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Production of (-)-Botryodiplodin, but not Phaseolinone, by the Soybean Charcoal Rot Disease Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Charcoal rot disease, which causes significant losses in crops grown in hot, relatively dry areas, is caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina produces a phytotoxin believed to play a role in helping establish infections. Siddiqui et al. [Experentia 35, 1222 (1979)] purified and...


Effects of directed fungicides sprays and potash form on charcoal rot of soybeans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evaluation of fungicides to control charcoal rot of soybean was conducted in a field planted annually to soybean or snap bean since 2002 with moderate to high seedling disease losses to charcoal rot. Treatments were applied on 18 Jul at 60 psi and on 7 Aug at 80 psi using a high-pressure hydraulic ...


Seasonal progress of charcoal rot and its impact on soybean productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on yield of soybean were evaluated in the field using two genotypes each in maturity groups III and IV. Four separate experiments were established in an area of a field fumigated with methyl bromide. The experiments were: 1) artificiall...


Root Rot and Other Diseases of Sugar Beets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1964 the most widespread and deleterious diseases of sugar beets were root rot in the shoots, cercospora infection, powdery mildew, peronospora infection, mosaic, viral jaundice, starvation diseases, fusarium and storage rot. Less often zonal and bacte...

Z. A. Pozhar



Plant Disease Lesson: Brown rot of stone fruits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Brown rot of stone fruits (caused by Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Take-all root rot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on take-all root rot (caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

William W. Bockus (Kansas State University;); Ned A. Tisserat (Kansas State University;)



Health Technology Assessment Reports, 1983. Number 7. Plasma Perfusion of Charcoal Filters for Treatment of Pruritis of Cholestatic Liver Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This assessment will focus on plasma perfusion of charcoal filters for treatment of pruritis of cholestatic liver disease. Plasma perfusion of charcoal filters for treatment of pruritis of cholestatic liver disease appears to be a treatment infrequently p...

D. Cotter



Fungicide management strategies for control of strawberry fruit rot diseases in Louisiana and Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen fungicide treatments were evaluated for control of strawberry fruit diseases in five fungicide studies conducted at Hammond, LA and Poplarville, MS during the 2002, 2003 and 2005 fruiting seasons. The most frequent fruit rots at harvest were anthracnose fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, stem-end rot caused by Gnomonia comari, and Botrytis fruit rot caused by Botrytis cinerea. Fungicides

David E. Wedge; Barbara J. Smith; Joey P. Quebedeaux; Roysell J. Constantin



Degradation of organic matter from black shales and charcoal by the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune and release of DOC and heavy metals in the aqueous phase.  


We investigated the degradation of refractory organic matter (OM) by the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune to understand the release of dissolved organic compounds, heavy metals and sulfur. The investigated OM consisted of: charcoal, the short time end product of high temperature wood alteration in the absence of oxygen and composed mainly of pure OM; and black shales composed of clay minerals, quartz, sulfides and OM formed geogenically in an abiotic long-term process. In both cases, the OM fraction contains mainly polyaromatic hydrocarbons. We investigated the degradation of these fractions by a wood-rotting basidiomycete, which is able to produce exoenzymes like peroxidases and laccases. These enzymes can perform radical reactions to oxidize OM (like lignin) and therefore hypothetically are able to degrade OM from charcoal and/or low grade metamorphic black shales. Release of new components into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) could be detected in both cases. The attack on OM in the case of black shales coincided with the release of the heavy metals Fe, Mn and Ni. By following sulfur concentrations throughout the experiment, it was shown that heavy metal release is not due to pyrite oxidation. Ground black shale and charcoal samples were inoculated with S. commune in a diluted minimal medium containing aspartic acid and glucose. The aqueous and solid phases were sampled after 1, 7, 28 and 84 days. DOC was measured as non purgeable carbon and characterized by size exclusion chromatography and UV detection. Carbon concentrations of the solid phase were determined by element analyses. After initial decrease of the DOC concentrations due to the degradation of the carbon source provided with the medium, DOC increased up to 80 mg/l after 84 days. Carbon decreased in the solid fraction confirming that this carbon was released as DOC by the fungus. The newly generated DOC formed larger agglomerations than the DOC of the growth medium. The investigation proved that the degradation of persistent carbon sources, such as charcoal and black shale, is accelerated by fungal activity. Consequently, the associated release of heavy metals is also accelerated by the fungus. Main products of the biological degradation processes were organic heavy metal complexes which can enter the environment. PMID:16483638

Wengel, Marcus; Kothe, Erika; Schmidt, Christian M; Heide, Klaus; Gleixner, Gerd



Induce systemic resistance in lupine against root rot diseases.  


Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: chitosan (CHI), Salicylic Acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L(-1) and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L(-1) and HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L(-1) was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L(-1) proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L(-1) or HQ at 1.2 g L(-1) was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment. PMID:19579949

Ali, Abeer A; Ghoneem, K M; El-Metwally, M A; Abd El-Hai, K M



Plant Disease Lesson: Monosporascus Root Rot and Vine Decline of Melons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Monosporascus root rot and vine decline of melons (MRR/VD), also referred to as sudden wilt, sudden death, melon collapse, Monosporascus wilt, and black pepper root rot (caused by the fungus Monosporascus cannonballus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Ray D. Martyn (Purdue University;)



Colonization of peanut roots by biofilm-forming Paenibacillus polymyxa initiates biocontrol against crown rot disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate the role of biofilm-forming Paenibacillus polymyxa strains in controlling crown root rot disease. Methods and Results: Two plant growth-promoting P. polymyxa strains were isolated from the peanut rhizosphere, from Aspergillus niger-suppressive soils. The strains were tested, under greenhouse and field conditions for inhibition of the crown root rot pathogen of the peanut, as well as for biofilm

W. M. Haggag; S. Timmusk



First report of corm rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corm rot disease was observed for the first time in banana. The disease was found to occur in the majority of commercial cultivars grown in different banana-growing states of India. The incidence of the disease was up to 50% and found to occur at an altitude up to 3000masl. The pathogen was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii based on morphological

R. Thangavelu; M. M. Mustaffa



Degradation of organic matter from black shales and charcoal by the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune and release of DOC and heavy metals in the aqueous phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the degradation of refractory organic matter (OM) by the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune to understand the release of dissolved organic compounds, heavy metals and sulfur. The investigated OM consisted of: charcoal, the short time end product of high temperature wood alteration in the absence of oxygen and composed mainly of pure OM; and black shales composed of clay

Marcus Wengel; Erika Kothe; Christian M. Schmidt; Klaus Heide; Gerd Gleixner




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) Evans et al. causes frosty pod rot (FPR), a highly destructive cacao disease restricted to tropical America. In Belize, the disease was detected in a small farm in the Maya Mopán Village, Stann Creek District in September 2004 and later on four additional farms. Charac...


Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w\\/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by

Tariq Riaz; Salik Nawaz Khan; Arshad Javaid



First report of corm rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corm rot disease was observed for the first time in banana. The disease was found to occur in the majority of commercial\\u000a cultivars grown in different banana-growing states of India. The incidence of the disease was up to 50% and found to occur\\u000a at an altitude up to 3000 m asl. The pathogen was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii based

R. Thangavelu; M. M. Mustaffa



Comparison of rhizobacterial community composition in soil suppressive or conducive to tobacco black root rot disease.  


Work on soils suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated tobacco black root rot has focused on antagonistic pseudomonads to date. The role of non-Pseudomonas rhizosphere populations has been neglected, and whether they differ in black root rot-suppressive versus -conducive soils is unknown. To assess this possibility, tobacco was grown in a suppressive and a conducive soil of similar physicochemical properties, and rhizobacterial community composition was compared using a 16S rRNA taxonomic microarray. The microarray contains 1033 probes and targets 19 bacterial phyla. Among them, 398 probes were designed for Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes genera/species known to include strains relevant for plant protection or plant growth promotion. Hierarchical clustering as well as principal component analysis of microarray data discriminated clearly between black root rot-suppressive and -conducive soils. In contrast, T. basicola inoculation had no impact on rhizobacterial community composition. In addition to fluorescent Pseudomonas, the taxa Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Burkholderia, Comamonas and Sphingomonadaceae, which are known to comprise strains with plant-beneficial properties, were more prevalent in the suppressive soil. Mycobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirillum and others were more prevalent in the conducive soil. For selected taxa, microarray results were largely corroborated by quantitative PCR and cloning/sequencing. In conclusion, this work identified novel bacterial taxa that could serve as indicators of disease suppressiveness in soil-quality assessments, and it extends the range of bacterial taxa hypothesized to participate in black root rot suppression. PMID:19554036

Kyselková, Martina; Kopecký, Jan; Frapolli, Michele; Défago, Geneviève; Ságová-Marecková, Markéta; Grundmann, Geneviève L; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan



Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against red rot disease in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to fluorescent pseudomonads group were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere.\\u000a Selected strains were studied for the induced systemic resistance (ISR) againstColletotrichum falcatum Went causing red rot disease in the sugarcane stalks by three different resistance evaluation methods. The talc based formulations\\u000a of the PGPR strains were prepared and applied through different methods and in different

R. Viswanathan; R. Samiyappan



Compatibility of biocontrol agents with fungicides against red rot disease of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

For managing red rot disease of sugarcane through integrated approach, studies were conducted on compatibility of biocontrol\\u000a agents with fungicides against the pathogenColletotrichum falcatum Went. The systemic fungicides viz., thiophanate methyl and carbendazim were tested with fungal (Trichoderma) and bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens) biocontol agents.In vitro growth ofP. fluorescens (11 strains) was not affected up to 500 ppm of both the

P. Malathi; R. Viswanathan; P. Padmanaban; D. Mohanraj; A. Ramesh Sunder



Apoptosis as Potato Defense Response against Ring-Rot Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier, we studied factors of Cms virulence and showed that disease symptoms depended markedly on the load of infection [3, 4]. In particular, we found that, in the susceptible potato cultivar, a high infectional load induced numerous extensive necrotic lesions, whereas, in the resistant cultivar, necrotic lesions were local. We proposed that local necrotic lesions resulted from the plant hypersensitive

L. A. Lomovatskaya; A. S. Romanenko; R. K. Salyaev



Catecholamine biosynthesis pathway potentially involved in banana defense mechanisms to crown rot disease.  


Variations in Cavendish bananas susceptibility to crown rot disease have been observed (Lassois et al., 2010a), but the molecular mechanisms underlying these quantitative host-pathogen relationships were still unknown. The present study was designed to compare gene expression between bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA, 'Grande-Naine') showing a high post-harvest susceptibility (S+) and bananas showing a low post-harvest susceptibility (S-) to crown rot disease. This comparison was performed between crowns (S+ and S-) collected one hour before standardized artificial inoculations with Colletotrichum musae. Fruit susceptibility was evaluated through lesion size on the crown 13 days later. Gene expression comparisons were performed with the cDNA-AFLP technique (Lassois et al., 2009). This revealed that a gene showing a strong homology with a dopamine-beta-monooxygenase (DoH) is differently expressed between S+ and S (Lassois et al., 2011). Furthermore, semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses between S+ and S- were applied to confirm the differential expression results for DoH obtained by cDNA-AFLP. Two biological replicates were tested. These semi-quantitative analyses were performed not only on tissues collected one hour before C. musae inoculation but also on crown tissues collected 13 days after inoculation. The real-time RT-PCR confirmed that DoH was upregulated in the S tissues collected at harvest, just before C. musae inoculation. This gene was also highly upregulated in the S- tissues collected 13 days after crown inoculation. Similar results were obtained for both biological replicates. Our results suggest that catecholamine's could play a role in banana defense mechanisms to crown rot disease. PMID:22702179

Lassois, L; De Clerck, C; Frettinger, P; De Lapeyre De Bellaire, L; Lepoivre, P; Haïssam Jijakli, M



Corky root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...


Identification of genes involved in the response of banana to crown rot disease.  


Variations in banana susceptibility to crown rot disease have been observed but the molecular mechanisms underlying these quantitative host-pathogen relationships are still unknown. This study was designed to compare gene expression between crowns of banana fruit showing a high susceptibility (S(+)) and crowns showing a low susceptibility (S(-)) to the disease. Comparisons were performed at two situation times: i) between crowns (S(+) and S(-)) collected 1 h before inoculation and ii) between crowns (S+ and S-) collected 13 days after inoculation. Gene expression comparisons were performed with cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and results were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Among genes identified as differentially expressed between S(+) and S(-) crowns, two were involved in signal transduction, three in proteolytic machinery, two had similarity to pathogenesis-related protein 14, one to a CCR4-associated factor protein, and one to a cellulose synthase. Paradoxically, the overexpression of the cellulose synthase gene was associated with banana showing a high susceptibility in both pre- and post-inoculation situations. Finally, the cDNA-AFLP identified a gene that seems to be associated with the quantitative banana responses to crown rot disease; this gene encodes a dopamine-?-monooxygenase, which is involved in the catecholamine pathway. To our knowledge, this work is the first to address both pre- and post-infection gene expression with the same host-pathogen combination and distinct susceptibility levels. PMID:20854111

Lassois, Ludivine; Frettinger, Patrick; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc; Lepoivre, Philippe; Jijakli, Haissam



Analysis of Yeast Flora Associated with Grape Sour Rot and of the Chemical Disease Markers  

PubMed Central

The frequency and the density of the species associated with grape sour rot in different cultivars were determined. The most frequent species in the rotten grapes, Candida krusei, Kloeckera apiculata, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and a less frequent species, Issatchenkia occidentalis, when inoculated with Saccharomycopsis crataegensis were able to induce in vitro the symptoms of the disease. The gas chromatographic determination of the volatile compounds in the headspace was used to evaluate the metabolic role of the different species associated with the disease. These analyses made it possible to presume that, whereas some species, such as Candida krusei and Hanseniaspora uvarum, can be considered responsible for these modifications and in particular for the ethyl acetate production, others, such as Saccharomycopsis crataegensis, can promote the development of the former species.

Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Marchetti, Rosa



Effect of Indole3Acetic Acid (IAA) Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Suppression of Charcoal Rot Disease of Chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), by rhizobacteria, has been associated with plant growth promotion, especially\\u000a root initiation and elongation. Isolate TO3 selected from 103 fluorescent pseudomonads, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed maximum production of IAA. Isolate TO3 having biocontrol activity against Macrophomina phaseolina also showed production of siderophore and HCN was used to screen the role of bacterial IAA

Ekta Khare; Naveen Kumar Arora



Integrated management of Phytophthora diseases on cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L): Impact of plant breeding on pod rot incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pod rot, caused by several species belonging to the genus Phytophthora, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses worldwide. Among the methods making up integrated disease management (IDM), the creation of resistant cultivars has been identified as a priority in cocoa breeding research programmes. To that end, various experiments have enhanced knowledge about the genetic basis of resistance to

S. Nyassé; M. I. B. Efombagn; B. I. Kébé; M. Tahi; D. Despréaux; C. Cilas



Zinc nutrition effect on the tolerance of wheat genotypes to Fusarium root-rot disease in a solution culture experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) nutrition and plant genotype are two factors that may affect the tolerance of wheat to root-rot diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Zn on shoot yield, root permeability and infection by Fusarium solani in six wheat genotypes with different Zn efficiency. A greenhouse (solution culture) experiment was carried out in which

Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Sahar Kabiri; Hossein Shariatmadari; Bahram Sharifnabi; Rainer Schulin



Colonization of exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus polymyxa on peanut roots for enhancing resistance against crown rot disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Paenibacillus polymyxa (syn. Bacillus polymyxa) which produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) on control of crown rot disease caused by Apergillus niger of peanut was investigated. In an in vitro assay, two strains of P. polymyxa (B5 and B6) were tested against A. niger. Both strains showed inhibitory effect against A. niger. Growth, protein and biopolymers production of bacteria

Wafaa M. Haggag



Fluorescent pseudomonad mixtures mediate disease resistance in rice plants against sheath rot ( Sarocladium oryzae ) disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains were isolated from different agro-ecosystems of Tamil Nadu, India, and\\u000a were tested for their efficacy against the sheath rot pathogen Sarocladium oryzae under in vitro, glasshouse and field conditions. Vigour and a relative performance index (RPI) were used to assay the growth\\u000a promotion and antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas strains against S. oryzae under in vitro conditions. The

Duraisamy Saravanakumar; Nallathambi Lavanya; Kannappan Muthumeena; Thiruvengadam Raguchander; Ramasamy Samiyappan



Characterization of major hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Pythium myriotylum, causative agent for soft rot disease.  


Pythium myriotylum, an oomycetous necrotroph is the causal agent of soft rot disease affecting several crops. Successful colonization by necrotrophs depends on their secretion of a diverse array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). The induction dynamics of CWDEs secreted by P. myriotylum was analysed as little information is available for this pathogen. Activities of CWDEs that included pectinase, cellulase, xylanase and protease were detected using radial diffusion assay and differential staining. In Czapek Dox minimal medium supplemented with respective substrates as carbon source, the increase in CWDE activities was observed till 8 days of incubation after which a gradual decline in enzymatic activities was observed. With sucrose as sole carbon source, all the enzymes studied showed increase in activity with fungal growth while with cell wall material derived from ginger rhizome as sole carbon source, an initial spurt in cellulase, xylanase and pectinase activities was observed 3 days post incubation while protease activity increased from three days of incubation and reached maximum at 13 days of incubation. To further evaluate the role of CWDEs in pathogenicity, UV-induced mutants (pmN14uv1) were generated wherein significant reduction in cellulase, pectinase and protease activities were observed while that of xylanase remained unchanged compared to wild type isolate (RGCBN14). Bioassays indicated changes in infection potential of pmN14uv1 thereby suggesting the crucial role played by P. myriotylum CWDEs in initiating the rotting process. Hence appropriate strategies that target the production/activity of these secretory hydrolytic enzymes will help in reducing disease incidence/pathogen virulence. PMID:23897210

Geethu, C; Resna, A K; Nair, R Aswati



Transgenic Amorphophallus konjac expressing synthesized acyl-homoserine lactonase (aiiA) gene exhibit enhanced resistance to soft rot disease.  


Amorphophallus konjac is an important economic crop widely used in health products and biomaterials. However, this monocotyledonous plant's production is seriously restricted by soft rot disease. Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains generate an endocellular acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA), which has inhibitory effect on soft rot pathogen through disrupting the signal molecules (N-acylhomoserine lactones, AHL) of their Quorum Sensing system. The aim of our study is to obtain transgenic A. konjac expressing AiiA protein and exhibiting resistance to soft rot. But till now, there is not any report about exogenous gene transformation in A. konjac. In this research, an Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was constructed. An aiiA gene was synthesized according to the codon usage in A. konjac. Embryogenic callus was infected with the A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pU1301 plus synthesized aiiA gene. After antibiotics screening, 34 plants were obtained. PCR analysis showed that positive amplified fragments were present in 21 out of these 34 lines. Southern blot analysis indicated that aiiA gene had integrated into the genome of A. konjac. Western blotting demonstrated that the target protein of interest was reactive with the antibody against AiiA. Further disease resistance detection revealed that all of the tested transgenic A. konjac lines exhibited high resistance to soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Ecc) SCG1. The protocol is useful for the quality improvement of A. konjac through genetic transformation. PMID:19898849

Ban, Huifang; Chai, Xinli; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Yi; Zou, Yulan; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming



Effect of acetic acid fumigation on soil-borne fungi and cucumber root rot disease under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acetic acid vapour on soil-borne fungi and root rot disease of cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions was studied. Acetic acid vapour at four concentrations was tested against linear growth and spore germination of some soil-borne fungi, in vitro. The most sensitive fungus to acetic acid vapours was Rhizoctonia solani which inhibited at 4 µl l, while Fusarium solani,

Farid Abd-El-Kareem



Biocontrol of a chickpea root-rot disease complex with Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas putida and Paenibacillus polymyxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas putida and Paenibacillus polymyxa on the growth, chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents and on the root-rot disease complex of chickpea (caused\\u000a by Meloidogyne incognita and Macrophomina phaseolina) were observed. Inoculation of plants with G. intraradices, P. putida and P. polymyxa alone and in combination significantly increased plant growth, pod number, chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus

M. S. Akhtar; Z. A. Siddiqui



Etiology of root and stalk rots of maize in north Queensland. Disease development and associated fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology and development of mesocotyl, root and stalk rots of maize on the Atherton Tableland in north Queensland were\\u000a investigated in two seasons. The identities and relative isolation frequencies of fungi from the mesocotyls, roots and stalks\\u000a were determined at different stages of growth at two sites. Mesocotyl rot was first observed ca. 40 days after planting, and by

M. D. Ramsey



An integrated approach with Trichoderma harzianum DGA01 and hot water treatment on control of crown rot disease and retention of overall quality in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological control of crown rot disease of banana fruit was analysed using an integrated approach combining hot water treatment and Trichoderma harzianum strain DGA01. Treated fruit were stored at 22–25°C and 90–95% relative humidity for 2 weeks. The bioefficacy of fungal antagonist in vitro towards crown rot-causing pathogens namely: Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Colletotrichum musae, and Fusarium verticillioides, was

Dionisio G. Alvindia; Miriam A. Acda



Irrigation management: effects of soybean diseases on seed composition in genotypes differing in their disease resistance under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Nutritional qualities of soybean seed are determined by the quantity and quality of seed composition components (protein, oil, fatty acids, isoflavones, and minerals). Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseol...


Development and validation of a disease forecast model for Sclerotinia rot of carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected crop, microclimate and pathogen variables were monitored in carrot crops for four years to identify important variables associated with the development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the start of epidemics of Sclerotinia rot of carrot. Soil moisture, and occasionally soil temperature, were the variables most closely associated with the development of apothecia and ascospores. Initial development of apothecia and ascospores

Adam J. Foster; Cezarina Kora; Mary Ruth McDonald; Gregory J. Boland



Biological control of collar rot disease with broad-spectrum antifungal bacteria associated with groundnut.  


Bacteria associated with 6 habitats of groundnut were evaluated for their broad-spectrum antifungal activity and suppression of collar rot (Aspergillus niger) of groundnut. Three hundred and ninety-three strains were tested against 8 fungal pathogens of groundnut including 5 necrotrophic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii, and 3 biotrophic fungi, Cercospora arachidicola, Phaeoisariopsis personata, and Puccinia arachidis. Pseudomonas sp. GRS 175, Pseudomonas aeruginosa GPS 21, GSE 18, GSE 19, and GSE 30, and their cell-free culture filtrates were highly antagonistic to all the test fungi. The cell-free culture filtrates of these bacteria were fungicidal and induced mycelial deformations including hyphal bulging and vacuolization in necrotrophic fungi. The cell-free culture filtrates at 10% (v/v) concentration significantly inhibited the spore germination of biotrophic fungi. In the greenhouse, P. aeruginosa GSE 18 emerged as an effective biocontrol agent of collar rot closely followed by P. aeruginosa GSE 19. The bacterium applied as a seed treatment reduced the pre-emergence rotting and postemergence wilting by > 60%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18 effectively colonized the groundnut rhizosphere, both in native and in A. niger infested potting mixtures. Ninety-day-old peat formulation of P. aeruginosa GSE 18 had biocontrol ability comparable with the midlog-phase cells. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18, tolerant to thiram, in combination with the fungicide had an improved collar rot control. The present study was a successful attempt in selection of broad-spectrum and fungicide tolerant biocontrol agents that can be a useful component of integrated management of collar rot. PMID:16091770

Kishore, G Krishna; Pande, S; Podile, A R



The sweet pepper ferredoxin-like protein (pflp) conferred resistance against soft rot disease in Oncidium orchid.  


Genetic engineering to date has not been used to introduce disease resistance genes into the orchid gene pool. The ferredoxin-like protein gene originally isolated from sweet pepper is thought to function as a natural defense against infection due to its antimicrobial properties. Hence it was reasoned that introduction of this gene might produce Oncidium plants resistant to Erwinia carotovora, the causal agent for the soft rot disease. An expression vector containing sweet pepper ferredoxin-like protein (pflp) cDNA, hph and gusA coding sequence was successfully transformed into protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Oncidium orchid, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. A total of 17 independent transgenic orchid lines was obtained, out of which six transgenic lines (beta-glucuronidase (GUS) positive) were randomly selected and confirmed by Southern, northern and western blot analyses. A bioassay was conducted on the transgenic lines. Transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance to E. carotovora, even when the entire plant was challenged with the pathogen. Our results suggest that pflp may be an extremely useful gene for genetic engineering strategies in orchids to confer resistance against soft rot disease. PMID:12779121

Liau, Chia-Hui; Lu, Jian-Cheng; Prasad, Venkatesh; Hsiao, Hsin-hao; You, Su-Juan; Lee, Jent-turn; Yang, Ning-Sun; Huang, Hsiang-En; Feng, Teng-Yung; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chan, Ming-Tsair



Effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro and its effects on disease severity of soybean in the field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina culture growth in vitro and the disease severity of charcoal rot in soybean at Stoneville, MS and Jackson, TN. Glyphosate inhibited M. phaseolina growth in a linear dose dependent manner when ...


The Effect of Potassium Nitrate on the Reduction of Phytophthora Stem Rot Disease of Soybeans, the Growth Rate and Zoospore Release of Phytophthora Sojae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of potassium nitrate (KNO3) application on Phytophthora stem rot disease reduction of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. Chusei-Hikarikuro and Sachiyutaka, and fungal growth and zoospore release of a Phytophthora sojae isolate were investigated under laboratory conditions. The application of 4-...


Pathogenic Fungi and Soil Conditions Causing Root Rot and Wilt Disease Complex during Acclimatization of Tissue Culture-Derived Banana Plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

hizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from banana plantlets produced via tissue culture technique showing root rot-wilt complex disease. Isolation from culture soil mixture under banana plantlets resulted in fungal isolates identical to those isolated from diseased plantlets. These isolates proved to be pathogenic to banana plants causing complex disease symptoms. In vitro test, Rizolex-T and Topsin-M at 200

M. M. Abdel-Kader; M. K. El-Bahr; Nehal S. El-Mougy


Assessment of organic seed treatments in a pea disease nursery to manage seed and root rot on peas, 2008.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-one organic seed treatments consisting of biological, non-biological and a combination of each were evaluated in a pea root rot field nursery in Prosser, WA for their potential to manage seed and root rot pathogens of processed peas. Non-treated seed and a commercial seed treatment (Capta...


Biological Control of Phacidiopycnis Rot in ‘d’Anjou’ Pears  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phacidiopycnis rot, caused by Phacidiopycnis piri, is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of pears (Pyrus) in the U.S. and a major disease of ‘d’Anjou’ pears grown in Washington State. Phacidiopycnis rot can originate from infection of wounds on the fruit. In this study, two biocontrol...


Isolation and identification of an actinomycete strain with a biocontrol effect on the phytopathogenic Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937VIII responsible for soft rot disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erwinia chrysanthemi is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing soft rot disease in several agricultural products. Conventional techniques used in\\u000a the control of this phytopathology have serious limitations due to the emergence of resistant strains and the undesirable\\u000a effect on the environment of chemical treatments. In this work, we report the isolation of an actinomycete strain from a Moroccan\\u000a biotope that inhibits

Abdenbi El Karkouri; Fatima Zahra El Hassani; Mohammed El Mzibri; Mohammed Benlemlih; Mohammed El Hassouni



Combination of oral activated charcoal plus low protein diet as a new alternative for handling in the old end-stage renal disease patients.  


Chronic dialysis is a valid therapeutic option in very elderly ESRD patients, even though the decision to dialyze or not has little impact on survival. Additionally, very old patients usually do not agree with starting chronic dialysis. Even though, activated charcoal is a cheap treatment for working as adsorbent for nitrogenous products its utility is very limited. We studied the combination of a low protein diet and oral activated charcoal to reduce serum urea and creatinine levels in very old ESRD patients who had refused to start chronic dialysis. Nine lucid, very old > 80 years, ESRD patients who had refused to start dialysis were prescribed a treatment based on a combination of a very low protein diet and oral activated charcoal (30 gram/day). None of the patients had anuria, oliguria, edema, significant metabolic acidosis or hyperkalemia. None of them had significant gastrointestinal symptoms. After one week and ten months of charcoal use significant decrease in blood urea and creatinine levels was observed and none of them required emergency dialysis during this time. In conclusion, in patients more than 80 years of age low protein diet and oral activated charcoal may control the uremic symptoms effectively. PMID:20061701

Musso, C G; Michelangelo, H; Reynaldi, J; Martinez, B; Vidal, F; Quevedo, M; Parot, M; Waisman, G; Algranati, L



Biocontrol of root-rot disease of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus amboinicus by using plant extracts as antifungal agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different plant extracts were screened for their potential antifungal activity against Fusarium chlamydosporum causing root rot of Coleus amboinicus and Coleus forskohlii; the aqueous and 50% ethanol extract of Annona squamosa, Azadircta indica, Eucalyptus Spp., Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis, Allium schoenoprasum, Cinnamomum verum Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Calendula officinalis species were found to be effective. Both aqueous and 50% ethanol

Chathuri P. Mudalige; N. S. Jyothi; Uma G. Chikabire; S. T. Girisha




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a major biological constraint to cocoa production in Latin America. The pathogen is still in an invasive phase and poses a continuing threat to other cocoa growing areas of Latin America (Brazil and Bolivia), having recently invade...


Genome Sequence of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum Strain CFBP6276, Causing Blackleg and Soft Rot Diseases on Potato Plants and Tubers  

PubMed Central

Pectobacterium atrosepticum strain CFBP6276 is a pectinolytic enterobacterium causing blackleg and soft rot of the stem and tuber of Solanum tuberosum. Its virulence is under the control of quorum sensing, with N-acylhomoserine lactones as communication signals. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. atrosepticum strain CFBP6276.

Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Beury-Cirou, Amelie



On-farm selection for quality and resistance to pest\\/diseases of cocoa in Sulawesi: (ii) quality and performance of selections against Phytophthora pod rot and vascular-streak dieback  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cocoa industry in Sulawesi, the main region of cocoa production in Indonesia, is threatened by destructive diseases, including vascular-streak dieback (VSD) caused by the basidiomycete Oncobasidium theobromae and stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Using the considerable genetic diversity of cocoa on farms, host resistance was identified and tested with the

Peter McMahon; Agus Purwantara; Agung W. Susilo; Sri Sukamto; Abdul Wahab; Hussin bin Purung; Muhammad Hidayat; Darna Ismail; Tap Taproni; Smilja Lambert; David Guest; Philip Keane



Trichoderma and chitin mixture based bioformulation for the management of head rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) deBary)–root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White; Chitwood) complex diseases of cabbage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of application of different biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp (eight isolates), Pseudomonas fluorescens (four isolates) and Bacillus subtilis (two isolates)) was tested against head rot fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita complex diseases. In vitro studies showed that three Trichoderma isolates (Tvc1, Tvc2 and Thc) were effective in inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungus as well

M. Loganathan; G. V. Sible; S. Maruthasalam; D. Saravanakumar; T. Raguchander; M. Sivakumar; R. Samiyappan



Biocontrol of Collar Rot Disease of Betelvine ( Piper betle L.) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by Using Rhizosphere-Competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collar rot disease of betelvine ( Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. In the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against S. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. Two strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6

Anand Singh; Sangeeta Mehta; Harikesh Bahadur Singh; Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal



Biological Control of Fruit Rot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It now has been discovered that a strain of B. subtilis bacteria effectively inhibits the growth of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) on peaches when applied to preharvest peaches, effectively inhibits the growth of brown rot, gray mold rot (Botrytis ciner...

P. L. Pusey C. L. Wilson



Benzene emitted from glowing charcoal.  


Benzene was assessed as the predominant aromatic compound emitted from glowing charcoal and firewood embers. Concentrations measured above charcoal used for grilling exceeded 10 mg m(-3) at a 5% carbon dioxide level. Charcoal with a high carbon content released less benzene. Glowing wood pellets emitted less benzene than glowing firewood remainders. The emissions of ethene and propene relative to benzene were low for commercial charcoal and wood-pellet embers, but high for firewood ember. The proportions of methylbenzene and naphthalene from charcoal were typically only 10% relative to benzene, and those of benzofuran, dibenzofuran and benzonitrile were typically below 5%. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) indicator phenanthrene was below the 1% level. Adsorbent sampling and GC-MS were used for assessing all the aromatic compounds. Earlier studies of charcoal emissions have focused on carbon monoxide, PAH and dioxins. It is concluded that the carcinogenic benzene may be an even more severe health hazard to be addressed by exposure-decreasing measures. PMID:12606161

Olsson, Maria; Petersson, Göran




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a serious and destructive disease that significantly reduces cotton yield and lowers lint quality. Cultural practices are commonly recommended for the control of cotton root rot, while fungicides and fumigants that may suppress the d...


Laminated Root Rot in Western North America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gib., is a serious root disease affecting Douglas-fir and other commercially important species of conifers in northwestern North America. This report gives an overview of the disease as it occurs in t...

W. G. Thies R. N. Sturrock



Novel thermotolerant laccases produced by the white-rot fungus Physisporinus rivulosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus rivulosus strain T241i is highly selective for degradation of softwood lignin, which makes this fungus suitable for biopulping. In\\u000a order to promote laccase production, P. rivulosus was cultivated in nutrient-nitrogen sufficient liquid media containing either charcoal or spruce sawdust as supplements.\\u000a Two laccases with distinct pI values, Lac-3.5 and Lac-4.8, were purified from peptone-spruce sawdust-charcoal cultures

Kristiina Hildén; Terhi K. Hakala; Pekka Maijala; Taina K. Lundell; Annele Hatakka



Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.



Red Rot of Ponderosa Pine (FIDL) - USDA Forest Service  


Source: Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 123. ... Polyporus anceps Peck is the most important heart rot of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) ... conifers, but it is a common scavenger of dead softwood material throughout North America.


Biomass gasifier and charcoal producer  

SciTech Connect

A gasifier is described for continuous conversion of biomass into charcoal and combustible gas, the gasifier consisting of: a hollow generator having an open top for receiving a continuous supply of the biomass and continuous, unimpeded gravitation of the biomass in the generator; a generally horizontal, flat, slotted grate mounted in the generator and occupying substantially the entire cross-section of the hollow generator for rotation about an essentially upright axis and disposed to receive the biomass thereupon, presenting a char-bed of the biomass on the grate when the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis adjacent the grate; a downdraft air supply pipe extending vertically downwardly into and through the biomass in the generator and provided with tubular tuyeres in the generator disposed to force a continuous supply of combustion-supporting air into and through the char-bed adequate to provide a high exothermic reaction rate and combustion efficiency and production of charcoal on the grate from the biomass; stationary members connected to the generator, above the grate and extending into the char-bed for retarding rotation thereof and breaking the charcoal into separate lumps against the surfaces of which the air impinges, the members being proximal to the grate for shearing the lumps against the slots of the grate to disintegrate the lumps into charcoal particles, and forcing the particles downwardly through the slots and substantially reducing the residence time of the char-bed in the generator; and means for withdrawing the particles and the gas generated during pyrolysis from the generator beneath the grate.

Rogers, C.D.



Fungi associated with leaf spots and post-harvest fruit rots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was undertaken to identify pathogenic fungi associated with leaf spots and postharvest fruit rots of kiwifruit; and to determine possible sources of infection of fruit rot fungi. Isolations from diseased leaves and from flowers most frequently yielded species of Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, and Phoma, whereas the most frequently isolated fungi from both sound and rotting fruit were Diaporthe

B. T. Hawthorne; J. Rees-George; Gary J. Samuels



The Sweet Pepper Ferredoxin-Like Protein ( pflp ) Conferred Resistance Against Soft Rot Disease in Oncidium Orchid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering to date has not been used to introduce disease resistance genes into the orchid gene pool. The ferredoxin-like protein gene originally isolated from sweet pepper is thought to function as a natural defense against infection due to its antimicrobial properties. Hence it was reasoned that introduction of this gene might produce Oncidium plants resistant to Erwinia carotovora, the

Chia-Hui Liau; Jian-Cheng Lu; Venkatesh Prasad; Hsin-hao Hsiao; Su-Juan You; Jent-turn Lee; Ning-Sun Yang; Hsiang-En Huang; Teng-Yung Feng; Wen-Huei Chen; Ming-Tsair Chan



Fusarium species associated with vanilla stem rot in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indonesia is one of the world’s leading producers of vanilla, an important cash crop for smallholders. Stem rot disease is\\u000a a major constraint to vanilla production in Indonesia and has caused significant economic losses over the last decade. Previous\\u000a reports of vanilla stem rots in the Asia-Pacific region include those caused by Fusarium, Colletotrichum and Phytophthora species. In this paper,

A. G. Pinaria; E. C. Y. Liew; L. W. Burgess



Soft rot erwiniae: from genes to genomes.  


SUMMARY The soft rot erwiniae, Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca), E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and E. chrysanthemi (Ech) are major bacterial pathogens of potato and other crops world-wide. We currently understand much about how these bacteria attack plants and protect themselves against plant defences. However, the processes underlying the establishment of infection, differences in host range and their ability to survive when not causing disease, largely remain a mystery. This review will focus on our current knowledge of pathogenesis in these organisms and discuss how modern genomic approaches, including complete genome sequencing of Eca and Ech, may open the door to a new understanding of the potential subtlety and complexity of soft rot erwiniae and their interactions with plants. Taxonomy: The soft rot erwiniae are members of the Enterobacteriaceae, along with other plant pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora and human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. Although the genus name Erwinia is most often used to describe the group, an alternative genus name Pectobacterium was recently proposed for the soft rot species. Host range: Ech mainly affects crops and other plants in tropical and subtropical regions and has a wide host range that includes potato and the important model host African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha). Ecc affects crops and other plants in subtropical and temperate regions and has probably the widest host range, which also includes potato. Eca, on the other hand, has a host range limited almost exclusively to potato in temperate regions only. Disease symptoms: Soft rot erwiniae cause general tissue maceration, termed soft rot disease, through the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Environmental factors such as temperature, low oxygen concentration and free water play an essential role in disease development. On potato, and possibly other plants, disease symptoms may differ, e.g. blackleg disease is associated more with Eca and Ech than with Ecc. Useful websites:, approximately pernalab/erwinia/index.htm,, PMID:20569359

Toth, Ian K; Bell, Kenneth S; Holeva, Maria C; Birch, Paul R J




EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke ABSTRACT Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...


Removal of endosulfan by sal wood charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal efficiency of endosulfan from water by two low cost adsorbents viz. sal wood (Shorea robusta, family—Diptero carpaceae) charcoal and sand along with activated charcoal as the reference was investigated. For the selection of the suitable adsorbent for endosulfan uptake, the maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) was chosen as the main parameter. Using linearized forms of equilibrium models like Langmuir,

P. C. Mishra; R. K. Patel



The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  


A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O



Monilia mumecola , a new brown rot fungus on Prunus mume in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, an anamorphic fungus in the genus Monilia was first isolated as the causal agent of brown rot disease of Japanese apricot or mume ( Prunus mume) in Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Inoculation of flowers, shoots, and fruit of P. mume with the fungus reproduced brown rot disease symptoms similar to those found in nature. The fungus somewhat resembled

Yukio Harada; Shigeo Nakao; Masahito Sasaki; Yumi Sasaki; Yukako Ichihashi; Teruo Sano



Increased Incidence of Erwinia Soft-rot on Calla Lilies in the Presence of Phosphorous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erwinia soft-rot is an important disease of many ornamental potted crops and is one of the most limiting factors in greenhouse calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.) production. Experiments were conducted to test the effect of phosphorous added to soil-less mixes or to nutrient solutions used for irrigation on soft-rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc). Soft-rot incidence increased to 51%

J. A. Gracia-Garza; T. J. Blom; W. Brown; D. P. Roberts; K. Schneider; M. Freisen; D. Gombert



Antidotal effectiveness of activated charcoal in rats  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to investigate the relative adsorption of radiolabeled /sup 14/C-sodium pentobarbital by three types of activated charcoal. Factors affection adsorption of the drug by SuperChar, United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and Darco G-60 activated charcoals with surface areas of 2800-3500 m2/g, 1000 m/sup 2//g, and 650 m/sup 2//g, respectively, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, the drug was dissolved in water of 70% sorbitol (w/v), and the maximum binding capacity and dissociation constants for each of the charcoals were calculated. Rank order of maximum binding capacity was directly proportional to charcoal surface area in both water and sorbitol, while the dissociation constants for the charcoals in water were not different. For in vivo experiments, absorption of orally administered sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) was studied in rats with and without activated charcoal administration. The results of this research suggest that: (1) SuperChar given in water possesses the greatest antidotal efficacy, (2) sorbitol induced catharsis does not reduce oral absorption of sodium pentobarbital, and (3) sorbitol enhances the antidotal efficacy of USP charcoal.

Curd-Sneed, C.D.



Effects of cinnamon extract, chitosan coating, hot water treatment and their combinations on crown rot disease and quality of banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activities of cinnamon extract (CE), piper extract (PE) and garlic extract (GE) were evaluated on banana crown rot fungi (Colletotrichum musae, Fusarium spp. and Lasiodiplodia theobromae) in vitro. The assay was conducted with extracts of CE, PE and GE with concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 0.75gL?1 of carbendazim (CBZ) on potato dextrose agar at

N. Kyu Kyu Win; P. Jitareerat; S. Kanlayanarat; S. Sangchote



Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18 inhibits the cell wall degrading enzymes of Aspergillus niger and activates defence-related enzymes of groundnut in control of collar rot disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18, reduced the pre-emergence rotting and post-emergence wilting of groundnut by >60% in A. niger-infested potting mixture. Bacterial seed treatment induced the rapid accumulation of defence-related enzymes like chitinase,\\u000a ?-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) in groundnut seedlings compared with the control. Activities\\u000a of these enzymes were significantly (P=0.01) higher in GSE 18-treated seedlings than the

G. K. Kishore; S. Pande; A. R. Podile



Herbicide Effects on Sugarcane Growth, Pythium Root Rot, and Pythium arrhenomanes.  


ABSTRACT Six herbicides were evaluated for their effects on Pythium root rot and growth of sugarcane in greenhouse experiments and on in vitro mycelial growth rate of Pythium arrhenomanes. Pendimethalin and atrazine were most inhibitory to mycelial growth, but neither reduced root rot severity. Asulam, atrazine, and metribuzin were not phytotoxic to sugarcane and did not affect root rot symptom severity in clay loam or silt loam field soils. Atrazine and metribuzin increased shoot number, and atrazine increased total shoot weight for treated plants in silt loam soil. Glyphosate, pendimethalin, and terbacil were phytotoxic to sugarcane. These herbicides increased root rot severity, but the extent to which growth reductions resulted from increased disease severity or from direct herbicide injury was not clear. Adverse effects on plant growth and root rot severity were greater in clay loam than in silt loam soil. The results suggest that sugarcane injury from some herbicides is compounded by increased severity of root rot. PMID:18944905

Dissanayake, N; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L



Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping

D. W. Sedgley; A. G. Tobin; T. H. Batzer; W. R. Call



Theophylline absorption by effervescent activated charcoal (Medicoal).  


Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured in six volunteers given 675 mg of a sustained-release preparation (Phyllocontin). Significant reductions in both the mean recorded peak theophylline plasma concentrations and the mean 12-hour theophylline bioavailability were observed after the administration of effervescent activated charcoal (Medicoal) in single and multiple doses. These results indicate the potential use of activated charcoal in the management of theophylline poisoning. PMID:7238997

Helliwell, M; Berry, D



Ferrous sulfate adsorption by activated charcoal.  


Although activated charcoal is thought to not appreciably adsorb iron salts, previous in vitro work indicates some adsorption of iron. This study characterized the adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for ferrous sulfate at 3 pH environments. Langmuir adsorption isotherms were determined with a fixed amount of iron in the reaction vessels. Activated charcoal USP (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 mg) was placed in plastic tubes to which were added 1 of 3 different simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH = 1.5, 4.5, or 7.5) and 1.49% ferrous sulfate in water. The reaction vessels were agitated and immersed in a water bath at 37 C for 30 min. Each series was performed in triplicate. Following temperature eQuilibration filtration yielded an aliquot that was assayed for iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Adsorptive capacities (mean +/- SD) of activated charcoal for ferrous sulfate (mg elemental iron/g charcoal) at pH 4.5 (102.96+/-4.49) and pH 7.5 (100.94+/-19.02) were higher (P<0.01) than at pH 1.5 (-0.01+/-0.26). At pH 1.5 iron was not appreciably adsorbed by activated charcoal. Activated charcoal adsorbed ferrous sulfate to a greater extent at pH environments where iron is typically absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. These results indicate that activated charcoal may prove an effective therapy for acute iron poisoning and further investigation is warranted. PMID:11205069

Chyka, P A; Butler, A Y; Herman, M I



The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...


First report of Calonectria hongkongensis causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit rot is a major pre- and post-harvest disease problem in rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at the USDA-TARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and tissue sections (1 mm2) were superficially sterilized with 70% ethanol and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. ...


Evaluation of an organic treatment for post-harvest control of crown rot of banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic treatment for control of crown rot disease of banana was developed and evaluated at EARTH University in Costa Rica. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Biocto 6 (seed extract from citrus) in combination with the wax-based adjuvant Verdiol for control of post-harvest crown rot of banana. The standard commercial fungicide treatment (thiabendazol, imazalil and ammonium sulfate)

C. Demerutis; L. Quirós; A. Martinuz; E. Alvarado; R. N. Williams; M. A. Ellis



Effect of Cultural Practices and Fungicides on Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in the Carolinas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Southeastern U.S. To develop strategies to manage Phytophthora fruit rot, we evaluated the effects of two cultural practices (raised bare ground and plastic mulched ...


Effect of actigard and other new fungicides on phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. Between 2003 and 2008, we observed many watermelon farms in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, where growers did not harvest the crop due to severe fruit rot. The Natio...


Identifi cation and Confi rmation of Quantitative Trait Loci for Root Rot Resistance in Snap Bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root rot, caused by several pathogens including Pythium ultimum Trow and Aphanomyces eutei- ches Drechs f. sp. phaseoli W.F. Pfender and D.J. Hagedorn, is an important disease com- plex of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives of this study were to identify, map, and validate markers associated with root rot resistance in three snap bean populations. An 'Eagle' ×

Felix Navarro; Michell E. Sass; James Nienhuis



New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in South Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. It has also been considered as an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association (NWA). Managing Phytophthora fruit rot can be dif...


Assessing root traits associated with root rot resistance in common bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting differences in root architecture and growth patterns among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes may provide unique selection criteria for genetic resistance to Fusarium root rot. Genetic variation in root system architecture was quantified for 10 contrasting bean genotypes that represent four common bean classes (kidney, cranberry, black, and snap bean) under greenhouse conditions and under root rot disease

B Román-Avilés; S. S Snapp; J. D Kelly



The effect of long term storage on bacterial soft rot resistance in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial soft rot is a serious disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), causing rapid tuber tissue maceration and, consequently, marketable yield loss. Soft rot bacteria, especially Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pbc), are favored by moist conditions, which are prevalent in large p...


Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...


Preliminary evaluation of bacterial soft rot resistance in native Chilean potato clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuber and stem rots induced by Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora (Ecc) and E. carotovora pv. atroseptica (Eca) are serious diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the southern regions of Chile (2). Resistance in potato to soft rot and black leg has been investigated extensively in Europe and North America (7). However, the native Chilean potato collection has received little

Luigi Ciampi-Panno; Nancy Andrade-Soto



Fungal fruit rots of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the symptoms, etiology, and control of the three main fungal fruit rots of kiwifruit in New Zealand is reviewed. Field rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, affects immature fruits on the vines. Storage rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affects harvested fruits during cold storage. Ripe rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, affects harvested fruits during post-storage ripening.

S. R. Pennycook



Spatiotemporal characterization of Sclerotinia crown rot epidemics in pyrethrum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia crown rot, caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum is a disease of pyrethrum in Australia that may cause substantial decline in plant density. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the disease were quantified in 14 fields spread across three growing seasons. Fitting the binary ...


Evaluation of Eupatorium cannabinum Linn. oil in enhancement of shelf life of mango fruits from fungal rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from 17 higher plants belonging to different families were screened against Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing stem end rot disease and anthracnose disease in mango respectively. The essential oil of Eupatorium cannabinum was found to be fungitoxic in nature against both the mango-rotting fungi. Eupatorium oil was standardized through physico-chemical and fungitoxic properties. Gas Liquid Chromatography

R. K. Dubey; Rajesh Kumar; Æ Jaya; N. K. Dubey



Brassica B-genome resistance to stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in a doubled haploid population of Brassica napus × Brassica carinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem rot (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is an important fungal disease of canola (Brassica napus), causing significant yield losses worldwide. Sources of genetic resistance to this disease in B. napus are scarce; however, Brassica species carrying the B-genome have been reported to possess high levels of resistance to stem rot. In order to transfer resistance from B. carinata to B.

Z. K. Navabi; S. E. Strelkov; A. G. Good; M. R. Thiagarajah; M. H. Rahman



Enzymatic studies on certain fruit-rot fungi—I. Production of cellulase in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulolytic activity of six fruit-rot fungiH. hawaiiense Bougn,A. tenuis Nees isolated from tomato fruits,H. spiciferum (Bain.) Nicot causing fruit-rot of snake gourd,Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boed. inciting black rot of banana,Hendersonula toruloidea Nattrass isolated from decaying fruits of apples andPhomopsis mangiferae Ahmad from diseased fruits of mango are investigated for the activity of Cx and c1 enzymes. The fungi differ significantly

P Laxminarayana; S M Reddy



Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sunflower head rot, incited by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the major diseases affecting this crop. Devastating losses have occurred since 1992 when the major production area of sunflower has received above average moisture and humidity conditions during the growing season. The objective of t...


Wastewater treatment with new activated charcoals to remove butanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of butanol under static conditions on two types of activated charcoals, prepared from birch and a blend of oak and beech, was studied. The adsorption on birch charcoal was carried out under dynamic conditions. The limiting stage of the process was determined. The dependence of the purification efficiency on the fractional composition of activated charcoal and the feed rate

P. A. Krivosheev; L. F. Komarova; M. A. Poletaeva; I. A. Lebedev; S. S. Lavrinenko




Microsoft Academic Search

Fission gas holdup tests on the HRT charcoal beds under simulated ; operating conditions are complete. A radioactive tracer technique developed for ; use in laboratory absorption studies was utilized. The efficiency of the ; charcoal beds, in regard to holdup of fission gases, exceeds design ; specifications. On the basis of these tests, the charcoal beds should perform ;

R. E. Adams; W. E. Browning



Fungus Diseases of Leguminous Crops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chief diseases of leguminous crops were ascochyta blight and root rots; powdery mildew had a more widespread occurrence. Rust, downy mildew (Peronospora pisi), the gray and white rots, and anthracnose (recorded locally) were of significance in a numbe...

V. V. Kotova Z. N. Khaleeva E. G. Shekunova



Charcoal: from antiquity to artificial kidney.  


According to Herodotus, the use of charcoal was introduced in ancient Egypt; however only in 1773 Carl Willhelm Scheele utilized it for adsorbing gases. Finally, Hippocrates Yatzidis in 1963 demonstrated its binding capacity for toxic substances of endogenous or exogenous origin and used it for hemoperfusion systems. PMID:15365971

Marketos, Spyros G; Androutsos, George


Method for manufacturing charcoals from paper sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of manufacturing charcoal comprising the steps of mixing at least one kind of material selected from the group including coffee pulps, almond husks, orange peelings, walnut shells and bean jam waste, etc. is given. With paper sludge, the method involves molding the resultant mixture in any desired configuration, and then allowing the resultant moldings to subject to dry




LCA of eucalyptus wood charcoal briquettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to describe the environmental impact assessment for wood charcoal briquettes produced from eucalyptus wood in Brazil, with specific reference to those impacts associated with Global Warming Potential. To achieve that objective, the work was undertaken in accordance with ISO 14040 \\

Patrick Rousset; Armando Caldeira-Pires; Alexander Sablowski; Thiago Rodrigues



Study of the methodology for charcoal sampling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Charcoal is the most important raw material in metallurgic industry in what concerns pig iron production, as it is used as thermo-reducing agent. An accurate determination of its physical-chemical properties is a decisive factor in order to obtain a stead...

J. B. Oliveira P. A. Gomes C. A. Oliveira



7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....



7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....



7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....



Control of crown rot-causing fungal pathogens of banana by inorganic salts and a surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown rot, a disease complex caused by various fungi, is an economically significant postharvest disease in bananas. Control of banana crown rot-causing fungal pathogens, such as Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, and Fusarium verticillioides by inorganic salts, as well as a surfactant, was evaluated. The conidial germination of pathogens was totally inhibited for 2d at 4gl?1 of Na2CO3, 5gl?1

Dionisio G. Alvindia; Keiko T. Natsuaki



Sclerotinia stem and crown rot of chickpea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White mold of chickpea is caused by three soil borne fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, S. minor and S. trifoliorum, causing either stem rot and crown rot. Stem infection, usually above ground and initiated by ascospores through carpogenic germination of scleroia produces stem rot, whereas crown infe...


Biocontrol Potential of Soybean Bacterial Endophytes Against Charcoal Rot Fungus, Rhizoctonia bataticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 137 bacterial isolates from surface sterilized root, stem, and nodule tissues of soybean were screened for their\\u000a antifungal activity against major phytopathogens like Rhizoctonia bataticola,\\u000a Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium udam, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Nine bacterial endophytes suppressed the pathogens under in vitro plate assay. These were characterized biochemically and\\u000a identified at the genus level based on their partial

M. Senthilkumar; K. Swarnalakshmi; V. Govindasamy; Young Keun Lee; K. Annapurna



Fusarium nygamai.A causal agent of root rot of Vicia faba L. in the Sudan.  


Wilted and rotted plants of Vicia faba were received from different localities in the Sudan. Among several Fusarium spp., Fusarium nygamai was recovered. Conspicuous symptoms were among others black root rot, associated with rot and death of the lateral root system. Severely infected plants showed black neck canker at soil level. These symptoms were usually accompanied by loss of the leaves' turgor, these then turned brown and died. Death of intact leaves also occurred. Most of the strains proved to be pathogenic to Vicia faba. Disease intensity varied between 28-100%. This is the first report of Fusarium nygamai as a pathogen of Vicia faba. PMID:12701431

Kurmut, A M; Nirenberg, H I; Bochow, H; Büttner, C



Pythium irregulare can cause root rot of Platysace lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated Platysace lanceolata cv. Valentine Lace plants in south-east Queensland are affected by root rot that reduces shoot growth and flower production,\\u000a and leads to plant death. Pythium irregulare, Rhizoctonia solani and Cylindrocarpon lichenicola were isolated from diseased roots using selective media and their pathogenicities tested under glasshouse conditions. Parameters\\u000a used to assess disease severity included the proportion of the

J. R. Conway; D. C. Joyce; V. J. Galea; A. H. Wearing



New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.  


In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease. PMID:22438040

Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio



Identification of Microdochium bolleyi Associated with Basal Rot of Creeping Bent Grass in Korea  

PubMed Central

Symptoms of basal rot occurred sporadically on creeping bent grasses growing at a golf course in Hampyeong, Korea in April 2007. Ten isolates of Microdochium sp. were obtained from leaves and crowns of the diseased bent grasses. All isolates were identified as Microdochium bolleyi based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report on M. bolleyi associated with basal rot on creeping bent grass in Korea.

Kim, Wan Gyu; Choi, Hyo Weon; Lee, Sang Yeob



Improved resistance to bacterial soft rot by protoplast fusion between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erwinia soft rot is a destructive disease of Brassica rapa vegetables. Reliable sources of resistance and control methods are limited, so development of highly resistant breeding lines\\u000a is desirable. Protoplasts from B. rapa and B. oleracea genotypes selected for resistance to soft rot were fused in order to combine different sources of resistance. Twelve somatic\\u000a hybrids (synthetic B. napus) were

J. P. Ren; M. H. Dickson; E. D. Earle



Development and evaluation of a model for management of brown rot in organic apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal development of brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) on fruits was analysed in two organic apple orchards on three apple cultivars in Eastern Hungary from 2002 to 2006. The\\u000a three-parameter logistic function gave the best fit to brown rot over four non-linear growth functions in all cultivars, years\\u000a and orchards. Depending on location, year and cultivar, disease increased continuously from 6

Imre J. Holb; Barbara Balla; Ferenc Abonyi; Mónika Fazekas; Péter Lakatos; József M. Gáll



Segregation distortion of Brassica carinata derived black rot resistance in Brassica oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three segregating F2 populations were developed by self-pollinating 3 black rot resistant F1 plants, derived from across between black rot resistant parent line 11B-1-12 and the susceptible cauliflower cultivar ‘Snow\\u000a Ball’. Plants were wound inoculated using 4 isolates ofXanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) race 4, and disease severity ratings of F2 plants from the three populations were scored. A total

Muhammet Tonguç; Elizabeth D. Earle; Phillip D. Griffiths



Identification of Microdochium bolleyi Associated with Basal Rot of Creeping Bent Grass in Korea.  


Symptoms of basal rot occurred sporadically on creeping bent grasses growing at a golf course in Hampyeong, Korea in April 2007. Ten isolates of Microdochium sp. were obtained from leaves and crowns of the diseased bent grasses. All isolates were identified as Microdochium bolleyi based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report on M. bolleyi associated with basal rot on creeping bent grass in Korea. PMID:23990737

Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Wan Gyu; Choi, Hyo Weon; Lee, Sang Yeob



Laminated root rot in western North America. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gib., is a serious root disease affecting Douglas-fir and other commercially important species of conifers in northwestern North America. This report gives an overview of the disease as it occurs in the Pacific Northwest in Canada and the United States. Information on recognizing crown symptoms and signs of the disease is presented. The disease cycle of laminated root rot, from initiation to intensification and distribution within infected stands, is described. Finally, disease management strategies during stand development and at stand regeneration are discussed. Features on mechanical approaches also are included. The report is intended as a general reference for a wide audience.

Thies, W.G.; Sturrock, R.N.



Charcoal in the soil and the Earth System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal occurs in the natural environment as either a result of wildfire or volcanic processes. Charcoal is one of a range of pyrolysis products that may be included in the term black carbon. This paper outlines aspects of charcoal formation (both natural and experimental) and briefly considers the taphonomic processes leading to a final assemblage. This is done using examples from recent fires and through experimentation. In particular, it is shown that the temperature of charcoal formation may influence the rate of subsequent decay. This has significance for biochar studies. While charcoal may remain near the place of it's formation and be buried in soils it still may be affected by physical and chemical changes that result in fragmentation and subsequent loss to the soil. Charcoal may also be washed out of the fire site by overland flow particularly if the rain occurs soon after the fire. Charcoal is abundant in many sedimentary rocks deposited in a wide range of environments, from terrestrial to marine. Charcoal has a long fossil record and is found in rock sequences from the late Silurian onwards. Charcoal provides evidence of the deep time history of wildfire. There is an intimate relationship between the history of oxygen in the atmosphere and periods of extensive wildfires. High atmospheric oxygen levels (around 30%) in the late Palaeozoic and Cretaceous had a profound effect on the Earth System. The use of charcoal for plant evolution studies, fire history studies, vegetation studies, anatomical studies, climate and atmospheric studies and the wider importance of charcoal for the Earth and Biological Sciences will be considered (Scott 2010, Glasspool and Scott in press). Charcoal is information-rich but yet is an under-utilized resource.

Scott, A. C.



In vitro adsorption of dichlorvos and parathion by activated charcoal.  


Accidental and suicidal ingestions of organophosphate compounds continue to be a common occurrence in Turkey. Activated charcoal administration without gastric emptying has been advocated as primary therapy in most acute poisoning cases, although some references do not recommend activated charcoal use in organophosphate poisoning. This study was performed to determine the in vitro adsorption of dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (dichlorvos) and parathion by activated charcoal over a wide range of charcoal:organophosphate ratios (1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1, 10:1 and 20:1, g:g). The charcoal binding ability of dichlorvos and parathion were studied in both pH 1.2 and pH 7 environments. The supernatant was extracted with n-hexane and then analyzed by gas chromatography. Each incremental increase in charcoal dose increased the percent adsorption of dichlorvos and parathion. At the 20:1 ratio, 82.8 +/- 2.0/87.3 +/- 2.9% (pH 1.2/7.0) of dichlorvos and 59.3 +/- 4.5/64.5 +/- 6.1% (pH 1.2/7.0) of parathion were bound by activated charcoal. There were no significant differences in amounts of compound bound in the acid and neutral solutions. Large doses of activated charcoal effectively bind dichlorvos and parathion in vitro. In vivo research should be performed to determine activated charcoal's role in organophosphate poisoning cases. PMID:8145355

Guven, H; Tuncok, Y; Gidener, S; Gelal, A; Demetci, M; Fowler, J; Apaydin, S; Keskin, M



BBQ charcoal combustion as an important source of trace metal exposure to humans.  


To provide information about charcoal combustion as an important source of atmospheric trace metal pollution, 11 charcoal products were combusted and PM(10) filter samples were collected. The PM-bound metal elements were extracted by microwave acid digestion and analyzed by ICP-AES. The concentrations of trace metal elements ranged from a few to 10(5)ng m(-3) in the following order of magnitude: Zn>Pb>Mg>Ba>Cu>V>Cr>Co>Cd>Ni>Mn>Se>As. Emissions of most elements from charcoal combustion were high compared to other sources. In case of Cd, Co, and Ni, their concentrations exceeded the inhalation minimum risk levels (MRLs) of the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US-ATSDR) for chronic duration exposure by a factor of 30, 3.9, and 2.2, respectively. Likewise, Cd levels exceeded the US-ATSDR MRLs for acute-duration exposure by a factor of 10, while those of Pb and Cd exceeded air quality guideline (AQG) of the World Health Organization (WHO) by a factor of 29 and 59, respectively. Mn levels also exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Reference Air Concentrations (RfCs) by a factor of 2.7. This study shows that barbecue charcoal combustion can be an important source of trace metal emissions to the atmosphere with potential health risks. PMID:20031319

Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Won; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee



Charcoal as an alternative energy source. sub-project: briquetting of charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal briquettes have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It appears most realistic to use binders in solution. Binders of this kind have been examined and the briquettes' mechanical properties measured. Most promising are borresperse, gum arabic, dynolex, and wood tar.

Enstad, G.G.



Assessing the mineralisation of charcoal carbon in temperate soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal is pyrolized biomass characterized by its high C content and environmental recalcitrance. Recently 'biochar' has emerged as a concept as a means of long-term C sequestration with a sequestration potential that is comparable with current global anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions (5.5-9.5 Pg C yr-1 and 5.4 Pg C yr-1, respectively). However, charcoal is not a permanent C sink and estimates of charcoal degradation rates vary from the decadal or centennial timescales, with soil residence times in the order of thousands of years. Possible mechanisms of charcoal degradation include biotically and abiotically-mediated transformation and mineralization processes, resulting in a range of products of varying recalcitrance, including CO2. In soil science the decomposition of organic matter is routinely estimated by measuring CO2 efflux, but a key obstacle for the quantification of charcoal-derived CO2 is the accurate and precise apportionment of C sources arising from slow decomposition rates. Moreover, the addition of charcoal to soil can promote decomposition of indigenous soil organic matter and the concomitant increase in CO2 production does not therefore necessarily demonstrate mineralization of the charcoal C. Radiocarbon (14C) offers significant benefits in this regard as a sensitive technique for C source apportionment. We used the 14C content of CO2 respired by a surface soil to quantify the rate of charcoal mineralization, thus demonstrating the efficacy and sensitivity of our 14C approach for estimating charcoal degradation. During incubation the variations in charcoal-derived C mineralization are consistent with the loss of more labile components in the charcoal with a maximum of 2.1% of the evolved CO2-C being attributable to mineralisation of charcoal C. Extrapolation to an annual basis suggests that the loss rate of charcoal C is <1%, supporting the view that rates of charcoal C respiration are slow in temperate woodland soil. Implications for biogeochemical cycling of charcoal C are discussed in context of previous and ongoing work in this field.

Ascough, P. L.; Tilston, E.; Garnett, M.



Effect of soil temperature on potato ring rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Foliage symptoms of bacterial ring rot of potatoes appear much earlier and are more severe at a soil temperature of 25 C than\\u000a at 16, 19, 22, 28, 31, or 34 C. Percentages of tubers infected is about the same at temperatures between 16 and 28 C. In cold\\u000a climates this could result in the spread of the disease without

Charles E. Logsdon



A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...


Biodiversity of complexes of mycotoxigenic fungal species associated with Fusarium ear rot of maize and Aspergillus rot of grape.  


Fusarium ear rot of maize and Aspergillus rot of grape are two examples of important plant diseases caused by complexes of species of mycotoxigenic fungi. These complexes of species tend to be closely related, produce different classes of mycotoxins, and can induce disease under different environmental conditions. The infection of maize and grape with multiple fungal species and the resulting production of large classes of mycotoxins is an example of mutual aggressiveness of microorganisms toward host species as well as to humans and animals that eat feed or food derived from the infected and contaminated plants. Infection of crop plant with a complex of microbial species certainly represents a greater threat to a crop plant and to human and animal health than infection of the plant with a single fungal species. PMID:17765992

Logrieco, A; Moretti, A; Perrone, G; Mulè, G



Stem Rot of Garlic (Allium sativum) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.  


Stem rot disease was found in garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivated from 2008 to 2010 in the vegetable gardens of some farmers in Geumsan-myon, Jinju City, Gyeongnam province in Korea. The initial symptoms of the disease were typical water-soaked spots, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. White mycelial mats had spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia had formed over the mycelial mats on the stem. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, 1~3 mm in size, and tan to brown in color. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was 30?. The diameter of the hyphae ranged from approximately 4 to 8 µm. Typical clamp connection structures were observed in the hyphae of the fungus, which was grown on PDA medium for 4 days. On the basis of the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity of the fungus on the host plants, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of stem rot disease in garlic caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:23956646

Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk



Stem Rot of Garlic (Allium sativum) Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii  

PubMed Central

Stem rot disease was found in garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivated from 2008 to 2010 in the vegetable gardens of some farmers in Geumsan-myon, Jinju City, Gyeongnam province in Korea. The initial symptoms of the disease were typical water-soaked spots, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. White mycelial mats had spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia had formed over the mycelial mats on the stem. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, 1~3 mm in size, and tan to brown in color. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was 30?. The diameter of the hyphae ranged from approximately 4 to 8 µm. Typical clamp connection structures were observed in the hyphae of the fungus, which was grown on PDA medium for 4 days. On the basis of the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity of the fungus on the host plants, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of stem rot disease in garlic caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.



A Theoretical Treatment of Adsorption of Radon Gas on Charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an activated charcoal sampler for radon monitoring has become popular in recent years because of its passiveness and low price. Dynamics of adsorption on a passive sampler have been described with theoretical models. However, extrapolation of the measured results of radon on charcoal to the diurnal fluctuations of the ambient radon concentration is often difficult and even

Ding WANG; Hai-Pang CHIANG; Yuo-Hsien SHIAU; Wan-Sun TSE; Kenneth SKRABLE; Kuang-Pang LI



40 CFR 59.208 - Charcoal lighter material testing protocol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...resulting from the ignition of the barbecue charcoal are, on average, less than...and outlet or equivalent. (xii) Barbecue GrillâThe charcoal shall be ignited in a WeberÎ âGo Anywhereâ barbecue grill (Model Number #121001),...



40 CFR 59.208 - Charcoal lighter material testing protocol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...resulting from the ignition of the barbecue charcoal are, on average, less than...and outlet or equivalent. (xii) Barbecue GrillâThe charcoal shall be ignited in a WeberÎ âGo Anywhereâ barbecue grill (Model Number #121001),...



Charcoal-Burning Suicides and Strategies for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper examines the emergence of a new method of suicide in Hong Kong by carbon monoxide poisoning generated by the burning of charcoal. In just 6 years, it has become the second most common means of suicide after jumping from heights. The profile of these charcoal-burning suicide victims is different from that of other suicide deaths. It seems

Paul S. F. Yip; Dominic T. S. Lee



Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that

Eric Johnson



Catalytic activity of birch charcoal in the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.An investigation was made of the catalytic activity of birch charcoal in the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane to benzene at 600° in the course of the prolonged working of the catalyst. It was found that after 33 hr of work the dehydrogenating activity of the charcoal fell to about 50% of its initial activity. As by-products we then obtained small amounts

N. I. Shuikin; T. I. Naryshkina



The use of charcoal in in vitro culture – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media. Its addition to culture medium may promote or inhibit in vitro growth, depending on species and tissues used. The effects of activated charcoal may be attributed to establishing a darkened environment; adsorption of undesirable\\/inhibitory substances; adsorption of growth regulators and other organic compounds, or the release of growth promoting substances present

M. J. Pan; J. van Staden



Theorizing Access: Forest Profits along Senegal's Charcoal Commodity Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The questions at the centre of this article are: who profits from commercial forestry, and how? Through access mapping with commodity chain analysis, this study examines the distribution of benefits from Senegal's charcoal trade and the multiple market mechanisms underpinning that distribution. Benefits from charcoal are derived from direct control over forest access, as well as through access to markets,

Jesse C. Ribot



Grapevine bunch rots: Impacts on wine composition, quality and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.  


Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these is Botrytis cinerea (gray mold), however there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and fungi found in sub-tropical climates (e.g. Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g. Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimise wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odours and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex impacts on wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimise wine faults, and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified. PMID:23675852

Steel, Chris C; Blackman, John; Schmidtke, Leigh M



Screening of Resistance Genes to Fusarium Root Rot and Fusarium wilt Diseases in F3 family Lines of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using RAPD and CAPs Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium diseases constitute most of the loss in tomato production worldwide, because it spread on all geographic fields that it is so hard to find a place without Fusarium infestation. Thus, the best way to produce tomato is developing resistant cultivars against Fusarium species. In cultivar developing, molecular marker assisted techniques replaced traditional breeding techniques which are high cost and

Cengiz Akkale; Bahattin Tanyolaç


Density and porosity as controls on charcoal storage in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies have documented very low biotic and abiotic decomposition rates of charcoal in the environment, leading to the assumption that it stays within soils after deposition. This assumption forms one tenet of a promising carbon sequestration technique, soil biochar amendment. Laboratory and greenhouse trials with biochar (charcoal produced for addition to soil) do show that charcoal remains in soils after amendment. However, when charcoal has been added to soils in field trials, its retention rate in soils is highly variable. Low retention rates have been reported in some environments, leading to questions about its physical movement across landscapes. Density and porosity are fundamental physical characteristics that play a key role in determining charcoal soil residence time. Measuring the density of charcoal has been challenging historically because of its very high porosity (approaching 80%), making standard fluid displacement methods of density measurement error-prone. Here we review techniques available to measure the density and porosity of BC, focusing on two measurements: skeletal density (the density of the solid component of BC), and envelope density (the mass of a BC sample divided by the volume of its exterior envelope). We present skeletal and envelope density data for environmental charcoal samples and for a series of laboratory-produced charcoals, showing that the skeletal density of charcoal is significantly greater than 1.0 g/cc, while the envelope density is significantly less than 1.0 g/cc. This difference means that pore connectivity and pore structure will be important to quantify to understand landscape movement of charcoal.

Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Ziegelgruber, K. L.; Dugan, B.; Gonnermann, H.; Chuang, V. J.; Zygourakis, K.



Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud



Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.  


Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

Ojima, Jun



Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: Lessons from Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, however, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Pratical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas.

Lockwood, J. P.; Lipman, P. W.



Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)



Results of 2010 Fungicide Trials to Manage Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in South Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. The National Watermelon Association (NWA) has considered this disease as a top research priority because of losses incurred by the growers in NC, SC and GA. For the past several ye...



Microsoft Academic Search

Both southern blight ( Sclerotium rolfsii ) and Fusarium root rot ( Fusarium solani ) are the important soil-borne diseases found in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ) in the Bogor area, including the Seed Technology Experimental Station of Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). Solar heating by means of clear polyethylene sheets to control these two soil-borne diseases was performed in naturally

Tati Budiarti



Watermelon Fruit Age and Development of Phytophthora fruit rot on resistant and susceptible lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of the southeast U.S. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers, especially in GA, SC, and NC. It is considered an important problem by the National Watermelon As...


Lime and charcoal amendments reduce fluoride absorption by plants cultured in a perlite-peat medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lime or activated charcoal effectively reduced fluoride absorption and increased plant dry weight in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracca L.) grown in a fertilized perlite-peat moss medium. Lime in combination with charcoal surpassed that of charcoal alone in reducing fluoride absorption and increasing yields. While the addition of lime or charcoal raised

R. Sheldrake; G. E. Doss; L. E. Jr. St. John; D. J. Lisk




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON PLANT FROM SOUTH END OF BEACH, probably 1901. (From the Robert Teagle Private Collection, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA


Use of guazatine and flutriafol for the control of take-all and Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments with artificially inoculated soil was undertaken to test the efficacy of the fungicide guazatine against\\u000a take-all and Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat (caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and Rhizoctonia solani, respectively) and to develop a chemical control technique against Rhizoctonia root rot. Guazatine was ineffective as a soil-applied\\u000a fungicide against both diseases but, as a

P. J. Cotterill; D. J. Ballinger



Effect of biocontrol agents and biofertilizers on root rot, yield, harvest index and nutrient uptake of cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava is an important subsidiary food and industrial raw material in the tropics. Root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, poses a serious threat to cassava cultivation in Tamil Nadu, India. Field experiments (2008–09) were conducted to study the effect of biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and biofertilizers (Azospirillum, vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) on root rot,

A. C. Hridya; G. Byju; Raj Sekhar Misra



Effects of orally administered activated charcoal on intestinal gas.  


The effectiveness of activated charcoal in treating intestinal gas, following a gas producing meal, was compared with a placebo. Both the number of flatus events and breath hydrogen levels were measured. These experiments showed that orally administered activated charcoal was effective in preventing the large increase in the number of flatus events and increased breath hydrogen concentrations that normally occur following a gas-producing meal. PMID:7015846

Hall, R G; Thompson, H; Strother, A



Impacts of charcoal characteristics on sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene) on three charcoals and their precursor substance (sawdust) was studied. The charcoals obtained by heating at 400°C for different periods were different in chemical composition and structure. Sorption characteristics were described by a Polanyi–Dubinin–Manes model combined with poly-parameter linear free energy relationships. The results revealed that though partition could

Hongwen Sun; Zunlong Zhou



Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments have shown the practicality of using activated carbon (coconut charcoal) at 4 K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. The long-term effects of tritium on the charcoal\\/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL was not known; therefore, a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long-term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber.

Douglas W. Sedgley; Charles R. Walthers; Everett M. Jenkins



Study of dynamics of helium cryosorption by activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimentally based equations describing helium cryosorption process are obtained. They provide the dependence of this process on the temperature of activated pert SKT-2B charcoal and thus allow one to define the principal characteristics of the cryosorption pumps and to optimize them as early as at the design stage.The processes of helium sorption on the pert SKT-2B charcoal made in Russia,

L. S. Gurevich; I. M. Moreva; V. V. Petrovsky; A. V. Pustovoit; A. S. Shelukhin



Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

SciTech Connect

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)



Decay Mechanisms of Brown-Rot Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction (Wood as a Natural Substrate for Decay Fungi, Growth Requirements of Brown-Rot Fungi, Degradation of Wood Polysaccharides, Aim of Present Study); Materials and Methods (Cultivation Methods, Biochemical Analysis, Biomimetic Experimen...

A. C. Ritschkoff



Economic contribution and the potential use of wood charcoal for soil restoration: a case study of village-based charcoal production in Central Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood charcoal production provides affordable energy in many developing countries and has substantially contributed to the economy through the provision of rural incomes. In several countries, charcoal production leads to overexploitation of forests due to inefficiencies in processing. This study was undertaken in central Laos to (1) examine and document traditional charcoal production systems; (2) investigate the production capacity, recovery

Wolde Mekuria; Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung; Chu Thai Hoanh; Andrew Noble



Comparison of Pratylenchus penetrans Infection and Maladera castanea Feeding on Strawberry Root Rot.  


The interaction of lesion nematodes, black root rot disease caused by Rhizoctonia fragariae, and root damage caused by feeding of the scarab larva, Maladera castanea, was determined in greenhouse studies. Averaged over all experiments after 12 weeks, root weight was reduced 13% by R. fragariae and 20% by M. castanea. The percentage of the root system affected by root rot was increased by inoculation with either R. fragariae (35% more disease) or P. penetrans (50% more disease) but was unaffected by M. castanea. Rhizoctonia fragariae was isolated from 9.2% of the root segments from plants not inoculated with R. fragariae. The percentage of R. fragariae-infected root segments was increased 3.6-fold by inoculation with R. fragariae on rye seeds. The presence of P. penetrans also increased R. fragariae root infection. The type of injury to root systems was important in determining whether roots were invaded by R. fragariae and increased the severity of black root rot. Pratylenchus penetrans increased R. fragariae infection and the severity of black root rot. Traumatic cutting action by Asiatic garden beetle did not increase root infection or root disease by R. fragariae. Both insects and diseases need to be managed to extend the productive life of perennial strawberry plantings. PMID:19262852

Lamondia, J A; Cowles, R S



Comparison of Pratylenchus penetrans Infection and Maladera castanea Feeding on Strawberry Root Rot  

PubMed Central

The interaction of lesion nematodes, black root rot disease caused by Rhizoctonia fragariae, and root damage caused by feeding of the scarab larva, Maladera castanea, was determined in greenhouse studies. Averaged over all experiments after 12 weeks, root weight was reduced 13% by R. fragariae and 20% by M. castanea. The percentage of the root system affected by root rot was increased by inoculation with either R. fragariae (35% more disease) or P. penetrans (50% more disease) but was unaffected by M. castanea. Rhizoctonia fragariae was isolated from 9.2% of the root segments from plants not inoculated with R. fragariae. The percentage of R. fragariae-infected root segments was increased 3.6-fold by inoculation with R. fragariae on rye seeds. The presence of P. penetrans also increased R. fragariae root infection. The type of injury to root systems was important in determining whether roots were invaded by R. fragariae and increased the severity of black root rot. Pratylenchus penetrans increased R. fragariae infection and the severity of black root rot. Traumatic cutting action by Asiatic garden beetle did not increase root infection or root disease by R. fragariae. Both insects and diseases need to be managed to extend the productive life of perennial strawberry plantings.

LaMondia, J. A.; Cowles, R. S.



A comparative evaluation of post-infection efficacy of mefenoxam and potassium phosphite with protectant efficacy of azoxystrobin and potassium phosphite for controlling leather rot of strawberry caused by Phytophthora cactorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leather rot, caused by Phytophthora cactorum, is one of the most important fruit-rotting diseases of strawberry worldwide. Efficacy of mefenoxam and potassium phosphite against leather rot, when applied in a post-infection fungicide program, made in response to rain events was evaluated over 3 years of testing. Post-infection treatments of potassium phosphite and mefenoxam were compared with calendar-based treatments of azoxystrobin

A. Rebollar-Alviter; L. L. Wilson; L. V. Madden; M. A. Ellis



Adsorption effects of activated charcoal on metaldehyde toxicity in rats.  


Metaldehyde has been widely used as a main ingredient of solid fuel for making fire and slug baits in Japan. It is also marketed as a color flame tablet for party goods (ENGELFIRE). Consequently, children have been poisoned by eating such tablets which they mistook for candy. As a result, poison information center calls are increasing. According to POISINDEX, the treatment for metaldehyde poisoning consists in prevention of adsorption by activated charcoal, seizure control and airway protection. However, the optimum dose of charcoal is not established. We studied the quantitative adsorption capacity of activated charcoal for acute oral toxicity of metaldehyde in rats. In vivo toxicity and absorption tests for metaldehyde in Wister rats were done. The detoxifying effect of activated charcoal on metaldehyde toxicity and inhibition of metaldehyde absorption were investigated. Ratios used of po activated charcoal given 30 min after dosing to 400 mg metaldehyde/kg po were 5:1, 2:1, 1:1, 0.5:1. Serum metaldehyde was determined by gas chromatography in the control group (no charcoal) and the various experimental groups. Metaldehyde mortality was completely prevented at the ratio of 5:1. Gastrointestinal absorption of metaldehyde was reduced significantly by 45.3% in comparison to the control rats. There was no acetaldehyde detected in the serum of the metaldehyde-dosed rats. Metaldehyde poisoning may be prevented by early po administration of activated charcoal in a ratio of > 5:1 compared to metaldehyde. The theory that acetaldehyde is the primary toxic agent in metaldehyde poisoning should be re-evaluated. PMID:9949477

Shintani, S; Goto, K; Endo, Y; Iwamoto, C; Ohata, K



Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot in Allium tuberosum Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we characterized sporadically occurring sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Roth.) in farm fields in Sacheon, Korea. The initial symptom of the disease was water-soaked, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. Further, mycelial mats spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia formed on the scaly stem and leaves. The sclerotia were globoid, 1~3 mm, and white to brown. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) was 30?. The diameter of the hypae ranged from 4 to 8 µm. Clamp connection was observed on PDA medium after 5 days of incubation. Based on the mycological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot in Chinese chive caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.

Kang, Dong-Wan; Song, Won-Doo; Choi, Okhee



Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot in Allium tuberosum Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea.  


In this study, we characterized sporadically occurring sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Roth.) in farm fields in Sacheon, Korea. The initial symptom of the disease was water-soaked, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. Further, mycelial mats spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia formed on the scaly stem and leaves. The sclerotia were globoid, 1~3 mm, and white to brown. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) was 30?. The diameter of the hypae ranged from 4 to 8 µm. Clamp connection was observed on PDA medium after 5 days of incubation. Based on the mycological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot in Chinese chive caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:22783108

Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kang, Dong-Wan; Song, Won-Doo; Choi, Okhee



Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...


Plant growth promotion may compensate for losses due to moderate Aphanomyces root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year study was conducted to investigate the use of chemically-induced resistance and biocontrol bacteria for reducing sugar beet root rot disease caused by the oomycete organism Aphanomyces cochlioides. Stand establishment, yield, and quality analysis of sugarbeets from replicated field plots...


First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...


Survival of Southern Highbush Blueberry Cultivars in Phytophthora Root Rot-Infested Fields in South Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of commercial blueberries and is most severe when blueberries are grown in wet soils with poor drainage. Symptoms include small, yellow or red leaves, lack of new growth, root necrosis, and a smaller root system than healthy plants. Four studies were conducted in south Mississippi to evaluate the effect of bed height and

Barbara J. Smith



Crop damage from Sclerotinia crown rot and risk factors in pyrethrum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia crown rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor, is a prevalent disease in pyrethrum fields in Australia. Management involves the application of fungicides during the rosette stage of plant development during autumn to early spring in fields approaching first-harvest, althoug...


Pre-breeding for root rot resistance using root morphology and shoot length.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our goal is to identify new wheat varieties that display field resistance/tolerance to root rot diseases, such as those caused by Rhizoctonia and Pythium. We are tapping into the genetic diversity of ‘synthetic’ hexaploid wheats (genome composition AABBDD), which were generated at CIMMYT by artifici...


Etiology and Population Genetics of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Crown and Fruit Rot of Strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ureña-Padilla, A. R., MacKenzie, S. J., Bowen, B. W., and Legard, D. E. 2002. Etiology and population genetics of Colletotrichum spp. causing crown and fruit rot of strawberry. Phytopathology 92:1245-1252. Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and

A. R. Ureña-Padilla; S. J. MacKenzie; B. W. Bowen; D. E. Legard



A homoeopathic drug controls mango fruit rot caused by Pestalotia mangiferae Henn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Effect of 1–200 potencies of ten homoeopathic drugs on the spore germination ofPestalotia mangiferae, the causal organism of banana fruit rot, was studied. On the basis of results of in vivo studies with inhibitory doses of drugs, Lycopodium clavatum potency 190 has been recommended for the control of the disease.

K. K. Khanna; S. Chandra



Internal fruit rot caused by Fusarium subglutinans in greenhouse sweet peppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to isolate the causal organism of internal fruit rot in greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annum), confirm its identity, and elucidate its transmission mode and host range. The effects of inoculum concentration, growth stage of the plant, and cultivar of sweet pepper on disease development were also determined. The causal organism was identified as Fusarium subglutinans. Inoculum concentrations

R. S. Utkhede; S. Mathur



Tillage, Crop Sequence, and Cultivar Effects on Sclerotinia Stem Rot Incidence and Yield in Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

al., 1999; Pennypacker and Risius, 1999). Management practices—including narrow row spacing, increased Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum plant populations, early planting dates, and high soil (Lib.) de Bary, is an important soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) disease in the North Central States. The effect of tillage, crop se- fertility—that are intended to increase soybean yields, quence, and

James E. Kurle; Craig R. Grau; Edward S. Oplinger; Alemu Mengistu




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Berry rot diseases reduce yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but those losses may be minimized by fungicide applications. The fungicides, myclobutanil, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole, were applied sequentially to two muscadine cultivars every ten days beginning at early bloom and stopping at pr...


Remote sensing for assessing cotton defoliation, regrowth control and root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton defoliation and post-harvest destruction are important cultural practices for cotton production. Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton yield and lint quality. This paper presents exemplary applications of remote sensing technology for evaluating cotton def...


Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to Sclerotinia stem rot (S. sclerotiorum) in soybean has been shown to be quantitatively inherited. Two major QTL associated with disease resistance were mapped to linkage groups (LG) A2 and B2; however, genetic gaps were found in these QTL regions. The development of cDNA microarray tech...


Identification and characterization of a novel Iraqi isolate of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot in wheat.  


Crown rot is one of the main important fungal diseases affecting wheat in many areas of the world, including Australia, USA, and Iran. Until now, there had been no report of this pathogen in Iraq. Plants displaying crown rot symptoms were observed in Shaat Alarab (Basra, Iraq); we investigated the causal agent of the disease. Samples were surface-sterilized in bleach (1% available chlorine) and cultured on quarter-strength potato dextrose agar plates. DNA was extracted from fungal mycelia, using a modified CTAB protocol. The ITS/5.8S regions were amplified using primer pair ITS1 and ITS4. PCR products purified using a gel extraction kit were sequenced. The sequence that was detected was used to BLAST against NCBI data. The most similar sequence was the ITS/5.8S rDNA region of Fusarium pseudograminearum (strain NRRL28062), showing 97.95% identity. This species normally causes crown rot, resulting in severe damage under dry spring conditions. A pathogenicity test employed to assess the disease-causing ability of the strain showed significant disease symptoms up to 57% infected spikelets. The results confirmed the presence of F. pseudograminearum as a causal agent of wheat crown rot in Iraq. The presence of this pathogen demands further investigations to develop resistant cultivars and/or mechanical control. PMID:22653580

Hameed, M A; Rana, R M; Ali, Z



Prospects for Inhibition of Lignin Degrading Enzymes to Control Ganoderma White Rot of Oil Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as \\

Russell R. M. Paterson; Sariah Meon; M. A. Zainal Abidina; N. Limab



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1999, 19 plots of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) with a disease focus were established in commercial plantings grown for Christmas tree production in the mountains of five western North Carolina counties. Progress of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi as estimated by mortality wa...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of postharvest lemon diseases by biofumigation with the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus was investigated. In vitro exposure to M. albus volatile compounds for 3 days killed Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, causes of green mold and sour rot of lemons, respectively...


Agrobacterium T-DNA-mediated integration and gene replacement in the brown rot pathogen Monilinia fructicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transformation system utilizing Agrobacterium tumefaciens was developed for targeted gene disruption in Monilinia fructicola, a fungal pathogen that causes brown rot disease of stone fruits. Transformation with a vector containing the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) cassette flanked with 4 kb cutinase gene (Mfcut1) flanking sequences resulted in an average of 13 transformants per 105 spores. When assayed by PCR and

Miin-Huey Lee; Richard M. Bostock




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various volatile natural products are known to have antifungal activities. Blueberry fruit produce aromatic volatiles including trans-2-hexenal that may confer resistance to Anthracnose Ripe Rot, an important postharvest disease caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. To test the hypothesis that aromatic...


Species Identification and Variation in the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Complex mixtures of pathogenic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot, with the contribution by any given fungus to the disease varying from bed to bed, cultivar to cultivar, season to season, and across regions. Furthermore, population variability within the individual fungal species across growing region...


Activated charcoal as a potential radioactive marker for gastrointestinal studies.  


The scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit is currently performed using 111In ion exchange resin pellets delivered to the colon in a capsule coated with a pH sensitive polymer, methacrylate, which dissolves in the distal ileum. However, in the USA, this requires an investigational drug permit. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro binding characteristics of activated charcoal in milieus that mimicked gastric and small intestinal content. The in vitro incubation of activated charcoal was performed with Na99Tc(m)O4, 99Tc(m)-DTPA, 111InCl3, 111In-DTPA, 201TlCl and 67Ga-citrate in the pH range 2-4 and pH 7.2 at 37 degrees C. We estimated the association of radiopharmaceuticals with the activated charcoal over a 3 h in vitro incubation. With the exception of 67Ga-citrate, the association of activated charcoal with the other radiopharmaceuticals was approximately 100% throughout the 3 h incubation. In conclusion, activated charcoal appears to adsorb avidly with common radioisotopes, and appears promising as an alternative to resin ion exchange pellets used for the measurement of gastrointestinal transit by scintigraphy. PMID:9625498

Mullan, B P; Camilleri, M; Hung, J C



Assessment of the elution of charcoal, cellulose acetate, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters.  


This experiment was designed to study the release of cellulose acetate fibers, charcoal, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters. For the first time in such studies, efforts were made to identify the particles that were eluted using other analytical techniques in addition to light microscopy. Other corrective measures were also implemented. During the studies it was found that trimming of larger filters to fit smaller filter housings introduced cellulose acetate-like particles from the fibers of the filter material. Special, custom made-to-fit filters were used instead. Tools such as forceps that were used to retrieve filters from their housings were also found to introduce fragments onto the filters. It is believed that introduction of such debris may have accounted for the very large number of cellulose acetate and charcoal particles that had been reported in the literature. Use of computerized particle-counting microscopes appeared to result in excessive number of particles. This could be because the filter or smoke pads used for such work do not have the flat and level surfaces ideal for computerized particle-counting microscopes. At the high magnifications that the pads were viewed for particles, constant focusing of the microscope would be essential. It was also found that determination of total particles by using extrapolation of particle count by grid population usually gave extremely high particle counts compared to the actual number of particles present. This could be because particle distributions during smoking are not uniform. Lastly, a less complex estimation of the thickness of the particles was adopted. This and the use of a simple mathematical conversion coupled with the Cox equation were utilized to assess the aerodynamic diameters of the particles. Our findings showed that compared to numbers quoted in the literature, only a small amount of charcoal, cellulose acetate shards, and other particles are released. It was also shown that those particles would have a low likelihood of reaching the lung. PMID:16036754

Agyei-Aye, K; Appleton, S; Rogers, R A; Taylor, C R



Smut and Other Corn Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diseases encountered in corn most often were the molding of the sown seeds and of the sprouts, blister smut, bacteriosis, fusariosis and white-ear disease. Gray rot developed less intensively. The stalk rots caused by a complex of microorganisms and a...

F. E. Nemlienko G. V. Grisenko



7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet...



Sudden wilt of capsicum in tropical and subtropical Australia: a severe form of Pythium root rot exacerbated by high soil temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden wilt is the major disease problem confronting the capsicum industry in tropical and subtropical Australia. Plants are\\u000a healthy until fruit set, when they suddenly wilt and defoliate, producing small, shriveled and unmarketable fruit. Observations\\u000a of apparently healthy and sudden wilt-affected plants in the field showed that root rotting was consistently associated with\\u000a the disease. Isolations from rotted roots yielded

G. R. Stirling; L. M. Eden; M. G. Ashley



BBQ charcoal as an important source of mercury emission.  


In this study, the environmental significance of mercury emission has been investigated with respect to the use of the barbecue (BBQ) charcoal. For this purpose, emission gas samples collected from a total of 11 barbecue charcoal products commonly available in the Korean market were analyzed. All of these products consist of both domestic (4 types) and imported products (7 types from three countries). The emission concentration of Hg varied widely from sample to sample ranging from 114 to 496ngm(-3). The amount of Hg emission appeared to be affected by the diverse nature of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. In light of the recent reference exposure limits (REL) of Hg, it can be a potential threat to human health. As such, a proper regulation is desirable from a toxicological viewpoint to reduce the potential risk associated with the use of BBQ charcoal. PMID:18571317

Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Chang-Hee; Jung, Myung Chae; Yoon, H



Activated Charcoal--A Potential Material in Glucoamylase Recovery  

PubMed Central

The potential of activated charcoal in the purification of fungal glucoamylase was investigated. Various concentrations of activated charcoal (1–4%?w/v) were used to concentrate crude glucoamylase from Rhizopus oligosporus at different temperature values (30–50°C). Effects of pH (3.0–6.0) and contact time (0–60?min) on enzyme purification were also monitored. Activated charcoal (3%?w/v) gave a 16-fold purification in a single-step purification at 50°C for 20?min and pH 5.5. The result of SDS-PAGE analysis of purified glucoamylase showed two major protein bands with corresponding molecular weight of 36?kDa and 50?kDa. The method is inexpensive, rapid, and simple which could facilitate downstream processing of industrial enzyme.

Kareem, S. O.; Akpan, I.; Popoola, T. O. S.; Sanni, L. O.



7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any...



7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any...



7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any...



7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any...



7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky...



CONTROLE DA PODRIDÃO P ARDA DO PESSEGUEIRO COM FUNGICIDAS E FOSFITOS AVALIADOS EM PRÉ E PÓS-COLHEIT A Control of peach tree brown rot by fungicides and phosphites evaluated during preharvest and postharvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown rot is the most important disease in peach tree cultivation, but field studies with control methods are currently rare in Brazil. One of the objectives of this study was to select fungicides in the laboratory then test them in the field, additionally to phosphites, for the control of the brown rot. The control was performed by observing the fruit

Luciene Martins Moreira; Louise Larissa; May-de Mio


The growth of Larix gmelinii seedlings as affected by charcoal produced at two different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires burn forest with spatially heterogeneous intensity and charcoals generated at various temperatures during fires exhibit\\u000a variable physical and chemical characteristics. These variable properties of charcoal may, in turn, influence germination\\u000a and growth of tree seedlings. To examine the effects of different charcoal properties on the growth of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii) seedlings, we conducted an experiment with larch-branch-derived charcoals

Kobayashi Makoto; Dongsu Choi; Yasuyuki Hashidoko; Takayoshi Koike



Failure of activated charcoal to reduce the release of gases produced by the colonic flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Activated charcoal is used to treat excessive volume or malodor of intestinal gas. Our previous studies demonstrated that activated charcoal failed to bind appreciable quantities of the volumetrically important gut gases. However, the odor of feces and flatus derives primarily from trace quantities of sulfur-containing gases, primarily H2S and methanethiol, which should avidly bind to activated charcoal. The goal

Fabrizis L Suarez; Julie Furne; John Springfield; Michael D Levitt



Effect of Charcoal Quantity on Microbial Biomass and Activity in Temperate Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfi re-produced charcoal is a common component of soils, affecting a range of important abiotic and biotic soil processes. Our ability to predict the effects of charcoal addition to soil is currently limited, however, by our understanding of how charcoal affects the soil microbial community mediating many of these processes. This study sought to improve our understanding of the relationship

Simone E. Kolb; Kevin J. Fermanich; Mathew E. Dornbush



Multiple charcoal profiles in a Scottish lake: taphonomy, fire ecology, human impact and inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentary microscopic charcoal in lacustrine environments has received much attention, although this has been concerned largely with the deposition of modern charcoal or with distributions through time based on single profiles. Lake sediments are dynamic entities, however, and the phenomenon of sediment focusing, for example, will lead to the redistribution of pollen, spores and charcoal. The process may not always

Kevin J. Edwards; Graeme Whittington



Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil---first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with

T. McClellan; J. L. Deenik; W. C. Hockaday; S. Campbell; M. J. Antal Jr.




EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...


Charcoal remains from an Iron Age copper smelting slag heap at Feinan, Wadi Arabah (Jordan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal remains were analysed from copper ore smelting at Khirbet en-Nahas, an Iron Age site in the region of Feinan between Wadi Arabah and the highland of Edom. For the first time, a section was dug into a stratified slag heap and separate charcoal samples were taken from each layer. Radiocarbon dates from the charcoal range from the 12th to

Thomas Engel



Regeneration of activated charcoal used in decolorization and purification of crude protease from Rhizopus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated charcoal, used for decolorization and purification of crude protease, was regenerated by treatment six times with acetone\\/water (40:60 v\\/v), followed by drying. This multistage leaching followed the leaching equation adapted to multistage leaching. The regenerated charcoal was nearly as effective as fresh charcoal in decolorization and purification of crude protease, but only after drying.

Kaustav Aikat; BimalChandra Bhattacharyya



Method and system for regenerating dehumidifier for use in charcoal adsorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and system for continuously regenerating dehumidifiers of a charcoal adsorber system are provided. Off-gas, including radioactive noble gases, such as xenon and krypton, is physically adsorbed in charcoal adsorbers and discharged to the atmosphere after its radioactivity has decayed. Before passing to the charcoal adsorbers, the off-gas is subjected to dehumidifiers consisting of a molecular sieve or some

T. Saito; M. Takeshima



Activated charcoal – A novel burn rate enhancer of aluminized composite propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the discovery of activated charcoal as an effective burn rate enhancer of aluminized composite solid propellant. Experiments were carried out using a strand burner at pressures ranging from 10 to 70bar with varying fractions of activated charcoal. The results show that with the addition of activated charcoal in an aluminized composite propellant higher burn rates (in excess

Sumit Verma; P. A. Ramakrishna




Microsoft Academic Search

BS>The igition temperature of Columbia G activated charcoal in a flowing ; oxygen stream was determined to be 290 deg C under conditions simulating the ; inlet of the HRT charcoal beds. Calculations of charcoal temperatures resulting ; from beta decay of adsorbed fission gases from the HRT indicate that this ; temperature will not be reached provided the reacter

R. E. Adams; W. E. Browning




EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...



EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to the charcoal that is produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile organic co...



EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simu-lator was constructed and tested to de-termine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that pro-duced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile or-ganic ...



NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun


Impacts upon soil quality and plant growth of bamboo charcoal addition to composted sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the effects of bamboo charcoal on soil contaminant accumulation, soil fertility and plant growth were investigated. The results indicated that sludge composted with bamboo charcoal (BCS) significantly increased plant growth and decreased the mobility of Zn, Cu and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), compared with the composted sludge without bamboo charcoal (CS), with lower absorption and less accumulation

Li Hua; Yingxu Chen; Weixiang Wu



Efficacy and Economics of Management Strategies to Control Anthracnose Fruit Rot in Processing Tomatoes in the Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Byrne, J. M., Hausbeck, M. K., and Latin, R. X. 1997. Effi cacy and economics of management strategies to control anthracnose fruit rot in processing tomatoes in the Midwest. Plant Dis. 81:1167-1172. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum coccodes) is the major fungal disease affecting processing tomato fruit in the midwestern United States. Currently available disease management strategies evalu- ated for controlling anthracnose fruit

J. M. Byrne; M. K. Hausbeck; R. X. Latin



Bacterial corm and rhizome rot of banana (Musa spp.) in Papua New Guinea caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical and pathogenicity tests identified Erwinia chrysanthemi as the causal organism of a serious corm and rhizome rot of banana in lowland Papua New Guinea. The pathogen was repeatedly isolated from diseased tissue and soil surrounding diseased plants, but not from healthy corms or field soil. E. carotovora subsp. carotovora was often a co?isolate with E. chrysanthemi but pathogenicity tests

D. L. Tomlinson; G. A. King; A. Ovia



Determining Tolerance in Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici using Real-Time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southeastern United States. Various rootstocks have been used for grafting watermelon in Asia and Europe to manage soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium ...


A simple method for vapor dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes.  


A method for vapor-dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes (CST) that does not require the expense and effort of a test chamber was used to test the desorption efficiency (DE) of seven solvent vapors, representing six classes of solvents as follows: aromatic hydrocarbons (m-xylene); ether/alcohol (2-ethoxyethanol); vinyl monomers (styrene monomer, vinyl acetate); aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane); aliphatic esters (n-butyl acetate); and aliphatic acrylic monomers (methyl methacrylate). The quantities of the solvents used in these experiments would represent eight-hour exposures to concentrations of approximately 0.2 to 10 ppm. The vapor-dosing experimental system consisted of a loaded filter cassette connected directly to a CST. Vapor was generated by injecting liquid solvent onto the glass fiber filter and drawing air through the system. The solvent was desorbed from the filter and charcoal for analysis. Vapor desorption efficiency was determined from the fraction of the injected solvent evaporated from the filter and the amount recovered from the charcoal. The measured DEs were similar to those reported for liquid dosed charcoal. Vapor dosing of sorbent tubes is more representative of samples collected for industrial hygiene exposure assessment. The system is simple to use and applicable for vapor dosing of any sorbent tube. PMID:7872204

Thomas, M L; Cohen, B S



Evaluating Waste Charcoal as Potential Rubber Composite Filler  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, charcoal in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural products was evaluated as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated styrene-butadiene lat...


Release of offensive odorants from the combustion of barbecue charcoals.  


A number of offensive odorants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, and ammonia were measured along with several reference pollutants (like benzene (B), CS(2), SO(2), CO, and total hydrocarbon (THC)) from combusted fumes of barbecue charcoals produced from five different countries (Korea, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the US). Although the emission concentrations of most odorants were generally below the reference guideline set by the malodor prevention law in Korea, the mean concentration of some aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) and ammonia exceeded those guidelines. As such, aldehydes were the most dominant odorant released from charcoal combustion followed by VOC and ammonia. If odorant levels of charcoal products are compared, there are great distinctions between the products of different countries. If comparison is made using the concept of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), the magnitude of SOI for the charcoal products from the five different countries varied in the order of 4.30 (Korea), 3.10 (Indonesia), 2.97 (China), 2.76 (Malaysia), and 2.76 (the US). PMID:22424818

Mahmudur Rahman, Md; Kim, Ki-Hyun



Experiments in waterlogging and sedimentology of charcoal: results and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil charcoal has a sporadic occurrence in sedimentary rocks since Devonian time. It is moderately common as a component of the organic material found in a wide variety of facies, but there are also some notable concentrations which occur locally. These occurrences have considerable palaeobotanical and palaeoecological value because the process of charring may result in excellent preservation of plant

Gary J. Nichols; Jenny A. Cripps; Margaret E. Collinson; Andrew C. Scott



Emissions from Street Vendor Cooking Devices (Charcoal Grilling).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from thes...

S. Y. Lee



Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production

Xiangfeng Dai; N. Norberg; M. J. Jr. Antal




EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...



EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...


Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...



Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of the atmosphere by radioactive isotopes of iodine ; constitutes a serious biological hazard and, for this reason, provisions should ; be made at reactors to prevent such releases in the event of an accident. The ; efficiency of activated charcoal for adsorption of iodine vapor from air streams ; was measured by using a radioactive tracer method, and

R. E. Adams; W. E. Jr. Browning



Late Triassic charcoal from Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil charcoal has been found in the Late Triassic Chinle Formation in Petrified Forest National Park, a location that is world famous for its silicified tree trunks. The material consists of charcoalified secondary wood, and has sufficiently well preserved plant anatomy to show it may be described as ‘araucarian type’, although it does display some minor differences from the anatomies

Timothy P Jones; Sidney Ash; Isabel Figueiral



Phenolic Constituents of Celosia cristata L. Susceptible to Spinach Root Rot Pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphanomyces cochlioides is a soil-borne phytopatho- genic Peronosporomycete which is responsible for the root rot disease of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and damping-off disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. rapa Dum.). The presence of the potent zoospore attractant, cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylene- dioxyflavone, 1), has been confirmed in a range of host plants in the Chenopodiaceae including sugar beet, 1)

Yaolin WEN; Satoshi TAHARA



Banana Fruit Rot Control in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal rots induced principally by Gloeosporium musarum and Fusarium roseum are responsible for much deterioration in the quality of Jamaican bananas. Thiabendazole and benomyl at 200 and 300 ppm active ingredient respectively, gave good control when used as post-harvest dips; moderate control was obtained with Dithane M-45 and Maneb Z at 2000 ppm. Practical considerations in using these fungicides are

C. A. Shillingford




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium proliferatum is a hyphomycetous fungal pathogen with a wide host range, including onion and garlic. In garlic, invasion by the fungus results in water-soaked lesions, then a progressive tan-brown rot of the cloves. In onion, the fungus may be confined to the outer layers of the bulb, wher...


Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...


Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system.  


Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the bacterial community diversity in treatment with bamboo charcoal was greater than that of the control. Both results demonstrated that amendment with bamboo charcoal can increase microorganism population and microorganism community diversity in a sludge composting system. Moreover, the results of FTIR spectroscopy disclosed that aerobic composting can promote the formation of surface acid groups on bamboo charcoal. These surface acid groups may deprotonate and react with NH4+ to form stable complexes. Therefore, the increase of functional groups accompanied with greater assimilation of nitrogen by microorganisms could reduce nitrogen loss in sludge composting. PMID:21877547

Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang; Ma, Hongrui



A new QTL for resistance to Fusarium ear rot in maize.  


Understanding the inheritance of resistance to Fusarium ear rot is a basic prerequisite for an efficient resistance breeding in maize. In this study, 250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with their resistant (BT-1) and susceptible (N6) parents were planted in Zhengzhou with three replications in 2007 and 2008. Each line was artificially inoculated using the nail-punch method. Significant genotypic variation in response to Fusarium ear rot was detected in both years. Based on a genetic map containing 207 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with average genetic distances of 8.83 cM, the ear rot resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed by composite interval mapping with a mixed model (MCIM) across the environments. In total, four QTL were detected on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, and 6. The resistance allele at each of these four QTL was contributed by resistant parent BT-1, and accounted for 2.5-10.2% of the phenotypic variation. However, no significant epistasis interaction effect was detected after a two-dimensional genome scan. Among the four QTL, one QTL with the largest effect on chromosome 4 (bin 4.06) can be suggested to be a new locus for resistance to Fusarium ear rot, which broadens the genetic base for resistance to the disease and can be used for further genetic improvement in maize-breeding programs. PMID:21559994

Li, Zhi-Min; Ding, Jun-Qiang; Wang, Rui-Xia; Chen, Jia-Fa; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wei; Song, Wei-Bin; Dong, Hua-Fang; Dai, Xiao-Dong; Xia, Zong-Liang; Wu, Jian-Yu



Grapevine Diseases and Their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The important diseases of grapevine, their symptoms and control measures based on experiments conducted in India and in other countries are described here. These diseases are: downy mildew, powdery mildew, anthracnose, black rot, rust, brown leaf spot, fr...

N. V. Sundaram R. Varma



Suicide by burning barbecue charcoal: three case reports.  


We report three cases of suicide in Scotland where barbecue charcoal was purposely burned in confined areas (an outbuilding, a car and a bedroom). External examination of the three cases revealed a distinctive 'cherry red' discolouration to the post-mortem lividity and blood and there were no marks or injuries to the bodies to give any cause for concern. Toxicological analysis of femoral blood samples revealed fatal levels of carbon monoxide (70%, 85% and 80% respectively). Considering the history, circumstances and external findings, a 'View and Grant' examination was conducted in all three cases and the cause of death was attributed to carbon monoxide poisoning due to inhalation of burning charcoal fumes. This particular method of suicide is not common in Europe and is more widely reported in the Far East. PMID:20025107

Brooks-Lim, E W L; Sadler, D W



A fundamental study of cryopumping systems with charcoal sorption panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental study of cryopumping of a charcoal sorption panel with a refrigerator was performed aimed at applications in nuclear fusion experiments. Typical pumping speeds at the cryopanel temperature of 10.4 K for hydrogen, helium and argon were obtained as 3.5 x 10⁻¹, 1.6 x 10⁻² and 1.0 m³\\/s, respectively, in the range of throughout less than 1 x 10⁻⁴

T. Satake; M. Hashiba; Y. Hayashi; M. Mohri; N. Ohsako; T. Yumashina



The charcoal effect in Boreal forests: mechanisms and ecological consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire is the principal disturbance regime in northern Boreal forests, where it has important rejuvenating effects on soil\\u000a properties and encourages tree seedling regeneration and growth. One possible agent of this rejuvenation is fire-produced\\u000a charcoal, which adsorbs secondary metabolites such as humus phenolics produced by ericaceous vegetation in the absence of\\u000a fire, which retard nutrient cycling and tree seedling growth.

D. A. Wardle; O. Zackrisson; M.-C. Nilsson



Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.  

PubMed Central

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases.

D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A



The impact of media reporting on the emergence of charcoal burning suicide in Taiwan.  


We investigated the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning suicide with the incidence of such deaths in Taiwan during 1998-2002. A counting process approach was used to estimate the incidence of suicides and intensity of news reporting. Conditional Poisson generalized linear autoregressive models were performed to assess the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides with the actual number of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides the following day. We found that increases in the reporting of charcoal burning suicide were associated with increases in the incidence of charcoal burning suicide on the following day, with each reported charcoal burning news item being associated with a 16% increase in next day charcoal burning suicide (p<.0001). However, the reporting of other methods of suicide was not related to their incidence. We conclude that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicides appears to have contributed to the rapid rise in the incidence of the novel method in Taiwan during the initial stage of the suicide epidemic. Regulating media reporting of novel suicide methods may prevent an epidemic spread of such new methods. PMID:23383027

Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Gunnell, David; Yip, Paul S F



The Impact of Media Reporting on the Emergence of Charcoal Burning Suicide in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

We investigated the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning suicide with the incidence of such deaths in Taiwan during 1998–2002. A counting process approach was used to estimate the incidence of suicides and intensity of news reporting. Conditional Poisson generalized linear autoregressive models were performed to assess the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides with the actual number of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides the following day. We found that increases in the reporting of charcoal burning suicide were associated with increases in the incidence of charcoal burning suicide on the following day, with each reported charcoal burning news item being associated with a 16% increase in next day charcoal burning suicide (p<.0001). However, the reporting of other methods of suicide was not related to their incidence. We conclude that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicides appears to have contributed to the rapid rise in the incidence of the novel method in Taiwan during the initial stage of the suicide epidemic. Regulating media reporting of novel suicide methods may prevent an epidemic spread of such new methods.

Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Gunnell, David; Yip, Paul S. F.



Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.  


ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F



Variability in oxidative degradation of charcoal: Influence of production conditions and environmental exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal is a key component of the Black Carbon (BC) continuum, where BC is characterized as a recalcitrant, fire-derived, polyaromatic material. Charcoal is an important source of palaeoenvironmental data, and of great interest as a potential carbon sink, due to its high apparent environmental stability. However, at least some forms of charcoal are clearly susceptible to environmental alteration and degradation over relatively short timescales. Although these processes have importance for the role of charcoal in global biogeochemistry, they remain poorly understood. Here we present results of an investigation into the susceptibility of a range of charcoal samples to oxidative degradation in acidified potassium dichromate. The study examines both freshly-produced charcoal, and charcoal exposed to environmental conditions for up to 50,000 years. We compare the proportion of carbon present in different forms between the samples, specifically with respect to the relative chemical resistance of these forms. This was undertaken in order to improve understanding of the post-depositional diagenetic changes affecting charcoal within environmental deposits. A wide range in chemical compositions are apparent both within and between the sample groups. In freshly-produced charcoal, material produced at 300 °C contains carbon with more labile forms than charcoal produced at ?400 °C, signifying a key chemical change over the 300-400 °C temperature range. Charcoal exposed to environmental depositional conditions is frequently composed of a highly carboxylated aromatic structure and contains a range of carbon fractions of varying oxidative resistance. These findings suggest that a significant number of the environmental charcoals have undergone post-depositional diagenetic alteration. Further, the data highlight the potential for the use of controlled progressive oxidative degradation as a method to characterize chemical differences between individual charcoal samples.

Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Francis, S. M.; Thornton, B.; Midwood, A. J.; Scott, A. C.; Apperley, D.



Fusarium root rot incidence and root system architecture in grafted common bean lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Fusarium root rot (caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli) disease severity is increased by environmental factors that stress the plant. The current study used reciprocal grafting\\u000a techniques with the resistant cultivar FR266 and the susceptible cultivar Montcalm to determine if the genetic control of\\u000a resistance is conferred by the rootstock (root genotype) or

Karen A. Cichy; Sieglinde S. Snapp; William W. Kirk



Recent advances in the control of crown rot of banana in the Windward Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives an account of control approaches used against the crown rot disease complex of banana in the Windward Islands during the past 20yr. Fungicide-impregnated pads which were unique to the islands and offered advantages to the smallholder production system were replaced by a mini wet-pack in which bananas are dip-treated in a fungicide suspension, a procedure which was

Ulrike Krauss; Andrea Johanson



Isolation and Preliminary Evaluation of Mycoparasites as Biocontrol Agents of Crown Rot of Banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty mycoparasites were detected using plates precolonized with pathogens of the crown-rot disease complex:Colletotrichum musae(6 strains),Fusarium moniliformevar.subglutinans(2 strains),F. moniliforme,Fusarium pallidoroseum, Botryodiplodia theobromae, andNigrospora sphaerica(1 strain each). Dry leaves, dry flower residues, green leaves, and green peel were compared as mycoparasite sources. Dry leaves were the most prolific source, whereas green material collected in the canopy yielded the least number of

Ulrike Krauss; Rachel Bidwell; John Ince



Nitrogen and crop rotation effects on fusarium crown rot in no-till spring wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium crown rot of wheat (Triticum aestivum), caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum and Fusarium culmorum, is a yield-limiting disease in the dryland wheat-production area of the intermountain Pacific Northwest and is exacerbated in water-stressed plants induced by overfertilizing with nitrogen (N). Plants with excess N deplete water from the soil profile more rapidly and become drought stressed prematurely. Traditionally a problem

Ryan A. Davis; David R. Huggins; James R. Cook; Timothy C. Paulitz



Molecular detection of Fusarium subglutinans, the causal organism of internal fruit rot in greenhouse peppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal fruit rot of sweet peppers, caused by Fusarium subglutinans is a new disease found in commercial greenhouses in British Columbia and Alberta, which causes considerable yield losses. Experiments were conducted to develop a rapid and accurate assay for detection of F. subglutinans, by dot-blot hybridization. Internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) and 5.8S rDNA were amplified by

S. Mathur; R. Utkhede



The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao )—the source of chocolate—in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moni- liophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environ- mental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relation- ships of

M. C. Aime; W. Phillips-Mora



Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and non-treated cotton fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over 100 years. A fungicide, flutriafol, has shown considerable promise for controlling this disease in field studies in the last few years. With the temporary authorization for use of the fungicide to contr...



Microsoft Academic Search

Pleiochaeta root rot, caused by Pleiochaeta setosa , is a world-wide fungal disease in white lupin ( Lupinus albus) crops. The breeding of resistant genotypes is the preferred control method. An improved screening and scoring method was developed to facilitate selection. A 0-9 lesion severity scale was developed and validated. Seedlings were grown in a controlled environment using potting mix

David J. Luckett; Ray B. Cowley; Mark F. Richards; David M. Roberts


Phosphonate applied by trunk injection controls stem canker and decreases Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) incidence in cocoa in Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora are serious diseases of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, causing high yield losses for smallholders, possibly exceeded only by losses due to the cocoa\\u000a pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella. Potassium phosphonate (phosphite) applied by trunk injection has been demonstrated to effectively control canker and

P. J. McMahon; A. Purwantara; A. Wahab; M. Imron; S. Lambert; P. J. Keane; D. I. Guest




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Moniliophthora roreri causes frosty pod rot (FPR) or moniliasis, an extremely destructive disease of cacao that is currently confined to 11 countries in tropical America. The arrival of FPR has had dramatic social and economic consequences in afflicted countries, clearly demonstrating the scale of damage that could result if it becomes dispersed into the major cacao producing countries. The

Wilbert Phillips-Mora; Carlos F. Ortiz; M. Catherine Aime


Difference between chitosan and oligochitosan in growth of Monilinia fructicola and control of brown rot in peach fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chitosan (CS) and oligochitosan (OCS), as natural antifungal agents, have been primarily used as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The effectiveness of these two agents on the growth of Monilinia fructicola to control brown rot has not yet been...


First report of Lasmenia sp. causing rachis necrosis, flower abortion, fruit rot and leaf spots on rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rambutan is an exotic tropical fruit that has increased in commercial importance for growers in Puerto Rico. In 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on both leaves and inflorescences were observed. A total of 276 diseased samples from these plant parts were collected at commercial orchards, Agricult...


The Salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344 grows to 50-fold greater populations in the pres...


Effects of Cultural Practices and Chemical Treatments on Phytophthora Root Rot Severity of Blueberries Grown in Southern Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, is an important disease of highbush, southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberry. Southern highbush cultivars are being grown in the southeastern U.S. for their early fruit production and reduced chilling requirement; however, as the acre...


Detection and assessment of trees with Phellinus weirii (laminated root rot) using high resolution multi-spectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forests of western North America are affected by root diseases caused by several endemic fungi. These have both important economical and ecological impacts. Phellinus weirii (laminated root rot) is particularly important in coastal Douglas fir forests. Forest managers would like to know the location of pockets of Phellinus weirii infected trees for the purpose of salvage, remedial activities and

C. Jay; F. A. Gougeon; R. N. Sturrock; D. Paradine



Radiation and resistance of tubers to rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Sprout-inhibiting doses of ionizing radiation do not increase resistance to infection of wounds by bacteria.\\u000a \\u000a Diffusion of nutrients from wounds, periderm formation, and maceration are processes important in the initiation and development\\u000a of rot. Only periderm formation was affected by radiation in our experiments. Periderm formation is noticeably inhibited at\\u000a doses at, or just above, those suggested for sprout inhibition.

Paul E. Waggoner



Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea  

PubMed Central

The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25? and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea.

Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae



Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.



Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.  


Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering. PMID:23599492

Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten



Soil total and charcoal carbon from mountain shrublands to subalpine forests in the Colorado Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate conifer forests and mountain shrublands in the Rocky Mountain Front Range, Colorado are fire-adapted ecosystems where wildland fires leave a legacy in the form of char and charcoal. Long-term, persistent soil charcoal carbon pools result from the combined effects of repeated wildland fires, aboveground biomass characteristics and soil transfer mechanisms. However, only a few studies have measured these pools in the dominant vegetation types of this region at a watershed scale. We quantified charcoal C in the upper 10 cm mineral soil with a thermochemical digest method which retains only the most recalcitrant C forms for mid-slope positions with east facing aspects and discovered that charcoal C pools do not follow a linear pattern of increasing amounts with elevation gain. A significant statistical effect of vegetation type on soil charcoal C pools along this ecological gradient suggests fire-derived charcoal C forms and accumulates via unique conditions such as fire regime. There is a bimodal pattern of initial charcoal C gain with elevation between mountain shrublands and the lower montane forest types prior to a mid-elevation decline in upper montane lodgepole pine forests before increasing again in the subalpine forests. Charcoal C amounts did not cause a significant increase or decrease in total SOC pools in these vegetation types in contrast with findings for other temperate ecosystems. Both the range of total soil charcoal C and ratios of charcoal C to total SOC are comparable to but lower than other regional estimates. This study yielded one of the largest collections of soil samples analyzed for charcoal C in the United States. Future modeling and field-based efforts are called for after revealing a landscape-pattern of SOC and charcoal C pools across these vegetation types.

Licata, C.; Sanford, R.



Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from bamboo charcoal and the roles of minerals on their growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized from bamboo charcoals by chemical vapor deposition in the presence of ethanol vapor. Fresh bamboo culms were first heat treated at 1000–1500°C to form charcoals. The elemental composition and structure of mineral phases in the bamboo charcoal treated at different temperatures were analyzed. The results showed that Mg2SiO4 and particularly calcium silicate were responsible

Jiangtao Zhu; Juncai Jia; Fung Luen Kwong; Dickon Hang Leung Ng; Sie Chin Tjong


Influence of form of activated charcoal on embryogenic callus formation in coconut ( Cocos nucifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of micropropagation protocols for Cocos nucifera has progressed slowly. Activated charcoal is included in the culture medium of each protocol, mainly to prevent tissue browning.\\u000a Charcoal production procedures can affect the properties of different brands. In this study, eight types of activated charcoal\\u000a were evaluated for their effects on free 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid level, pH, conductivity, and osmolarity of the

Luis Sáenz; Gastón Herrera-Herrera; Frank Uicab-Ballote; José Luis Chan; Carlos Oropeza



Thermal Retention Performance and Gas Removal Effect of Bamboo Charcoal\\/PET Blended Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bamboo charcoal material was added in a polyethylene terephthalate (hereafter referred to as PET) fiber spinning process in various proportions controlled at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% by weight to compose bamboo charcoal\\/PET blended fibers (hereafter referred to as BCE). The halogen light radiation method and thermo-vision analysis were applied to estimate the effect of bamboo charcoal content

Ta-Chung An; Chin-An Lin; Chang-Hsuan Chiu; Chao-Huei Liu; Pei-Ti Hu



Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon Conversion Efficiencies of Kilns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal production worldwide is increasing for energy use in households and industry, but it is often regarded as an unsustainable\\u000a practice and is linked to agricultural frontiers (Prado 2000). The production (Coomes and Burt 1999) and use of charcoal in\\u000a agriculture is common in Brazil and widespread in Asia (Steiner et al. 2004).\\u000a \\u000a The efficiency of biomass conversion into charcoal

SN Swami; C Steiner; WG Teixeira; J Lehmann


The Charcoal Trap: Miombo woodlands versus the energy needs of people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between the dry open savannas and the moist forests in Southern Africa and occupy the vast area of 2.7 Mio km2. These ecosystems are highly disturbed by deforestation, mostly for charcoal production. Charcoal has become the largest source to satisfy urban energy demands. Even though when charcoal is a less energy-efficient fuel compared to

Lutz Merbold; Muchinda Maurice; Mukelabai Mukufute M; Scholes Robert J; Ziegler Waldemar; Kutsch Werner L



Testing the capability of MISR in detecting forest changes caused by charcoal production in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, urban households are largely dependent on charcoal for their energy needs. To date, the effect of charcoal production on forest regeneration rates is not well understood. The aim of this study was to use the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) to assess the relationship between MISR-derived surface values and forest change resulting from charcoal extraction in Senegal. Remote sensing

Karl Wurster



Effects of charcoal production on maize yield, chemical properties and texture of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of charcoal production on soil textural and chemical properties were investigated in Ejura, Ghana. The aim was to study the effects of heating and charcoal residue on maize yield, soil texture and soil chemical properties. Composite samples were taken from the 0–10 cm layer of soil at charcoal-making sites and from adjacent fields (control). Twelve sites were randomly selected

Philip G. Oguntunde; Matthias Fosu; Ayodele E. Ajayi; Nick van de Giesen



Synthesis and microwave electromagnetic characteristics of bamboo charcoal\\/polyaniline composites in 2–40 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal coated with polyaniline was synthesized by in situ polymerization at different bamboo charcoal\\/aniline weight ratio (BC\\/Ani=1\\/1, 1\\/2, 1\\/3) and introduced into epoxy resin to be a microwave absorber. The spectroscopic characterizations of the formation processes of bamboo charcoal\\/polyaniline composites were studied using Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron spin

K. H. Wu; T. H. Ting; G. P. Wang; C. C. Yang; C. W. Tsai



Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.



Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams



Mechanism of decomposition of aromatics over charcoal and necessary condition for maintaining its activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition of mono- to tetra-aromatics over charcoal was investigated under conditions such as temperature; 700–900°C, inlet concentrations of aromatics, steam and H2; 7.5–15g\\/Nm3, 0–15.5vol% and 0–15.5vol%, respectively, gas residence time within charcoal bed; 0.2s, particle size of charcoal; 1.3–2.4mm. The charcoal, with an initial surface area of 740m2\\/g, was active enough to decompose naphthalene completely even at 750°C. Aromatics with

Sou Hosokai; Kazuhiro Kumabe; Mikio Ohshita; Koyo Norinaga; Chun-Zhu Li; Jun-ichiro Hayashi



Over-expression of rice leucine-rich repeat protein results in activation of defense response, thereby enhancing resistance to bacterial soft rot in Chinese cabbage.  


Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. The simple extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain proteins have been implicated in disease resistance. Rice leucine-rich repeat protein (OsLRP), a rice simple eLRR domain protein, is induced by pathogens, phytohormones, and salt. To see whether OsLRP enhances disease resistance to bacterial soft rot, OsLRP was introduced into Chinese cabbage by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two independent transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP were generated and further analyzed. Transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP showed enhanced disease resistance to bacterial soft rot compared to non-transgenic control. Bacterial growth was retarded in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP compared to non-transgenic controls. We propose that OsLRP confers enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot. Monitoring expression of defense-associated genes in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP, two different glucanases and Brassica rapa polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 2, PDF1 were constitutively activated in transgenic lines compared to non-transgenic control. Taken together, heterologous expression of OsLRP results in the activation of defense response and enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot. PMID:22717673

Park, Young Ho; Choi, Changhyun; Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyo Sun; Park, Hong Jae; Bae, Shin Cheol; Ahn, Ilpyung; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju



New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For the past several years, Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (causal agent: Phytophthora capsici) has been considered an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association. Management of Phytophthora fruit rot is particularly difficult because of the long durati...



Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 25 years there has been considerable research on avocado fruit rots. Rot potential can theoretically be reduced from 100% to 6.8% by using copper fungicide application, postharvest Sportak® (prochloraz) application, transport at 6o C, and ripening before sale at 15o C. Orchard surveys have shown that growers generally do not use an adequate copper spray programme and



Feasibility of bioremediation by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ligninolytic enzymes of white-rot fungi have a broad substrate specificity and have been implicated in the transformation and mineralization of organopollutants with structural similarities to lignin. This review presents evidence for the involvement of these enzymes in white-rot fungal degradation of munitions waste, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bleach plant effluent, synthetic dyes, synthetic polymers, and wood preservatives.

S. Pointing



Multiple-dose activated charcoal in acute self-poisoning: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The case-fatality for intentional self-poisoning in the rural developing world is 10–50-fold higher than that in industrialised countries, mostly because of the use of highly toxic pesticides and plants. We therefore aimed to assess whether routine treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal, to interrupt enterovascular or enterohepatic circulations, offers benefit compared with no charcoal in such an environment. Methods We did an open-label, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial of six 50 g doses of activated charcoal at 4-h intervals versus no charcoal versus one 50 g dose of activated charcoal in three Sri Lankan hospitals. 4632 patients were randomised to receive no charcoal (n=1554), one dose of charcoal (n=1545), or six doses of charcoal (n=1533); outcomes were available for 4629 patients. 2338 (51%) individuals had ingested pesticides, whereas 1647 (36%) had ingested yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seeds. Mortality was the primary outcome measure. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with as ISRCTN02920054. Findings Mortality did not differ between the groups. 97 (6·3%) of 1531 participants in the multiple-dose group died, compared with 105 (6·8%) of 1554 in the no charcoal group (adjusted odds ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·70–1·33). No differences were noted for patients who took particular poisons, were severely ill on admission, or who presented early. Interpretation We cannot recommend the routine use of multiple-dose activated charcoal in rural Asia Pacific; although further studies of early charcoal administration might be useful, effective affordable treatments are urgently needed.

Eddleston, Michael; Juszczak, Edmund; Buckley, Nick A; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Warrell, David A



Avocado diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fungi can cause diseases of avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)) of which Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is the most serious. Phytophthora root rot causes extensive losses of avocado trees in nearly every country where avocados are grown. The fungus can be isolated from soil and roots by using selective agar media containing antibiotic chemicals and by using various types of baits

G. A. Zentmyer



Facultative ripening in Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae): effects of fruit removal and rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Costa Rica individual Hamelia patens trees produce fruit throughout the year and experience dramatic changes in rates of fruit removal and rotting. During some moths, most fruits rot because they are not removed. Rotting fruits increase the probability that other fruits on the same infructescence will rot. When removal rates are high, fruits are taken as soon as their

D. J. Levey



Establishment of a bioassay for testing control measures against crown rot of banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two assessment methods for crown rot were compared: the widely used, categorical 0–5 scale and depth of rot penetration. Both were very highly correlated; the latter was more sensitive. The development of a bioassay for testing for crown rot pathogens and control methods is described. The rotting of green peel disks dipped in spore suspensions was significantly correlated with crown

Ulrike Krauss



Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...


Effect of root temperature, plant age, frequency and duration of flooding and inoculum placement and concentration on susceptibility of asparagus to Phytophthora rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions and recommended procedure to maximise disease severity for greenhouse screening of asparagus seedlings for resistance to Phytophthora rot are described. The optimum temperature for disease development on asparagus seedlings inoculated with Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae was 15°C and 18–24°C for P. cryptogea. The same temperatures were also optimal for indirect germination of sporangia of the two species. Young

Peter G. Falloon; R. G. Grogan



Cryosorption pumping of He by charcoal and a compound cryopump design for TSTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the studies of cryosorption pumping of He by charcoal at 4.2 K and between 10 and 20 K. It is concluded that coconut charcoal at 4.2 K is suitable for evacuating He from fusion reactors. A compound cryopump design, which utilizes cryocondensation for hydrogen isotopes and cryosorption for helium is also presented.

H. C. Hseuh; T. S. Chou; H. A. Worwetz; H. J. Halama



Commercial charcoal production in the Ibarapa district of southwestern Nigeria: forestry dividends and welfare implications.  


Logging activities have long provided both wood fuel and charcoal for household and commercial use in rural and urban communities in developing countries. However, logging problems range from deforestation to threatened household air quality from burning wood and charcoal. This exploratory case study triangulated 15 in-depth interviews among charcoal bulk buyers and the workers, observations of workers at two èédú (charcoal) commercial depots in Igbo-Ora and of workers in the forest, and review of studies in academic database. Three categories of people are working in the business ranging from the producers in the forests (alaake) to the bulk buyers (olowo) in the middle and the wholesalers (ajagunta) in the city. A small team of 4-8 people can produce three pickup truck loads of charcoal in 2 weeks, and a large team between 7-8 loads. The olowo and the alaake have associations, membership cards, and meet to discuss business progress and regulate members' economic behavior. Close to 35,000 bags of charcoal of 450 pickup trucks may make the journey weekly from Ibarapa. Overall, the charcoal business is informal, and the local people also frown at cutting any useful indigenous trees ascertaining that an individual's actions may affect the whole community. The role of community health educators is important in the dissemination of effects of deforestation through charcoal production. PMID:22192943

Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R



Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental apparatus was built to study the HâO adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

M. Geynisman; R. Walker



Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.



Cryosorption Pumping of He by Charcoal and a Compound Cryopump Design for TSTA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the studies of cryosorption pumping of He by charcoal at 4.2 exp 0 K and between 10 and 20 exp 0 K. We conclude that coconut charcoal at 4.2 exp 0 K is suitable for evacuating He from fusion reactors. A compound cryopump design, which ...

H. C. Hseuh T. S. Chou H. A. Worwetz H. J. Halama




Microsoft Academic Search

Radiocarbon age determinations of wood charcoal are commonly used to date past forest fire events, even though such ages should be greater than the fire event due to the age of the wood at the time of burning. The difference in the 14C-derived age of charcoal and the time-since-fire (the \\

Daniel G Gavin



Charcoal sorbent-induced hypolipidemia in uremia and diabetes1' 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats with hyperlipidemia associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes or azotemia after subtotal nephrectomy were administered a diet containing 5% activated charcoal. Significant lowering of nonfasting serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulted. Charcoal- feeding also altered the abnormal high density lipoprotein electrophoresis pattern of diabetic rats toward normal. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 1485-1488, 1980.

Thomas Manis; Jack Deutsch; Eben I. Feinstein; Gfford Y. Lum; Eli A. Friedman


Molecular Marker Approach on Characterizing and Quantifying Charcoal in Environmental Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is widely distributed in natural environments including soils, sediments, freshwater, seawater and the atmosphere. It is produced mostly from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to BC due to its potential influence in many biogeochemical processes. In the environment, BC exists as a continuum ranging from partly charred plant materials, charcoal residues to highly condensed soot and graphite particles. The heterogeneous nature of black carbon means that BC is always operationally-defined, highlighting the need for standard methods that support data comparisons. Unlike soot and graphite that can be quantified with well-established methods, it is difficult to directly quantify charcoal in geologic media due to its chemical and physical heterogeneity. Most of the available charcoal quantification methods detect unknown fractions of the BC continuum. To specifically identify and quantify charcoal in soils and sediments, we adopted and validated an innovative molecular marker approach that quantifies levoglucosan, a pyrogenic derivative of cellulose, as a proxy of charcoal. Levoglucosan is source-specific, stable and is able to be detected at low concentrations using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). In the present study, two different plant species, honey mesquite and cordgrass, were selected as the raw materials to synthesize charcoals. The lab-synthesize charcoals were made under control conditions to eliminate the high heterogeneity often found in natural charcoals. The effects of two major combustion factors, temperature and duration, on the yield of levoglucosan were characterized in the lab-synthesize charcoals. Our results showed that significant levoglucosan production in the two types of charcoal was restricted to relatively low combustion temperatures (150-350 degree C). The combustion duration did not cause significant differences in the yield of levoglucosan in the two charcoals. Interestingly, the low temperature charcoals are undetectable by the acid dichromate oxidation method, a popular soot/charcoal analytical approach. Our study demonstrates that levoglucosan can serve as a proxy of low temperature charcoals that are undetectable using other BC methods. Moreover, our study highlights the limitations of the common BC quantification methods to characterize the entire BC continuum.

Kuo, L.; Herbert, B. E.; Louchouarn, P.



Self-clearing dielectric elastomer actuators using charcoal-powder electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study found that compliant electrodes using charcoal powder enable self clearing property to dielectric elastomer actuator. Charcoal powder is applied as compliant electrodes by smearing on a 100% bi-axially pre-stretched dielectric elastomer membrane (VHB 9473), with nominal pre-stretched thickness of 62.3 ?m. This DEA using charcoal-powder electrodes can sustain up 10 kV without terminal breakdown, while those using graphite or silver grease break down at slightly above 2 kV. It is noted that this DEA using charcoal-powder has maximum areal strain at about 45 % at 4 kV, beyond which the strain does not increase further for reduced electrical conductivity. The dielectric elastomer actuator using the charcoal-powder electrodes generate less actuation strain than that using the graphite. However, the former can produce a large actuation stress as it can driven to a higher driving voltage without pre-mature breakdown.

Lau, Gih-Keong; Chua, Soo-Lim; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian Wei Yee



Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance the resistance of peach fruit to brown rot.  


The effects of chitosan and oligachitosan on resistance induction of peach fruit against brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola were investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan showed significant effect on controlling this disease. Moreover, chitosan and oligochitosan delayed fruit softening and senescence. The two antifungal substances enhanced antioxidant and defense-related enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ?-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI), and they also stimulated the transcript expression of POD and GLU. These findings suggest that the effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on disease control and quality maintenance of peach fruit may be associated with their antioxidant property and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. PMID:23544538

Ma, Zengxin; Yang, Lingyu; Yan, Haixia; Kennedy, John F; Meng, Xianghong



Interaction of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae in Strawberry Black Root Rot  

PubMed Central

A split-root technique was used to examine the interaction between Pratylenchus penetrans and the cortical root-rotting pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae in strawberry black root rot. Plants inoculated with both pathogens on the same half of a split-root crown had greater levels of root rot than plants inoculated separately or with either pathogen alone. Isolation of R. fragariae from field-grown roots differed with root type and time of sampling. Fungal infection of structural roots was low until fruiting, whereas perennial root colonization was high. Isolation of R. fragariae from feeder roots was variable, but was greater from feeder roots on perennial than from structural roots. Isolation of the fungus was greater from structural roots with nematode lesions than from non-symptomatic roots. Rhizoctonia fragariae was a common resident on the sloughed cortex of healthy perennial roots. From this source, the fungus may infect additional roots. The direct effects of lesion nematode feeding and movement are cortical cell damage and death. Indirect effects include discoloration of the endodermis and early polyderm formation. Perhaps weakened or dying cells caused directly or indirectly by P. penetrans are more susceptible to R. fragariae, leading to increased disease.

LaMondia, J. A.



Interaction of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae in Strawberry Black Root Rot.  


A split-root technique was used to examine the interaction between Pratylenchus penetrans and the cortical root-rotting pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae in strawberry black root rot. Plants inoculated with both pathogens on the same half of a split-root crown had greater levels of root rot than plants inoculated separately or with either pathogen alone. Isolation of R. fragariae from field-grown roots differed with root type and time of sampling. Fungal infection of structural roots was low until fruiting, whereas perennial root colonization was high. Isolation of R. fragariae from feeder roots was variable, but was greater from feeder roots on perennial than from structural roots. Isolation of the fungus was greater from structural roots with nematode lesions than from non-symptomatic roots. Rhizoctonia fragariae was a common resident on the sloughed cortex of healthy perennial roots. From this source, the fungus may infect additional roots. The direct effects of lesion nematode feeding and movement are cortical cell damage and death. Indirect effects include discoloration of the endodermis and early polyderm formation. Perhaps weakened or dying cells caused directly or indirectly by P. penetrans are more susceptible to R. fragariae, leading to increased disease. PMID:19265969

Lamondia, J A



Factors affecting the infection of fruit of Vitis vinifera by the bitter rot pathogen Greeneria uvicola.  


Bitter rot, caused by the fungus Greeneria uvicola, is one of the most important fruit rot diseases that threaten the burgeoning winegrape (Vitis vinifera) industry in the southeastern United States. Epidemiological studies were conducted to examine the period of fruit susceptibility of V. vinifera to G. uvicola, influence of temperature and duration of wetness on infection, and relative susceptibility of cultivars to bitter rot. In field studies, susceptibility of Merlot, Chardonnay, and Cabernet Franc fruit increased from bloom until véraison in 2003 and from bloom until 2 weeks before véraison in 2004. When detached V. vinifera fruit were inoculated and incubated at 14, 22, 26, and 30 degrees C for 6, 12, 18 or 24 h of wetness, 22.4 to 24.6 degrees C and 6 or 12 h of wetness were the optimal conditions for infection of fruit by G. uvicola. The relative susceptibility of 38 cultivars and selections, including 23 V. vinifera cultivars and five French-American hybrids, was determined in a detached fruit inoculation assay. A wide range in susceptibility was observed among the cultivars and selections. Fruit of cultivars of V. vinifera were significantly more susceptible than French-American hybrids. Isolates of G. uvicola differed in aggressiveness when tested on cv. Chardonnay. PMID:18943226

Longland, J M; Sutton, T B



Influence of dietary charcoal on ochratoxin A toxicity in Leghorn chicks.  

PubMed Central

The ability of activated charcoal to adsorb ochratoxin A (OA) in vitro and to reduce the toxic effects of OA in vivo when added to the diet of growing Leghorn chicks was studied. Activated charcoal (50 mg) was able to adsorb 90% of the OA (150 micrograms) contained in 10 mL of citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). When 2 g of a complete chick diet were mixed with OA in buffer, it adsorbed 66% of the OA, while addition of 50 mg of charcoal to this mixture further reduced the concentration of OA to 11.8% of the control, an additional 65% compared to the diet alone. In the first of two feeding studies, charcoal addition of up to 10,000 parts per million (ppm) to diets (6.7% tallow) containing 9.93 mumol (4 ppm) OA kg-1 diet had no effect on OA toxicity. Feed consumption and weight gain, however, were reduced 10 and 20%, respectively, in chicks fed diets which contained 10,000 ppm of charcoal compared to those fed no charcoal. In the second study, reducing dietary tallow to 2% did not alter the effects of OA or charcoal on weight gain and feed to gain ratio, but birds fed OA with 10,000 ppm charcoal had an 8.5% increase in feed consumption. An additional management problem was associated with the propensity of charcoal to blacken the feed, the birds and their environment. Addition of charcoal to OA contaminated diets appeared to be an ineffective method for reducing the toxic effects of OA in growing chicks.

Rotter, R G; Frohlich, A A; Marquardt, R R



Production of Charcoals from Cultural Waste of Mushroom and Soybean Hull  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to utilize cultural waste of mushroom and soybean hull as coke, conversion from dry cultural waste of mushroom (DCWM) and soybean hull (SH) into charcoal by carbonization at 400-800°C, and conversion from them into formed charcoal were investigated. The thermogravimetry tendency of DCWM was intermediate between xylan and lignin, and that of SH was intermediate between cellulose and xylan. Carbonization of DCWM and SH led to make charcoal with high carbon content and higher heating value than raw material. Regarding charcoal carbonized at 800°C, carbon contents of DCWM and SH were 56 and 72%, higher heating values of them were 20.59 and 25.52 MJ/kg, respectively. It was affected by high ash content of DCWM and SH, that carbon contents and higher heating values of these charcoals were lower than coke. On utilization charcoal of DCWM and SH as coke, a preventative method must be taken regarding lower heating value of these than coke. By hot-press forming at 160°C 98MPa from charcoal carbonized at 250°C of DCWM or SH, these charcoal pellets could be produced. And by carbonization at 300-800°C of the pellet formed at 70°C 98MPa from DCWM, carbonized pellet could be produced. In the same manner for producing carbonized pellet of DCWM, the carbonized pellet of SH could be produced, but maximum temperature of carbonization was about 400°C, from the phenomena that puff occur on the pellet in the process of carbonization of it at 500°C. From these results, it is considered effective for increasing energy density of biomass, to convert from raw material into charcoal or formed charcoal.

Inoue, Yoshiki; Miyamoto, Kazumichi; Machida, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Takeru; Horikoshi, Kenichi; Okamoto, Masashi


Effect of lime and charcoal amendments on fluoride absorption by plants cultured in a perlite-peat moss medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the extent of fluoride absorption by plants, lettuce, ryegrass and spinach were grown in the greenhouse in a potted peat moss-perlite medium with or without added lime and\\/or charcoal. Lime or charcoal were effective in notably reducing fluoride absorption by the plants. Inclusion of charcoal or lime in the medium significantly increased crop yields. In combination

S. Raymond; G. E. Doss; L. E. Jr. St. John; D. J. Lisk



Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land

K. Wurster



Genomic regions associated with incidence of disease in cattle using DNA pooling and a high density single nucleotide polymorphism array  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic regions associated with general disease (respiratory disease, foot rot, and pinkeye) in beef cattle were identified using treatment records on 2,849 animals. General disease cases included animals treated for bovine respiratory disease, foot rot, or pinkeye. Untreated cohorts, matched on b...


Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian Prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium pathogens cause important diseases, such as root\\/crown rot and Fusarium head blight (FHB), in cereal crops. These diseases can be caused by similar Fusarium spp. Common root rot (CRR) is widespread in the western Canadian Prairies, whereas FHB has potential of becoming an important disease in this region. There are no commercially available cereal cultivars with good resistance to

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; P. Basnyat; D. Gehl; F. Selles; D. Huber



Charcoal fluxes into sediments of the North Pacific Ocean: The Cenozoic record of burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal particles occur in sediments of the North Pacific Ocean at least as old as the earliest Cenozoic. The particles have morphologies similar to those from modern trees and shrubs. The charcoal results from plant burning on land; particles subsequently were blown into the ocean. This study measured charcoal concentrations in Cenozoic sediments from 11 Deep Sea Drilling Project sites. Although the charcoal concentrations in Holocene sediments vary considerably, they are consistently greater at temperate and high latitudes than at low latitudes. At each site, Holocene sediment charcoal concentrations also are consistently greater than older sediments at each site. Fluxes of charcoal to the sediment (mass per unit area per unit time) were calculated from the charcoal concentrations and the sediment accumulation rates. Through the Paleogene the charcoal flux remained small; but in the Neogene (at most sites, in the Miocene) the fluxes began to increase, and since the late Neogene the fluxes have been approximately two orders of magnitude greater than in the Paleogene. The increase appears to be real: there has been no chemical or biological destruction of the charcoal, which would cause older fluxes to appear smaller. The size distribution of the charcoal particles, which would be reduced by such destruction, shows no consistent trend through the sediment column. Much of the increased charcoal flux into upper Cenozoic sediments appears to be due to increased plant burning on land; the rest to increased wind transport of the charcoal from land to the ocean. An increase in burning is consistent with paleobotanical and paleoclimatic evidence, which indicates that an increasingly cool climate throughout the Cenozoic increased the relative abundance of temperate, hence more burnable, plants. The amount of burning in turn changed because of changes in the abundance of burnable plants or changes in combustion conditions affected by relative humidity, temperature, or oxygen-nitrogen concentration in the atmosphere. Over the past 5 million years, the estimate for the permanent removal of carbon from the atmosphere as inert charcoal is approximately 1014 g, or about 0.01% of the present atmosphere carbon mass, per year.

Herring, James R.


Temperature calibration formula for activated charcoal radon collectors.  


Radon adsorption by activated charcoal collectors such as PicoRad radon detectors is known to be largely affected by temperature and relative humidity. Quantitative models are, however, still needed for accurate radon estimation in a variable environment. Here we introduce a temperature calibration formula based on the gas adsorption theory to evaluate the radon concentration in air from the average temperature, collection time, and liquid scintillation count rate. On the basis of calibration experiments done by using the 25 m³ radon chamber available at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan, we found that the radon adsorption efficiency may vary up to a factor of two for temperatures typical of indoor conditions. We expect our results to be useful for establishing standardized protocols for optimized radon assessment in dwellings and workplaces. PMID:20937546

Cooper, Alexandre; Le, Thiem Ngoc; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso



Charcoal as evidence of fire regimes in the Pleistocene of the California Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal has been recovered from a range of late Pleistocene sites both in Santa Cruz Island and Santa Rosa Island, belonging to the California Channel Islands. Sediments have been dated using radiocarbon measurements based on wood charcoal, fungal sclerotia, glassy carbon and fecal pellets and are given as calendar years bp. Charcoal assemblages from samples dating from 24,694 to 12,900 years are dominated by coniferous wood charcoal. Little angiosperm charcoal was recovered in any of the samples. Fungal sclerotia are frequent in a number of samples from a range of ages both on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. Fecal pellets are common in most samples and abundant in others. Some of the fecal pellets have hexagonal sides and are likely to represent termite frass. The sediments are fluvial in origin and the distribution of charcoal is irregular. The charcoal records a significant record of fire before the earliest documented human arrival on the islands and there is no evidence for a catstrophic fire triggered by a cometary impact at the onset of the younger Dryas, 12,900 cal years bp.

Scott, A. C.; Hardiman, M.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, R. S.



Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol by the White Rot Fungus 'Phanerochaete chrysosporium'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of (14)C PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture.Mass balance analyses demonstrated the forma...

G. J. Mileski J. A. Bumpus M. A. Jurek S. D. Aust



Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated.

Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.



Charcoal addition to soils in NE England: a carbon sink with environmental co-benefits?  


Interest in the application of biochar (charcoal produced during the pyrolysis of biomass) to agricultural land is increasing across the world, recognised as a potential way to capture and store atmospheric carbon. Its interest is heightened by its potential co-benefits for soil quality and fertility. The majority of research has however been undertaken in tropical rather than temperate regions. This study assessed the potential for lump-wood charcoal addition (as a substitute for biochar) to soil types which are typically under arable and forest land-use in North East England. The study was undertaken over a 28 week period and found: i) No significant difference in net ecosystem respiration (NER) between soils containing charcoal and those without, other than in week 1 of the trial. ii) A significantly higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux from soils containing large amounts of charcoal than from those untreated, when planted with ryegrass. iii) That when increased respiration or DOC loss did occur, neither was sufficiently large to alter the carbon sink benefits of charcoal application. iv) That charcoal incorporation resulted in a significantly lower nitrate flux in soil leachate from mineral soils. v) That charcoal incorporation caused significant increases in soil pH, from 6.98 to 7.22 on bare arable soils when 87,500 kg charcoal/ha was applied. Consideration of both the carbon sink and environmental benefits observed here suggests that charcoal application to temperate soils typical of North East England should be considered as a method of carbon sequestration. Before large scale land application is encouraged, further large scale trials should be undertaken to confirm the positive results of this research. PMID:21329965

Bell, M J; Worrall, F



Effect of copper, nutrient nitrogen, and wood-supplement on the production of lignin-modifying enzymes by the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata.  


Production of the oxidoreductive lignin-modifying enzymes - lignin and manganese peroxidases (MnPs), and laccase - of the white-rot basidiomycete Phlebia radiata was investigated in semi-solid cultures supplemented with milled grey alder or Norway spruce and charcoal. Concentrations of nutrient nitrogen and Cu-supplement varied also in the cultures. According to extracellular activities, production of both lignin peroxidase (LiP) and MnP was significantly promoted with wood as carbon source, with milled alder (MA) and low nitrogen (LN) resulting with the maximal LiP activities (550 nkat l(-1)) and noticeable levels of MnP (3 ?kat l(-1)). Activities of LiP and MnP were also elevated on high nitrogen (HN) complex medium when supplemented with spruce and charcoal. Maximal laccase activities (22 and 29 ?kat l(-1)) were obtained in extra high nitrogen (eHN) containing defined and complex media supplemented with 1.5 mM Cu(2+). However, the nitrogen source, either peptone or ammonium nitrate and asparagine, caused no stimulation on laccase production without Cu-supplement. This is also the first report to demonstrate a new, on high Cu(2+) amended medium produced extracellular laccase of P. radiata with pI value of 4.9, thereby complementing our previous findings on gene expression, and cloning of a second laccase of this fungus. PMID:23332834

Mäkelä, Miia R; Lundell, Taina; Hatakka, Annele; Hildén, Kristiina



Degradation of xenobiotics by white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi such as P. chrysosporium degrade the nonrepeating, nonstereoselective, insoluble polymer lignin under conditions of nutrient limitation. The attack on lignin principally involves extracellular peroxidases (ligninases) and hydrogen peroxide. Hydroxyl radicals may also make a significant contribution. The ligninolytic system lends itself to the degradation of xenobiotics, since these often have limited solubility in water and are not readily available in soil to intracellular metabolism. A nonspecific attack should proceed at a rate independent of the target's concentration and the fungal system would be expected to remediate soil contaminated with a mixture of compounds. This contrasts with the need for induction and problems with simultaneous metabolism encountered with bacterial inoculation. The P. chrysosporium system has been found active against such diverse substrates as DDT, lindane, PCBs, TNT and crystal violet, with substantial mineralization in many cases. Some like biphenyl and triphenylmethane dyes are structurally related to lignin substructures while others bear groups such as nitro (TNT) or halogen (PCP) that are absent from the natural polymer. The fate of transformed targets varies: pentachlorophenol is incorporated into soil organic matter as a result of fungal ligninase action, whereas highly lipophilic Aroclor PCBs are converted to water-soluble metabolites. Normally less toxic intermediates are generated: for example, with benzo(a)pyrene, mutagenic arene oxides do not appear in the white rot fungal system. In certain cases, purified ligninases were also active in degrading pollutants such as PCP, benzo(a)pyrene or triphenylmethane dyes. Methods of optimizing ligninase activity in fungal reactors have been described. 257 references.

Higson, F.K. (Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside (United States))



Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by wood-rotting fungi.  

PubMed Central

The veterinary fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin was degraded in vitro by four species of wood-rotting fungi growing on wetted wheat straw containing carbonyl-14C-labeled drug. A maximum 14CO2 production of 17% per week was observed with the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum, resulting in up to 53% after 8 weeks. However, rates reached at most 0.2 and 0.9% per week, if enrofloxacin was preadsorbed to native or gamma ray-sterilized soil, respectively.

Martens, R; Wetzstein, H G; Zadrazil, F; Capelari, M; Hoffmann, P; Schmeer, N



Fruit rot of Strawberry pear (pitaya) caused by Bipolaris cactivora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strawberry pear (pitahaya, pitaya) [Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britt. and Rose] postharvest fruit rot was found at an agricultural products store in Itoman city, Okinawa Prefecture\\u000a in 2006. The symptoms included depressed, water-soaked lesions with olive to black powdery spots coalescing into a soft rot.\\u000a The causal fungus was identified as Bipolaris cactivora (Petrak) Alcorn. This is the first report of

Satoshi Taba; Nao Miyahira; Kanami Nasu; Tetsuya Takushi; Zen-ichi Moromizato



Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire in the Swiss Alps - implications for fire history reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correct interpretation of charcoal records in a palaeoecological context requires the understanding of the sources and transport of charcoal particles. Conventionally, it is assumed that macroscopic charcoal particles are not transported far from fires (c. 200m). Therefore macroscopic charcoal records are used to reconstruct local fire frequencies. However, the general scarcity of empirical and experimental evidence impedes a thorough

Willy Tinner; Simone Hofstetter; Fabienne Zeugin; Marco Conedera; Thomas Wohlgemuth; Lukas Zimmermann; Roman Zweifel



Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR) is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20?%, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM) is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM) that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P?



Phenolic constituents of Celosia cristata L. susceptible to spinach root rot pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides.  


Cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone, 1), known as a host-specific attractant towards the zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides, a cause of root rot and damping-off diseases of Chenopodiaceae, was found in the Amaranthaceae plant, Celosia cristata, that is susceptible to the pathogen. The content of 1 in Celosia seedlings was quantified as 1.4 microg/g fresh weight. A new isoflavone, cristatein (5-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 2), and five known flavonoids were also identified. PMID:17031042

Wen, Yaolin; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Tahara, Satoshi



Some laboratory and field data on ring-rot of potatoes in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The ooze test,i.e. observation of the masses of bacteria coming out of the diseased tissues in water mounts under the low power has been successfully\\u000a used in California in diagnosing ring-rot of potatoes. It is considered to be a presumptive test.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Incubation of seed pieces harboring the pathogen in a suitable substratum, such as peat-moss or soil

P. A. Ark



Plant defense activation and management of tomato root rot by a chitin-fortified Trichoderma\\/Hypocrea formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major soilborne disease resulting in significant yield loss. The culture filtrates of six isolates of Trichoderma\\/Hypocrea species were evaluated for in vitro production of hydrolytic enzymes. Results demonstrated that all the six isolates were able to produce chitinase, ?-1, 3 glucanase\\u000a and protease in the range of 76–235 ?mol GlcNAc min-1 mg-1

Manoj Kumar Solanki; Nidhi Singh; Rajesh Kumar Singh; Pratiksha Singh; Alok K. Srivastava; Sudheer Kumar; Prem L. Kashyap; Dilip K. Arora


Soft rot inciting Pectobacterium carotovorum (syn. Erwinia carotovora ) is unlikely to be transmitted as a latent pathogen in micropropagated banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to ascertain if the soft rot inciting Pectobacterium carotovorum\\/Erwinia carotovora would pass through the micropropagated bananas as a latent pathogen and cause disease during or post acclimatization. In\\u000a vitro cultures of ‘Grand Naine’ were exposed to the pathogen by providing 100 ?l of inoculum (0.001–1.0 at OD600 nm) at the lower leaf axil. These cultures showed a gradual

Pious Thomas; Chinnaian Goplakrishnan; Manem Krishnareddy



Integrated control of grape berry moth ( Lobesia botrana), powdery mildew ( Uncinula necator), downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola) and grapevine sour rot ( Acetobacter spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling the most important vineyard pest and diseases (grape berry moth, powdery mildew, downy mildew and sour rot) was investigated in an experimental plot in Jumilla (Murcia, SE Spain) during 1995 and 1996. Two concepts of pest control were compared: the first, traditional pest management (TPM), was based on preventive treatments according to the established agricultural practice of the area;

J Oliva; S Navarro; G Navarro; M. A Cámara; A Barba



The effect of cane molasses amendment on biocontrol of frosty pod rot ( Moniliophthora roreri) and black pod ( Phytophthora spp.) of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao) in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and black pod (BP), caused by Phytophthora spp., of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cause combined pod losses of more than 80% in Panama. Biological control of both diseases appeared promising in Peru and is desired by certified organic producers in Panama. We evaluated both local and Peruvian fungal antagonists in participatory trials on

Ulrike Krauss; G. Martijn ten Hoopen; Eduardo Hidalgo; Adolfo Martínez; Tim Stirrup; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Manuel Palacios



The eVect of cane molasses amendment on biocontrol of frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) and black pod (Phytophthora spp.) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and black pod (BP), caused by Phytophthora spp., of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cause combined pod losses of more than 80% in Panama. Biological control of both diseases appeared promising in Peru and is desired by certiWed organic producers in Panama. We evaluated both local and Peruvian fungal antagonists in participatory trials on

Ulrike Krauss; G. Martijn; Eduardo Hidalgo; Adolfo Martínez; Tim Stirrup; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Manuel Palacios


Improving the formulation and timing of application of endophytic biocontrol and chemical agents against frosty pod rot ( Moniliophthora roreri) in cocoa ( Theobroma cacao)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, reduces yields of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) by over 80% within a few years of disease outbreak. Both biological and chemical control approaches are being developed to supplement cultural management. Our objectives were to optimize the agent(s), their formulation and application regime for FPR control in Costa Rica. In order to economize scarce

Ulrike Krauss; Eduardo Hidalgo; Roy Bateman; Valex Adonijah; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Jayne Crozier; Neil A. Brown; G. Martijn ten Hoopen; Keith A. Holmes



Possible sources of genetic resistance in oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense – prospects for future breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm estates in southeast Asia suffer from substantial losses due to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense. Field observations have been carried out in North Sumatra, Indonesia, on a series of planting materials of known origin. Differences in susceptibility to the disease have been detected within the two Elaeis species, guineensis and oleifera. Within Elaeis guineensis, material of

T. Durand-Gasselin; H. Asmady; A. Flori; J. C. Jacquemard; Z. Hayun; F. Breton; H. de Franqueville




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum), a self fertile (homothallic) ascomycete, causes wheat head blight and corn ear rot, destructive diseases that impose a serious economic toll on North American farmers. Damage includes both yield loss due to kernel rot and reduced quality resulting fr...


Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of microbial activity in soil, whereas the addition of this fraction to fungal inoculum stimulated the growth and activity of cultured fungi (as measured by serial dilution and plating). Our results suggest that high VM charcoals can contain a bioavailable C source which may increase microbial activity and inhibit inorganic N availability, whereas a comparatively lower VM content charcoal does not appear to be readily available for microbial consumption. We conclude that VM is an important charcoal property which can cause various effects on soil biological properties and warrants further investigation. Our findings also provide insight into charcoal’s effect on N cycling since the immobilization of N observed under laboratory conditions serves as a possible explanation for the adverse effect of high VM charcoal on plant growth, as reported here and in previous short-term studies across a range of ecosystems. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether the observed effects persist in the long-term.

McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.



Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.  


In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The multivariate models of charcoal were able to distinguish between species and wood thermal treatments, revealing that the characteristics of the wood charcoal depend not only on the wood species, but also on the carbonization temperature. This work demonstrates the potential of mid infrared spectroscopy in the whiskey industry, from the identification and classification of the wood species for the mellowing process to the chemical characterization of the barrels after the toasting and charring process. PMID:19127715

Labbé, Nicole; Harper, David; Rials, Timothy; Elder, Thomas



Comparison of charcoal and tree-ring records of recent fires in the ...  


Pacific Southwest ... Description: Fire-history reconstructions are based on tree- ring records that span the last few centuries and ... Tree-ring and charcoal data spanning the last 300 years in four watersheds in the montane forests of the ...


40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




Sorption and desorption of lindane by wood charcoal in fixed?bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption and desorption of lindane (y?HCH) by wood charcoal (WC) and wood charcoal treated by 1N HNO3 (WCT) in fixed?bed reactor (FBR) were investigated in this study. WCT revealed a better performance than WC, in removing lindane in FBR. The breakthrough of lindane was significantly affected by the size of WCT, flow rate to the FBR, and depth of WCT

S. Keerthinarayana; M. Bandyopadhyay



Past uppermost tree limit in the Central European Alps (Switzerland) based on soil and soil charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uppermost limits of past treelines in the Alps are established using soil type and soil charcoal mass. In all the studied sites, a sharp decrease of soil charcoal mass is correlated with the upper altitudinal limit of podzols. On the basis of this evidence, the uppermost tree limit reached 2500±100m a.s.l. in the Valaisan Alps during the Holocene, i.e.,

Adriana L. Carnelli; Jean-Paul Theurillat; Michel Thinon; Gaëlle Vadi; Brigitte Talon



Buried charcoal layer and ectomycorrhizae cooperatively promote the growth of Larix gmelinii seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal produced by fire on the soil surface mixes into the soil over time and is heterogeneously distributed within the\\u000a soil profile in post-fire forests. To determine how different patterns of vertical distribution of charcoal and ectomycorrhizal\\u000a formation affect the growth of Larix gmelinii (Gmelin larch) in post-fire forests, we conducted a model experiment in the pots. In this study,

K. Makoto; Y. Tamai; Y. S. Kim; T. Koike



Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens helps suppress black root rot of tobacco under gnotobiotic conditions.  


Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 suppresses black root rot of tobacco, a disease caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. Strain CHA0 excretes several metabolites with antifungal properties. The importance of one such metabolite, hydrogen cyanide, was tested in a gnotobiotic system containing an artificial, iron-rich soil. A cyanidenegative (hcn) mutant, CHA5, constructed by a gene replacement technique, protected the tobacco plant less effectively than did the wild-type CHA0. Complementation of strain CHA5 by the cloned wild-type hcn genes restored the strain's ability to suppress disease. An artificial transposon carrying the hcn genes of strain CHA0 (Tnhcn) was constructed and inserted into the genome of another P.fluorescens strain, P3, which naturally does not produce cyanide and gives poor plant protection. The P3::Tnhcn derivative synthesized cyanide and exhibited an improved ability to suppress disease. All bacterial strains colonized the roots similarly and did not influence significantly the survival of T.basicola in soil. We conclude that bacterial cyanide is an important but not the only factor involved in suppression of black root rot. PMID:16453871

Voisard, C; Keel, C; Haas, D; Dèfago, G



Attempts to control Fusarium root rot of bean by seed dressing.  


In summer 2006, a root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum was observed in commercial farms on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the cv Billò and Borlotto. A study was undertaken in order to evaluate the efficacy of different biological control agents applied as seed dressing. In the presence of a medium-high disease incidence, among the biocontrol agents tested, Trichoderma harzianum T 22, Bacillus subtilis QST 713, followed by Pseudomonas chlororaphis, provided generally the best control. Their efficacy was also consistent in the different trials. Also the mixture of T. harzianum + T. viride provide a good disease control. Streptomyces griseoviridis and the 3 strains of Fusarim oxysporum, although less effective, provided a partial control of the disease. The fungicide mancozeb provided only a partial disease control. PMID:19226744

Gilardi, G; Baudino, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A



Integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.  


The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control. PMID:22580305

Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan



Activated charcoal: in vivo and in vitro studies of effect on gas formation.  


It has been reported that activated charcoal reduces intestinal gas production after ingestion of beans as evidenced by decreased breath hydrogen excretion and decreased passage of flatus. In the present study we assessed the ability of activated charcoal to reduce intestinal gas production by in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro studies were performed using human fecal homogenates incubated with or without additional carbohydrate. In all studies hydrogen and carbon dioxide production and consumption occurred at similar rates in the charcoal-treated homogenate as compared with the untreated control. The influence of activated charcoal on gas production, in vivo, was studied by double-blind assessment of breath hydrogen excretion and flatus excretion after ingestion of a baked bean meal. No significant difference was observed in breath hydrogen concentration or number of passages of flatus in subjects who ingested 16 capsules of activated charcoal (4 g) as opposed to the placebo. We conclude that activated charcoal does not influence gas formation in vitro or in vivo. PMID:3917957

Potter, T; Ellis, C; Levitt, M



Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

Hyman, E.L.



Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...


Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...


Control of preharvest and postharvest fruit rot in Strawberry by Metschnikowia fructicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Metschnikowia fructicola was tested as a preharvest treatment to control preharvest and postharvest rots of strawberry fruit in Turkey and Israel. In greenhouse trials, the efficacy of the yeast antagonist against preharvest rots was equal to that of a chemical control (fenhexamid) in two growing seasons. In an open-field experiment, the yeast reduced the incidence of rot to

O. A. Karabulut; H. Tezcan; A. Daus; L. Cohen; B. Wiess; S. Droby




Microsoft Academic Search

Banana fruits are highly perishable and prone to microbial infection that cause significant damage. Fungicides and pesti- cides that are used to control this infection are toxic to man and animals, hence there is the need for environmentally friendly control measures of fruit rot pathogens. Simultaneous inoculation of fruits with Trichoderma species and rot pathogens resulted in rot on the

Abolade Ayodeji Adebesin; Chris Adegboyega Odebode; Awo Maria Ayodele


Biological control of postharvest fungal rot of yam ( Dioscorea spp.) with Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of isolates of Bacillus subtilis from yam farm soil to control rot of yam in storage barns was investigated. Yam tubers inoculated in vivo with B. subtilis showed no rot while those inoculated with Aspergillus niger, Botryodiploidia theobromae or Penicillium oxalicum showed considerable rot. The set of yams in which B. subtilis and the fungi were simultaneously inoculated

R. N. Okigbo; Michael Okpara



Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...


Studies on the initiation of bacterial soft rot in potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-inoculated whole tubers rot readily under anaerobic conditions when their surface is maintained moist in a water-saturated atmosphere. Rotting is reduced under otherwise similar but aerobic conditions, but there is some rotting under anaerobic conditions even if their surface is dry.

M. C. M. Pérombelon; R. Lowe



Oxalate production by wood-rotting fungi growing in toxic metal-amended medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we have identified oxalic acid as an important metabolite elaborated in the response of wood-rotting fungi to toxic metal stress. The formation of oxalate crystals by white rot fungi (Bjerkandera fumosa, Phlebia radiata and Trametes versicolor) and the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola, grown on media containing high levels of toxic metal ions has been visualized using

Anna Jarosz-Wilkolazka; Geoffrey M Gadd



Chemical changes in soil charcoal of differing ages inferred from DRIFT spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible charcoal fragments were manually isolated from a sandy soil from the Southern Highlands of NSW, Australia, at depths of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. In the topsoil, the charcoal had a radiocarbon age of 85 ± 35 years BP, whereas the charcoal from the 30 - 60 cm layer was radiocarbon dated at 2540 ± 35 years BP. Diffuse reflectance FTIR (DRIFT) spectra of the charcoal reveal differences in both the number of peaks detected and their magnitudes. In the IR region 750 - 3800 cm-1, the charcoal from the lower depth had less peaks (140) than that of the topsoil (217). In the 1400 - 1600 cm-1 region, generally attributed to aromatics, the peaks were larger and more numerous (22 peaks) in the 0 - 30 cm sample than those of the 30 - 60 cm depth (14 peaks). The C-H stretch of alkenes and aromatics (3000 - 3100 cm-1) was similar at both depths, but the peak generally associated with the C-H stretch of alkanes (methyl and methylene groups) at 2850 - 3000 cm-1 was smaller in 30 - 60 cm depth than in the topsoil. In contrast to the reduction in aromatic and alkane signatures, oxidised forms were more pronounced in the older, deeper charcoal. Peaks associated with the free hydroxyl O-H stretch (alcohols and phenols) at 3640 - 3610 cm-1, carboxylic acids (910 - 950 cm-1), aliphatic O-H (alcohols) (1050 - 1150 cm-1) and cellulose-like structures (1020 cm-1), which contain a large number of uncondensed, oxidised rings, were larger in the charcoal from 30 - 60 cm than in that from the topsoil. Our results confirm that charcoal is highly persistent in soils, being retained for millennia. Aromatic structures are present in both younger and older charcoal, but decay leads to a reduction in the number and area of peaks detected at 1400 - 1600 cm-1, indicating less aromaticity. Alkane C-H also decreases with aging, probably attributable to its preferential degradation by soil microbes compared with condensed aromatic structures. Concurrent with diminished aromatic and alkane structures, aging of charcoal leads to an increase in oxidised organic matter detectable as carboxylic acids, alcohols and cellulose-like structures.

Hobley, E. U.; Willgoose, G. R.; Frisia, S.; Jacobsen, G.



A test of taxonomic and biogeographic predictivity: resistance to soft rot in wild relatives of cultivated potato.  


The concept that traits should be associated with related organisms and that nearby populations of the same species are likely to be more similar to each other than to populations spread far apart has long been accepted. Consequently, taxonomic relationships and biogeographical data are commonly believed to have the power to predict the distribution of disease resistance genes among plant species. In this study, we test claims of such predictivity in a group of widely distributed wild potato species. There was no clear association between resistance to soft rot and taxonomic relationships. However, we have found some associations between resistance to soft rot and environmental data such as annual precipitation and annual mean temperature. In addition, we have noted that high levels of resistance are mostly found in species with high levels of phenotypic plasticity. The three most resistant species were Solanum paucijugum, S. brevicaule, and S. commersonii. PMID:20839961

Chung, Yong Suk; Holmquist, Karsten; Spooner, David M; Jansky, Shelley H



Investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot in peach fruit.  


The efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated B. subtilis SM21 treatment reduced lesion diameter and disease incidence by 37.2% and 26.7% on the 2nd day of inoculation compared with the control. The in vitro test showed significant inhibitory effect of B. subtilis SM21 on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer with an inhibition rate of 48.9%. B. subtilis SM21 treatment significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were also increased by this treatment. Transcription of seven defense related genes was much stronger in fruit treated with B. subtilis SM21 or those both treated with B. subtilis SM21 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with fruit inoculated with R. stolonifer alone. These results suggest that B. subtilis SM21 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit, possibly by directly inhibiting growth of the pathogen, and indirectly inducing disease resistance in the fruit. PMID:23673059

Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A summary of disease management strategies for Ohio soybean growers is presented including current information on identification of disease problems, disease resistant soybeans, and agronomic practices for controlling disease. The major diseases of soybeans seed rot and root pathogens include Phytop...


Feeding Activated Charcoal from Bark Containing Wood Vinegar Liquid (Nekka-Rich) Is Effective as Treatment for Cryptosporidiosis in Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal containing wood vine- gar liquid (Nekka-Rich) on Cryptosporidium parvum was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. First, the adsorption of C. parvum by the activated charcoal component of Nekka-Rich was examined. When mixed, C. parvum oo- cysts were effectively adsorbed by activated charcoal. Next, the effect of the wood vinegar liquid component of Nekka-Rich was

S. Watarai; Tana; M. Koiwa



Experience with cellulose acetate-coated activated charcoal haemoperfusion in the treatment of severe hypnotic drug intoxication.  

PubMed Central

A haemoperfusion column containing activated charcoal coated with cellulose acetate was used to treat 7 patients with barbiturate or ethchlorvynol poisoning. Six of the patients showed marked lightening of coma and all showed a significant fall in plasma drug concentration. Plasma drug clearance and platelet loss were similar to those reported for other coated charcoal columns. Cellulose acetate-coated charcoal haemoperfusion may reduce the period of coma in severe poisoning with barbiturates and other hypnotic drugs and thus the morbidity and mortality.

Crome, P.; Hampel, G.; Widdop, B.; Goulding, R.



The salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine.  


Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

Goudeau, Danielle M; Parker, Craig T; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia; Brandl, Maria T



Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria.  


Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria. PMID:23781227

Davidsson, Pär R; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E T



Diaporthaceae associated with root and crown rot of maize.  


Several isolates of coelomycetous fungi with pigmented conidia were consistently isolated from diseased roots of Zea mays in irrigated plots monitored in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Based on their morphology, these isolates could be identified as representative of Stenocarpella macrospora, S. maydis, and Phaeocytostroma ambiguum. Although species of Stenocarpella are well-known as causal agents of cob and stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in South Africa, the occurrence and importance of P. ambiguum is less well documented and understood. To determine the role of P. ambiguum as a root pathogen of maize, pathogenicity tests were conducted under glasshouse conditions at 18 °C night and 28 °C day temperatures using a pasteurised soil, river sand and perlite medium and a 0.5 % sand-bran inoculum. Based on these results, P. ambiguum was shown to be a primary pathogen of maize, but to be less virulent than the positive control, S. maydis. Furthermore, to clarify the higher-level phylogeny of these fungal genera, isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS & LSU). Partial gene sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene were added to confirm the species monophyly. To resolve the generic placement of Phaeocytostroma, additional species such as P. sacchari, P. plurivorum and P. megalosporum were also added to the analysis. Based on these results, Stenocarpella and Phaeocytostroma were shown to be two well defined genera, belonging to Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae, being closely allied to Phomopsis (Diaporthe). All three genera were also observed to form alpha as well as beta conidia, and although this phenomenon is well documented for Phomopsis and Phaeocytostroma, it is a new observation for Stenocarpella. In spite of the differences in conidial pigmentation, no support could be obtained for polyphyly in Diaporthaceae, suggesting that as observed in Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales), conidial pigmentation is not informative at the family level in Diaporthales. PMID:22679583

Lamprecht, Sandra C; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Tewoldemedhin, Yared T; Marasas, Walter F O



Charcoal and the Record of Fire-related Sedimentation in Holocene Alluvial Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, rising temperatures and ensuing severe wildfires in the western USA cordillera have provided the opportunity to examine processes and deposits of postfire sedimentation on alluvial fans and floodplains. Most events are generated by widespread surface runoff from intense convective-storm precipitation on severely burned slopes. Flow processes range from debris flow to sediment-charged water floods. Muddy debris flows best preserve coarse charcoal in fan deposits, whereas gravelly debris flows often comminute charcoal into fine particles. As charcoal remains suspended in high-energy hyperconcentrated and water floods, only their fine-grained deposits typically contain much charcoal. Charcoal is locally concentrated in low-energy fluvial deposits, but displays increasing evidence for reworking with distance from source. Charred vegetation and litter marking burned soil surfaces may be preserved under postfire fan and fluvial sediments. Modern deposits provide models for identification of Holocene fire-related sediments and estimates of paleofire severity. AMS 14C dating of discrete charcoal fragments allows sample selection to minimize errors of sample age > fire age. Fires are incompletely recorded in the event stratigraphy of one fan, but larger populations of 14C ages from numerous fans permit composite probability distributions that represent centennial- to millennial-scale changes in fire-related sedimentation across a study area. Records from Yellowstone and central Idaho indicate the large role of fire in episodic erosion across a range of conifer forests, most strongly during severe, multidecadal droughts in warmer periods (e.g. in Medieval time 900-1300 AD). In central Idaho, identification of charcoal macrofossils indicates broadly similar, aspect-controlled forest compositions over the last 3000 yr. Emerging data from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, show rapid fan aggradation due to fire-related events in the warm middle Holocene. Charcoal macrofossils provide a test for the hypothesis that Gambel oak shrubfields in the Sacramentos were initiated and maintained by severe fires that destroyed conifer stands. Charcoal in alluvial deposits allows examination of Holocene fire-climate- geomorphic relations in diverse environments, aiding in assessment of the potential impacts of future climatic change.

Meyer, G. A.



Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l.  


SUMMARY The root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidon annosum is one of the most destructive diseases of conifers in the northern temperate regions of the world, particularly in Europe. Economic losses attributable to Heterobasidion infection in Europe are estimated at 800 million euros annually. The fungus has been classified into three separate European intersterile species P (H. annosum), S (H. parviporum) and F (H. abietinum) based on their main host preferences: pine, spruce and fir, respectively. In North America, two intersterile groups are present, P and S/F, but these have not been given scientific names. The ecology of the disease spread has been intensively studied but the genetics, biochemistry and molecular aspects of pathogen virulence have been relatively little examined. Recent advances in transcript profiling, molecular characterization of pathogenicity factors and establishment of DNA-transformation systems have paved the way for future advances in our understanding of this pathosystem. Taxonomy: Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref., H. parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen and H. abietinum Niemelä & Korhonen; kingdom Fungi; class Basidiomycotina; order Aphyllophorales; family Bondarzewiaceae; genus Heterobasidion. Identification: presence of the fungus fruit bodies, basidiocarps whitish in the margins, upper surface is tan to dark brown, usually irregular shaped, 3.5 (-7) cm thick and up to 40 cm in diameter; pores 5-19, 7-22 and 13-26 mm(2) for the P, F and S groups, respectively. Small brownish non-sporulating postules develop on the outside of infected roots. Asexual spores (conidiospores) are 3.8-6.6 x 2.8-5.0 microm in size. Mating tests are necessary for identification of intersterility groups. Host range: The fungus attacks many coniferous tree species. In Europe, particularly trees of the genera Pinus and Juniperus (P), Picea (S), Abies (F) and in North America Pinus (P) and Picea, Tsuga and Abies (S/F). To a lesser extent it causes root rot on some decidous trees (Betula and Quercus). Disease symptoms: symptoms (e.g. exhudation of resin, crown deterioration) due to Heterobasidion root rot in living trees are not particularly characteristic and in most cases cannot be distinguished from those caused by other root pathogens. Heterobasidion annosum s.l. is a white rot fungus. Initial growth in wood causes a stain that varies in colour depending on host tree species. Incipient decay is normally pale yellow and it develops into a light brown decay to become a white pocket rot with black flecks in its advanced stage. Control: silvicultural methods (e.g. stump removal), chemicals (urea, borates) and biological control agent (Phlebiopsis gigantea, marketed as PG Suspension(R) in the UK, PG IBL(R) in Poland and Rotstop(R) in Fennoscandia) are commonly used approaches for minimizing the disease spread. PMID:20565666

Asiegbu, Fred O; Adomas, Aleksandra; Stenlid, Jan



Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. Principal Findings We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. Conclusions Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

Gao, Xiang; Lu, Xing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Haiyan; Pan, Ruqian; Tian, Jiang; Li, Shuxian; Liao, Hong



The Evolution of the Epidemic of Charcoal-Burning Suicide in Taiwan: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background An epidemic of carbon monoxide poisoning suicide by burning barbecue charcoal has occurred in East Asia in the last decade. We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the epidemic to assess its impact on the epidemiology of suicide in Taiwan. Methods and Findings Age-standardised rates of suicide and undetermined death by charcoal burning were mapped across townships (median population aged 15 y or over?=?27,000) in Taiwan for the periods 1999–2001, 2002–2004, and 2005–2007. Smoothed standardised mortality ratios of charcoal-burning and non-charcoal-burning suicide and undetermined death across townships were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Trends in overall and method-specific rates were compared between urban and rural areas for the period 1991–2007. The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan emerged more prominently in urban than rural areas, without a single point of origin, and rates of charcoal-burning suicide remained highest in the metropolitan regions throughout the epidemic. The rural excess in overall suicide rates prior to 1998 diminished as rates of charcoal-burning suicide increased to a greater extent in urban than rural areas. Conclusions The charcoal-burning epidemic has altered the geography of suicide in Taiwan. The observed pattern and its changes in the past decade suggest that widespread media coverage of this suicide method and easy access to barbecue charcoal may have contributed to the epidemic. Prevention strategies targeted at these factors, such as introducing and enforcing guidelines on media reporting and restricting access to charcoal, may help tackle the increase of charcoal-burning suicides. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Wheeler, Benedict W.; Yip, Paul; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.



The 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus': noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes  

PubMed Central

Many cryptic species have recently been discovered in fungi, especially in fungal plant pathogens. Cryptic fungal species co-occurring in sympatry may occupy slightly different ecological niches, for example infecting the same crop plant but specialized on different organs or having different phenologies. Identifying cryptic species in fungal pathogens of crops and determining their ecological specialization are therefore crucial for disease management. Here, we addressed this question in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, the agent of gray mold on a wide range of plants. On grape, B. cinerea causes severe damage but is also responsible for noble rot used for processing sweet wines. We used microsatellite genotyping and clustering methods to elucidate whether isolates sampled on gray mold versus noble rot symptoms in three French regions belong to genetically differentiated populations. The inferred population structure matched geography rather than the type of symptom. Noble rot symptoms therefore do not seem to be caused by a specific B. cinerea population but instead seem to depend essentially on microclimatic conditions, which has applied consequences for the production of sweet wines.

Fournier, Elisabeth; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana



The development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of sensor types were fabricated and tested for their electrical resistance changes to compounds known to be evolved by potato tubers with soft rot caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora. On the basis of these tests, three sensors were selected for incorporation into a prototype device. The device was portable and could be used without computer control after threshold values and sensor settling criteria had been downloaded. The prototype was assessed for its discriminating power under simulated storage conditions. The device was capable of detecting one tuber with soft rot in 100 kg of sound tubers in a simulated storage crate. The device was also able to detect a tuber inoculated with E. carotovora, but without visible signs of soft rot, within 10 kg of sound tubers. The same system was able to follow the progression of the disease in a tuber stored amongst 10 kg of sound tubers when operated at 4 °C and 85% relative humidity (conditions typical of a refrigerated storage facility).

de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H. E.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H. E.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.



Phenolics in maize genotypes differing in susceptibility to Gibberella stalk rot (Fusarium graminearum Schwabe).  


The relationship between phenolic compounds and maize pith resistance to Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Gibberella stalk rot, was investigated. The phenolic acid profiles in the stalks of six maize inbred lines of varying susceptibility were evaluated from silking to grain maturity. Four different fractions of phenolic compounds were extracted from inoculated and non-inoculated (control) pith tissues: insoluble cell-wall-bound, free, soluble ester-bound, and soluble glycoside-bound phenolics. Analysis by HPLC revealed that p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the most abundant compounds in the soluble and cell-wall-bound fractions. The quantity of free, glycoside-bound, and ester-bound phenolics in the pith was lower than the level required for the inhibition of Fusarium growth or mycotoxins production; however, significant negative correlations between diferulic acid contents in the cell walls and disease severity ratings 4 days after inoculation were found. The results indicated that future studies should focus on the levels of diferulic acids during the early infection process. Diferulates may play a role in genotypic resistance of maize to Gibberella stalk rot as preformed barriers to infection. PMID:17547419

Santiago, Rogelio; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Martinez, Noelia; Malvar, Rosa A



Wide Variation in Virulence and Genetic Diversity of Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Strawberry in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M.; Barbetti, Martin J.



Efficacy of activated charcoal in reducing intestinal gas: a double-blind clinical trial.  


Available data on the efficacy of activated charcoal in reducing lower intestinal gas and accompanying symptoms are conflicting. We conducted a double-blind clinical trial on two population groups in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 69) known to differ in their dietary habits and ecology of gut flora. Using lactulose as the substrate, breath hydrogen levels were measured to quantify the amount of gas produced in the colon. In comparison to a placebo, activated charcoal significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced breath hydrogen levels in both the population groups. Symptoms of bloating and abdominal cramps attributable to gaseousness were also significantly reduced in both groups by activated charcoal. PMID:3521259

Jain, N K; Patel, V P; Pitchumoni, C S



Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to CO{sub 2} during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi.

Espejo, E.; Agosin, E. (Catholic Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile))



Stabilization of lignin peroxidases in white rot fungi by tryptophan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementation of various cultures of white rot fungi with tryptophan was found to have a large stimulatory effect on lignin peroxidase activity levels. This enhancement was greater than that observed in the presence of the lignin peroxidase recycling agent veratryl alcohol. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we found that tryp- tophan does not act to induce lignin peroxidase expression at the level




Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in

Roland Waldner; Matti S. A. Leisola; Armin Fiechter




EPA Science Inventory

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade lignin, a structurally complex, naturally occurring and environmentally persistent, non-repeating heteropolyrner. revious studies have shown that this fungus is also able-to degrade a wide variety of synthetic or...


Oxidation of Persistent Environmental Pollutants by a White Rot Fungus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT (1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), 3,4,3'4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4'5'-hexachlorobiphenyl 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane)...

J. A. Bumpus M. Tien D. Wright S. D. Aust




EPA Science Inventory

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...


Detection of cranberry fruit rot fungi using DNA array hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-based DNA macroarray hybridization technique (also called reverse dot blot hybridization) was developed for cranberry fruit rot (CFR) fungal pathogens, and its detection capability was compared with that of the traditional isolation plating method for CFR isolation and identification from over 2000 field samples. DNA array hybridization results correlated well with detection by isolation when cranberry fruit samples had

G. P. Robideau; F. L. Caruso; P. V. Oudemans; P. S. McManus; M. A. Renaud; M. E. Auclair; G. J. Bilodeau; D. Yee; N. L. Désaulniers; J. W. DeVerna; C. A. Lévesque




EPA Science Inventory

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Bacillus subtilis on its own or integrated with prochloraz Tag-wax application was evaluated for control of avocado postharvest diseases anthracnose, Dothiorella\\/ Colletotrichum fruit rot complex (DCC) and stem-end rot (SE). Tag-waxed fruit and\\/ or fruit treated with prochloraz incorporated into Tag-wax, served as controls. The biological and integrated treatments were as effective as the prochloraz Tag-wax treatment in controlling




Comparison of direct alpha and charcoal adsorption methods in field measurements of radon flux  

SciTech Connect

A survey of radon fluxes originating from phospho-gypsum tailings ponds was carried out by two independent groups. One group utilized direct measurement of alpha activity using a scintillation counter. The other group used charcoal canisters to accumulate radon and subsequently measured {sup 214}Bi gamma activity. In this report, we examine the agreement between values obtained by both methods at several locations. We find a high degree of correlation especially when one considers that the charcoal measurements were made over a period of about 24 hours, whereas the scintillator readings recorded the build up of radon in an inverted 20 liter container after only 1 hour. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Bland, C.J.; Norlander, G. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))



Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the range of variability characteristic of these ecosystems over many centuries and probably millennia.

Holz, A.; Haberle, S.; Veblen, T. T.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Southon, J.



Application of artificial neural network for detecting Phalaenopsis seedling diseases using color and texture features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present an application of neural network and image processing techniques for detecting and classifying Phalaenopsis seedling diseases, including bacterial soft rot (BSR), bacterial brown spot (BBS), and Phytophthora black rot (PBR). The lesion areas with BSR, PBR, and BBS of Phalaenopsis seedlings were segmented by an exponential transform with an adjustable parameter and image processing techniques.

Kuo-Yi Huang



Close of IE Bulletin 80-03: Loss of charcoal from standard Type 2, two-inch, tray adsorber cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

IE Bulletin 80-03 was issued on February 6, 1980, because of concern about defective charcoal tray adsorber cells found in certain ventilation systems at the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant. Some charcoal cells are used in special engineered safety feature (ESF) filtration systems. Others are installed in normal ventilation systems to control radioactive materials during expected operations, in compliance with 10 CFR

R. S. Dean; W. J. Foley; A. Hennick



Imitative suicide by burning charcoal in the southeastern region of Korea: The influence of mass media reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe seven cases of imitative suicide, unintentionally affected by mass media reporting of an accidental death by burning charcoal. After the first report on accidental death by burning charcoal, three cases occurred in 3 months in 2007, and another four cases in the same season in 2008 in the southeastern region of Korea. The age range of the victims

Gi Yeong Huh; Gam Rae Jo; Kwang Hoon Kim; Yong Woo Ahn; Sang Yong Lee



Effects of weathering on impregnated charcoal performance. Research annual report 1 October 1976-30 September 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of activated and impregnated charcoals by the nuclear industry for periods of two to three years without regeneration is an adsorbent application with new and undefined maintenance problems. These relate to the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. There is a need for the nuclear industry to know which air pollutants degrade the




Plant regeneration from mesophyll protoplasts of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) by adding activated charcoal into protoplast culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration from isolated protoplasts of 8 cultivars of lisianthus, Eustoma grandiflorum (Griseb.) Schinners, has been established by using activated charcoal. Protoplasts were isolated from lisianthus leaves grown in vitro and started to divide within 3–4 days of culture, but successful colony formation was only achieved by adding gellan gum blocks containing 1% (w\\/v) activated charcoal immediately after culture. Colonies

Hisato Kunitake; Toshiki Nakashima; Kinya Mori; Masanobu Tanaka; Masahiro Mii



Transformation of a northern hardwood forest by aboriginal (Iroquois) fire: charcoal evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists have long debated whether Indian burning had important impacts on presettlement forests. We obtained stratigraphic evidence for fire using charcoal analysis of southern Ontario lake sediments. The record spans a period of Iroquois occupation when cultivation coincides with pollen evidence for transition from northern hardwoods to white pine\\/oak forests. Charcoal data reveal that this transition was attended by increased

J. S. Clark; P. D. Royall



Nature and reactivity of charcoal produced and added to soil during wildfire are particle-size dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal added to soil by wildfires is usually considered to be part of the most stable pool of soil organic matter (SOM). It consists of a continuum of slightly burned plant residues to completely charred material. We sampled the macroscopic charcoal pool produced by a moderate intensity wildfire in a pine coastal forest in Tuscany (Central Italy) with the aim

Caterina Nocentini; Giacomo Certini; Heike Knicker; Ornella Francioso; Cornelia Rumpel



Comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.  


The effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. Fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. Differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. The results indicated that the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 has great lignin-degrading ability, whereas the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 preferentially degrades the amorphous regions of the cellulose. The biopretreatment favors thermal decomposition of corn stover. The weight loss of IMER2-treated acid detergent fiber became greater, and the oil yield increased from 32.7 to 50.8%. After CD2 biopretreatment, 58% weight loss of acid detergent lignin was achieved and the oil yield increased from 16.8 to 26.8%. PMID:21851098

Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying



Effectiveness of preharvest applications of fungicides on preharvest bunch rot and postharvest sour rot of ‘Redglobe’ grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Postharvest sour rot of ‘Redglobe’ grapes, also called “non-Botrytis slip skin”, “breakdown disorder”, “soft tissue breakdown”, or “melting decay” has affected this cultivar worldwide. The disorder causes berries to discolor, split, lose internal structure, and decay from veraison to harvest (Camero...



EPA Science Inventory

The wood rotting fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been selected as a candidate species to be used as a degrader of hazardous waste organic constituents found in liquids and soils. The selection of the species is attributable to its rapid growth, its ability to degrade lign...


Use of powdered coconut charcoal as a toxicity identification and evaluation manipulation for organic toxicants in marine sediments.  


We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endosulfan-spiked sediments by 100%. Powdered coconut charcoal also was effective in removing almost 100% of the toxicity from two field sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Powdered coconut charcoal did not change the toxicity of ammonia or metal-spiked sediments; however, there was some quantitative reduction in the concentrations of free metals (element specific) in metal-spiked sediments. Powdered coconut charcoal is an effective, relatively specific method to sequester and remove toxicity from sediments contaminated with organic contaminants. PMID:15378988

Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Serbst, Jonathan R; Cook, Howard; Cantwell, Mark G; Ryba, Stephen A; Perron, Monique M; Lebo, Jon; Huckins, James; Petty, Jimmie



Testing the sensitivity of charcoal as an indicator of fire events in savanna environments: quantitative predictions of fire proximity, area and intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charcoal record contained in lake sedimentary sequences is often used to infer past fire events. Studies to calibrate such charcoal records have been carried out in a range of mid- to high-latitude regions and relationships have been determined between size and quantity of charcoal in the sediment and proximity and spatial extent of the fires. Very little is known,

K. I. Duffin; L. Gillson; K. J. Willis



An equilibrium-based model for measuring environmental radon using charcoal canisters.  


Radon in indoor air is often measured using canisters of activated charcoal that function by adsorbing radon gas. The use of a diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) minimizes the effects of environmental humidity and extends the useful exposure time by several days. Many DBCC protocols model charcoal canisters as simple integrating detectors, which introduces errors due to the fact that radon uptake changes over the exposure period. Errors are compensated for by calculating a calibration factor that is nonlinear with respect to exposure time. This study involves the development and testing of an equilibrium-based model and corresponding measurement protocol that treats the charcoal canisters as a system coming into equilibrium with the surrounding radon environment. This model applies to both constant and temporally varying radon concentration situations, which was essential, as efforts are currently underway using a temporally varying radon chamber. It was found that the DBCCs equilibrate following the relationship E = (1 - e) where E is a measure of how close the DBCC is to equilibrium, t is exposure time, and q is the equilibration constant. This equilibration constant was empirically determined to be 0.019 h. The proposed model was tested in a blind test as well as compared with the currently accepted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) model. Comparisons between the two methods showed a slight decrease in measurement error when using the equilibrium-based method as compared to the U.S. EPA method. PMID:20622564

Lehnert, A L; Kearfott, K J



Active measurements of indoor concentrations of radon and thoron gas using charcoal canisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized charcoal canisters with diameters of 4inch, of a type recommended by the USEPA for passive measurement of radon gas concentrations, have been modified for active air sampling. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of radon (Rn) and thoron (Tn) in air can be obtained by counting the areas under ?-ray peaks. Sample results obtained in a laboratory and in a

K. N. Yu; Z. J. Guan; E. C. M. Young; M. J. Stokes



Charcoal tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence in the central compartment of the neck.  


Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer can often require further surgical options. Reoperations may carry significant risk of surgical complications; additionally, as the anatomy is subverted, there is the possibility of leaving residual neoplasm. In order to avoid such problems during reoperation for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence, we have introduced the technique of preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of the lymphatic structure to be removed with a 4% solution of active charcoal. Using ultrasound guidance, the lesion is identified and 0.5-2 ml of colloidal charcoal is injected near the lesion. The extraction of the needle is accompanied by injection at constant pressure of other charcoal as to leave a trace of colouring along the path of the needle up to the skin. The preoperative injection was well tolerated in all cases. In the last 5 years, we have used this technique in 13 patients with suspected recurrence in the central compartment (all from papillary carcinomas). Postoperative ultrasound and histological examination confirmed the removal of the lesion in all patients; in one case, the lesion was a parathyroid cyst. Complications were observed in two of 13 (15.4%) cases (one transitory hypoparathyroidism, and one transitory vocal cord paresis). Considering our experience, charcoal tattoo localization can be considered a safe, low-cost technique that is extremely useful for facilitating surgical procedures, and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage. PMID:22767968

Soprani, F; Bondi, F; Puccetti, M; Armaroli, V



Barbecue charcoal combustion as a potential source of aromatic volatile organic compounds and carbonyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission concentrations of a number of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds were quantified during the combustion of commonly used barbecue charcoal. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyls were determined by gas chromatography coupled with thermal desorption and HPLC method, respectively. The analysis of VOC emission concentrations showed that toluene (116±444ppb) was the most abundant. On the

Ehsanul Kabir; Ki-Hyun Kim; Ji-Won Ahn; Jong Ryeul Sohn



Prevention of Gastrointestinal Iron Absorption by Chelation From an Orally Administered Premixed Deferoxamine\\/Charcoal Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

See related editorial, p 687.Study objective: To investigate the effect of an orally administered premixed slurry of deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) and activated charcoal (AC) on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of ferrous sulfate under physiologic conditions. Methods: This was a prospective, crossover, controlled human volunteer study. Participants were healthy adult subjects aged 25 to 38 years. Volunteers ingested either 5 mg\\/kg

Hernan F Gomez; Hilary H McClafferty; David Flory; Jeffrey Brent; Richard C Dart



The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.




Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the phaseout of the supply of R- 11, which is used as a charcoal adsorber leak-testing agent, several new substitutes have been suggested and tested. (*) Pulse testing using agents with higher boiling points produced longer response times (due to prolonged evaporation and dispersion times). This longer evaporation time alters the pulse shape and lowers the peak concentration.

Bela J. Kovach; Eric M. Banks


Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical

Bruno Glaser; Johannes Lehmann; Wolfgang Zech



Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates

Atholl Anderson; J. Chappell; G. Clark; S. Phear



Long Term Performance of Charcoal Absorbers Removing Radioiodine in Ventilation Exhaust Air. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous measurements of the efficiency of two charcoal filters for absorbing iodine-131 in ventilation exhaust air were made at the Ginna nuclear power plant. Measurements were made for 416 days beginning on 5/28/75 and ending on 7/8/76. During the las...

C. A. Pelletier E. D. Barefoot R. N. Hemphill J. P. Frederickson



Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphate to plants, meanwhile re-using P from waste of the food chain.

J. Postma; E. H. Nijhuis; E. Sommeus



Gasification reactivity of charcoal with CO 2. Part II: Metal catalysis as a function of conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic influence of major metal species found with waste wood (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Pb, Cu) was studied during the gasification of nitrate salt impregnated charcoal with CO2 at 800°C in the kinetically controlled regime. In contrast with literature, the respective reaction rate data were analysed over the entire carbon conversion (X) range by using extended kinetic relations

R P. W. J. Struis; C von Scala; S Stucki; R Prins



Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil fertility in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical areas, where crop production is limited by low soil quality, the development of techniques improving soil fertility without damage to the environment is a priority. In French Guiana, we used subsistence fanner plots on poor acidic soils to test the effect of different organic amendments, bitter manioc peel (M), sawdust (Sw) and charcoal (Ch), on soil nutrient content,

Stéphanie Topoliantz; Jean-François Ponge; Sylvain Ballof



An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.



Adsorption of allelopathic compounds by wood-derived charcoal: the role of wood porosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Swedish boreal forests, areas dominated by the dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup are known for their poor regeneration of trees and one of the causes of this poor regeneration has been attributed to allelopathy (i.e. chemical interferences) by E. hermaphroditum. Fire-produced charcoal is suggested to play an important role in rejuvenating those ecosystems by adsorbing allelopathic compounds, such as

Olivier Keech; Christopher Carcaillet; Marie-Charlotte Nilsson



Adsorption Behavior of Chrysoidine Dye on Activated Charcoal and Its Regeneration Characteristics by Using Different Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were carried out to adsorb red colored chrysoidine dye from an aqueous medium by using activated charcoal (AC) as an adsorbent. The effects of adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, contact time, pH, and temperature were studied for the adsorption of chrysoidine under stirred conditions and batch wise. Standard adsorption isotherms were considered to fit the experimental equilibrium data.

M. K. Purkait; D. S. Gusain; S. DasGupta; S. De



Forest Management and Economic Rents: Evidence from the Charcoal Trade in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Licensing the exploitation of forest resources is often used as a preferred policy to regulate natural resource management in developing countries. While the stated intent is to control extraction of wood beyond regeneration limits, regulation can often serve those with access to rents and exclude rural communities. Based on primary data, this paper compares the regulated charcoal trade with the

Bart Minten; Klas Sander; David Stifel


Kinetics of the direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct electric heating by passing an electrical current directly through a bed of adsorbent may prove to be an efficient means of regenerating activated charcoal in continuous and batch adsorption processes. Obvious advantages of this type of regeneration are its almost complete lack of inertia, which makes it possible to reduce the number and dimensions of the adsorbers, and its

M. N. Marfin; Yu. I. Shumyatskii



Method and system for regenerating dehumidifier for use in charcoal adsorber  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for continuously regenerating dehumidifiers of a charcoal adsorber system are provided. Off-gas, including radioactive noble gases, such as xenon and krypton, is physically adsorbed in charcoal adsorbers and discharged to the atmosphere after its radioactivity has decayed. Before passing to the charcoal adsorbers, the off-gas is subjected to dehumidifiers consisting of a molecular sieve or some other desiccant. A couple of dehumidifiers is alternately used because periodic regeneration for the dehumidifier is necessary to recover moisture adsorption ability of the desiccant. The regeneration for the dehumidifier is completed by the steps of purging the dehumidifier with fresh air, and thereafter circulating the fresh air within a closed loop including a heater, dehumidifier, cooler condenser, and blower. Moisture absorbed in the dehumidifier is carried away by circulating heated fresh air and separated from the fresh air by cooling condensers. After completion of the regeneration, the fresh air is returned to the charcoal adsorber system for further treatment. By employing fresh air as regeneration gas, the regeneration for dehumidifiers can be completed faster and with less contamination as compared with a conventional method of employing off-gas for regeneration.

Saito, T.; Takeshima, M.



Improving wheat production with deep banded Oil Mallee Charcoal in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ? There can be benefits to wheat income from deep banded oil mallee charcoal in the low rainfall areas of WA; the trials on acid sandy clay loam and acid sand in 2005 showed up to $96\\/ha additional gross income at wheat prices of $150\\/ha; especially when applied with mineral fertilisers and inoculated soil microbes. Much of the yield

Paul Blackwell; Syd Shea; Paul Storer; Zakaria Solaiman; Mike Kerkmans; Ian Stanley; Oil Mallee


Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing activated charcoal at 0.0, 0.33, 0.67 or 1.00 g / kg of body weight. Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment levels. La...


Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation

Margaret C. Stinson; Barbara L. Green; Charles J. Marquardt; Alan M. Ducatman



Adsorptive Capacity of Charcoals Eaten by Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkeys: Implications for Reducing Dietary Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colobus monkeys on the African island of Zanzibar eat charcoal from burned trees and lying near kilns, where it is produced for cooking. This behavior may be a learned response for counteracting toxicity due to phenolic and similar compounds that occur in significant concentrations in the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) leaves and mango (Mangifera indica) leaves which constitute a major

David O. Cooney; Thomas T. Struhsaker




Microsoft Academic Search

BS>The activated charcoal traps designed for the GasCooled Oak Ridge ; Research Reactor Loop Experiment No. 1 are evaluated for room temperature ; operation involving the decontamination and atmospheric disposal of helium ; coolant gas contaminated by experiment failure. The maximum quantity of fission ; products expected to be released was calculated and the resulting hazard was ; examined on

R. E. Adams; W. E. Browning



Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols.

F. Mobarak; Y. Fahmy; W. Schweers



Relationships between charcoal particles in air and sediments in west-central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and size of charred particles determine transport and deposition in lakes. Lack of such data is a principal obstacle to interpretation of past fire from charcoal profiles. Our two-part analysis includes a calibration study, to assess charred-particle production and transport during fire, and a study of charred particles in sediment. The calibration step establishes the magnitude and size distribution

James S. Clark; Jason Lynch; Brian J. Stocks; Johann G. Goldammer



Wildfire and charcoal enhance nitrification and ammonium-oxidizing bacterial abundance in dry montane forest soils.  


All forest fire events generate some quantity of charcoal, which may persist in soils for hundreds to thousands of years. However, few studies have effectively evaluated the potential for charcoal to influence specific microbial communities or processes. To our knowledge, no studies have specifically addressed the effect of charcoal on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in forest soils. Controlled experiments have shown that charcoal amendment of fire-excluded temperate and boreal coniferous forest soil increases net nitrification, suggesting that charcoal plays a major role in maintaining nitrification for extended periods postfire. In this study, we examined the influence of fire history on gross nitrification, nitrification potential, and the nature and abundance of AOB. Soil cores were collected from sites in the Selway-Bitterroot wilderness area in northern Idaho that had been exposed twice (in 1910, 1934) or three times (1910, 1934, and 1992) in the last 94 yr, allowing us to contrast soils recently exposed to fire to those that experienced no recent fire (control). Charcoal content was determined in the O horizon by hand-separation and in the mineral soil by a chemical digestion procedure. Gross and net nitrification, and potential rates of nitrification were measured in mineral soil. Analysis of the AOB community was conducted using primer sets specific for the ammonia mono-oxygenase gene (amoA) or the 16S rRNA gene of AOB. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the AOB community structure, while AOB abundance was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Recent (12-yr-old) wildfire resulted in greater charcoal contents and nitrification rates compared with sites without fire for 75 yr, and the more recent fire appeared to have directly influenced AOB abundance and community structure. We predicted and observed greater abundance of AOB in soils recently exposed to fire compared with control soils. Interestingly, sequence data revealed that Clusters 3 and 4, and not Cluster 2, of genus Nitrosospira dominated these forest soils, with a shift toward Cluster 3 in recently burned sites. PMID:20830912

Ball, P N; MacKenzie, M D; DeLuca, T H; Holben, W E


Quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in pea.  


Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches Drechs, is the most-important disease of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) worldwide. No efficient chemicals are available to control the pathogen. To facilitate breeding for Aphanomyces root rot resistance and to better understand the inheritance of partial resistance, our goal was to identify QTLs associated with field partial resistance. A population of 127 RILs from the cross Puget (susceptible) x 90-2079 (partially resistant) was used. The lines were assessed for resistance to A. euteiches under field conditions at two locations in the United States (Pullman, Wash. and LeSueur, Minn.) in 1996 and 1998 for three criteria based on symptom intensity and disease effects on the whole plant. The RILs were genotyped using automated AFLPs, RAPDs, SSRs, ISSRs, STSs, isozymes and morphological markers. The resulting genetic map consisted of 324 linked markers distributed over 13 linkage groups covering 1,094 cM (Kosambi). Twenty seven markers were anchored to other published pea genetic maps. A total of seven genomic regions were associated with Aphanomyces root rot resistance. The first one, located on LG IVb and named Aph1, was considered as "major" since it was highly consistent over the years, locations and resistance criteria studied, and it explained up to 47% of the variation in the 1998 Minnesota trial. Two other year-specific QTLs, namely Aph2 and Aph3, were revealed from different scoring criteria on LG V and Ia, respectively. Aph2 and Aph3 mapped near the r (wrinkled/round seeds) and af (normal/afila leaves) genes, and accounted for up to 32% and 11% of the variation, respectively. Four other "minor" QTLs, identified on LG Ib, VII and B, were specific to one environment and one resistance criterion. The resistance alleles of Aph3 and the two "minor" QTLs on LG Ib were derived from the susceptible parent. Flanking markers for the major Aphanomyces resistance QTL, Aph1, have been identified for use in marker-assisted selection to improve breeding efficiency. PMID:12582868

Pilet-Nayel, L; Muehlbauer, F J; McGee, R J; Kraft, J M; Baranger, A; Coyne, C J



Studies on the fungi associated with tomato fruit rots and effects of environment on storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven fungi associated with fruit rot of tomato were isolated includingFusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Alternaria solani, Geotrichum candidum, Acremonium recifei, Aspergillus flavus andA. niger. They were all pathogenic on tomato fruits, most pathogenic beingGeotrichum candidum followed byA. niger. Least rot was caused byAlternaria solani. The optimum temperature for maximum rotting caused byG. candidum, A. niger andA. flavus was 30°C. The

A. O. Oladiran; L. N. Iwu



Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and

Prachand Shrestha



Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.  


Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J



Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.  


The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10?moll(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0×10(5)sporesml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20°C for 6days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua



Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) bioconsortia mediates induction of defense-related proteins against infection of root rot pathogen in mulberry plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Pf1 and Py15 and Bacillus subtilis isolate 16 (Bs16) was found to protect mulberry plants from root rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Induction of defense-related proteins and chemicals by the mixture of Pf1, Py15 and Bs16 against challenge inoculation with M. phaseolina in mulberry were studied. The activity of defense enzymes peroxidase (PO),

P. Ganeshamoorthi; T. Anand; V. Prakasam; M. Bharani; N. Ragupathi; R. Samiyappan



Expression analysis of defense-related genes in Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) species with different levels of compatibility to the soft rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivars are susceptible to soft rot disease caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. We analyzed changes in transcript levels of 41 genes in the highly susceptible ginger cultivar varada, a less susceptible\\u000a wild accession (wild ginger), and a Pythium aphanidermatum-resistant relative, Z. zerumbet, following treatment with Pythium aphanidermatum or one of three signaling molecules: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic

P. G. Kavitha; G. Thomas



Bioactive metabolites from Stenocarpella maydis, a stalk and ear rot pathogen of maize.  


Stenocarpella maydis is a fungal pathogen of major importance that causes a dry-rot of maize ears and is associated with a neuromycotoxicosis in cattle grazing harvested maize fields in southern Africa and Argentina. In an effort to investigate the potential roles of S. maydis metabolites in the fungal disease cycle, ethyl acetate extracts of solid-substrate fermentations of several S. maydis isolates from maize grown in the United States were found to exhibit significant phytotoxic, antifungal, and antiinsectan activity. Chemical investigations of extracts of S. maydis isolates from Illinois and Nebraska led to the isolation or detection of the known metabolites diplodiatoxin, chaetoglobosins K and L, and (all-E)-trideca-4,6,10,12-tetraene-2,8-diol as major components. A culture of Stenocarpella macrospora from maize grown in Zambia produced diplosporin and chaetoglobosins K and L as major components that were isolated. Diplodiatoxin produced significant lesions in a maize leaf puncture wound assay. Diplosporin and chaetoglobosin K displayed moderate antiinsectan activity in dietary assays against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, while chaetoglobosin K exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Using LC-ESIMS and (1)H NMR data, diplodiatoxin was detected as a major component in S. maydis-rotted grain, stalks, and stalk residues. This constitutes the first report of chaetoglobosins K and L from S. maydis, of (all-E)-trideca-4,6,10,12-tetraene-2,8-diol from Stenocarpella, and the first reported detection of diplodiatoxin, or any other Stenocarpella metabolite, in diseased maize seeds and stalk tissues. PMID:21315311

Wicklow, Donald T; Rogers, Kristina D; Dowd, Patrick F; Gloer, James B



The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...


Cacao Diseases: Important Threats to Chocolate Production Worldwide Black Pod: Diverse Pathogens with a Global Impact on Cocoa Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guest, D. 2007. Black pod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology 97:1650-1653. Pathogens of the Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. P. megakarya causes signifi- cant pod rot and losses due to canker in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause pod rots in Central and South America. The

David Guest


Biodegradation of phenol with two basidiomycetous white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two white-rot basidiomycetes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, well-known to degrade lignin and also to degrade many toxic or organohalides into nontoxic or noncarcinogenic compounds, and Pleurotus sajor-caju, with low ligninolytic activities (lignin peroxidase-LiP, and manganese peroxidase-MnP), were used to study degradation of phenol. Both the test fungi were able to tolerate phenol concentration up to 800 ppm. Phenol appeared to have some

O. Toure; P. S. Chahal; M. Ishaque; D. S. Chahal



Decolorization of Azo Dyes by White Rot Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a White rot fungi (WRF) produce various isoforms of extracellular peroxidases (lignin peroxidase-LiP and manganese peroxidase-MnP)\\u000a and phenoloxidases (laccases), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.\\u000a This ligninolytic system of WRF is directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds and dyes. Liquid fermentation\\u000a or solid-state fermentation techniques can be used for enzyme production.

Emrah Ahmet Erkurt; Hatice Atacag Erkurt; Ali Unyayar


The use of Trichoderma species to control strawberry fruit rots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature on the growth and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma species against Botrytis cinerea and Mucor\\u000a mucedo (strawberry fruit pathogens) was studied. Five strongly antagonistic isolates were further used in field experiments.\\u000a The incidence of pre-harvest rots caused by B. cinerea and the rate of post-harvest spoilage were similarly reduced when strawberry\\u000a flowers were sprayed either with the

A. Tronsmo; C. Dennis



Degradation of acrylic copolymers by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various water-soluble homopolymers and copolymers of acrylamide (AAm) and acrylic acid (AA) which contained phenolic sites, such as guaiacol, lignin sulfonate (LS) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA), were tested with regard to their degradability by white-rot fungi. Compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus caused a significantly higher decrease in the average molecular weight ( M? w) of most of the copolymers

Carsten Mai; Wiebke Schormann; Andrzej Majcherczyk; Alois Hüttermann



Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land management plans to sustainably harvest charcoal. To date, the effects of forest management techniques on forest sustainability are still in question. This research uses a multiphase approach integrating satellite analysis with field surveys to assess the effect of varying forest management strategies on forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Phase I involved testing the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellites capability in detecting structural changes in vegetative cover caused by charcoal harvesting and production. Analysis of the MISR derived k(red) parameter showed MISR can consistently differentiate between forest cover types and successfully differentiates between sites at pre- and post-charcoal harvest stages. Phase II conducted forestry and social surveys comparing and contrasting local effects of land management, land use, and charcoal production on forest regeneration. Phase III uses the local surveys to validate and train the regional remote sensing data to assess the effectiveness of land management in promoting forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Combining detailed local knowledge with the regional capabilities of MISR provide valuable insight into the factors that control woodland regeneration and sustainability. Preliminary results from phases II and III indicate that both field and remotely sensed variations in forest cover, tree regeneration, and land use change does not vary when compared against land management type. Final results will provide managers with additional information to create more effective land management strategies that can be implemented across sub- Saharan Africa, ensuring the long-term sustainability of woodland ecosystems and local livelihoods.

Wurster, K.



Recent rotting of the peat surface at Barnstable Saltmarsh, MA  

SciTech Connect

The large saltmarsh at Barnstable, Cape Cod, MA has three distinct zones; a well developed high marsh with widely spaced creeks and pans; an established midmarsh with many more pans and creeks, and a low marsh of inter tidal sand flats newly colonized by Spartina alterniflora. Early in marsh developed, S.a. colonizes low marsh sand flats on ridges'' or levees creating natural depressions. As time passes, the grass tufts trap more sediment allowing for their lateral expansion as they vertically accrete. Creeks systems become more defined and depressions eventually close off to form pans, and established midmarsh. Core data from the midmarsh suggests that subsequent marsh development does not proceed in such a simple manner. Some pan cores contain peat in their bottoms that is identical to the peat of the surrounding marsh. Comparison of 1960 and 1992 aerial photographs shows that not only are many midmarsh pans expanding due to rotting of the surrounding peat, but some pans that were sealed in 1960 are now open, reestablishing connections to nearby creeks and channels. This seems to indicate that the pans can rot the marsh back and expand. From the 1992 data it is apparent that marsh development involves competing growth and erosional processes. A linear progression from low marsh to high marsh does not occur. Instead, the developing marsh may go through periods of growth and recession and eventually develop into high marsh and that rotting of the marsh surface plays a significant part in this development.

Polissar, P.J.; Pack, S. (Hampshire Coll., Amherst, MA (United States). School of Natural Science)



Rotated orthogonal transform (ROT) for motion-compensation residual coding.  


Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the orthogonal transform that is most commonly used in image and video compression. The motion-compensation residual (MC-residual) is also compressed with the DCT in most video codecs. However, the MC-residual has different characteristics from a nature image. In this paper, we develop a new orthogonal transform-rotated orthogonal transform (ROT) that can perform better on the MC-residual than the DCT for coding purposes. We derive the proposed ROT based on orthogonal-constrained L1-Norm minimization problem for its sparse property. Using the DCT matrix as the starting point, a better orthogonal transform matrix is derived. In addition, by exploring inter-frame dependency and local motion activity, transmission of substantial side information is avoided. The experiment results confirm that, with small computation overhead, the ROT is adaptive to change of local spatial characteristic of MC-residual frame and provides higher compression efficiency for the MC-residual than DCT, especially for high- and complex-motion videos. PMID:22752139

Gu, Zhouye; Lin, Weisi; Lee, Bu-Sung; Lau, Chiew Tong



Continued studies of co-pumping of deuterium and helium on a single, 4K activated charcoal panel  

SciTech Connect

The short program undertaken in 1989 to evaluate the feasibility of co-pumping deuterium and tritium (DT) and helium on a charcoal sorbent showed that the charcoal will indeed simultaneously pump the gases. Of interest also was the fact that the total accumulation of helium (capacity) was virtually identical in constant throughput runs in which the D{sub 2}/He ratio was changed between runs. The test program described in this paper undertaken to evaluate further the co-pumping capabilities of the charcoal sorbent.

Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Batzer, T.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA)); Konishi, S.; Ohira, S.; Naruse, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))



Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.  


A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067

Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M



Xylogone ganodermophthora sp. nov., an ascomycetous pathogen causing yellow rot on cultivated mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in Korea.  


Yellow rot, caused by an ascomycetous fungus having a distinctive arthroconidial anamorph, is the most destructive disease of cultivated Ganoderma lucidum in Korea, but the identity of the yellow rot pathogen (YRP) remains uncertain. Isolates have been identified as Xylogone sphaerospora (with putative anamorph Sporendonema purpurascens) or as Arthrographis cuboidea. Therefore we used morphological features, pathogenicity tests and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal genes, including partial small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions, and from the gene encoding RNA polymerase second largest subunit to evaluate the relationship between YRP isolates and these species. YRP isolates formed a distinct subgroup within a clade that included X. sphaerospora, A. cuboidea and Scytalidium lignicola, the type species of Scytalidium, but the disposition of the clade within the Leotiomycetes was uncertain. We describe Xylogone ganodermophthora sp. nov. and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum sp. nov. for the teleomorph and anamorph of YRP respectively. Arthrographis cuboidea is reclassified as Scytalidium cuboideum comb. nov., and the anamorph of X. sphaerospora is named Scytalidium sphaerosporum sp. nov. In pathogenicity tests only X. ganodermophthora caused disease in Ganoderma lucidum. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses showed that X. ganodermophthora populations from diseased fruiting bodies or from oak wood in Korea consisted of two clonal groups. PMID:20943517

Kang, Hyo-Jung; Sigler, Lynne; Lee, Jungkwan; Gibas, Connie Fe C; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won


Paenibacillus BRF-1 has biocontrol ability against Phialophora gregata disease and promotes soybean growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacterium BRF-1 isolated from the rhizosphere of root-rotten diseased soybean plants shows strong antifungal activity on plates. In the present study, the ability of BRF-1 to control brown stem rot disease and to promote plant growth was examined using soybean plants grown in pots. Brown stem rot is a severe soil-borne disease of soybean that is caused by the

Keqin Zhou; Masumi Yamagishi; Mitsuru Osaki



Comparison of Combustion Pollutants from Charania Briquettes, Consumer Barbecue Briquettes, Pakistani Mineral Development Corporation Briquettes, and Pakistani Wood Charcoal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an experimental comparison of combustion pollutants from Charania briquettes, barbecue briquettes; Pakistani natural wood charcoal; and Pakistani Mineral Development Corporation briquettes (PMDC). This study determined ...

D. L. Wilson A. R. Hawthorne



EERF (Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes in detail EPA's office of Radiation Programs Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility's standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. It lists the materials and equipment that are used and explains their laboratory and survey methods.

Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.



Application of the Biospeckle Method for Monitoring Bull's Eye Rot Development and Quality Changes of Apples Subjected to Various Storage Methods--Preliminary Studies  

PubMed Central

In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull’s eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars ‘Pinova’ and ‘Topaz’, susceptible to bull’s eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of ‘Pinova’ and 21% of ‘Topaz’ apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions.

Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof



Possible sources of genetic resistance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense--prospects for future breeding.  


Oil palm estates in southeast Asia suffer from substantial losses due to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense. Field observations have been carried out in North Sumatra, Indonesia, on a series of planting materials of known origin. Differences in susceptibility to the disease have been detected within the two Elaeis species, guineensis and oleifera. Within Elaeis guineensis, material of Deli origin is highly susceptible compared to material of African origin. It is also possible to detect differences in reaction between parents and between crosses within a given origin. The variability of resistance to basal stem rot within the same cross is also illustrated by the diverse responses of clones derived from palms of the same origin. The prospects opened up by these results are discussed, and the importance of performing an early selection test is highlighted. PMID:15750739

Durand-Gasselin, T; Asmady, H; Flori, A; Jacquemard, J C; Hayun, Z; Breton, F; de Franqueville, H



Waterlogged archaeological wood—a substrate for white rot fungi during drainage of wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavily degraded waterlogged archaeological wood samples were tested for their ability to provide a substrate for aerobic wood degrading fungi. White- and brown-rot fungi were inoculated on sterilised 1600 year old ash wood previously degraded by erosion bacteria to determine their ability to degrade the wood further. It was found that only white rot was able to utilise the degraded

C. G Björdal; T Nilsson



Evaluation of root fungicides as root dips for the control of root rot in storage, 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Root rot in storage can lead to considerable sucrose losses in storage and adversely affect factory processing as well. The use of fungicide treatments applied to the root surface prior to storage were investigated to determine if they could reduce storage rots caused by Botrytis sp., Penicillium s...


Ligninolytic and Nonligninolytic Mineralization of Trinitrotoluene by Several White Rot Basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is considered a toxic environmental pollutant that contaminates the soil and ground water. The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is well known for the degradation of TNT under ligninolytic condition. Very few, if any, studies have been done using other white rot fungi. In this study four fungal species, namely, P. chrysosporium, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Hypholoma fasciculare,

M. W. Perkins; S. De; L. Frederick; S. K. Dutta



Potato Leafhopper Injury and Fusarium Crown Rot Effects on Three Alfalfa Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evidence suggests homopterous insects and crown-rotting Fusarium species interact to impose stresses affecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence. Our objective was to investigate interactions of Fusarium crown rot and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) in three alfalfa populations dif...


Response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been...


Evaluation of Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC11 for Biocontrol of Crown Rot and Anthracnose of Banana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC11, and 250 'g/ml each of thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil reduced crown rot of banana caused by a Fusarium sp. by 0-88% and 73-88%, respectively, in laboratory experiments. ESC11 alone did not significantly reduce rot, mold, or anthracnose in most field trials. TBZ an...


Sour rot-damaged grapes are sources of wine spoilage yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast species of sound and sour rot-damaged grapes were analysed during fermentation and grape ripening in the vineyard, using general and selective culture media. During 2003 and 2004 vintages, microvinifications were carried out with sound grapes to which different amounts of grapes with sour rot were added. The wine spoilage species Zygosaccharomyces bailii was only recovered during fermentations with sour

Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira; Amparo Querol




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root rot (PRR) and flooding in soybeans is often a problem on heavy clays or poorly drained soils. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) resistance could decrease losses due to flooding? Alleles for PRR resistance in soybean have been found at eight loci with some loci having more than one all...


Enzymes of white-rot fungi involved in lignin degradation and ecological determinants for wood decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-rot fungi preferably degrade wood from deciduous trees, whilst wood decay by brown-rot fungi is predominant on coniferous substrates. A compilation of recent publications on ligninolytic fungal species and their substrate preference is presented. These organisms can be classified on the basis of their enzyme systems, but an unambiguous allocation to specific hosts proved to be difficult. Environmental conditions may

U. Tuor; K. Winterhalter; A. Fiechter



Barbecue charcoal combustion as a potential source of aromatic volatile organic compounds and carbonyls.  


The emission concentrations of a number of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds were quantified during the combustion of commonly used barbecue charcoal. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyls were determined by gas chromatography coupled with thermal desorption and HPLC method, respectively. The analysis of VOC emission concentrations showed that toluene (116+/-444 ppb) was the most abundant. On the other hand, the carbonyls were dominated by formaldehyde (275+/-477 ppb) and acetaldehyde (126+/-229 ppb). A line of evidence indicates that the emission patterns of these pollutants are associated with the diverse nature of raw materials and the processes involved in their production. Although emission concentrations of target compounds were in most cases below the permissible exposure limits (PEL), a proper regulation against the use of BBQ charcoal is needed to reduce potential health risks associated with its use. PMID:19819620

Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Won; Hong, One-Feel; Sohn, Jong Ryeul



Kinetics of the direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Direct electric heating by passing an electrical current directly through a bed of adsorbent may prove to be an efficient means of regenerating activated charcoal in continuous and batch adsorption processes. Obvious advantages of this type of regeneration are its almost complete lack of inertia, which makes it possible to reduce the number and dimensions of the adsorbers, and its highly efficient use of energy due to the small number of steps in the conversion of the energy, as well as the reduction of heat losses involved in warming the structure and making up for losses to the surroundings. The authors consider the kinetics of direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal not containing adsorbed substances.

Marfin, M.N.; Shumyatskii, Yu.I.



Workers' postural conditions in the charcoal production proccess based on vertical metallic cylynders.  


Considering the importance of posture to the workers' health in the production of charcoal, this paper presents an ergonomic research based on a biomechanical focus that aims to evaluate the posture adopted by these workers on the production of charcoal in vertical metallic cylinders. Thus, it was verified the incidence of pain and/or musculoskeletal injuries to these workers. Also, it was evaluated the weight carried by them and the positions taken in their daily tasks. Applying the Ergonomic Analysis of Labor, the data collection was done by directly observing the workers, registering images, by interviews, and posture analysis based on the OWAS method. The main results of the research show that there are postures with risks in the four levels of musculoskeletal injuries classified by OWAS, concluding that the method is imperative for ergonomic recommendations for minimization or eradication of suffering injury and worker's postural constraints. PMID:22316766

Maia, Ivana Márcia Oliveira; Francisco, Antonio Carlos de



Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas fir ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experi- ments to determine whether charcoal derived from the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir ecosystem may influence soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha ,a perennial grass that thrives after fire. In our first experi- ment, we incubated forest soils with a factorial combination of Douglas-fir wood charcoal generated at 350°C and extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca



The contribution of charcoal burning to the rise and decline of suicides in Hong Kong from 1997–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There has been scant research exploring the relationship between choice of method (means) of self-inflicted death, and broader\\u000a social or contextual factors. The recent emergence and growth of suicide using carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning\\u000a charcoal in an enclosed space (hereafter, “charcoal burning”) was related to an increase in the overall suicide rate in Hong\\u000a Kong. The growth of

C. K. LawPaul; Paul S. F. Yip; Eric D. Caine


Temperature dependence of adsorption coefficients of 222Rn on activated charcoal determined by adsorption-desorption method.  


Adsorption coefficients of 222Rn on five activated charcoal were determined (at -21, +7 and +26 degrees C) by an adsorption-desorption technique using a radon source and an Erlenmeyer flask. They varied from 1.1 to 41.2 L x g(-1). From this variation the mean heat of adsorption of radon on our charcoal was calculated as equal to 4,630(50) cal/mole. PMID:11197467

Zikovsky, L



Interpretation of charcoal and pollen data relating to a late Iron Age ritual site in eastern Ireland: a holistic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of charcoal produced by five burning episodes that occurred in a rapid succession within a ritual pit dating to\\u000a the late Iron Age at Raffin Fort, Co. Meath, Ireland, reveals considerable variation in the charcoal assemblages resulting\\u000a from each burning episode. Wood selection processes are considered against the background of information on woodland composition\\u000a and land-use history provided

Conor Newman; Michael O’Connell; Mary Dillon; Karen Molloy



NAREL (National Air and Standard Environmental Laboratory) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using diffusion barrier charcoal canisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon monitoring procedures for the National Air and Radiation Environment Laboratory (NAREL) are described. Radon is detected by sorption to activated charcoal, followed by detection of gamma ray emissions from the radon decay products lead-214 (295 KeV and 392 KeV) and bismuth-214 (609 KeV). The activated charcoal is held in an 8 ounce metal can, under a polyethylene diffusion barrier

D. J. Gray; S. T. Windham



Effect of surface oxygen complexes of sugar charcoal on the half cell potential of carbon-nickel ferrite electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-nickel ferrite electrodes were prepared by pressing equal amounts of charcoals and nickel ferrite using ABS polymer\\u000a (in acetone + benzene) as binder on a steel mesh. The half cell potentials reported were measured with reference to saturated\\u000a calomel electrode. The electrolyte used was 4-N potassium hydroxide and fuel used was methanol. The surface oxygen complexes\\u000a on the charcoals were

N. K. Sandle; G. Vasudev



Kinetics, equilibrium and breakthrough studies for Fe(II) removal by wooden charcoal: A low-cost adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for rural communities which contains 1–10mg\\/L of Fe(II). Community prepared wooden charcoal is used to remove excess Fe(II). The present work evaluates the wooden charcoal for Fe(II) removal. The Fe(II) uptake equilibrates within 150–180min. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model best fits the experimental data while the adsorption mechanism appears to be surface adsorption

Kamal Uddin Ahamad; Mohammad Jawed



Temperature, moisture, and fungicide effects in managing Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet.  


Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet; however, recent increases in disease incidence and severity were grounds to reevaluate this pathosystem. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and intraspecific groups (ISGs) were tested for pathogenicity on resistant ('FC708 CMS') and susceptible ('Monohikari') seedlings and 10-week-old plants. Several AGs and ISGs were pathogenic on seedlings regardless of host resistance but only AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV caused significant disease on 10-week-old plants. Because fungicides need to be applied prior to infection for effective disease control, temperature and moisture parameters were assessed to identify potential thresholds that limit infection. Root and leaf disease indices were used to evaluate disease progression of AG-2-2 IIIB- and AG-2-2 IV-inoculated plants in controlled climate conditions of 7 to 22 growing degree days (GDDs) per day. Root disease ratings were positively correlated with increasing temperature of both ISGs, with maximum disease symptoms occurring at 22 GDDs/day. No disease symptoms were evident from either ISG at 10 GDDs/day but disease symptoms did occur in plants grown in growth chambers set to 11 GDDs/day. Using growth chambers adjusted to 22 GDDs/day, disease was evaluated at 25, 50, 75, and 100% moisture-holding capacity (MHC). Disease symptoms for each ISG were highest in soils with 75 and 100% MHC but disease still occurred at 25% MHC. Isolates were tested for their ability to cause disease at 1, 4, and 8 cm from the plant hypocotyl. Only AG-2-2 IIIB was able to cause disease symptoms at 8 cm during the evaluation period. In all experiments, isolates of AG-2-2 IIIB were found to be more aggressive than AG-2-2 IV. Using environmental parameters that we identified as the most conducive to disease development, azoxystrobin, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole/propiconazole, flutolanil, polyoxin D, and a water control were evaluated for their ability to suppress disease development by AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV 17 days after planting. Flutolanil, polyoxin-D, and azoxystrobin provided the highest level of disease suppression. Because R. solani AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV are affected by temperature and moisture, growers may be able to evaluate environmental parameters for optimization of fungicide application. PMID:20528187

Bolton, Melvin D; Panella, Lee; Campbell, Larry; Khan, Mohamed F R



Mungbean plants expressing BjNPR1 exhibit enhanced resistance against the seedling rot pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.  


Mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek is an important pulse crop that is widely cultivated in semi- arid tropics. The crop is attacked by various soil-borne pathogens like Rhizoctonia solani, which causes dry rot disease and seriously affects its productivity. Earlier we characterized the non-expressor of pathogenesis related gene-1(BjNPR1) of mustard, Brassica juncea, the counterpart of AtNPR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we transformed mungbean with BjNPR1 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Because of the recalcitrant nature of mungbean, the effect of some factors like Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (GV2260 and LBA4404), pH, L: -cysteine and tobacco leaf extract was tested in transformation. The transgenic status of 15 plants was confirmed by PCR using primers for nptII. The independent integration of T-DNA in transgenic plants was analyzed by Southern hybridization with an nptII probe and the expression of BjNPR1 was confirmed by RT-PCR. Some of the T(0) plants were selected for detached leaf anti-fungal bioassay using the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, which showed moderate to high level of resistance depending on the level of expression of BjNPR1. The seedling bioassay of transgenic T(2) plants indicated resistance against dry rot disease caused by R. solani. PMID:21584838

Vijayan, S; Kirti, P B



Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macadamia nut shell charcoal was heated in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (carbonized), reacted with oxygen (Poâ = 2.68--11.3 kPa) at temperatures between 525 and 586 K (oxygenated), and heated again in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (activated) to produce an activated carbon. Carbons produced by this process possess surface areas and iodine numbers

Xiangfeng Dai; Michael Jerry Antal



Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of olive pomace after solvent extraction and charcoal produced from the solid waste of olive oil press industry was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch tests showed that up to 80% of dye was removed when the dye concentration was 10mg\\/ml and the sorbent concentration was 45mg\\/ml. An

F. Banat; S. Al-Asheh; R. Al-Ahmad; F. Bni-Khalid



Removal of nitrate-nitrogen from drinking water using bamboo powder charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption effectiveness of bamboo powder charcoal (BPC); made from the residual of Moso bamboo manufacturing; in removing nitrate-nitrogen from water has been investigated. Commercial activated carbon (CAC) was also used to compare the effectiveness of adsorption in removal of nitrate-nitrogen. The adsorption effectiveness of BPC was higher than that of CAC; regardless of the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen; in the

Kei Mizuta; Toshitatsu Matsumoto; Yasuo Hatate; Keiichi Nishihara; Tomoki Nakanishi



Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

Holmes, R.L.



Activated charcoal affects morphogenesis and enhances sporophyte regeneration during leaf cell suspension culture of Platycerium bifurcatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a leaf cell suspension culture of Platycerium bifurcatum, the incorporation of activated charcoal (AC) greatly increased the number of regenerated sporophytes even in growth regulator-free\\u000a medium. The degree of improvement was dependent on cell aggregate sizes and medium composition. The maximal increase was observed\\u000a in medium with 5.37 µM NAA and 4.44 µM BA, from 9 to 1520 sporophytes.

W.-L. Teng



Adsorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by sugar beet bagasse?based activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium (VI) is known to be potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. A low?cost industrial solid bioadsorbent, bagasse?based activated charcoal (BAC), has been investigated for removal of chromium from aqueous solution. All the experiments were carried out in batch process with laboratory?prepared samples to study the effects of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial concentration of Cr(VI). The removal

M. T. Samadi; A. R. Rahman; M. Zarrabi; E. Shahabi; F. Sameei



Activated charcoal induced high frequency microspore embryogenesis and efficient doubled haploid production in Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Indian Brassica juncea cultivars were studied for embryogenic response of microspores, microspore embryo regeneration, ploidy assessment of microspore-derived\\u000a plants and their diploidization. Genotype dependence for microspore totipotency was observed and a significant effect of genotype\\u000a by bud size selection was established. The addition of activated charcoal in NLN medium containing 13% (w\\/v) sucrose and 10 ?M\\u000a silver nitrate resulted in

Deepak Prem; Kadambari Gupta; Gautam Sarkar; Abha Agnihotri



Position statement: single-dose activated charcoal. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists.  


In preparing this Position Statement, all relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using agreed criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not usually considered. A draft Position Statement was then produced and subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. The Position Statement went through multiple drafts before being approved by the boards of the two societies and being endorsed by other societies. The Position Statement includes a summary statement for ease of use and is supported by detailed documentation which describes the scientific evidence on which the Statement is based. Single-dose activated charcoal should not be administered routinely in the management of poisoned patients. Based on volunteer studies, the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases with time; the greatest benefit is within 1 hour of ingestion. The administration of activated charcoal may be considered if a patient has ingested a potentially toxic amount of a poison (which is known to be adsorbed to charcoal) up to 1 hour previously; there are insufficient data to support or exclude its use after 1 hour of ingestion. There is no evidence that the administration of activated charcoal improves clinical outcome. Unless a patient has an intact or protected airway, the administration of charcoal is contraindicated. PMID:9482427

Chyka, P A; Seger, D



Charcoal burning and maternal filicide-suicide trends in Taiwan: the impact of accessibility of lethal methods.  


Charcoal burning has emerged as a novel suicide method in Taiwan and its impact on maternal filicide-suicide (MFS) remains unexplored. Using official national mortality data and reports of MFS cases from electronic newspaper archives, the authors aimed to examine whether the newly available charcoal burning was associated with an increase in MFS incidents during the period from 1999 to 2006. The trends for changes in age/gender/method-specific suicide rates and MFS incidence were analyzed and then correlated with each other. The results indicated that charcoal burning was the leading method of filicide in reported MFS incidents. The increase in MFS incidents paralleled that of charcoal burning-specific suicide rates in females aged 25-44 years, while suicide rates by other methods did not change significantly. Easy accessibility and perceived painlessness as conveyed by the media might account for the choices of charcoal burning for MFS. Restricting access to charcoal burning should therefore be prioritized for further prevention strategies. PMID:18926949

Pan, Yi-Ju; Lee, Ming-Been



The uses of charcoal to reconstruct fire history in deep time.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire and combustion have been an integral part of the Earth system for over 400 million years (Scott and Glasspool, 2006; Bowman et al, 2009) and are now an integral part of our industrial world (Bowman et al., 2011). Studying fire and fire events has significant practical application yet fire science is a discipline still with many unanswered questions. Macroscopic charcoal provides an important indicator of past fire events and yields information not only on the occurrence of fires but also on the identity of the plants that have been burnt, as well as on fire temperature (Scott, 2010). There is an intimate link between fire and the evolution of atmospheric oxygen (e.g. Glasspool and Scott, 2010) and the fact that fire can be intimately linked to sedimentation events means that it has a more important role in deep time Earth systems processes than has been fully appreciated. However, much research still needs to be undertaken, across a range of modern ecological settings, to permit a better understanding of the distribution of charcoal in the fossil record and what it implies for our interpretation of past fire events (Scott, 2000, 2010; Glasspool and Scott in press). Until more data is collated on the generation and subsequent incorporation of charcoal into the sedimentary environment it is unlikely that we will be able to comment comprehensively on the scale, nature and frequency of past fires and so their impact on atmospheric evolution or the development of Earth system processes.

Scott, A. C.; Glasspool, I. J.



Charcoal reflectance as a proxy for the emplacement temperature of pyroclastic flow deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot pyroclastic flow deposits often entomb and preserve vegetation as charcoal. When studied in polished section, this charcoal is highly reflective. Novel data from experimentally charred woods demonstrate that reflectance increases with both temperature and time. At temperatures above 250 °C, reflectance rises rapidly for the first hour, effectively stabilizing after 4 h for temperatures below 400 °C. However, for higher temperatures, reflectance only stabilizes after ˜24 h. Charcoalified woods from block and ash flow deposits generated by the Soufrière Hills volcano in Montserrat have yielded interpreted deposit temperatures, based on reflectance data, of 325 525 °C. These temperatures compare favorably with directly measured data (365 640 °C) from the same deposits, indicating that charcoal reflectance is useful as a temperature proxy for ancient pyroclastic flow deposits, particularly where magnetic or mineral data are absent for this purpose. However, caution should be exercised, as only a minimum temperature can be inferred where the heating duration of the deposit is unknown. Unlike magnetic or mineral data, temperature data from charcoalified woods can be obtained from reworked deposits, providing a valuable means of validating observations made about the style of eruption of volcanoes in ancient settings.

Scott, Andrew C.; Glasspool, Ian J.



Mineral composition and charcoal determine the bacterial community structure in artificial soils.  


To study the influence of the clay minerals montmorillonite (M) and illite (I), the metal oxides ferrihydrite (F) and aluminum hydroxide (A), and charcoal (C) on soil bacterial communities, seven artificial soils with identical texture provided by quartz (Q) were mixed with sterilized manure as organic carbon source before adding a microbial inoculant derived from a Cambisol. Bacterial communities established in artificial soils after 90 days of incubation were compared by DGGE analysis of bacterial and taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The bacterial community structure of charcoal-containing soils highly differed from the other soils at all taxonomic levels studied. Effects of montmorillonite and illite were observed for Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria, but not for Actinobacteria or Alphaproteobacteria. A weak influence of metal oxides on Betaproteobacteria was found. Barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons done for QM, QI, QIF, and QMC revealed a high bacterial diversity in the artificial soils. The composition of the artificial soils was different from the inoculant, and the structure of the bacterial communities established in QMC soil was most different from the other soils, suggesting that charcoal provided distinct microenvironments and biogeochemical interfaces formed. Several populations with discriminative relative abundance between artificial soils were identified. PMID:23289489

Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Babin, Doreen; Heuer, Holger; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia



Biological Control of Alternaria Fruit Rot of Chili by Trichoderma Species under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma strains were evaluated under field conditions to assay their efficacy in suppressing Alternaria fruit rot disease and promoting chili plant growth. The experiment was conducted at the Botanical Garden, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh from July 2006 to March 2007. Application of Trichoderma harzianum IMI 392432 significantly (p = 0.05) suppressed the disease compared to Alternaria tenuis (T2) treatment and improved both growth and yield. The treatment T4 (T. harzianum IMI-392432 + A. tenuis) was most effective in reducing disease percentage (72.27%) compared to A. tenuis (T1) treatment. The highest seed germination rate (85.56%) and the highest growth and yield (12.5 g/plant) was also recorded in the same treatment (T4), followed by T5 (T. harzianum IMI-392433 000000 + A. tenuis), T6 (T. harzianum IMI-392434 +A. tenuis), T2 (T. virens IMI-392430 + A. tenuis), and T3 (T. pseudokoningii IMI-392431 +A. tenuis) treatment, while single treatment with A. tenuis significantly decreased these values.

Rahman, M. A.; Alam, M. Firoz



Understanding the Impact of Charcoal Inputs to Soils and Sediments on Conventional Geochemical Markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chars/charcoals are solid combustion residues derived from biomass burning. They represent one of the major classes in the pyrogenic organic residues, the so-called black carbon (BC), and have highly heterogeneous nature due to the highly variable combustion conditions during biomass burning. More and more attention has been given to characterize and quantify the inputs of charcoals to different environmental compartments since they also share the common features of BC, such as recalcitrant nature and strong sorption capacity on hydrophobic organic pollutants. Moreover, such inputs also imply the thermal alteration of terrestrial organic matter, as well as corresponding biomarkers such as lignin. Lignin is considered to be among the best-preserved components of vascular plants after deposition, due to its relative stability on biodegradation. This macropolymer is an important contributor to soil organic matter (SOM) and its presence in aquatic environments helps trace the input of terrigenous organic matter to such systems. The yields and specific ratios of lignin oxidation products (LOP) from alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation method have been extensively used to identify the structure of plant lignin and estimate inputs of plant carbon to soils and aquatic systems, as well as evaluate the diagenetic status of lignin. Although the fate of lignin under microbiological and photochemical degradation pathways have been thoroughly addressed in the literature, studies assessing the impact of thermal degradation on lignin structure and signature are scarce. In the present study, we used three suites of lab-made chars (honey mesquite, cordgrass, and loblolly pine) to study the impact of combustion on lignin and their commonly used parameters. Our results show that combustion can greatly decrease the yields of the eight major lignin phenols (vanillyl, syringyl, and cinnamyl phenols) with no lignin phenols detected in any synthetic char produced at ? 400°C. With increasing combustion temperature, internal phenol ratios (S/V and C/V) show a two-stage change with an initial increase at low temperatures followed by marked and rapid decreases when temperatures reach 200- 250°C. The acid/aldehyde ratios of vanillyl phenols ((Ad/Al)v) and syringyl phenols ((Ad/Al)s) all increase with increasing combustion temperature and duration and reach a maximum values at 300- 350°C, regardless plant species. The highly elevated acid/aldehyde ratios reached in some cases exceed the reported values of humic and fulvic acids extracted from soils and sediments. We applied these empirical data in mixing models to estimate the potential effects of charcoal inputs on the observed lignin signatures in environmental mixtures. The shifts in lignin signatures are strongly influenced both by the characteristics of the charcoal incorporated and the proportion of charcoal in the mixture. We validated our observations with two sets of environmental samples, including soils from control burning sites, and a sediment core from a wetland with evidence of charcoal inputs, showing that the presences of charcoals do alter the observed lignin signals in these samples. Such a thermal "interference" on lignin parameters should thus be considered in environmental mixtures with recognized char input.

Kuo, L.; Louchouarn, P.; Herbert, B.



A theoretical model for ²²²Rn adsorption on activated charcoal canisters in humid air based on Polanyi`s potential theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water vapor interferes with adsorption ²²²Rn gas by passive activated charcoal devices used to estimate indoor air concentrations. The ²²²Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing charcoal`s ability to adsorb ²²²Rn. The Dubinin-Radushkevich equation, based on Polanyi`s potential theory, was modified to include two terms quantifying the effect of both water vapor and sampling time on the ²²²Rn adsorption

S. Charles Scarpitta



Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China.  


In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), ?-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China. PMID:21980371

Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi



Dibutyl phthalate biodegradation by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.  


In this study, white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis, was applied to degrade dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a major environmental pollutant. The degradation potential and resulting products were evaluated with HPLC and GC/MS. As DBP concentration increased to 250, 750, and 1,250 microM, the mycelial growth of P. brumalis was inhibited. However, growth was still observed in the 1,250 microM concentration. DBP was nearly eliminated from culture medium of P. brumalis within 12 days, with 50% of DBP adsorbed by the mycelium. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) were detected as intermediate degradation products of DBP. In culture medium, the concentration of DEP was higher than that of MBP during the incubation period. After 12-15 days, the concentrations of both decreased rapidly in the culture medium. The primary final degradation product of DBP in culture medium was phthalic acid anhydride, as well as trace amounts of aromatic compounds, such as alpha-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, benzyl alcohol, and O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. According to these results, the degradation of DBP in culture medium by the white rot fungus, P. brumalis, may be completed through two pathways-transesterification and de-esterification-which successively combine into an intracellular degradation pathway. PMID:17221890

Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Kim, Myung-Kil; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu



Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Peach in China  

PubMed Central

In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), ?-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China.

Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D.; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi



Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.  


Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no effect. Assessment of total culturable microbes in the composts showed a positive relationship between disease suppressive ability and total population levels of pseudomonads. In vitro antagonism assays between compost-isolated bacterial strains and the pathogen showed that strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the greatest antagonism. In growth room trials, strains of P. aeruginosa and nonantagonistic Pseudomonas maculicola, plus 2 biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, were tested for their ability to reduce (i) survival of F. oxysporum, (ii) colonization of plants by the pathogen, and (iii) disease severity. Cucumber seedlings grown in compost receiving P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens had reduced disease severity index scores after 8 weeks compared with control plants without bacteria. Internal stem colonization by F. oxysporum was significantly reduced by P. aeruginosa. The bacteria colonized plant roots at 1.9 × 10(6) ± 0.73 × 10(6) CFU·(g root tissue)-1 and survival was >107 CFU·(g compost)-1 after 6 weeks. The locus for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production was detected by Southern blot analysis and confirmed by PCR. The production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in liquid culture by P. aeruginosa was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that composts containing antibiotic-producing P. aeruginosa have the potential to suppress diseases caused by Fusarium species. PMID:21076480

Bradley, Geoffrey G; Punja, Zamir K



Utilization of recycled charcoal as a thermal source and adsorbent for the treatment of PCDD/Fs contaminated sediment.  


A novel heat treatment process in which charcoal was used as both a thermal source and an adsorbent was investigated as a low-cost method for removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from solids. Three laboratory scale experiments involving various ratios of charcoal to contaminated sediment and air superficial velocities were performed. The results indicated that the total and toxic equivalency quantities (TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs decreased significantly in the treated sediment of all runs with removal efficiencies greater than 96% and 90%, which resulted in residual concentrations below the Japanese standard limit of 0.15ng-TEQg(-1). The charcoal/contaminated sediment ratio and air superficial velocity were determinant factors controlling the PCDD/Fs concentrations and homologue profiles in effluent. As the air superficial velocity increased and charcoal/contaminated sediment ratio decreased, more PCDD/Fs were released from the sediment as fly ash, making them less likely to remain in the treated sediment. These phenomena were likely a result of the vapor pressure of PCDD/Fs, contact time with effluent gas and amount of PCDD/Fs adsorbed by charcoal. The developed process would promise an alternative to a conventional remediation process for PCDD/Fs contaminated solids. PMID:22633545

Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Iwasaki, Kanae; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki



Toward a "molecular thermometer" to estimate the charring temperature of wildland charcoals derived from different biomass sources.  


The maximum temperature experienced by biomass during combustion has a strong effect on chemical properties of the resulting charcoal, such as sorption capacity (water and nonpolar materials) and microbial degradability. However, information about the formation temperature of natural charcoal can be difficult to obtain in ecosystems that are not instrumented prior to fires. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) are molecular markers specific for pyrogenic carbon (PyC) which can provide information on the degree of aromatic condensation in charcoals. Here we apply the BPCA molecular marker method to a set of 10 charcoals produced during an experimental fire in a Pitch pine-scrub oak forest from litter and bark of pitch pine and inkberry plants in the Pinelands National Reserve in New Jersey, USA. We deployed temperature-sensitive crayons throughout the burn site, which recorded the maximum air temperature and made comparisons to the degree of thermal alteration recorded by BPCA molecular markers. Our results show an increase of the degree of aromatic condensation with monitored temperatures for bark biomass, while for needles no clear trend could be observed. For leaf-derived charcoals at increasing monitored fire temperatures, decreasing degree of aromatic condensation was obtained. This suggests that molecular markers can be used to roughly estimate the maximum fire temperatures experienced by bark and wood materials, but not based on leaf- and needle-derived materials. Possible applications include verifying declared pyrolysis temperatures of biochars and evaluating ecosystem fire temperature postburn. PMID:24040784

Schneider, Maximilian P W; Pyle, Lacey A; Clark, Kenneth L; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Schmidt, Michael W I



Radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of indoor pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of recent studies have reported that activated charcoals can adsorb significant amounts of volatile organic compounds at concentration levels generally encountered indoors. In this study, a fundamental understanding of radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of water vapor and various indoor volatile organic compounds has been presented. A dynamic adsorption system was designed and constructed to study adsorption of radon both as a pure component (when present alone in a gas mixture with nitrogen) and in the presence of water vapor and some selected indoor air pollutants. The air pollutants investigated in this study include carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The experimental data were obtained in the form of breakthrough curves. The data were used to verify several existing models for both pure component radon adsorption and its adsorption from binary mixtures. As expected, radon adsorption capacity by charcoal decreased in the presence of water vapor. However, a decrease of about 9% was observed when the relative humidity of the nitrogen stream was below 40%. A sharp decrease in the adsorption capacity, about 40%, was noted if the relative humidity was above 50%. The adsorption capacity for radon decreased by 10% to 20% in the presence of toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The decrease was about 2% to 6% when carbon dioxide or formaldehyde was present in the gas mixture. The capacity for radon also decreased by about 40% during adsorption from the multicomponent mixtures. However, this reduction in the capacity was due mainly to the water vapor. Therefore it may be concluded that radon measurements would be affected significantly in the presence of various indoor pollutants. The models used in this study provided excellent agreement with the experimental data for both pure radon (when present alone in the nitrogen stream) and when present in binary mixtures with water vapor and other indoor pollutants.

Quirino Torres, Leopoldo Leonardo



Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)



Does temperature of charcoal creation affect subsequent mineralization of soil carbon and nitrogen?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is the most common form of natural disturbance of boreal forest ecosystems and has primordial influence on successional processes. This may be due in part to the pre-disturbance vegetation development stage and species composition, but these successional pathways could also vary with differences in fire behavior and consequently in fire intensity, defined as the energy released during various phases of a fire. Fire intensity may also affect soil C and N cycling by affecting the quality of the charcoal that is produced. For example, the porosity of coal tends to increase with increasing temperature at which it is produced Higher porosity would logically increase the surface area to which dissolved soil molecules, such as tannins and other phenolics, may be adsorbed. We report on a microcosm study in which mineral and organic soils were jointly incubated for eight weeks with a full factorial array of treatments that included the addition of Kalmia tannins, protein, and wood charcoal produced at five different temperatures. A fourth experimental factor comprised the physical arrangement of the material (stratified vs. mixed), designed to simulate the effect of soil scarification after fire and salvage harvest. We examined the effects of these treatments on soil C and N mineralisation and soil microbial biomass. The furnace temperature at which the charcoal was produced had a significant effect on its physico-chemical properties; increasing furnace temperatures corresponded to a significant increase in % C (P<0.001), and a significant decrease in %O (P<0.001) and %H (P<0.001). Temperature also had significant impacts on microporosity (surface area and volume). Temperature of production had no effect (P=0.1355) on soil microbial biomass. We observed a linear decreasing trend (P<0.001) in qCO2 with increasing temperature of production, which was mainly reflected in a decline in basal respiration. Finally, we found a significant interaction (P=0.010) between temperature of charcoal production x soil mixing in controlling post incubation NH4+ concentrations. We discuss the results in relation to potential implications for changing fire regime and C and N cycles.

Pelletier-Bergeron, S.; Bradley, R.; Munson, A. D.



Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke\\u000a from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously,\\u000a we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone\\u000a (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined

Neekkan Dey; Archita Das; Arunava Ghosh; Indu B. Chatterjee



Growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with graded levels of charcoal from maize cob or seed of Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.  


Growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with graded levels of Canarium schweinfurthii Engl seed (charcoal A) or maize cob (charcoal B) were studied using a total of 110 3-week-old male chicks. 11 experimental diets including a control and other containing either 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 or 1% charcoal from C. schweinfurthii Engl seed (A(0.2), A(0.4), A(0.6), A(0.8), and A(1%), respectively) or from maize cob (B(0.2), B(0.4), B(0.6), B(0.8), and B(1%), respectively) supplements were used. Each of the diets was fed to ten individually birds caged in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% of either charcoal A or B had significantly (P?charcoals. There was no significant (P?>?0.05) influence of charcoal B on the overall feed intake. Only the B(0.6) feed significantly (P??0.05) affected by charcoal. However, there was a significant (P?charcoal B. Charcoal had no significant (P?>?0.05) influence on intestine length and weight. More than 0.6% of charcoal A significantly (P?charcoal from maize cob or Canarium seeds could be used to improve growth performances and some carcass traits in broiler chickens. PMID:20652406

Kana, Jean Raphael; Teguia, Alexis; Mungfu, Berrian Musa; Tchoumboue, Joseph