Sample records for charcoal rot disease

  1. Charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot is reported occasionally on alfalfa in the U.S. and has also been found in Australia, Pakistan, Uganda, east Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The fungus causing the disease is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical countries. It causes disease on more than 500 crop and we...

  2. Charcoal Rot Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes and Prelimary Genetic Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic importance in the United States that causes significant yield losses. In 2002 (30), 2003 (30), 2004 (44) and 2005 (81) a total of 185 soybean genotypes in maturity groups III, IV and V we...

  3. Production of (-)-Botryodiplodin, but not Phaseolinone, by the Soybean Charcoal Rot Disease Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot disease, which causes significant losses in crops grown in hot, relatively dry areas, is caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina produces a phytotoxin believed to play a role in helping establish infections. Siddiqui et al. [Experentia 35, 1222 (1979)] purified and...

  4. Resistance to charcoal rot identified in ancestral soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, is an economically important disease on soybean and other crops including maize, sorghum, and sunflowers. Without effective cultural or chemical options to control charcoal rot in soybean, finding sources of genetic resistance is o...

  5. Resistance to toxin-mediated fungal infection: role of lignins, isoflavones, other seed phenolics, sugars and boron in the mechanism of resistance to charcoal rot disease in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effects of charcoal rot and drought on total seed phenol, isoflavones, sugars, and boron in susceptible (S) and moderately resistant (MR) soybean genotypes to charcoal rot pathogen. A field experiment was conducted for two years under ir...

  6. Relationships of nonstructural carbohydrates to resistance to charcoal rot in sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Tenkouano, Abdou

    1990-01-01

    ability and yield quality (64). This thesis follows the style of Crop Science. Charcoal rot of sorghum is a root and stalk disease caused by Macro- hh i~hit (h*d)did. Ghl llh 1 h 1 *h*d from nearly all sorghum growing areas in the world and is of great...). CHAPTER II REVIEW OP LITERATURE Charcoal Rot Charcoal rot is a nearly pandemic crop root and stalk disease. M. gh II, h I g I. . I p ' Ily * I b * I g reported from almost every agricultural region that attacks almost all crop species (8, 48, 50, 57...

  7. Charcoal Rot of Plants in East Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

    1949-01-01

    :1142) Rrassica o!erac~a botrytis (cauliflower) (60) Rrassica rapa* (described in this article) (60) Broom corn (26: PDR 29:531 and 547) Buddleia variabilis (60) Cabbage* (Brassica) (described in this ar- ticle) Cacao (choco~ate) (see Theobroma) (6... and hollow with only the peel and vascular system remaining; blackening was due to the numerous sclero- tia of M. phaseoli. CHARCOAL ROT OF PLANTS IN EAST TEXAS Cabbage f Brassica oleracea var. capifafa1 Cabbage was transplanted into a field in March...

  8. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  9. Nitric Oxide Production by Necrotrophic Pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the Host Plant in Charcoal Rot Disease of Jute: Complexity of the Interplay between Necrotroph–Host Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2?,7?-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  10. Resistance mechanisms to toxin-mediated charcoal rot infection in maturity group III soybean: role of seed phenol lignin soflavones sugars and seed minerals in charcoal rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, and thought to infect the plants through roots by a toxin-mediated mechanism, resulting in yield loss and poor seed quality, especially under drought conditions. The mechanism by which this infection occurs is not y...

  11. Fungicide, herbicide, and genotype effects on charcoal rot and phomopsis seed decay in soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield limiting diseases such as charcoal rot and Phomopsis seed decay have significant impact on the economic potential for soybeans because there are few methods for management of these diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate application of the herbicide lactofen, the fungicide azo...

  12. Seasonal progress of charcoal rot and its impact on soybean productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on yield of soybean were evaluated in the field using two genotypes each in maturity groups III and IV. Four separate experiments were established in an area of a field fumigated with methyl bromide. The experiments were: 1) artificiall...

  13. FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world than, and basidiomycetes. Root and butt rots, instead, are exclusively caused by fungi belonging to the homo

  14. Control of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina by extracts of Datura metel.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Arshad; Saddique, Amna

    2012-01-01

    Methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of Datura metel were found highly effective in suppressing against Macrophomina phaseolina, the cause of charcoal rot disease. These extracts were further subjected to successive fractionation with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the concentrations (3.125-200?mg?mL?ą) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of leaf extract, and n-hexane fraction of fruit extract completely inhibited the target fungal growth. Two compounds A and B from the n-hexane fraction of fruit extract and compound C from n-butanol fraction of leaf extract were obtained by TLC. Compound B exhibited the best antifungal activity with an MIC value of 7.81?µg?mL?ą that was at par with that of commercial fungicide mancozeb (80% w/w). This study concludes that M. phaseolina can be effectively controlled by natural antifungal compounds in n-hexane fraction of methanolic fruit extract of D. metel. PMID:22004473

  15. Black rot of grapes Black rot is an important disease of grapes in the

    E-print Network

    Black rot of grapes Black rot is an important disease of grapes in the northeastern United States on the lower leaves, in mid- to late-June. Spray programs for black rot typically begin once grape shoots are 1" in length and end by the time grapes start to color (veraison). The most important control period is from 1

  16. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain-mediated induced systemic resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) through defense-related enzymes against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Morang, P; Deka, M; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-09-01

    Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. In this regard, individual application of two strains of Pseudomonas, RRLJ 134 and RRLJ 04, exhibited development of induced systemic resistance in tea plants against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot under split root experiments. The experimental findings also confirmed that the cuttings treated with fungal test pathogen and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains survived longer as compared with pathogen-alone-treated cuttings. The enzyme level studies revealed that the presence of PGPR strains reduced the viscosity loss of cellulose and pectin by both the pathogens to a significant level. The activity of defense-related enzymes like L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded higher in tea cuttings treated with PGPR strains in presence of pathogen. Crude bioactive metabolites isolated from these strains also showed in vitro antagonism against the test pathogens besides reducing the number of diseased plants under gnotobiotic conditions. These findings confirm the utilization of these two strains for induction of systemic resistance against two major root diseases in tea plants under plantation conditions. PMID:25082766

  17. Plant Disease Lesson: Take-all root rot

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William W. Bockus (Kansas State University; )

    2000-10-20

    This plant disease lesson on take-all root rot (caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  18. Plant Disease Lesson: Brown rot of stone fruits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University; )

    2000-10-25

    This plant disease lesson on Brown rot of stone fruits (caused by Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  19. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology. PMID:18289753

  20. Plant Disease Lesson: Monosporascus Root Rot and Vine Decline of Melons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ray D. Martyn (Purdue University; )

    2002-06-12

    This plant disease lesson on Monosporascus root rot and vine decline of melons (MRR/VD), also referred to as sudden wilt, sudden death, melon collapse, Monosporascus wilt, and black pepper root rot (caused by the fungus Monosporascus cannonballus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  1. First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae; Park, Mi-Jeong

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

  2. First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

  3. Soybean phytophthora root rot: {\\\\it Phytophthora sojae\\\\\\/} races in Indiana and factors affecting disease resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Cristino Melgar

    1997-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot of soybeans caused by Phytophthora sojae has been one of the most important diseases throughout the soybean growing areas of the United States and Canada since the 1950's. Documenting the current physiological diversity of P. sojae and the role of factors affecting disease resistance are important in reducing yield losses due to this disease. Prevalence and distribution

  4. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  5. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  6. Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot disease of blueberry with gypsum and compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot disease of blueberry caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi is becoming more prevalent as a consequence of widespread adoption of drip irrigation. This creates higher moisture content in the root zone more conducive for the pathogen. Options for disease control under organic management are limi...

  7. Lettuce black root rot — a disease caused by Chalara elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R G. O’Brien

    1994-01-01

    Lettuce plants in several fields in south-eastern Queensland were affected by a black root rot resulting in slow growth, small\\u000a head size and harvest reductions. Isolation and pathogenicity tests showed Chalara elegans was the causal fungus. The host range included bean and cucurbits but not capsicum, celery, cotton, eggplant, parsley,\\u000a radish or tomato. The weed Sonchus oleraceus was a natural

  8. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals produced by B. sonorensis for suppression of charcoal rot of Arachis hypogaea L.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Urja; Saraf, Meenu

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sonorensis MBCU2 isolated from vermicompost-amended soil from Gujarat, India showed most antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture screening. The culture supernatant of MBCU2 completely suppressed the mycelia growth of pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of allelochemicals in the culture filtrate. Results of scanning electron microscopy revealed that MBCU2 caused morphological alteration in mycelia of M. phaseolina as evident by hyphal lysis and perforation. Lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin) produced by MBCU2 were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Pot trial studies conducted by seed bacterization with MBCU2 resulted in statistically significant increase in Arachis hypogaea L. vegetative growth parameters such as root length (91%), shoot length (252%), fresh weight (71%), dry weight (57%), number of pod (128%), and number of seed (290%) in M. phaseolina infested soil over control as well as decreased M. phaseolina disease severity. We suggest that allelochemicals production can be linked to the mechanism of protection of A. hypogaea L. from M. phaseolina by B. sonorensis MBCU2. PMID:25346523

  9. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  10. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  11. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  12. Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Cottyn; Kim Heylen; Jeroen Heyrman; Katrien Vanhouteghem; Ellen Pauwelyn; Peter Bleyaert; Johan Van Vaerenbergh; Monica Höfte; Paul De Vos; Martine Maes

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection

  13. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R. E. Coggins; Charles L. Gaworski

    2008-01-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas–vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study on Resistance to Stalk Rot Diseases in Grain Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Adeyanju, Adedayo; Little, Christopher; Yu, Jianming; Tesso, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Stalk rots are important biotic constraints to sorghum production worldwide. Several pathogens may be associated with the disease, but Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium thapsinum are recognized as the major causal organisms. The diseases become more aggressive when drought and high-temperature stress occur during grain filling. Progress in genetic improvement efforts has been slow due to lack of effective phenotyping protocol and the strong environmental effect on disease incidence and severity. Deployment of modern molecular tools is expected to accelerate efforts to develop resistant hybrids. This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions associated with resistance to both causal organisms. A sorghum diversity panel consisting of 300 genotypes assembled from different parts of the world was evaluated for response to infection by both pathogens. Community resources of 79,132 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers developed on the panel were used in association studies using a multi-locus mixed model to map loci associated with stalk rot resistance. Adequate genetic variation was observed for resistance to both pathogens. Structure analysis grouped the genotypes into five subpopulations primarily based on the racial category of the genotypes. Fourteen loci and a set of candidate genes appear to be involved in connected functions controlling plant defense response. However, each associated SNP had relatively small effect on the traits, accounting for 19–30% of phenotypic variation. Linkage disequilibrium analyses suggest that significant SNPs are genetically independent. Estimation of frequencies of associated alleles revealed that durra and caudatum subpopulations were enriched for resistant alleles, but the results suggest complex molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to both pathogens. PMID:25882062

  15. 510 Plant Disease / Vol. 97 No. 4 Etiology of Moldy Core, Core Browning, and Core Rot of Fuji Apple in China

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    510 Plant Disease / Vol. 97 No. 4 Etiology of Moldy Core, Core Browning, and Core Rot of Fuji Apple, and core rot of Fuji apple in China. Plant Dis. 97:510-516. `Fuji' apple fruit were collected in Shaanxi to species. Pathogenicity was determined by cutting apple fruit into halves and daubing spore suspensions

  16. Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Cottyn, Bart; Heylen, Kim; Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanhouteghem, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Bleyaert, Peter; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Maes, Martine

    2009-05-01

    Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection and spraying of lettuce, LOPAT characteristics, FAME analysis, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, as well as DNA-DNA hybridization. Ninety-eight isolates (66%) exhibited a fluorescent pigmentation and were associated with the genus Pseudomonas. Fifty-five of them induced an HR+ (hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves) response. The other 43 fluorescent isolates were most probably saprophytic bacteria and about half of them were able to cause rot on potato tuber slices. BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the Pseudomonas midrib rot isolates. The delineated BOX-PCR patterns matched quite well with Pseudomonas morphotypes defined on the basis of colony appearance and variation in fluorescent pigmentation. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses allowed most of the fluorescent isolates to be allocated to Pseudomonas, and they belonged to either the Pseudomonas fluorescens group, Pseudomonas putida group, or the Pseudomonas cichorii/syringae group. In particular, the isolates allocated to this latter group constituted the vast majority of HR+ isolates and were identified as P. cichorii by DNA-DNA hybridization. They were demonstrated by spray-inoculation tests on greenhouse-grown lettuce to induce the midrib rot disease and could be re-isolated from lesions of inoculated plants. Four HR+ non-fluorescent isolates associated with one sample that showed an atypical midrib rot were identified as Dickeya sp. PMID:19157742

  17. Ganoderma disease of oil palm—A white rot perspective necessary for integrated control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. M. Paterson

    2007-01-01

    White rot fungi such as Ganoderma, are extraordinary organisms capable exclusively of degrading lignin to carbon dioxide and water: celluloses are then available as nutrients for the fungus. Oil palm (OP) is a highly significant crop in many countries and is prone to a rot caused by the fungus. It is necessary to consider this mode of attack as a

  18. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat. PMID:25487419

  19. Charcoal burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bakic, M.C.

    1988-12-27

    A combustible fuel apparatus is described comprising: side walls formed contiguous with and extending upward from a base and converging to form a closed container, having stacked charcoal fuel particles therein. The base may be placed directly on a substantially horizontal surface and the container may be ignited and substantially burned to ash, and the charcoal fuel particles may be ignited and sufficiently burned for cooking, wherein the charcoal fuel particles are stacked on the base in a relatively stable position prior to the igniting of the container, and are maintained in a relatively stable position during and after the igniting and burning of the container, whereby a mound of ignited charcoal fuel particles remains on the substantially horizontal surface after the burning of the container, the mound having a configuration substantially similar to the shape of the container prior to the combustion thereof.

  20. Effect of acetic acid fumigation on soil-borne fungi and cucumber root rot disease under greenhouse conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid Abd-El-Kareem

    2009-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid vapour on soil-borne fungi and root rot disease of cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions was studied. Acetic acid vapour at four concentrations was tested against linear growth and spore germination of some soil-borne fungi, in vitro. The most sensitive fungus to acetic acid vapours was Rhizoctonia solani which inhibited at 4 µl l, while Fusarium solani,

  1. Ganoderma and Amauroderma species associated with root-rot disease of Acacia mangium plantation trees in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morag Glen; Neale L. Bougher; Anthony A. Francis; Susan Q. Nigg; Su See Lee; Ragil Irianto; Karen M. Barry; Christopher L. Beadle; Caroline L. Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Fungal sporocarps and cultures associated with signs and symptoms of root-rot disease were collected from Acacia mangium and other tropical hardwood species. The collections were identified by either morphological characters and\\/or by phylogenetic\\u000a analysis based on DNA sequences as Ganoderma philippii, G. mastoporum, G. aff. steyaertanum, G. australe and Amauroderma rugosum. Phylogenetic analysis unequivocally placed in the G. philippii clade

  2. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650–660), far red (720–730) and blue (440–450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

  3. Identification and pathogenicity of Aeromonas sobria on tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Cai, Shuang-Hu

    2011-02-01

    Thirty-six strains, numbered from PY01 to PY36, were isolated from six moribund Oreochromis niloticus. The biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of Aeromonas sobria on the basis of API 20E and Biolog GN system. Furthermore, gyrB sequence of strain PY36 was sequenced and showed high similarity (99.8%) with A. sobria in Genbank. Antibiotic-resistance of strain PY36 was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was susceptible and moderately susceptible to 12 and 3 of the 19 antimicrobials tested. Virulence of strain PY36 to juvenile tilapia was also tested, and we found that LD?? was about 4.17 × 10ł CFU per fish in intraperitoneal injection. This is the first article to report that A. sobria was the pathogenic agent of tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia. A. sobria was multi-resistant to the most frequently used antimicrobial drugs in China, so the antimicrobial resistance test should be carried out when these bacteria are isolated from biological samples in order to avoid therapeutic failures and spread of the pathogenic organisms in the environment. PMID:20853167

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2014-01-01

    Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

  5. Charcoal Rot of Plants in East Texas.

    E-print Network

    Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

    1949-01-01

    (60) Cassia nictitans (42; PDR 29:713) Cassia alata PDR 29:713 Casuarina equisetifolia (60) Catalpa sp. (26, 60) Cedar (26) Ceratonia siliqua (60) Charnaechrista procumbens (60 ; 78; PDR 29 :714) ~hamerops sp. (60) Chenopodium album? (72a...

  6. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to three seed borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-borne diseases of soybeans caused by Phomopsis longicolla (Phomopsis seed decay), Cercospora kukuchii (purple seed stain), and M. phaseolina (charcoal rot) are economically important seed-borne diseases that affect seed quality. Commercial cultivars marketed as resistant to all the three disea...

  7. Cotton Root-Rot and Its Control. 

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, (Walter Naphtali) Walter N.

    1931-01-01

    in later bulletins. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ROOT-ROT Root-rot is one of the moat destructive plant diseases known. An- nual losses from root-rot to the cotton crop of Texas are estimated at 10 to 15 per cent. This direct reduction in yield results from... Conditions Affecting Root-rot t While root-rot occurs extensively throughout Texas, there are cer- tain sections in which it has as yet been less destructive than it is else- where. For instance, in East Texas root-rot has been less prevalent than...

  8. An investigation of the etiology of the root rot-wilt disease of muskmelon in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Champaco, Ethel Reyes

    1990-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF THE ROOT ROT-WILT DISEASE OF MUSKMELON IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by ETHEL REYES CHAMPACO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject; Plant Pathology AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF THE ROOT ROT-WILT DISEASE OF MLISKMELON IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by ETHEL REYES CHAMPACO Approved...

  9. An investigation of the etiology of the root rot-wilt disease of muskmelon in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    E-print Network

    Champaco, Ethel Reyes

    1990-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF THE ROOT ROT-WILT DISEASE OF MUSKMELON IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by ETHEL REYES CHAMPACO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject; Plant Pathology AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF THE ROOT ROT-WILT DISEASE OF MLISKMELON IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by ETHEL REYES CHAMPACO Approved...

  10. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  11. Genetic characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing soft rot disease of potato in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Pitman; Sally A. Harrow; Sandra B. Visnovsky

    2010-01-01

    Pectobacterium wasabiae has a narrow host range, having previously only been associated with Japanese horseradish. However, recent characterisation\\u000a of Pectobacterium causing soft rotting in New Zealand has identified putative P. wasabiae isolates pathogenic to potato. In this study, phylogenetic reconstruction of acnA and mdh DNA sequences and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) were used to confirm the identity of

  12. Irrigation management: effects of soybean diseases on seed composition in genotypes differing in their disease resistance under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Nutritional qualities of soybean seed are determined by the quantity and quality of seed composition components (protein, oil, fatty acids, isoflavones, and minerals). Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseol...

  13. Root Interactions in a Maize/Soybean Intercropping System Control Soybean Soil-Borne Disease, Red Crown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Man; Xu, Ruineng; Wang, Xiurong; Pan, Ruqian; Kim, Hye-Ji; Liao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. Principal Findings In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum). The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices. PMID:24810161

  14. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    PubMed

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

  15. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  16. Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot BP-75-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Diplodia Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Diplodia ear rot, caused Diplodia ear rot. Hybrid susceptibility and weather also contribute to disease development. This bulletin

  17. Efficacy of new EC formulation derived from garlic creeper ( Adenocalymma alliaceum Miers.) against anthracnose and stem end rot diseases of mango

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Aswini; K. Prabakar; L. Rajendran; G. Karthikeyan; T. Raguchander

    2010-01-01

    Different leaf extracts of Garlic creeper (Adenocalymma alliaceum Miers.) using water and solvents were prepared and they were screened for their antifungal activity against Colletotricum gloeosporioides Penz. and Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. causal agents of mango post harvest diseases viz., anthracnose and stem end rot respectively. Among the extracts tested, chloroform extract was found to be highly effective\\u000a in inhibiting the

  18. Effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro and its effects on disease severity of soybean in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina culture growth in vitro and the disease severity of charcoal rot in soybean at Stoneville, MS and Jackson, TN. Glyphosate inhibited M. phaseolina growth in a linear dose dependent manner when ...

  19. Brown Root Rot of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin describes the disease of alfalfa called brown root rot (BRR) including: the disease symptoms, the fungal pathogen and its biology, its distribution, and disease management. Since the 1920s, BRR has been regarded as an important disease of forage legumes, including alfalfa, in northern ...

  20. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Zhong; Nan, Zhi Biao

    2007-06-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, 'standing milkvetch' (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of stunted plants with reddish-brown stems and yellow and necrotic leaf blades. An Embellisia sp. was isolated from symptomatic stem, leaf blade, petiole, and root tissues at varying frequencies of up to 90%. Single-spore isolates grew very slowly on PCA, PDA, V-8 and, wheat hay decoction agar. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation of seeds, dipping 2-day-old pre-germinated seedlings in inoculum and spraying inoculum on 6-month-old plants. Symptoms on test plants included yellow leaf lesions, brown lesions on stems and petioles, stunted side-shoots with yellow, small, distorted and necrotic leaves, shoot blight, bud death, crown rot, root rot, and plant death. The disease is named as 'yellow stunt and root rot' of A. adsurgens to distinguish it from diseases caused by other known pathogens. Embellisia sp. is also pathogenic to A. sinicus but not to 11 other tested plant species. PMID:17492492

  1. ARMILLARIA ROT AND CROWN ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Armillaria Root Rot (ARR) is second only to Peach tree short life (PTSL) as a cause of premature peach tree mortality in southeastern US peach production areas. Two species are of importance, A. mellea and A. tabescens, though the latter appears to be more common. Armillaria attacks the root syste...

  2. Genetic and pathogenic variability of Indian strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causing black rot disease in crucifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh; Dhar, Shri; Yadava, D K

    2011-12-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel) Dowson (Xcc) causing black rot of crucifers is a serious disease in India and causes >50% crop losses in favorable environmental conditions. Pathogenic variability of Xcc, X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and X. axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) were tested on 19 cultivars of cruciferae including seven Brassica spp. viz., B. campestris, B. carinata, B. juncea, B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa, and Raphanus sativus for two consecutive years viz., 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 under field conditions at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Xcc (22 strains) and other species of Xanthomonas (2 strains), they formed three distinct groups of pathogenic variability i.e., Group 1, 2, and 3 under 50% minimum similarity coefficient. All strains of Xcc clustered under Groupl except Xcc-C20. The strains of Xcc further clustered in 6 subgroups viz., A, B, C, D, E, and F based on diseases reaction on host. Genetic variability of 22 strains of Xcc was studied by using Rep-PCR (REP-, BOX- and ERIC-PCR) and 10 strains for hrp (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenecity) gene sequence analysis. Xcc strains comprised in cluster 1, Xac under cluster 2, while Xoo formed separate cluster 3 based on >50% similarity coefficient. Cluster 1 was further divided into 8 subgroups viz., A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H at 75% similarity coefficient. The hrpF gene sequence analysis also showed distinctness of Xcc strains from other Xanthomonads. In this study, genetic and pathogenic variability in Indian strains of Xcc were established, which will be of immense use in the development of resistant genotypes against this bacterial pathogen. PMID:21956666

  3. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  4. The influence of phosphorus concentration on the development of Pythium root rot disease of seedling geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse production systems, growers may increase nutrient supply to meet production demands or decrease nutrient supply due to cost or environmental concerns. Only a few floriculture crops’ response in different nutrient environments to a handful of diseases are well known. Seeding geraniums...

  5. Cultivar selection for bacterial root rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States, which has frequently been found in association with Rhizoctonia root rot. To reduce the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, st...

  6. Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

  7. Biocontrol of root-rot disease of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus amboinicus by using plant extracts as antifungal agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chathuri P. Mudalige; N. S. Jyothi; Uma G. Chikabire; S. T. Girisha

    2011-01-01

    Different plant extracts were screened for their potential antifungal activity against Fusarium chlamydosporum causing root rot of Coleus amboinicus and Coleus forskohlii; the aqueous and 50% ethanol extract of Annona squamosa, Azadircta indica, Eucalyptus Spp., Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis, Allium schoenoprasum, Cinnamomum verum Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Calendula officinalis species were found to be effective. Both aqueous and 50% ethanol

  8. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  9. Cylindrocladium root and crown rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Cylindrocladium have been shown to cause damping-off, seedling blight, and a black crown and root rot of mature plants. In Hawaii, seedling disease was caused by Calonectria ilicicola (anamorph: Cylindrocladium parasiticum) and Cylindrocladium clavatum. A third species, C. scopari...

  10. Efficacy of new EC formulations of neem oil and pungam oil for the management of sheath rot disease of rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Narasimhan; K. Rajappan; C. Ushamalini; A. Abdul Kareem

    1998-01-01

    Neem oil (NO) and pungam oil (PO) based emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations,viz., neem oil 60 EC (acetic acid) [NO 60 EC(A)], neem oil 60 EC (citric acid) [NO 60 EC(C] and neem oil + pungam oil 60 EC (citric\\u000a acid) [NO+PO 60 EC(C)], which had been developed at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, were evaluated for their efficacy\\u000a against sheath rot

  11. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

  12. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. PMID:23376194

  13. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, R.G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T. [Radian Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The volatile organic sampling train (VOST) is currently one the leading methodologies available for the sampling and analysis of volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) and products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from stationary sources at very low levels. However, revisions to the original method are necessary to maintain VOST as a viable regulatory tool. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. The following carbon-based candidate sorbents were considered: Tenax-GR (a graphitized Tenax); a Petroleum-based Charcoal; Ambersorbe XE-340 (hydrophobic carbonized resin bead); Anasorb 747 (beaded active carbon with very regular pore size); Carbosieve{reg_sign} S-III (carbon molecular sieve); and a Beaded Activated Charcoal (BAC) (with a very regular pore size). The results indicated that Tenax-GR showed significantly poorer performance than the other candidates in preliminary experimental results. Ambersorb did not retain the gaseous volatile organic compounds tested as well as the others and recovery of vinyl chloride was very low at all levels of spiking. Carbosieve was eliminated as a candidate replacement because of cost and handling problems. The petroleum-based charcoal was eliminated because of difficulties in handling a finely-divided powder. The availability of Anasorb 747 proved to be the deciding factor between it and the BAC. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb{reg_sign} 747 a good choice for replacement of SKC Lot 104. 1 tab.

  14. Identification of soil-borne pathogens in a common bean root rot nursery in Isabela, Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been completed on the root rot complex of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Caribbean, while yield losses of over 50% due to root rot disease have been reported worldwide. In this study, the predominant root rot pathogens in a 40-year old common bean root rot nurser...

  15. First Report of Charcoal Rot of Sunflower in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid 'Pioneer 63M82') was observed with uneven maturation in west central Minnesota near Aldrich (Todd County) in late September, 2009. The field's soil type was sandy loam and cropping history was oats in 2008 preceded by four years of alfalfa. M...

  16. Charcoal filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  17. Moisture insensitive charcoal canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of /sup 222/Rn concentrations in the air in houses is the most appropriate approach for the real-time measurements, but this requires complex and expensive instruments and is not practical for large studies. Activated carbon canisters have been used extensively for determining the average concentration over a period of a few days. The ''open face'' charcoal detectors have an integration time constant of about 14 h so that they are sensitive to short-term transient changes in the radon concentration. In addition, water uptake at high relative humidities reduces the radon uptake by the charcoal. The addition of a diffusion barrier and a nylon screen results in a charcoal detector with an integration half-time ranging from 20 to 60 h and a reduced uptake of water at high humidities. Silicone rubber sheeting is relatively permeable to radon and impermeable to water vapor. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the effect of a silicone barrier on the charcoal canister radon collective device. 3 refs

  18. Hydrous oxide activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, J.P.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a process for preparing of an ion exchanger, comprising: treating an ionically inert activated charcoal porous support with an aqueous solution of metal oxychloride selected from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides so as to impregnate the pores of the support with the solution; separating the treated support from excess metal oxychloride solution; converting the metal oxychloride to a hydrous metal oxide precipitate in the pores of the support at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal support have opposite zeta potentials and sufficient to hydrolyze the metal oxychloride. It also describes a process for preparing an ion exchanger comprising: treating granulated activated charcoal with a concentrated solution of a metal oxychloride from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides, degassing the mixture; and treating the resultant mixture with a base selected from the group consisting of ammonium hydroxide and alkali metal hydroxides so as to precipitate the oxychloride within the pores of the activated carbon granules as hydrous metal oxide at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal have opposite zeta potentials.

  19. Epidemiology of Fusarium Diseases and their Mycotoxins in Maize Ears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary P. Munkvold

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium species cause two distinct diseases on ears of maize, Fusarium ear rot (or pink ear rot) and Gibberella ear rot (or red ear rot), both of which can result in mycotoxin contamination of maize grain. The primary causal agent for Fusarium ear rot is Fusarium verticillioides, but F. subglutinans and F. proliferatum are also important. Gibberella ear rot is

  20. Tolerance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici is distributed worldwide, and is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Fruit rot, caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. Resistance to fruit rot o...

  1. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FUSARIUM TUBER ROT OF POTATO IS ONE OF THE MOST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTATNT DISEASES OF STORED POTATOES. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT. A HIGHLY RESISTANT (B0172-22) AND A HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE (B0178-34) POTATO CLONE WERE CROSSED AS FEMA...

  2. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM TUBER ROT IN TETRAPLOID POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium tuber rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most economically important diseases of stored potatoes. Dry rot is caused by several species of Fusaria, particularly Fusarium sambucinum in North America. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance of resistance...

  3. Efficacy of Bacterial Seed Treatments for Controlling Pythium Root Rot of Winter Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Milus; C. S. Rothrock

    1997-01-01

    Milus, E. A., and Rothrock, C. S. 1997. Effi cacy of bacterial seed treatments for controlling Pythium root rot of winter wheat. Plant Dis. 81:180-184. Pythium root rot, caused by various Pythium spp., is a widespread disease of wheat. The objec- tive of this study was to identify bacterial strains from wheat roots in Arkansas that suppressed Pythium root rot

  4. Do jasmonates play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced local bioprotection of Medicago truncatula against root rot disease caused by Aphanomyces euteiches?

    PubMed

    Hilou, Adama; Zhang, Haoqiang; Franken, Philipp; Hause, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Bioprotective effects of mycorrhization with two different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis, against Aphanomyces euteiches, the causal agent of root rot in legumes, were studied in Medicago truncatula using phenotypic and molecular markers. Previous inoculation with an AM-fungus reduced disease symptoms as well as the amount of pathogen within roots, as determined by the levels of A. euteiches rRNA or transcripts of the gene sterol C24 reductase. Inoculation with R. irregularis was as efficient as that with F. mosseae. To study whether jasmonates play a regulatory role in bioprotection of M. truncatula by the AM fungi, composite plants harboring transgenic roots were used to modulate the expression level of the gene encoding M. truncatula allene oxide cyclase 1, a key enzyme in jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Neither an increase nor a reduction in allene oxide cyclase levels resulted in altered bioprotection by the AM fungi against root infection by A. euteiches. These data suggest that jasmonates do not play a major role in the local bioprotective effect of AM fungi against the pathogen A. euteiches in M. truncatula roots. PMID:23812608

  5. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-print Network

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  6. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P. [Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  7. Cotton Root-rot

    E-print Network

    Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

    1889-01-01

    121 2 -16 1 t I i 6' /t AS AGRICULTURAL EXY ERIMENT STATI( BULLETIN No. 7, C. NOVEMBER, 1889. COTTON ROOT-ROT AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE, College Station, Brazos County, Texas. BY ORDER OF THE COUNCIL: F. A. GULLEY, DIRECTOR..... ....................... .Assistant to Director. D. ADRIANCE .......................... Asst. Chemist and Meteorologist. J. M. Ca~son. ........................ .Assistant to Agriculturist. C. K. FUQUA.. ........................ .Sugar Chemist. COTTON ROOT-ROT. sout It =ng...

  8. EVALUATING CRANBERRY GERMPLASM FOR FRUIT ROT RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of cranberry germplasm (Vaccinium macrocarpon) was evaluated for resistance to the cranberry fruit rot disease complex. This germplasm was collected across the geographic range of cranberries, from both wild sites and cultivated beds. The accessions were planted in 1995 in 1.5 m x 1.5...

  9. Root Rot of Cotton or "Cotton Blight" 

    E-print Network

    Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

    1888-01-01

    bottom, but rather on " sec- ond bottom" and Post Oak lands where cotton "blighted." On the plantations of Rogers and Hill, at Allen Farm, I could not find a single stalk which in any way was affected with Root Rot, though some of the land had been..., cotton . dies year after year unless checked. The "dead spots" increase i~ size. When such plants as Sweet Potatoes, Grapes, Mulberry, Ap ple, China trees and Cow Peas follow diseased cotton they also dic in the same way, namely, a rotting...

  10. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, and FPR is one of the most destructive diseases of this important perennial crop in the Americas. This hemibiotroph infects only cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty days, culminating in plant necrosis and sporulation of the fungus without the formation of a basidiocarp. Results We sequenced and assembled 52.3 Mb into 3,298 contigs that represent the M. roreri genome. Of the 17,920 predicted open reading frames (OFRs), 13,760 were validated by RNA-Seq. Using read count data from RNA sequencing of cacao pods at 30 and 60 days post infection, differential gene expression was estimated for the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of this plant-pathogen interaction. The sequencing data were used to develop a genome based secretome for the infected pods. Of the 1,535 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 1,355 were expressed in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. Analysis of the data revealed secretome gene expression that correlated with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. Conclusions Genome sequencing and RNA-Seq was used to determine and validate the Moniliophthora roreri genome and secretome. High sequence identity between Moniliophthora roreri genes and Moniliophthora perniciosa genes supports the taxonomic relationship with Moniliophthora perniciosa and the relatedness of this fungus to other basidiomycetes. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from infected plant tissues revealed differentially expressed genes in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. The secreted protein genes that were upregulated in the biotrophic phase are primarily associated with breakdown of the intercellular matrix and modification of the fungal mycelia, possibly to mask the fungus from plant defenses. Based on the transcriptome data, the upregulated secreted proteins in the necrotrophic phase are hypothesized to be actively attacking the plant cell walls and plant cellular components resulting in necrosis. These genes are being used to develop a new understanding of how this disease interaction progresses and to identify potential targets to reduce the impact of this devastating disease. PMID:24571091

  11. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  12. Novel thermotolerant laccases produced by the white-rot fungus Physisporinus rivulosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristiina Hildén; Terhi K. Hakala; Pekka Maijala; Taina K. Lundell; Annele Hatakka

    2007-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus rivulosus strain T241i is highly selective for degradation of softwood lignin, which makes this fungus suitable for biopulping. In\\u000a order to promote laccase production, P. rivulosus was cultivated in nutrient-nitrogen sufficient liquid media containing either charcoal or spruce sawdust as supplements.\\u000a Two laccases with distinct pI values, Lac-3.5 and Lac-4.8, were purified from peptone-spruce sawdust-charcoal cultures

  13. Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

  14. Monilia mumecola , a new brown rot fungus on Prunus mume in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Harada; Shigeo Nakao; Masahito Sasaki; Yumi Sasaki; Yukako Ichihashi; Teruo Sano

    2004-01-01

    In 1982, an anamorphic fungus in the genus Monilia was first isolated as the causal agent of brown rot disease of Japanese apricot or mume ( Prunus mume) in Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Inoculation of flowers, shoots, and fruit of P. mume with the fungus reproduced brown rot disease symptoms similar to those found in nature. The fungus somewhat resembled

  15. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jafra; J. Przysowa; A. Gwizdek-Wisniewska; Wolf van der J. M

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones

  16. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within a growing season using airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a serious and destructive disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infections is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  17. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder.

  18. Charcoal signatures defined by multivariate analysis of charcoal records from 10 lakes in northwest Wisconsin (USA)

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Charcoal signatures defined by multivariate analysis of charcoal records from 10 lakes in northwest online 20 November 2010 Keywords: Fire history Charcoal analysis Fire regime Wisconsin Sand plain CHAR Charster We show how sedimentary charcoal records from multiple sites within a single landscape can be used

  19. Physical Properties of Polyolefin \\/ Bamboo Charcoal Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriwan KITTINAOVARAT; Worawat SUTHAMNOI

    The physical properties of two kinds of polyolefin \\/ bamboo charcoal composites, based upon polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE), were studied for varying levels of charcoal inclusion between 0 and 20 phr. A Brabender mixer and two-roll mill were used for the mixing process of both polyolefin and bamboo charcoal composites, followed by compression moulding of the homogeneous

  20. Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment

    E-print Network

    Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment Pollutant Removal and Recycling Opportunities;Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment. Pollutant Removal and Recycling Opportunities-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal

  1. The First Report of Postharvest Stem Rot of Kohlrabi Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Young; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Afroz, Tania; Hahm, Young-Il; Kim, Byung-Sup

    2014-12-01

    In March 2014, a kohlrabi stem rot sample was collected from the cold storage room of Daegwallyong Horticultural Cooperative, Korea. White and fuzzy mycelial growth was observed on the stem, symptomatic of stem rot disease. The pathogen was isolated from the infected stem and cultured on potato dextrose agar for further fungal morphological observation and to confirm its pathogenicity, according to Koch's postulates. Morphological data, pathogenicity test results, and rDNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 4) showed that the postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi was caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi in Korea. PMID:25606016

  2. The First Report of Postharvest Stem Rot of Kohlrabi Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Young; Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Afroz, Tania; Hahm, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014, a kohlrabi stem rot sample was collected from the cold storage room of Daegwallyong Horticultural Cooperative, Korea. White and fuzzy mycelial growth was observed on the stem, symptomatic of stem rot disease. The pathogen was isolated from the infected stem and cultured on potato dextrose agar for further fungal morphological observation and to confirm its pathogenicity, according to Koch's postulates. Morphological data, pathogenicity test results, and rDNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 4) showed that the postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi was caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi in Korea. PMID:25606016

  3. REPLACEMENT OF CHARCOAL IN VOST

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile rganic ampling rain VOST), or sampling volatile organics from has proven to be a original performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. n addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has b...

  4. MAPPING PHYMATOTRICHUM ROOT ROT OF COTTON USING AIRBORNE THREE-BAND DIGITAL IMAGERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymatotrichum root rot, caused by the fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a serious and destructive disease that significantly reduces cotton yield and lowers lint quality. Cultural practices are commonly recommended for the control of cotton root rot, and fungicides and fumigants that may suppres...

  5. Control of rhizopus rot of peaches with postharvest treatments of tebuconazole, fludioxonil, and Pseudomonas syringae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Northover; Ting Zhou

    2002-01-01

    Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer is a potentially serious postharvest disease of Canadian-grown peaches. Several new fungicides are effective against brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) of peaches, but little is known of their postharvest efficacies against R. stolonifer. Harvested peaches were arranged in trays, individually punctured once and co-treated with a suspension of both R. stolonifer sporangiospores and cells of

  6. Evaluation of an organic treatment for post-harvest control of crown rot of banana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Demerutis; L. Quirós; A. Martinuz; E. Alvarado; R. N. Williams; M. A. Ellis

    2008-01-01

    An organic treatment for control of crown rot disease of banana was developed and evaluated at EARTH University in Costa Rica. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Biocto 6 (seed extract from citrus) in combination with the wax-based adjuvant Verdiol for control of post-harvest crown rot of banana. The standard commercial fungicide treatment (thiabendazol, imazalil and ammonium sulfate)

  7. Mapping cotton root rot infestations over a 10-year interval with airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the pathogen Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate information regarding temporal changes of cotton root rot infestations within fields is important for the management and c...

  8. Effect of Cultural Practices and Fungicides on Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in the Carolinas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Southeastern U.S. To develop strategies to manage Phytophthora fruit rot, we evaluated the effects of two cultural practices (raised bare ground and plastic mulched ...

  9. Survival of southern highbush blueberry cultivars in Phytophthora Root Rot Infested fields in South Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of commercial blueberries and is most severe when blueberries are grown in wet soils with poor drainage. Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot include small, yellow or red leaves, lack of new growth, root necrosis, and a smaller root system than healthy plan...

  10. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  11. Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. Plants belonging to the core collection of U.S. watermelon plant introductions (PI) were grown in a field on raised plastic beds to evaluate for fruit rot resistance in 2009. Fi...

  12. First report of Fusarium torulosum causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen species of Fusarium have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, eight species have been reported in the northern United S...

  13. Field response of some asparagus varieties to rust, Fusarium crown root rot, and violet root rot.

    PubMed

    Fiume, F; Fiume, G

    2003-01-01

    Research was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some asparagus genotypes against three most important fungal diseases: 1) asparagus rust caused by Puccinia asparagi D.C.; 2) Fusarium crown and root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) f.sp. asparagi (Cohen & Heald) and Fusarium proliferatum (Matstush.) Nirenberg; 3) violet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia violacea Tul. The object of this research was also to found an eventual correlation between the plant susceptibility to asparagus rust and the sensibility to Fusarium crown root rot and violet root rot attacks. Resistant genotypes to rust should be less susceptible to attacks from F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi, F. proliferatum and R. violacea, a fungal complex causing the plant decline. Asparagus genotypes were compared in a randomized complete block experiment design, replicated four times, in order to search that ones showing the best behaviour to escape the diseases. Phytopathological observations were carried out on November when the control plots showed 100% infected plants. The pathogens were isolated and identified. The diseased plants were registered. According to symptom evaluation scales, all the plants were grouped into infection classes, calculating frequency and McKinney index. Wishing to learn something about the infection trend of F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi or R. violacea in relation to P. asparagi attack, the relative curvilinear regressions were calculated. The Italian cultivars "Marte" and "Grande" showed significantly the best behaviour in terms of resistance to asparagus rust, exhibiting 37% and 42% of diseased plants. The McKinney index was 9.1% and 15.6%, respectively. The susceptible plots showed 100% of infected plants and different McKinney index: 46% for "Eros", about 60% for "H 519", "Atlas" and "Golia", over 70% for the remainder. "Marte" and "Grande" showed good tolerance to F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and to R. violacea exhibiting up to 100% of healthy plants. The regression between plants affected by asparagus rust and those diseased by Fusarium crown root rot showed a linear equation with a regression coefficient b = 1.186 and a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.98. The regression between infection caused by rust and that caused by violet root rot exhibited a regression coefficient b = 1.03 and a coefficient of correlation R2 = 0.9. "Marte" and "Grande" exhibited the best behaviour against the rust attacks. Plants without rust were tolerant to pathogens causing plant decline. PMID:15151301

  14. Alfalfa Root Rot

    E-print Network

    Curtis, Geo. W.

    1892-01-01

    . ........................ .Assistant in Chemil Texas Agtriaultutral Expe~iment Station. ALFALFA ROOT ROT A comparatively new trouble which occurs in growing alfalfa is the tendency to die in spots which has been reported from various sections of the state. By many this has been... alfalfa apread out into it a fern feet. * *" Another letter from Mr. Farley dated May 24, 1892 contains this statement: " * * I notice a few stalks of dead alfalfa now, but will ad- vise yon later in June or July, and think it mill be a benefit...

  15. Alfalfa Root Rot.

    E-print Network

    Curtis, Geo. W.

    1892-01-01

    . ........................ .Assistant in Chemil Texas Agtriaultutral Expe~iment Station. ALFALFA ROOT ROT A comparatively new trouble which occurs in growing alfalfa is the tendency to die in spots which has been reported from various sections of the state. By many this has been... alfalfa apread out into it a fern feet. * *" Another letter from Mr. Farley dated May 24, 1892 contains this statement: " * * I notice a few stalks of dead alfalfa now, but will ad- vise yon later in June or July, and think it mill be a benefit...

  16. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

  17. Factors affecting wet core rot of apples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Spotts; A R. J. HolmesB; W. S. WashingtonC

    1988-01-01

    The effects of preharvest and postharvest inoculation of apple fruits with core rot fungi and the relationships between fruit\\u000a shape and sinus opening on wet core rot were studied. Preharvest inoculation with Mucor piriformis, Penicillium roquefortii and Alternaria sp. did not cause core rot, but postharvest inoculation with M. piriformis and P. expansum caused extensive rot, particularly if spores were

  18. ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Medford, Oregon (USA) CONFERENCEPROCEEDINGS #12;ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Working Party 7.02.01 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS M. Garbelotto & P

  19. Evaluation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for Suppression of Sheath Rot Disease and for Enhancement of Grain Yields in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivel, N.; Gnanamanickam, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains antagonistic to Sarocladium oryzae, the sheath rot (Sh-R) pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.), were evaluated in greenhouse and field tests for suppression of Sh-R severity and enhancement of grain yields of rice. Imprints of rice seedlings and a direct-observation technique of staining roots with fluorochromes confirmed the association of P. fluorescens with roots and the ability of the strain to move along shoot tips. In greenhouse tests, P. fluorescens-treated rice plants (cv. IR 20) showed a 54% reduction in the length of Sh-R lesions. In three field tests, treatment with P. fluorescens reduced the severity of Sh-R by 20 to 42% in five rice cultivars. Bacterization of rice cultivars with P. fluorescens enhanced plant height, number of tillers, and grain yields from 3 to 160%. Images PMID:16347428

  20. Comparison of a charcoal sorbent fiber with commercial charcoals for hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Gundermann, K J; Uhlhaas, S; Grünn, U; Olek, K; Ukigusa, M; Lie, T S

    1983-05-01

    A charcoal sorbent fiber (Enka, F.R.G.), was assessed for impurities, surface area, and adsorptive properties of its native charcoal, and compared with other uncoated activated charcoals. In vivo and in vitro hemocompatibility of the fiber were assessed as well as the adsorptive properties for endogenous toxins. The charcoal of the fiber had few impurities and a high surface area of 1,200 m2/g charcoal. For measuring the adsorptive speeds, 2 g of the uncoated charcoals were milled and screened to a particle size of 150-250 microns (Enka; 30-40 microns) and then mixed with the solutions of the individual solutes. The charcoal types of Enka, used in the charcoal sorbent fiber, and of Sutcliffe Speakman, used in the acrylic hydrogel coated charcoal, exhibited the highest adsorptive rates for bromthalein (middle molecular weight marker) and inulin (high molecular weight marker). No hematological differences among the various charcoals were found during the in vivo hemoperfusions. In the in vitro hemoperfusions with heparinized fresh blood, the fibers showed the lowest loss of leucocytes and thrombocytes. In the in vitro evaluation of the absorbents for hepatic support, the charcoal fiber and the petroleum pitch charcoal of Asahi had the best adsorptive properties for substances in the low molecular weight range. PMID:6870596

  1. Black Rot of the Grape 

    E-print Network

    Price, R. H.

    1892-01-01

    . .............................. J. W. CARSON,. .Assistant to Director. ............................. J. M. CARSON,. .Assistant Agriculturist. ........................ P. S. TILSON, M. S. .Assistant in Chemistry. Texas ~gaieultuaal Ex~e~imcnt Station. BLACK ROT OF THE GRAPE.... (Physalospora Bidwellii. Sachs.) (R. H. PRICE, B. 8.) 11 Ull otht upo' men Perhaps no other subject in Vegetable Pathology has attracted so wide attention since 1885 as the Black Rot of the grape and its treat- ment. This may be due to the serious loss...

  2. Maize resistance to gibberella ear rot: symptoms, deoxynivalenol, and yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vigier; L. M. Reid; L. M. Dwyer; D. W. Stewart; R. C. Sinha; J. T. Arnason; G. Butler

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effect of different environments on maize resistance to gibberella ear rot, disease symptoms, deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration, and grain yield were measured in three maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and five hybrids, from 1994 to1996, at six locations in eastern Canada. At each location, all genotypes were inoculated with a three-isolate macroconidial mix of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe

  3. Charcoal/Nitrogen Adsorption Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Refrigerator with no wear-related moving parts produces 0.5 W of cooling at 118 K. When fully developed, refrigerator needs no electrical power, and life expectancy of more than 10 yr, operates unattended to cool sensitive infrared detectors for long periods. Only moving parts in adsorption cryocooler are check valves. As charcoal is cooled in canister, gas pressure drops, allowing inlet check valve to open and admit more nitrogen. When canister is heated, pressure rises, closing inlet valve and eventually opening outlet valve.

  4. Oral activated charcoal and dapsone elimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Periti J Neuvonen; Erkki Elonen; Mauri J Mattila

    1980-01-01

    The effect of orally given activated charcoal on the elimination of therapeutic and toxic doses of dapsone was studied in 5 healthy subjects and in 2 intoxicated patients. In a randomized crossover study the subjects took a total dose of 500 mg dapsone over 4 days; 10 hr after the last 100-mg dose of dapsone 50 gm activated charcoal as

  5. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Sedgley; A. G. Tobin

    1985-01-01

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los

  6. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1985-09-30

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

  7. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

  8. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

  9. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

  10. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

  11. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

  12. Wheat Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ........................ . DISSEMINATION OF WHEAT DISEASES ... . ROOT DISEASES ......................... . Root, Crown and Foot Rots ............... . Plant Parasitic Nematodes ................ . Seedling Diseases... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOLIAGE DISEASES ..................... . 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 Rusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leaf Rust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stem Rust...

  13. Antidotal effectiveness of activated charcoal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relative adsorption of radiolabeled /sup 14/C-sodium pentobarbital by three types of activated charcoal. Factors affection adsorption of the drug by SuperChar, United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and Darco G-60 activated charcoals with surface areas of 2800-3500 m2/g, 1000 m/sup 2//g, and 650 m/sup 2//g, respectively, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, the drug was dissolved in water of 70% sorbitol (w/v), and the maximum binding capacity and dissociation constants for each of the charcoals were calculated. Rank order of maximum binding capacity was directly proportional to charcoal surface area in both water and sorbitol, while the dissociation constants for the charcoals in water were not different. For in vivo experiments, absorption of orally administered sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) was studied in rats with and without activated charcoal administration. The results of this research suggest that: (1) SuperChar given in water possesses the greatest antidotal efficacy, (2) sorbitol induced catharsis does not reduce oral absorption of sodium pentobarbital, and (3) sorbitol enhances the antidotal efficacy of USP charcoal.

  14. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  15. Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

    1995-12-31

    In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

  16. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhong Li; Zhi Biao Nan

    2007-01-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, ‹standing milkvetch’ (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of\\u000a stunted plants with reddish-brown

  17. Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti

    E-print Network

    Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

    2005-01-01

    The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

  18. Converting sugarcane waste into charcoal for Haiti

    E-print Network

    Toussaint, Etienne Clement

    2007-01-01

    In Haiti, most families have traditionally relied on wood and wood-derived charcoal as their primary fuel source for indoor cooking. This resource has proven to be unsustainable, however, as over 90% of the Haitian countryside ...

  19. Mapping the Legacies of Historic Charcoal Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Raab, A.; Raab, T. A.; Takla, M.; Nicolay, A.; Rösler, H.

    2014-12-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. We present methods and results of our work in this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field and of additional studies on kiln site distribution in regions of the Northern European Lowlands. The large-scale excavations in the mine forefield provide exact information on kiln site geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield. To detect kiln sites for larger areas, an automated GIS based mapping routine, based on a combination of morphometric parameters, was developed and evaluated. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield, with 1355 kiln sites that are wider than 12 m. These relatively large kiln sites could be mapped with detection rates that are close to those of manual digitization using the automated routine. First results for different study areas indicate that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  20. Preparation of activated charcoal from walnut shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Kambarova; Sh. Sarymsakov

    2008-01-01

    The proximate, group, and ultimate analysis of walnut shells was performed from the standpoint of their applicability as a\\u000a raw material for the production of activated charcoal. It was found that the composition of walnut shells was close to that\\u000a of birch wood, which is used for the manufacture of BAU and OU activated charcoals. Dried and ground walnut shells

  1. Infection courts and timing of infection of apple fruit by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis in the orchard in relation to speck rot during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is the cause of speck rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. The pathogen is believed to incite infections in the field, and disease symptoms become evident only during storage. To determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard i...

  2. Fluidized bed charcoal particle production system

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.

    1985-04-09

    A fluidized bed charcoal particle production system, including apparatus and method, wherein pieces of combustible waste, such as sawdust, fragments of wood, etc., are continuously disposed within a fluidized bed of a pyrolytic vessel. Preferably, the fluidized bed is caused to reach operating temperatures by use of an external pre-heater. The fluidized bed is situated above an air delivery system at the bottom of the vessel, which supports pyrolysis within the fluidized bed. Charcoal particles are thus formed within the bed from the combustible waste and are lifted from the bed and placed in suspension above the bed by forced air passing upwardly through the bed. The suspended charcoal particles and the gaseous medium in which the particles are suspended are displaced from the vessel into a cyclone mechanism where the charcoal particles are separated. The separated charcoal particles are quenched with water to terminate all further charcoal oxidation. The remaining off-gas is burned and, preferably, the heat therefrom used to generate steam, kiln dry lumber, etc. Preferably, the bed material is continuously recirculated and purified by removing tramp material.

  3. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  4. ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES International Conference

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    #12;ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO;Proceedings of the 12 th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees ROOT AND BUTT ROTS OF FOREST TREES 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots IUFRO Working Party 7.02.01 M

  5. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  6. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  7. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Lemieux; P. H. Kariher; B. J. Fairless; J. A. Tapp

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions

  8. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Diagnosis of Macrophomina phaseolina : A Charcoal Rot Fungus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bandamaravuri Kishore Babu; Ratul Saikia; Dilip K. Arora

    \\u000a \\u000a Macrophomina phaseolina is a global pathogen that inflicts losses on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, particularly in warm and tropical\\u000a environments. Efforts to divide M. phaseolina into subspecies have been unsuccessful largely due to the extreme intraspecific variations in morphology and pathogenecity.\\u000a The failure to adequately identify and detect M. phaseolina using conventional culture-based morphological techniques has led to the

  10. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi Robert Rileya , Asaf A. Salamova , Daren W. Brownb , Laszlo G. Nagyc January 12, 2014) Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood

  11. The frequency of complications associated with the use of multiple-dose activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine L. Dorrington; David W. Johnson; Rollin Brant

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of complications associated with the use of multiple-dose activated charcoal. Methods: The study population was drawn from 8 tertiary care hospitals in 4 North American cities. Medical records of all inpatients between March 1993 and March 1998 with a discharge diagnosis of poisoning (International Classification of Diseases, 9th

  12. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHARCOAL MANUFACTURING, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from charcoal manufacture. The composition, quality, and rate of emissions, and their environmental effects are described. Charcoal is the solid material remaining after the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials, primarily...

  13. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  14. Using mosaicked airborne imagery to assess cotton root rot infection on a regional basis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease in many of the cotton production areas in Texas. Since 2012, many cotton growers in Texas have used the Topguard fungicide to control this disease in their fields under Section 18 emergency exemptions. Airborne images have been used to monitor the...

  15. The Mitochondrial Genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa are closely related basidiomycetes that cause two important diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): frosty pod rot and the witches' broom disease, respectively. A comparison of the complete mitochondrial genomes of these pathogens shows a high degr...

  16. Evaluation of Commercial Melon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Crown Rot, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting melon onto rootstocks to manage soil-borne diseases is a relatively new strategy being tested in the U.S.A. Grafting is being successfully used to manage various soil borne diseases in parts of Asia and Europe. Commercial rootstocks were evaluated for tolerance to crown rot caused by Phyt...

  17. Evaluating spectral measures derived from airborne multispectral imagery for detecting cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for more than 100 years, but effective practices for its control are still lacki...

  18. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Disease-free sugarcane planting materials are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. The present study was undertaken to develop loop-mediated isothermal...

  19. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  20. Genetic studies on collar rot resistance in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Dhawan, Om Prakash; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Sattar, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The collar rot disease has been reported recently and occurs at the 10-12-leaf stage of plants of opium poppy. Infected plants topple down and dry prematurely due to fast rotting at the collar region. The inoculum for this study was multiplied on the cornmeal-sand culture. Genetic ratios were calculated by the chi-square test. Inheritance studies on this disease show a monogenic pattern of segregation with the ratio of 3 : 1 at F2, 1 : 2 : 1 at F3 and 1 : 1 at the backcross. Such genetic ratios clearly indicate that a single recessive gene (rs-1) is responsible for disease resistance in opium poppy. The inference drawn on the basis of the present study will be a great help in the future breeding programme of opium poppy for collar rot resistance. PMID:16110184

  1. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  2. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  3. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  4. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  5. Short Paper Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with

    E-print Network

    Whitlock, Cathy L.

    Short Paper Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with a particle dispersal model February 2007 Abstract To aid interpreting the source area of charcoal in lake-sediment records, we compare charcoal deposition from an experimental fire to predictions from a particle dispersal model. This provides

  6. Hardware Accelerated Real Time Charcoal Rendering Aditi Majumder M. Gopi

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    Hardware Accelerated Real Time Charcoal Rendering Aditi Majumder M. Gopi Department of Computer. The effects include characteristics of charcoal draw- ings like broad grainy strokes and smooth tonal variations that are achieved by smudging the charcoal by hand. Further, we also gen- erate the closure effect

  7. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  8. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation...Division 1.5 Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid),...

  9. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  10. Sugarbeet root rot in the Intermountain West

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot in sugarbeets caused by fungi and bacteria is a considerable problem in the western United States. In October 2004 and 2005, a survey was conducted on recently harvested sugarbeet roots throughout southern Idaho and eastern Oregon to identify the fungi and bacteria associated with root rot...

  11. Take-All Root Rot of Turfgrass 

    E-print Network

    Krausz, Joseph P.

    2005-04-21

    on a stolon of St. Augustinegrass, as compound microscope. Severe take-all root rot symptoms on St. Augustinegrass. Note the leaf yellowing, rot - ting stolons and bare ground. especially when the weather is warm and moist and grass is under stress...

  12. Take-All Root Rot of Turfgrass

    E-print Network

    Krausz, Joseph P.

    2005-04-21

    the growing season, Take-all Root Rot of Turfgrass Joseph P. Krausz* L-5170 4-05 *Professor and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology, The Texas A&M University System. Characteristic infection pads (hypho - podia) of the take-all root rot fungus...

  13. Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: pathogen biology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, C A

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been grown in Papua New Guinea since the early 1960s. The most important disease of oil palm in PNG is a stem rot of the palm base. This is the same disease that constitutes a major threat to sustainable oil palm production in SE Asia. Investigations into the causal pathogen have revealed that the stem rots in PNG are caused predominantly by the basidiomycete Ganoderma boninense, with a minor pathogen identified as G. tornatum G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms. The population structure of G. boninense was investigated using inter-fertility studies between isolates collected from basal stem rots on oil palm. Although the G. boninense field populations are predominantly comprised of distinct individuals, a number of isolates were found that share single mating alleles. This indicates that out-crossing had occurred over several generations in the resident or wild population of G. boninense prior to colonization of oil palm. No direct hereditary relationship between isolates on neighbouring diseased palms was found, although an indirect link between isolates causing upper stem rot and basal stem rot was detected. PMID:15750745

  14. Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisson, Harriet E.

    1980-01-01

    Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

  15. Estimation of charcoal (char) in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Skjernstad; J. A. Taylor; R. J. Smernik

    1999-01-01

    A method for the semiquantitative estimation of charcoal (char) in soils is reported. The technique, performed on the <53 ?m fraction of soils, utilizes the highly aromatic nature of char and its relative stability to two hours of high energy ultraviolet photo?oxidation compared to other soil carbon fractions. The proportion of char in the <53 ?m fraction is estimated as

  16. Report of postharvest rot of kiwifruit in Korea caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kwon, Young Ho; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-08-01

    In May 2014, sclerotinia rot symptoms caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were observed on stored kiwifruit in Jinju, South Korea. The symptoms appeared as soft, water-soaked lesions on fruit covered with a white mycelium. The morphological characteristics and the internal transcribed spacer sequences of rRNA of the pathogen isolated from the sclerotinia rot showed it to be S. sclerotiorum. This was confirmed by performing a pathogenicity test with pure cultures of S. sclerotiorum and by reisolating S. sclerotiorum from artificially inoculated kiwifruits. Our results should help promote a better understanding of the diseases that affect kiwifruit and improve practices for postharvest disease control in the kiwifruit industry. PMID:25996522

  17. Breeding for fruit rot resistance in Vaccinium macrocarpon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cranberry fruit rot complex can cause severe crop loss and requires multiple fungicide applications each year. To identify sources of fruit rot resistance, fungicides were withheld from our germplasm collection in 2003 and 2004 and the collection was rated for fruit rot (1-5 scale, 1=no rot, 5=...

  18. Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot BP-77-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Gibberella Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Photos by Charles Woloshuk Gibberella ear rot, or Gib ear rot, is caused by the fungus, Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum

  19. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  20. HERITABILITY OF CLOVER ROT RESISTANCE (SCLEROTINIA SPP.) IN RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE) POPULATIONS.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, T; Van Bockstaele, E

    2014-01-01

    European red clover (Trifolium pratense) crops are susceptible to clover rot, a destructive disease caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum or S. sclerotiorum. The lack of knowledge on the heritability of clover rot resistance is, among other reasons, responsible for the slow progress of resistance breeding. In this paper, we acquired insight in the heritability of clover rot resistance through divergent selection by our high-throughput bio-test on an experimental diploid population. The disease susceptibility indices of the first generation after selection for susceptibility and the first and the second generation after selection for resistance were compared with the susceptibility of the original population. The susceptible population (79.2%), the original population (70.5%) and the first generation resistant population (62.3%) differed significantly in susceptibility (p < 0.001). The first (62.3%) and second generation resistant population (60.0%) did not differ significantly in susceptibility. The heritability (h2) of clover rot resistance was low: 0.34 and 0.07 in the first and second cycle of selection respectively. This indicates that mass selection is not suitable to improve clover rot resistance. Family selection may allow a sustained increase in resistance for multiple generations. PMID:26080480

  1. Characterization of acetylated wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ohkoshi; Atsushi Kato; Kentaro Suzuki; Noriko Hayashi; Mitsuro Ishihara

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the decay of acetylated wood due to brown-rot and white-rot fungi by analysis\\u000a of chemical composition, X-ray measurements, and13C-NMR spectroscopy. The decay by brown-rot fungus became inhibited at a weight percent gain (WPG) due to acetylation of more\\u000a than 10%, and the mass loss (LOSS) due to decay became zero at a

  2. Purdue extension www.btny.purdue.edu

    E-print Network

    Purdue extension BP-42-W www.btny.purdue.edu Charcoal rot Andreas Westphal, T. Scott Abney, and Gregory Shaner Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University diseases of soybean Charcoal the beginning of flower- ing. Despite its wide distribution, charcoal rot is less of a concern for soybean

  3. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Witches' Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; I. A. Khan; R. H. Brlansky

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Major citrus diseases currently present in Florida include: Alternaria brown spot, blight, citrus canker, greasy spot, melanose, Phytophthora-induced diseases (foot and root rot, brown rot), postbloom fruit

  4. Preparation of charcoal from cherry stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Valle, Carlos J.; Gómez-Corzo, Manuel; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Pastor-Villegas, José; Rojas-Cervantes, María L.

    2006-06-01

    Cherry stones (CS) are carbonised at 400-1000 °C for 0-4 h in N 2 and the charcoals obtained are characterised to gain information about their chemical composition and porous texture, with a view to their use in the preparation of activated carbon. Depending on the heating conditions, the products obtained may possess a low ash content and a high fixed carbon content and are essentially microporous and macroporous solids.

  5. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels. PMID:20127546

  6. Application of Genomic and Quantitative Genetic Tools to Identify Candidate Resistance Genes for Brown Rot Resistance in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Parfitt, Dan E.; Bostock, Richard M.; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar ‘Dr. Davis’ and a brown rot resistant introgression line, ‘F8,1–42’, derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

  7. BBQ charcoal combustion as an important source of trace metal exposure to humans.

    PubMed

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Won; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2010-04-15

    To provide information about charcoal combustion as an important source of atmospheric trace metal pollution, 11 charcoal products were combusted and PM(10) filter samples were collected. The PM-bound metal elements were extracted by microwave acid digestion and analyzed by ICP-AES. The concentrations of trace metal elements ranged from a few to 10(5)ng m(-3) in the following order of magnitude: Zn>Pb>Mg>Ba>Cu>V>Cr>Co>Cd>Ni>Mn>Se>As. Emissions of most elements from charcoal combustion were high compared to other sources. In case of Cd, Co, and Ni, their concentrations exceeded the inhalation minimum risk levels (MRLs) of the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US-ATSDR) for chronic duration exposure by a factor of 30, 3.9, and 2.2, respectively. Likewise, Cd levels exceeded the US-ATSDR MRLs for acute-duration exposure by a factor of 10, while those of Pb and Cd exceeded air quality guideline (AQG) of the World Health Organization (WHO) by a factor of 29 and 59, respectively. Mn levels also exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Reference Air Concentrations (RfCs) by a factor of 2.7. This study shows that barbecue charcoal combustion can be an important source of trace metal emissions to the atmosphere with potential health risks. PMID:20031319

  8. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  9. CONTROL OF GREEN MOLD AND SOUR ROT OF STORED LEMONS BY BIOFUMIGATION WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...

  10. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in experimental sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 experimental sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ...

  11. A homoeopathic drug controls mango fruit rot caused by Pestalotia mangiferae Henn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Khanna; S. Chandra

    1978-01-01

    Summary Effect of 1–200 potencies of ten homoeopathic drugs on the spore germination ofPestalotia mangiferae, the causal organism of banana fruit rot, was studied. On the basis of results of in vivo studies with inhibitory doses of drugs, Lycopodium clavatum potency 190 has been recommended for the control of the disease.

  12. LIMITED FUNGICIDE APPLICATIONS AFFECT BERRY ROT SEVERITY AND RESVERATROL CONTENT OF MUSCADINE GRAPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry rot diseases reduce yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but those losses may be minimized by fungicide applications. The fungicides, myclobutanil, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole, were applied sequentially to two muscadine cultivars every ten days beginning at early bloom and stopping at pr...

  13. Mycoleptodiscus Crown and Root Rot on Alfalfa in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoleptodiscus crown and root rot, caused by Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, was identified causing severe disease in seven commercial production fields in southeastern Minnesota and southwestern Wisconsin during the summer of 2009. Both newly seeded fields and established fields were affected. In the ...

  14. Agrobacterium T-DNA-mediated integration and gene replacement in the brown rot pathogen Monilinia fructicola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miin-Huey Lee; Richard M. Bostock

    2006-01-01

    A transformation system utilizing Agrobacterium tumefaciens was developed for targeted gene disruption in Monilinia fructicola, a fungal pathogen that causes brown rot disease of stone fruits. Transformation with a vector containing the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) cassette flanked with 4 kb cutinase gene (Mfcut1) flanking sequences resulted in an average of 13 transformants per 105 spores. When assayed by PCR and

  15. MAIZE MAPPING POPULATIONS FOR IDENTIFYING QTLS FOR FUMONSIN ACCUMULATION AND EAR ROT RESISTANCE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GE440 and NC300 were identified in previous studies as potential sources for resistance to fumonisin accumulation and Fusarium ear and kernel rot. Two mapping populations, GE440 x FR1064 and NC300 x B104, were created to identify the loci associated with disease resistance and resistance to fumonis...

  16. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  17. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil root rot symptoms were observed in commercial fields in the US Pacific Northwest during the unusually cool and moist spring weather of 2010. Symptoms included sunken lesions on root and stem with brown discoloration, resembling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Rhizoctonia solani was i...

  18. Identification of QTL for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in Soybean Plant Introduction 194639

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a difficult disease to manage, although some gains have been made through breeding for quantitative resistance. The objective was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling partial ...

  19. Identification and genetic diversity of Rosellinia spp. associated with root rot of coffee in Colombia

    E-print Network

    in Colombia Bertha L. Castro & Angela J. Carreńo & Narmer F. Galeano & Jolanda Roux & Michael J. Wingfield rot on a wide range of herbaceous and woody hosts. In Colombia, these fungi cause serious diseases (Fernández and López 1964; Castro and Esquivel 1991). Other than in Colombia, these pathogens are known

  20. APHANOMYCES EUTEICHES ROOT ROT MYCELIA, ZOOSPORE, OR OOSPORE RESPONSE TO OAT EXTRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches Drechs.) is a serious econimic threat to pea (Pisum sativum L.) production in the North Central and Pacific Northwest U.S. regions. The disease is responsible for an estimated 10% annual crop loss. A late summer seeded oat (Avena sativa L.) crop prior to spring pea pl...

  1. Maize maturity and the development of gibberella ear rot symptoms and deoxynivalenol after inoculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Reid; R. C. Sinha

    1998-01-01

    Development of gibberella ear rot disease symptoms and the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize ears inoculated via the silk with Fusarium graminearum was determined at various times after inoculation. Ten hybrids ranging in maturity from early to late, were inoculated with a conidial suspension in 1993 and 1994 and harvested every 2 weeks for 14 weeks after

  2. Charcoal deposition and redeposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary charcoal, diatom and phytolith records of the past 1500 years at Elk Lake, Minnesota, in combination with sediment trap studies and a transect of surface sediment samples, document the mechanisms by which previously deposited charcoal is redeposited and finally buried in this lake. The frequent correspondence of high diatom concentrations and peaks of phytolith and charcoal fragments suggest that currents and turbulence related to lake circulation are responsible for winnowing charcoal and phytoliths from shallow water depositional sites to deeper areas of the lake. High diatom concentrations in the record relate to increased nutrient fluxes also supplied by circulation. Despite the fact that the watershed and area around Elk Lake has not been burned since AD 1922, charcoal continues to reach the profundal zone from littoral source areas in Elk Lake. The variable redeposition of within-lake charcoal requires evaluation before fire-history records can be related to global, regional or even local fire events.

  3. Development of Codominant simple sequence repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and sequence characterized amplified region markers for the pea root rot pathogen, Aphanomyces euteiches.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is a major disease affecting peas worldwide. Here we report three kinds of codominant genetic markers for the pathogen including simple sequence repeats (SSRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sequence characterized amplified regions ...

  4. Thermal testing methods in determination of characterization of charcoals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Shouxin; zhang Shirun; Li Boning; Zhu Wenhong

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis testing methods were used in determination of the characterization of charcoals. Thermogravimetry (TG) method\\u000a was adopted to determine the composition of charcoals, which include moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and ash contents. The\\u000a result showed that this method could detect the subtle change of charcoal composition, even the variation of different parts\\u000a of material. Differential Thermal analysis (DTA) and

  5. The effect of cholestyramine and activated charcoal on glipizide absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1990-01-01

    1. The interference of cholestyramine and activated charcoal with the absorption of glipizide was studied. 2. In a cross-over study comprising three phases, single doses of cholestyramine (8 g), activated charcoal (8 g) or water only were given to six healthy volunteers together with a single dose of glipizide. 3. The absorption of glipizide was moderately (29%, P less than 0.01) reduced by cholestyramine and greatly reduced (81%, P less than 0.01) by activated charcoal. 4. If cholestyramine and glipizide are used concomitantly, glipizide should be taken 1-2 h beforehand. In acute glipizide overdosage, activated charcoal can be used to reduce absorption. PMID:2271372

  6. Detection of potato brown rot and ring rot by electronic nose: from laboratory to real scale.

    PubMed

    Biondi, E; Blasioli, S; Galeone, A; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; Lucchese, C; Braschi, I

    2014-11-01

    A commercial electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with a metal oxide sensor array was trained to recognize volatile compounds emitted by potatoes experimentally infected with Ralstonia solanacearum or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, which are bacterial agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively. Two sampling procedures for volatile compounds were tested on pooled tubers sealed in 0.5-1 L jars at room temperature (laboratory conditions): an enrichment unit containing different adsorbent materials (namely, Tenax(®) TA, Carbotrap, Tenax(®) GR, and Carboxen 569) directly coupled with the e-nose (active sampling) and a Radiello(™) cartridge (passive sampling) containing a generic Carbograph fiber. Tenax(®) TA resulted the most suitable adsorbent material for active sampling. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 57.4 and 81.3% total samples as healthy or diseased, when using active and passive sampling, respectively. These results suggested the use of passive sampling to discriminate healthy from diseased tubers under intermediate and real scale conditions. 80 and 90% total samples were correctly classified by LDA under intermediate (100 tubers stored at 4°C in net bag passively sampled) and real scale conditions (tubers stored at 4°C in 1.25 t bags passively sampled). Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensorial analysis data under laboratory conditions highlighted a strict relationship between the disease severity and the responses of the e-nose sensors, whose sensitivity threshold was linked to the presence of at least one tuber per sample showing medium disease symptoms. At intermediate and real scale conditions, data distribution agreed with disease incidence (percentage of diseased tubers), owing to the low storage temperature and volatile compounds unconfinement conditions adopted. PMID:25127615

  7. paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Vanničre, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

  8. Improved and more environmentally friendly charcoal production system using a low-cost retort–kiln (Eco-charcoal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Adam

    2009-01-01

    Research into a low-cost retort–kiln, used to produce charcoal from sustainably managed forests in a more environmentally friendly way (Eco-Charcoal), has been completed and pilot units have been built in India and East Africa. The unit is called ICPS (Improved Charcoal Production System). Importantly, it has a much higher efficiency rating than traditional earth-mound kilns, which have until now been

  9. Archaeological charcoal: natural or human impact on the vegetation Charcoals from aprehistorie fire-set pit in the Austrian Alps -dendro-dates,

    E-print Network

    Nicolussi, Kurt

    Archaeological charcoal: natural or human impact on the vegetation Charcoals from aprehistorie fire into the dolomite rock. Copper ore was exploited in the pit MaukE in prehistory. Large quantities of charcoal were: Alpen Reliefkarte - Tirol Atlas). MATERIALS AND METHODS Out of the assemblage of charcoals (completely

  10. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  12. Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory Report Review of Technologies for the Production and Use of Charcoal

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and Use of Charcoal Daniel M. Kammen1 & Debra J. Lew2 Energy and Resources Group & Goldman School Charcoal consumption____________________________________________________2 Rural and Urban uses of woodfuels and charcoal______________________________3 Environmental Impacts

  13. Short Paper Soil charcoal stability over the Holocene across boreal northeastern North America

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    Short Paper Soil charcoal stability over the Holocene across boreal northeastern North America Available online 31 July 2011 Keywords: Anthracomass Boreal Holocene Macroscopic soil charcoal Taphonomy The analysis of macroscopic wood charcoal fragments extracted from soils is frequently used

  14. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  15. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  16. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 ...description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The...

  17. Evaluating effects of charcoal properties on phenanthrene sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, G.; Sabatini, D. A.; Chiou, C. T.; Karapanagioti, H. K.

    2003-04-01

    To provide a better interpretation of the sorption behavior of soils and sediments with heterogeneous carbonaceous content, the adsorptive capacities of natural fire-produced charcoal particles were evaluated. Due to the charcoal’s heterogeneous nature, as observed in previous studies, it is not possible to delineate the charcoal’s sorption capacity by a single value. Both laboratory-produced and natural charcoal samples were tested for their surface properties and their adsorptive behavior. For laboratory-produced charcoal samples, there appears to be an optimum activation temperature that produces the highest surface area. At this temperature, there is a clear jump of not only the surface area values but also in the related contaminant adsorption capacity (Kfr). The optimal activation temperature was observed to vary between source materials (700oC for samples of Betula pendula versus 480oC for samples of Pinus sylvestris). Natural charcoals did not exhibit as high surface area, sorption capacity or nonlinearity as the laboratory-produced samples, suggesting that the natural samples studied were activated at temperatures either much higher or much lower than their optimal temperature. At equilibrium concentration of 1 ?g/L in water, phenanthrene log Koc values observed for laboratory-produced charcoal samples (5.3 to 7.4) are consistent with previous literature values (5.6 to 7.1). Thus, our hypothesis is corroborated: i.e., that heterogeneous charcoal properties, which can be attributed to different activation temperatures and starting materials, can highly impact their sorptive properties. Based on these findings, and assuming that the charcoal fraction relative to the soil organic matter fraction is usually low (< 0.1), the apparent phenanthrene Koc values with many natural solids can be significantly greater than predicted by a linear partitioning model at low phenanthrene concentrations, but will not deviate significantly at higher concentrations or when multiple solutes are present.

  18. Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to Gibberella ear rot, in corn, caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Ali, M Liakat; Taylor, Jeff H; Jie, Liu; Sun, Genlou; William, Manilal; Kasha, Ken J; Reid, Lana M; Pauls, K Peter

    2005-06-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of corn (Zea mays) grown in northern climates. Infected corn is lower yielding and contains toxins that are dangerous to livestock and humans. Resistance to ear rot in corn is quantitative, specific to the mode of fungal entry (silk channels or kernel wounds), and highly influenced by the environment. Evaluations of ear rot resistance are complex and subjective; and they need to be repeated over several years. All of these factors have hampered attempts to develop F. graminearum resistant corn varieties. The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to the genes for resistance to Gibberella ear rot. A recombinant inbred (RI) population, produced from a cross between a Gibberella ear rot resistant line (CO387) and a susceptible line (CG62), was field-inoculated and scored for Gibberella ear rot symptoms in the F4, F6, and F7 generations. The distributions of disease scores were continuous, indicating that resistance is probably conditioned by multiple loci. A molecular linkage map, based on segregation in the F5 RI population, contained 162 markers distributed over 10 linkage groups and had a total length of 2237 cM with an average distance between markers of 13.8 cM. Composite interval mapping identified 11 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Gibberella ear rot resistance following silk inoculation and 18 QTLs following kernel inoculation in 4 environments that accounted for 6.7%-35% of the total phenotypic variation. Only 2 QTLs (on linkage group 7) were detected in more than 1 test for silk resistance, and only 1 QTL (on linkage group 5) was detected in more than 1 test for kernel resistance, confirming the strong influence of the environment on these traits. The majority of the favorable alleles were derived from the resistant parent (CO387). The germplasm and markers for QTLs with significant phenotypic effects may be useful for marker-assisted selection to incorporate Gibberella ear rot resistance into commercial corn cultivars. PMID:16121248

  19. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  20. Theorizing Access: Forest Profits along Senegal's Charcoal Commodity Chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse C. Ribot

    1998-01-01

    The questions at the centre of this article are: who profits from commercial forestry, and how? Through access mapping with commodity chain analysis, this study examines the distribution of benefits from Senegal's charcoal trade and the multiple market mechanisms underpinning that distribution. Benefits from charcoal are derived from direct control over forest access, as well as through access to markets,

  1. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  2. The use of charcoal in in vitro culture – A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Pan; J. van Staden

    1998-01-01

    Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media. Its addition to culture medium may promote or inhibit in vitro growth, depending on species and tissues used. The effects of activated charcoal may be attributed to establishing a darkened environment; adsorption of undesirable\\/inhibitory substances; adsorption of growth regulators and other organic compounds, or the release of growth promoting substances present

  3. Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot bacteria and, potentially, other bacteria as well. PMID:23133391

  4. Identification of sources of resistance to sugarcane red rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, adversely affects sugarcane stand establishment in Louisiana by rotting planted stalks. Since cultivar resistance is the most effective control method, a study was conducted to identify sources of resistance to red rot and evaluate variability within Sacc...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51...Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51...Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51...Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51...Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft,...

  13. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and indicate that the carbon rich kiln residuals have a higher field capacity than the surrounding Arenosols. The matrix potential of the carbon rich kiln substrate is high and water drop penetration time tests show high water repellency. Our findings suggest that although the charcoal production led to an enrichment of carbon in the landscape, the hydraulic properties of the remaining ash layers can have negative effects on the water supply for plants.

  14. Phenolic Constituents of Celosia cristata L. Susceptible to Spinach Root Rot Pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaolin WEN; Satoshi TAHARA

    2006-01-01

    Aphanomyces cochlioides is a soil-borne phytopatho- genic Peronosporomycete which is responsible for the root rot disease of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and damping-off disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. rapa Dum.). The presence of the potent zoospore attractant, cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylene- dioxyflavone, 1), has been confirmed in a range of host plants in the Chenopodiaceae including sugar beet, 1)

  15. Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevain A. S. Messiha; Ariena H. C. van Bruggen; Anne D. van Diepeningen; Oscar J. de Vos; Aad J. Termorshuizen; N. N. A. Tjou-Tam-Sin; J. D. Janse

    2007-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot (bacterial wilt), is an economically important disease in tropical,\\u000a subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In view of previous reports on suppression of the disease by organic amendments,\\u000a and the expansion of organic agriculture, it was timely to compare the effects of organic and conventional management

  16. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C.M. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Lycoming, NY (United States); Scala, F.R. [Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

  18. Influence of iron on cylindrocarpon root rot development on ginseng.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Punja, Zamir K

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Cylindrocarpon root rot, caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans, is an important disease on ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Canada. We studied the effects of iron (Fe) on disease severity and pathogen growth. When Hoagland's solution was amended with Fe at 56 and 112 mug/ml compared with 0 mug/ml, disease initiation and final severity on hydroponically maintained ginseng roots was significantly (P<0.0001) enhanced. Under field conditions, wounding of roots with a fine needle followed by application of 0.05% FeNaEDTA to the rhizosphere of treated plants significantly enhanced Cylindrocarpon root rot in 2003 and 2004 compared with unwounded roots with Fe or wounded roots without Fe. Foliar applications of Fe (as FeNaEDTA) to ginseng plants three times during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons significantly increased Fe levels in root tissues. These roots developed larger lesions following inoculation with C. destructans in vitro. When radioactive Fe ((59)Fe) was applied to the foliage of ginseng plants, it was detected in the secondary phloem and in cortical and epidermal tissues within 1 week. Artificially wounded areas on the roots accumulated more (59)Fe than healthy areas. Diseased tissue also had threefold higher levels of phenolic compounds and Fe compared with adjoining healthy tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed enhanced levels of protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, phloridizin, and quercetin. Phenolic compounds produced in diseased and wounded tissues sequestered Fe in vitro. The effects of Fe on mycelial growth, conidial germ tube length, and secondary branching of germ tubes of C. destructans were examined in vitro. When grown on Chrome-azurol S medium, Fe also was sequestered by C. destructans through siderophore production, which was visualized as a clearing pigmented zone at the margin of colonies. Mycelial dry weight was significantly increased in glucose/ yeast broth containing Fe at 56 or 112 mug/ml. Conidial germ tube length and secondary branching of hyphae also were enhanced after 8 and 16 h by Fe. Colony growth of C. destructans was not enhanced by Fe, but significantly greater spore production was observed with Fe at 56 and 112 mug/ml compared with no Fe in the medium. Although these levels of Fe had no effect on fungal pectinase enzyme activity, polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was significantly (P <0.0001) enhanced. We conclude that Fe enhances Cylindrocarpon root rot through enhanced pathogen growth, sporulation, and PPO enzyme activity. Fe sequestered by phenolic compounds produced in wounded tissues can enhance Fe levels at the site of infection. The pathogen also has the ability to sequester Fe at these sites. PMID:18943954

  19. First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

  20. First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea.

    PubMed

    Aktaruzzaman, Md; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il; Kim, Byung-Sup

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

  1. Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

    2000-01-01

    Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

  2. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  3. Systems of Hess-Appel'rot type

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Dragovic; Borislav Gajic

    2006-02-09

    We construct higher-dimensional generalizations of the classical Hess-Appel'rot rigid body system. We give a Lax pair with a spectral parameter leading to an algebro-geometric integration of this new class of systems, which is closely related to the integration of the Lagrange bitop performed by us recently and uses Mumford relation for theta divisors of double unramified coverings. Based on the basic properties satisfied by such a class of systems related to bi-Poisson structure, quasi-homogeneity, and conditions on the Kowalevski exponents, we suggest an axiomatic approach leading to what we call the "class of systems of Hess-Appel'rot type".

  4. Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John A. Johnson (University of New Brunswick; )

    1989-06-06

    The fungi which cause rot and decay in our forests are vital members of the ecosystem. By decomposing the hard woody stems of trees they help recycle important nutrients, minerals, and carbohydrates. Unlike many organisms which are easy to see, the fungi are often hidden under bark or within living stems and their presence is not obvious. This laboratory exercise provides instructors with information about where to find and how to visualize and manipulate fungi which cause rot and decay, while discovering how ubiquitous and important they are.

  5. Identifying quantitative trait loci for resistance to Sclerotinia head rot in two USDA sunflower germplasms.

    PubMed

    Yue, B; Radi, S A; Vick, B A; Cai, X; Tang, S; Knapp, S J; Gulya, T J; Miller, J F; Hu, J

    2008-08-01

    Sclerotinia head rot is a major disease of sunflower in the world, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping could facilitate understanding of the genetic basis of head rot resistance and breeding in sunflower. One hundred twenty-three F2:3 and F2:4 families from a cross between HA 441 and RHA 439 were studied. The mapping population was evaluated for disease resistance in three field experiments in a randomized complete block design with two replicates. Disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) were assessed. A genetic map with 180 target region amplification polymorphism, 32 simple sequence repeats, 11 insertion-deletion, and 2 morphological markers was constructed. Nine DI and seven DS QTL were identified with each QTL explaining 8.4 to 34.5% of phenotypic variance, suggesting the polygenic basis of the resistance to head rot. Five of these QTL were identified in more than one experiment, and each QTL explained more than 12.9% of phenotypic variance. These QTL could be useful in sunflower breeding. Although a positive correlation existed between the two disease indices, most of the respective QTL were located in different chromosomal regions, suggesting a different genetic basis for the two indices. PMID:18943211

  6. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  7. Tubular bamboo charcoal for anode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Biao

    2014-12-01

    The anode material plays a significant role in determining the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, the bamboo charcoal tube is proposed as a novel anode substrate by carbonizing the natural bamboo. Its surface functional groups, biocompatibility and internal resistance are thoroughly investigated. Performance of the MFCs with a conventional graphite tube anode and a bamboo charcoal tube anode is also compared. The results indicate that the tubular bamboo charcoal anode exhibits advantages over the graphite tube anode in terms of rougher surface, superior biocompatibility and smaller total internal resistance. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis for the bamboo charcoal reveals that the introduced C-N bonds facilitate the electron transfer between the biofilm and electrodes. As a result, the MFC with a bamboo charcoal tube anode achieves a 50% improvement in the maximum power density over the graphite tube case. Furthermore, scale-up of the bamboo charcoal tube anode is demonstrated by employing a bundle of tubular bamboo charcoal to reach higher power output.

  8. Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

  9. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  10. Effects of activated charcoal on hatching and infectivity of Globodera rostochiensis in pot tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland N. PERXY; Jack BEANE

    The effects of various amounts of activated charcoal in charcoal\\/loam mixtures on the hatch, invasion and cyst production of Globodera rostochiensis were investigated in greenhouse pot experiments. The main feature of the results was a delay in hatching of juveniles from cysts in pots containing charcoal. The adverse effect of charcoal on hatching was confirmed in outdoor pot experiments and

  11. Sorption and Desorption Behaviors of Diuron in Soils Amended with Charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Yang Yu; Guang-Guo Ying; Rai S. Kookana

    2006-01-01

    Charcoal derived from the partial combustion of vegetation is ubiquitous in soils and sediments and can potentially sequester organic contaminants. To examine the role of charcoal in the sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron pesticide in soil, synthetic charcoals were produced through carbonization of red gum (Eucalyptus spp.) wood chips at 450 and 850 °C (referred to as charcoals BC450

  12. Notes and Discussion Legacy of Charcoaling in a Western Highland Rim Forest in Tennessee

    E-print Network

    Hart, Justin

    Notes and Discussion Legacy of Charcoaling in a Western Highland Rim Forest in Tennessee ABSTRACT. The production of iron required large amounts of charcoal. Timber was cut, burned in hearths to produce charcoal and then the charcoal was transported to local furnaces and forges. The goal of our study was to document the lasting

  13. Sorption of SF/sub 6/ by activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Clinton, S.D.; Fallon, K.J.; Jones, C.M.; Perona, J.J.; Watson, J.S.; Senkan, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Sorption isotherms for SF/sub 6/ on activated charcoal were obtained between -83 and 100/sup 0/C in the pressure range of 0.13 mPa to 100 kPa (1 ..mu..torr to 750 torr) by microgravimetric techniques. Charcoal uptakes as high as 0.80 g of SF/sub 6/ per gram of charcoal were observed with isosteric heats of sorption values ranging from -6.0 to -7.5 kcal/(g-mol). 5 figures.

  14. Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

    1979-01-01

    Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

  15. The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Aime; W. Phillips-Mora

    2005-01-01

    The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao )—the source of chocolate—in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moni- liophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environ- mental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relation- ships of

  16. Formation of charcoal from biomass in a sealed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Szabo, P.; Varhegyi, G.; Zelei, B. (Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1502 (Hungary))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, samples o cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and nine species of whole biomass are pyrolyzed in sealed reactors. Very high charcoal yields (e.g., 40% from cellulose, 48% from Eucalyptus gummifera) were obtained. Higher sample loading (sample mass per unit reactor volume) increased charcoal yield and the associated exothermic heat release and lowered the reaction onset temperature. These effects were induced by the vapor-phase concentrations of the volatile products, and not the system pressure. Addition of water catalyzed the reaction and increased the char yield. These observations suggest that charcoal formation is autocatalyzed by water, an initial pyrolysis product. When whole biomass was used as a feedstock, higher charcoal yields were obtained from species with high lignin and/or low hemicellulose content.

  17. Avocado diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Zentmyer

    1984-01-01

    Several fungi can cause diseases of avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)) of which Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is the most serious. Phytophthora root rot causes extensive losses of avocado trees in nearly every country where avocados are grown. The fungus can be isolated from soil and roots by using selective agar media containing antibiotic chemicals and by using various types of baits

  18. Charcoal hemoperfusion in the treatment of phenytoin overdose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiyo Kawasaki; Reiko Nishi; Souichi Uekihara; Syunichi Hayano; Masaki Otagiri

    2000-01-01

    In the case of phenytoin, a drug that is generally highly protein bound, there is a lack of consensus on the use of charcoal hemoperfusion in cases of overdose. We performed charcoal hemoperfusion on a phenytoin-overdosed patient to assess the effectiveness of this treatment. The plasma concentrations of total and free phenytoin fell rapidly, from 40.0 ?g\\/mL and 3.6 ?g\\/mL

  19. The adsorption of silver cyanide on activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eung Ha Cho; Charles H. Pitt

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the adsorption of silver cyanide on charcoal from solution having various concentrations\\u000a of sodium, calcium, free cyanide, and hydrogen ion. It has been found that sodium and calcium ions enhance the adsorption\\u000a of silver cyanide on charcoal while free cyanide ions reduce the adsorption. A qualitative description of the adsorption based\\u000a on the structure

  20. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Sedgley; Charles R. Walthers; Everett M. Jenkins

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown the practicality of using activated carbon (coconut charcoal) at 4 K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. The long-term effects of tritium on the charcoal\\/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL was not known; therefore, a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long-term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber.

  1. Removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewaters by bone charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dahbi; M. Azzi; M. de la Guardia

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto bone charcoal was studied as a function of time, amount of charcoal, pH, concentration\\u000a of chromium and sample volume. The cross interference with other elements was also investigated. Tests were carried out with\\u000a solutions of chromium(VI) at concentrations between 5 and 25 mg · L–1. Chromium removal efficiencies higher than 90% were achieved at

  2. Flowrate effects upon adsorption in a charcoal sampling tube

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Fredric Newell

    1984-01-01

    FLOWRATE EFFECTS UPON ADSORPTION IN A CHARCOAL SAMPLING TUBE A Thesis by FREDRIC NEWELL BOLTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984... Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene FLOWRATE EFFECTS UPON ADSORPTION IN A CHARCOAL SAMPLING TUBE A Thesis by FREDRIC NENELL BOLTON Approved as to style and content by . B. Kon en (Chairman of th Committee) R. Darby (Member R. J. Vernon (Member...

  3. Fluorine gettering by activated charcoal in a radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, L.K.; Toth, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Activated charcoal is an effective gettering agent for the fluorine gas that is liberated in a radiation environment. Even though activated charcoal is a commonly used getter, little is known about the radiation stability of the fluorine-charcoal product. The product is stable in high gamma radiation fields and radiation enhances the capacity of the charcoal for the fluorine. The most useful application of this work is with the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt because the radioactive components (fission products and actinides) cause radiolytic damage to the solid LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (64.5, 30.3, 5.0, 0.13 mol %, respectively) resulting in the liberation of fluorine gas. The maximum damage to the fuel salt by approx.3 x 10/sup 7/ R/h gamma radiation is approximately 2%, at which point the rate of recombination of fluorine with active metal sites within the salt lattice equals the rate of fluorine generation. The enhanced reactivity of the activated charcoal and radiation stability of the product ensures that the gettered fluorine will stay sequestered in the charcoal. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Fluorine gettering by activated charcoal in a radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, L.K.; Toth, L.M.

    1988-10-01

    Activated charcoal has been shown to be an effective gettering agent for the fluorine gas that is liberated in a radiation environment. Even though activated charcoal is a commonly used getter, little is known about the radiation stability of the fluorine-charcoal product. This work has shown that not only is the product stable in high gamma radiation fields, but also that radiation enhances the capacity of the charcoal for the fluorine. The most useful application of this work is with the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt because the radioactive components (fission products and actinides) cause radiolytic damage to the solid LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (64.5, 30.3, 5.0, 0.13 mol %, respectively) resulting in the liberation of fluorine gas. This work has also demonstrated that the maximum damage to the fuel salt by approx.3 /times/ 10/sup 7/ R/h gamma radiation is approximately 2%, at which point the rate of recombination of fluorine with active metal sites within the salt lattice equals the rate of fluorine generation. The enhanced reactivity of the activated charcoal and radiation stability of the product ensures that the gettered fluorine will stay sequestered in the charcoal.

  5. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric, E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.u [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  6. Phytophthora erythroseptica (Pink Rot) Development in Russet Norkotah Potato Grown in Buffered Hydroponic Solutions I. Calcium Nutrition Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared H. Benson; Brad Geary; Jeffrey S. Miller; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Mikel R. Stevens

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethyb. causes a disease known as pink rot in potatoes, which is responsible for substantial pre and post harvest tuber loss.\\u000a Disease outbreaks are associated with excessive soil moisture, moderate temperature, late season development, and a lack of\\u000a potato cultivar resistance. Because disease resistance is becoming less effective, understanding other potential solutions\\u000a is critical. Mineral nutrition of plants

  7. Nitrogen and crop rotation effects on fusarium crown rot in no-till spring wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan A. Davis; David R. Huggins; James R. Cook; Timothy C. Paulitz

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot of wheat (Triticum aestivum), caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum and Fusarium culmorum, is a yield-limiting disease in the dryland wheat-production area of the intermountain Pacific Northwest and is exacerbated in water-stressed plants induced by overfertilizing with nitrogen (N). Plants with excess N deplete water from the soil profile more rapidly and become drought stressed prematurely. Traditionally a problem

  8. Pythium aphanidermatum root rot of pawpaw ( Carica papaya L.) in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. O. A. Oluma; A. O. Oladiran

    1993-01-01

    Root rot of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) reported in Nigeria is caused byPythium aphanidermatum which was consistently isolated from diseased plant parts and highly pothogenic. Out of 16 different media tested, it grew best on corn-meal-agar (CMA) and CMA supplemented with cellulose and sucrose. The highest number of oospores\\/ml was on CMA with average diameter of 19.9±0.1 µm. The symptom

  9. Genetic variation among Fusarium isolates from onion, and resistance to Fusarium basal rot in related Allium species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo A. Galván; Carole F. S. Koning-Boucoiran; Wim J. M. Koopman; Karin Burger-Meijer; Pablo H. González; Cees Waalwijk; Chris Kik; Olga E. Scholten

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study levels of resistance to Fusarium basal rot in onion cultivars and related Allium species, by using genetically different Fusarium isolates. In order to select genetically different isolates for disease testing, a collection of 61 Fusarium isolates, 43 of them from onion (Allium cepa), was analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

  10. REGISTRATION OF EL53 SUGARBEET GERMPLASM WITH SMOOTH-ROOT AND MODERATE RESISTANCE TO RHIZOCTONIA CROWN AND ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EL53 sugarbeet germplasm is substantially derived from previously released smooth-rooted, low soil tare germplasm releases with two additional cycles of selection for freedom from Rhizoctonia crown and root rot disease. Previous low soil tare releases have been uniformly susceptible to Rhizoctonia ...

  11. The Salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344 grows to 50-fold greater populations in the pres...

  12. Biological Control of Black Rot ( Xanthomonas Campestris Pv. campestris ) of Brassicas with an Antagonistic Strain of Bacillus Subtilis in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ednar G. Wulff; Cames M. Mguni; Carmen N. Mortensen; Chandroo L. Keswani; John Hockenhull

    2002-01-01

    Biological control efficiency of an antagonistic, endophytic strain of Bacillus subtilis (strain BB) was evaluated against three strains of the black rot pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), in four Brassica crops (cabbage, cauliflower, rape and broccoli) grown during three consecutive growing seasons and on two soil types, in two different areas in Zimbabwe. Strain BB controlled the disease caused

  13. Effects of Cultural Practices and Chemical Treatments on Phytophthora Root Rot Severity of Blueberries Grown in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, is an important disease of highbush, southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberry. Southern highbush cultivars are being grown in the southeastern U.S. for their early fruit production and reduced chilling requirement; however, as the acre...

  14. Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

    2010-01-01

    Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

  15. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  16. PCR/RFLP BASED METHOD FOR DETECTION OF RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM RACE 3/BIOVAR2 CAUSING BROWN ROT OF POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. solanacearum has a broad host range and can be subdivided into 4 races and 5 biovars according to the plant host and biochemical properties. R. solanacearum race 3/biovar 2 primarily infects potato and is the phenotype responsible for recent outbreaks of potato brown rot disease in several count...

  17. First evidence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia as the causal agent of dry rot canker of sugar beet in Nebraska, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is the primary source of domestic sucrose in the United States. In 2011, a sugar beet field in Morrill County NE was noted with wilting and yellowing symptoms suggestive of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot (RCRR), an important disease of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia s...

  18. Difference between chitosan and oligochitosan in growth of Monilinia fructicola and control of brown rot in peach fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitosan (CS) and oligochitosan (OCS), as natural antifungal agents, have been primarily used as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The effectiveness of these two agents on the growth of Monilinia fructicola to control brown rot has not yet been...

  19. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Phaeoramularia Fruit and Leaf Spot (PFLS)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; L. W. Timmer

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Citrus diseases present in Florida include: Alternaria brown spot, blight, canker, greasy spot, greening (Huanglongbing), melanose, Phytophthora-induced diseases (foot and root rot, brown rot), postbloom fruit drop

  20. Citrus Diseases Exotic to Florida: Citrus Tristeza Virus Stem Pitting (CTV-SP)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-R. Chung; R. H. Brlansky

    Citrus is susceptible to a large number of diseases caused by plant pathogens. Economic losses due to plant diseases can be severe, but fortunately, not all pathogens attacking citrus are present in Florida. Major citrus diseases currently present in Florida include: Alternaria brown spot, blight, citrus canker, greasy spot, melanose, Phytophthora-induced diseases (foot and root rot, brown rot), postbloom fruit

  1. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-01-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. PMID:8837429

  2. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

  4. Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA1

    E-print Network

    Hart, Justin

    Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA. J. Torrey) charcoal, quantified charcoal mass, and radiocarbon-dated charcoal macrofossils in 10 soil cores to develop

  5. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, MCM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, JM; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones. PMID:25684775

  6. Relation of Soil Acidity to Cotton Root Rot.

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1937-01-01

    soil. The Ochlockonee clay loam, which varied from pH 6.3 to 5.9, supported root rot for only three %ears, and none occurred after 1930. In the next three soils, varying from about neutrality to slight alkalinity, root rot survived for the period... TO COTTON ROOT ROT AGRICLZTURAL AND BECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. \\VALTON, President Cotton plants grown in containers of soils varying naturally in hydrogen-ion concentration (a measure of soil acidity) were inocu- lated with cotton root rot...

  7. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A; Brown, Daren W; Nagy, Laszlo G; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Walton, Jonathan D; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-07-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  8. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A.; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  9. Induction of apoptotic cell death leads to the development of bacterial rot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii.

    PubMed

    Kiba, Akinori; Sangawa, Yasutaka; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Yao, Nan; Park, Pyoyun; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2006-02-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii is the major causal agent of bacterial rot of lettuce. Collapse and browning symptoms were observed in lettuce leaf tissue from 15 to 24 h after inoculation (HAI) with P. cichorii; superoxide anion generation was detected at 1 to 6 HAI; and cell death was induced at 6 HAI, reaching a maximum at approximately 9 and 12 HAI. Heterochromatin condensation and DNA laddering also were observed within 3 HAI. Pharmacological studies showed that induction of cell death and DNA laddering was closely associated with de novo protein synthesis, protein kinase, intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNase, serine protease, and caspase III-like protease. Moreover, chemicals, which inhibited the induction of cell death and DNA laddering, also suppressed the development of disease symptoms. These results suggest that apoptotic cell death might be closely associated with the development of bacterial rot caused by P. cichorii. PMID:16529373

  10. Induction of reactive oxygen generation and functional changes in mitochondria and their involvement in the development of bacterial rot in lettuce caused by Pseudomonas cichorii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Kiba; Kyon Ye Lee; Kouhei Ohnishi; Hitoshi Nakayashiki; Yukio Tosa; Shigeyuki Mayama; Yasufumi Hikichi

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii is the major causal agent of bacterial rot disease in lettuce, and apoptosis-like programmed cell death is closely associated with disease development. Depletion of cellular ATP and expression of the alternative oxidase gene was observed in lettuce leaves inoculated with P. cichorii suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Cytochemical observation showed production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria of P. cichorii-inoculated

  11. Effectiveness of calcium salts, hydrogen peroxide, azoxystrobin, and antagonistic bacteria to control post-harvest rot on tobacco caused by Rhizopus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kortekamp

    2006-01-01

    Rhizopus rot, caused by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae (Mucorales, Zygomycota) is the most economically important post-harvest disease of flue-cured tobacco and is also known to cause diseases on vegetables and fruits. In case of high infection rates, losses in can reach up to 100% during curing of tobacco leaves. The primary sites of entry of this pathogen are wounds on

  12. Genomic regions associated with incidence of disease in cattle using DNA pooling and a high density single nucleotide polymorphism array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic regions associated with general disease (respiratory disease, foot rot, and pinkeye) in beef cattle were identified using treatment records on 2,849 animals. General disease cases included animals treated for bovine respiratory disease, foot rot, or pinkeye. Untreated cohorts, matched on b...

  13. Antagonistic Bacillus species as a biological control of ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minjae; Yun, Hye Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a biocontrol system for ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum. Methods In total, 392 bacteria isolated from ginseng roots and various soils were screened for their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen, and a bacterial isolate (B2-5) was selected as a promising candidate for the biocontrol because of the strong antagonistic activity of the bacterial cell suspension and culture filtrate against pathogen. Results The bacterial isolate B2-5 displayed an enhanced inhibitory activity against the pathogen mycelial growth with a temperature increase to 25°C, produced no pectinase (related to root rotting) and no critical rot symptoms at low [106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] and high (108 CFU/mL) inoculum concentrations. In pot experiments, pretreatment with the bacterial isolate in the presumed optimal time for disease control reduced disease severity significantly with a higher control efficacy at an inoculum concentration of 106 CFU/mL than at 108 CFU/mL. The establishment and colonization ability of the bacterial isolates on the ginseng rhizosphere appeared to be higher when both the bacterial isolate and the pathogen were coinoculated than when the bacterial isolate was inoculated alone, suggesting its target-oriented biocontrol activity against the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen hyphae were twisted and shriveled by the bacterial treatment, which may be a symptom of direct damage by antifungal substances. Conclusion All of these results suggest that the bacterial isolate has good potential as a microbial agent for the biocontrol of the ginseng root rot caused by F. cf. incarnatum. PMID:24748838

  14. New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the past several years, Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (causal agent: Phytophthora capsici) has been considered an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association. Management of Phytophthora fruit rot is particularly difficult because of the long durati...

  15. Feasibility of bioremediation by white-rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pointing

    2001-01-01

    The ligninolytic enzymes of white-rot fungi have a broad substrate specificity and have been implicated in the transformation and mineralization of organopollutants with structural similarities to lignin. This review presents evidence for the involvement of these enzymes in white-rot fungal degradation of munitions waste, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bleach plant effluent, synthetic dyes, synthetic polymers, and wood preservatives.

  16. Pedigree selection for Gibberella ear rot resistance in maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Presello; Lana M. Reid; Gail Butler; Diane E. Mather

    2005-01-01

    The pedigree method is often used for developing inbred lines in maize (Zea mays L.). This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of pedigree selection for improving resistance to Gibberella ear rot in four maize populations. Selection was based on the severity of ear rot symptoms after inoculation with macroconidial suspensions of Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) into the silk channel

  17. Biodiversity of Fusarium species in Mexico associated with ear rot in maize, and their identification using a phylogenetic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irma Morales-Rodríguez; María J. de Yańz-Morales; Hilda V. Silva-Rojas; Gabino García-de-los-Santos; Doralinda A. Guzmán-de-Peńa

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium\\u000a proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides are known causes of ear and kernel rot in maize worldwide. In Mexico, only F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans, have been reported previously as causal agents of this disease. However, Fusarium isolates with different morphological characteristics to the species that are known to cause this disease were obtained in\\u000a the Highland-Valley region of

  18. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  19. QTL mapping of resistance to Sclerotinia midstalk rot in RIL of sunflower population NDBLOSsel x CM625.

    PubMed

    Micic, Z; Hahn, V; Bauer, E; Schön, C C; Melchinger, A E

    2005-05-01

    Midstalk rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important disease of sunflower in its main areas of cultivation. The objectives of this study were to (1) verify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for midstalk-rot resistance found in F3 families of the NDBLOSsel x CM625 population in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the same cross; (2) re-estimate their position and genetic effects; (3) draw inferences about the predictive quality of QTL for midstalk-rot resistance identified in the F3 families as compared to those in the RIL. Phenotypic data for three resistance (leaf lesion, stem lesion, and speed of fungal growth) and two morphological traits (leaf length and leaf length with petiole) were obtained from 317 RIL following artificial infection in field experiments across two environments. For genotyping the 248 RIL, we selected 41 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers based on their association with QTL for Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in an earlier study. The resistance traits showed intermediate to high heritabilities (0.51 < h2 <0.79) and were significantly correlated with each other (0.45 < rg < 0.78). Genotypic correlations between F3 families and the RIL were highly significant and ranged between 0.50 for leaf length and 0.64 for stem lesion. For stem lesion, two genomic regions on linkage group (LG) 8 and LG16 explaining 26.5% of the genotypic variance for Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance were consistent across generations. For this trait, the genotypic correlation between the observed performance and its prediction based on QTL positions and effects in F3 families was surprisingly high (rg(MiF3, YiRIL). The genetic effects and predictive quality of these two QTL are promising for application in marker-assisted selection to Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance. PMID:15841360

  20. Reactivity of Charcoal-Derived Water Soluble Biomarkers in River Water 

    E-print Network

    Norwood, Matthew 1985-

    2011-04-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the residence time of water-soluble levoglucosan and free lignin-derived phenols, from two different plant charcoals. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from honey mesquite and cordgrass charcoal...

  1. The effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing- 1227). The activated charcoal (AC) was an alternative additive tried by some beef operators in Japan

  2. Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal

    E-print Network

    Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

    2006-01-01

    In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

  3. White rot fungi laccases for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Laura L; Fonseca, María I; Giorgio, Martín; Zapata, Pedro D

    2010-06-01

    White rot fungi have an enzymatic system producing oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes that act on the degradation of certain components of the cell wall. They can be applied in several technological processes, such as paper industry, bio-fuels and environmental pollution. Laccases are multi-copper enzymes of wide substrate specificity and high non-specific oxidation capacity that use molecular oxygen to oxidize various aromatic compounds, and are highly relevant biotechnological applications. In this review, we present some significant patents on laccase production and recombinant DNA technology for diverse biotechnology applications. PMID:20550513

  4. Tomatoes: Irrigation Spacing Blossom-End Rot

    E-print Network

    Gerard, C. J.; Hipp, B. W.; Cowley, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    in growth and yield. The incidence of blossom-end rot on Chico ant 1 Chico Grande tomatoes seems to be highly related !u climatic stress. Chemical analyses showecl the fru!~ especially the distal end, to be low in Ca, high in I; I and to have a high K.... The typical chemical properties of Willacy loam soil are shown in Table 1. Harlingen Series: The influences of moisture levels and other factors on tomato production and BER on Harlingen clay were investigated from 1965 through 1969. This location...

  5. Evaluation of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, A.G.; Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. In this study, small coconut charcoal granules were utilized as the sorbent, and braze alloys and low temperature curing cements were used as the bonding agents for attachment to a copper support structure. Problems of scale-up of the bonding agent to a 40 cm diam panel were also investigated. Our results indicate that acceptable helium pumping performance of braze bonded and cement bonded charcoals can be achieved over the range of operating conditions expected in fusion reactors.

  6. Predicting the efficiency of activated charcoal for filtering radon

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E.; Christensen, R.N. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In order to accurately assess the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of radon from flowing air, a literature survey was performed to identify the models and relevant data that were available. It was found that by modifying the mathematical model of equilibrium stage theory used by Strong and Levins, the output rate of an activated charcoal filter exposed to a step function input in the radon rate at time zero with a given carrier gas flow velocity could be predicted. This paper outlines the modifications made to Strong and Levins's model and presents predictions for the filter output from the modified model.

  7. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in the German lowlands (e.g. Raab et al., 2015) and their potentially adverse effects on tree growth, these findings elucidate a yet unknown impact of past human activities on recent biological processes. Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., and Zech, W., 2001: The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften, 88, 37-41. Raab, A., Takla, M., Raab, T., Nicolay, A., Schneider, A., Rösler, H., Heußner, K.U., Bönisch, E., 2015. Pre-industrial charcoal production in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany): Detection and evaluation of a large charcoal-burning field by combining archaeological studies, GIS-based analyses of shaded-relief maps and dendrochronological age determination. Quaternary International, doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.09.041.

  8. Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables. PMID:23404399

  9. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure of Monilinia fructicola During Brown Rot Epidemics Within Individual Peach Tree Canopies.

    PubMed

    Everhart, S E; Scherm, H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the fine-scale genetic structure of populations of the brown rot pathogen Monilinia fructicola within individual peach tree canopies to better understand within-tree plant pathogen diversity and to complement previous work on spatiotemporal development of brown rot disease at the canopy level. Across 3 years in a total of six trees, we monitored disease development, collected isolates from every M. fructicola symptom during the course of the season, and created high-resolution three-dimensional maps of all symptom and isolate locations within individual canopies using an electromagnetic digitizer. Each canopy population (65 to 173 isolates per tree) was characterized using a set of 13 microsatellite markers and analyzed for evidence of spatial genetic autocorrelation among isolates during the epidemic phase of the disease. Results showed high genetic diversity (average uh = 0.529) and high genotypic diversity (average D = 0.928) within canopies. The percentage of unique multilocus genotypes within trees was greater for blossom blight isolates (78.2%) than for fruit rot isolates (51.3%), indicating a greater contribution of clonal reproduction during the preharvest epidemic. For fruit rot isolates, between 54.2 and 81.7% of isolates were contained in one to four dominant clonal genotypes per tree having at least 10 members. All six fruit rot populations showed positive and significant spatial genetic autocorrelation for distance classes between 0.37 and 1.48 m. Despite high levels of within-tree pathogen diversity, the contribution of locally available inoculum combined with short-distance dispersal is likely the main factor generating clonal population foci and associated spatial genetic clustering within trees. PMID:25317843

  10. Soil charcoal from the plains to tundra in the Colorado Front Range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Sanford; C. Licata

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the forests of the central Rockies, soil charcoal from Holocene wildfires has been produced in response to wildland natural fire regimes. The extent and spatial distribution of soil charcoal production is poorly documented in this region, especially with regard to forests and shrublands at different elevations. Soil charcoal is a super-passive C pool derived from woody biomass that can

  11. RECYCLE AND REUSE OF CHARCOAL MADE FROM EXCESS SLUDGE IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun

    Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

  12. Failure of activated charcoal to reduce the release of gases produced by the colonic flora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizis L Suarez; Julie Furne; John Springfield; Michael D Levitt

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Activated charcoal is used to treat excessive volume or malodor of intestinal gas. Our previous studies demonstrated that activated charcoal failed to bind appreciable quantities of the volumetrically important gut gases. However, the odor of feces and flatus derives primarily from trace quantities of sulfur-containing gases, primarily H2S and methanethiol, which should avidly bind to activated charcoal. The goal

  13. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER (PROJECT SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simu-lator was constructed and tested to de-termine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that pro-duced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile or-ganic ...

  14. Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration

    E-print Network

    Higuera, Philip E.

    Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration with tree manuscript accepted 5 February 2004 Abstract: Interpretations of charcoal records from small hollows lack-history records is unclear. To evaluate this potential, we examined charcoal records in 210 Pb-dated cores from 12

  15. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  16. Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland

    E-print Network

    Sanborn, Paul

    Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland temperate rainforest of 147 charcoal samples recovered from colluvial and alluvial fan deposits at 29 sites was used of charcoal in buried soils and slope deposits. Median time since fire was 467 cal. yr based on ages

  17. Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences

    E-print Network

    Asselin, Hugo

    Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences between Abstract To evaluate the influence of long-distance transport of charcoal particles on the detection of local wildfires from lake sediment sequences, we tracked three consecutive years of charcoal deposition

  18. Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Chapter 23 Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon Conversion Efficiencies of Kilns SN Swami, C Steiner, WG Teixeira, and J Lehmann 23.1 Introduction Charcoal 1999) and use of charcoal in agriculture is common in Brazil and widespread in Asia (Steiner et al

  19. Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire in the Swiss Alps Á Abstract: The correct interpretation of charcoal records in a palaeoecological context requires the understanding of the sources and transport of charcoal particles. Conventionally, it is assumed that macroscopic

  20. Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon-chromium steel under charcoal protection

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon- chromium steel under charcoal protection during-carbon-chromium bearing steel is often annealed in a sealed pot with a small amount of charcoal without physically contacting it. The charcoal is supposed to provide non-contact protection by simultaneously preventing

  1. Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence

    E-print Network

    Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence and area burned Montana State University, USA Abstract Reconstructing specific fire-history metrics with charcoal records has been difficult, in part because calibration data sets are rare.We calibrated charcoal accumulation

  2. Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal M. Moskal-del Hoyo a,*, M. Wachowiak b,1

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal M. Moskal-del Hoyo a,*, M. Wachowiak b,1 , R February 2010 Keywords: Wood charcoal Fungal attack Biodeterioration Deadwood collection Anthracology Archaeobotany a b s t r a c t During the analysis of wood charcoal remains from archaeological sites

  3. Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 17901809 Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal records

    E-print Network

    Higuera, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 1790­1809 Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal; received in revised form 15 March 2007; accepted 21 March 2007 Abstract Interpreting sediment-charcoal records is challenging because there is little information linking charcoal production from fires

  4. 5. CHARCOAL AS A FIRE PROXY CATHY WHITLOCK (whitlock@oregon.uoregon.edu)

    E-print Network

    Whitlock, Cathy L.

    5. CHARCOAL AS A FIRE PROXY CATHY WHITLOCK (whitlock@oregon.uoregon.edu) Department of Geography, SUNY Buffalo NY 14261-0023 USA Keywords: charcoal analysis, fire history, lake-sediment records Introduction Charcoal analysis of lake sediments is used to reconstruct long-term variations in fire occur

  5. Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    #12;Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological of charcoal kilns are numerous in the mountain forest areas, whether these are actual or potential, ali over the eastern Pyrenees and in particular in Ariege and in the Catalan mountains. Charcoal kilns can thus be used

  6. Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus"

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus" Johannes Lehmann1 * and Saran Sohi2 Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only

  7. Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments of Highly Weathered Soils and Amazonian

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    15 Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments of Highly Weathered Soils and Amazonian Dark Earths 14853, USA and Wolfgang Zech1 15.1 Introduction The abundance of charcoal and highly aromatic humic material (black carbon, pyrogenic carbon, charcoal) are a key factor for the persistence of soil organic

  8. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to the charcoal that is produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile organic co...

  9. Properties of charcoal derived from hazelnut shell and the production of briquettes using pyrolytic oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirba?

    1999-01-01

    Hazelnut shells were converted to charcoal and to liquid, and gaseous products using pyrolysis at different temperatures. The chemical compositions and yields of the charcoals were determined as functions of the carbonization temperature. Higher heating values (HHVs) were estimated using both ultimate and proximate analyses. Hazelnut shells and the derived charcoal were densified to briquettes using pyrolytic oil or tar

  10. Use of charcoal haemoperfusion in the management of severely poisoned patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Vale; A J Rees; B Widdop; R Goulding

    1975-01-01

    The clinical use of uncoated charcoal haemoperfusion systems, despite their efficacy, has hitherto been prevented by the occurrence of a number of adverse effects including charcoal embolism and marked thrombocytopenia. Charcoal coated with a synthetic hydrogel overcomes many of the disadvantages associated with the use of uncoated material in that there is a much reduced thrombocytopenia and no evidence of

  11. How to Collect Archaeological Wood and Charcoal for Dendrochronological (Tree-Ring) Analysis

    E-print Network

    Manning, Sturt

    1 How to Collect Archaeological Wood and Charcoal for Dendrochronological (Tree-Ring) Analysis and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University analyzes wood and charcoal from archaeological are fortunate enough to find wood or charcoal, we try to take a sample of every log available. Examples of two

  12. Adsorption of dysprosium ions on activated charcoal from aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riaz Qadeer; Javed Hanif

    1995-01-01

    The adsorption of dysprosium ions onto activated charcoal from aqueous solution has been investigated in relation to pertinent variables, such as shaking time, pH, concentration of dysprosium ions, and temperature. The conditions leading to maximum adsorption have been established. The adsorption of dysprosium ions obeys the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm equations. Thermodynamic quantities, namely AH and AS, have been

  13. Adsorption of salicylic acid onto polymeric adsorbents and activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Otero; Carlos A Grande; Alirio E Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a drug responsible for many cases of intoxication since it is present in many medications and prescription drugs such as aspirin. Activated charcoal is the most used adsorbent for the treatment of poisoning cases and also pharmaceutical wastewaters. The applicability of polymeric resins for the salicylic acid adsorption is the objective of this research work. The adsorptive

  14. Prehospital use of activated charcoal: A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Crockett; Scott J. Krishel; Anthony Manoguerra; Saralyn R. Williams; Richard F. Clark

    1996-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) is most effective when administered soon after the ingestion of certain substances. Delays are recognized to occur at times in the administration of AC after arrival of poisoned patients in the emergency department (ED). In addition, it has been recognized that these delays may be avoided if AC administration is begun in selected patients by paramedics while

  15. Incidence of aspiration pneumonia in intubated patients receiving activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Moll; William Kerns; Christian Tomaszewski; Rutherfoord Rose

    1999-01-01

    Several case reports and animal studies raise concerns over the risk of aspiration pneumonia when administering activated charcoal (AC) to intubated patients. Therefore, we sought to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in intubated overdose patients who then received AC. We conducted a retrospective review from January 1994 to April 1997 of intubated patients who then received AC. Patients were

  16. Evaluation of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping in fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert G. Tobin; D. W. Sedgley; T. H. Batzer; W. R. Call

    1987-01-01

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. In this study, small coconut charcoal granules were utilized as the sorbent, and braze alloys and low temperature curing cements were used as the bonding agents for attachment to a copper support structure. Problems of scale-up of the bonding agent to

  17. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  18. Experiments in waterlogging and sedimentology of charcoal: results and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Nichols; Jenny A. Cripps; Margaret E. Collinson; Andrew C. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Fossil charcoal has a sporadic occurrence in sedimentary rocks since Devonian time. It is moderately common as a component of the organic material found in a wide variety of facies, but there are also some notable concentrations which occur locally. These occurrences have considerable palaeobotanical and palaeoecological value because the process of charring may result in excellent preservation of plant

  19. Evaluating Waste Charcoal as Potential Rubber Composite Filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, charcoal in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural products was evaluated as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated styrene-butadiene lat...

  20. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING) - PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  1. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  2. Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Pigeon navigation: Charcoal filter removes relevant information from environmental air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans G. Wallraff; Augusto Foŕ

    1981-01-01

    Homing pigeons were displaced and kept until they were released in airtight containers ventilated with environmental air that could be passed through: (a) a filter made of fiberglass paper retaining large portions of the solid and liquid aerosol particles, (b) an additional filter consisting of activated charcoal, or (c) no filter (controls). Before its release, each bird was taken out

  4. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  5. Size parameters, size-class distribution and area-number relationship of microscopic charcoal: relevance for fire reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willy Tinner; Feng Sheng Hu

    2003-01-01

    Charcoal analysis was conducted on sediment cores from three lakes to assess the relationship between the area and number of charcoal particles. Three charcoal-size parameters (maximum breadth, maximum length and area) were measured on sediment samples representing various vegetation types, including shrub tundra, boreal forest and temperate forest. These parameters and charcoal size-class distributions do not differ statistically between two

  6. Charcoal accumulation following a recent fire in the Cascade Range, northwestern USA, and its relevance for fire-history studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. Gardner; Cathy Whitlock

    2001-01-01

    Stratigraphic records of macroscopic charcoal particles (>125 &mgr;m in diameter) are widely used as a means of reconstructing past fire events, yet fire-history studies rest on assumptions about the processes by which charcoal is transported and deposited in lake sediments. In order to clarify the interpretation of charcoal data, charcoal abundance in sediment cores was examined from 36 lakes within

  7. Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Tiwari, Rajesh K; Dhawan, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Collar rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed and capsule straw yield per plant, oil and protein content of seeds, peroxidase activity in leaves, morphine content of capsule straw and DSI for collar rot showed high heritability as well as genetic advance. Highly significant negative correlation between DSI and seed yield clearly shows that as the disease progresses in plants, seed yield declines, chiefly due to premature death of infected plants as well as low seed and capsule setting in the survived population of susceptible plants. Similarly, a highly significant negative correlation between peroxidase activity and DSI indicated that marker-assisted selection of disease-resistant plants based on high peroxidase activity would be effective and survived susceptible plants could be removed from the population to stop further spread. PMID:16424606

  8. Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: Application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James S.

    1988-07-01

    Results of stratigraphic charcoal analysis from thin sections of varved lake sediments have been compared with fire scars on red pine trees in northwestern Minnesota to determine if charcoal data accurately reflect fire regimes. Pollen and opaque-spherule analyses were completed from a short core to confirm that laminations were annual over the last 350 yr. A good correspondence was found between fossil-charcoal and fire-scar data. Individual fires could be identified as specific peaks in the charcoal curves, and times of reduced fire frequency were reflected in the charcoal data. Charcoal was absent during the fire-suppression era from 1920 A.D. to the present. Distinct charcoal maxima from 1864 to 1920 occurred at times of fire within the lake catchment. Fire was less frequent during the 19th century, and charcoal was substantially less abundant. Fire was frequent from 1760 to 1815, and charcoal was abundant continuously. Fire scars and fossil charcoal indicate that fires did not occur during 1730-1750 and 1670-1700. Several fires occurred from 1640 to 1670 and 1700 to 1730. Charcoal counted from pollen preparations in the area generally do not show this changing fire regime. Simulated "sampling" of the thin-section data in a fashion comparable to pollen-slide methods suggests that sampling alone is not sufficient to account for differences between the two methods. Integrating annual charcoal values in this fashion still produced much higher resolution than the pollen-slide method, and the postfire suppression decline of charcoal characteristic of my method (but not of pollen slides) is still evident. Consideration of the differences in size of fragments counted by the two methods is necessary to explain charcoal representation in lake sediments.

  9. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR) is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20?%, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM) is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM) that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P?

  10. Achievements and challenges in legume breeding for pest and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield stability of legume crops is constrained by a number of pest and diseases. Major diseases are rusts, powdery and downy mildews, ascochyta blight, botrytis gray molds, anthracnoses, damping-off, root rots, collar rot, vascular wilts and white mold. Parasitic weeds, viruses, bacteria, nematodes ...

  11. Degradation of the Fluoroquinolone Enrofloxacin by Wood-Rotting Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAINER MARTENS; HEINZ-GEORG WETZSTEIN; FRANTISEK ZADRAZIL; MARINA CAPELARI; PETER HOFFMANN; ANDNORBERT SCHMEER

    1996-01-01

    The veterinary fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin was degraded in vitro by four species of wood-rotting fungi growing on wetted wheat straw containing carbonyl-14C-labeled drug. A maximum 14CO2 production of 17% per week was observed with the brown rot fungusGloeophyllum striatum, resulting in up to 53% after 8 weeks. However, rates reached at most 0.2 and 0.9% per week, if enrofloxacin was preadsorbed

  12. A biological control study of Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton

    E-print Network

    Freedman, Jerome Abraham

    1982-01-01

    A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL STUDY OF PHYMATOTRICHUM ROOT ROT OF COTTON A Thesis by JEROME ABRAHAM FREEDMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1982 Major Subject: Plant Pathology A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL STUDY OF PHYMATOTRICHUM ROOT ROT OF COTTON A Thesis by JEROME ABRAHAM FREEDMAN Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of Department...

  13. Root rot in Campanula carpatica caused by Phytophthora cryptogea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten Thinggaard

    1995-01-01

    This is the first record of root rot inCampanula carpatica as well as in the genus ofCampanula caused byPhytophthora cryptogea. An attack was observed in potted plants grown in a greenhouse on ebb- and flow benches and with recirculation of the nutrient solution. The fungus caused wilting of the leaves together with discoloration and rotting of the roots. Pathogenicity tests

  14. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The result of the current study suggests the superiority of our integrated approach to control the sclerotia forming pathogen R. solani compared to the individual treatment either by an antagonist or by a fungicide or by mustard oil cake. PMID:25595298

  15. A guanylyl cyclase-like gene is associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance in maize ( Zea mays L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yuan; M. Liakat Ali; J. Taylor; J. Liu; G. Sun; W. Liu; P. Masilimany; A. Gulati-Sakhuja; K. P. Pauls

    2008-01-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in northern climates. The infected maize grain contains toxins that are very harmful to livestock and humans. A\\u000a maize gene that encodes a putative 267-amino acid guanylyl cyclase-like protein (ZmGC1) was characterized and shown to be\\u000a associated with resistance

  16. ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

  17. Release of SR98 Sugarbeet Germplasm with High Levels of Resistance to Rhizoctonia Damping-Off, Crown and Root Rot, and Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SR98 (PI 655951) is a sugarbeet germplasm with smooth, low soil tare root and high levels of resistance to damping-off and crown and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG2-2). Previous smooth–root releases have been highly susceptible to diseases caused by R. solani, and the SR98 has incorporate...

  18. The Impact of Media Reporting on the Emergence of Charcoal Burning Suicide in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Gunnell, David; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning suicide with the incidence of such deaths in Taiwan during 1998–2002. A counting process approach was used to estimate the incidence of suicides and intensity of news reporting. Conditional Poisson generalized linear autoregressive models were performed to assess the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides with the actual number of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides the following day. We found that increases in the reporting of charcoal burning suicide were associated with increases in the incidence of charcoal burning suicide on the following day, with each reported charcoal burning news item being associated with a 16% increase in next day charcoal burning suicide (p<.0001). However, the reporting of other methods of suicide was not related to their incidence. We conclude that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicides appears to have contributed to the rapid rise in the incidence of the novel method in Taiwan during the initial stage of the suicide epidemic. Regulating media reporting of novel suicide methods may prevent an epidemic spread of such new methods. PMID:23383027

  19. Taxonomy and phylogenetic position of Fomitiporia torreyae, a causal agent of trunk rot on Sanbu-sugi, a cultivar of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yuko; Hattori, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Terashima, Yoshie; Lee, Su-See; Miyuki, Yurika; Sotome, Kozue

    2014-01-01

    Trunk rot poses a substantial threat to Sanbu-sugi, one of the most economically important cultivars of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica). The etiology of this disease, including its main agents, is incompletely known. This trunk rot was attributed to Fomitiporia (Phellinus) hartigii or F. (Phellinus) punctata. Here we phylogenetically analyzed DNA sequences of four markers from a set of strains isolated from trunk-rot symptoms and recovered a single, monophyletic clade, indicating that a single taxon is involved. This clade was identified as Fomitiporia torreyae, a species described from eastern China. This analysis also proved that trunk rot and/or dieback of other conifers and broadleaf trees, including Sawara cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera), Japanese umbrella pine (Sciadopitys verticillata) and Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta), were caused by the same species. The phylogenetic approach to Fomitiporia revealed that the F. torreyae clade was closely related to F. bannaensis but clearly distinct from F. punctata, which originally was thought to be the cause of trunk rot in Sanbu-sugi. Fomitiporia torreyae is redescribed on the basis of more than 40 specimens from multiple hosts from Japan and China. Fomitiporia juniperina comb. nov. is proposed. PMID:24396106

  20. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y.; Liu, J.; Martens, K.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D.; Yamashita, M.; Hosokawa, K.; Murata, A.; Otsuka, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kusaba, F.; Motoki, D.; Nishijima, K.; Tasaka, S.; Fujii, K.; Murayama, I.; Nakamura, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Nishitani, Y.; Takiya, H.; Uchida, H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, J. S.; Xmass Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity vRn of radon and vXe of xenon in the trap with vRn/vXe=(0.96±0.10)×10-3 at -85 °C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  1. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  2. The charcoal effect in Boreal forests: mechanisms and ecological consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Wardle; O. Zackrisson; M.-C. Nilsson

    1998-01-01

    Wildfire is the principal disturbance regime in northern Boreal forests, where it has important rejuvenating effects on soil\\u000a properties and encourages tree seedling regeneration and growth. One possible agent of this rejuvenation is fire-produced\\u000a charcoal, which adsorbs secondary metabolites such as humus phenolics produced by ericaceous vegetation in the absence of\\u000a fire, which retard nutrient cycling and tree seedling growth.

  3. Adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad J. Iqbal; Muhammad N. Ashiq

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption of industrially important dyes namely bromophenol blue, alizarine red-S, methyl blue, methylene blue, eriochrome black-T, malachite green, phenol red and methyl violet from aqueous media on activated charcoal has been investigated. The effect of shaking time, pH and temperature on the adsorption behaviour of these dyes has been studied. It was noted that adsorption of all the dyes on

  4. Apparatus for converting paper mill waste sludge into charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1993-08-31

    In apparatus for the production of charcoal from a mixture of wood and waste sludge from a paper mill, the apparatus is described comprising: (a) a furnace having an inlet for the reception of wood; a chimney for the release of hot gases from the furnace, and an outlet for charcoal; (b) a grinding mill having an inlet for the reception of the waste sludge and an outlet for ground sludge; (c) a cyclone separator having an inlet, a gaseous outlet and an outlet for solids; (d) a system of conduits inter-connecting said furnace, said cyclone separator, and said grinding mill in which hot gases from said furnace chimney are conducted to said grinding mill for initiating the drying of the waste sludge, the gases and ground waste sludge are conducted to said cyclone separator inlet for the separation of the gases from the ground waste sludge; and said system further including (e) blower means having an inlet connected to said cyclone separator gaseous outlet for effecting the movement of the hot furnace gases through said grinding mill, and said blower having an outlet for returning the gases to said furnace; (f) ground waste sludge conveying means connected between said cyclone separator and said furnace for depositing the ground waste sludge in said furnace; and (g) conveying means connected to said furnace outlet for removing the charcoal generated in said furnace.

  5. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. PMID:25560914

  6. QTL mapping of Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Micic, Z; Hahn, V; Bauer, E; Schön, C C; Knapp, S J; Tang, S; Melchinger, A E

    2004-11-01

    In many sunflower-growing regions of the world, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is the major disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in resistance to S. sclerotiorum midstalk rot and two morphological traits. A total of 351 F3 families developed from a cross between a resistant inbred line from the germplasm pool NDBLOS and the susceptible line CM625 were assayed for their parental F2 genotype at 117 codominant simple sequence repeat markers. Disease resistance of the F3 families was screened under artificial infection in field experiments across two sowing times in 1999. For the three resistance traits (leaf lesion, stem lesion, and speed of fungal growth) and the two morphological traits, genotypic variances were highly significant. Heritabilities were moderate to high (h2=0.55-0.89). Genotypic correlations between resistance traits were highly significant (P<0.01) but moderate. QTL were detected for all three resistance traits, but estimated effects at most QTL were small. Simultaneously, they explained between 24.4% and 33.7% of the genotypic variance for resistance against S. sclerotiorum. Five of the 15 genomic regions carrying a QTL for either of the three resistance traits also carried a QTL for one of the two morphological traits. The prospects of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to S. sclerotiorum are limited due to the complex genetic architecture of the trait. MAS can be superior to classical phenotypic selection only with low marker costs and fast selection cycles. PMID:15480534

  7. Charcoal production from wood and cellulose: implications to radiocarbon dates and accelerator target production

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, S.W.; Donahue, D.J.; Long, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the direct pyrolysis of wood (Juniperus monosperma) in vacuo, charcoal yields between 25% and 40% were obtained at temperatures of greater than 300 degrees C in runs of 35 minutes, and /sup 13/C fractionation as determined from the difference between the delta/sup 13/C of the wood and charcoal amounted to approximately -2.5%. Pyrolysis of holocellulose (I) to charcoal in vacuo or in a flowing Ar atm. resulted in the production of charcoal in a yield between 25% and 40% and /sup 13/C fractionation of 0.6-0.8%. Experiments on pyrolysis of I in sealed, evacuated tubes indicated that the charcoal yields of less than or equal to 60% and fractionation of approximately -0.5% were obtained at temperatures of 550-600 degrees C. Reheating of charcoal under the vacuum revealed no loss of mass and no alteration of C isotopic composition.

  8. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  9. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  10. Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

  11. Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments and Fertilization of a Highly Weathered Tropical Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JJ Birk; C Steiner; WC Teixiera; W Zech; B Glaser

    Charcoal is a major component of stable SOM in terras pretas alsocalled Amazonian Dark Earths (Glaser et al. 2001a, b; Glaser 2007). Apart from charcoal, special microbes could contribute\\u000a to the formation of the highlystable SOM in terra preta (Woods and McCann 1999). However, this is stillmatter of speculation. There could be a link between the high amounts of charcoal

  12. Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

    2006-01-01

    Charcoal has numerous physical and chemical properties that allow it to influence a variety of ecological processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate how several ecological properties of charcoal vary as a function of formation temperature and the source of woody material from which it is formed in ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa\\/Psuedotsuga menziesii) ecosystems. We generated charcoal in

  13. Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics of Pullets Fed Activated Sheabutter Charcoal Based Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    2 Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the growth performance, nutrient utilization, egg quality characteristics and cost-benefit values of feeding different levels activated sheabutter tree charcoal to laying pullets. Five experimental diets supplemented with activated sheabutter charcoal were formulated to contain 0.0 (control), 10.0, 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0% levels of the charcoal. A total of 150 day-old pullets were

  14. Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon Conversion Efficiencies of Kilns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SN Swami; C Steiner; WG Teixeira; J Lehmann

    Charcoal production worldwide is increasing for energy use in households and industry, but it is often regarded as an unsustainable\\u000a practice and is linked to agricultural frontiers (Prado 2000). The production (Coomes and Burt 1999) and use of charcoal in\\u000a agriculture is common in Brazil and widespread in Asia (Steiner et al. 2004).\\u000a \\u000a The efficiency of biomass conversion into charcoal

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Pennise; Kirk R. Smith; Jacob P. Kithinji; Maria Emilia Rezende; Tulio Jardim Raad; Junfeng Zhang; Chengwei Fan

    2001-01-01

    Airborne emissions from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in Kenya and Brazil were measured during typical operating conditions. Emission factors were determined for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total nonmethane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total suspended particulates (TSP) along with charcoal production efficiency and charcoal and fuelwood carbon and energy contents. The conversion of

  16. Soybean fungal soil-borne diseases: a parameter for measuring the effect of agricultural intensification on soil health.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Brandán, C; Huidobro, J; Grümberg, B; Scandiani, M M; Luque, A G; Meriles, J M; Vargas-Gil, S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of agricultural intensification on soil microbial diversity, chemical and physical parameters, and the decrease of the incidence of sudden death syndrome (Fusarium crassistipitatum) and charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) in soybean. Soils under different management systems were evaluated during 2 crop cycles: soybean monoculture for 24 and 11 years, soybean-maize rotation for 15 and 4 years, 1 year of soybean, and native vegetation. The incidence of both soil-borne diseases was higher under monoculture than under rotation. Increased populations of potential biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp., fluorescent pseudomonads) were associated with rotation treatments, especially in 2010-2011. The comparison of agricultural vs. native vegetation soil and the average of agricultural cycles showed that microbial biomass carbon and glomalin-related soil protein were higher in the rotation system than in monoculture (50% and 77%, respectively). Furthermore, from the community-level functional diversity (Biolog Eco plates), McIntosh index showed lower functional diversity in monoculture than in rotation and native vegetation plots. Agricultural intensification reduced microbial biomass carbon, glomalin-related soil protein, organic matter, total nitrogen, aggregate stability, and yield, and increased bulk density. Soil quality degradation was associated with the establishment of soil-borne pathogens and increased soybean plant susceptibility to disease. PMID:24498984

  17. XIII IUFRO Conference on "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees"

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    XIII IUFRO Conference on "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees" September 4th ­ 10th 2011 Firenze ­ S of Forestry Research Organization, Working Party 7.02.01 "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees" scientific

  18. Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

  19. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...

  20. Relationships among charcoal particles from modern lacustrine sediments and remotely sensed fire events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Pérez, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of charcoal particles from lacustrine sediments is a useful tool to understand fire regimes through time, and their relationships with climate and vegetation. However, the extent of the relationship between charcoal particles and their origin in terms of the spatial and temporal extent of the fire events is poorly known in the tropics. Modern sediments were collected from lakes in the Yucatan Peninsula and Central Mexico, 51 and 22 lakes respectively, to analyze their charcoal concentration and its relationships with modern fire events. Number of modern fire events was derived from the public source Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) for concentric spatial rings that ranged from 1 to 30 km of radius. The association between charcoal and fires was evaluated through the construction of linear models to explain charcoal concentration as a function of the number of fires recorded. Additionally, charcoal particles were stratified according to size to determine the association between fire distance and charcoal size classes. The relationship between total charcoal concentration and fire events was stronger for central Mexico than for the Yucatan Peninsula, which is probably the result of differences in vegetation cover. The highest determination coefficients were obtained for charcoal particle sizes ranging between 0.2 and 0.8 mm2, and for fire event distances of between 0 and 15 km from the lake. Overall, the analyses presented here offer useful tools to quantitatively and spatially reconstruct past regional fire dynamics in Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.

  1. Recovery and Determination of Adsorbed Technetium on Savannah River Site Charcoal Stack Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, Kristy G.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Farmer, Orville T.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2008-03-01

    Experimental results are provided for the sample analyses for technetium (Tc) in charcoal samples placed in-line with a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing stack effluent stream as a part of an environmental surveillance program. The method for Tc removal from charcoal was based on that originally developed with high purity charcoal. Presented is the process that allowed for the quantitative analysis of 99Tc in SRS charcoal stack samples with and without 97Tc as a tracer. The results obtained with the method using the 97Tc tracer quantitatively confirm the results obtained with no tracer added. All samples contain 99Tc at the pg g-1 level.

  2. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  3. Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

  4. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 2; The effect of contaminants on the CH sub 3 I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Research Co., Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Research Chemistry Branch Pinawa, Manitob, R0E 1L0 (CA))

    1991-05-01

    The effect of various contaminants, namely NO{sub 2} SO{sub 2}, 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)), and NH{sub 3}, on the radioiodine removal efficiency of triethylenediamine (TEDA)-impregnated charcoal filters has been studied, and an attempt was made to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The effects of the contaminants on the CH{sub 3}I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal under dry and humid conditions are described. Based on our results, the efficiency of TEDA charcoal is degraded most by NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} has a negligible effect, and MEK produces a mild degradation. The degree of degradation parallels the contaminant's ability to be chemisorbed on the TEDA impregnant. The combined effect of water vapor and a contaminant of the charcoal efficiency is different for each contaminant. Nitrogen dioxide absorbed under dry conditions is more effective in degrading the CH{sub 2}I removal efficiency of the charcoal that when absorbed under humid conditions. On the other hand, a completely opposite result is observed for SO{sub 2}. The MEK contaminant behaves similarly to SO{sub 2} but the effect of humidity was less significant than for SO{sub 2}. Ammonia has no effect on the efficiency of the charcoal regardless of humidity.

  5. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Lincon Rafael; da Silva, Renan César Dias; Cardoso, Atalita Francis; de Mello Pelá, Gláucia; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots). Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line), spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m2. Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS), and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS) in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha) and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha) being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot. PMID:26060437

  6. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lincon Rafael; da Silva, Renan César Dias; Cardoso, Atalita Francis; de Mello Pelá, Gláucia; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots). Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line), spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m(2). Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS), and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS) in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha) and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha) being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot. PMID:26060437

  7. Identification of Some Charcoal-Black-Pigmented CDC Fermentative Coryneform Group 4 Isolates as Rothia dentocariosa and Some as Corynebacterium aurimucosum: Proposal of Rothia dentocariosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam I. Daneshvar; Dannie G. Hollis; Robbin S. Weyant; Jean G. Jordan; John P. MacGregor; Roger E. Morey; Anne M. Whitney; Don J. Brenner; Arnold G. Steigerwalt; Leta O. Helsel; Patti M. Raney; Jean B. Patel; Paul N. Levett; June M. Brown

    Sixty-three clinical isolates of charcoal-black-pigmented, gram-positive coryneform rods were received for identification by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and were provisionally designated CDC fermentative coryneform group 4 (FCG4). Forty-five of these were characterized by morphological, physiologic, antimicrobial susceptibility, cellular fatty acids, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Nitrate reduction, cellular fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA

  8. A guanylyl cyclase-like gene is associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Liakat Ali, M; Taylor, J; Liu, J; Sun, G; Liu, W; Masilimany, P; Gulati-Sakhuja, A; Pauls, K P

    2008-02-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in northern climates. The infected maize grain contains toxins that are very harmful to livestock and humans. A maize gene that encodes a putative 267-amino acid guanylyl cyclase-like protein (ZmGC1) was characterized and shown to be associated with resistance to this disease. The putative ZmGC1 amino acid sequence is 53% identical and 65% similar to AtGC1, an Arabidopsis guanylyl cyclase. The Zmgc1 coding sequence is nearly identical in a Gibberella ear rot-resistant line (CO387) and a susceptible line (CG62) but several nucleotide sequence differences were observed in the UTRs and introns of the two alleles. Using a 463 bp probe derived from the CG62 allele of Zmgc1 and a recombinant inbred (RI) mapping population developed from a CG62 x CO387 cross, six Zmgc1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fragments (ER1_1, ER1_2, ER1_3, ER1_4, ER1_5, and ER5_1) were mapped on maize chromosomes 2, 3, 7, and 8. Markers ER1_1 and ER5_1 on chromosomes 7 and 8, respectively, were significantly associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance, each in three different environments. The amount of Zmgc1 transcript in ear tissues increased more quickly and to a greater extent in the resistant genotype compared to the susceptible genotype after inoculation with F. graminearum. Zmgc1 is the first guanylyl cyclase gene characterized in maize and the first gene found to be associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance in this plant. PMID:18074115

  9. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications 18 January 2010 Keywords: biomass burning carbon cycle charcoal black carbon climate human impact and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after thermal and chemical oxidative treatments

  10. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 PEANUT DISEASE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    diseases such as Cylindrocladium, Aspergillus crown rot, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia. Vitavax PC (Captan. This is true for soil diseases such as white mold and Rhizoctonia limbrot, as well as leaf spot on the foliage

  11. BEET ROOT-ROT INDUCING ISOLATES OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM FROM COLORADO AND MONTANA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, a rot of the root top of sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum has been confirmed only in Texas, USDA, to date. Isolates of Fusarium were obtained from beets with tip rot symptoms from Montana and Colorado. Isolates were identified and tested for pathogenicity on sugar beet. ...

  12. Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Pär R.; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E. T.

    2013-01-01

    Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria. PMID:23781227

  13. Monitoring radioactive xenon gas in room air using activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, J.; Thompson, G. (Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth (Australia) Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia))

    1990-03-01

    A method for monitoring room air for radioactive xenon gas is described. It uses activated charcoal vials, a vacuum source and a well-type scintillation counter. The method may be adapted for detection and identification of any radioactive gas excluding those with ultra-short half-lives. Sampling room air during xenon-133 ({sup 133}Xe) ventilation lung studies was performed using this technique. The results show that low concentrations of {sup 133}Xe in room air can be reliably detected and that staff exposure to {sup 133}Xe at this institution was within ICRP recommendations.

  14. Uncertainty evaluation in radon concentration measurement using charcoal canister.

    PubMed

    Panteli?, G; Savkovi?, M Eremi?; Zivanovi?, M; Nikoli?, J; Raja?i?, M; Todorovi?, D

    2014-05-01

    Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. The contributions to the final measurement uncertainty are identi?ed, based on the equation for radon activity concentration calculation. Different methods for setting the region of interest for gamma spectrometry of canisters were discussed and evaluated. The obtained radon activity concentration and uncertainties do not depend on peak area determination method. PMID:24444699

  15. The effect of charcoal tube geometry on breakthrough volume 

    E-print Network

    Strange, Jay B.

    1989-01-01

    Volumes for the 2, 4 and 6 mm Charcoal Tubes Tube Diameter (mm I. D. ) Ave. Breakthrough Volume (cc) 6792 5793 4890 A reason for the 2 mm tube having the larger breakthrough volume may be the difference in pressure needed to achieve the same... at the 1500 ppm Acetone Concentration and the Fisher's LSD Number Tube Diameter (mm I. D. ) Ave. Breakthrough Volume (cc) Differences in Ave. Breakthrough Vol. (cc) 4916 4172 3174 744 998 Fisher's LSD = 236. 07 32 TABLE 3 Average Breakthrough...

  16. Flowrate effects upon adsorption in a charcoal sampling tube 

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Fredric Newell

    1984-01-01

    to a wide variety of chemical agents. Materials used as solid sorbents include activated charcoal, silica gel, and porous polymers, among others. In field sampling, these sorbents are generally found as a supported packing or bed within a glass tube... was 1 liter per minute. A "standard sample volume" of 10 liters was recommended. (16) In the following year, 1965, VanMourik reported his experience using silica gel as an adsorbent for a number of solvents. In (17) that study, a flowrate of 2. 5...

  17. The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Underhill, D.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Texas Root Rot of Cotton and Methods of its Control. 

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Killough, D. T. (David Thornton)

    1923-01-01

    carriers, and on the life history of the causal organism. 20. Crop rotation may control Texas root rot if clean culture is practiced and all winter carriers are destroyed. 21. Crop rotation has failed to control Texas root rot wherever absolute clean... and exposed to drying and to the effect of weather for three or four weeks and then worked under. 38. Control methods can be successful only if based on a thorough knowledge of the life history of the causal organism. 39. Control methods should consist...

  19. Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by wood-rotting fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, R; Wetzstein, H G; Zadrazil, F; Capelari, M; Hoffmann, P; Schmeer, N

    1996-01-01

    The veterinary fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin was degraded in vitro by four species of wood-rotting fungi growing on wetted wheat straw containing carbonyl-14C-labeled drug. A maximum 14CO2 production of 17% per week was observed with the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum, resulting in up to 53% after 8 weeks. However, rates reached at most 0.2 and 0.9% per week, if enrofloxacin was preadsorbed to native or gamma ray-sterilized soil, respectively. PMID:8900012

  20. Control of Cotton Root Rot by Sweetclover in Rotation.

    E-print Network

    Hargrove, B.D.; Hill, H.O.; Dunlap, A.A.; Lyle, E. W. (Eldon W.)

    1948-01-01

    $ .- TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. Lewis, Director C6llege Station, Texas BULLETIN 699 JULY 1948 Control of Cotton Root Rot by Sweetclover in Rotation E. W. LYLE, A. A. DUNLAP, H. 0. HILL and B. D. HARGROVE fi ~9 l~sh - qy2... and the organic matter of the soil. Experiences of some farmers, soil-fertility demonstrations and pre- liminary experiments have indicated that losses from root rot may be reduced following rota tion of cotton with certain legume crops. The use oE replicated...

  1. Relation of Soil Acidity to Cotton Root Rot

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1937-01-01

    No . 1 2 7 8 9 10 15 16 17 18 -- 19 20 21 22 23 24 29 30 31 32 33 34 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 63 51 52 53 54 various soils, adjusted by additions of lime or csf acid. -- pH 0-2 feet 1931 5.7 5.8 7.7 7...- Sufficient acid to change the soil to approximately pH 5.2-5.5 (boxes 15 and 16), however, eradicated root rot by the end of the first year following inoculation; that is, root rot overwintered once but not a second time. Greater acidification, changing...

  2. Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Lu, Xing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Haiyan; Pan, Ruqian; Tian, Jiang; Li, Shuxian; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. Principal Findings We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. Conclusions Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils. PMID:22442737

  3. Improved control of anthracnose rot in loquat fruit by a combination treatment of Pichia membranifaciens with CaCl(2).

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Zheng, Yonghua; Tang, Shuangshuang; Wang, Kaituo

    2008-08-15

    The beneficial effect of 2% CaCl(2) (w/v) on the antagonistic yeast Pichia membranifaciens for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in postharvest loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica L.) and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. The results showed that treatment with P. membranifaciens at 1x10(8) CFU ml(-1) or 2% CaCl(2) alone both resulted in significantly smaller lesion diameter and lower disease incidence of anthracnose rot on loquat fruit wounds compared with the controls. The biocontrol activity of P. membranifaciens on the disease was enhanced by the addition of 2% CaCl(2), the combined treatment of P. membranifaciens with CaCl(2) resulted in a remarkably improved control of the disease in comparison with the treatment of P. membranifaciens or CaCl(2) alone. P. membranifaciens in combination with CaCl(2) induced higher activities of two defense-related enzymes chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase in loquat fruit than applying the yeast or CaCl(2) alone. The in vitro experiment showed that the addition of 2% CaCl(2) in the suspensions of P. membranifaciens significantly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of C. acutatum than the yeast or CaCl(2) alone. However, adding CaCl(2) did not significantly influence the population of P. membranifaciens in NYDB medium or fruit wounds. These results suggest that CaCl(2) could improve the biocontrol activity of P. membranifaciens on anthracnose rot in loquat fruit. It is postulated that the improved control of the disease is directly because of the higher inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and indirectly because of the enhanced disease resistance in loquat fruit by the combination treatment. PMID:18590937

  4. Title: The affect of irrigation rate on peanut pod rot. Cooperators: Terry Wheeler, Dana Porter, Mike Schubert, Vijay Kumar Choppakatla

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Title: The affect of irrigation rate on peanut pod rot. Cooperators: Terry Wheeler, Dana Porter between irrigation rate in 2002 (50, 75, and 100 % ET) and pod rot at harvest? 2) Was there an impact of the amount of pod rot from the previous year on pod rot in 2002? 3) How did irrigation rate and fungicide

  5. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Kharbat, E.; Goplakrishnan, C.

    1992-12-01

    Digital image processing, is employed in this remarch study in order to visually investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated char/coal particles as well as the effect of interactivecombustion in two-particle char/coal arrays. Preliminary experiments are conducted on miniature isolated candles as well as two-candle arrays.

  6. Understanding the Impact of Charcoal Inputs to Soils and Sediments on Conventional Geochemical Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Kuo; P. Louchouarn; B. Herbert

    2008-01-01

    Chars\\/charcoals are solid combustion residues derived from biomass burning. They represent one of the major classes in the pyrogenic organic residues, the so-called black carbon (BC), and have highly heterogeneous nature due to the highly variable combustion conditions during biomass burning. More and more attention has been given to characterize and quantify the inputs of charcoals to different environmental compartments

  7. Reduction of absorption of digoxin, phenytoin and aspirin by activated charcoal in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Neuvonen; S. M. Elfving; E. Elonen

    1978-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of activated charcoal 50 g suspended in water on the absorption of digoxin, phenytoin and aspirin was studied in six healthy volunteers in a cross-over manner. The absorption of digoxin and phenytoin were almost completely prevented (about 98%) when activated charcoal was ingested immediately after the drug. The total absorption of aspirin was inhibited by 70%, with

  8. Improved culture ability of potato protoplasts by use of activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Carlberg; K. Glimelius; T. Eriksson

    1983-01-01

    Protoplasts were obtained from in vitro grown plants of Solanum tuberosum L. The protoplasts were cultured in X-plate petri dishes with the culture medium joined to a reservoirmedium. When activated charcoal was added to the reservoirmedium the culture ability of the protoplasts was significantly increased. The effect of activated charcoal was mainly due to a less pronounced browning of the

  9. Removal of serum factors by charcoal treatment promotes adipogenesis via a MAPK-dependent pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. C. Dang; C. W. G. M. Lowik

    2005-01-01

    In vitro differentiation of the progenitor cells or preadipocytes into adipocytes is usually achieved by adding an adipogenic mixture (isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin, IDI) to medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). To study the effects of steroid hormones invitro, endogenous hormones, growth factors and cytokines are removed by charcoal stripping of serum. However, the effects of charcoal-stripped serum (CS-FBS)

  10. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2?h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

  11. Comparison of charcoal and tree-ring records of recent fires in the eastern Klamath Mountains,

    E-print Network

    Whitlock, Cathy L.

    -severity crown fires. Tree-ring and charcoal data span- ning the last 300 years in four watersheds in the montaneComparison of charcoal and tree-ring records of recent fires in the eastern Klamath Mountains Abstract: Fire-history reconstructions are based on tree-ring records that span the last few centuries

  12. Effects of providing dietary wood (oak) charcoal to broiler chicks and laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Ilknur Ünsal; Murat Görgülü

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to determine whether dietary wood (oak) charcoal applied during entire or phase feeding period would affect growth performance, abdominal fat weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass composition and nutrient excretion of broilers and to determine whether dietary wood charcoal supplementation would affect laying performance and egg quality of laying hens. In the first experiment, different

  13. Sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron in soils amended with charcoal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2006-11-01

    Charcoal derived from the partial combustion of vegetation is ubiquitous in soils and sediments and can potentially sequester organic contaminants. To examine the role of charcoal in the sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron pesticide in soil, synthetic charcoals were produced through carbonization of red gum (Eucalyptus spp.) wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (referred to as charcoals BC450 and BC850, respectively, in this paper). Pore size distribution analyses revealed that BC850 contained mainly micropores (pores approximately 0.49 nm mean width), whereas BC450 was essentially not a microporous material. Short-term equilibration (< 24 h) tests were conducted to measure sorption and desorption of diuron in a soil amended with various amounts of charcoals of both types. The sorption coefficients, isotherm nonlinearity, and apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis markedly increased with increasing content of charcoal in the soil, more prominently in the case of BC850, presumably due to the presence of micropores and its relatively higher specific surface area. The degree of apparent sorption-desorption hystersis (hysteresis index) showed a good correlation with the micropore volume of the charcoal-amended soils. This study indicates that the presence of small amounts of charcoal produced at high temperatures (e.g., interior of wood logs during a fire) in soil can have a marked effect on the release behavior of organic compounds. Mechanisms of this apparent hysteretic behavior need to be further investigated. PMID:17061832

  14. Differential sorption behaviour of aromatic hydrocarbons on charcoals prepared at different temperatures from grass and wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludger C. Bornemann; Rai S. Kookana; Gerhard Welp

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring charcoals are increasingly being recognized as effective sorbents for organic compounds. In this study we investigated the sorption of benzene and toluene in single-sorbate and bi-sorbate systems on different types of charcoals produced in laboratory, employing the batch sorption technique. Air dried plant materials from Phalaris grass (Phalaris tuberosa) and Red Gum wood (Eucalyptus camadulensis) were combusted under

  15. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997September 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lemieux

    1999-01-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions

  16. A clean, efficient system for producing Charcoal, Heat and Power (CHaP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Syred; A. J. Griffiths; N. Syred; D. Beedie; D. James

    2006-01-01

    There is a strong domestic and industrial market for charcoal in the UK and is still used in many developing countries for cooking and heating as well as for many industrial applications. It is usually made in small-scale simple kilns that are very damaging to the environment, very inefficient and labour intensive. The Charcoal, Heat and Power (CHaP) process offers

  17. Soil Charcoal in Old-Growth Rain Forests from Sea Level to the Continental Divide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beyhan Titiz; Robert L. Sanford Jr

    2007-01-01

    Soil charcoal is an indicator of Holocene fires as well as a palaeoecological signature of pre-Colombian land use in Neotropical rain forests. To document rain forest fire history, we examined soil charcoal patterns in continuous old-growth forests along an elevational transect from sea level to the continental divide on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. At 10 elevations we sampled

  18. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

  19. A simple method for microtome sectioning of prehistoric charcoal specimens, embedded in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Igersheim; O. Cichocki

    1996-01-01

    A simple method for microtome sectioning of prehistoric charcoal, embedded in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, HEMA (= glycol methacrylate, GMA), is described in detail. Procedures for dehydrating, embedding, polymerization and sectioning are, with the exception of some modifications due to the specific texture of charcoal and the relatively large size of the specimens, identical with those used for recent botanical specimens. The

  20. Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

  1. Comparison of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in prevention of drug absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Neuvonen; M. Vartiainen; O. Tokola

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in the prevention of drug absorption was studied in 6 healthy adult volunteers, using a randomized, cross-over design. Paracetamol 1000 mg, tetracycline 500 mg and aminophylline 350 mg were ingested on an empty stomach with 100 ml water. Then, after 5 or 30 min, the subjects ingested, either activated charcoal suspension (50

  2. Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

    1991-08-01

    The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

  3. ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM CHARCOAL LIGHTER FLUID AND REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. ...

  4. Effect of activated charcoal on absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone, carbamazepine and phenylbutazone in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Neuvonen; E. Elonen

    1980-01-01

    The effect of activated charcoal, given as a water suspension, on the absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone 200 mg, carbamazepine 400 mg and phenylbutazone 200 mg, was studied in five healthy volunteers, using a randomized crossover design. Absorption of the drugs was almost completely prevented (more than 95%) when charcoal 50 g was ingested within five minutes of taking the

  5. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 1; The adsorption and desorption behavior of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Research Co., Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Research Chemistry Branch Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (CA))

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on triethylenediamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoals, used in nuclear reactors to safeguard against the release of airborne radioiodine, which show high efficiency under various reactor operation and accident conditions when the are new. However, during normal operation, charcoal filters are continuously degraded (or weathered) due to the adsorption of moisture and other air contaminants. The effect of weathering on the efficiency of charcoal for removing radioiodine is of great interest. The results of a study on the adsorption behavior of various contaminants NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK)) and NH{sub 3} on TEDA charcoal are presented. This study is an attempt to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The adsorption and desorption of characteristics of these contaminants range from completely irreversible (NO{sub 2}) to completely reversible (NH{sub 3}). The effect of absorbed water (or humidity) on absorption is different for each contaminant. Absorbed water increases the absorption rate and capacity of TEDA charcoal for NO{sub 2}. However, it appears that SO{sub 2} is absorbed as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the wet charcoal. Absorbed water slightly reduces the adsorption capacity of the charcoal for MEK, but does not affect the absorption of NH{sub 3}.

  6. Phoma species on beet: more cause disease than just Phoma betae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In the Un...

  7. Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

    2014-05-01

    In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

  8. Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

    For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

  9. Phenolics in maize genotypes differing in susceptibility to Gibberella stalk rot (Fusarium graminearum Schwabe).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Martinez, Noelia; Malvar, Rosa A

    2007-06-27

    The relationship between phenolic compounds and maize pith resistance to Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Gibberella stalk rot, was investigated. The phenolic acid profiles in the stalks of six maize inbred lines of varying susceptibility were evaluated from silking to grain maturity. Four different fractions of phenolic compounds were extracted from inoculated and non-inoculated (control) pith tissues: insoluble cell-wall-bound, free, soluble ester-bound, and soluble glycoside-bound phenolics. Analysis by HPLC revealed that p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the most abundant compounds in the soluble and cell-wall-bound fractions. The quantity of free, glycoside-bound, and ester-bound phenolics in the pith was lower than the level required for the inhibition of Fusarium growth or mycotoxins production; however, significant negative correlations between diferulic acid contents in the cell walls and disease severity ratings 4 days after inoculation were found. The results indicated that future studies should focus on the levels of diferulic acids during the early infection process. Diferulates may play a role in genotypic resistance of maize to Gibberella stalk rot as preformed barriers to infection. PMID:17547419

  10. Structure and capillary properties of carbon materials. Influence of various types of treatment of charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Dribinskii, A.V.; Kukushina, I.A.; Shteinberg, G.V.

    1986-03-01

    Activated charcoal KM-2 with a large volume of micropores served as the object of investiations to find the adsorption properties and the porous structure of the activated charcoals. The sorption isotherms of benzene vapor were measured at 20 C. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, the authors calculated the volumes of the principle types of pores, the surface ofthe mesopores, and the parameters of the microporous structure of the charcoals. Results show that decalcification results in an appreciable decrease in the ash content of the charcoal, and some increase in the total volume of the pores, mainly in the volume of the mesopores. The surface of the mesopores increases accordingly. The sorption isotherms of water vapor and benzene vapor on activated charcoal samples are compared.

  11. Self-clearing dielectric elastomer actuators using charcoal-powder electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; Chua, Soo-Lim; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian Wei Yee

    2012-04-01

    This study found that compliant electrodes using charcoal powder enable self clearing property to dielectric elastomer actuator. Charcoal powder is applied as compliant electrodes by smearing on a 100% bi-axially pre-stretched dielectric elastomer membrane (VHB 9473), with nominal pre-stretched thickness of 62.3 ?m. This DEA using charcoal-powder electrodes can sustain up 10 kV without terminal breakdown, while those using graphite or silver grease break down at slightly above 2 kV. It is noted that this DEA using charcoal-powder has maximum areal strain at about 45 % at 4 kV, beyond which the strain does not increase further for reduced electrical conductivity. The dielectric elastomer actuator using the charcoal-powder electrodes generate less actuation strain than that using the graphite. However, the former can produce a large actuation stress as it can driven to a higher driving voltage without pre-mature breakdown.

  12. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material – though anisotropically contracted – and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: • Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope. • Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven. • Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  13. Fine-mapping of qRfg2, a QTL for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongfeng; Liu, Yongjie; Guo, Yanling; Yang, Qin; Ye, Jianrong; Chen, Shaojiang; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-02-01

    Stalk rot is one of the most devastating diseases in maize worldwide. In our previous study, two QTLs, a major qRfg1 and a minor qRfg2, were identified in the resistant inbred line '1145' to confer resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. In the present study, we report on fine-mapping of the minor qRfg2 that is located on chromosome 1 and account for ~8.9% of the total phenotypic variation. A total of 22 markers were developed in the qRfg2 region to resolve recombinants. The progeny-test mapping strategy was developed to accurately determine the phenotypes of all recombinants for fine-mapping of the qRfg2 locus. This fine-mapping process was performed from BC(4)F(1) to BC(8)F(1) generations to narrow down the qRfg2 locus into ~300 kb, flanked by the markers SSRZ319 and CAPSZ459. A predicted gene in the mapped region, coding for an auxin-regulated protein, is believed to be a candidate for qRfg2. The qRfg2 locus could steadily increase the resistance percentage by ~12% across different backcross generations, suggesting its usefulness in enhancing maize resistance against Gibberella stalk rot. PMID:22048640

  14. Endopolygalacturonase is essential for citrus black rot caused by Alternaria citri but not brown spot caused by Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, A; Akimitsu, K; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, H

    2001-06-01

    Alternaria citri, the cause of Alternaria black rot, and Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype, the cause of Alternaria brown spot, are morphologically indistinguishable pathogens of citrus: one causes rot by macerating tissues and the other causes necrotic spots by producing a host-selective toxin. To evaluate the role of endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) in pathogenicity of these two Alternaria spp. pathogens, their genes for endoPG were mutated by gene targeting. The endoPGs produced by these fungi have similar biochemical properties, and the genes are highly similar (99.6% nucleotide identity). The phenotypes of the mutants, however, are completely different. An endoPG mutant of A. citri was significantly reduced in its ability to cause black rot symptoms on citrus as well as in the maceration of potato tissue and could not colonize citrus peel segments. In contrast, an endoPG mutant of A. alternata was unchanged in pathogenicity. The results indicate that a cell wall-degrading enzyme can play different roles in the pathogenicity of fungal pathogens. The role of a cell wall-degrading enzyme depends upon the type of disease but not the taxonomy of the fungus. PMID:11386370

  15. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Jen Lin; Gwo-Shyong Hwang

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb

  16. Protocol to Sterilize & Charcoal-Germinate Maize Seeds 1 PROTOCOL TO STERILIZE AND CHARCHOAL-GERMINATE MAIZE SEEDS

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    Protocol to Sterilize & Charcoal-Germinate Maize Seeds 1 PROTOCOL TO STERILIZE AND CHARCHOAL plates De-colorizing charcoal (Acros Organics) available from Fisher, Catalog # AC17153-0010 Materials: Autoclaved forceps and spoon (for scooping charcoal) *Prior to germination, autoclave forceps, spoon

  17. Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne sediments (Central

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 2631­2643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne Abstract In order to link the charcoal record from sedimentary archives with the combustion processes emitted in the area of Lake Lucerne (Central Europe) throughout the last 7200 years. Charcoal

  18. The RBINS Quaternary charcoal collections : the example of three neolithic sites of Hesbaye (5150-4950 BC, Belgium).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The RBINS Quaternary charcoal collections : the example of three neolithic sites of Hesbaye (5150 present the same kind of organisation: a village stricto-sensu and a distant house. The charcoal analyses, the environment was more opened and diversified because of man activities. Key Words: Charcoal analyses, Early

  19. Towards transferable functions for extraction of Non-timber Forest Products: A case study on charcoal production in Tanzania

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    on charcoal production in Tanzania M. Schaafsma a, , S. Morse-Jones a , P. Posen a , R.D. Swetnam b , A-surveyed areas. We illustrate the empirical application of this approach in an analysis of charcoal production. The total flow of charcoal benefits is estimated at USD 14 million per year, providing an important source

  20. Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility in the tropics2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil1 fertility of different organic amendments, bitter manioc peel (M), sawdust (Sw) and charcoal6 (Ch), on soil nutrient were lowest in9 unamended soil. The application of a mixture of manioc peel and charcoal (M+Ch)10

  1. Burrowing activity of the geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus1 (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) in the presence of charcoal2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Glossoscolecidae) in the presence of charcoal2 3 Stéphanie TOPOLIANTZ, Jean-François PONGE4 5 Muséum National d where charcoal plays an important role in soil fertility. We studied14 the burrowing activity:w) mixture of charcoal and soil16 (CHAR+soil). We measured the volume of empty burrows and those filled

  2. Comparison of pollen-slide and sieving methods in lacustrine charcoal analyses for local and regional fire history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Carcaillet; Martine Bouvier; Bianca Fréchette; Alayn C. Larouche; Pierre J. H. Richard

    2001-01-01

    The charcoal content from laminated lake sediments in Québec, Canada, was estimated from pollen slides and by a sieving method. The resulting charcoal series are compared to estimate the suitability of these two methods to provide a local or regional fire history. The replication of five different charcoal series from the sieving method shows that this method is suitable for

  3. CHARCOAL AND MICROCHARCOAL :CONTINENTAL AND MARINE RECORDS 4th International Meeting of Anthracology, Brussels , 8-13 September 2008

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CHARCOAL AND MICROCHARCOAL :CONTINENTAL AND MARINE RECORDS 4th International Meeting by the scientific committee, in press 1 Charcoal analysis of lime kiln remains in Southern France: an original of the fireplace. This is why charcoal analysis plays an important role when attempting to understand this activity

  4. Type of contribution: Original research paper1 Title: Charcoal consumption and casting activity by Pontoscolex corethrurus (Glossoscolecidae)3

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Type of contribution: Original research paper1 2 Title: Charcoal consumption and casting activity in tropical lands cleared by man for cultivation. We compared the charcoal4 consumption and casting activity). Their cast production was measured in7 containers in the presence of pure charcoal, soil of fallow and forest

  5. Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa Copyright (2005) by Robert Eric Bailis #12;1 Abstract Fuel from the Savanna: the Social and Environmental Implications of the Charcoal Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa Robert Eric

  6. Towards an improvement of carbon accounting for wildfires: incorporation of charcoal production into carbon emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan H.; Santin, Cristina; de Groot, Bill

    2015-04-01

    Every year fires release to the atmosphere the equivalent to 20-30% of the carbon (C) emissions from fossil fuel consumption, with future emissions from wildfires expected to increase under a warming climate. Critically, however, part of the biomass C affected by fire is not emitted during burning, but converted into charcoal, which is very resistant to environmental degradation and, thus, contributes to long-term C sequestration. The magnitude of charcoal production from wildfires as a long-term C sink remains essentially unknown and, to the date, charcoal production has not been included in wildfire emission and C budget models. Here we present complete inventories of charcoal production in two fuel-rich, but otherwise very different ecosystems: i) a boreal conifer forest (experimental stand-replacing crown fire; Canada, 2012) and a dry eucalyptus forest (high-intensity fuel reduction burn; Australia 2014). Our data show that, when considering all the fuel components and quantifying all the charcoal produced from each (i.e. bark, dead wood debris, fine fuels), the overall amount of charcoal produced is significant: up to a third of the biomass C affected by fire. These findings indicate that charcoal production from wildfires could represent a major and currently unaccounted error in the estimation of the effects of wildfires in the global C balance. We suggest an initial approach to include charcoal production in C emission models, by using our case study of a boreal forest fire and the Canadian Fire Effects Model (CanFIRE). We also provide recommendations of how a 'conversion factor' for charcoal production could be relatively easily estimated when emission factors for different types of fuels and fire conditions are experimentally obtained. Ultimately, this presentation is a call for integrative collaboration between the fire emission modelling community and the charcoal community to work together towards the improvement of C accounting for wildfires.

  7. Towards an inventory of historic charcoal production fields in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Takla, Melanie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Bonhage, Alexander; Hirsch, Florian; Rösler, Horst

    2015-04-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. Based on our results from this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field, we attempted to detect and map other large occurrences of charcoal kiln remains in the state of Brandenburg. For the mine forefield, archaeological excavations provide certain and exact information on kiln site location and geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield, using a manual digitization for thorough mapping in forest areas north of Cottbus, and an automated mapping approach for detection of kiln sites for additional areas in Brandenburg. Potential areas of large-scale production were identified in a GIS-based analysis of environmental and historic data. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield. First results of mapping for larger areas indicate similar densities, but smaller diameters of kiln sites in other charcoal production fields; and show that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  8. CONTROL OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROT IN PUMPKIN AND ZUCCHINI WITH PHOSPHONATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments in the greenhouse were conducted to determine the efficacy of two products containing potassium phosphate/dipotassium phosphonate (FNX-100 and FNX-2500) against Phytophthora root and stem rot in pumpkin and zucchini. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of crop variety, ap...

  9. BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  10. Population Structure of the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry fruit rot is caused by a complex of pathogenic fungi. Variation in the populations within this complex from region to region could delay identification of the causal agents(s) and complicate management strategies. Our objective was to assess genetic variation within the four major fruit ro...

  11. Population structure of the North American cranberry fruit rot complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry fruit rot (CFR) is caused by any one of thirty species of pathogenic fungi, with the contribution of any given species varying from bed to bed, year to year, and region to region. Because cranberry vines are shipped between growing regions for propagation, we hypothesized that a concurrent...

  12. Evaluating commercial maize hybrids for resistance to gibberella ear rot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Schaafsma; R. W. Nicol; L. M. Reid

    1997-01-01

    An integral component of breeding maize for resistance to Fusarium graminearum ear rot is the identification of resistant genotypes. Since natural infection is not consistent from year to year, maize researchers must use manual techniques to inoculate the plant material with fungal spores. Information is presented here on site resistance of commercial maize hybrids to F. graminearum over three years

  13. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

  14. A genome-wide association study reveals genes associated with fusarium ear rot resistance in a maize core diversity panel.

    PubMed

    Zila, Charles T; Samayoa, L Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B

    2013-11-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0-100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel

    PubMed Central

    Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  16. Criticality safety study of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1996-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the practicality of developing a power reactor consisting of a graphite lattice with circulating molten uranium salt as fuel for application in central power stations. When the experiment was terminated in 1969, approximately 4710 kg of salt containing approximately 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 g of plutonium, and various fission products were transferred to two fuel drain tanks (FDTs). The almost 30.5 kg of Uranium 233 in the salt is the primary fissile constituent, but about 0.93 kg of Uranium 235 is also present. In April 1994, a gas sample from the MSRE off-gas system (OGS) indicated that uranium had migrated from the FDTs into the OGS. Further investigation revealed a likely accumulation of approximately 2.6 kg of uranium in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), which is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell (CBC) below ground level outside the MSRE building. The nuclear criticality safety (NCS) situation was further complicated by the CBC being filled with water up to the overflow pipe, which completely submerged the ACB. Thus there was not only an increased risk of criticality because of water reflection in the ACB, but also because of potential moderation in the ACB in case of water inleakage. Leakage into the ACB would result in a direct path for water between the CBC and the OGS or FDTs, thus increasing the risk of criticality in these areas. When uranium was discovered in the ACB, a number of steps, detailed in this report, were immediately taken to try to understand and ameliorate the situation. After all the actions were completed, a validation of the results obtained for the ACB was performed.

  17. Charcoal emissions as a source of CO and carcinogenic PAH in mainstream narghile waterpipe smoke.

    PubMed

    Monzer, Bassel; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2008-09-01

    Burning charcoal is normally placed atop the tobacco to smoke the narghile waterpipe. We investigated the importance of charcoal as a toxicant source in the mainstream smoke, with particular attention to two well-known charcoal emissions: carbon monoxide (CO) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). CO and PAH yields were compared when a waterpipe was machine smoked using charcoal and using an electrical heating element. The electrical heating element was designed to produce spatial and temporal temperature distributions similar to those measured using charcoal. With a popular type of ma'assel tobacco mixture, and using a smoking regimen consisting of 105 puffs of 530ml volume spaced 17s apart, it was found that approximately 90% of the CO and 75-92% of the 4- and 5-membered ring PAH compounds originated in the charcoal. Greater than 95% of the benzo(a)pyrene in the smoke was attributable to the charcoal. It was also found that the relative proportions of individual PAH species, the "PAH fingerprint", of the mainstream smoke were highly correlated to those extracted from the unburned charcoal (R(2)>0.94). In contrast, there was no correlation between the PAH fingerprint of the electrically heated and charcoal-heated conditions (R(2)<0.02). In addition to inhaling toxicants transferred from the tobacco, such as nicotine, "tar", and nitrosamines, waterpipe smokers thus also inhale large quantities of combustion-generated toxicants. This explains why, despite the generally low temperatures attained in the narghile tobacco, large quantities of CO and PAH have been found in the smoke. PMID:18573302

  18. What can we tell from particle morphology in Mesozoic charcoal assemblages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Alastair; Belcher, Claire

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary charcoal particles provide a valuable record of palaeofire activity on both human and geological timescales. Charcoal is both an unambiguous indicator of wildfire, and a means of preservation of plant material in an inert form; thus it records not only the occurrence and extent of wildfire, but also the species affected. While scanning electron microscopy can be usefully employed for precise taxonomic identification of charcoals, the time and cost associated with this limit the extent to which the technique is employed. Morphometric analysis of mesocharcoal particles (c. 125-1000 µm) potentially provides a simple method for obtaining useful information from optical microscopy images. Grass fires have been shown to produce mesocharcoal particles with a higher length-to-width ratio than woodland fuel sources. In Holocene archives, aspect ratio measurements are thus used to infer the broad taxonomic affinity of the burned vegetation. Since Mesozoic charcoals display similarly heterogeneous morphologies, we investigate whether there is a similar potential to infer the broad botanical affinities of Mesozoic charcoal assemblages from simple morphological metrics. We have used image analysis to analyse a range of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks representing different vegetation communities and depositional environments, and also to determine the range of charcoal particle morphologies which can be produced from different modern taxa under laboratory conditions. We find that modern charcoals break down into mesocharcoal particles of very variable aspect ratio, and this appears to be dependent on taxonomic position. Our analysis of fragmented laboratory-produced charcoals indicates that pteridophytes produce much more elongate particles than either conifers or non-grass angiosperms. We suggest that for charcoal assemblages that predate the evolution of grasses, high average aspect ratios may be a useful indicator of the burning of a pteridophyte-dominated flora.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of the Onion Center Rot Pathogen Pantoea ananatis PA4 and Maize Brown Stalk Rot Pathogen P. ananatis BD442

    PubMed Central

    Weller-Stuart, Tania; Chan, Wai Yin; Venter, Stephanus N.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Duffy, Brion; Goszczynska, Teresa; Cowan, Don A.; de Maayer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is an emerging phytopathogen that infects a broad spectrum of plant hosts. Here, we present the genomes of two South African isolates, P. ananatis PA4, which causes center rot of onion, and BD442, isolated from brown stalk rot of maize. PMID:25103759

  20. Fumonisin B1 accumulation and severity of fusarium ear rot and gibberella ear rot in food-grade corn hybrids in Ontario after inoculation according to two methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Schaafsma; L. Tamburic-Ilincic; L. M. Reid

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum are pathogens of corn causing fusarium ear rot and gibberella ear rot, respectively. The mycotoxins fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are produced by F. verticillioides and F. graminearum, respectively, and commercial millers monitor the levels of these toxins in corn to avoid problems with contamination in finished foods. The objectives of the present study

  1. Black carbon quantification in charcoal-enriched soils by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), the solid residue of the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, is ubiquitous in soil and sediments, fulfilling several environmental services such as long-term carbon storage. BC is a particularly important terrestrial carbon pool due to its large residence time compared to thermally unaltered organic matter, which is largely attributed to its aromatic structure. However, BC refers to a wide range of pyrogenic products from partly charred biomass to highly condensed soot, with a degree of aromaticity and aromatic condensation varying to a large extend across the BC continuum. As a result, BC quantification largely depends on operational definitions, with the extraction efficiency of each method varying across the entire BC range. In our study, we investigated the adequacy of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the quantification of BC in charcoal-enriched soils collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial charcoal kilns in forest and cropland of Wallonia, Belgium, where charcoal residues are mixed to uncharred soil organic matter (SOM). We compared the results to the fraction of the total organic carbon (TOC) resisting to K2Cr2O7 oxidation, another simple method often used for BC measurement. In our soils, DSC clearly discriminates SOM from chars. SOM is less thermally stable than charcoal and shows a peak maximum around 295°C. In forest and agricultural charcoal-enriched soils, three peaks were attributed to the thermal degradation of BC at 395, 458 and 523°C and 367, 420 and 502 °C, respectively. In cropland, the amount of BC calculated from the DSC peaks is closely related (slope of the linear regression = 0.985, R˛=0.914) to the extra organic carbon content measured at charcoal kiln sites relative to the charcoal-unaffected adjacent soils, which is a positive indicator of the suitability of DSC for charcoal quantification in soil. The first BC peak, which may correspond to highly degraded charcoal, contributes to a larger part of the total BC amount in agricultural soils compared to forest soils, suggesting that cultivation might accelerate charcoal degradation. Regarding the K2Cr2O7 oxidation, 65 % of the TOC is oxidized in forest soils while 100 % is oxidized in agricultural soils, discrediting the method for old charcoal quantification in soil. In conclusion, DSC is a rapid and cost-effective technique for BC quantification in soil, covering the entire range of the BC continuum while giving information on the thermal stability of different BC pools. Oppositely, K2Cr2O7 oxidation in not a suitable method for old charcoal quantification in soil.

  2. Ozone removal capability of a welding fume respirator containing activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.R.; Dyrud, J.F.; Shih, Y.T. (Occupational Health and Environmental Safety Division, St. Paul, MN (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Development of air purifying respirators for protection against ozone has been slowed by concerns about oxidation of charcoal and other available sorbents. The suitability of a charcoal sorbent for low concentrations of ozone was evaluated as a part of the development of a half-mask air purifying respirator designed for welding fumes and ozone. Testing of the respirator confirmed that charcoal can be a suitable sorbent for low levels of ozone. Where the respirator is properly selected, fit tested, and worn, respirator use against welding fumes and ozone at concentrations not exceeding 10 times the permissible exposure limit had been recommended.

  3. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

  4. Effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to soil on nitrate leaching in calcaric soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Shinogi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate leaching in soils is often an important aspect in agriculture. Nitrate is leached from the root zone, where plants can utilize them, by surplus rainfall because little nitrate is absorbed by soil colloids. Miyako Island (target area) is located in the subtropical zone and comprised of coral limestone with high permeability. Land surface is covered with calcaric dark red soil that is called “Shimajiri-Maji”. Since the soil has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity, fertilizer-derived nitrogen easily leaches from the root zone during surplus rainfall and the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops is relatively low. Biochars, charcoal produced from pyrolysis of biomass, are known to adsorb dissolved nitrate. Sugarcane bagasse is the main biomass resource on the island because agriculture is the main industry on the island and sugarcane is cultivated in approximately 70% of the farmland. However, the adsorption characteristics of bagasse-charcoals for nitrate have not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependency of carbonization temperatures on the nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse-charcoals and the effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to the soil on NO3-N transport in the soil for optimal use of bagasse-charcoal as a soil amendment in Miyako Island. Sugarcane bagasse were air-dried and heated in a batch-type carbonization furnace at five different carbonization temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) with a holding time of 2 h. Nitrate adsorption by soil and bagasse-charcoals at each carbonization temperature was measured by the batch equilibrium technique. NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils (rates of charcoal addition: 0, 5 and 10 wt %) was evaluated in the column experiments. The breakthrough curves of NO3-N concentrations in the effluents from the bottom of the columns were analyzed with a convective-dispersion model. The model described one-dimensional transport of a sorbing solute thorough a homogeneous saturated soil. Linear adsorption equation that considered rates of charcoal addition was used to describe NO3-N adsorption of charcoal-amended soils (S=Kd C R, where C is solution concentration [mg cm-3], S is sorbed concentration [mg -1], Kd is the sorption distribution coefficient [cm-3 kg-1] and R is rates of charcoal addition [wt %]). The experimental and analytical results were as follows: (1) Batch experiments using five different bagasse-charcoals revealed that nitrate was adsorbed at 700°C and 800°C and was scarcely adsorbed at less than 700°C. (2) Column experiments using charcoal-amended soils revealed that NO3-N transport in soils was delayed by adsorption effects of bagasse-charcoal. (3) Analysis with the convective-dispersion model showed that the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement at all charcoal-amended soils. Therefore, the adsorption equation that considers the rates of charcoal addition is effective to describe NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils.

  5. 59 FR- Notification of Request for Approval of a Collection of InformationLabeling of Charcoal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-07-01

    ...the required label of an explicit statement that burning charcoal produces carbon monoxide, and that carbon monoxide has no odor. At the time the Commission granted this petition, the agency also decided to propose revision of that portion of the...

  6. Oxidation of phosphine by iron(III) chloride complexes supported on activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Rakitskaya, T.L.; Kostyukova, I.S.; Red'ko, T.D.

    1988-06-01

    It has been discovered that iron(III) chloride complexes supported on activated charcoal oxidize phosphine under normal conditions. The process accelerates as the concentration of the chloride ions and the proton acid increases.

  7. Preparation of charcoal adsorbents from heat-pressed hydrolyzed lignin and study of their properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhnovskaya, G.G.; Kolosentsev, S.D.; Plachenov, T.G.

    1983-06-01

    Charcoal adsorbents obtained from hydrolyzed lignin by forming in the viscoplastic state with carbonization and activation of the granules have large macropore volume and an insufficiently developed system of adsorbing pores per granule unit volume. The heat pressing of lignin was carried out in an electrically heated press form under a static load and 15 minute maintenance under pressure. The porous structure of the pressed lignin was studied by mercury porometry. Carbonized and activated charcoals were obtained from heat-pressed lignin. The activated charcoals obtained from high-density heat-pressed lignin by steam activation are not inferior relative to their micropore structural parameters to AG-3 gas charcoal although they have significantly reduced macropore volume (0.02 vs. 0.30 cm/sup 3//cm/sup 3/). 2 figures, 1 table. (DP)

  8. [Possibilities to avoid adsorption of physiological substances during charcoal hemoperfusion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gundermann, K J; Lie, T S

    1978-07-24

    For the clinical use of charcoal in intoxications the loss of normal substances out of the organism must be avoided. In order to study the possibility of pretreating the charcoal with certain substances without influencing the adsorptive capacity of toxic metabolic products we perfused over 70 g uncoated charcoal for 6 h: 500 mg creatinine, 1 g and 20 g barbital, 500 mg bromthalein, 1 g raffinose resp. 1 g inulin per litre physiological saline in different combinations and found the following results: 1. In low and middle molecular weight levels there is no competition between two substances. 2. By preadsorption of the charcoal with a low or middle molecular weight substance, the adsorptive capacity of other substances is not influenced. PMID:684283

  9. Model for adsorption capacities of charcoal beds. II. Challenge concentrations effects

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.O.

    1987-08-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic capacities of charcoal beds for adsorbed toxic gases and vapors depend on the concentrations of those gases and vapors. Water vapor also affects these capacities. The assumption of competitive (vapor vs. water vapor) equilibria for adsorption led to a mathematical model that quite successfully described relative humidity effects on adsorption capacities of water immiscible vapors. This same model now has been demonstrated to describe published and new data on vapor concentration effects equally well. Parameters obtained from fits of experimental data with the model can be used for comparisons of charcoal characteristics, adsorbate-charcoal interactions and water-charcoal interactions. Correlations by this model are useful for extrapolating data to untested vapor concentrations and relative humidity conditions.

  10. Combustion efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions from charcoal production kilns in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.; Babbitt, R.E. [Intermountain Research Station, Missoula, MT (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Charcoal is one of the major energy resources in tropical countries. We investigate the combustion processes in charcoal production kilns in Zambia and Brazil. The Zambian kilns were made of earth and there was sufficient air for combustion inside the kilns. The Brazilian kilns were made of bricks which limited the available oxygen. The combustion efficiency and the concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6} alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic compounds produced were monitored throughout the combustion processes. The contributions of charcoal production processes to the atmospheric sources of these gases were estimated. The strategies for improving charcoal yield and reducing emissions of carbon-containing compounds are discussed.

  11. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse with white rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neelam Kewalramani; D. N. Kamra; D. Lall; N. N. Pathak

    1988-01-01

    Summary Four cultures of white rot fungi were screened for their ability to degrade lignin and carbohydrates of sugarcane bagasse and their effect on changes ininvitro digestibility.Polyporushirsutus534 degraded maximum lignin and carbohydrates accompanied with the highest increase in digestibility, but increase in nutrient availability was maximum withPleurotussajorcaju (Z-6) due to lower dry matter loss during the process of fungal treatment.

  12. The use of Trichoderma species to control strawberry fruit rots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tronsmo; C. Dennis

    1977-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the growth and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma species against Botrytis cinerea and Mucor\\u000a mucedo (strawberry fruit pathogens) was studied. Five strongly antagonistic isolates were further used in field experiments.\\u000a The incidence of pre-harvest rots caused by B. cinerea and the rate of post-harvest spoilage were similarly reduced when strawberry\\u000a flowers were sprayed either with the

  13. Effect of activated charcoal on callus growth and shoot organogenesis in tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Constantin; R. R. Henke; M. A. Mansur

    1977-01-01

    Summary  Incorporating activated charcoal (AC) in culture media has been shown to affect growth and development of various organisms.\\u000a Since AC stimulates the development of tobacco haploid plantlets from cultured anthers, research was conducted to determine\\u000a the effect of activated charcoal on pith-derived callus growth and shoot development inNicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38. Our results indicate that the hormones required for

  14. Hydrolysate detoxification with activated charcoal for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    A detoxification method using activated charcoal with concentrated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate improved the conversion of xylose to xylitol by the yeast Candida guilliermondii by 22%. This was achieved when the hydrolysate:charcoal ratio was 40 g g-1, resulting in removal of 27% of phenolic compounds. Under this condition, the xylitol yield factor (0.72 g g-1) and volumetric productivity (0.61 g

  15. Effect of Saline Cathartics on Gastrointestinal Transit Time of Activated Charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. Orisakwe; E. Ogbonna

    1993-01-01

    The effects of saline cathartics on the gastrointestinal transit time of activated charcoal were investigated in six healthy volunteers. The study shows that the mean gastrointestinal transit times of charcoal alone were 29.3 h and 24.4, 15.4, 17.3 and 17.5 h with sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, magnesium sulphate alone and Andrew's Liver Salt respectively. Some volunteers complained of slight abdominal

  16. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Holz; S. Haberle; T. T. Veblen; R. de Pol-Holz; J. Southon

    2011-01-01

    Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby

  17. Differences in Radiocarbon Age between Shell and Charcoal from a Holocene Shellmound in Northern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lynn Ingram

    1998-01-01

    The West Berkeley shellmound, the oldest well-dated archaeological site in the San Francisco Bay region, contains shell and charcoal ranging in age from ca. 1200 to 5700 cal yr B.P. Radiocarbon ages of marine shell and charcoal collected from fifteen stratigraphic levels in the West Berkeley shellmound suggest changes in the14C content of San Francisco Bay surface waters relative to

  18. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles 

    E-print Network

    Kharbat, Esam Tawfiq

    1992-01-01

    DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS IN THE IGNITION AND COMBUSTION OF CHAR/COAL PARTICLES A Thesis by ESAM TAWFIQ KHARBAT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS IN THE IGNITION AND COMBUSTION OF CHAR/COAL PARTICLES A Thesis by ESAM TAWFIQ KHARBAT Approved as to style and content by...

  19. The effect of humidity on the collection efficiency for oxygenated compounds adsorbed on activated charcoal 

    E-print Network

    Walton, Robert Bruce

    1990-01-01

    to the industrial hygienist for determining gaseous chemical agent exposure levels is contaminant capture via solid adsorbents. Of the solid adsorbents commercially available, charcoal tubes, containing activated charcoal, appear to be the most widely used... temperature is multimolecular and the pore structure of the adsorbent plays a vital role. Since most industrial hygiene sampling applications occur below the critical temperature, the pore structure of the carbon adsorbent is critical. In addition...

  20. The effect of temperature and relative humidity levels upon charcoal tube sampling for vinyl choloride

    E-print Network

    McCaskill, Gerald Daniel

    1983-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY LEVELS UPON CHARCOAL TUBE SAMPLING FOR VINYL CHLORIDE A Thesis by GERALD DANIEL McCASKILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY LEVELS UPON CHARCOAL TUBE SAMPLING FOR VINYL CHLORIDE A Thesis by GERALD DANIEL McCASKILL Approved as to style and content...

  1. Applied Technology of Bamboo Charcoal to Improvement and Purification of Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takimoto, Akira; Tada, Yukio; Onishi, Hajime; Fukazawa, Tomohiro

    The use of bamboo charcoal, which is one of the carbon from wood, attracts attention from the viewpoint of the environmental protection. Bamboo charcoal has high adsorption removal ability to various substances. In addition Bamboo charcoal is effective also for the filtration of the suspended solid and the bacterium by the macro pore that originates in the plant frame structure. In present paper, a new concept of gas clean technology by bamboo charcoal and TiO2 with UV light irradiation was proposed. Its system is composed of TiO2-coated bamboo charcoal, TiO2-coated silica gel and UV lamp. Water vapor is adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and fine particles and airborne bacterium are trapped on the surface of it. Trapped contaminant is degraded by TiO2 and UV light. In addition, the degradation is promoted by •OH produced by adsorbed water vapor. The air purification sanitization possibility in high efficiency for this system was clarified.

  2. Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

  3. Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Cole, H. E.; Cramblitt, E. L.; El-Lessy, H. N.; Manuel, S.; Tucker, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station s U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBAs service life. A history of in-flight TCCS operations is presented as well as a discussion of the charcoal sampling procedures and chemical analysis results. A projected service life derived from the observed charcoal loading is provided. Recommendations for better managing TCCS resources are presented.

  4. Estimation of emissions from charcoal lighter fluid and review of alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.L.; Stockton, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. VOCs contribute to the formation of ozone; therefore, the ozone nonattainment issue has focused attention on VOCs emitted from many sources. VOCs are emitted when charcoal lighter fluid is used, but these emissions are difficult to quantify. Evaporative VOC losses occur from the lighter fluid prior to ignition, and combustion VOC losses occur from burning lighter-fluid-soaked charcoal briquettes. This study evaluates tests conducted to date on charcoal lighter fluid emissions. The information is most complete for evaporative VOC losses. The estimates vary greatly, however, based on the length of time between application of the lighter fluid and ignition. The limited tests conducted to date have not distinguished lighter fluid from charcoal-briquette combustion emissions.

  5. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT DISEASE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    diseases such as Cylindrocladium, Aspergillus crown rot, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia. Vitavax PC (Captan such as white mold and Rhizoctonia limbrot, as well as leaf spot on the foliage. Alternating or tank mixing

  6. Phanerozoic concentrations of atmospheric oxygen reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasspool, Ian J.; Scott, Andrew C.

    2010-09-01

    Variations of the Earth's atmospheric oxygen concentration (pO2) are thought to be closely tied to the evolution of life, with strong feedbacks between uni- and multicellular life and oxygen. On the geologic timescale, pO2 is regulated by the burial of organic carbon and sulphur, as well as by weathering. Reconstructions of atmospheric O2 for the past 400million years have therefore been based on geochemical models of carbon and sulphur cycling. However, these reconstructions vary widely, particularly for the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic eras. Here we show that the abundance of charcoal in mire settings is controlled by pO2, and use this proxy to reconstruct the concentration of atmospheric oxygen for the past 400million years. We estimate that pO2 was continuously above 26% during the Carboniferous and Permian periods, and that it declined abruptly around the time of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. During the Triassic and Jurassic periods, pO2 fluctuated cyclically, with amplitudes up to 10% and a frequency of 20-30million years. Atmospheric oxygen concentrations have declined steadily from the middle of the Cretaceous period to present-day values of about 21%. We conclude, however, that variation in pO2 was not the main driver of the loss of faunal diversity during the Permo-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction events.

  7. Application of the Biospeckle Method for Monitoring Bull’s Eye Rot Development and Quality Changes of Apples Subjected to Various Storage Methods—Preliminary Studies

    PubMed Central

    Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull’s eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars ‘Pinova’ and ‘Topaz’, susceptible to bull’s eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of ‘Pinova’ and 21% of ‘Topaz’ apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions. PMID:22737003

  8. Application of the biospeckle method for monitoring bull's eye rot development and quality changes of apples subjected to various storage methods-preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull's eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars 'Pinova' and 'Topaz', susceptible to bull's eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of 'Pinova' and 21% of 'Topaz' apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions. PMID:22737003

  9. Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration with tree-ring records of fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Higuera; Douglas G. Sprugel; Linda B. Brubaker

    2005-01-01

    Interpretations of charcoal records from small hollows lack a strong theoretical and empirical foundation, and thus their potential for providing useful fire-history records is unclear. To evaluate this potential, we examined charcoal records in 210Pb-dated cores from 12 small hollows and looked for evidence of 20 local fires reconstructed with tree-ring records from the surrounding forest. Using all charcoal >

  10. A 560Year Record of Santa Ana Fires Reconstructed from Charcoal Deposited in the Santa Barbara Basin, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Mensing; Joel Michaelsen; Roger Byrne

    1999-01-01

    Microscopic charcoal from varved Santa Barbara Basin sediments was used to reconstruct a 560-yr record (A.D. 1425 to 1985) of Santa Ana fires. Comparison of large (>3750 ?m2) charcoal with documented fire records in the Santa Barbara Ranger District shows that high accumulations correspond to large fires (>20,000 ha) that occurred during Santa Ana conditions. The charcoal record reconstructed a

  11. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (?66%) and Na2S2O3 (?57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (?34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (?27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (?33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions. PMID:25174721

  12. Charcoal dispersion and deposition in boreal lakes from 3 years of monitoring: Differences between local and regional fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oris, France; Ali, Adam A.; Asselin, Hugo; Paradis, Laure; Bergeron, Yves; Finsinger, Walter

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of long-distance transport of charcoal particles on the detection of local wildfires from lake sediment sequences, we tracked three consecutive years of charcoal deposition into traps set within seven boreal lakes in northeastern Canada. Peaks in macroscopic charcoal accumulation (>150 µm) were linked to both local (inside the watershed) and regional wildfires. However, regional fires were characterized by higher proportions of small particles (<0.1 mm2) in charcoal assemblages. We conclude that the analysis of particle size distribution is useful to discriminate "true" local fires from regional wildfires.

  13. Reduced fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize genetically engineered for European corn borer resistance.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, G P; Hellmich, R L; Showers, W B

    1997-10-01

    ABSTRACT Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp-tomless Fusarium infection in kernels of maize hybrids genetically engineered with Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding for the delta-endotoxin CryIA(b). Treatments included manual infestation with European corn borer (ECB) larvae and insecticide applications to limit ECB activity to specific maize growth stages or mimic standard ECB control practices. Fusarium symptoms and infection were affected by the specific cryIA(b) transformation used in each hybrid that determines tissue-specific expression of CryIA(b). In hybrids expressing CryIA(b) in kernels, incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and incidence of symptomless kernel infection were reduced compared with near-isogenic hybrids lacking cryIA(b) genes. In plants that were manually infested with ECB, ear rot incidence was reduced by 87, 58, and 68%; severity was reduced by 96, 54, and 64%; and incidence of kernel infection by Fusarium species was reduced by 17, 38, and 38% in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively. Results were similar in treatments that were not manually infested, but differences between transgenic and nontransgenic hybrids were smaller. Most kernel infection was due to F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans (section Liseola) collectively, and it was within this group that transgenic hybrids exhibited reduced infection. Expression of CryIA(b) in plant tissues other than kernels did not consistently affect Fusarium symptoms or infection. Disease incidence was positively correlated with ECB damage to kernels. Insecticide applications also reduced Fusarium symptoms and infection when applied to nontransgenic plants. PMID:18945043

  14. Sclerotinia Stem and Head Rot Resistant Germplasm Development Utilizing Interspecific Amphiploids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Feng; G. J. Seiler; T. J. Gulya; C. Li; C. C. Jan

    Based on evaluations over two years, interspecific amphiploids are useful sources of resistance genes for both Sclerotinia stem rot and head rot. Interspecific amphiploids between wild perennial Helianthus gracilentus, H. hirsutus, H. strumosus, H. grosseserratus, H. maximiliani, and H. nuttallii, crossed with P21, plus one intercrossed amphiploid involving H. divaricatus and H. grosseserratus were evaluated. The results indicated that most

  15. POST HARVEST APPLICATIONS OF ZOXAMIDE AND PHOSPHITE FOR CONTROL OF POTATO TUBER ROTS CAUSED BY OOMYCETES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage tuber rots caused by the late blight and pink rot pathogens can cause severe economic losses warranting the need for effective post-harvest fungicide applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selective post-harvest fungicides in reducing tuber infections...

  16. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  17. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin Howell; Anne Christine Steenkjćr Hastrup; Barry Goodell; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora puteana, and two isolates of Serpula lacrymans. All fungi increased apparent percent crystallinity

  18. Influence of Rhizoctonia-Bacterial root rot complex on storability of sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root rot complex, caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, can lead to yield loss in the field but may also lead to problems with sucrose loss in storage. Thus, studies were conducted to investigate if placing sugar beet roots suffering from root rot together with healthy roo...

  19. Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

  20. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...