

418

A means to make open-face charcoal detectors respond correctly to varying concentration radon fields  

SciTech Connect

Ronca-Battista and D. Gray 87, outlined the poor response of open-face charcoal detectors to varying concentration radon fields. At worst, for two day exposures with open-face charcoal canisters, their Table 4 indicated a 75% under-response for radon concentrations that were 10 times higher during the first day of two, 10:1. TCS has made similar measurements with open-faced and diffusion barrier detectors in 20:1, 1:20, and 1:1 fields. For the worst case 20:1, measurements indicate TCS two day open-face canisters under respond by 50%, while the Cohen and TCS diffusion barrier devices under responded by about 37%. The reasons for the under response are radon diffusion out of the charcoal due to the forces of lower concentration during the second half of the exposure, and uncompensated radioactive decay of radon gas.

Distenfeld, C.H. [TCS Industries Inc., Harrisburg, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

419

Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

Lemieux, P.M.

1999-06-01

420

Analysis of alkyl nitrates and selected halocarbons in the ambient atmosphere using a charcoal preconcentration technique  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed to measure {ge}C{sub 3} alkyl nitrates and C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} halocarbons, such as perchloroethylene and bromoform, in ambient air. The method preconcentrates analytes on a 5-mg charcoal trap from multiliter volumes of air. Analytes are desorbed from the charcoal with a small volume of solvent and are analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Laboratory and field tests have been performed to evaluate method precision, analyte breakthrough, and compound recovery from the charcoal. Tests verified that the sampling/analytical system is free from artifact formation under clean to moderately polluted conditions, but further tests are required for areas of high concentrations of hydrocarbons, NO{sub x}, and oxidants. The method allows measurement of halocarbons and {ge}C{sub 3} alkyl nitrates at concentrations in the pptv range.

Atlas, E.; Schauffler, S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1991-01-01

421

Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions.

Lee, S.Y.

1999-06-01

422

Elimination of endotoxin from the blood by extracorporeal activated charcoal hemoperfusion in experimental canine endotoxin shock.  

PubMed

Circulating endotoxin is an important factor in the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of endotoxin shock. The effect of extracorporeal activated charcoal hemoperfusion was investigated in experimental endotoxin shock of dogs produced by i.v. injection of Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin (1 mg/kg body weight). The endotoxin was labeled with 99mTc. The aorta and vein cava caudalis of anesthetized dogs were cannulated through the arteria and vein femorales. The cannulae were contacted to the hemoperfusion charcoal cartridge. The efficiency of hemoperfusion was tested from the blood samples, and the endotoxin content of blood was measured biologically (in lead acetate-treated rats) and isotopically (99mTc radioactivity) at 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection. It was demonstrated that extracorporeal activated charcoal hemoperfusion can eliminate the majority of circulating endotoxin from the blood within 30 min. PMID:3719924

Bende, S; Bertók, L

1986-01-01

423

Calonectria species associated with cutting rot of Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

Decline in the productivity of Eucalyptus hybrid cutting production in the Guangdong Province of China is linked to cutting rot associated with several Calonectria spp. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calonectria spp., Ca. pseudoreteaudii sp. nov. and Ca. cerciana sp. nov. were identified together with Ca. pauciramosa. Calonectria pseudoreteaudii resides in the Ca. reteaudii complex and Ca. cerciana is closely related to Ca. morganii. Connected to the discovery of Ca. pseudoreteaudii, species in the Ca. reteaudii complex were re-considered and the group is shown to accommodate two cryptic species. These originate from Australia and are described as Ca. queenslandica sp. nov. and Ca. terrae-reginae sp. nov. PMID:20664755

Lombard, L; Zhou, X D; Crous, P W; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

2010-06-01

424

Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.  

PubMed

The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface. PMID:24412530

Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

2014-03-01

425

An improved sup 222 Rn canister using a two-stage charcoal system  

SciTech Connect

A prototype for an improved passive {sup 222}Rn canister (R-Canister) was designed and compared to conventional charcoal canisters for its adsorptive and desorptive characteristics following exposures to {sup 222}Rn at 23{degrees}C in the presence of water vapor. The R-Canister, containing a two-stage charcoal system, minimizes the adverse effects of water vapor by maintaining the amount of adsorbed water vapor in the primary Rn adsorbent below the break-point of the charcoal. This is achieved by the placement of a desiccant charcoal cartridge 6 cm above the primary Rn adsorbent. The optimal bed depth of the primary adsorbent, determined from a diffusion study, was found to be 2.3 cm. The measured value for the effective diffusion coefficient of RN in a peat-based charcoal at 15% humidity and 25{degrees}C is 7.97 x 10(-10) m2 s-1. Exposures to 70% humidity for 7 d increased the buildup time-constant of Rn in the R-Canisters by 33% as compared to R-Canisters exposed to 15% humidity. At relative humidities ranging from 15-70%, the {sup 222}Rn buildup time-constant of the R-Canister ranged from 43-94 h, whereas the desorption time-constant ranged from 46-64 h. Typical buildup time-constants and desorption time-constants for conventional fully-opened charcoal canisters currently in field use ranged from 30-43 h and 17-29 h, respectively, over the same range of humidities.

Scarpitta, S.C.; Harley, N.H. (Department of Energy, New York, NY (USA))

1991-02-01

426

Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa  

E-print Network

Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub of California, Berkeley Fall 2005 #12;Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa Robert Eric

Kammen, Daniel M.

427

Particle-Size Evidence for Source Areas of Charcoal Accumulation in Late Holocene Sediments of Eastern North American Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of analyzing charcoal in sediment reveal changes in charcoal accumulation across temperate eastern North America during the last several hundred years. In one method the analyst counts mostly small particles that reflect regional emissions; in the other, the analyst counts only larger particles derived mostly from such local sources as catchment fires. We used these methods to compare

James S. Clark; P. Dan Royall

1995-01-01

428

Transformation of a northern hardwood forest by aboriginal (Iroquois) fire: charcoal evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists have long debated whether Indian burning had important impacts on presettlement forests. We obtained stratigraphic evidence for fire using charcoal analysis of southern Ontario lake sediments. The record spans a period of Iroquois occupation when cultivation coincides with pollen evidence for transition from northern hardwoods to white pine\\/oak forests. Charcoal data reveal that this transition was attended by increased

J. S. Clark; P. D. Royall

1995-01-01

429

What Does Psychological Autopsy Study Tell Us about Charcoal Burning Suicide--A New and Contagious Method in Asia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong between 2002-2004 in the 15 to 59-year-old age group were investigated using the psychological autopsy method. The psychopathological profiles of charcoal burning suicides (N = 53) were compared against "other suicides" (N = 97). The two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of "DSM-IV" axis I…

Chan, Sandra S. M.; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Wong, Paul W. C.; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Law, Y. W.; Yip, Paul S. F.

2009-01-01

430

FTIR spectroscopy and reflectance of modern charcoals and fungal decayed woods: implications for studies of inertinite in coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and physical characteristics of laboratory produced charcoals, natural charcoals, fungal decayed woods and inertinite from a variety of Western Canadian coals have been investigated using FTIR and standard petrologic techniques. Our studies confirm and extend earlier work in showing that almost all inertinite macerals can be attributed to wildfire in peat swamps, and that variation in the petrological

Y Guo; R. M Bustin

1998-01-01

431

Pollen and charcoal in lake sediments compared with historically documented forest fires in southern Switzerland since AD 1920  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal in unlaminated sediments dated by 210Pb was analysed by the pollen-slide and thin-section methods. The results were compared with the number and area of forest fires on different spatial scales in the area around Lago di Origlio as listed in the wildfire database of southern Switzerland since AD 1920. The influx of the number of charcoal particles > 75

Willy Tinner; Marco Conedera; Brigitta Ammann; Heinz W. Gaggeler; Sharon Gedye; Richard Jones; Beat Sagesser

1998-01-01

432

Preparation and characterization of charcoals that contain dispersed aluminum oxide as adsorbents for removal of fluoride from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoals adsorbents that contain dispersed aluminum and iron oxides have been synthesized by impregnating wood with salt solutions followed by carbonization at 500°C, 650°C or 900°C. The adsorbents were characterized and their performance for fluoride removal from aqueous solution was evaluated. Aluminum and iron oxides were well dispersed into the porous charcoals. The carbons were amorphous and highly porous. XRD

Eric Tchomgui-Kamga; Véronique Alonzo; Charles P. Nanseu-Njiki; Nathalie Audebrand; Emmanuel Ngameni; André Darchen

2010-01-01

433

USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

434

Holocene Fire History of an Eastern Oregon Forest Based on Soil Charcoal Radiocarbon Dates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited research has been done on long-term forest fire histories in northeastern Oregon. As part of an investigation to determine the minimum age of a 300 ha landslide in the Blue Mountains, a pit was excavated near the toe of the slide. The pit, located in a depression between the landslide and a ridge, contains massive clays and silts, and an 8000-year sequence of forest fires recorded in 7 buried charcoal layers. Eight- thousand-year-old Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) is common in the area, but no tephra was found in the excavation. The upper 17 cm is organic rich soil. Seven horizons of charcoal are present; the upper six are subhorizontal and occur at depths of 17, 36, 41, 46, 52, and 57 cm. The lowest charcoal horizon follows a disconformity that cuts diagonally across the pit from 85 to 125 cm below the surface; oxidation in the form of orange mottling occurs above this disconformity (interpreted to be a paleoslope) and is prominent below it. The charcoal horizons provide evidence of large-scale forest fires in the vicinity, with differing intensities represented by the amount of charcoal in each horizon. The layers vary in thickness from 2 to 6 cm. Five charcoal horizons were radiocarbon dated (AMS) and calendar calibrated. The charcoal at the base of the soil (at 17 cm) provided an age of AD 1670 to 1960; this horizon correlates with widespread fires in the Blue Mountains in AD 1855. The horizon second closest to the surface (at 36 cm) provided an age of 1310 ± 40 B.P. The thickest horizon (at 46 cm) yielded an age of 2420 ± 40 B.P. The lowest horizontal horizon (at 57 cm) provided an age of 3460 ± 40 B.P. The lowest charcoal (at the disconformity) yielded an age of 7990 ± 40 B.P. Based on radiocarbon dates, the mean rate of sedimentation in the closed depression is approximately 1.2 cm/century. Fire episodes (which correspond remarkably well with a lake core site approximately 150 km south), indicate relatively long periods (from 400 to over 4000 years) between large, stand-replacing fires, and are suggestive of changing climate and ecological conditions in this forest setting. Past fire sequences provide important clues to predicting future climate-wildfire scenarios.

Carson, R. J.; Malkemus, D.; Clifton, C. F.

2006-12-01

435

Steady-state response of a charcoal bed to radon in flowing air with water vapor  

SciTech Connect

Previously we have developed a mathematical model of radon adsorption in active air with water vapor on small U.S. Environmental Protection Agency charcoal canisters that are used for environmental measurements of radon. The purpose of this paper is to extend this mathematical model to describe the adsorption of radon by large charcoal beds with radon-laden air flowing through them. The resulting model equations are solved analytically to predict the steady-state adsorption of radon by such beds. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-06-01

436

Effectivity of One Session Charcoal Hemoperfusion Treatment in Severe Carbamazepine Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A carbamazepine intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that presenting with coma, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and even death. We report a case of severe carbamazepine poisoning that was successfully treated with one session charcoal hemoperfusion. On admission, the patient was comatose and required ventilator support. Hemoperfusion with coated activated charcoal successfully decreased the serum carbamazepine concentration from 45 µg mL?1 to 21 µg mL?1 within 2 h, with subsequent clinical improvement. PMID:24578847

Isik, Yasemin; Soyoral, Lokman; Karadas, Sevdegul; Emre, Habib; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Goktas, Ugur

2013-01-01

437

Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from small residential stoves burning wood and charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from a small residential wood stove and a newly developed residential stove burning charcoal have been characterized by chemical analysis and mutagenicity testing (Ames Salmonella test). For wood burning the samples were taken under normal and starved air conditions burning birch and spruce separately. The burning conditions in the stove seemed to influence the emissions to a larger extent than the type of wood. The emissions of aldehydes, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the charcoal-burning stove are lower by a factor of 25-1000 as compared to the wood stove. The mutagenicity of the emissions showed a similar trend.

Ramdahl, T. (Central Inst. for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway); Alfheim, I.; Rustad, S.; Olsen, T.

1982-01-01

438

The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other of its African neighbours. The question arises whether and how money and technology transfer to increase regenerative electrical power generation should become part of a post-Kyoto process. Furthermore, better inventory data are urgently required to improve knowledge about the current state of the woodland usage and recovery. Net greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced substantially by improving the post-harvest management, charcoal production technology and/or providing alternative energy supply. PMID:21854587

2011-01-01

439

Storage effects on desorption efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and styrene collected on activated charcoal  

E-print Network

STORAGE EFf ECTS ON DESORP'TIC'N EFFICIENCIES OF METHYL ETHYL KF10NE AND STYRENE COLLECTED ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL A Thesis by RICHARD ALVIN DONiNiER Approved as to style and content by: ( ha1ris a of Coll'Jn1 t tee Nay l978 QQZSGH ABSTRACT... Storage Effects on Desorption Efficiercies of i&lethyl Ethyl Ketone and Styrene Colleci-. ed on Activated Charcoal (liay 1978) Richard A. Dommer, B. S. , Central !'iichigan D&nivers ity Directed by: Dr, Ralph J. Vernon The effects on the desorption...

Dommer, Richard Alvin

1978-01-01

440

Research on Bamboo Charcoal Bonded Grinding Wheel and Its Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new type of grinding wheel and its manufacturing production process are introduced. The new BCB (Bamboo Charcoal Bond) grinding wheel was made of bamboo charcoal, phenolic resin and abrasive powder with higher press and temperature. To investigate its mechanical features, such as Rockwell hardness, resistance to abrasion, and resistance to pressure, some experiments on three BCB samples with different Resin weight ratios 20%, 25%, 30%, were carried out. The results showed that the BCB sample with proper moulding process and Resin weight ratio had better performance.

Li, Wei; Xu, Minjie; Zhan, Fangyong; Jin, Mingsheng

2014-08-01

441

Degradación de colorantes industriales con hongos ligninolíticos Degradation of industrial dyes with white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi have shown a great potential for degrading recalcitrant chemicals compounds as PAHs, explosives, pesticides, dyes, etc. This capacity is due mainly to an extracellular enzymatic complex that they use naturally

Mariana Cardona; Juliana Osorio; Juan Quintero

442

Oxidative enzymatic response of white-rot fungi to single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

: Saprotrophic fungi Enzymatics Carbon nanomaterials a b s t r a c t Although carbon nanomaterials such as single. This study investigates the peroxidase and laccase enzymatic response of the saprotrophic white-rot fungi

Blanchette, Robert A.

443

The performance of charcoal-based radon detection under time-varying radon conditions: Experimental and theoretical results  

SciTech Connect

Radon adsorption by charcoal is a widely used technique for measuring indoor radon concentration, particularly when short-term results are desired. There are several different devices available, ranging from permeable envelopes filled with charcoal and open-face charcoal-filled canisters to devices incorporating diffusion limiting features to reduce losses of radon due to desorption. However, the integration characteristics of these samplers are not well understood, particularly under conditions of highly varying radon concentrations. A model for predicting the response of various types of charcoal based detectors to time-variant radon concentrations has been developed; the model predictions compare well with results from chamber experiments. Both the experimental and theoretical results have also been compared with integrated continuous-sampling measurements. The implications of these comparisons for use of charcoal for screening measurements is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Sextro, R.G.; Lee, D.D.

1988-10-01

444

Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy.  

PubMed

Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an intensive sampling of diseased cucurbits as well as tomato and bell pepper was done and the fungal pathogens present on them were isolated. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolates were determined through a study of ribosomal RNA gene sequences (ITS cluster and D1/D2 domain of the 28S rRNA gene). Combining morphological, culture and molecular data, six species were distinguished. One of these (Pa. cucumerina) is already known. Four new species are described as Plectosphaerella citrullae, Pa. pauciseptata, Pa. plurivora and Pa. ramiseptata. Acremonium cucurbitacearum is shown to be a synonym of Nodulisporium melonis and is transferred to Plectosphaerella as Plectosphaerella melonis comb. nov. A further three known species of Plectosporium are recombined in Plectosphaerella. PMID:23105152

Carlucci, A; Raimondo, M L; Santos, J; Phillips, A J L

2012-06-01

445

Evaluation of rhizobacterial indicators of tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in farmers' fields.  

PubMed

Very few soil quality indicators include disease-suppressiveness criteria. We assessed whether 64 16S rRNA microarray probes whose signals correlated with tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in greenhouse analysis could also discriminate suppressive from conducive soils under field conditions. Rhizobacterial communities of tobacco and wheat sampled in 2 years from four farmers' fields of contrasted suppressiveness status were compared. The 64 previously identified indicator probes correctly classified 72% of 29 field samples, with nine probes for Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Sphingomonadaceae, Planctomycetes, Mycoplasma, Lactobacillus crispatus and Thermodesulforhabdus providing the best prediction. The whole probe set (1033 probes) revealed strong effects of plant, field location and year on rhizobacterial community composition, and a smaller (7% variance) but significant effect of soil suppressiveness status. Seventeen additional probes correlating with suppressiveness status in the field (noticeably for Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ochrobactrum) were selected, and combined with the nine others, they improved correct sample classification from 72% to 79% (100% tobacco and 63% wheat samples). Pseudomonas probes were not informative in the field, even those targeting biocontrol pseudomonads producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, nor was quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-synthesis gene phlD. This study shows that a subset of 16S rRNA probes targeting diverse rhizobacteria can be useful as suppressiveness indicators under field conditions. PMID:24992533

Kyselková, Martina; Almario, Juliana; Kopecký, Jan; Ságová-Mare?ková, Markéta; Haurat, Jacqueline; Muller, Daniel; Grundmann, Geneviève L; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2014-08-01

446

Control of Pythium root rot on hydroponically grown cucumbers with silver-coated cloth.  

PubMed

Silver-coated cloth (SCC) effectively controlled root rot that was caused by Pythium aphanidermatum in hydroponically grown cucumber plants. The presence of SCC in the hydroponic solution reduced the root rot from 100% to 10% 20 days after inoculation with zoospores of P. aphanidermatum. It was suggested that the inhibition of SCC was caused not only by the silver ion dissolved from SCC, but also by the metallic silver and silver compounds formed on the surface of the root. PMID:10945273

Zhao, Z H; Kusakari, S; Okada, K; Miyazaki, A; Osaka, T

2000-07-01

447

Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to six species of white rot fungi as a function of chemical dose  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi degrade a wide variety of environmental pollutants including many chlorinated aromatic compounds, leading to studies of degrading organic pollutants in contaminated waste waters and soils. This study looks at six species of white rot fungus and demonstrates that chemical toxicity should be expressed in terms of dose by examining the toxic effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on both developing and mature fungal mats in stationary liquid cultures, under both nitrogen-sufficient and -deficient conditions.

Alleman, B.C. (Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)); Logan, B.E.; Gilbertson, R.L. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1992-12-01

448

Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was

CARLOS S. MERRITT; C. ADINARAYANA REDDY

1999-01-01

449

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outline of this thesis<\\/strong>In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified

M. J. J. Kotterman

1998-01-01

450

Identification and Pathogenicity of the Fungus Isolated from Butt Rot of Japanese Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Butt rot of Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, in three 25-year-old stands with 178, 70 and 45 trees caused 69.1%, 75.7% and 76.1% of the respective stands to rot. In the\\u000a field survey, corticioid basidiocarps with yellowish hymenia were sometimes observed on the cut ends of trunks and cut surface\\u000a of stumps of C. obtusa and a few species of hardwoods.

Takashi KUBAYASHI; Nitaro MAEKAWA

2001-01-01

451

White-rot fungi and their enzymes for the treatment of industrial dye effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates. This ligninolytic system of white-rot fungi (WRF) is directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds and dyes. This review summarizes the state of the art in the research and

Dirk Wesenberg; Irene Kyriakides; Spiros N Agathos

2003-01-01

452

Accepted in July 2008 for publication in the Holocene. A 14,000 year sedimentary charcoal record of fire from the northern Sierra Nevada,  

E-print Network

Accepted in July 2008 for publication in the Holocene. A 14,000 year sedimentary charcoal record was used to reconstruct the recent history of fire, and high resolution charcoal analysis was used as periods of drought intensify. Key words Charcoal, climate change, Holocene, fire history, Sierra Nevada

Taylor, Alan

453

T4-Related Bacteriophage LIMEstone Isolates for the Control of Soft Rot on Potato Caused by ‘Dickeya solani’  

PubMed Central

The bacterium ‘Dickeya solani’, an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with ‘Dickeya solani’, the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics. PMID:22413005

Adriaenssens, Evelien M.; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Dunon, Vincent; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; De Proft, Maurice; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

2012-01-01

454

Harvest Aids in Sorghum  

E-print Network

for stalk degradation from diseases such as charcoal rot, which will cause premature lodging during natural dry down or after harvest aids are applied (Figure 2). To check the plants before treatment, split the stalk lengthwise and look for a hollow stem... or black rot just above the root crown. If the stalk is unhealthy, it will generally fall, whether or not it has been treated. Figures 3 and 4 show what to look for in finding charcoal rot and what to expect if an application is made without assessing...

Stichler, Charles; Livingston, Stephen

2003-03-11

455

Gastrointestinal Dialysis with Activated Charcoal and Cathartic in the Treatment of Adolescent Intoxications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports five patients who had taken a substantial medication overdose and presented in coma. Two had taken a salicylate overdose and three a phenobarbital overdose (one of these ingested a combination of phenobarbital and phenytoin). The cases were treated by our standard protocol of supportive therapy and alkaline diuresis plus repetitive oral doses of activated charcoal (gastrointestinal dialysis).

Howard C. Mofenson; Thomas R. Caraccio; Joseph Greensher; Ronald DAgostino; Anthony Rossi

1985-01-01

456

Automated headspace analysis of fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate on charcoal sampling tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Charcoal tubes are widely used for collecting organic vapor in the atmosphere, and the measurement is usually completed by analyzing an aliquot of the solvent phase following solvent extraction, typically with carbon disuhide. However, the sensitivity of this method is limited and sometimes to o low for monitoring contaminants at trace levels in the environmental atmosphere. In this study,

Jianying Gan Scott R. Yates; William F. Spencer; Marylynn V. Yates

1994-01-01

457

Analysis of charcoal tube samples for carbon disulfide using a photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector was used to detect carbon disulfide eluted from charcoal tubes with acetonitrile. Overall sampling and desorption efficiency for carbon disulfide was found to approach 100 percent when compared to a liquid impingement, colorimetric method. A relative standard deviation of 4.78 percent (sampling plus analysis) was observed when the method was applied to

DARRELL B. SMITH; LEONARD A. KRAUSE

1978-01-01

458

Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing activated charcoal at 0.0, 0.33, 0.67 or 1.00 g / kg of body weight. Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment levels. La...

459

Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in norteastern Brazi inferred from polen,, charcoal and carboon isotope records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils in the Barreirinhas region, Maranhao State, were sampled for 613 C analysis and buried charcoal fragments in the soils were radiocarbon dated. Three soil profiles collected in forested areas around the Lagoa do Caqö and one in a woody savanna (mixture of non-arboreal and arboreal species) located approximately 10 km southeast of the Lagoa were studied. A high-resolution pollen

L. C. R. Pessenda; M. P. Ledru; S. E. M. N. Gouveia; R. Aravena; A. S. Ribeiro; J. A. Bendashsollil; R. Boulet

2005-01-01

460

Charcoal tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence in the central compartment of the neck.  

PubMed

Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer can often require further surgical options. Reoperations may carry significant risk of surgical complications; additionally, as the anatomy is subverted, there is the possibility of leaving residual neoplasm. In order to avoid such problems during reoperation for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence, we have introduced the technique of preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of the lymphatic structure to be removed with a 4% solution of active charcoal. Using ultrasound guidance, the lesion is identified and 0.5-2 ml of colloidal charcoal is injected near the lesion. The extraction of the needle is accompanied by injection at constant pressure of other charcoal as to leave a trace of colouring along the path of the needle up to the skin. The preoperative injection was well tolerated in all cases. In the last 5 years, we have used this technique in 13 patients with suspected recurrence in the central compartment (all from papillary carcinomas). Postoperative ultrasound and histological examination confirmed the removal of the lesion in all patients; in one case, the lesion was a parathyroid cyst. Complications were observed in two of 13 (15.4%) cases (one transitory hypoparathyroidism, and one transitory vocal cord paresis). Considering our experience, charcoal tattoo localization can be considered a safe, low-cost technique that is extremely useful for facilitating surgical procedures, and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage. PMID:22767968

Soprani, F; Bondi, F; Puccetti, M; Armaroli, V

2012-04-01

461

CHARCOAL PRODUCTION DURING THE NORSE AND EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIODS IN EYJAFJALLAHREPPUR, SOUTHERN ICELAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber procurement and the use of woodlands are key issues in understanding the open landscapes of the Norse and Medieval periods in the North Atlantic islands. This paper outlines evidence for the timing and mechanisms of woodland use and deforestation in an area of southern Iceland, which is tracked through the mapping and analysis of charcoal production pits. Precise dating

M J Church; A J Dugmore; K A Mairs; A R Millard; P A Ascough; K H Roucoux

2007-01-01

462

The Holocene treeline in the northern Andes (Ecuador): First evidence from soil charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indications for the speed and timing of past altitudinal treeline shifts are often contradictory. Partly, this may be due to interpretation difficulties of pollen records, which are generally regional rather than local proxies. We used pedoanthracology, the identification and dating of macroscopic soil charcoal, to study vegetation history around the treeline in the northern Ecuadorian Andes. Pedoanthracology offers a complementary

Gaetano Di Pasquale; Mario Marziano; Stefania Impagliazzo; Carmine Lubritto; Antonino De Natale; Maaike Y. Bader

2007-01-01

463

Design and Operating Criteria for Fluorine Disposal by Reaction with Charcoal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with the charcoal-fluorine reaction for the disposal of fluorine have shown generally that this method is effective over a wide range of conditions. Pure fluorine or fluorine diluted with nitrogen to concentrations as low as 0.3 percent fluorine may be disposed of efficiently within the rate limitation. Maximum feed rates have been established and are inversely proportional to the charcoal-bed particle diameter. Moisture content in the charcoal had no appreciable effect on the disposal efficiency after the reaction zone was established and the moisture was driven off by the heat of reaction. There was no evidence of bed poisoning resulting from continued use. Design parameters may be based on the stoichiometric requirements plus sufficient excess charcoal to maintain desired efficiency toward the end of a disposal operation. The length of time a given reactor may be used continuously is limited by the rate of fluorine input and the resistance of the system to heat and fluorine attack. Refractory-lined reactors have been in routine field use at the Lewis Research Center for over a year and have given satisfactory service over a wide range of conditions.

Schmidt, Harold W.

1959-01-01

464

Benzo(a)pyrene and Other Polynuclear Hydrocarbons in Charcoal-Broiled Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible production of carcinogenic polynuclear hydrocarbons in the charcoal broiling of food has been investigated. Fifteen steaks were cooked and the polynuclear compounds were extracted, separated by chromatography, and identified spectrometrically. Many polynuclear hydrocarbons were identified, but no nitrogen heterocyclic compounds were detected. The carcinogen benzo(a)-pyrene was present in the average amount of 8 micrograms per kilogram of steak.

W. Lijinsky; P. Shubik

1964-01-01

465

4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, LAKE HENDERSON, FROM TAHAWUS CLUB BOAT DOCK. CA. 1914. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, PRESIDENT OF THE TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

466

Reduction of Absorption of Paracetamol by Activated Charcoal and Cholestyramine: A Possible Therapeutic Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of an oral 2-g dose of paracetamol was markedly reduced by the simultaneous oral administration of either activated charcoal or cholestyramine but was only slightly reduced when the adsorbents were given 60 minutes after the paracetamol. Since the absorption of a larger dose of the drug will probably be slow, the administration of adsorbents may be of value

B. Dordoni; R. A. Willson; R. P. H. Thompson; Roger Williams

1973-01-01

467

Steroid receptors in breast cancer: Sources of inter-laboratory variation in dextran-charcoal assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The presently recognized correlations between various clinical parameters and the concentrations of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer biopsies are largely based on receptor values obtained using the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method. This assay method is highly sensitive to slight changes in assay protocol, and differences in assay methodology may account for the wide variation in proportions of

Susan M. Thorpe

1987-01-01

468

An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

2009-01-01

469

Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical

Bruno Glaser; Johannes Lehmann; Wolfgang Zech

2002-01-01

470

Relationships between charcoal particles in air and sediments in west-central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and size of charred particles determine transport and deposition in lakes. Lack of such data is a principal obstacle to interpretation of past fire from charcoal profiles. Our two-part analysis includes a calibration study, to assess charred-particle production and transport during fire, and a study of charred particles in sediment. The calibration step establishes the magnitude and size distribution

James S. Clark; Jason Lynch; Brian J. Stocks; Johann G. Goldammer

1998-01-01

471

Acceleration of the body clearance of phenobarbital by oral activated charcoal.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of multiple oral doses of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered phenobarbital in a randomized crossover trial. Six healthy men volunteered to take 200 mg of phenobarbital sodium per 70 kg of body weight intravenously on two separate occasions. On one occasion, each subject received oral activated charcoal (180 g) in divided doses over three days after the infusion of phenobarbital. Serum levels of phenobarbital were measured in all subjects up to 96 hours after the infusion, and urinary excretion of phenobarbital was measured in two subjects 24 to 96 hours after the infusion. A pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the charcoal decreased the serum half-life of phenobarbital form 110 +/- 8 to 45 +/- 6 hours (S.E.M.) (P less than 0.01), increased the total body clearance of phenobarbital from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 12.0 +/- 1.6 ml per kilogram per hour (P less than 0.01), and increased the nonrenal clearance from 52 to 80 per cent of the total body clearance. We conclude that oral administration of activated charcoal enhances the nonrenal clearance of phenobarbital. PMID:7050705

Berg, M J; Berlinger, W G; Goldberg, M J; Spector, R; Johnson, G F

1982-09-01

472

Late Quaternary refugia of Mediterranean taxa in the Portuguese Estremadura: charcoal based palaeovegetation and climatic reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of archaeological charcoal preserved in the sediments of Buraca Grande (Estremadura, Portugal) are used to aid the reconstruction of vegetation available to prehistoric settlements from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. Results indicate the possible existence of three different phases. The first is mostly characterized by the presence of Pinus type sylvestris and of Buxus sempervirens. During the

I. Figueiral; J.-F. Terral

2002-01-01

473

Characterization and genesis interpretation of charcoal-bearing concretions from the early Eocene Ione Formation, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal core concretions have been discovered in the kaolinitic soil horizons of the Ione formation (early Eocene epoch ~52Ma BP). It is thought that the Ione Formation in the Ione Basin was deposited in delta and estuarine waters that were subsequently exhumed and exposed to a warmer, humid, tropical-like environment during the early Eocene. The formation of concretions is indicative of seasonal dryness, and the charcoal cores are evidence of wildfires and of the existence of a forest ecosystem. The mineral outer shells of the concretions have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation Quadruple Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Micro-computed tomography (MCT) scans indicate that these concretions have at least three distinct shells and a inner core with fragments of charcoal without apparent internal organization. The outer shell is mainly composed of a layered mix of kaolinite, quartz, goethite, hematite and birnessite. Some pyrite and jarosite have also been found, which could indicate that goethite may be post-depositional and a product of the bacteria-mediated oxidation of pyrite. The central shell has a similar composition, but with a higher content of iron oxyhydroxides and jarosite. The inner cores of the concretions are mainly composed of a mixture of kaolinite and quartz which correspond to the layer in which the concretions were found. The concretion cores contain loose charcoal fragments in a unsolidified kaolinite matrix. The charcoal fragments have been characterized by Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), C/N isotope analysis, and Synchrotron radiation FTIR (SR-FTIR). Analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra showed significant absorbance peaks at wavenumbers that coincided with the chemical functionality of other wood biochars. Charcoal from different concretions display (n =12) extremely similar spectra which suggest that they were originated from similar species and probably during the same event. The study of the microscopic structure of selected charcoal pieces by SR-FTIR suggests that despite their age, the internal structure was preserved. We obtained an average ?13C value of -22.79 (× 1.7, n = 12), which correspond to a C3-like photosynthetic pathway. The latter is also confirmation of the good state of preservation of this material and to the best of our knowledge constitutes the first C-isotopic record on this kind of material for the Eocene epoch.

Bair, D.; Aburto, F.

2013-12-01

474

The Preparation and Reduction Behavior of Charcoal Composite Iron Oxide Pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the energy conversion, biomass has novel advantage, i.e., no CO2 emission, because of carbon neutral. Charcoal composite iron oxide pellets were proposed to decrease CO2 emission for the ironmaking. These pellets were promising to decrease the initial temperature for reduction reaction of carbon composite iron ore agglomerate under a rising temperature condition, such as in a blast furnace shaft. In order to obtain charcoal, Japanese cedar and cypress were carbonized from room temperature to maximum carbonization temperature (TC, max = 1273 K) at a heating rate of 200 K/h, and kept at TC, max until arrival time of 6 h. Reducing gases of CO and CH4 started releasing from relatively low temperature (500 K). In the total gas volume of carbonization, H2 gas of Japanese cedar was more than that of Japanese cypress. These woods have more CO gas volume than Newcastle blend coal has. The obtained charcoal was mixed with reagent grade hematite in the mass ratio of one to four. Then, a small amount of Bentonite was added to the mixture as a binder, and the charcoal composite iron oxide pellets were prepared and reduced at 1273, 1373 and 1473 K in nitrogen gas atmosphere. It was conirmed by the generated gas analysis during reduction reaction that charcoal composite iron oxide pellets had higher reducibility than char composite pellets using Newcastle blend coal. From the XRD analysis of the reduced pellets, it was found that the original Fe2O3 was almost reduced to Fe for 60 min at 1273 K, 20 min at 1373 K and 5~15 min at 1473 K.

Konishi, Hirokazu; Usui, Tateo; Harada, Takeshi

475

Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed no improvement in ethanol yields. We showed that saccharification of lignocellulosic material with a wood-rot fungal process is quite feasible. Corn fiber from wet milling was best degraded to sugars using aerobic solid state fermentation with the soft-rot fungus T. reesei. However, it was shown that both the white-rot fungus P. chrysosporium and brown-rot fungus G. trabeum had the ability to produce additional consortia of hemi/cellulose degrading enzymes. It is likely that a consortium of enzymes from these fungi would be the best approach in saccharification of lignocellulose. In all cases, a subsequent anaerobic yeast process under submerged conditions is required to ferment the released sugars to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time report on production of cellulolytic enzymes from wet-milled corn fiber using white- and brown-rot fungi for sequential fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzate to ethanol. Keywords: lignocellulose, ethanol, biofuel, bioeconomy, biomass, renewable resources, corn fiber, pretreatment, solid-substrate fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), white-rot fungus, brown-rot fungus, soft-rot fungus, fermentable sugars, enzyme activities, cellulytic enzymes Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloleophyllum trabeum, Trichoderma reesei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Shrestha, Prachand

476

Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests past occurrences of anthropogenic perturbations in these forests. Insights in past forest dynamics and the relative roles of climatic and anthropogenic disturbances enhance our overall understanding of present and future forest dynamics.

Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

2014-05-01

477

Detecting Rot in Power Poles with Radio Frequency Scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for detecting rot in power poles with a radio frequency method was tested. Five pentachlorophenol-treated pole sections containing both sound and decayed wood were obtained from out-of-service power poles. Sections were conditioned in 12-percent equilibrium moisture content (EMC) conditions for 12 months prior to testing. Pole sections were scanned over their length by a laboratory prototype that applied 250, 500 and 2000 kHz radio frequency signals to opposed 1-inch diameter metal electrodes in contact with the pole surface. Each capacitor pair scanned each pole cross sectionally at multiple positions along pole longitudinal axis. Signal voltage attenuation and phase shift values for sound and decayed wood sections were recorded. Radio frequency signals for sound wood were compared to those of decayed wood. Radio frequency signals of 2000 kHz yielded the greatest difference in attenuation and phase shift response between sound and decayed wood. For even the best-performing 2000 kHz signal, evaluation of attenuation appeared to be an impractical means to differentiate sound from decayed wood. However, phase shift performed consistently in differentiating sound from decayed wood and, for signal frequencies of 2000 kHz and above, appears to have considerable potential for this purpose.

Steele, P. H.; Cooper, J. E.

2004-02-01

478

Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.  

PubMed

The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

2013-10-01

479

Continued studies of co-pumping of deuterium and helium on a single, 4K activated charcoal panel  

SciTech Connect

The short program undertaken in 1989 to evaluate the feasibility of co-pumping deuterium and tritium (DT) and helium on a charcoal sorbent showed that the charcoal will indeed simultaneously pump the gases. Of interest also was the fact that the total accumulation of helium (capacity) was virtually identical in constant throughput runs in which the D{sub 2}/He ratio was changed between runs. The test program described in this paper undertaken to evaluate further the co-pumping capabilities of the charcoal sorbent.

Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Batzer, T.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA)); Konishi, S.; Ohira, S.; Naruse, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-09-01

480

Removal of NO{sub x} or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides  

SciTech Connect

NOx emissions from factories, automobiles and others have become worse in particular at urban areas. Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. Adsorption or catalytic reduction of NO over impregnated carbon has been studied. In this paper, effect of carbonization temperatures of charcoal on the adsorption of NOx is discussed. The reduction of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of charcoal and various kinds of transition metal-oxides were also discussed.

Ishihara, S.; Furutsuka, T. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1996-10-01

481

[Adsorption of volatile anesthetics on activated charcoal. Efficiency of an experimental filter during low-flow circuit ventilation].  

PubMed

The inclusion of charcoal filters in the anaesthetic low-flow systems contributes to the acceleration of the kinetics of isoflurane (Forane). In fifty-four subjects, scheduled for extra- and intracranial surgery, ventilated with a low-flow system (Ohmeda Excel OAV7750 with rebreathing cassette) with a mean total flow of 0.7 1/min, the experimental charcoal cartridge showed: (a) a good adsorbent power (awakening within 5-6 minutes from the inclusion of the cartridge into the circuit) and (b) efficiency (adsorbent power unchanged until the sixth application). The use of charcoal during low-flow anaesthesia is both useful and economical. PMID:9019676

Romano, E; Auci, A

1995-10-01

482

Comparative expression analysis of genes induced during development of bacterial rot and induction of hypersensitive cell death in lettuce.  

PubMed

The development of bacterial rot disease caused by Pseudomonas cichorii is closely associated with programmed cell death. To investigate the molecular events occurring during the development of bacterial rot, we isolated 20 P. cichorii-responsive genes (PcRGs) in lettuce by differential display. Among these PcRGs, signal transduction-, transcription/translation- and defense/stress responses-related PcRGs were subjected to a comparative expression study. We used RNA samples isolated from lettuce leaves inoculated with P. cichorii and hypersensitive response-inducing Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Expression of PcRG1-5-5 (spliceosomal protein), 2-9-2 (protein kinase) and 1-6-2 (ACC oxidase), 7-5 (alternative oxidase) and BI-I (bax inhibitor I) significantly increased in lettuce leaves inoculated with both P. cichorii and P. syringae pv. syringae. Intriguingly, PcRG 1-2-6 (protein phosphatase 2C) and 4-D-5 (protein kinase) were only up-regulated in P. cichorii-inoculated lettuce, whereas expression of PcRG1-3-2 (ribonucleoprotein) was only enhanced in P. syringae pv. syringae-inoculated lettuce. Expressions of PcRG1-3-2, 1-5-5, 1-6-2, 2-9-2, 7-5 and BI-I were induced by treatments with salicylic acid and/or methyl jasmonate. However, expression of PcRG1-2-6 and 4-D-5, which were specifically up-regulated by P. cichorii, were scarcely affected by these chemicals. Pharmacological studies suggested that ethylene and alternative oxidase were commonly related to disease development and hypersensitive responses. By contrast, there may be a different role for protein synthesis and protein kinase during disease development and in hypersensitive responses. These results suggested the overall similarity of genes expressed during disease development and in hypersensitive responses. However, there were differences not only in induction kinetics and the level of gene expression but also in the signal transduction pathway between hypersensitive responses and disease development. PMID:18171591

Kiba, Akinori; Lee, Kyon-Ye; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi

2008-11-28

483

The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry, molecular structure, resistant carbon content, microbial interactions and physical characteristics were investigated using a suite of techniques including 13C-MAS-NMR, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratio mass spectrometery, elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy and hydropyrolysis. The study results have important implications for: i.) the use of quantitative charcoal measurements within global carbon budgets and fire history reconstruction; ii.) understanding of the dynamic role of charcoal within soil and sedimentary systems. References: [1] Langenfelds RL, Francey RJ, Pak BC, Steele LP, Lloyd J, Trudinger CM, Allison CE. 2002. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001466. [2] Schimel D, Baker D. 2002. Nature 420, 29-30. [3] Levine JS, 1991. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [4] Preston CM, Schmidt MWI. 2006. Biogeoscience 3, 397-420. [5] Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M. 2006. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11, 395-419. [6] Sohi SP, Krull E, Lopez-Capel E, Bol R. 2010. Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, 105, 47-82 [7] Woolf D, Amonette J.E, Street-Perrott F.A, Lehmann J, Joseph S. 2010. Nature Communications, 1, 56. [8] Ascough PL, Bird M I, Francis SM, Thornton B, Midwood A, Scott AC, 10 Apperley D. 2011. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 75 (9), 2361-2378. [9] Zimmermann M et al. 2012. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2486.2012.02796.x

Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

2014-05-01

484

Eco-friendly Rot and Crease Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric using Citric Acid and Chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citric acid (CA) along with chitosan was used on bleached jute fabrics to impart anti crease and rot resistance properties in one step. The treatment was carried out by pad-dry-cure method in presence of sodium hypophosphite monohydrate catalyst. Curing at 150° Centigrade for 5 min delivered good crease resistant property (dry crease recovery angle is 244°) and high rot resistance simultaneously by a single treatment, which are durable for five washings with distilled water. Strength retention of jute fabric after 21 days soil burial was found to be 81 % and the loss (%) in strength due to this treatment was 15-18 %. The results showed that chitosan and CA treated-fabric exhibited higher rot resistance (as indicated by soil burial test) when compared to either CA or chitosan by individual treatment. The effect of CA and chitosan combination on the resistance to rotting of jute fabric was found to be synergistic which is higher than the sum of the effects of individual chemicals. CA possibly reacts with hydroxyl groups in cellulose or chitosan to form ester. The CA and chitosan finished fabric has adverse effect on stiffness. Thermal studies showed that final residue left at 500° C was much higher for CA and chitosan treated fabric than untreated jute fabric. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the formation of ester cross-linkage between the jute fibre, CA and chitosan and hence it is understood that this rot resistant finish on jute fabric become durable by this mechanism.

Samanta, A. K.; Bagchi, A.

2013-03-01

485

Use of Activated Charcoal for {sup 220}Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

Coleman, R.L.

1999-03-01

486

Use of Activated Charcoal for Rn-220 Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm s{sup -1} (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft min{sup -1}) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi L{sup -1}. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn and gaseous fission products was evaluated and compared to what is believed to be present in the deposit. The results indicate that only a few percent of the total {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall {sup 220}Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm s{sup -1} (35 ft min{sup -1}) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would most likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

Coleman, R.L.

1999-03-17

487

Predicting distributions of charcoal in Amazonian soils: approaches from earth and space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct linkage between fire and human activity in Amazonian rainforests is evidenced in both remote sensing datasets and field-based research. Paleoecological and archaeological data suggest the synergy has persisted millennia, and that human populations may have equaled modern numbers before European contact. Pre-Columbian people used fire to clear forests, but also combined charcoal with other m