These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Charcoal Rot of Plants in East Texas.  

E-print Network

8152 in contrast with 55 per- cent of the plants with charcoal rot in the Purple Hull variety in 1943 (91). Bean l Phaseolus vulgaris J In beans and cowpeas, the sclerotia are abundant under the bark of the stems and taproots (Figure 4). M...- loupe produced spores on bean stems (42). Watermelon f Cifrullus vulgaris1 About 75 percent of the Black Diamond watermelon plants in one field in September 1948 had been killed by charcoal rot. One watermelon fruit showed black rot with the inner...

Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

1949-01-01

2

Relationships of nonstructural carbohydrates to resistance to charcoal rot in sorghum  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Plant Breeding REIATIONSHIPS OF NONSTRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATES TO RESISTANCE TO CHARCOAL ROT IN SORGHUM A Thesis By Abdou Tenkouano Approved as to style and content by: re c . Miller (Chairman f Committee...) R chard A. rederiksen (Member) rrell T. s (Member) om C thren (Member) G. A. R e ead of Department) May 1990 ABSTRACT Relationships of Nonstructural Carbohydrates to Resistance to Charcoal Rot in Sorghum (May 1990) Abdou Tenkouano...

Tenkouano, Abdou

2012-06-07

3

FOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases  

E-print Network

. Indeed, root and butt rots cause more economic damage to commercial forestry in the temperate world thanFOREST PATHOLOGY Root and Butt Rot Diseases M Garbelotto, University of California ­ Berkeley Diseases caused by root rots figure prominently amongst the most-studied pathologies of forest trees

California at Berkeley, University of

4

Wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research work on wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Ethiopia is reviewed. The five important wilt\\/root rot diseases in Ethiopia are wilt, dry root rot, wet root rot, black root rot and collar rot, which are caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, R. solani, F. solani and Sclerotium rolfsii respectively. Of these, dry root

S. P. S. Beniwal; S. Ahmed; D. Gorfu

1992-01-01

5

Control of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina by extracts of Datura metel.  

PubMed

Methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of Datura metel were found highly effective in suppressing against Macrophomina phaseolina, the cause of charcoal rot disease. These extracts were further subjected to successive fractionation with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the concentrations (3.125-200?mg?mL?¹) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of leaf extract, and n-hexane fraction of fruit extract completely inhibited the target fungal growth. Two compounds A and B from the n-hexane fraction of fruit extract and compound C from n-butanol fraction of leaf extract were obtained by TLC. Compound B exhibited the best antifungal activity with an MIC value of 7.81?µg?mL?¹ that was at par with that of commercial fungicide mancozeb (80% w/w). This study concludes that M. phaseolina can be effectively controlled by natural antifungal compounds in n-hexane fraction of methanolic fruit extract of D. metel. PMID:22004473

Javaid, Arshad; Saddique, Amna

2012-01-01

6

Plant Disease Lesson: Brown root rot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on brown root rot (caused by the fungus Phellinus noxius) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Fred Brooks (American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program;)

2002-09-23

7

Biocontrol potential of soybean bacterial endophytes against charcoal rot fungus, Rhizoctonia bataticola.  

PubMed

A total of 137 bacterial isolates from surface sterilized root, stem, and nodule tissues of soybean were screened for their antifungal activity against major phytopathogens like Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium udam, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Nine bacterial endophytes suppressed the pathogens under in vitro plate assay. These were characterized biochemically and identified at the genus level based on their partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Eight of the isolates belonged to Bacillus and one to Paenibacillus. The phylogenetic relationship among the selected isolates was studied and phylogenetic trees were generated. The selected isolates were screened for biocontrol traits like production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes, antibiotics, and plant growth promoting traits like indole 3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen fixation. A modified assessment scheme was used to select the most efficient biocontrol isolates Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15 (HKA-15) and Bacillus sp. HKA-121 (HKA-121) as potential candidates for charcoal rot biocontrol as well as soybean plant growth promotion. PMID:19067044

Senthilkumar, M; Swarnalakshmi, K; Govindasamy, V; Lee, Young Keun; Annapurna, K

2009-04-01

8

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain-mediated induced systemic resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) through defense-related enzymes against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot.  

PubMed

Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. In this regard, individual application of two strains of Pseudomonas, RRLJ 134 and RRLJ 04, exhibited development of induced systemic resistance in tea plants against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot under split root experiments. The experimental findings also confirmed that the cuttings treated with fungal test pathogen and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains survived longer as compared with pathogen-alone-treated cuttings. The enzyme level studies revealed that the presence of PGPR strains reduced the viscosity loss of cellulose and pectin by both the pathogens to a significant level. The activity of defense-related enzymes like L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded higher in tea cuttings treated with PGPR strains in presence of pathogen. Crude bioactive metabolites isolated from these strains also showed in vitro antagonism against the test pathogens besides reducing the number of diseased plants under gnotobiotic conditions. These findings confirm the utilization of these two strains for induction of systemic resistance against two major root diseases in tea plants under plantation conditions. PMID:25082766

Mishra, A K; Morang, P; Deka, M; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-09-01

9

Plant Disease Lesson: Brown rot of stone fruits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Brown rot of stone fruits (caused by Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University;)

2000-10-25

10

Recombinant Protein for Biocontrol of Brown Rot Disease in Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Egypt, potato has an important position among all vegetable crops. Potato crop is infected with the brown rot disease producing a major problem which caused by Ralstonia. Solanacearum. Soil samples were collected from Gharbia governorate, bacterial isolation was carried out using suitable media. Many bacterial isolates were obtained and used for bioagent against R. solanacearum. One isolate among all

S. S. Kabeil; Elsayed E. Hafez; Ayman S. Daba; M. A. El-Saadani

2009-01-01

11

Plant Disease Lesson: Monosporascus Root Rot and Vine Decline of Melons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Monosporascus root rot and vine decline of melons (MRR/VD), also referred to as sudden wilt, sudden death, melon collapse, Monosporascus wilt, and black pepper root rot (caused by the fungus Monosporascus cannonballus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Ray D. Martyn (Purdue University;)

2002-06-12

12

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

13

Lettuce black root rot — a disease caused by Chalara elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce plants in several fields in south-eastern Queensland were affected by a black root rot resulting in slow growth, small\\u000a head size and harvest reductions. Isolation and pathogenicity tests showed Chalara elegans was the causal fungus. The host range included bean and cucurbits but not capsicum, celery, cotton, eggplant, parsley,\\u000a radish or tomato. The weed Sonchus oleraceus was a natural

R G. O’Brien

1994-01-01

14

Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w\\/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by

Tariq Riaz; Salik Nawaz Khan; Arshad Javaid

2010-01-01

15

Eco-friendly management of red rot disease of sugarcane with Trichoderma strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty strains of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride occurring in sugarcane rhizosphere soil of sub-tropical zone were isolated on Trichoderma specific medium and tried screened in vitro against Colletotrichum falcatum. Highly potent ones (Th 37 & Th 38) were tried to manage red rot disease under field conditions. Healthy setts were treated\\u000a by applying Trichoderma mixed culture (TMC) of T.

Vijai Singh; B. B. Joshi; S. K. Awasthi; S. N. Srivastava

2008-01-01

16

Degradation of organic matter from black shales and charcoal by the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune and release of DOC and heavy metals in the aqueous phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the degradation of refractory organic matter (OM) by the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune to understand the release of dissolved organic compounds, heavy metals and sulfur. The investigated OM consisted of: charcoal, the short time end product of high temperature wood alteration in the absence of oxygen and composed mainly of pure OM; and black shales composed of clay

Marcus Wengel; Erika Kothe; Christian M. Schmidt; Klaus Heide; Gerd Gleixner

2006-01-01

17

Adaptive expression of host cell wall degrading enzymes in fungal disease: an example from Fusarium root rot of medicinal Coleus.  

PubMed

Quantity of extracellular proteins and activities two cell wall degrading enzymes pectinase and cellulase were determined in the culture filtrate of Fusarium solani, the causal organism of root rot of Coleus forskohlii. Substitution of carbon source in the medium with either pectin or carboxymethyl cellulose led to the increased production of extracellular proteins by the fungus. Pectinase and cellulase activity in the culture filtrate was detected only when the growth medium contained substituted carbon source in the form of pectin and CMC, respectively. Pectinase activity was highest after 5 days incubation and then decreased gradually with time but cellulase activity showed a steady time dependent increase. In vitro virulence study showed the requirement of both the enzymes for complete expression of rot symptoms on Coleus plants. Thus the present study established the adaptive, substrate dependent expression of the two enzymes by the fungus and also their involvement in the root rot disease of Coleus forskohlii. PMID:24517025

Bhattacharya, A

2013-12-15

18

Fluorescent pseudomonad mixtures mediate disease resistance in rice plants against sheath rot ( Sarocladium oryzae ) disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains were isolated from different agro-ecosystems of Tamil Nadu, India, and\\u000a were tested for their efficacy against the sheath rot pathogen Sarocladium oryzae under in vitro, glasshouse and field conditions. Vigour and a relative performance index (RPI) were used to assay the growth\\u000a promotion and antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas strains against S. oryzae under in vitro conditions. The

Duraisamy Saravanakumar; Nallathambi Lavanya; Kannappan Muthumeena; Thiruvengadam Raguchander; Ramasamy Samiyappan

2009-01-01

19

510 Plant Disease / Vol. 97 No. 4 Etiology of Moldy Core, Core Browning, and Core Rot of Fuji Apple in China  

E-print Network

510 Plant Disease / Vol. 97 No. 4 Etiology of Moldy Core, Core Browning, and Core Rot of Fuji Apple, and core rot of Fuji apple in China. Plant Dis. 97:510-516. `Fuji' apple fruit were collected in Shaanxi to species. Pathogenicity was determined by cutting apple fruit into halves and daubing spore suspensions

Biggs, Alan R.

20

Characterization of major hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Pythium myriotylum, causative agent for soft rot disease.  

PubMed

Pythium myriotylum, an oomycetous necrotroph is the causal agent of soft rot disease affecting several crops. Successful colonization by necrotrophs depends on their secretion of a diverse array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). The induction dynamics of CWDEs secreted by P. myriotylum was analysed as little information is available for this pathogen. Activities of CWDEs that included pectinase, cellulase, xylanase and protease were detected using radial diffusion assay and differential staining. In Czapek Dox minimal medium supplemented with respective substrates as carbon source, the increase in CWDE activities was observed till 8 days of incubation after which a gradual decline in enzymatic activities was observed. With sucrose as sole carbon source, all the enzymes studied showed increase in activity with fungal growth while with cell wall material derived from ginger rhizome as sole carbon source, an initial spurt in cellulase, xylanase and pectinase activities was observed 3 days post incubation while protease activity increased from three days of incubation and reached maximum at 13 days of incubation. To further evaluate the role of CWDEs in pathogenicity, UV-induced mutants (pmN14uv1) were generated wherein significant reduction in cellulase, pectinase and protease activities were observed while that of xylanase remained unchanged compared to wild type isolate (RGCBN14). Bioassays indicated changes in infection potential of pmN14uv1 thereby suggesting the crucial role played by P. myriotylum CWDEs in initiating the rotting process. Hence appropriate strategies that target the production/activity of these secretory hydrolytic enzymes will help in reducing disease incidence/pathogen virulence. PMID:23897210

Geethu, C; Resna, A K; Nair, R Aswati

2013-11-01

21

Transgenic Amorphophallus konjac expressing synthesized acyl-homoserine lactonase (aiiA) gene exhibit enhanced resistance to soft rot disease.  

PubMed

Amorphophallus konjac is an important economic crop widely used in health products and biomaterials. However, this monocotyledonous plant's production is seriously restricted by soft rot disease. Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains generate an endocellular acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA), which has inhibitory effect on soft rot pathogen through disrupting the signal molecules (N-acylhomoserine lactones, AHL) of their Quorum Sensing system. The aim of our study is to obtain transgenic A. konjac expressing AiiA protein and exhibiting resistance to soft rot. But till now, there is not any report about exogenous gene transformation in A. konjac. In this research, an Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was constructed. An aiiA gene was synthesized according to the codon usage in A. konjac. Embryogenic callus was infected with the A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pU1301 plus synthesized aiiA gene. After antibiotics screening, 34 plants were obtained. PCR analysis showed that positive amplified fragments were present in 21 out of these 34 lines. Southern blot analysis indicated that aiiA gene had integrated into the genome of A. konjac. Western blotting demonstrated that the target protein of interest was reactive with the antibody against AiiA. Further disease resistance detection revealed that all of the tested transgenic A. konjac lines exhibited high resistance to soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Ecc) SCG1. The protocol is useful for the quality improvement of A. konjac through genetic transformation. PMID:19898849

Ban, Huifang; Chai, Xinli; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Yi; Zou, Yulan; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

2009-12-01

22

Effect of preceding and intercropping crops on suppression of lentil damping-off and root rot disease in New Valley – Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani were isolated from diseased lentil roots showing damping-off and root rot collected from different locations of New Valley governorate. R. solani isolate R-1 and F. solani isolate FS-9 were the highest virulent isolates. The influence of some agricultural factors on severity of damping-off and root rot disease was studied under greenhouse and field conditions. Intercropping cumin, anise,

M. F. Abdel-Monaim; K. A. M. Abo-Elyousr

23

Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).  

PubMed

Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

2014-01-01

24

Mycotoxin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolates from rice with Fusarium sheath rot disease.  

PubMed

Twenty samples of unpolished (rough) rice collected in Arkansas and Texas during the 1995 harvesting season from fields exhibiting Fusarium sheath rot disease or panicle blight were previously shown to include 8 samples positive for fumonisin B1 (FB1) in the range 2.2-5.2 ppm, and moniliformin (MON), but no beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol, its derivatives or zearalenone were detected. Fifteen cultures of F. proliferatum were established from the 20 rough rice samples. Single spore isolates of each culture were grown on rice and tested for the production of fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3, etc.), MON and BEA. All 15 isolates produced FB1, FB2, MON and BEA in culture on rice. No deoxynivalenol, its derivatives or zearalenone were detected. Seven cultures produced FB1 at > 50 ppm (range 80-230 ppm), with the rest producing FB1 in the range 14-43 ppm. FB2 was produced in the range 5-47 ppm, and those cultures which produced the most FB1 also produced the most FB2. Of the 15 cultures producing MON, 11 produced it at > 100 ppm in the range 188-6018 ppm, with the rest producing in the range 7-64 ppm. BEA was produced in the range 109-1350 ppm. Other derivatives of fumonisins, including FA1, FA2 and partially hydrolyzed FB1, as well as several unknown metabolites including a compound with MW 414, were identified in culture extracts by continuous flow fast atom bombardment with ion spray mass spectrometry (CF/FAB/MS). Further study is needed to identify the factors that control production of FB1, MON and BEA by F. proliferatum in culture and in field samples. PMID:10967968

Abbas, H K; Cartwright, R D; Xie, W; Mirocha, C J; Richard, J L; Dvorak, T J; Sciumbato, G L; Shier, W T

1999-01-01

25

ETIOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF FUNGAL DISEASES OF WHEAT ROOT AND FOOT ROT IN EAST AZARBAIJAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the causal agents of wheat root and foot rot in East Azarbaijan irrigated wheat fields were surveyed in Azarshahr, Ahar, Bonab, Shabestar, Sarab, Khosroshahr, Sofian, Maragheh, Marand and Mianeh, during autumn and mainly growing season (spring). Samples with chlorosis, growth decrease, decay root and foot and white head were collected. Discolored segments were washed with tap

M. Mohammadipour; A. Dizadji Ilkhechi

26

Histopathology of an acute fin lesion in the summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and some speculations on the etiology of fin rot disease in the New York Bight.  

PubMed

The histopathology of acute fin rot disease in summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, from the New York Bight is described. Grossly, caudal and dorsal fin lesions appeared ragged or frayed with no evidence of resolution. Microscopically, there was epidermal and dermal necrosis, congestion, edema, focal and diffuse hemorrhage, and Zenkers necrosis of underlying muscle. Gram-negative bacteria were present in the fin tissues as well as in heart muscle and liver parenchyma. The inflammatory response consisted mostly of macrophages. The significance of the acute disease in summer flounder is discussed in relation to the etiology of fin rot disease in winter flounder from the Bight. PMID:839618

Murchelano, R A; Ziskowski, J

1977-01-01

27

An investigation of the etiology of the root rot-wilt disease of muskmelon in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF THE ROOT ROT-WILT DISEASE OF MUSKMELON IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by ETHEL REYES CHAMPACO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject; Plant Pathology AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ETIOLOGY OF THE ROOT ROT-WILT DISEASE OF MLISKMELON IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by ETHEL REYES CHAMPACO Approved...

Champaco, Ethel Reyes

2012-06-07

28

Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endophytes of Panax notoginseng with antagonistic characteristics towards pathogens of root-rot disease complex.  

PubMed

Endophytes play an important role in protection of host plants from infection by phytopathogens. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from five different parts (root, stem, petiole, leaf and seed) of Panax notoginseng and evaluated for antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Ralstonia sp. and Meloidogyne hapla, three major pathogens associated with root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. From 1000 endophytic bacterial strains evaluated in vitro, 104 strains exhibited antagonistic properties against at least one of these three pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these 104 antagonistic bacteria belong to four clusters: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. Members of the Firmicutes, in particular the Bacillus spp., were predominant in all analyzed tissues. The root was the main reservoir for antagonistic bacteria. Of the 104 antagonists, 51 strains showed antagonistic activities to one pathogen only, while 43 and 10 displayed the activities towards two and all three pathogens, respectively. The most dominant species in all tissues were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus, which were represented by eight strains with broad antagonistic spectrum to the all three test pathogens of root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. PMID:22987248

Ma, Li; Cao, Yong Hong; Cheng, Ming Hui; Huang, Ying; Mo, Ming He; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jian Zhong; Yang, Fa Xiang

2013-02-01

29

Genetic characterisation of Pectobacterium wasabiae causing soft rot disease of potato in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectobacterium wasabiae has a narrow host range, having previously only been associated with Japanese horseradish. However, recent characterisation\\u000a of Pectobacterium causing soft rotting in New Zealand has identified putative P. wasabiae isolates pathogenic to potato. In this study, phylogenetic reconstruction of acnA and mdh DNA sequences and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) were used to confirm the identity of

Andrew R. Pitman; Sally A. Harrow; Sandra B. Visnovsky

2010-01-01

30

Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.  

PubMed

The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

2012-04-01

31

Agronomic practices and common root rot in spring wheat: Effect of tillage on disease and inoculum density of Cochliobolus sativus in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tillage, primarily zero tillage, on common root rot in spring wheat was studied at three locations in Saskatchewan. Generally, disease intensity was lower under zero than conventional tillage. It was significantly lower in 6 of 10 years at Scott and in 3 of 7 years at Swift Current. Differences occurred in wheat in oilseed - wheat -

R. D. Tinline; D. T. Spurr

1991-01-01

32

812 Plant Disease / Vol. 94 No. 7 Field Application of Calcium to Reduce Phytophthora Stem Rot of Soybean,  

E-print Network

for edamame and seed processing (15). This soybean cultivar is highly prized because its seeds are much larger than those of other soybean culti- vars, weighing about 70 to 85 g per 100 seeds, and a higher premium of Phytophthora stem rot on soy- bean in the laboratory or growth-chamber experiments are due to multiple effects

Biggs, Alan R.

33

Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans  

E-print Network

with a 90% germination rate. Double-crop soybeans are drilled with a seeding rate of 195,000 seeds per acreCont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Cont. Rot. Rot. DC Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Corn Corn Beans Wheat Beans Expected yield per acre2 118 126 39 62 23 149 158 49 70 29

Jackson, Scott A.

34

Fusarium graminearum Possesses Virulence Factors Common to Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Seedling Rot of Soybean but Differing in Their Impact on Disease Severity.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium graminearum is a toxigenic fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot on cereal crops worldwide. This fungus also causes damping-off and crown and root rots at the early stage of crop development in soybean cultivated in North and South America. Several F. graminearum genes were investigated for their contribution to FHB in cereals but no inherent study is reported for the dicotyledonous soybean host. In this study we determined the disease severity on soybean seedlings of five single gene disrupted mutants of F. graminearum, previously characterized in wheat spike infection. Three of these mutants are impaired on a specific function as the production of deoxynivalenol (DON, ?tri5), lipase (?Fgl1), and xylanase (?xyl03624), while the remaining two are MAP kinase mutants (?FgOS-2, ?gpmk1), which are altered in signaling pathways. The mutants that were reduced in virulence (?tri5, ?Fgl1, and ?FgOS-2) or are avirulent (?gpmk1) on wheat were correspondently less virulent or avirulent in soybean seedlings, as shown by the extension of lesions and seedling lengths. The ?xyl03624 mutant was as virulent as the wild type mirroring the behavior observed in wheat. However, a different ranking of symptom severity occurred in the two hosts: the ?FgOS-2 mutant, that infects wheat spikelets similarly to ?tri5 and ?Fgl1 mutants, provided much reduced symptoms in soybean. Differently from the other mutants, we observed that the ?FgOS-2 mutant was several fold more sensitive to the glyceollin phytoalexin suggesting that its reduced virulence may be due to its hypersensitivity to this phytoalexin. In conclusion, lipase and DON seem important for full disease symptom development in soybean seedlings, OS-2 and Gpmk1 MAP kinases are essential for virulence, and OS-2 is involved in conferring resistance to the soybean phytoalexin. PMID:24779355

Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Castiglioni, Carla; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Favaron, Francesco

2014-11-01

35

TPCP: Armillaria Root Rot ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT  

E-print Network

. Armillaria root rot usually becomes apparent when indigenous forests are cleared for afforestation to the fact that indigenous forests are uncommon and few plantations have been established on stands where unsuccessful. It has been found that infection centres apparently disappear after a number of pine rotations

36

Root Rot of Cotton or "Cotton Blight"  

E-print Network

, cotton . dies year after year unless checked. The "dead spots" increase i~ size. When such plants as Sweet Potatoes, Grapes, Mulberry, Ap ple, China trees and Cow Peas follow diseased cotton they also dic in the same way, namely, a rotting... of the roots occurs. As an illustration Iwill only give one case, which came under my personal observation: I was anxious to obtain sweet potatoes which showed lEoot Rot. My desire was expressed to Mr. A. W. Kerr, of Sher- man. I was shown a sweet potato...

Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

1888-01-01

37

Ground-based Technologies for Cotton Root Rot Control  

E-print Network

The overall goal of this research is to develop ground-based technologies for disease detection and mapping which can maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of cotton root rot (CRR) treatments. Accurately mapping CRR could facilitate a much more...

Cribben, Curtis D

2013-04-24

38

Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder  

E-print Network

The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

Ang, Dexter W

2005-01-01

39

Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P. [Tecnologia e Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

1993-12-31

40

Identification of Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Vuill., Causal Agent of Rhizopus Rot Disease of Fruits and Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizopus stolonifer commonly causes postharvest diseases on many fruits and vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the growth rate and sporulation of three strains of R. stolonifer on different media, to quantify the sporangiophores, sporangia, and sporangiospores of three strains by image analysis, determining the relative frequencies of spore shapes, and by scanning electron microscopy, to confirm

Ana Niurka Hernández-Lauzardo; Silvia Bautista-Baños; Miguel Gerardo Velázquez; José Luis Trejo-Espino

41

Novel thermotolerant laccases produced by the white-rot fungus Physisporinus rivulosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus rivulosus strain T241i is highly selective for degradation of softwood lignin, which makes this fungus suitable for biopulping. In\\u000a order to promote laccase production, P. rivulosus was cultivated in nutrient-nitrogen sufficient liquid media containing either charcoal or spruce sawdust as supplements.\\u000a Two laccases with distinct pI values, Lac-3.5 and Lac-4.8, were purified from peptone-spruce sawdust-charcoal cultures

Kristiina Hildén; Terhi K. Hakala; Pekka Maijala; Taina K. Lundell; Annele Hatakka

2007-01-01

42

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

43

Suppression of maize root diseases caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium graminearum by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

A plant growth-promoting isolate of a fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 and two bacilli isolates MR-11(2) and MRF, isolated from maize rhizosphere, were found strongly antagonistic to Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina, causal agents of foot rots and wilting, collar rots/stalk rots and root rots and wilting, and charcoal rots of maize, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. EM85 produced antifungal antibiotics (Afa+), siderophore (Sid+), HCN (HCN+) and fluorescent pigments (Flu+) besides exhibiting plant growth promoting traits like nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and production of organic acids and IAA. While MR-11(2) produced siderophore (Sid+), antibiotics (Afa+) and antifungal volatiles (Afv+), MRF exhibited the production of antifungal antibiotics (Afa+) and siderophores (Sid+). Bacillus spp. MRF was also found to produce organic acids and IAA, solubilized tri-calcium phosphate and fixed nitrogen from the atmosphere. All three isolates suppressed the diseases caused by Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. A Tn5:: lacZ induced isogenic mutant of the fluorescent Pseudomonas EM85, M23, along with the two bacilli were evaluated for in situ disease suppression of maize. Results indicated that combined application of the two bacilli significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the Macrophomina-induced charcoal rots of maize by 56.04%. Treatments with the MRF isolate of Bacillus spp. and Tn5:: lacZ mutant (M23) of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 significantly reduced collar rots, root and foot rots, and wilting of maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme and F. graminearum (P = 0.05) compared to all other treatments. All these isolates were found very efficient in colonizing the rhizotic zones of maize after inoculation. Evaluation of the population dynamics of the fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 using the Tn5:: lacZ marker and of the Bacillus spp. MRF and MR-11(2) using an antibiotic resistance marker revealed that all the three isolates could proliferate successfully in the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and endorhizosphere of maize, both at 30 and 60 days after seeding. Four antifungal compounds from fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, one from Bacillus sp. MR-11(2) and three from Bacillus sp. MRF were isolated, purified and tested in vitro and in thin layer chromatography bioassays. All these compounds inhibited R. solani, M. phaseolina, F. moniliforme, F. graminearum and F. solani strongly. Results indicated that antifungal antibiotics and/or fluorescent pigment of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, and antifungal antibiotics of the bacilli along with the successful colonization of all the isolates might be involved in the biological suppression of the maize root diseases. PMID:11716210

Pal, K K; Tilak, K V; Saxena, A K; Dey, R; Singh, C S

2001-01-01

44

Investigating dry rot in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serpula Lacrymans, the true dry rot fungus, is the most deadly form of fungal attack in building timbers and buildings of traditional construction in the UK are particularly vulnerable to this form of decay. The importance of oxalic acid and calcium?bearing materials in the development of dry rot is emphasized and particular attention is given to identifying sources of moisture

James Douglas; Jagjit Singh

1995-01-01

45

Texas Plant Diseases Handbook.  

E-print Network

Yellows ... 268-269 Charcoal Rot . . . . . . . . . 270 Chern i cal 0 am age . . . . . . . . . . . .? ..... 2 71 Cotton Root Rot (Table of Resistant Plants) ..... 272-280 Crown Gall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? . . . . . . . . . . 281 Curly Top... ON LEAF AND STEM 2. SOUTHERN BLIGHT OF TOMATO 5. GRAY LEAF SPOT ON TOMATO LEAFLETS b. CORN SMUT 3. BACTERIAL WILT OF TOMATO WITH CUT SECTION OF STEM 7. POWDERY MILDEW ON LEAF 8. ROOT KNOT NEMATODE GALLS ON ROOTS 9. STEM LESION ON BEAN 10. DOWNY...

Horne, C. Wendell; Amador, Jose M.; Johnson, Jerral D.; McCoy, Norman L.; Philley, George L.; Lee, Thomas A. Jr.; Kaufman, Harold W.; Jones, Roger K.; Barnes, Larry W.; Black, Mark C.

1988-01-01

46

Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment  

E-print Network

Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment Pollutant Removal and Recycling Opportunities;Bark and Charcoal Filters for Greywater Treatment. Pollutant Removal and Recycling Opportunities issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust

47

Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder.

Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

1984-01-01

48

Preliminary evaluation of bacterial soft rot resistance in native Chilean potato clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuber and stem rots induced by Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora (Ecc) and E. carotovora pv. atroseptica (Eca) are serious diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the southern regions of Chile (2). Resistance in potato to soft rot and black leg has been investigated extensively in Europe and North America (7). However, the native Chilean potato collection has received little

Luigi Ciampi-Panno; Nancy Andrade-Soto

1984-01-01

49

Physical Properties of Polyolefin \\/ Bamboo Charcoal Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of two kinds of polyolefin \\/ bamboo charcoal composites, based upon polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE), were studied for varying levels of charcoal inclusion between 0 and 20 phr. A Brabender mixer and two-roll mill were used for the mixing process of both polyolefin and bamboo charcoal composites, followed by compression moulding of the homogeneous

Siriwan KITTINAOVARAT; Worawat SUTHAMNOI

50

Evaluation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for Suppression of Sheath Rot Disease and for Enhancement of Grain Yields in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens strains antagonistic to Sarocladium oryzae, the sheath rot (Sh-R) pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.), were evaluated in greenhouse and field tests for suppression of Sh-R severity and enhancement of grain yields of rice. Imprints of rice seedlings and a direct-observation technique of staining roots with fluorochromes confirmed the association of P. fluorescens with roots and the ability of the strain to move along shoot tips. In greenhouse tests, P. fluorescens-treated rice plants (cv. IR 20) showed a 54% reduction in the length of Sh-R lesions. In three field tests, treatment with P. fluorescens reduced the severity of Sh-R by 20 to 42% in five rice cultivars. Bacterization of rice cultivars with P. fluorescens enhanced plant height, number of tillers, and grain yields from 3 to 160%. Images PMID:16347428

Sakthivel, N.; Gnanamanickam, S. S.

1987-01-01

51

Black Rot of the Grape  

E-print Network

. .............................. J. W. CARSON,. .Assistant to Director. ............................. J. M. CARSON,. .Assistant Agriculturist. ........................ P. S. TILSON, M. S. .Assistant in Chemistry. Texas ~gaieultuaal Ex~e~imcnt Station. BLACK ROT OF THE GRAPE.... (Physalospora Bidwellii. Sachs.) (R. H. PRICE, B. 8.) 11 Ull otht upo' men Perhaps no other subject in Vegetable Pathology has attracted so wide attention since 1885 as the Black Rot of the grape and its treat- ment. This may be due to the serious loss...

Price, R. H.

1892-01-01

52

Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

1997-10-01

53

Evaluation of Eupatorium cannabinum Linn. oil in enhancement of shelf life of mango fruits from fungal rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from 17 higher plants belonging to different families were screened against Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing stem end rot disease and anthracnose disease in mango respectively. The essential oil of Eupatorium cannabinum was found to be fungitoxic in nature against both the mango-rotting fungi. Eupatorium oil was standardized through physico-chemical and fungitoxic properties. Gas Liquid Chromatography

R. K. Dubey; Rajesh Kumar; Æ Jaya; N. K. Dubey

2007-01-01

54

Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products  

PubMed Central

Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

2010-01-01

55

A comparative analysis of emissions from bagasse charcoal and wood charcoal  

E-print Network

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western hemisphere and is in need of cheap cooking fuel source. Currently, lump charcoal, the cooking fuel of Haiti, is made by carbonizing trees in ditches before selling the charcoal ...

Ramírez, Andrés, 1982-

2005-01-01

56

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2012-01-01

57

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2011-01-01

58

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action....

2010-01-01

59

Mechanical properties of chitosan\\/bamboo charcoal composite films made with normal and surface oxidized charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan\\/bamboo charcoal composite films were prepared by blending chitosan with either virgin bamboo charcoal or bamboo charcoal modified by nitric acid oxidation to provide more hydrophilic regions on the bamboo charcoal surface. Investigation of the physical properties of these composite films revealed that the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the chitosan films were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by

Walaikorn Nitayaphat; Nantana Jiratumnukul; Sireerat Charuchinda; Siriwan Kittinaovarat

2009-01-01

60

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti .  

E-print Network

??The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple,… (more)

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01

61

Charcoal hemoperfusion in bupropion overdose.  

PubMed

Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication for depression, with seizures as its major side effect. In the literature, there are insufficient data about hemodialysis following bupropion overdose. A 23-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency department with acute change in mental status and seizure after deliberate self-poisoning with approximately 25-30 tablets of bupropion hydrochloride. Her Glasgow coma scale score was 8/15. The patient underwent hemodialysis about 4 hours later. After 4 hours of extracorporeal treatment, she became conscious and was extubated. We present a case of full recovery after charcoal hemoperfusion following a bupropion overdose. PMID:24636552

Akdemir, H?z?r Ufuk; Cal??kan, Fatih; Duran, Latif; Kat?, Celal; Güngörer, Bülent; Ocak, Metin

2014-10-01

62

CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke ABSTRACT Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

63

Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping  

SciTech Connect

Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

1985-09-30

64

Effect of seed treatment chemicals on seedling emergence, establishment and control of foot and root rot diseases of wheat in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foot and root diseases caused by Fusarium equiseti and Exserohilum rostratum are a limiting factor to the production of irrigated wheat in Nigeria. Five seed treatment chemicals were tested for their ability to control these diseases in 1989 and 1990. Studies under screenhouse conditions showed treatments with a metalaxyl + carboxin + furathiocarb formulation had the highest control of the

P. S. Marley; A. A. Adeoti

1995-01-01

65

Improved resistance to bacterial soft rot by protoplast fusion between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erwinia soft rot is a destructive disease of Brassica rapa vegetables. Reliable sources of resistance and control methods are limited, so development of highly resistant breeding lines\\u000a is desirable. Protoplasts from B. rapa and B. oleracea genotypes selected for resistance to soft rot were fused in order to combine different sources of resistance. Twelve somatic\\u000a hybrids (synthetic B. napus) were

J. P. Ren; M. H. Dickson; E. D. Earle

2000-01-01

66

Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.  

PubMed

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

2012-01-01

67

Antidotal effectiveness of activated charcoal in rats  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to investigate the relative adsorption of radiolabeled /sup 14/C-sodium pentobarbital by three types of activated charcoal. Factors affection adsorption of the drug by SuperChar, United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and Darco G-60 activated charcoals with surface areas of 2800-3500 m2/g, 1000 m/sup 2//g, and 650 m/sup 2//g, respectively, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, the drug was dissolved in water of 70% sorbitol (w/v), and the maximum binding capacity and dissociation constants for each of the charcoals were calculated. Rank order of maximum binding capacity was directly proportional to charcoal surface area in both water and sorbitol, while the dissociation constants for the charcoals in water were not different. For in vivo experiments, absorption of orally administered sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) was studied in rats with and without activated charcoal administration. The results of this research suggest that: (1) SuperChar given in water possesses the greatest antidotal efficacy, (2) sorbitol induced catharsis does not reduce oral absorption of sodium pentobarbital, and (3) sorbitol enhances the antidotal efficacy of USP charcoal.

Curd-Sneed, C.D.

1986-01-01

68

Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, ‹standing milkvetch’ (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of\\u000a stunted plants with reddish-brown

Yan Zhong Li; Zhi Biao Nan

2007-01-01

69

Alfalfa Root Rot.  

E-print Network

thought due to the pre- sence of an "alkali" in the soil, but its continued growth on the same land, showing widening circles of disease with each succeeding year, mould indicate at once a fungus trouble. Mr. W. H. Farley, whose lettera we select... shov that fungus must attack the healthy plants for some time before there are any visible signs ofdisease and for an area much larger than the small circle seemingly affected-or that the disease is not at all checked by plowing. As a matter of fact...

Curtis, Geo. W.

1892-01-01

70

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti  

E-print Network

The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01

71

Converting sugarcane waste into charcoal for Haiti  

E-print Network

In Haiti, most families have traditionally relied on wood and wood-derived charcoal as their primary fuel source for indoor cooking. This resource has proven to be unsustainable, however, as over 90% of the Haitian countryside ...

Toussaint, Etienne Clement

2007-01-01

72

Take-All Root Rot of Turfgrass  

E-print Network

the growing season, Take-all Root Rot of Turfgrass Joseph P. Krausz* L-5170 4-05 *Professor and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology, The Texas A&M University System. Characteristic infection pads (hypho - podia) of the take-all root rot fungus... the growing season, Take-all Root Rot of Turfgrass Joseph P. Krausz* L-5170 4-05 *Professor and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology, The Texas A&M University System. Characteristic infection pads (hypho - podia) of the take-all root rot fungus...

Krausz, Joseph P.

2005-04-21

73

Cotton Root-rot.  

E-print Network

excelsa, Pinus sylvestri.s, Strobw, P. Laricio, Larix Europoea, Acer platanoides. Fagus. This disease manifests itself by the blackening of the roots and rootlets. The Cotylcdons have a spotted appearance. Warm and moist weather causes the fungus... is a case of symbiosis, and Kamien- ski holds that symbiosis cannot be applied to all the ~Kycorhiza forms described by Frank; that in case of Carpinzn Betulus and Pinus Sylvestris the niycelium of the fungns causes hyper- trophy of the tissues. Dr...

Pammel, L. H. (Louis Herman)

1889-01-01

74

An integrated control of Pythium root rot of greenhouse tomato.  

PubMed

Pythium root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is one of the most important diseases of greenhouse tomatoes. Hydroponic culture exacerbates the problem. Both nutrient film technique (NFT) and recirculating growing systems pose a challenge in the control of this disease, because the pathogen, especially the zoospores, can spread easily in the recirculating solution to the whole growing system. Fortunately, hydroponically grown plants are easier to manipulate than soil grown plants, proper manipulation of root environments can lead to excellent disease control. This paper reports the development of an effective integrated control measure for pythium root rot of tomato by integrating pH, bioagent, and ultra-violet irradiation in a specific manner. This integrated control consists of three operations: a) before transplanting, the UV system is connected to sterilize the recirculating solution using 100 mJcm-2; b) after transplanting, the nutrient solution is delivered at pH 5.0 regime for five weeks followed by adjusting pH to 5.8 to 6.2 regime for one week; and c) bacterial bioagent, such as Pseudomonas is introduced into the root zone at 100 mL per plant at 10(8) bacteria mL-1 or added to the nutrient solution to arrive at 10(6) bacteria mL-1 in the solution. This report also discusses the advantages and limitations of this measure in the control of pythium root rot. PMID:12701425

Tu, J C

2002-01-01

75

Grapevine bunch rots: impacts on wine composition, quality, and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.  

PubMed

Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these being Botrytis cinerea (gray mold); however, there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and fungi found in subtropical climates (e.g., Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola ). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimize wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odors and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex affects wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimize wine faults and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified. PMID:23675852

Steel, Christopher C; Blackman, John W; Schmidtke, Leigh M

2013-06-01

76

Trichoderma-fortified compost extracts for the control of choanephora wet rot in okra production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of water extracts produced from rice straw (RST) and empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) composts fortified with Trichoderma harzianum for the control of Choanephora wet rot of okra caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum was studied under field conditions. Disease severity was lowest in plants treated with Trichoderma-fortified RST extracts (9.56%) with a disease index of 1, mancozeb

Yasmeen Siddiqui; Sariah Meon; Mohd R. Ismail; Asgar Ali

2008-01-01

77

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHARCOAL MANUFACTURING, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from charcoal manufacture. The composition, quality, and rate of emissions, and their environmental effects are described. Charcoal is the solid material remaining after the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials, primarily...

78

Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

2006-05-01

79

??????????????????????????????????????? The moisture reduction of Paddy by Bamboo charcoal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to study the moisture reduction of paddy by using bamboo charcoal powder as adsorption media. As well known that bamboo charcoal has an good ability for moisture adsorption, therefore; this work is also choose its for removing water from paddy until close to the storage moisture content. Effect of bulk density of bamboo charcoal

Songchai Wiriyaumpaiwong; Ittipol Thampiban; Panya Pamenapo

80

Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

81

Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time.

Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

2013-01-01

82

Some cultural practices affecting bulb rot, plant and floral development, and seed yield of the White Grano onion  

E-print Network

plants survived complete destruction, they are low in vigor and produce few flower stalks that are small and pro? ductive of few seed. (Figure 1) Additional losses from decay are incurred during the storage period. Seed for the bulb crop of the White... be stored until the normal planting date, October 1. Diseases responsible for bulb decay were determined by Crawford (3) to be a complex of the following: Fusarium bulb rot (Fusarium zonatum), pink root (Pyrenochaeta terrestris), and bacterial soft rot...

Enzie, Joseph Vincent

2013-10-04

83

Quantitative trait locus responsible for resistance to Aphanomyces root rot (black root) caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs. in sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs., is one of the most serious diseases of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Identification and characterization of resistance genes is a major task in sugar beet breeding. To ensure the effectiveness\\u000a of marker-assisted screening for Aphanomyces root rot resistance, genetic analysis of mature plants’ phenotypic and molecular\\u000a markers’ segregation was carried out.

Kazunori Taguchi; Naoki Ogata; Tomohiko Kubo; Shinji Kawasaki; Tetsuo Mikami

2009-01-01

84

LCA of eucalyptus wood charcoal briquettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to describe the environmental impact assessment for wood charcoal briquettes produced from eucalyptus wood in Brazil, with specific reference to those impacts associated with Global Warming Potential. To achieve that objective, the work was undertaken in accordance with ISO 14040 \\

Patrick Rousset; Armando Caldeira-Pires; Alexander Sablowski; Thiago Rodrigues

2011-01-01

85

Comparison of Pratylenchus penetrans Infection and Maladera castanea Feeding on Strawberry Root Rot.  

PubMed

The interaction of lesion nematodes, black root rot disease caused by Rhizoctonia fragariae, and root damage caused by feeding of the scarab larva, Maladera castanea, was determined in greenhouse studies. Averaged over all experiments after 12 weeks, root weight was reduced 13% by R. fragariae and 20% by M. castanea. The percentage of the root system affected by root rot was increased by inoculation with either R. fragariae (35% more disease) or P. penetrans (50% more disease) but was unaffected by M. castanea. Rhizoctonia fragariae was isolated from 9.2% of the root segments from plants not inoculated with R. fragariae. The percentage of R. fragariae-infected root segments was increased 3.6-fold by inoculation with R. fragariae on rye seeds. The presence of P. penetrans also increased R. fragariae root infection. The type of injury to root systems was important in determining whether roots were invaded by R. fragariae and increased the severity of black root rot. Pratylenchus penetrans increased R. fragariae infection and the severity of black root rot. Traumatic cutting action by Asiatic garden beetle did not increase root infection or root disease by R. fragariae. Both insects and diseases need to be managed to extend the productive life of perennial strawberry plantings. PMID:19262852

Lamondia, J A; Cowles, R S

2005-06-01

86

Application of Genomic and Quantitative Genetic Tools to Identify Candidate Resistance Genes for Brown Rot Resistance in Peach  

PubMed Central

The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar ‘Dr. Davis’ and a brown rot resistant introgression line, ‘F8,1–42’, derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

Martinez-Garcia, Pedro J.; Parfitt, Dan E.; Bostock, Richard M.; Fresnedo-Ramirez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

2013-01-01

87

Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.  

PubMed

The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Bostock, Richard M; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

2013-01-01

88

Changes in cation concentrations in red spruce wood decayed by brown rot and white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) wood blocks were incubated in modified soil block jars and inoculated with one of nine white rot or brown rot basidiomycetes. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and aluminum were determined using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy in wood incubated 0, 1.5, 4, and 8 months after inoculation. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium tended to

A. Ostrofsky; J. Jellison; K. T. Smith; W. C. Shortle

1997-01-01

89

Identification and characterization of a novel Iraqi isolate of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot in wheat.  

PubMed

Crown rot is one of the main important fungal diseases affecting wheat in many areas of the world, including Australia, USA, and Iran. Until now, there had been no report of this pathogen in Iraq. Plants displaying crown rot symptoms were observed in Shaat Alarab (Basra, Iraq); we investigated the causal agent of the disease. Samples were surface-sterilized in bleach (1% available chlorine) and cultured on quarter-strength potato dextrose agar plates. DNA was extracted from fungal mycelia, using a modified CTAB protocol. The ITS/5.8S regions were amplified using primer pair ITS1 and ITS4. PCR products purified using a gel extraction kit were sequenced. The sequence that was detected was used to BLAST against NCBI data. The most similar sequence was the ITS/5.8S rDNA region of Fusarium pseudograminearum (strain NRRL28062), showing 97.95% identity. This species normally causes crown rot, resulting in severe damage under dry spring conditions. A pathogenicity test employed to assess the disease-causing ability of the strain showed significant disease symptoms up to 57% infected spikelets. The results confirmed the presence of F. pseudograminearum as a causal agent of wheat crown rot in Iraq. The presence of this pathogen demands further investigations to develop resistant cultivars and/or mechanical control. PMID:22653580

Hameed, M A; Rana, R M; Ali, Z

2012-01-01

90

Rhizosphere ecology and phytoprotection in soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis black root rot of tobacco.  

PubMed

Soil suppressiveness to disease is an intriguing emerging property in agroecosystems, with important implications because it enables significant protection of susceptible plants from soil-borne pathogens. Unlike many soils where disease suppressiveness requires crop monoculture to establish, certain soils are naturally suppressive to disease, and this type of specific disease suppressiveness is maintained despite crop rotation. Soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated black root rot of tobacco and other crops occur in Morens region (Switzerland) and have been studied for over 30 years. In Morens, vermiculite-rich suppressive soils formed on morainic deposits while illite-rich conducive soils developed on sandstone, but suppressiveness is of microbial origin. Antagonistic pseudomonads play a role in black root rot suppressiveness, including Pseudomonas protegens (formerly P.?fluorescens) CHA0, a major model strain for research. However, other types of rhizobacterial taxa may differ in prevalence between suppressive and conducive soils, suggesting that the microbial basis of black root rot suppressiveness could be far more complex than solely a Pseudomonas property. This first review on black root rot suppressive soils covers early findings on these soils, the significance of recent results, and compares them with other types of suppressive soils in terms of rhizosphere ecology and plant protection mechanisms. PMID:24650207

Almario, Juliana; Muller, Daniel; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2014-07-01

91

caused by the wood-rotting basidiomycete fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This pathogen gains entry  

E-print Network

of Fomes root rot of pine on 2 April 1998. The Forestry Commission is the approval holder. Approval stumps. It then spreads across root contacts from the diseased stumps into the roots of healthy trees lead to serious losses to an extent where plantation forestry is no longer economic. Because H. annosum

92

A homoeopathic drug controls mango fruit rot caused by Pestalotia mangiferae Henn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Effect of 1–200 potencies of ten homoeopathic drugs on the spore germination ofPestalotia mangiferae, the causal organism of banana fruit rot, was studied. On the basis of results of in vivo studies with inhibitory doses of drugs, Lycopodium clavatum potency 190 has been recommended for the control of the disease.

K. K. Khanna; S. Chandra

1978-01-01

93

Prevalence of Erwinia soft rot affecting cut foliage, Dracaena sanderiana ornamental industry and solution towards its management.  

PubMed

The study was carried out under net house conditions at Green Farms Ltd, Marawila to determine the occurrence and severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in Dracaena sanderiana plants and to formulate the possible control measures. Field experiment was carried out to manage the soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants. Three different soil treatments with vermicompost, cow dung and poultry manure were tested to manage the disease and plots without application were kept as control. Percent disease incidence, disease reduction and growth parameters were recorded and data were statistically analyzed. Higher percentage of disease reduction was observed in vermicompost (80%) treated plots than those with cow dung (60%) and poultry manure treated. Sprinkler application of water was found favorable to spread soft rot disease and watering through horse pope had lessened the disease incidence significantly. Moreover plant height, shoot and root biomass, number of leaves per plant, leaf length and leaf width were significantly high in vermicompost media. Weeding, removal of diseased leaves and plants, and avoiding sprinkler irrigation were helpful to reduce the disease spread from plant to plant. Vermicompost is the best substrate for suppression of the disease and promoting the growth of plant. Among the different water management practices tested to reduce the disease severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants, water irrigated through the horse pipe was effective compare to sprinkler application. In-vitro experiment conducted to manage the Erwinia soft rot disease by using bio-agent, Pseudomonas fluorescens was found effective to reduce the growth of Erwinia under in-vitro conditions. PMID:23878983

Kayalvily, Thio Desiya; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, Arne; Mikunthan, G

2012-01-01

94

The effect of cholestyramine and activated charcoal on glipizide absorption.  

PubMed Central

1. The interference of cholestyramine and activated charcoal with the absorption of glipizide was studied. 2. In a cross-over study comprising three phases, single doses of cholestyramine (8 g), activated charcoal (8 g) or water only were given to six healthy volunteers together with a single dose of glipizide. 3. The absorption of glipizide was moderately (29%, P less than 0.01) reduced by cholestyramine and greatly reduced (81%, P less than 0.01) by activated charcoal. 4. If cholestyramine and glipizide are used concomitantly, glipizide should be taken 1-2 h beforehand. In acute glipizide overdosage, activated charcoal can be used to reduce absorption. PMID:2271372

Kivisto, K T; Neuvonen, P J

1990-01-01

95

Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fungi which cause rot and decay in our forests are vital members of the ecosystem. By decomposing the hard woody stems of trees they help recycle important nutrients, minerals, and carbohydrates. Unlike many organisms which are easy to see, the fungi are often hidden under bark or within living stems and their presence is not obvious. This laboratory exercise provides instructors with information about where to find and how to visualize and manipulate fungi which cause rot and decay, while discovering how ubiquitous and important they are.

John A. Johnson (University of New Brunswick;)

1989-06-06

96

Cotton Root-Rot and Its Control.  

E-print Network

and sweet potatoes, but also trees such as elms and chinaberries, and ornamental shrubs and flowers such as the privet, rose, and chrysan- themum. In the areas where it is serious, root-rot thus concerns the farmer, the truck grower, the nurseryman..., during dry weather. Eithcr of these estrcme soil-moisture conclitions ericlently is unfarorable to the fungus. With resistaiit plants s~zcli as the Turk's-cap Hibiscus and the pomegranate, the yo~~i~g plant!: become infectecl ~rith root-rot hut nre...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, (Walter Naphtali) Walter N.

1931-01-01

97

paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

Blarquez, Olivier; Vannière, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

2014-11-01

98

Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193  

PubMed Central

Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot bacteria and, potentially, other bacteria as well. PMID:23133391

Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Toronen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

2012-01-01

99

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

2014-01-01

100

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea. PMID:25071394

Aktaruzzaman, Md; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il; Kim, Byung-Sup

2014-06-01

101

Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and

M. W. Parsons; G. P. Munkvold

2010-01-01

102

Sunflower oil quality and quantity as affected by rhizopus head rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower seed (Helianthus annus L.) from plants infected with head rot caused byRhizopus spp. exhibited serious oil quality problems. Free fatty acid content of this oil was 19.4%, compared with 0.8% for oil from\\u000a seed of healthy plants. Oil from diseased seed was also higher in palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic and lignoceric fatty\\u000a acids. In addition, diseased plants yielded only

T. E. Thompson; C. E. Rogers; D. C. Zimmerman

1980-01-01

103

Transgenic Potatoes Expressing a Novel Cationic Peptide are Resistant to Late Blight and Pink Rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is the world’s largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates\\u000a of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy\\u000a for disease control

Milan Osusky; Lubica Osuska; Robert E. Hancock; William W. Kay; Santosh Misra

2004-01-01

104

Development of a ROT22 - DATAMAP interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report (Contract NAS2-10331- Mod 10), outlines the development and validation of an interface between the three-dimensional transonic analysis program ROT22 and the Data from Aeromechanics Test and Analytics-Management and Analysis Package (DATAMAP). After development of the interface, the validation is carried out as follows. First, the DATAMAP program is used to analyze a portion of the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) data. Specifically, records 2872 and 2873 are analyzed at an azimuth of 90 deg, and record 2806 is analyzed at 60 deg. Trim conditions for these flight conditions are then calculated using the Bell performance prediction program ARAM45. Equivalent shaft, pitch, and twist angles are calculated from ARAM45 results and used as input to the ROT22 program. The interface uses the ROT22 results and creates DATAMAP information files from which the surface pressure contours and sectional pressure coefficients are plotted. Twist angles input to ROT22 program are then iteratively modified in the tip region until the computed pressure coefficients closely match the measurements. In all cases studied, the location of the shock is well predicted. However, the negative pressure coefficients were underpredicted. This could be accounted for by blade vortex interaction effects.

Shenoy, K. R.; Waak, T.; Brieger, J. T.

1986-01-01

105

Hands-On Whole Science. What Rots?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities on the science of garbage to help elementary students learn to save the earth. A rotting experiment teaches students what happens to apple slices sealed in plastic or buried in damp soil. Other activities include reading stories on the subject and conducting classroom composting or toxic materials projects. (SM)

Markle, Sandra

1991-01-01

106

The Study of Electromagnetic Shielding Efficient of cement mortar with bamboo-charcoal ingredient.  

E-print Network

??This research mainly focuses on the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of bamboo -charcoal, using cement mortar with bamboo-charcoal ingredient replacing parts of thin aggregates weight, and… (more)

Yen, Zih-huan

2008-01-01

107

Charcoal-Burning Suicides and Strategies for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper examines the emergence of a new method of suicide in Hong Kong by carbon monoxide poisoning generated by the burning of charcoal. In just 6 years, it has become the second most common means of suicide after jumping from heights. The profile of these charcoal-burning suicide victims is different from that of other suicide deaths. It seems

Paul S. F. Yip; Dominic T. S. Lee

2007-01-01

108

Ammonia Adsorption on Bamboo Charcoal with Acid Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was examined for bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400, 700 and 1000°C, and activated carbon. Furthermore, the change of the ammonia adsorption in aqueous solutions was also examined by treatment of each sample with diluted sulfuric acid. Bamboo charcoal carbonized at 400°C and treated with diluted sulfuric acid was the most effective for

Takashi Asada; Takashi Ohkubo; Kuniaki Kawata; Kikuo Oikawa

2006-01-01

109

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

110

Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1987-07-01

111

Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

112

Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time. PMID:25288973

Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

2013-12-01

113

Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

2000-01-01

114

Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

2014-08-01

115

Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR  

SciTech Connect

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-10-01

116

Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001  

PubMed Central

Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.

Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

2013-01-01

117

Tubular bamboo charcoal for anode in microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anode material plays a significant role in determining the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, the bamboo charcoal tube is proposed as a novel anode substrate by carbonizing the natural bamboo. Its surface functional groups, biocompatibility and internal resistance are thoroughly investigated. Performance of the MFCs with a conventional graphite tube anode and a bamboo charcoal tube anode is also compared. The results indicate that the tubular bamboo charcoal anode exhibits advantages over the graphite tube anode in terms of rougher surface, superior biocompatibility and smaller total internal resistance. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis for the bamboo charcoal reveals that the introduced C-N bonds facilitate the electron transfer between the biofilm and electrodes. As a result, the MFC with a bamboo charcoal tube anode achieves a 50% improvement in the maximum power density over the graphite tube case. Furthermore, scale-up of the bamboo charcoal tube anode is demonstrated by employing a bundle of tubular bamboo charcoal to reach higher power output.

Zhang, Jun; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Biao

2014-12-01

118

Do gastric contents modify antidotal efficacy of oral activated charcoal?  

PubMed Central

The effect of food on the antidotal efficacy of activated charcoal was studied in six healthy volunteers, who ingested aspirin 1000 mg, mexiletine 200 mg and tolfenamic acid 400 mg in a randomized cross-over study. Activated charcoal 25 g, suspended in water, was administered 5 min or 60 min after the drugs were taken on an empty stomach or after a standard meal. The serum concentrations and the cumulative excretion into urine of the drugs were followed for 48 h. When the drugs were taken on an empty stomach, activated charcoal given 5 min or 60 min afterwards reduced the bioavailability of the drugs by 75-98% or 10-60%, respectively. Food moderately weakened the effect of activated charcoal administered 5 min after the drugs, but when the charcoal was given 1 h later the effect was still practically the same, the reduction of absorption varying in both cases in the range of 45-85%. Thus the efficacy of charcoal given 60 min after the drugs was better after a standard meal than on an empty stomach. Presence of food in the stomach of patients with drug overdosage modifies the efficacy of activated charcoal and gives it more time to adsorb drugs in the gastrointestinal canal, possibly by slowing gastric emptying rate. PMID:6508975

Olkkola, K T; Neuvonen, P J

1984-01-01

119

Amatoxins in wood-rotting Galerina marginata.  

PubMed

Amatoxins, bicyclic octapeptide derivatives responsible for severe hepatic failure, are present in several Basidiomycota species belonging to four genera, i.e. Amanita, Conocybe, Galerina and Lepiota. DNA studies for G. autumnalis, G. marginata, G. oregonensis, G. unicolor and G. venenata (section Naucoriopsis) determined that these species are the same, supporting the concept of Galerina marginata complex. These mostly lignicolous species are designated as white-rot fungi having a broad host range and capable of degrading both hardwoods and softwoods. Twenty-seven G. marginata basidiomes taken from different sites and hosts (three sets) as well as 17 A. phalloides specimens (three sets) were collected in French locations. The 44 basidiomes were examined for amatoxins and phallotoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography. Toxinological data for the wood-rotting G. marginata and the ectomycorrhizal A. phalloides species were compared and statistically analyzed. The acidic and neutral phallotoxins were not detected in any G. marginata specimen, whereas the acidic (?-Ama) and neutral (?-Ama and ?-Ama) amanitins were found in all basidiomes from either Angiosperms or Gymnosperms hosts. The G. marginata amatoxin content varied from 78.17 to 243.61 ?g.mg(-1) of fresh weight and was elevated significantly in one set out of three. The amanitin amounts from certain Galerina specimens were higher than those from some A. phalloides basidiomes. Relationship between the amanitin distribution and the chemical composition of substrate was underlined and statistically validated for the white-rot G. marginata. Changes in nutritional components from decayed host due to enzymatic systems and genetic factors as well as environmental conditions seem to play a determinant role in the amanitin profile. Variability noticed in the amanitin distribution for the white-rot G. marginata basidiomes was not observed for the ectomycorrhizal A. phalloides specimens. PMID:21148893

Enjalbert, Françoise; Cassanas, Geneviéve; Rapior, Sylvie; Renault, Corinne; Chaumont, Jean-Pierre

2004-01-01

120

Effects of manufacturing conditions on the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions by Makino bamboo charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of manufacturing conditions on the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions by Makino bamboo charcoal. Results show that the specific surface area and iodine number of bamboo charcoal activated at 900°C were larger than those of bamboo charcoal activated at 800°C. The specific surface area of bamboo charcoal activated at

Song-Yung Wang; Ming-Hsiu Tsai; Sheng-Fong Lo; Ming-Jer Tsai

2008-01-01

121

Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge?bamboo charcoal composting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge?bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated

Li Hua; Yingxu Chen; Weixiang Wu; Hongrui Ma

2011-01-01

122

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

123

Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of the pasture legume, sulla ( Hedysarum coronarium )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 was isolated from wilting and dying plants of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), which is currently being assessed in eastern and southern Australia for its potential as a pasture and forage legume. Infected\\u000a plants in the field had extensive rotting of the taproot, lateral roots and crown. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled using\\u000a three inoculation methods. The disease may pose

M. J. Ryley; D. L. Lloyd; B. Johnson; K. C. Teasdale; J. M. Mackie

2004-01-01

124

Global Control in Pseudomonas fluorescens Mediating Antibiotic Synthesis and Suppression of Black Root Rot of Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 colonizes plant roots, produces several secondary metabolites in stationary growth phase, and suppresses a number of plant diseases, including Thielaviopsis basicola-induced black root rot of tobacco. We discovered that mutations in a P. fluorescens gene named gacA (for global antibiotic and cyanide control) pleiotropically block the production of the secondary metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl), HCN, and pyoluteorin. The

Jacques Laville; Christophe Voisard; Christoph Keel; Monika Maurhofer; Genevieve Defago; Dieter Haas

1992-01-01

125

Systematic delineation of Phymatotrichum root rot occurrence in cotton using remotely-sensed data  

E-print Network

f mmittee ead o Dep ment Member Membe ' May 1979 ABSTRACT Systematic Delineation of Phymatotrichum Root Rot Occurrence in Cotton Using Remotely-Sensed Data. ((May 1979) Brandon DeWitt Smith, B. A. , University of Tennessee, Knoxville... Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert W. Toler This study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using remote sensing technology for large area disease incidence cpyycf ~ph tt1h ~ t t(~ph ttfh 1 (Sh Duggar), Falls County, Texas was chosen...

Smith, Brandon Dewitt

2012-06-07

126

Quorum sensing in soft-rotting Erwinia carotovora .  

E-print Network

??The soft-rotting E. carotovora subspecies (ssp.) produces effectors and an array ofextra cellular enzymes, including pectate lyase (Pel), polygalacturonase (Peh), cellulase (Cell) and protease (Prt)… (more)

Hasegawa, Hiroaki, 1974-

2005-01-01

127

Effect of H2O content in air on the carburizing behavior of charcoal gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventionally, charcoal gas is produced by reacting air with hot charcoal. The constituents of such charcoal gas are N2, CO, and CO2. Because no H2 exists in this kind of charcoal gas, its carburizing rate to steels is relatively slow, compared with atmospheres containing CO and H2. A simple, but effective, method to raise the carburizing rate of the charcoal gas has been found through this study; that is, the air used for generating charcoal gas is humidified with some water vapor before passing through the hot charcoal layer. In this way, the carbon potential and carburizing rate of the charcoal gas can be raised markedly due to the formation of H2. For example, when the air is humidified with 7.30% H2O, the carbon potential increases by about three times, and the carburizing rate increases by about four times, compared with the charcoal gas generated from dried air and charcoal.

Chen, Y.-C.

1992-06-01

128

Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea  

PubMed Central

The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25? and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae

2007-01-01

129

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

130

Synthesis of biomorphic SiC ceramic from bamboo charcoal.  

PubMed

Biomorphic SiC ceramic was successfully synthesized by reaction sintering between bamboo charcoal and a Si/SiO2 powder mixture. The charcoal was converted into an entirely SiC ceramic inherited with the original bamboo structure. Samples were characterized according to their crystallinity, morphology, microstructures and pore structures. We found that various morphological SiC structures were formed in different parts of the charcoal which depended on the morphology of the textures. The length of SiC nanowires were up to micron size. They were grown in the <111> direction. The number of micropores in the converted biomorphic SiC was less than the original bamboo charcoal, but the pore diameter was larger. PMID:19441571

Zhu, Jiangtao; Kwong, Fung Luen; Ng, Dickon Hang Leung

2009-02-01

131

Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

SciTech Connect

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.u [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)

2009-11-15

132

[White-rot fungi combinations impact on enzyme productions].  

PubMed

In this study, the maximum laccase (Lac) activities by single white-rot fungus and combining white-rot fungi were investigated. The optimal combinations of white-rot fungi were obtained by comparing the maximum Lac activities and the time of achieving the maximum Lac activity. The results showed that the synergy of white-rot fungi Polyporellus picipes and Pleurotus ostreatus improved the secretion of the laccase, with the enzyme production of 50.45 U x mL(-1), as well as the combination of white-rot fungi Polyporellus picipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pseudotrametes gibbosa promoted the laccase production of 75.98 U x mL(-1). However, the combination of white-rot fungi Polyporellus picipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pycnoporus sanguineus generated antagonistic effect, with the enzyme production of 2.91 U x mL(-1). Both synergistic and antagonistic effects among the white-rot fungi results in different time for achieving the maximum Lac activity of white-rot fungi. PMID:23487950

Meng, Yao; Liang, Hong; Gao, Da-Wen

2013-01-01

133

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance ... the United States. Other conditions, such as certain heart problems and ... or treat carotid artery disease and may reduce the risk of stroke. If ...

134

Antagonistic Bacillus species as a biological control of ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to develop a biocontrol system for ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum. Methods In total, 392 bacteria isolated from ginseng roots and various soils were screened for their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen, and a bacterial isolate (B2-5) was selected as a promising candidate for the biocontrol because of the strong antagonistic activity of the bacterial cell suspension and culture filtrate against pathogen. Results The bacterial isolate B2-5 displayed an enhanced inhibitory activity against the pathogen mycelial growth with a temperature increase to 25°C, produced no pectinase (related to root rotting) and no critical rot symptoms at low [106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] and high (108 CFU/mL) inoculum concentrations. In pot experiments, pretreatment with the bacterial isolate in the presumed optimal time for disease control reduced disease severity significantly with a higher control efficacy at an inoculum concentration of 106 CFU/mL than at 108 CFU/mL. The establishment and colonization ability of the bacterial isolates on the ginseng rhizosphere appeared to be higher when both the bacterial isolate and the pathogen were coinoculated than when the bacterial isolate was inoculated alone, suggesting its target-oriented biocontrol activity against the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen hyphae were twisted and shriveled by the bacterial treatment, which may be a symptom of direct damage by antifungal substances. Conclusion All of these results suggest that the bacterial isolate has good potential as a microbial agent for the biocontrol of the ginseng root rot caused by F. cf. incarnatum. PMID:24748838

Song, Minjae; Yun, Hye Young; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

135

Facultative ripening in Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae): effects of fruit removal and rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Costa Rica individual Hamelia patens trees produce fruit throughout the year and experience dramatic changes in rates of fruit removal and rotting. During some moths, most fruits rot because they are not removed. Rotting fruits increase the probability that other fruits on the same infructescence will rot. When removal rates are high, fruits are taken as soon as their

D. J. Levey

1987-01-01

136

Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance the resistance of peach fruit to brown rot.  

PubMed

The effects of chitosan and oligachitosan on resistance induction of peach fruit against brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola were investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan showed significant effect on controlling this disease. Moreover, chitosan and oligochitosan delayed fruit softening and senescence. The two antifungal substances enhanced antioxidant and defense-related enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ?-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI), and they also stimulated the transcript expression of POD and GLU. These findings suggest that the effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on disease control and quality maintenance of peach fruit may be associated with their antioxidant property and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. PMID:23544538

Ma, Zengxin; Yang, Lingyu; Yan, Haixia; Kennedy, John F; Meng, Xianghong

2013-04-15

137

Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables. PMID:23404399

Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

2013-01-01

138

Effects of charcoal kiln saunas (Jjimjilbang) on psychological states.  

PubMed

This uncontrolled intervention study explored the effects of sauna bathing utilizing residual heat from charcoal kilns (charcoal kiln saunas) on psychological states. Forty-five volunteers (24 males and 21 females; mean age 51.9 years (S.D. 15.7) visiting a bamboo charcoal kiln in Japan participated in the study. They completed a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after charcoal kiln sauna bathing in order to determine mood and anxiety states. Six factors relating to mood were measured using the POMS: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion. The two anxiety concepts of state anxiety and trait anxiety were also measured. Changes in psychological states before and after sauna bathing were then determined. All mood scales and both manifest anxiety measures were improved after sauna bathing. Charcoal kiln sauna bathing appears to improve mood and decrease anxiety. It is a limitation of this study that this was a descriptive prospective and an uncontrolled intervention study. Further investigation of the improvement of trait anxiety is required. PMID:18396259

Hayasaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kajii, Eiji; Ide, Masahiro; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Murata, Chiyoe; Nagata, Katsutaro; Ojima, Toshiyuki

2008-05-01

139

Interaction of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae in Strawberry Black Root Rot.  

PubMed

A split-root technique was used to examine the interaction between Pratylenchus penetrans and the cortical root-rotting pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae in strawberry black root rot. Plants inoculated with both pathogens on the same half of a split-root crown had greater levels of root rot than plants inoculated separately or with either pathogen alone. Isolation of R. fragariae from field-grown roots differed with root type and time of sampling. Fungal infection of structural roots was low until fruiting, whereas perennial root colonization was high. Isolation of R. fragariae from feeder roots was variable, but was greater from feeder roots on perennial than from structural roots. Isolation of the fungus was greater from structural roots with nematode lesions than from non-symptomatic roots. Rhizoctonia fragariae was a common resident on the sloughed cortex of healthy perennial roots. From this source, the fungus may infect additional roots. The direct effects of lesion nematode feeding and movement are cortical cell damage and death. Indirect effects include discoloration of the endodermis and early polyderm formation. Perhaps weakened or dying cells caused directly or indirectly by P. penetrans are more susceptible to R. fragariae, leading to increased disease. PMID:19265969

Lamondia, J A

2003-03-01

140

Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

2014-09-01

141

Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon-chromium steel under charcoal protection  

E-print Network

Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon- chromium steel under charcoal protection during oxidation and decarburisation during spheroidising. However, the actual effects of charcoal have not been is investigated. It remarkably reduces oxidation, but significantly increases decarburisation, compared

Volinsky, Alex A.

142

Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal  

E-print Network

In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

2006-01-01

143

Charcoal's physical properties are key to understanding its environmental behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal is a highly porous, low density material whose physical properties play a key role in its soil behavior and its environmental fate. In considering biochar, some of its most sought-after environmental effects are a result of its physical characteristics, not its chemical or biological properties. For example, the ability of biochar to retain soil water is widely attributed to its porosity. However, charcoal physical properties are so poorly understood that they are sometimes not characterized at all in the current literature. Here we outline a suite of basic physical properties of charcoal and the likely environmental effects of their variations, with a focus on the interactions between charcoal and water. The most basic physical property of charcoal, its particle size, likely plays a role in its ability to alter the rate of drainage in soils. Particle morphology is also relevant, affecting how particles of soil and char can pack together. Bulk densities of charcoal and soil mixtures can be used to generate a simple estimate of the efficiency of char-soil packing. Charcoal density is an additionally important property and can be measured in a number of ways. Density almost certainly controls the tendency of chars to sink or float, and to erode or remain on the land surface. However, charcoal density can vary by almost a factor of 10 depending on the measurement technique used. We discuss two simple techniques available for measuring char density and the value of information provided by each approach. Finally, we report a simple, fast technique to measure total char porosity, including all pores from nanometers to 10s of micrometers in size. Porosity is at least one of the key controls on the ability of biochar to improve plant-available water, and techniques to measure it have previously been limited to the smallest fraction of pores (N2 sorption) or have required expensive, hazardous procedures (Hg porosimetry). We show that char porosity varies primarily as a function of feedstock and secondarily as a function of pyrolysis conditions.

Masiello, Caroline; Brewer, Catherine; Dugan, Brandon; Liu, Zuolin; Gonnermann, Helge; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Davies, Christian; Panzacchi, Pietro; Gao, Xiaodong; Pyle, Lacey

2014-05-01

144

Evaluation of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. In this study, small coconut charcoal granules were utilized as the sorbent, and braze alloys and low temperature curing cements were used as the bonding agents for attachment to a copper support structure. Problems of scale-up of the bonding agent to a 40 cm diam panel were also investigated. Our results indicate that acceptable helium pumping performance of braze bonded and cement bonded charcoals can be achieved over the range of operating conditions expected in fusion reactors.

Tobin, A.G.; Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1987-01-01

145

Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal goat kids: Efficacy of a product containing activated charcoal and wood vinegar liquid (Obionekk ®) in field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many compounds have been screened for their potential anti-cryptosporidial activity in ruminants but none of them has been totally efficient in controlling the disease. A product containing activated charcoal and wood vinegar liquid demonstrated a good efficacy in controlling clinical signs and oocyst excretion in calves experimentally infected. This product (Obionekk®, Obione, Charentay, France) was given to goat kids in

C. Paraud; I. Pors; P. Besnier; L. Reisdorffer; C. Chartier

2011-01-01

146

Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066

Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

2003-01-01

147

The Gas Removal Effect of Bamboo Charcoal\\/Nylon 6 Blended Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal was activated by carbon dioxide and was blended with Nylon 6 to spin into fiber. The gas removal effect was performed by evaluating the reduction rate for acetic acid gas of charcoal and charcoal contained fiber. The result indicated that the charcoal activated by carbon dioxide could reach the highest specific surface area up to 1405.6 m\\/g. The reduction

Ta-Chung An; Chang-Hsuan Chiu; Chin-An Lin; Wei-Jen Lai

2010-01-01

148

Possible biochemical roles of oxalic acid as a low molecular weight compound involved in brown-rot and white-rot wood decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of oxalic acid in low nitrogen and high nitrogen nutrient cultures of brown-rot and white-rot fungi are compared with the previously reported findings on fungal production of oxalic acid. The enzymatic formation of oxalic acid from oxaloacetate and glyoxylate in brown-rot and white-rot fungi is described in comparison with other microorganisms. Possible biochemical roles of oxalic acid are discussed

Mikio Shimada; Yasumi Akamtsu; Toshiaki Tokimatsu; Kayoko Mii; Takefumi Hattori

1997-01-01

149

Degradation of xenobiotics by white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi such as P. chrysosporium degrade the nonrepeating, nonstereoselective, insoluble polymer lignin under conditions of nutrient limitation. The attack on lignin principally involves extracellular peroxidases (ligninases) and hydrogen peroxide. Hydroxyl radicals may also make a significant contribution. The ligninolytic system lends itself to the degradation of xenobiotics, since these often have limited solubility in water and are not readily available in soil to intracellular metabolism. A nonspecific attack should proceed at a rate independent of the target's concentration and the fungal system would be expected to remediate soil contaminated with a mixture of compounds. This contrasts with the need for induction and problems with simultaneous metabolism encountered with bacterial inoculation. The P. chrysosporium system has been found active against such diverse substrates as DDT, lindane, PCBs, TNT and crystal violet, with substantial mineralization in many cases. Some like biphenyl and triphenylmethane dyes are structurally related to lignin substructures while others bear groups such as nitro (TNT) or halogen (PCP) that are absent from the natural polymer. The fate of transformed targets varies: pentachlorophenol is incorporated into soil organic matter as a result of fungal ligninase action, whereas highly lipophilic Aroclor PCBs are converted to water-soluble metabolites. Normally less toxic intermediates are generated: for example, with benzo(a)pyrene, mutagenic arene oxides do not appear in the white rot fungal system. In certain cases, purified ligninases were also active in degrading pollutants such as PCP, benzo(a)pyrene or triphenylmethane dyes. Methods of optimizing ligninase activity in fungal reactors have been described. 257 references.

Higson, F.K. (Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside (United States))

1991-01-01

150

Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook  

SciTech Connect

The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

Scharpf, R.F.

1993-06-01

151

Modelling and measurements of heat transfer in charcoal from pyrolysis of large wood particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis rate limiting heat transfer properties of charcoal from large wood particles are studied by comparing experiments and simulations of transient heat conduction in large charcoal samples. The interior temperatures in cylindrical charcoal samples of 20±2 mm radius were measured during heating from room temperature to 700°C in an inert atmosphere. Simulations are performed for two cases of constant material

Jenny Larfeldt; Bo Leckner; Morten Chr Melaaen

2000-01-01

152

Impacts upon soil quality and plant growth of bamboo charcoal addition to composted sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the effects of bamboo charcoal on soil contaminant accumulation, soil fertility and plant growth were investigated. The results indicated that sludge composted with bamboo charcoal (BCS) significantly increased plant growth and decreased the mobility of Zn, Cu and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), compared with the composted sludge without bamboo charcoal (CS), with lower absorption and less accumulation

Li Hua; Yingxu Chen; Weixiang Wu

2012-01-01

153

Growth, biomass estimates, and charcoal production of Acacia drepanolobium in Laikipia, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal is a major source for cooking energy in most African countries, for which demand from a burgeoning human population has sometimes outstripped the supply of wood from forests and woodland. Therefore, there is need to explore the potential of indigenous trees and shrubs for sustainable charcoal production.Acacia drepanolobium is an ideal candidate for sustained charcoal production because (a) it

B. d. Okello; T. G O’Connor; T. p. Young

2001-01-01

154

Preparation and performance of biologically activated bamboo charcoal for removing quinoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of bacterium (BC027) for quinoline degradation was inoculated on the activated bamboo charcoal (ABC) substrate. SEM observation showed that the bacterium grew well on the charcoal substrate and thus obtained biologically activated bamboo charcoal (BABC). The investigation on quinoline removal showed that BABC has greater capacity for removing quinoline than ABC or dissociate BC027. The removal ability of

Lisi Zhu; Zheng-Hong Huang; Donghui Wen; Feiyu Kang

2010-01-01

155

Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle

Ming Wang; Zheng-Hong Huang; Guangjia Liu; Feiyu Kang

2011-01-01

156

Soil charcoal from the plains to tundra in the Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the forests of the central Rockies, soil charcoal from Holocene wildfires has been produced in response to wildland natural fire regimes. The extent and spatial distribution of soil charcoal production is poorly documented in this region, especially with regard to forests and shrublands at different elevations. Soil charcoal is a super-passive C pool derived from woody biomass that can

R. L. Sanford; C. Licata

2010-01-01

157

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

158

The Influence of Moisture and Temperature on Cotton Root Rot.  

E-print Network

I. -._ -I - _, _ CAMPUS. - TOBER, DIVISION OF PLANT PAT :Y AND PHYSIOLOGI THE INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE ON COTTON ROOT ROT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS...: Grain Sor- ghum Reskarch -, " P. C. MANGELSDORF SC D Agronomist; in charge of Corn And ~mal?~raln Investi- gations D. T. KILLOUGH. M. S.. Aeronomist: Cotton . - Breeding H. E. RFA B. S Agronomist; Cotton Root Rot lnoe;tigatio;s PUBLICATIONS: A...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Dana, B. F. (Bliss F.)

1928-01-01

159

Role of antioxidative enzymes in red rot resistance in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidative enzymes viz. peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities have been investigated in the internodes\\u000a of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) following inoculation with conidia of red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum Went). Two cultivars (cvs) with varying sensitivity to red rot, viz., CoJ 64 (susceptible) and CoS 8436 (resistant) were\\u000a used. The spread of infection i.e. the movement of fungal mycelium

Bavita Asthir; Kanwal Preet; Suresh K. Batta; Bipen Sharma

2009-01-01

160

Genetic studies on house rot fungi and a rapid diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes genetic studies on house rot fungi and a rapid identification technique for them, viz. the true dry rot\\u000a fungus Serpula lacrymans, the wild merulius S. himantioides, the cellar fungus Coniophora puteana and the pore house fungi Antrodia vaillantii and Tyromyces placenta. The method ARDRA-ITS uses the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) which is

O. Schmidt; U. Moreth

1998-01-01

161

Experiments in waterlogging and sedimentology of charcoal: results and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil charcoal has a sporadic occurrence in sedimentary rocks since Devonian time. It is moderately common as a component of the organic material found in a wide variety of facies, but there are also some notable concentrations which occur locally. These occurrences have considerable palaeobotanical and palaeoecological value because the process of charring may result in excellent preservation of plant

Gary J. Nichols; Jenny A. Cripps; Margaret E. Collinson; Andrew C. Scott

2000-01-01

162

Plasmid DNA of high quality purified by activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for plasmid DNA of high purity and safety has increased with rapid advances in gene therapy and DNA vaccines in addition to basic DNA study. Using activated charcoal (AC), we have developed protocols for pure plasmid DNA. Plasmid DNA extracted by the alkaline lysis method was inevitably contaminated with nucleotide fragments. Treatment with AC during purification instead of RNase

Jae-Young Kim; Chunghee Cho; Byung-Nam Cho

2010-01-01

163

Radon surveys with charcoal and liquid scintillation counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detection system for indoor radon using vials with activated charcoal adsorbant and liquid scintillation spectrometry for measurement has been tested thoroughly for months during different seasons. Deviation in the results of two days of exposure from the mean value were at most about ±30%. This system was chosen for a pilot project for large area surveillance in Mühlviertel, a

Franz Schönhofer; Katharina Pock; Harry Friedmann

1995-01-01

164

EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

165

EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING) - PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

166

GammaScorpion: mobile gamma-ray tomography system for early detection of basal stem rot in oil palm plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of the oil palm stem rot disease Ganoderma is a major issue in estate management and production in Malaysia. Conventional diagnostic techniques are difficult and time consuming when using visual inspection, and destructive and expensive when based on the chemical analysis of root or stem tissue. As an alternative, a transportable gamma-ray computed tomography system for the early detection of basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palms due to Ganoderma was developed locally at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang, Malaysia. This system produces high quality tomographic images that clearly differentiate between healthy and Ganoderma infected oil palm stems. It has been successfully tested and used to detect the extent of BSR damage in oil palm plantations in Malaysia without the need to cut down the trees. This method offers promise for in situ inspection of oil palm stem diseases compared to the more conventional methods.

Abdullah, Jaafar; Hassan, Hearie; Shari, Mohamad Rabaie; Mohd, Salzali; Mustapha, Mahadi; Mahmood, Airwan Affendi; Jamaludin, Shahrizan; Ngah, Mohd Rosdi; Hamid, Noor Hisham

2013-03-01

167

Phenolic constituents of Celosia cristata L. susceptible to spinach root rot pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides.  

PubMed

Cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone, 1), known as a host-specific attractant towards the zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides, a cause of root rot and damping-off diseases of Chenopodiaceae, was found in the Amaranthaceae plant, Celosia cristata, that is susceptible to the pathogen. The content of 1 in Celosia seedlings was quantified as 1.4 microg/g fresh weight. A new isoflavone, cristatein (5-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 2), and five known flavonoids were also identified. PMID:17031042

Wen, Yaolin; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Tahara, Satoshi

2006-10-01

168

Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.  

PubMed

Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

2014-07-01

169

The development of a pecan seedling rootstock screening procedure for resistance to root rot caused by Phymatotrichum omnivorum (Shear) Duggar  

E-print Network

(Cirrus auranri um L. ) showed significant resistance to the disease, compared to other rootstocks tested. These same studies identified several grape (Vitis spp. L. ) rootstocks with some resistance to PRR. Mortenson (1938) also found several grape... rootstocks which exhibited resistance traits. Other studies with grapes indicate root regeneration as a mechanism for resistance (Escamillia, 1991; Perry, 1980). CHAPTER III A SURVEY OF THE OCCURRENCE OF PHYMATOTRICHUM ROOT ROT IN PECAN ORCHARDS...

Nesbitt, Monte Lynn

2012-06-07

170

Molecular mapping of a gene conferring resistance to Aphanomyces root rot (black root) in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechsler, Aphanomyces root rot is a serious disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), for which sources of resistance are scarce. To identify the segregation pattern of the rare resistance trait found in\\u000a Japanese sugar beet line ‘NK-310mm-O’, F1 and BC1F2 seedings, drawn from a cross between ‘NK-310mm-O’ and susceptible line ‘NK-184mm-O’, were inoculated with zoospores

Kazunori Taguchi; Kazuyuki Okazaki; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Tomohiko Kubo; Tetsuo Mikami

2010-01-01

171

Taxonomy and phylogenetic position of Fomitiporia torreyae, a causal agent of trunk rot on Sanbu-sugi, a cultivar of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) in Japan.  

PubMed

Trunk rot poses a substantial threat to Sanbu-sugi, one of the most economically important cultivars of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica). The etiology of this disease, including its main agents, is incompletely known. This trunk rot was attributed to Fomitiporia (Phellinus) hartigii or F. (Phellinus) punctata. Here we phylogenetically analyzed DNA sequences of four markers from a set of strains isolated from trunk-rot symptoms and recovered a single, monophyletic clade, indicating that a single taxon is involved. This clade was identified as Fomitiporia torreyae, a species described from eastern China. This analysis also proved that trunk rot and/or dieback of other conifers and broadleaf trees, including Sawara cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera), Japanese umbrella pine (Sciadopitys verticillata) and Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta), were caused by the same species. The phylogenetic approach to Fomitiporia revealed that the F. torreyae clade was closely related to F. bannaensis but clearly distinct from F. punctata, which originally was thought to be the cause of trunk rot in Sanbu-sugi. Fomitiporia torreyae is redescribed on the basis of more than 40 specimens from multiple hosts from Japan and China. Fomitiporia juniperina comb. nov. is proposed. PMID:24396106

Ota, Yuko; Hattori, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Terashima, Yoshie; Lee, Su-See; Miyuki, Yurika; Sotome, Kozue

2014-01-01

172

Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system.  

PubMed

Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the bacterial community diversity in treatment with bamboo charcoal was greater than that of the control. Both results demonstrated that amendment with bamboo charcoal can increase microorganism population and microorganism community diversity in a sludge composting system. Moreover, the results of FTIR spectroscopy disclosed that aerobic composting can promote the formation of surface acid groups on bamboo charcoal. These surface acid groups may deprotonate and react with NH4+ to form stable complexes. Therefore, the increase of functional groups accompanied with greater assimilation of nitrogen by microorganisms could reduce nitrogen loss in sludge composting. PMID:21877547

Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang; Ma, Hongrui

2011-04-01

173

Cylindrocarpon destructans VAR. destructans AND Neonectria discophora VAR. rubi ASSOCIATED WITH BLACK FOOT ROT ON BLACKBERRY (Rubus glaucus BENTH.) IN MÉRIDA, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In a commercial blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) field located at El Valle, Municipality Libertador, Mérida State, Venezuela, a black foot rot disease was detected in 1999. The causal agent was identified as Cylindrocarpon destructans var. destructans (teleo- morph=Neonectria radicicola var. radicicola). This pathogen attacks the roots and the crown, inducing die-back in canes. Symptoms simi- lar to those observed

Luis Cedeño; Chrystian Carrero; Kleyra Quintero; Henry Pino; Wilmer Espinoza

2004-01-01

174

The effect of activated charcoal on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.  

PubMed

Activated charcoal (AC) is a sorbent that has been shown to remove urinary toxins like urea and indoxyl sulfate. Here, the influence of AC on kidney function of rats with experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) is investigated. CRF was induced in rats by feeding adenine (0.75%) for four weeks. As an intervention, AC was added to the feed at concentrations of 10%, 15% or 20%. Adenine treatment impaired kidney function: it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and vanin-1. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, phosphate and uric acid. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were adversely affected. Most of these changes were significantly ameliorated by dietary administration of AC at a concentration of 20%, while effects induced by lower doses of dietary AC on adenine nephrotoxicity were not statistically significant. The results suggest that charcoal is a useful sorbent agent in dietary adenine-induced CRF in rats and that its usability as a nephroprotective agent in human kidney disease should be studied. PMID:24412558

Ali, Badreldin H; Alza'abi, Mohamed; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Waly, Mostafa I; Beegam, Sumaya; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Brand, Susanne; Schupp, Nicole

2014-03-01

175

Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants.  

PubMed

Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition. PMID:23956668

Koutb, Mostafa; Ali, Esam H

2010-12-01

176

Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants  

PubMed Central

Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition. PMID:23956668

Koutb, Mostafa

2010-01-01

177

Specificity of monoclonal antibodies to strains of Dickeya sp. that cause bacterial heart rot of pineapple.  

PubMed

During a severe outbreak of bacterial heart rot that occurred in pineapple plantations on Oahu, Hawaii, in 2003 and years following, 43 bacterial strains were isolated from diseased plants or irrigation water and identified as Erwinia chrysanthemi (now Dickeya sp.) by phenotypic, molecular, and pathogenicity assays. Rep-PCR fingerprint patterns grouped strains from pineapple plants and irrigation water into five genotypes (A-E) that differed from representatives of other Dickeya species, Pectobacterium carotovorum and other enteric saprophytes isolated from pineapple. Monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of mice with virulent type C Dickeya sp. showed only two specificities. MAb Pine-1 (2D11G1, IgG1 with kappa light chain) reacted to all 43 pineapple/water strains and some reference strains (D. dianthicola, D. chrysanthemi, D. paradisiaca, some D. dadantii, and uncharacterized Dickeya sp.) but did not react to reference strains of D. dieffenbachiae, D. zeae, or one of the two Malaysian pineapple strains. MAb Pine-2 (2A7F2, IgG3 with kappa light chain) reacted to all type B, C, and D strains but not to any A or E strains or any reference strains except Dickeya sp. isolated from Malaysian pineapple. Pathogenicity tests showed that type C strains were more aggressive than type A strains when inoculated during cool months. Therefore, MAb Pine-2 distinguishes the more virulent type C strains from less virulent type A pineapple strains and type E water strains. MAbs with these two specificities enable development of rapid diagnostic tests that will distinguish the systemic heart rot pathogen from opportunistic bacteria associated with rotted tissues. Use of the two MAbs in field assays also permits the monitoring of a known subpopulation and provides additional decision tools for disease containment and management practices. PMID:21050038

Peckham, Gabriel D; Kaneshiro, Wendy S; Luu, Van; Berestecky, John M; Alvarez, Anne M

2010-10-01

178

Integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.  

PubMed

The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control. PMID:22580305

Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

2012-07-01

179

Plant Pathology (2001) 50, 413 NEW DISEASE REPORT  

E-print Network

Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), Tree Pathology Co-operative Programme (TPCP are susceptible to root and collar rot associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi (Linde et al., 1999). Since 1999, P typical symptoms of Phytophthora root and collar rot. First disease symptoms included chlorosis

180

Seed-borne Fungal Diseases of Onion, and their control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger, Botrytis aclada and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae are relevant seed-borne fungi of onion (Allium cepa L.) and are known as causal agents of black mould, neck rot and basal rot diseases, respectively. These pathogens can be transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings, sets or bulbs. They eventually kill the entire plant through degradation of the tissues. Different

Nuray Özer; N. Desen Köycü

181

Effect of copper, nutrient nitrogen, and wood-supplement on the production of lignin-modifying enzymes by the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata.  

PubMed

Production of the oxidoreductive lignin-modifying enzymes - lignin and manganese peroxidases (MnPs), and laccase - of the white-rot basidiomycete Phlebia radiata was investigated in semi-solid cultures supplemented with milled grey alder or Norway spruce and charcoal. Concentrations of nutrient nitrogen and Cu-supplement varied also in the cultures. According to extracellular activities, production of both lignin peroxidase (LiP) and MnP was significantly promoted with wood as carbon source, with milled alder (MA) and low nitrogen (LN) resulting with the maximal LiP activities (550 nkat l(-1)) and noticeable levels of MnP (3 ?kat l(-1)). Activities of LiP and MnP were also elevated on high nitrogen (HN) complex medium when supplemented with spruce and charcoal. Maximal laccase activities (22 and 29 ?kat l(-1)) were obtained in extra high nitrogen (eHN) containing defined and complex media supplemented with 1.5 mM Cu(2+). However, the nitrogen source, either peptone or ammonium nitrate and asparagine, caused no stimulation on laccase production without Cu-supplement. This is also the first report to demonstrate a new, on high Cu(2+) amended medium produced extracellular laccase of P. radiata with pI value of 4.9, thereby complementing our previous findings on gene expression, and cloning of a second laccase of this fungus. PMID:23332834

Mäkelä, Miia R; Lundell, Taina; Hatakka, Annele; Hildén, Kristiina

2013-01-01

182

A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley  

PubMed Central

Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C) between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder’s point of view.

Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin; Jawhar, Mohammad

2013-01-01

183

Variability in oxidative degradation of charcoal: Influence of production conditions and environmental exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal is a key component of the Black Carbon (BC) continuum, where BC is characterized as a recalcitrant, fire-derived, polyaromatic material. Charcoal is an important source of palaeoenvironmental data, and of great interest as a potential carbon sink, due to its high apparent environmental stability. However, at least some forms of charcoal are clearly susceptible to environmental alteration and degradation over relatively short timescales. Although these processes have importance for the role of charcoal in global biogeochemistry, they remain poorly understood. Here we present results of an investigation into the susceptibility of a range of charcoal samples to oxidative degradation in acidified potassium dichromate. The study examines both freshly-produced charcoal, and charcoal exposed to environmental conditions for up to 50,000 years. We compare the proportion of carbon present in different forms between the samples, specifically with respect to the relative chemical resistance of these forms. This was undertaken in order to improve understanding of the post-depositional diagenetic changes affecting charcoal within environmental deposits. A wide range in chemical compositions are apparent both within and between the sample groups. In freshly-produced charcoal, material produced at 300 °C contains carbon with more labile forms than charcoal produced at ?400 °C, signifying a key chemical change over the 300-400 °C temperature range. Charcoal exposed to environmental depositional conditions is frequently composed of a highly carboxylated aromatic structure and contains a range of carbon fractions of varying oxidative resistance. These findings suggest that a significant number of the environmental charcoals have undergone post-depositional diagenetic alteration. Further, the data highlight the potential for the use of controlled progressive oxidative degradation as a method to characterize chemical differences between individual charcoal samples.

Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Francis, S. M.; Thornton, B.; Midwood, A. J.; Scott, A. C.; Apperley, D.

2011-05-01

184

Charcoal Application to Arable Soil: Effects on CO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon and commercial household charcoal were added to soil in a 36-day incubation study at 20 °C measuring carbon dioxide evolution. The black carbon materials were found to decompose slowly, releasing between 1.4% and 0.8% of their carbon content per year, respectively. The main experiment tested whether the black carbon additions to soil (2% and 4% by mass) affected

M. Carlsson; O. Andrén; J. Stenström; H. Kirchmann; T. Kätterer

2012-01-01

185

Charcoal Application to Arable Soil – Effects on CO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon and commercial household charcoal were added to soil in a 36-day incubation study at 20°C measuring carbon dioxide evolution. The black carbon materials were found to decompose slowly, releasing between 1.4 and 0.8% of their carbon content per year, respectively. The main experiment tested whether the black carbon additions to soil (2 and 4% by mass) affected decomposition

M. Carlsson; O. Andrén; J. Stenström; H. Kirchmann; T. Kätterer

2012-01-01

186

Preparation and characterization of white bamboo charcoal PET fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal polyester fiber (BC–PET) has been widely applied in home textiles, functional clothing and hydra-balance material, due to their strong adsorptivity, good resolvability, anti-statics, deodorization, antibacterial, anion releasing and far infrared emitting. But BC–PET is black and difficult to be dyed, and its application is limited. In this article, nitric acid was used to treat the surface of bamboo

Qing Shan Li; Ming Shuang Xu; Guang Ju Zhou; Li Qiu Wang

2010-01-01

187

Preparation of silicon carbide using bamboo charcoal as carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon carbide (SiC) was prepared by carbothermal reduction with amorphous silica sol as silicon source and bamboo charcoal powder as carbon source. The compositions and microstructure of prepared SiC were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). XRD of prepared SiC showed that the major phase of prepared SiC was hexagonal

Guo Xingzhong; Zhang Lingjie; Yan Liqing; Yang Hui; Zhu Lin

2010-01-01

188

Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes. Brücher, T., Brovkin, V., Kloster, S., Marlon, J. R., and Power, M. J.: Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 6429-6458, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-6429-2013, 2013.

Brücher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Marlon, Jennifer; Power, Mitch

2014-05-01

189

Flowrate effects upon adsorption in a charcoal sampling tube  

E-print Network

in this research. Assistance in defraying the costs of this research was made possi- ble through the Standard Oil Company ( Indiana) and the NIOSH Educational Resource Centers, Finally, special thanks to my working friend, Bernie Ruser, who was present... the sample tube: fiberglass wool, 20/40-mesh activated coconut charcoal, and urethane foam support plugs. As seen by the illustration in Appendix A (pg. 42), the result is five discrete sections of porous media, all of which make a contribution to total...

Bolton, Fredric Newell

2012-06-07

190

Investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot in peach fruit.  

PubMed

The efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated B. subtilis SM21 treatment reduced lesion diameter and disease incidence by 37.2% and 26.7% on the 2nd day of inoculation compared with the control. The in vitro test showed significant inhibitory effect of B. subtilis SM21 on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer with an inhibition rate of 48.9%. B. subtilis SM21 treatment significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were also increased by this treatment. Transcription of seven defense related genes was much stronger in fruit treated with B. subtilis SM21 or those both treated with B. subtilis SM21 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with fruit inoculated with R. stolonifer alone. These results suggest that B. subtilis SM21 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit, possibly by directly inhibiting growth of the pathogen, and indirectly inducing disease resistance in the fruit. PMID:23673059

Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua

2013-06-17

191

Selenium Induces Manganese-dependent Peroxidase Production by the White-Rot Fungus Bjerkandera adusta  

E-print Network

Selenium Induces Manganese-dependent Peroxidase Production by the White-Rot Fungus Bjerkandera, selenium (Se) induction of the ligninolytic enzyme manganese- dependent peroxidase (MnP) production-rot fungi. Keywords Lipid peroxidation . Manganese peroxidase . Selenium . White-rot fungi Abbreviations Ag

Tullos, Desiree

192

Identification of Anti-Wood Rot Compounds in Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) Sawdust Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical hardwood sawdust of Tectona grandis L.f. from the wood processing industry was extracted and tested for anti-wood rot activity. Tectona grandis extract inhibited the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Piptoporus betulinus and Serpula lacrymans, and the white rot fungi Bjerkandera adusta, Merulius tremellosus, and Phlebia brevispora. Centrifugal partition chromatography was used to separate these compounds using

Pattarawadee Sumthong; Roman R. Romero-González; Robert Verpoorte

2008-01-01

193

Differential regulation of defense-related gene expression in response to red rot pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum infection in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum imposing a considerable economic loss annually in all sugarcane-producing countries. In this study, we analyzed the early resistance response of sugarcane to red rot fungus by comparing the differences between control and inoculated stalk tissues. Differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DD-RT-PCR) was employed to identify altered expression of genes in disease-resistant cv Co 93009, in response to pathogen infection. DD-RT-PCR identified 300 differentially expressed transcripts of which 112 were selected for further analysis. Cloning and sequence analysis of the isolated cDNA fragments resulted in functional categorization of these clones into five categories, of which the defense/stress/signaling group was the largest, with clones homologous to genes known to be actively involved in various pathogenesis-related functions in plant species. This group showed overexpression of several transcripts related to ethylene-mediated and jasmonic acid pathway of plant defense mechanisms. Of the 112 expressed sequence tags, validation of expression was carried out for five important genes whose role in plant defense mechanisms is well established. This is the first report of Colletotrichum-mediated gene regulation in sugarcane which has provided a set of candidate genes for detailed molecular dissection of signaling and defense responses in tropical sugarcane during the onset of red rot resistance. PMID:23861092

Prathima, P T; Raveendran, M; Kumar, K K; Rahul, P R; Kumar, V Ganesh; Viswanathan, R; Sundar, A Ramesh; Malathi, P; Sudhakar, D; Balasubramaniam, P

2013-09-01

194

Bacillus cereus AR156 induces resistance against Rhizopus rot through priming of defense responses in peach fruit.  

PubMed

The biocontrol effects of Bacillus cereus AR156 on Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that fruit treated with B. cereus AR156 had significantly lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter than the control fruit did. B. cereus AR156 treatment remarkably enhanced activities of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase, promoted accumulation of H(2)O(2), and improved total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. Transcripts of four defense related genes were only significantly enhanced in fruit both treated with B. cereus AR156 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with those that were only treated with B. cereus AR156 or inoculated with R. stolonifer. These results suggest that B. cereus AR156 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer and enhance antioxidant activity in peach fruit through the priming of defense responses. PMID:23122077

Wang, Xiaoli; Xu, Feng; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua

2013-01-15

195

The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters  

SciTech Connect

White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

1995-12-31

196

Diaporthaceae associated with root and crown rot of maize.  

PubMed

Several isolates of coelomycetous fungi with pigmented conidia were consistently isolated from diseased roots of Zea mays in irrigated plots monitored in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Based on their morphology, these isolates could be identified as representative of Stenocarpella macrospora, S. maydis, and Phaeocytostroma ambiguum. Although species of Stenocarpella are well-known as causal agents of cob and stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in South Africa, the occurrence and importance of P. ambiguum is less well documented and understood. To determine the role of P. ambiguum as a root pathogen of maize, pathogenicity tests were conducted under glasshouse conditions at 18 °C night and 28 °C day temperatures using a pasteurised soil, river sand and perlite medium and a 0.5 % sand-bran inoculum. Based on these results, P. ambiguum was shown to be a primary pathogen of maize, but to be less virulent than the positive control, S. maydis. Furthermore, to clarify the higher-level phylogeny of these fungal genera, isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS & LSU). Partial gene sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene were added to confirm the species monophyly. To resolve the generic placement of Phaeocytostroma, additional species such as P. sacchari, P. plurivorum and P. megalosporum were also added to the analysis. Based on these results, Stenocarpella and Phaeocytostroma were shown to be two well defined genera, belonging to Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae, being closely allied to Phomopsis (Diaporthe). All three genera were also observed to form alpha as well as beta conidia, and although this phenomenon is well documented for Phomopsis and Phaeocytostroma, it is a new observation for Stenocarpella. In spite of the differences in conidial pigmentation, no support could be obtained for polyphyly in Diaporthaceae, suggesting that as observed in Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales), conidial pigmentation is not informative at the family level in Diaporthales. PMID:22679583

Lamprecht, Sandra C; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Tewoldemedhin, Yared T; Marasas, Walter F O

2011-06-01

197

The Salmonella Transcriptome in Lettuce and Cilantro Soft Rot Reveals a Niche Overlap with the Animal Host Intestine  

PubMed Central

Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

Goudeau, Danielle M.; Parker, Craig T.; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia

2013-01-01

198

Texas Root Rot of Cotton and Methods of its Control.  

E-print Network

during the fall or winter. Such strains, however, may be valuable and selected for partial re- sistance. 14. There seems to be more root rot in cotton if this crop f011~-n a more susceptible host, such as the sweet potato. 15. The factors which... during the fall or winter. Such strains, however, may be valuable and selected for partial re- sistance. 14. There seems to be more root rot in cotton if this crop f011~-n a more susceptible host, such as the sweet potato. 15. The factors which...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Killough, D. T. (David Thornton)

1923-01-01

199

[Traveler's diarrhea in Turkey. Prospective randomized therapeutic comparison of charcoal versus tannin albuminate/ethacridine lactate].  

PubMed

In most cases traveler's diarrhea is a self-limiting disease not requiring professional assistance. As data on self-treatment are very limited, a prospective randomized trial was performed in 620 German tourists spending a two week-holiday in Turkey. 31.6% of these travelers developed diarrhea and 186 were assigned to two treatment groups, receiving either medical coal or a combination of tannalbuminate and ethacridinlactate (TA/EL). In the TA/EL group stool frequencies significantly earlier returned to normal and complaints of moderate to severe abdominal pain were recorded less frequently (50 vs. 82.2%) than in patients receiving charcoal preparations. Both medications were well tolerated and TA/EL appeared more efficient for self medication of uncomplicated traveler's diarrhea. PMID:1287425

Ziegenhagen, D J; Raedsch, R; Kruis, W

1992-12-15

200

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

1982-01-01

201

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

1982-01-01

202

Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.  

PubMed

Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering. PMID:23599492

Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

2013-04-19

203

Title: The affect of irrigation rate on peanut pod rot. Cooperators: Terry Wheeler, Dana Porter, Mike Schubert, Vijay Kumar Choppakatla  

E-print Network

Title: The affect of irrigation rate on peanut pod rot. Cooperators: Terry Wheeler, Dana Porter between irrigation rate in 2002 (50, 75, and 100 % ET) and pod rot at harvest? 2) Was there an impact of the amount of pod rot from the previous year on pod rot in 2002? 3) How did irrigation rate and fungicide

Mukhtar, Saqib

204

Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from bamboo charcoal and the roles of minerals on their growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized from bamboo charcoals by chemical vapor deposition in the presence of ethanol vapor. Fresh bamboo culms were first heat treated at 1000–1500°C to form charcoals. The elemental composition and structure of mineral phases in the bamboo charcoal treated at different temperatures were analyzed. The results showed that Mg2SiO4 and particularly calcium silicate were responsible

Jiangtao Zhu; Juncai Jia; Fung Luen Kwong; Dickon Hang Leung Ng; Sie Chin Tjong

205

Thermal Retention Performance and Gas Removal Effect of Bamboo Charcoal\\/PET Blended Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bamboo charcoal material was added in a polyethylene terephthalate (hereafter referred to as PET) fiber spinning process in various proportions controlled at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% by weight to compose bamboo charcoal\\/PET blended fibers (hereafter referred to as BCE). The halogen light radiation method and thermo-vision analysis were applied to estimate the effect of bamboo charcoal content

Ta-Chung An; Chin-An Lin; Chang-Hsuan Chiu; Chao-Huei Liu; Pei-Ti Hu

2008-01-01

206

Measurement of the refining degree of bamboo charcoal by an alternating current method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a method for measuring the refining degree of bamboo charcoal using an alternating current. The bamboo charcoal\\u000a was made under heating conditions of 400°–900°C (set temperature) and 0—3 h (holding time at each set temperature). The qualities\\u000a of the bamboo charcoal could not be estimated from the yield, and electric tests were required. The effect of the variation

Yoshitaka Kubojima; Youki Suzuki

2011-01-01

207

Evaluation of bamboo charcoal\\/stainless steel\\/TPU composite woven fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite woven fabric satisfies what people require. Bamboo charcoal (BC) has been identified as a multifunctional material\\u000a that has far-infrared ray, anions, deodorization and etc. BC fibers and yarns were made of bamboo charcoal powders and have\\u000a further become a pervasive materials used in textile industry. In this study, cotton yarns, stainless steel\\/cotton (SS\\/C)\\u000a complex yarn, bamboo charcoal\\/cotton (BC\\/C) complex

Ching Wen Lou; Jia Horng Lin

2011-01-01

208

Synthesis and microwave electromagnetic characteristics of bamboo charcoal\\/polyaniline composites in 2–40 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal coated with polyaniline was synthesized by in situ polymerization at different bamboo charcoal\\/aniline weight ratio (BC\\/Ani=1\\/1, 1\\/2, 1\\/3) and introduced into epoxy resin to be a microwave absorber. The spectroscopic characterizations of the formation processes of bamboo charcoal\\/polyaniline composites were studied using Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron spin

K. H. Wu; T. H. Ting; G. P. Wang; C. C. Yang; C. W. Tsai

2008-01-01

209

Surface graft polymerization acrylic acid onto bamboo charcoal and to improve ammonia adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal is a kind of bioinert material with porous structure which provides surface area about 1,500 m\\/g. However, the adsorption ability of polar ammonia gas is still undefined. In this study, the ammonia adsorption ability of bamboo charcoal was significantly enhanced by surface modification. The bamboo charcoal was first silicone oxide modified by hexa-methyldisilazane (HMDSZ) plasma to protect the

Ko-Shao Chen; Wei-Yu Chen; Shu-Chan Liao; Yu-Ting Haung; Su-Chen Chen; Hong-Ru Lin; Feng-Huei Lin

2010-01-01

210

Effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media was investigated. Activated charcoal acidified an aqueous sucrose (5%) solution and culture media by about 1 to 2 units after autoclaving. Sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media and\\/or aqueous sucrose (5%) solutions containing activated charcoal (buffered to pH 5.8) was dependent on both the

M. J. Pan; J. van Staden

1999-01-01

211

Effect of Charcoal Media for the Treatment of Wastewater in a Biological Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal was applied as the media of biological filters to treat wastewater. The performance of two lab-scale biological filters was monitored for five months to compare the effect of charcoal with that of haydite as media. Charcoal biological filter and haydite biological filter showed excellent removals for COD under the conditions of DO 2-3 mg\\/L, COD loading rate 0.7~1.5 kgCOD\\/m3-filter-bed-d,

Aijiao Zhou; Tao Tao; Zhaohui Bian; Yong Zhang

2008-01-01

212

Elastic constant and fracture toughness measurement of bamboo charcoal using digital speckle correlation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic constant both on along-fiber (AF) and cross-fiber (CF) direction of two kinds of bamboo charcoal are measured using digital speckle correlation method (DSCM). Fracture toughness of two kinds of SiC which consist of bamboo charcoal are analyzed by using DSCM and conventional Loading method. The experiment shows that the results measured by DSCM are in accordance with the results measured by using conventional Loading method. Moreover, we can conclude from the results that bamboo charcoal is a kind of anisotropic material, SiC remains the anisotropic property of bamboo charcoal.

Wang, Huaixi; Ma, Shaopeng; Zhang, Dongsheng; Xie, Huimin

2008-11-01

213

Relationships among charcoal particles from modern lacustrine sediments and remotely sensed fire events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of charcoal particles from lacustrine sediments is a useful tool to understand fire regimes through time, and their relationships with climate and vegetation. However, the extent of the relationship between charcoal particles and their origin in terms of the spatial and temporal extent of the fire events is poorly known in the tropics. Modern sediments were collected from lakes in the Yucatan Peninsula and Central Mexico, 51 and 22 lakes respectively, to analyze their charcoal concentration and its relationships with modern fire events. Number of modern fire events was derived from the public source Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) for concentric spatial rings that ranged from 1 to 30 km of radius. The association between charcoal and fires was evaluated through the construction of linear models to explain charcoal concentration as a function of the number of fires recorded. Additionally, charcoal particles were stratified according to size to determine the association between fire distance and charcoal size classes. The relationship between total charcoal concentration and fire events was stronger for central Mexico than for the Yucatan Peninsula, which is probably the result of differences in vegetation cover. The highest determination coefficients were obtained for charcoal particle sizes ranging between 0.2 and 0.8 mm2, and for fire event distances of between 0 and 15 km from the lake. Overall, the analyses presented here offer useful tools to quantitatively and spatially reconstruct past regional fire dynamics in Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.

López-Pérez, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.

2013-05-01

214

Charcoal morphometry for paleoecological analysis: The effects of fuel type and transportation on morphological parameters1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. • Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. • Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. • Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems. PMID:25202644

Crawford, Alastair J.; Belcher, Claire M.

2014-01-01

215

Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

2013-01-01

216

Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. Principal Findings We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. Conclusions Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils. PMID:22442737

Gao, Xiang; Lu, Xing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Haiyan; Pan, Ruqian; Tian, Jiang; Li, Shuxian; Liao, Hong

2012-01-01

217

MINERALIZATION OF RECALCITRANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade lignin, a structurally complex, naturally occurring and environmentally persistent, non-repeating heteropolyrner. revious studies have shown that this fungus is also able-to degrade a wide variety of synthetic or...

218

OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

219

BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

220

Identification of the Armillaria root rot pathogen in Ethiopian plantations  

E-print Network

Identification of the Armillaria root rot pathogen in Ethiopian plantations By A. Gezahgne1 , M. P and Microbiology, and 2 Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. 3 E-mail: jolanda.roux@fabi.up.ac.za (for correspondence) Summary Armillaria root

221

Changes in Peroxidase Activity during Potato Ring Rot Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the ring rot causal agent Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (a virulent strain 5369) on the peroxidase activity of various tissues of potato plants grown under axenic conditions were studied. Root infection enhanced peroxidase activity in all plant tissues (roots, leaves, and stems). In the resistant cv. Lugovskoi, peroxidase activity was much higher than in the susceptible cv.

I. A. Graskova; A. S. Romanenko; S. V. Vladimirova; A. V. Kolesnichenko

2004-01-01

222

Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

for a pink to reddish mold that begins at the tip of the ear and develops toward the base (Figures 1 and 2 can affect the health of many monogastric animals, but swine are especially sensitive. If Gib ear rot is present, assume that the mycotoxins are also present. A test is needed to deter- mine the level

Holland, Jeffrey

223

Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in

Roland Waldner; Matti S. A. Leisola; Armin Fiechter

1988-01-01

224

The 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus': noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes  

PubMed Central

Many cryptic species have recently been discovered in fungi, especially in fungal plant pathogens. Cryptic fungal species co-occurring in sympatry may occupy slightly different ecological niches, for example infecting the same crop plant but specialized on different organs or having different phenologies. Identifying cryptic species in fungal pathogens of crops and determining their ecological specialization are therefore crucial for disease management. Here, we addressed this question in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, the agent of gray mold on a wide range of plants. On grape, B. cinerea causes severe damage but is also responsible for noble rot used for processing sweet wines. We used microsatellite genotyping and clustering methods to elucidate whether isolates sampled on gray mold versus noble rot symptoms in three French regions belong to genetically differentiated populations. The inferred population structure matched geography rather than the type of symptom. Noble rot symptoms therefore do not seem to be caused by a specific B. cinerea population but instead seem to depend essentially on microclimatic conditions, which has applied consequences for the production of sweet wines. PMID:24062804

Fournier, Elisabeth; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

2013-01-01

225

The development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of sensor types were fabricated and tested for their electrical resistance changes to compounds known to be evolved by potato tubers with soft rot caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora. On the basis of these tests, three sensors were selected for incorporation into a prototype device. The device was portable and could be used without computer control after threshold values and sensor settling criteria had been downloaded. The prototype was assessed for its discriminating power under simulated storage conditions. The device was capable of detecting one tuber with soft rot in 100 kg of sound tubers in a simulated storage crate. The device was also able to detect a tuber inoculated with E. carotovora, but without visible signs of soft rot, within 10 kg of sound tubers. The same system was able to follow the progression of the disease in a tuber stored amongst 10 kg of sound tubers when operated at 4 °C and 85% relative humidity (conditions typical of a refrigerated storage facility).

de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H. E.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H. E.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

2000-12-01

226

Soybean fungal soil-borne diseases: a parameter for measuring the effect of agricultural intensification on soil health.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of agricultural intensification on soil microbial diversity, chemical and physical parameters, and the decrease of the incidence of sudden death syndrome (Fusarium crassistipitatum) and charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) in soybean. Soils under different management systems were evaluated during 2 crop cycles: soybean monoculture for 24 and 11 years, soybean-maize rotation for 15 and 4 years, 1 year of soybean, and native vegetation. The incidence of both soil-borne diseases was higher under monoculture than under rotation. Increased populations of potential biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp., fluorescent pseudomonads) were associated with rotation treatments, especially in 2010-2011. The comparison of agricultural vs. native vegetation soil and the average of agricultural cycles showed that microbial biomass carbon and glomalin-related soil protein were higher in the rotation system than in monoculture (50% and 77%, respectively). Furthermore, from the community-level functional diversity (Biolog Eco plates), McIntosh index showed lower functional diversity in monoculture than in rotation and native vegetation plots. Agricultural intensification reduced microbial biomass carbon, glomalin-related soil protein, organic matter, total nitrogen, aggregate stability, and yield, and increased bulk density. Soil quality degradation was associated with the establishment of soil-borne pathogens and increased soybean plant susceptibility to disease. PMID:24498984

Pérez-Brandán, C; Huidobro, J; Grümberg, B; Scandiani, M M; Luque, A G; Meriles, J M; Vargas-Gil, S

2014-02-01

227

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SOIL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON THE UTILIZATION OF A WHITE-ROT, WOOD ROTTING FUNGUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The wood rotting fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been selected as a candidate species to be used as a degrader of hazardous waste organic constituents found in liquids and soils. The selection of the species is attributable to its rapid growth, its ability to degrade lign...

228

Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

2014-05-01

229

Carbon Sequestration and Fertility after Centennial Time Scale Incorporation of Charcoal into Soil  

PubMed Central

The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m?2) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m?2). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters’ estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

2014-01-01

230

ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM CHARCOAL LIGHTER FLUID AND REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. ...

231

Kinetics and thermodynamics of copper ions removal from aqueous solution by use of activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the adsorption of copper from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal has been carried out with an aim to obtain information on treating effluents from metal finishing industries. The effects of various experimental parameters like contact time, dosage of activated charcoal, initial concentration of metal ions, pH etc. have been investigated. The percentage removal of metal ions increased

Pragnesh N Dave; N Subrahmanyam; Surendra Sharma

232

Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.  

PubMed

Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. PMID:25048757

Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

2014-11-30

233

Effects of carbonization parameters of Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal on capturing carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000(°)C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000(°)C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorpt on capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

Huang, Pei-Hsing; Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

2014-01-01

234

Effect of activated charcoal on absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone, carbamazepine and phenylbutazone in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal, given as a water suspension, on the absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone 200 mg, carbamazepine 400 mg and phenylbutazone 200 mg, was studied in five healthy volunteers, using a randomized crossover design. Absorption of the drugs was almost completely prevented (more than 95%) when charcoal 50 g was ingested within five minutes of taking the

P. J. Neuvonen; E. Elonen

1980-01-01

235

Enhancing methane production during the anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol using Japanese cedar charcoal.  

PubMed

The use of Japanese cedar charcoal as a support material for microbial attachment could enhance methane production during anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol and wastewater sludge. Methane yield from a charcoal-containing reactor was approximately 1.6 times higher than that from a reactor without charcoal, and methane production was stable over 50 days when the loading rate was 2.17 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1). Examination of microbial communities on the charcoal revealed the presence of Uncultured Desulfovibrio sp. clone V29 and Pelobacter seleniigenes, known as 1,3-propandiol degraders. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were also detected in the archaeal community on the charcoal. Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, and Methanocellus were present in the charcoal-containing reactor. The concentration of propionate in the charcoal-containing reactor was also lower than that in the control reactor. These results suggest that propionate degradation was enhanced by the consumption of hydrogen by hydrogenotrophic methanogens on the charcoal. PMID:24189339

Watanabe, Ryoya; Tada, Chika; Baba, Yasunori; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

2013-12-01

236

Does Charcoal Production Slow Agricultural Expansion into the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using a recursive optimization model, we analyze how the incorporation of charcoal production by pioneer farmers in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest would affect household net returns and the rate of deforestation at the early stage of forest colonization. Because charcoal production diverts scarce dry-season labor from land clearing for agriculture, deforestation by pioneer farmers may be slower. The model

Scott M. Swinton; Douglas S. White

2008-01-01

237

URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

238

Charcoal Consumption by Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkeys: Its Function and Its Ecological and Demographic Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zanzibar red colobus monkey is the only primate, aside from humans, known to eat charcoal in the wild. All age classes and both sexes eat charcoal, but only those groups living in perennial gardens or near human dwellings do so. The habit appears to be transmitted from mother to offspring by imitation, but how it developed in the first

Thomas T. Struhsaker; David O. Cooney; Kirstin S. Siex

1997-01-01

239

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal

J. A. Henkel; A. W. Fentiman; T. E. Blue

1995-01-01

240

Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration  

E-print Network

Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration with tree-ring small hollows and looked for evidence of 20 local fires reconstructed with tree-ring records from hollows, fire history, charcoal, tree rings, calibration. Introduction Analysis of fossil pollen from

Higuera, Philip E.

241

Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory Report Review of Technologies for the Production and Use of Charcoal  

E-print Network

Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory Report Review of Technologies for the Production areas. The production, transport and combustion of charcoal constitutes a critical energy and economic and Use of Charcoal Daniel M. Kammen1 & Debra J. Lew2 Energy and Resources Group & Goldman School

Kammen, Daniel M.

242

Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2?h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

2014-01-01

243

Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus"  

E-print Network

material have been stabilized upon contact with mineral soil? Soil minerals are known to have extraordinary-derived charcoal on the decomposition of soil organic mat- ter in boreal forests and reported that charcoal mixed reported the same phenomenon using a simpler organic molecule, glucose (2), than the chemically more

Lehmann, Johannes

244

Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils.  

PubMed

The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r=0.957**, P<0.01). The amount of isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation (DT(50)) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal increased from 0 to 50 g kg(-1) (for Paddy soil, DT(50) values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT(50) from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT(50) from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils. PMID:21237529

Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

2011-04-01

245

Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r = 0.957 **, P < 0.01). The amount of isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation ( DT50) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal inceased from 0 to 50 g kg - 1 (for Paddy soil, DT50 values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT50 from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT50 from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

2011-04-01

246

Molecular Marker Approach on Characterizing and Quantifying Charcoal in Environmental Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is widely distributed in natural environments including soils, sediments, freshwater, seawater and the atmosphere. It is produced mostly from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to BC due to its potential influence in many biogeochemical processes. In the environment, BC exists as a continuum ranging from partly charred plant materials, charcoal residues to highly condensed soot and graphite particles. The heterogeneous nature of black carbon means that BC is always operationally-defined, highlighting the need for standard methods that support data comparisons. Unlike soot and graphite that can be quantified with well-established methods, it is difficult to directly quantify charcoal in geologic media due to its chemical and physical heterogeneity. Most of the available charcoal quantification methods detect unknown fractions of the BC continuum. To specifically identify and quantify charcoal in soils and sediments, we adopted and validated an innovative molecular marker approach that quantifies levoglucosan, a pyrogenic derivative of cellulose, as a proxy of charcoal. Levoglucosan is source-specific, stable and is able to be detected at low concentrations using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). In the present study, two different plant species, honey mesquite and cordgrass, were selected as the raw materials to synthesize charcoals. The lab-synthesize charcoals were made under control conditions to eliminate the high heterogeneity often found in natural charcoals. The effects of two major combustion factors, temperature and duration, on the yield of levoglucosan were characterized in the lab-synthesize charcoals. Our results showed that significant levoglucosan production in the two types of charcoal was restricted to relatively low combustion temperatures (150-350 degree C). The combustion duration did not cause significant differences in the yield of levoglucosan in the two charcoals. Interestingly, the low temperature charcoals are undetectable by the acid dichromate oxidation method, a popular soot/charcoal analytical approach. Our study demonstrates that levoglucosan can serve as a proxy of low temperature charcoals that are undetectable using other BC methods. Moreover, our study highlights the limitations of the common BC quantification methods to characterize the entire BC continuum.

Kuo, L.; Herbert, B. E.; Louchouarn, P.

2006-12-01

247

Tree diseases and landscape processes: the challenge of landscape  

E-print Network

in Adirondack Park, New York [4] and the role of laminated root rot, caused by Phellinus weirii, in stand in California [6] (Box 1) and beech bark disease in the Catskill Mountains, New York [7]. Although fine

Weisberg, Peter J.

248

Effects of manufacturing conditions on the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions by Makino bamboo charcoal.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of manufacturing conditions on the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions by Makino bamboo charcoal. Results show that the specific surface area and iodine number of bamboo charcoal activated at 900 degrees C were larger than those of bamboo charcoal activated at 800 degrees C. The specific surface area of bamboo charcoal activated at 800 degrees C by carbon dioxide was larger than that of charcoal activated by steam. However, a contrary result was observed when the activation temperature was 900 degrees C. The total volume and proportion of micropores in bamboo charcoal activated by carbon dioxide were greater than those in the other sample groups. However, the total volume and bulk volume of meso- and macropores, and average pore diameter for bamboo charcoal activated by steam were greater than those in the other sample groups. Using 5g bamboo charcoal (10-30 mesh) with a soaking time of 24h, a better adsorption effect on Pb2+ (100%), Cu2+ (100%), and Cr3+ (88-98%) was found. However, medium frequencies were observed for the adsorption of Cd2+ (40-80%) and Ni2+ (20-60%). Very limited adsorption of As5+ was detected in this study. For the same charcoal grain sizes, the adsorption capacity of 0.5g of charcoal was better than that of 0.1g. The improved adsorption effect of the sample group activated by steam was compared with the sample group activated by carbon dioxide. PMID:18281212

Wang, Song-Yung; Tsai, Ming-Hsiu; Lo, Sheng-Fong; Tsai, Ming-Jer

2008-10-01

249

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne sediments (Central  

E-print Network

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 2631­2643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne emitted in the area of Lake Lucerne (Central Europe) throughout the last 7200 years. Charcoal into the large lake basin. However, the independent distribution of the coarser charcoal fraction (438 mm

Gilli, Adrian

250

A genome-wide association study reveals genes associated with fusarium ear rot resistance in a maize core diversity panel.  

PubMed

Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0-100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

Zila, Charles T; Samayoa, L Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B

2013-11-01

251

Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.  

PubMed

The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 ?mol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-02-15

252

Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.  

PubMed

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

1996-01-01

253

Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.  

PubMed

An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly demonstrated that isolate C06 has a great potential for being developed into a biocontrol agent. PMID:18573559

Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

2008-08-15

254

Global Regulation of Staphylococcus aureus Genes by Rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide array of cell surface and extracellular proteins involved in virulence. Expression of these virulence factors is tightly controlled by numerous regulatory loci, including agr, sar, sigB, sae, and arl, as well as by a number of proteins with homology to SarA. Rot (repressor of toxins), a SarA homologue, was previously identified in a library of

B. Said-Salim; P. M. Dunman; F. M. McAleese; D. Macapagal; E. Murphy; P. J. McNamara; S. Arvidson; T. J. Foster; S. J. Projan; B. N. Kreiswirth

2003-01-01

255

Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse with white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four cultures of white rot fungi were screened for their ability to degrade lignin and carbohydrates of sugarcane bagasse and their effect on changes ininvitro digestibility.Polyporushirsutus534 degraded maximum lignin and carbohydrates accompanied with the highest increase in digestibility, but increase in nutrient availability was maximum withPleurotussajorcaju (Z-6) due to lower dry matter loss during the process of fungal treatment.

Neelam Kewalramani; D. N. Kamra; D. Lall; N. N. Pathak

1988-01-01

256

Production of Oxalic Acid by a Wood-Rotting Fungus.  

PubMed

The wood-rotting fungus Pleurotus ostreatus NRRL 2366 was grown successfully in submerged shaker cultures in which it produced oxalic acid from simple carbohydrates as efficiently as did Aspergillus niger. P. ostreatus also produced oxalic acid from mixtures of sawdust and CaCO(3), and from the solid residue from the acid hydrolysis of wood when the culture was supplemented with inorganic nutrients. A. niger produced oxalic acid from the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:16349634

Tsao, G T

1963-05-01

257

The use of Trichoderma species to control strawberry fruit rots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature on the growth and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma species against Botrytis cinerea and Mucor\\u000a mucedo (strawberry fruit pathogens) was studied. Five strongly antagonistic isolates were further used in field experiments.\\u000a The incidence of pre-harvest rots caused by B. cinerea and the rate of post-harvest spoilage were similarly reduced when strawberry\\u000a flowers were sprayed either with the

A. Tronsmo; C. Dennis

1977-01-01

258

Degradation of acrylic copolymers by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various water-soluble homopolymers and copolymers of acrylamide (AAm) and acrylic acid (AA) which contained phenolic sites, such as guaiacol, lignin sulfonate (LS) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA), were tested with regard to their degradability by white-rot fungi. Compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus caused a significantly higher decrease in the average molecular weight ( M? w) of most of the copolymers

Carsten Mai; Wiebke Schormann; Andrzej Majcherczyk; Alois Hüttermann

2004-01-01

259

Production of Oxalic Acid by a Wood-Rotting Fungus  

PubMed Central

The wood-rotting fungus Pleurotus ostreatus NRRL 2366 was grown successfully in submerged shaker cultures in which it produced oxalic acid from simple carbohydrates as efficiently as did Aspergillus niger. P. ostreatus also produced oxalic acid from mixtures of sawdust and CaCO3, and from the solid residue from the acid hydrolysis of wood when the culture was supplemented with inorganic nutrients. A. niger produced oxalic acid from the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:16349634

Tsao, George Tsu-Ning

1963-01-01

260

Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum metabolites produced during wet apple core rot.  

PubMed

Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous detection of thirteen F. avenaceum metabolites including moniliformin, acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, B1, B2, and B3 from artificially and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5.7, 152, and 12.7 microg g(-1), respectively. Seventeen of twenty naturally infected apples with wACR symptoms contained one or more of the metabolites. Fourteen of these apples contained moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins in levels up to 2.9, 51, 167, and 3.9 microg g(-1), respectively. Acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, and 2-AOD-3-ol were detected in 4, 11, 4, and 10 apples, respectively. During wet apple core rot, F. avenaceum produced high amounts of mycotoxins, which may pose a risk for consumers of apple or processed apple products. PMID:19170495

Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Frank, Jana; Thrane, Ulf

2009-02-25

261

Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and

Prachand Shrestha

2008-01-01

262

Resistance of tubers from different potato cultivars to soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanically harvested tubers of 14 potato cultivars grown on both loamy sand and silt loam soils were evaluated for resistance\\u000a to bacterial soft rot caused byErwinia carotovora subsp.atroseptica. Cultivars were also assayed for calcium and dry matter content to determine possible correlations with soft rot resistance.\\u000a \\u000a Resistance of potato tubers to bacterial soft rot was assayed after harvest by inoculating

Kuo-Ching Tzeng; Raymond G. McGuire; Arthur Kelman

1990-01-01

263

Soil charcoal from the plains to tundra in the Colorado Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the forests of the central Rockies, soil charcoal from Holocene wildfires has been produced in response to wildland natural fire regimes. The extent and spatial distribution of soil charcoal production is poorly documented in this region, especially with regard to forests and shrublands at different elevations. Soil charcoal is a super-passive C pool derived from woody biomass that can be sequestered for millennia in forest soils. Recent research indicates that soil charcoal may promote enhanced soil fertility. Additionally, soil charcoal is an often overlooked component of soil C mass and flux. We hypothesize that differences in forest and shrubland fire regimes over the millennia have resulted in different soil charcoal amounts. Geospatial data were used to locate random sample plots in foothills shrublands (Cercocarpus montanus), and four forest types; ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and spruce-fir (Picea engelmannii - Abies lasiocarpa). Sample plots were stratified to occur with the mid 200 m elevation band of each vegetation type with east aspect, and 10-30% slope. Soils were sampled widely at 0-10 cm depth and analyzed for total soil C and soil charcoal C via chemical digestion and dry combustion techniques. Overall, soil charcoal is four times more abundant in spruce-fir forests than in foothills shrublands (1.9 +/- 0.92 Mg C/ha versus 0.54 +/- 0.44 Mg C/ha). Soil charcoal is also abundant in lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine soils (1.4 +/- 1.02 Mg C/ha and 1.4 +/- 0.54 Mg C/ha respectively) but is less plentiful in Douglas-fir soils (1.0 +/- 0.67). Spruce-fir forests have the most above ground biomass, slower decomposition rates and a less frequent mean fire return interval than the other four forests, hence it makes sense that high per-fire rates of charcoal production would occur in the spruce-fir zone, given large amounts of surface fuels at the time of fire. In contrast, low amounts of coarse woody debris in ponderosa, lodgepole, and shrub communities would cause less charcoal to form, despite higher fire frequencies. The Douglas-fir soil charcoal seems anomalously low, but it may reflect a combination of low forest floor woody debris and low fire frequency. Foothills shrublands have the least biomass, comparatively rapid decomposition rates and a more frequent mean fire return interval. We propose that high biomass and slow turnover rates in the spruce-fir forests creates conditions for relatively higher net soil charcoal accumulation.

Sanford, R. L.; Licata, C.

2010-12-01

264

Rotated orthogonal transform (ROT) for motion-compensation residual coding.  

PubMed

Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the orthogonal transform that is most commonly used in image and video compression. The motion-compensation residual (MC-residual) is also compressed with the DCT in most video codecs. However, the MC-residual has different characteristics from a nature image. In this paper, we develop a new orthogonal transform-rotated orthogonal transform (ROT) that can perform better on the MC-residual than the DCT for coding purposes. We derive the proposed ROT based on orthogonal-constrained L1-Norm minimization problem for its sparse property. Using the DCT matrix as the starting point, a better orthogonal transform matrix is derived. In addition, by exploring inter-frame dependency and local motion activity, transmission of substantial side information is avoided. The experiment results confirm that, with small computation overhead, the ROT is adaptive to change of local spatial characteristic of MC-residual frame and provides higher compression efficiency for the MC-residual than DCT, especially for high- and complex-motion videos. PMID:22752139

Gu, Zhouye; Lin, Weisi; Lee, Bu-Sung; Lau, Chiew Tong

2012-12-01

265

Mechanisms of charcoal degradation during its initial stages of decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climatic changes might result in an increased potential for wildfires, whereby incorporation of charred biomass into soil would increase. The incomplete combustion of biomass results in the production of a chemically heterogeneous class of highly condensed compounds known as pyrogenic C (PyC), which is generally considered resistant to microbial degradation. Recently, studies based on short-term laboratory incubations with soil have indicated that PyC can also eventually degrade (Baldock and Smernik, 2002; Hamer et al., 2004) and it is now widely accepted that a significant quantity of these resistant fraction of soil must have undergone degradation in terrestrial environments. Charcoal has been shown to decompose faster in the initial stages (first 2-3 months) and stabilize later (Kuzyakov et al., 2009). However, studies describing charcoal transformation processes remain scarce. The different potential degradation mechanisms have not yet been studied in combination, and therefore the relative importance for PyC degradation has not been evaluated. We are conducting an incubation experiment to study the biological, chemical and physical degradation/stabilization processes of PyC in soil under controlled conditions. We use Pinus ponderosa 13C/15N labeled (13C: 800 per mil, 15N: 4.2 atom %) wood and charcoal (pyrolysed at 450 °C under N2 atmosphere). We incubate soil from Lägeren forest (Wettingen, Switzerland) with three kind of organic inputs, labeled wood, char and no littler control. The decomposition rates would be estimated based on 13C of CO2 entrapped in NaOH. Time course destructive sampling would be done during the study. Lyophilized soil subsamples will be used for analysis of the amount of 13C incorporation in the microbial biomass using fumigation extraction method and phospholipids fatty acid analysis (PLFA). The remaining PyC in the soil would be characterized for the changes in its chemistry at the molecular level using Benzenepolycarboxlic acid (BPCA) molecular marker method and 13C 15N NMR. This communication aims to report the first four months results of this study at a higher time resolution. The outcome of this study would facilitate in elucidating the potential decomposition rate of charcoal and consequent changes in its physical, chemical and biological properties in the soil during the initial stages of decomposition. In addition, application of highly labeled 13C PyC would enable us in this study to trace the transformation products. References Baldock, J.A., and Smernik, R.J. (2002). Chemical composition and bioavailability of thermally, altered Pinus resinosa (Red Pine) wood. Organic Geochemistry 33, 1093-1109. Hamer, U., Marschner, B., Brodowski, S., and Amelung, W. (2004). Interactive priming of black carbon and glucose mineralisation. Organic Geochemistry 35, 823-830. Kuzyakov, Y., Subbotina, I., Chen, H.Q., Bogomolova, I., and Xu, X.L. (2009). Black carbon decomposition and incorporation into soil microbial biomass estimated by C-14 labeling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41, 210-219.

Singh, Nimisha; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

2010-05-01

266

[Caring for families of charcoal-burning suicide patients].  

PubMed

Charcoal-burning is the second major cause of suicide death in Taiwan. Predicting the variable damage and sequelae in this suicide mode is difficult due to the rapid combination of carbon monoxide with red blood cells. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) may result in significantly extended recovery times, causing additional stress to the family. Nurses may help increase family understanding and support and guide family members to more positive intra-family interactions, shared perspectives on the recovery process, and resource seeking behavior by depicting subsequent family life and helping the entire family develop coping strategies those allow all members to effect cognitive, emotional and behavioral change. This result may help families of attempted suicide individuals recover successfully. PMID:24310557

Pien, Feng-Chen; Feng, Hsin-Pei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

2013-12-01

267

Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995–2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. Methods and Findings We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996–2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997–1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998–2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999–2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999–2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006–2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in Taiwan and Hong Kong but appeared to be greatest in people aged 15–24 y in Japan and people aged 25–64 y in the Republic of Korea. The lack of specific codes for charcoal-burning suicide in the International Classification of Diseases and variations in coding practice in different countries are potential limitations of this study. Conclusions Charcoal-burning suicides increased markedly in some East/Southeast Asian countries (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore) in the first decade of the 21st century, but such rises were not experienced by all countries in the region. In countries with a rise in charcoal-burning suicide rates, the timing, scale, and sex/age pattern of increases varied by country. Factors underlying these variations require further investigation, but may include differences in culture or in media portrayals of the method. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24691071

Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

2014-01-01

268

Lead(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by raw and activated charcoals of Melocanna baccifera Roxburgh (bamboo)—A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melocanna baccifera (Poaceae) is the most abundant and economically important non-timber product in state of Mizoram, India. The communities of the region use this potential resource in many ways, charcoal production is one of them. Bamboo charcoal has application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Activated charcoal was prepared from M. baccifera charcoal by chemical pretreatment in order to make

H. Lalhruaitluanga; K. Jayaram; M. N. V. Prasad; K. K. Kumar

2010-01-01

269

Optimum drafting conditions of bamboo charcoal-modified fiber blended yarn obtained by drafting behavior analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of optimum drafting condition on the drafting behavior and yarn quality of the bamboo charcoal-modified\\u000a fiber blended spun yarns were studied. We measured the drafting force and drafting force variance, CV% of the bamboo charcoal-modified\\u000a Polyester\\/Cotton (BCP\\/C) blended roving and bamboo charcoal-modified Rayon\\/Cotton (BCR\\/C) blended roving to examine the influence\\u000a of the roller gauge and

Ching-Iuan Su; Xiu-Rong Lin

2009-01-01

270

Diseases of Peaches and Plums.  

E-print Network

forms. They may enter plants through wounds made by insects or by mechanical means. Virus disease symptoms vary. Nematodes are small, worm-like pathogens liv ing in soil and feeding on roots, causing reduced root growth, lesions or galls. Above... weather promotes development of many common plant dis eases. Not only is weather important in early season diseases, but also during harvest when excess mois ture causes several harvest rot diseases. Crown Gall Crown gall is a bacterial disease...

Johnson, Jerral D.

1980-01-01

271

Distribution and severity of root and leaf diseases and cereal leaf beetle damage of barley in western Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley fields in western Ontario were surveyed for incidence of root rot and foliage pests from 1972 to 1975. Estimates of the effect of common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus on barley yields using discoloration of the subcrown internode as a measure of the amount of disease indicated that 4.3 and 0.8% of the crop was lost in 1972

R. V. Clark

272

Effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to soil on nitrate leaching in calcaric soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate leaching in soils is often an important aspect in agriculture. Nitrate is leached from the root zone, where plants can utilize them, by surplus rainfall because little nitrate is absorbed by soil colloids. Miyako Island (target area) is located in the subtropical zone and comprised of coral limestone with high permeability. Land surface is covered with calcaric dark red soil that is called “Shimajiri-Maji”. Since the soil has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity, fertilizer-derived nitrogen easily leaches from the root zone during surplus rainfall and the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops is relatively low. Biochars, charcoal produced from pyrolysis of biomass, are known to adsorb dissolved nitrate. Sugarcane bagasse is the main biomass resource on the island because agriculture is the main industry on the island and sugarcane is cultivated in approximately 70% of the farmland. However, the adsorption characteristics of bagasse-charcoals for nitrate have not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependency of carbonization temperatures on the nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse-charcoals and the effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to the soil on NO3-N transport in the soil for optimal use of bagasse-charcoal as a soil amendment in Miyako Island. Sugarcane bagasse were air-dried and heated in a batch-type carbonization furnace at five different carbonization temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) with a holding time of 2 h. Nitrate adsorption by soil and bagasse-charcoals at each carbonization temperature was measured by the batch equilibrium technique. NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils (rates of charcoal addition: 0, 5 and 10 wt %) was evaluated in the column experiments. The breakthrough curves of NO3-N concentrations in the effluents from the bottom of the columns were analyzed with a convective-dispersion model. The model described one-dimensional transport of a sorbing solute thorough a homogeneous saturated soil. Linear adsorption equation that considered rates of charcoal addition was used to describe NO3-N adsorption of charcoal-amended soils (S=Kd C R, where C is solution concentration [mg cm-3], S is sorbed concentration [mg -1], Kd is the sorption distribution coefficient [cm-3 kg-1] and R is rates of charcoal addition [wt %]). The experimental and analytical results were as follows: (1) Batch experiments using five different bagasse-charcoals revealed that nitrate was adsorbed at 700°C and 800°C and was scarcely adsorbed at less than 700°C. (2) Column experiments using charcoal-amended soils revealed that NO3-N transport in soils was delayed by adsorption effects of bagasse-charcoal. (3) Analysis with the convective-dispersion model showed that the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement at all charcoal-amended soils. Therefore, the adsorption equation that considers the rates of charcoal addition is effective to describe NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils.

Kameyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Shinogi, Y.

2009-12-01

273

Cytological aspects of compost-mediated induced resistance against fusarium crown and root rot in tomato.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential of a pulp and paper mill residues compost for the control of crown and root rot of greenhouse-grown tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was ultrastructurally investigated. Peat moss amended with compost substantially reduced disease-associated symptoms. Addition of Pythium oligandrum to either peat moss alone or peat moss amended with compost resulted in a considerable reduction in disease incidence compared with controls grown in peat moss alone. Histological and cytological observations of root samples from Fusarium-inoculated plants revealed that the beneficial effect of compost in reducing disease symptoms is associated with increased plant resistance to fungal colonization. One of the most prominent facets of compost-mediated induced resistance concerned the formation of physical barriers at sites of attempted fungal penetration. These structures, likely laid down to prevent pathogen ingress toward the vascular elements, included callose-enriched wall appositions and osmiophilic deposits around the sites of potential pathogen ingress. Invading hyphae, coated by the osmiophilic material, showed marked cellular disorganization. The use of the wheat germ agglutinin-ovomucoid-gold complex provided evidence that the wall-bound chitin was altered in severely damaged hyphae. A substantial increase in the extent and magnitude of the cellular changes induced by compost was observed when P. oligandrum was supplied to the potting substrate. This finding corroborates the current concept that amendment of composts with specific antagonists may be a valuable option for amplifying their beneficial properties in terms of plant disease suppression. PMID:18942956

Pharand, Benoît; Carisse, Odile; Benhamou, Nicole

2002-04-01

274

Temperature, moisture, and fungicide effects in managing Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet; however, recent increases in disease incidence and severity were grounds to reevaluate this pathosystem. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and intraspecific groups (ISGs) were tested for pathogenicity on resistant ('FC708 CMS') and susceptible ('Monohikari') seedlings and 10-week-old plants. Several AGs and ISGs were pathogenic on seedlings regardless of host resistance but only AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV caused significant disease on 10-week-old plants. Because fungicides need to be applied prior to infection for effective disease control, temperature and moisture parameters were assessed to identify potential thresholds that limit infection. Root and leaf disease indices were used to evaluate disease progression of AG-2-2 IIIB- and AG-2-2 IV-inoculated plants in controlled climate conditions of 7 to 22 growing degree days (GDDs) per day. Root disease ratings were positively correlated with increasing temperature of both ISGs, with maximum disease symptoms occurring at 22 GDDs/day. No disease symptoms were evident from either ISG at 10 GDDs/day but disease symptoms did occur in plants grown in growth chambers set to 11 GDDs/day. Using growth chambers adjusted to 22 GDDs/day, disease was evaluated at 25, 50, 75, and 100% moisture-holding capacity (MHC). Disease symptoms for each ISG were highest in soils with 75 and 100% MHC but disease still occurred at 25% MHC. Isolates were tested for their ability to cause disease at 1, 4, and 8 cm from the plant hypocotyl. Only AG-2-2 IIIB was able to cause disease symptoms at 8 cm during the evaluation period. In all experiments, isolates of AG-2-2 IIIB were found to be more aggressive than AG-2-2 IV. Using environmental parameters that we identified as the most conducive to disease development, azoxystrobin, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole/propiconazole, flutolanil, polyoxin D, and a water control were evaluated for their ability to suppress disease development by AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV 17 days after planting. Flutolanil, polyoxin-D, and azoxystrobin provided the highest level of disease suppression. Because R. solani AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV are affected by temperature and moisture, growers may be able to evaluate environmental parameters for optimization of fungicide application. PMID:20528187

Bolton, Melvin D; Panella, Lee; Campbell, Larry; Khan, Mohamed F R

2010-07-01

275

Microbiology of controlled rotting of egusi ( Colocynthis citrullus L.) fruits for the harvesting of the seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms isolated from naturally rotting egusi fruits which are used as a source of dietary seeds, were mainly bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. polymyxa, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, La. brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Klebsiella aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Micrococcus and Candida spp. The rotting period of egusi fruits could be decreased

J. A. N. Obeta; C. Abriba

1994-01-01

276

THE ROLE OF SURFACE RIDGING AND PROTUBERANCES ON AVOCADO FRUIT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RIPE ROTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raised surface deformities of avocado fruit, which includes ridges and protuberances, are prone to mechanical damage as a result of their exposed nature. This mechanical damage manifests itself as peel bruising and may contribute to rot development. The extent to which ridging and protuberances influences the extent of rot development in ripe fruit was investigated in two separate experiments. The

H. A. PAK; D. BETTESWORTH; H. M. DAWES

277

Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

2007-01-01

278

Assessing potato tubers for susceptibility to bacterial soft rot ( erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory method is described of assessing the susceptibility of tubers to soft rot (Erwinia carotovora subsp.atroseptica). A bacterial suspension is placed in a hole drilled into the tuber cortex, the weighed tubers are placed in damp airtight boxes that are then gassed with nitrogen and incubated for 5 days at 25°C. The rotted tissue is washed out and the

W. F. Bourne; D. C. McCalmont; R. L. Wastie

1981-01-01

279

Everything you wanted to know about the dry-rot fungus but were afraid to ask  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry-rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is a major cause of timber failure in the built environment in many parts of the world, most notably northern Europe, parts of eastern Europe and Asia, and Australia. This basidiomycete fungus may cause spectacular decay of damp building timbers, resulting in what is ironically known as 'Dry Rot'. Often referred to as a plague

John W. Palfreyman; Nia A. White

280

Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora puteana, and two isolates of Serpula lacrymans. All fungi increased apparent percent crystallinity

Caitlin Howell; Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Barry Goodell; Jody Jellison

2009-01-01

281

The management and control of dry rot: A survey of practitioners' views and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire survey of building practitioners in Scotland was carried out with the aim of determining their experiences and views on the causes and treatment of dry rot. The practitioners' perceptions of the importance of key factors associated with the initiation, development and survival of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans were determined and compared to scientific understandings of the

N Krzyzanowski; K Oduyemi; N Jack; N. M Ross; J. W Palfreyman

1999-01-01

282

Colocalizing incipient reactions in wood degraded by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta  

E-print Network

in rotting wood. To assess this, we used thin spruce wafers as substrates, with the largest faceColocalizing incipient reactions in wood degraded by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta Jonathan to use both free radicals and enzymes to degrade wood. If these incom- patible agents are employed

Blanchette, Robert A.

283

Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti  

E-print Network

Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2005-01-01

284

Application of the Biospeckle Method for Monitoring Bull's Eye Rot Development and Quality Changes of Apples Subjected to Various Storage Methods--Preliminary Studies  

PubMed Central

In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull’s eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars ‘Pinova’ and ‘Topaz’, susceptible to bull’s eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of ‘Pinova’ and 21% of ‘Topaz’ apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions. PMID:22737003

Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

285

Application of the biospeckle method for monitoring bull's eye rot development and quality changes of apples subjected to various storage methods-preliminary studies.  

PubMed

In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull's eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars 'Pinova' and 'Topaz', susceptible to bull's eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of 'Pinova' and 21% of 'Topaz' apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions. PMID:22737003

Adamiak, Anna; Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

286

The effect of temperature and relative humidity levels upon charcoal tube sampling for vinyl choloride  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY LEVELS UPON CHARCOAL TUBE SAMPLING FOR VINYL CHLORIDE A Thesis by GERALD DANIEL McCASKILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY LEVELS UPON CHARCOAL TUBE SAMPLING FOR VINYL CHLORIDE A Thesis by GERALD DANIEL McCASKILL Approved as to style and content...

McCaskill, Gerald Daniel

2012-06-07

287

Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles  

E-print Network

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS IN THE IGNITION AND COMBUSTION OF CHAR/COAL PARTICLES A Thesis by ESAM TAWFIQ KHARBAT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS IN THE IGNITION AND COMBUSTION OF CHAR/COAL PARTICLES A Thesis by ESAM TAWFIQ KHARBAT Approved as to style and content by...

Kharbat, Esam Tawfiq

2012-06-07

288

Comparison of the percent recoveries of activated charcoal and Spherocarb after storage utilizing thermal desorption  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF THE PERCENT RECOVERIES OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND SPHEROCARB AFTER STORAGE UTILIZING THERMAL DESORPTION A Thesis by Paul Emery Sti dham Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al!M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene COMPARISON OF THE PERCENT RECOVERIES OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND SPHEROCARB AFTER STORAGE UTILIZING THERMAL DESORPTI ON A Thesis by Paul Emery Stidham...

Stidham, Paul Emery

2012-06-07

289

Evaluation of formaldehyde adsorption by bamboo charcoal using a photoacoustic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on a novel, multipass, acoustically open photoacoustic detector designed for fast-response high-sensitivity\\u000a detection of formaldehyde adsorption by bamboo charcoal in an ambient atmosphere. The detection range, estimated from formaldehyde\\u000a measurements at a wavenumber of around 2805 cm?1, is 0–2.0 parts per million by volume. In this work, photoacoustic (PA) detection with various bamboo charcoals was analyzed\\u000a at

Haw Farn Lan; Yaw Fuh Huang

2010-01-01

290

Elastic constant and fracture toughness measurement of bamboo charcoal using digital speckle correlation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic constant both on along-fiber (AF) and cross-fiber (CF) direction of two kinds of bamboo charcoal are measured using digital speckle correlation method (DSCM). Fracture toughness of two kinds of SiC which consist of bamboo charcoal are analyzed by using DSCM and conventional Loading method. The experiment shows that the results measured by DSCM are in accordance with the results

Huaixi Wang; Shaopeng Ma; Dongsheng Zhang; Huimin Xie

2008-01-01

291

Study on the adsorption of lanthanum(III) from aqueous solution by bamboo charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption behaviors of La(III) ion on bamboo charcoal were investigated with various chemical methods and IR spectrometry. Parameters studied include the effects of pH, average particle size, initial ion concentration, contact time and temperature by batch method. The results showed that bamboo charcoal could remove La(III) ions effectively from aqueous solution. The loading of La(III) ions was strongly dependent

Qing CHEN

2010-01-01

292

Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.  

PubMed

The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (?g/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

2011-06-15

293

Synthesis and photocatalytic characterization of titania-supported bamboo charcoals by using sol–gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work examined the photocatalytic behavior of methylene blue (MB) on titania-dispersed bamboo charcoals, prepared by sol–gel method combined with chemical-wet impregnation. The experimental results of nitrogen adsorption showed that specific surface area of the TiO2-charcoals was found to increase with TiO2 loading, whereas their mean pore sizes exhibited a decreasing trend. It can be suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles

Chi-Hsin Wu; Jin-Fang Shr; Chu-Fu Wu; Chien-Te Hsieh

2008-01-01

294

Hydrogen storage: a comparison of hydrogen uptake values in carbon nanotubes and modified charcoals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the hydrogen uptake weight percentages (wt.%) of different carbonized materials, before and after modification, for their application in hydrogen storage at room temperature. The Sievert's method [T.P. Blach, E. Mac, A. Gray, J. Alloys Compd. 446-447, 692 (2007)] was used to measure hydrogen uptake values on: (1) Taiwan bamboo charcoal (TBC), (2) white charcoal (WC), (3) single-walled carbon

H.-Y. Miao; G. R. Chen; D. Y. Chen; J. T. Lue; M. S. Yu

2010-01-01

295

Soil Charcoal to Assess the Impacts of Past Human Disturbances on Tropical Forests  

PubMed Central

The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: “recent” charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n?=?16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while “ancient” charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n?=?43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental factors on species composition. PMID:25391134

Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B.; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J.

2014-01-01

296

Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.  

PubMed

The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n?=?16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n?=?43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental factors on species composition. PMID:25391134

Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J

2014-01-01

297

Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby

A. Holz; S. Haberle; T. T. Veblen; R. de Pol-Holz; J. Southon

2011-01-01

298

Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Overdose and the Effect of Activated Charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine overdose and the effect of charcoal. The data set included 204 concentration–time points from 54 quetiapine overdose events (median dose 2,700 mg (300–24,000 mg)). Charcoal was administered 0.5–6 h after 19 overdoses. A fully Bayesian methodology for population pharmacokinetic analysis was used and data were modelled using WinBUGS.

G K Isbister; L E Friberg; L P Hackett; S B Duffull

2007-01-01

299

Wood-rotting Fungal Flora of Kanghwa Island  

PubMed Central

Through ten field surveys in Kanghwa Island from August of 1997 to March of 2002, total 107 specimens of wood-rotting fungi belonging to the Aphyllophorales were collected and identified to the species. They taxonomically amounted to 10 families, 31 genera, and 48 species. Among them, one family, Steccherinaceae, and four genera, Australohydnum, Castanoporus, Dacryobolus and Haplotrichum were confirmed as new to Korea. Five unrecorded species, Australohydnum dregeanum, Castanoporus castaneus, Dacryobolus karstenii, Haplotrichum conspersum and Hyphoderma odontiiforme were registered here with descriptions. PMID:24049495

Lim, Young Woon; Lee, Jin Sung; Kim, Kyung Mo

2005-01-01

300

Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT (1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), 3,4,3'4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4'5'-hexachlorobiphenyl 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), and benzo(a)pyrene to carbon dioxide. Model studies, based on the use of DDT, suggest that the ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to metabolize these compounds is dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus.

J. A. Bumpus; M. Tien; D. Wright; S. D. Aust

1985-01-01

301

Applied Technology of Bamboo Charcoal to Improvement and Purification of Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of bamboo charcoal, which is one of the carbon from wood, attracts attention from the viewpoint of the environmental protection. Bamboo charcoal has high adsorption removal ability to various substances. In addition Bamboo charcoal is effective also for the filtration of the suspended solid and the bacterium by the macro pore that originates in the plant frame structure. In present paper, a new concept of gas clean technology by bamboo charcoal and TiO2 with UV light irradiation was proposed. Its system is composed of TiO2-coated bamboo charcoal, TiO2-coated silica gel and UV lamp. Water vapor is adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and fine particles and airborne bacterium are trapped on the surface of it. Trapped contaminant is degraded by TiO2 and UV light. In addition, the degradation is promoted by •OH produced by adsorbed water vapor. The air purification sanitization possibility in high efficiency for this system was clarified.

Takimoto, Akira; Tada, Yukio; Onishi, Hajime; Fukazawa, Tomohiro

302

Overexpression of the Brassica rapa transcription factor WRKY12 results in reduced soft rot symptoms caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum in Arabidopsis and Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), an important vegetable crop, can succumb to diseases such as bacterial soft rot, resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. To overcome crop loss caused by bacterial soft rot, a gene from Chinese cabbage was isolated and characterised in this study. We isolated the BrWRKY12 gene from Chinese cabbage, which is a group II member of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily. The 645-bp coding sequence of BrWRKY12 translates to a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 24.4 kDa, and BrWRKY12 was exclusively localised in the nucleus. Transcripts of BrWRKY12 were induced by Pcc infection in Brassica. Heterologous expression of BrWRKY12 resulted in reduced susceptibility to Pcc but not to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis. Defence-associated genes, such as AtPDF1.2 and AtPGIP2, were constitutively expressed in transgenic lines overexpressing BrWRKY12. The expression of AtWKRY12, which is the closest orthologue of BrWRKY12, was down-regulated by Pcc in Arabidopsis. However, the Atwrky12-2 mutants did not show any difference in response to Pcc, pointing to a difference in function of WRKY12 in Brassica and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, BrWRKY12 in Chinese cabbage also exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot and increased the expression of defence-associated genes. In summary, BrWRKY12 confers enhanced resistance to Pcc through transcriptional activation of defence-related genes. PMID:24552622

Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Nam, H; Lee, Y M; Song, K; Choi, C; Ahn, I; Park, S R; Lee, Y H; Hwang, D J

2014-09-01

303

Improving Anammox start-up with bamboo charcoal.  

PubMed

Three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors were compared for Anammox enrichment using synthetic wastewater with Spherical Plastic (SP) and Bamboo Charcoal (BC) addition, and without carrier (CK). After four months of operation, the Anammox activity occurred in all reactors allowing continuous removal of ammonium and nitrite. Ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were all higher than 98% in steady phase with the effluent concentrations below 1 mg L(-1). The start-up time could be shortened from 117 to 97 d in CK and SP reactor to 85 d in BC amendment reactor. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) analyses indicated a significant increase in the number of Anammox bacteria in BC amended reactor as compared with CK and SP during the entire start-up periods. The copy numbers of Anammox of 16S rRNA gene in the reactor with BC amendment could reach up to 6×10(9)copies g(-1) Volatile Suspended Solids, around 22.5 times and 12.3 times greater than that in CK and SP reactor, respectively. BC addition could accelerate the start-up of Anammox and significantly increase the Anammox bacteria number. PMID:22921643

Chen, Chong-jun; Huang, Xiao-xiao; Lei, Chen-xiao; Zhu, Wei-jing; Chen, Ying-xu; Wu, Wei-xiang

2012-11-01

304

Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Peach in China  

PubMed Central

In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), ?-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China. PMID:21980371

Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D.; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi

2011-01-01

305

Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China.  

PubMed

In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), ?-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China. PMID:21980371

Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi

2011-01-01

306

Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Phosphate by Activated Charcoal from Corncobs, Groundnut Shells and Rice-Husks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated charcoal was produced from three types of agricultural by-products namely: rice-husks, groundnut shells and corncobs using steam oxidation process. The adsorptive properties of these charcoals as adsorbent for use in wastewater treatment were investigated using phosphate adsorption studies. In a test conducted with phosphate containing water, corncob charcoal proved to be more effective for adsorption than both rice-husk and

A. Abdul; F. Aberuagba

307

Effects of introducing bamboo charcoal on thermo-physical properties and combustion behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermo-physical properties and combustion behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) composite formulations that contain\\u000a bamboo charcoal (BC) fillers are studied. The experimental results showed that the volume resistance decreased sharply but\\u000a with little effect on thermal conductivity, when PET was loaded with more than bamboo charcoal. Thermogravimetric analysis\\u000a (TGA) revealed that higher bamboo charcoal loading was associated with a higher

Wen-Jeng Guo; Yuan-Yuan Su; Jhe-Line Jhang; Wei-Jen Lai; Chien-Lung Chen; Kuo-Chung Cheng

308

Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067

Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

2014-06-01

309

Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small-hollow sediments: a calibration with tree-ring records of fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretations of charcoal records from small hollows lack a strong theoretical and empirical foundation, and thus their potential for providing useful fire-history records is unclear. To evaluate this potential, we examined charcoal records in 210Pb-dated cores from 12 small hollows and looked for evidence of 20 local fires reconstructed with tree-ring records from the surrounding forest. Using all charcoal >

Philip E. Higuera; Douglas G. Sprugel; Linda B. Brubaker

2005-01-01

310

Differences in crystalline cellulose modification due to degradation by brown and white rot fungi.  

PubMed

Wood-decaying basidiomycetes are some of the most effective bioconverters of lignocellulose in nature, however the way they alter wood crystalline cellulose on a molecular level is still not well understood. To address this, we examined and compared changes in wood undergoing decay by two species of brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Meruliporia incrassata, and two species of white rot fungi, Irpex lacteus and Pycnoporus sanguineus, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The overall percent crystallinity in wood undergoing decay by M. incrassata, G. trabeum, and I. lacteus appeared to decrease according to the stage of decay, while in wood decayed by P. sanguineus the crystallinity was found to increase during some stages of degradation. This result is suggested to be potentially due to the different decay strategies employed by these fungi. The average spacing between the 200 cellulose crystal planes was significantly decreased in wood degraded by brown rot, whereas changes observed in wood degraded by the two white rot fungi examined varied according to the selectivity for lignin. The conclusions were supported by a quantitative analysis of the structural components in the wood before and during decay confirming the distinct differences observed for brown and white rot fungi. The results from this study were consistent with differences in degradation methods previously reported among fungal species, specifically more non-enzymatic degradation in brown rot versus more enzymatic degradation in white rot. PMID:23063184

Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Howell, Caitlin; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Goodell, Barry; Jellison, Jody

2012-10-01

311

Molecular phylogenetic and pathogenetic characterization of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), the cause of dry rot on potato in Iran.  

PubMed

Members of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are common pathogens of potato, causing dry rot in the west of Iran which involved Hamedan, Kermanshah, Eilam and Kurdistan provinces. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing FSSC from infected potato tubers based on the morphological and molecular characteristics. Forty-five isolates of Fusarium were obtained from potato tubers collected from the wet market in different regions of the west of Iran and identified as FSSC through morphological characters. All of the isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy potato tubers in the planthouse. The tubers rot symptoms were observed on the 21st day after inoculation of Fusarium isolates on the tubers tested. In the tubers inoculation tests, lesion sizes were quite variable; therefore, the measurement was done to compare the depth and width of lesion expansion among the isolates. Based on the sequence data from translation elongation factor (EF-l?) gene and internal transcript spacer (ITS) regions analysis, all of the selected FSSC isolates were divided into two major groups. This is the first report on molecular identification of FSSC strains isolated from potato tubers in Iran and Fusarium falciforme was reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:24530481

Chehri, Khosrow; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza; Karimi, Naser

2014-01-01

312

Relation of the Occurrence of Cotton Root Rot to the Chemical Composition of Soils.  

E-print Network

:~p$ne$$ 9 -FK~( Q9"y.a *e4*&; I * Relation of the occurrence of Cotton Root7*'. Rot to the Chemical Composition of Soils -- AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Soils in which cotton root rot generally occurs... does not generally occur on these soils. This indicates the action of inhibitory factors in alluvial soils not usually operative to the same degree in heavy upland soils. The chemical colnposition of local areas of soil containing active root rot...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1935-01-01

313

Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.  

PubMed

This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were prominent at both 0-2 cm and 60 cm. The PRR, bacterial diversity and composition profiles indicated that organic matter degradation occurred mainly in the top 20 cm of the bark and charcoal filters. This means that bark and charcoal filters could be designed to be shallower than sand filters. PMID:24531077

Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

2014-05-01

314

Tailoring the characteristics of carbonized wood charcoal by using different heating rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the characteristics of charcoals generated from White Lauan ( Pentacmecontorta) and Punah ( Tetrameristaglabra) by using different carbonization temperatures and heating rates. The scanning electron micrographs showed vestured pits in the White Lauan and raphide crystals in Punah as their respective anatomical characteristics. A slower heating rate resulted in a lower temperature to obtain the same amount of weight loss, regardless of the species being tested. A greater charcoal yield was obtained at a higher heating rate. The specific surface area was smaller in the charcoal produced at a higher carbonization temperature, but the heating rate had little effected. For both wood species, the axial compressive strength of the charcoal increased as the carbonization temperature was increased. The X-ray diffractograms of White Lauan and Punah woods heated at 1200°C indicated thermal decomposition of the crystal structure of cellulose, but no appreciable structural changes occurred under the tested heating rate conditions. Overall, the heating rate affected the charcoal yield but not the specific surface area, compressive strength, and crystal structure.

Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Oh, Choong-Hyeon; Park, Byung-Ho; Kang, Joo-Hyon

2014-05-01

315

White-rot fungi demonstrate first biodegradation of phenolic resin.  

PubMed

Phenolic resins, phenol-formaldehyde polymers previously thought to be nonbiodegradable, are produced at an annual rate of 2.2 million metric tons in the United States for many industrial and commercial applications. Three independent lines of evidence established their biodegradability with the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Chromatic transformation of growth medium (yellow to pink) indicated initial biodegradation of the resin 3 days after inoculation. A degradation product, 13C-labeled phenol, was detected with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Scanning electron micrographs revealed physical evidence of degradation. This is the first demonstrated biodegradation of these phenol-formaldehyde polymers and stands as a platform for investigation into bioremediation and biorecycling of phenolic resins. PMID:16856735

Gusse, Adam C; Miller, Paul D; Volk, Thomas J

2006-07-01

316

Black liquor decolorization by selected white-rot fungi.  

PubMed

Five different strains of white-rot fungi have been tested for their ability to decolorize black liquor on plates and on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as the solid inert support. Since the high salt concentration inhibited the growth of all fungi, the black liquor was dialyzed against distilled water prior to use. A preliminary step on plates was carried out to qualitatively determine the capacity of the fungal strains for black liquor decolorization. Out of the five fungi studied, Phanerochaete sordida, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Trametes elegans exhibited the more conspicuous decolorization halos in malt extract medium, while the decolorization by all the strains was not evident when a defined culture medium was used. Cultures on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as solid support were also tested, the liquid phase was malt extract or glucose-based medium and supplemented with different black liquor concentrations. Decolorization of black liquor was largely affected by the fungal strain, the concentration of black liquor, and the carbon source. The percentage of color removal ranged from 6.14% to 91.86% depending on the fungal strain and culture conditions. Maximal decolorization was observed in malt extract cultures after 60 cultivation days. Interestingly, decolorization in malt extract medium increased with increasing black liquor concentration. The highest decolorization value was achieved by Steccherinum sp. which reduced up to 91.86% the color of the black liquor in malt extract medium; this percentage is equivalent to 5.2 g L(-1) of decolorized black liquor, the highest value reported to date. Traditional technologies used for the treatment of black liquor are not always effective and may not to be an environmentally friendly process. Vermiculite-white-rot fungi systems are presented in this work as a promising efficient alternative for the treatment of black liquor. PMID:21499784

Da Re, Verónica; Papinutti, Leandro

2011-09-01

317

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

SciTech Connect

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1990-11-01

318

Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high negative charge of charcoal results from surface oxidation processes over time. This charge varies over quite a wide range of values according to soil type, which might be explained by the nature of the charred wood. The surface soil horizons at kiln site show a completely desaturated exchange complex, comparable to the reference soils. However, the raise of the base saturation in the underlying horizons reflects the past liming effect of ashes produced by wood charring that has been completely erased from the topsoil in 200 years. Exchangeable K+ in the topsoil layers of kiln sites is very low, which can be related to an enhanced selectivity for Mg++ and Ca++ on the exchange complex of old charred material. Similarly, very little Pav is extracted from charcoal-enriched horizons, suggesting that Pav is either reduced in quantity or in availability. Our data clearly highlight the long-term effect of the accumulation of charred material on the evolution of soil chemical properties due to charcoal ageing and nutrient leaching.

Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

2014-05-01

319

Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions.

Lee, S.Y.

1999-06-01

320

Hydrogen storage: a comparison of hydrogen uptake values in carbon nanotubes and modified charcoals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared the hydrogen uptake weight percentages (wt.%) of different carbonized materials, before and after modification, for their application in hydrogen storage at room temperature. The Sievert's method [T.P. Blach, E. Mac, A. Gray, J. Alloys Compd. 446-447, 692 (2007)] was used to measure hydrogen uptake values on: (1) Taiwan bamboo charcoal (TBC), (2) white charcoal (WC), (3) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) bought from CBT Inc. and (4) homemade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown on TBC. Modified samples were coated with a metal catalyst by dipping in KOH solutions of different concentrations and then activated in a high temperature oven (800 °C) under the atmospheric pressure of inert gas. The results showed that unmodified SWCNTs had superior uptake but that Taiwan bamboo charcoal, after modification, showed enhanced uptake comparable to the SWCNTs. Due to TBC's low cost and high mass production rate, they will be the key candidate for future hydrogen storage applications.

Miao, H.-Y.; Chen, G. R.; Chen, D. Y.; Lue, J. T.; Yu, M. S.

2010-11-01

321

SEEDTREATMENT FUNGICIDE OPTIONS for SOYBEANS in SOUTH DAKOTA Data from FS949, "Managing Crop Diseases with Seed Treatments"  

E-print Network

Kernel Guard Supreme carboxin permethrin For More Information on Plant Disease Management, contact: Dr damping-off/root rot as well as downy mildews. 2 Clothianidin, Imidacloprid, Permethrin and Thiamethoxam

322

Two-step degradation of pyrene by white-rot fungi and soil microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil microorganisms on mineralization of 14C-labelled pyrene by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation was investigated. Two strains of white-rot fungi, Dichomitus squalens and a Pleurotus sp., were tested. The fungi were incubated on milled wheat straw contaminated with [14C]pyrene for 15 weeks. CO2 and 14CO2 liberated from the cultures were determined weekly. To study the effect of

C. in der Wiesche; R. Martens; F. Zadrazil

1996-01-01

323

The Control of Cotton Root Rot in the Blackland Region of Texas.  

E-print Network

Tillage 29 Soil Amendments for Root-rot Control ........................... 30 Increasing Yields of Susceptible Crops from the Use of Fertilizers . . 31 Plant Improvement and Root-rot Control ........................ 32 Literature cited... progressively increased the yield of cotton the less frequently this crop was grown. - It is also evident that the most outstanding increases in the yield of cotton were secured in the rotations in which cotton was used only 1,/3 and 114 of the time...

Rea, H. E. (Homer Earl)

1939-01-01

324

First Report of Sclerotium Rot on Cymbidium Orchids Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea  

PubMed Central

Sclerotium rot was found on Cymbidium orchids at Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, in July, 2010. Symptoms occurred on low leaves, which turned yellowish, after which the entire plant wilted. Severely infected plants were blighted and eventually died. White mycelial mats and sclerotia appeared on pseudobulbs. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report of new Sclerotium rot on Cymbidium spp. caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:23323053

Lee, Seong-Chan; Lee, Jung-Sup; Soh, Jae-Woo; Kim, Su

2012-01-01

325

Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was

CARLOS S. MERRITT; C. ADINARAYANA REDDY

1999-01-01

326

Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produces high amounts of MnP in the excess of N-nutrients due to increased biomass yield. Therefore, the strain

Tünde Mester; Jim A. Field

1997-01-01

327

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outline of this thesis<\\/strong>In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified

M. J. J. Kotterman

1998-01-01

328

Data bank of rDNA-ITS sequences from building-rot fungi for their identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify building-rot fungi in culture and from rot host tissue, the rDNA-ITS region of 18 species was determined by PCR\\u000a and sequencing: Serpula lacrymans, S. himantioides, Meruliporia incrassata, Leucogyrophana mollusca, L. pinastri, Coniophora puteana, C. arida,\\u000a C. marmorata, C. olivacea, Antrodia vaillantii, A. serialis, A. sinuosa, A. xantha, Oligoporus placenta, Donkioporia expansa,\\u000a Gloeophyllum abietinum, G. sepiarium, and G. trabeum.

O. Schmidt; U. Moreth

2002-01-01

329

Identification of Indoor Rot Fungi by Taxon-Specific Priming Polymerase Chain Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the main fungal species causing wood rot damages in European buildings was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After sequencing the ITS, fungus-specific oligonucleotide primers were designed for taxon-specific priming PCR. These DNA marker molecules were suitable for the differential diagnosis of the Dry rot fungus,

Ute Moreth; Olaf Schmidt

2000-01-01

330

First Report of Sclerotium Rot on Cymbidium Orchids Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea.  

PubMed

Sclerotium rot was found on Cymbidium orchids at Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, in July, 2010. Symptoms occurred on low leaves, which turned yellowish, after which the entire plant wilted. Severely infected plants were blighted and eventually died. White mycelial mats and sclerotia appeared on pseudobulbs. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report of new Sclerotium rot on Cymbidium spp. caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:23323053

Han, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Seong-Chan; Lee, Jung-Sup; Soh, Jae-Woo; Kim, Su

2012-12-01

331

Transformation of a northern hardwood forest by aboriginal (Iroquois) fire: charcoal evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists have long debated whether Indian burning had important impacts on presettlement forests. We obtained stratigraphic evidence for fire using charcoal analysis of southern Ontario lake sediments. The record spans a period of Iroquois occupation when cultivation coincides with pollen evidence for transition from northern hardwoods to white pine\\/oak forests. Charcoal data reveal that this transition was attended by increased

J. S. Clark; P. D. Royall

1995-01-01

332

What Does Psychological Autopsy Study Tell Us about Charcoal Burning Suicide--A New and Contagious Method in Asia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong between 2002-2004 in the 15 to 59-year-old age group were investigated using the psychological autopsy method. The psychopathological profiles of charcoal burning suicides (N = 53) were compared against "other suicides" (N = 97). The two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of "DSM-IV" axis I…

Chan, Sandra S. M.; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Wong, Paul W. C.; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Law, Y. W.; Yip, Paul S. F.

2009-01-01

333

Study on the Far Infrared Ray Emission Property and Adsorption Performance of Bamboo Charcoal\\/Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, bamboo charcoal materials were blended into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution in various proportions to prepare bamboo charcoal\\/PVA fibers. A series of estimation was executed to discuss the performance of above fibers such as far infrared ray emission, heat preservation, deodorization of ammonia gas, and the adsorption of methylene blue. The spectrum of far infrared ray of bamboo

Chin-An Lin; Ta-Chung An; Yi-Hsiung Hsu

2007-01-01

334

Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of multiple and single dose activated charcoal for acute self-poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that may – if given early – bind to poisons in the stomach and prevent their absorption. Current guidelines recommend giving a single dose of charcoal

Michael Eddleston; Edmund Juszczak; Nick A Buckley; Lalith Senarathna; Fahim Mohammed; Stuart Allen; Wasantha Dissanayake; Ariyasena Hittarage; Shifa Azher; K Jeganathan; Shaluka Jayamanne; MH Rezvi Sheriff; David A Warrell

2007-01-01

335

USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

336

Pollen and charcoal in lake sediments compared with historically documented forest fires in southern Switzerland since AD 1920  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal in unlaminated sediments dated by 210Pb was analysed by the pollen-slide and thin-section methods. The results were compared with the number and area of forest fires on different spatial scales in the area around Lago di Origlio as listed in the wildfire database of southern Switzerland since AD 1920. The influx of the number of charcoal particles > 75

Willy Tinner; Marco Conedera; Brigitta Ammann; Heinz W. Gaggeler; Sharon Gedye; Richard Jones; Beat Sagesser

1998-01-01

337

Research on Bamboo Charcoal Bonded Grinding Wheel and Its Mechanical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new type of grinding wheel and its manufacturing production process are introduced. The new BCB (Bamboo Charcoal Bond) grinding wheel was made of bamboo charcoal, phenolic resin and abrasive powder with higher press and temperature. To investigate its mechanical features, such as Rockwell hardness, resistance to abrasion, and resistance to pressure, some experiments on three BCB samples with different Resin weight ratios 20%, 25%, 30%, were carried out. The results showed that the BCB sample with proper moulding process and Resin weight ratio had better performance.

Li, Wei; Xu, Minjie; Zhan, Fangyong; Jin, Mingsheng

2014-08-01

338

Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the range of variability characteristic of these ecosystems over many centuries and probably millennia.

Holz, A.; Haberle, S.; Veblen, T. T.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Southon, J.

2012-03-01

339

Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records show fire activity for the last 4ka yrs and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers - El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the range of variability characteristic of these ecosystems over many centuries and probably millennia.

Holz, A.; Haberle, S.; Veblen, T. T.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Southon, J.

2011-10-01

340

Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from small residential stoves burning wood and charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from a small residential wood stove and a newly developed residential stove burning charcoal have been characterized by chemical analysis and mutagenicity testing (Ames Salmonella test). For wood burning the samples were taken under normal and starved air conditions burning birch and spruce separately. The burning conditions in the stove seemed to influence the emissions to a larger extent than the type of wood. The emissions of aldehydes, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the charcoal-burning stove are lower by a factor of 25-1000 as compared to the wood stove. The mutagenicity of the emissions showed a similar trend.

Ramdahl, T. (Central Inst. for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway); Alfheim, I.; Rustad, S.; Olsen, T.

1982-01-01

341

The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other of its African neighbours. The question arises whether and how money and technology transfer to increase regenerative electrical power generation should become part of a post-Kyoto process. Furthermore, better inventory data are urgently required to improve knowledge about the current state of the woodland usage and recovery. Net greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced substantially by improving the post-harvest management, charcoal production technology and/or providing alternative energy supply. PMID:21854587

2011-01-01

342

Evaluation of rhizobacterial indicators of tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in farmers' fields.  

PubMed

Very few soil quality indicators include disease-suppressiveness criteria. We assessed whether 64 16S rRNA microarray probes whose signals correlated with tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in greenhouse analysis could also discriminate suppressive from conducive soils under field conditions. Rhizobacterial communities of tobacco and wheat sampled in 2 years from four farmers' fields of contrasted suppressiveness status were compared. The 64 previously identified indicator probes correctly classified 72% of 29 field samples, with nine probes for Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Sphingomonadaceae, Planctomycetes, Mycoplasma, Lactobacillus crispatus and Thermodesulforhabdus providing the best prediction. The whole probe set (1033 probes) revealed strong effects of plant, field location and year on rhizobacterial community composition, and a smaller (7% variance) but significant effect of soil suppressiveness status. Seventeen additional probes correlating with suppressiveness status in the field (noticeably for Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ochrobactrum) were selected, and combined with the nine others, they improved correct sample classification from 72% to 79% (100% tobacco and 63% wheat samples). Pseudomonas probes were not informative in the field, even those targeting biocontrol pseudomonads producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, nor was quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-synthesis gene phlD. This study shows that a subset of 16S rRNA probes targeting diverse rhizobacteria can be useful as suppressiveness indicators under field conditions. PMID:24992533

Kyselková, Martina; Almario, Juliana; Kopecký, Jan; Ságová-Mare?ková, Markéta; Haurat, Jacqueline; Muller, Daniel; Grundmann, Geneviève L; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2014-08-01

343

Resistance in tomato and wild relatives to crown and root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici.  

PubMed

Phytophthora capsici causes root, crown, and fruit rot of tomato, a major vegetable crop grown worldwide. The objective of this study was to screen tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato for resistance to P. capsici. Four P. capsici isolates were individually used to inoculate 6-week-old seedlings (1 g of P. capsici-infested millet seed per 10 g of soilless medium) of 42 tomato cultivars and wild relatives of tomato in a greenhouse. Plants were evaluated daily for wilting and death. All P. capsici isolates tested caused disease in seedlings but some isolates were more pathogenic than others. A wild relative of cultivated tomato, Solanum habrochaites accession LA407, was resistant to all P. capsici isolates tested. Moderate resistance to all isolates was identified in the host genotypes Ha7998, Fla7600, Jolly Elf, and Talladega. P. capsici was frequently recovered from root and crown tissue of symptomatic inoculated seedlings but not from leaf tissue or asymptomatic or control plants. The phenotype of the recovered isolate matched the phenotype of the inoculum. Pathogen presence was confirmed in resistant and moderately resistant tomato genotypes by species-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA from infected crown and root tissue. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms of tomato genotypes showed a lack of correlation between genetic clusters and susceptibility to P. capsici, indicating that resistance is distributed in several tomato lineages. The results of this study create a baseline for future development of tomato cultivars resistant to P. capsici. PMID:20465418

Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Hausbeck, M K

2010-06-01

344

Expression analysis of a plum pathogenesis related 10 (PR10) protein during brown rot infection.  

PubMed

Plant PR10 is one of the pathogenesis related proteins, induced upon exposure to different stress conditions including fungal infection. PR10 proteins have been implicated in fungal disease resistance in some species; however its transcriptional regulation is not well understood. In the present work we cloned a PR10 gene from European plums (Prunus domestica L.) and monitored the quantitative changes in its transcript levels as a result of fungal infection in two varieties. We also studied the possible involvement of the membrane degrading enzyme phospholipase D-alpha (PLDalpha). In the susceptible variety, 'Veeblue', infection with the brown rot fungus Monilinia fructicola induced PLDalpha and PR10 expression, while in the resistant variety, 'Violette', a constitutive expression of PLDalpha and PR10 transcripts levels were observed. Resistance to M. fructicola also coincides with a sharp decrease in the expression of ABI1, a protein phosphatase and elevated hydrogen peroxide content after infection. Further, inhibition of PLDalpha by hexanal treatment, up-regulated ABI1 and decreased PR10 expression, suggesting a possible relationship between the two. We further confirm these results in Arabidopsis abi1 mutant that shows a higher level of PR10 transcripts. PMID:18815787

El-kereamy, Ashraf; Jayasankar, S; Taheri, Ali; Errampalli, Deena; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

2009-01-01

345

Soft rot decay capabilities and interactions of fungi and bacteria from fumigated utility poles  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to (1) identify microfungi and bacterial associates isolated from fumigated southern pine poles from EPRI project RP 1471-72, (2) study the soft-rot capabilities of predominant fungi, and (3) study interactions among microorganisms in relation to wood decay. Methods for identification followed standard techniques using morphological and physiological criteria. Soft-rot by microfungi alone and with bacteria was determined as weight loss and anatomical examination of wood blocks using light microscopy and limited electron microscopy. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the predominant bacterium. Twenty-one species of microfungi were identified including four new species. A book entitled IDENTIFICATION MANUAL FOR FUNGI FROM UTILITY POLES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES was published. An improved soft-rot test was devised. Fifty-one of 84 species (60%) of microfungi from poles tested were soft-rot positive; that is much greater than previously reported. Three types of anatomical damage of wood of pine or birch caused by soft-rot fungi were described. Interaction tests showed that, in some cases, there was a strong synergism between bacteria and fungi in causing weight loss, but results were inconsistent. Although soft rot is often most apparent under conditions of very high moisture, intermediate moisture levels appear to be optimal, as with basidiomycete decayers.

Wang, C.J.K.; Worrall, J.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

1992-11-01

346

Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot  

SciTech Connect

Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

1986-01-01

347

T4-Related Bacteriophage LIMEstone Isolates for the Control of Soft Rot on Potato Caused by ‘Dickeya solani’  

PubMed Central

The bacterium ‘Dickeya solani’, an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with ‘Dickeya solani’, the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics. PMID:22413005

Adriaenssens, Evelien M.; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Dunon, Vincent; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; De Proft, Maurice; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Noben, Jean-Paul; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

2012-01-01

348

The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.

2012-04-01

349

Removal of phenols from water environment by activated carbon, bagasse ash and wood charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption process is gaining interest as one of the effective processes of advanced wastewater treatment for treatment of industrial effluent containing toxic materials. The present work involves an investigation of the use of three carbonaceous materials, activated carbon (AC), bagasse ash (BA) and wood charcoal (WC), as adsorbents for removal of phenol from water. Batch experiments were carried out to

Somnath Mukherjee; Sunil Kumar; Amal K. Misra; Maohong Fan

2007-01-01

350

Adsorptive Capacity of Charcoals Eaten by Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkeys: Implications for Reducing Dietary Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colobus monkeys on the African island of Zanzibar eat charcoal from burned trees and lying near kilns, where it is produced for cooking. This behavior may be a learned response for counteracting toxicity due to phenolic and similar compounds that occur in significant concentrations in the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) leaves and mango (Mangifera indica) leaves which constitute a major

David O. Cooney; Thomas T. Struhsaker

1997-01-01

351

Influence of production variables and starting material on charcoal stable isotopic and molecular characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a systematic study on the effect of starting species, gas composition, temperature, particle size and duration of heating upon the molecular and stable isotope composition of high density (mangrove) and low density (pine) wood. In both pine and mangrove, charcoal was depleted in ? 13C relative to the starting wood by up to 1.6‰ and 0.8‰, respectively. This is attributed predominantly to the progressive loss of isotopically heavier polysaccharides, and kinetic effects of aromatization during heating. However, the pattern of ? 13C change was dependant upon both starting species and atmosphere, with different structural changes associated with charcoal production from each wood type elucidated by Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. These are particularly evident at lower temperatures, where variation in the oxygen content of the production atmosphere results in differences in the thermal degradation of cellulose and lignin. It is concluded that production of charcoal from separate species in identical conditions, or from a single sample exposed to different production variables, can result in significantly different ? 13C of the resulting material, relative to the initial wood. These results have implications for the use of charcoal isotope composition to infer past environmental change.

Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Wormald, P.; Snape, C. E.; Apperley, D.

2008-12-01

352

Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of dibenzothiophene from n-octane on bamboo charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of the model sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) from n-octane solution on to bamboo charcoal (BC) was investigated. The equilibrium and kinetics of DBT adsorption on BC were examined. Adsorption isotherm of DBT on BC was determined and correlated with two well-known isotherm equations (Langmuir and Freundlich). The equilibrium data for DBT adsorption fitted the Freundlich model well. Two

Dishun Zhao; Juan Zhang; Erhong Duan; Jinlong Wang

2008-01-01

353

Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of bamboo charcoal\\/silver biological protective material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC\\/Ag) was prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC\\/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution, silver ion (Ag+) release and antibacterial properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed that the Ag particles were distributed uniformly on the BC matrix. The Ag particle size was found to be less than

Fu-Chu Yang; Kuo-Hui Wu; Ming-Jie Liu; Wen-Po Lin; Ming-Kuan Hu

2009-01-01

354

Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical

Bruno Glaser; Johannes Lehmann; Wolfgang Zech

2002-01-01

355

CHARCOAL PRODUCTION AND AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION INTO THE PERUVIAN AMAZON RAINFOREST: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural expansion has traditionally led colonization of the Amazonian rainforest. Recently, pioneer farmers in the forest margins around Pucallpa, Peru, have been changing their production decisions and altering the deforestation process. In response to a government policy to protect forests in another region of the country, pioneer farmers have begun to add charcoal production to their activities. A recursive, dynamic

Ricardo Antonio Labarta-Chavarri

2004-01-01

356

Reduction of Absorption of Paracetamol by Activated Charcoal and Cholestyramine: A Possible Therapeutic Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of an oral 2-g dose of paracetamol was markedly reduced by the simultaneous oral administration of either activated charcoal or cholestyramine but was only slightly reduced when the adsorbents were given 60 minutes after the paracetamol. Since the absorption of a larger dose of the drug will probably be slow, the administration of adsorbents may be of value

B. Dordoni; R. A. Willson; R. P. H. Thompson; Roger Williams

1973-01-01

357

The effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing sheep  

E-print Network

and 4 h after feeding. Serum total protein, glucose (Glu) and total cholesterol were very similar amongThe effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing characteristics and blood profiles were measured. The AC in diets seemed to affect daily weight gain (DG) and FCR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence  

E-print Network

Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence and area burned in sediments from three medium (14�19 ha) and one large (4250 ha) lake with a 300 yr tree-ring-based fire_stats.htm). Fire- history reconstructions from tree-ring and lake-sediment records are the primary source

359

Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ˜1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans.

Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Cherubini, Paolo

2007-06-01

360

Injury vs Disease Lifestyles of pathogens  

E-print Network

­ Crankers ­ Galls ­ Viral infections ­ Root rot ­ Parasitic plants #12;Recap Susceptibility of Host Inocolum Potential Impact of the environment #12;#12;Environmental effects on plant disease prevent the development of new infections because it dries the surface of plants Wind can cause injury

Nowak, Robert S.

361

Faba bean breeding for disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faba bean is a major grain legume widely cultivated in many countries for food and feed purposes. A number of aerial fungi, together with soil-borne pathogens associated with foot and root rot complexes, nematodes, parasitic weeds and viruses may cause severe diseases in faba bean crops. The use of genetic resistance is the most economical and environmentally friendly control method.

Josefina C. Sillero; Angel M. Villegas-Fernández; Jane Thomas; Maria M. Rojas-Molina; Amero A. Emeran; Mónica Fernández-Aparicio; Diego Rubiales

2010-01-01

362

Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads.  

PubMed

Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in workers of a petrochemical plant. Inhalation and dermal exposure levels to benzene and toluene were assessed for workers of a petrochemical plant performing different jobs. Benzene uptake was assessed by determining S-phenylmercapturic acid in workers' urine samples. Dermal exposure levels on the charcoal pads were adjusted for ambient air levels of benzene and toluene by subtracting the amount of benzene or toluene measured in personal air from the amount of benzene or toluene measured on the charcoal pad. In general, measured external and internal exposure levels were low. The estimated contribution of the dermal route to internal benzene exposure levels was less than 0.06% for all jobs. Toluene personal air concentrations and benzene and toluene dermal exposure levels differed statistically significantly between job titles. For benzene, differences between jobs were larger for adjusted dermal exposures (maximum 17-fold, P = 0.02) than for inhalation exposures (maximum two-fold, P = 0.08). Also for toluene, although less clear, differences between jobs were larger for adjusted dermal exposures (maximum 23-fold, P = 0.01) as compared to inhalation exposures (maximum 10-fold, P = 0.01). Charcoal pads appeared to measure dermal exposures to benzene and toluene in addition to ambient air levels. Future studies applying charcoal cloth pads for the dermal exposure assessment at workplaces with higher dermal exposure to organic solvents may provide more insight into the biological relevance of dermal exposure levels measured by charcoal cloth pads. In addition, the design of the dermal sampler might be improved by configuring a dermal sampler, where part of the sampler is protected against direct contact and splashes, but still permeable for the gas phase. This design would most likely result in a better ability to correct for airborne concentrations at a given body location. PMID:15083162

van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Tielemans, Erik; Vermeulen, Roel; Wegh, Hillion; Kromhout, Hans

2005-01-01

363

Characterization and genesis interpretation of charcoal-bearing concretions from the early Eocene Ione Formation, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal core concretions have been discovered in the kaolinitic soil horizons of the Ione formation (early Eocene epoch ~52Ma BP). It is thought that the Ione Formation in the Ione Basin was deposited in delta and estuarine waters that were subsequently exhumed and exposed to a warmer, humid, tropical-like environment during the early Eocene. The formation of concretions is indicative of seasonal dryness, and the charcoal cores are evidence of wildfires and of the existence of a forest ecosystem. The mineral outer shells of the concretions have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation Quadruple Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Micro-computed tomography (MCT) scans indicate that these concretions have at least three distinct shells and a inner core with fragments of charcoal without apparent internal organization. The outer shell is mainly composed of a layered mix of kaolinite, quartz, goethite, hematite and birnessite. Some pyrite and jarosite have also been found, which could indicate that goethite may be post-depositional and a product of the bacteria-mediated oxidation of pyrite. The central shell has a similar composition, but with a higher content of iron oxyhydroxides and jarosite. The inner cores of the concretions are mainly composed of a mixture of kaolinite and quartz which correspond to the layer in which the concretions were found. The concretion cores contain loose charcoal fragments in a unsolidified kaolinite matrix. The charcoal fragments have been characterized by Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), C/N isotope analysis, and Synchrotron radiation FTIR (SR-FTIR). Analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra showed significant absorbance peaks at wavenumbers that coincided with the chemical functionality of other wood biochars. Charcoal from different concretions display (n =12) extremely similar spectra which suggest that they were originated from similar species and probably during the same event. The study of the microscopic structure of selected charcoal pieces by SR-FTIR suggests that despite their age, the internal structure was preserved. We obtained an average ?13C value of -22.79 (× 1.7, n = 12), which correspond to a C3-like photosynthetic pathway. The latter is also confirmation of the good state of preservation of this material and to the best of our knowledge constitutes the first C-isotopic record on this kind of material for the Eocene epoch.

Bair, D.; Aburto, F.

2013-12-01

364

Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a sustainable strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil chemico-physical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of C present in the hearths with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization. Approximately 80% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found today, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an improvement in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. Then, we focused on the morphological and physical characterization of several fragments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Such study enabled the identification of peculiar morphological features of tracheids, which were tentatively associated to a differential oxidation of the structures that were created during carbonization from lignine and cellulose. In order to assess the effect of soil-aging we compared the old-biochar with a modern one obtained from the same feedstock and with similar carbonization process. XRD and XRF analysis were performed on both old and modern biochar, in order to study the multiphase crystalline structure and chemical elements found. We observed mineralization and a fossilization of old biochar samples respect to the modern ones, with accumulation of several mineral oxides and a substantial presence of quartz. A graphene structure was also found, indicating weak bonds in the carbon structures, explained by inter-molecular Van der Waals forces. Furthermore, we have detected a graphite oxide structure responsible of the bending effect in the tracheid, revealed in SEM images. We consider that those results may contribute to the ongoing debate on the best, most suitable geo-engineering strategies that can potentially enable effective and sustainable carbon sequestration in agricultural soils using biochar.

Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

2014-05-01

365

FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

Xu, Guoqi; Wang, Lihai; Liu, Junliang; Wu, Jinzhuo

2013-09-01

366

The Rot-Div System in Exterior Domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to reconsider the classical elliptic system rot v = f, div v = g in simply connected domains with bounded connected boundaries (bounded and exterior sets). The main result shows solvability of the problem in the maximal regularity regime in the L p -framework taking into account the optimal/minimal requirements on the smoothness of the boundary. A generalization for the Besov spaces is studied, too, for {{f} in dot B^s_{p,q}(?)} for {-1+frac 1p < s < frac 1p} . As a limit case we prove the result for {{f} in dot B^0_{3,1}(?)} , provided the boundary is merely in {B^{2-1/3}_{3,1}} . The dimension three is distinguished due to the physical interpretation of the system. In other words we revised and extended the classical results of Friedrichs (Commun Pure Appl Math 8;551-590, 1955) and Solonnikov (Zap Nauch Sem LOMI 21:112-158, 1971).

Mucha, Piotr B.; Pokorný, Milan

2014-08-01

367

Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.  

PubMed

The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

2013-10-01

368

Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) (28%), 2,2'-diphenic acid (17%), and unidentified metabolites (7%). Nonextractable metabolites accounted for 35% of the total radioactivity. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and UV spectroscopy analyses. 18O2-labeling experiments indicated that one atom of oxygen was incorporated into the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism spectra of the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol indicated that the absolute configuration of the predominant enantiomer was 9R,10R, which is different from that of the principal enantiomer produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Significantly less phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol was observed in incubations with the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor SKF 525-A (77% decrease), 1-aminobenzotriazole (83% decrease), or fluoxetine (63% decrease). These experiments with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and 18O2 labeling and the formation of phenanthrene trans-9R,10R-dihydrodiol as the predominant metabolite suggest that P. ostreatus initially oxidizes phenanthrene stereoselectively by a cytochrome P-450 monoxygenase and that this is followed by epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed hydration reactions. PMID:8779594

Bezalel, L; Hadar, Y; Fu, P P; Freeman, J P; Cerniglia, C E

1996-01-01

369

Production of Dissolved Organic Matter During Fungal Wood Rot Decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter mediates numerous biogeochemical processes in soil systems impacting subsurface microbial activity, redox chemistry, soil structure, and carbon and nitrogen sequestration. The structure and chemistry of DOM is a function of the inherited chemistry of the source material, the type of microbial action that has occurred, and selective interaction with mineral substrates. The type of fungal decomposition imparted to woody tissue is a major factor in determining the nature of DOM in forest soils. In order to investigate the relationship between fungal decomposition and the nature of DOM in coniferous forest soils we conducted 32-week inoculation studies on spruce sapwood with basidiomycete brown-rot wood decay fungi where leachable dissolved and colloidal organic matter was separated from decayed residue. A detailed examination of the organic fractions was conducted using 13C-labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, solid-state 13C-NMR, and electrospray mass spectrometry. The progressive stages of microbial decay (cellulolytic and ligninolytic) were manifested in the chemical composition of the DOM which showed an evolution from a composition initially polysaccharide rich to one dominated by mildly oxidized and demethylated lignin. Upon removal of all polysaccharides at 16 weeks the DOM (up to 10% by weight of the original tissue) looked chemically distinct from the degraded residue

Filley, T. R.; Jellison, J.; Goodell, B.; Kelley, S.; Davis, M.

2002-12-01

370

Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight  

E-print Network

1 Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight Lorsban Strawberry Renovation Shoot Conditions: Warm conditions have been favorable for fruit growth of apples, peaches, grapes and berries. Tree didn't affect fruitfulness of buds. Managing Apple Summer Diseases: Apple summer fruit rot and blemish

Ginzel, Matthew

371

Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land management plans to sustainably harvest charcoal. To date, the effects of forest management techniques on forest sustainability are still in question. This research uses a multiphase approach integrating satellite analysis with field surveys to assess the effect of varying forest management strategies on forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Phase I involved testing the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellites capability in detecting structural changes in vegetative cover caused by charcoal harvesting and production. Analysis of the MISR derived k(red) parameter showed MISR can consistently differentiate between forest cover types and successfully differentiates between sites at pre- and post-charcoal harvest stages. Phase II conducted forestry and social surveys comparing and contrasting local effects of land management, land use, and charcoal production on forest regeneration. Phase III uses the local surveys to validate and train the regional remote sensing data to assess the effectiveness of land management in promoting forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Combining detailed local knowledge with the regional capabilities of MISR provide valuable insight into the factors that control woodland regeneration and sustainability. Preliminary results from phases II and III indicate that both field and remotely sensed variations in forest cover, tree regeneration, and land use change does not vary when compared against land management type. Final results will provide managers with additional information to create more effective land management strategies that can be implemented across sub- Saharan Africa, ensuring the long-term sustainability of woodland ecosystems and local livelihoods.

Wurster, K.

2008-12-01

372

Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests past occurrences of anthropogenic perturbations in these forests. Insights in past forest dynamics and the relative roles of climatic and anthropogenic disturbances enhance our overall understanding of present and future forest dynamics.

Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

2014-05-01

373

The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

2012-07-01

374

The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry, molecular structure, resistant carbon content, microbial interactions and physical characteristics were investigated using a suite of techniques including 13C-MAS-NMR, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratio mass spectrometery, elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy and hydropyrolysis. The study results have important implications for: i.) the use of quantitative charcoal measurements within global carbon budgets and fire history reconstruction; ii.) understanding of the dynamic role of charcoal within soil and sedimentary systems. References: [1] Langenfelds RL, Francey RJ, Pak BC, Steele LP, Lloyd J, Trudinger CM, Allison CE. 2002. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001466. [2] Schimel D, Baker D. 2002. Nature 420, 29-30. [3] Levine JS, 1991. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [4] Preston CM, Schmidt MWI. 2006. Biogeoscience 3, 397-420. [5] Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M. 2006. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11, 395-419. [6] Sohi SP, Krull E, Lopez-Capel E, Bol R. 2010. Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, 105, 47-82 [7] Woolf D, Amonette J.E, Street-Perrott F.A, Lehmann J, Joseph S. 2010. Nature Communications, 1, 56. [8] Ascough PL, Bird M I, Francis SM, Thornton B, Midwood A, Scott AC, 10 Apperley D. 2011. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 75 (9), 2361-2378. [9] Zimmermann M et al. 2012. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2486.2012.02796.x

Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

2014-05-01

375

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field. PMID:23610539

2013-01-01

376

Streptomyces alni as a biocontrol agent to root-rot of grapevine and increasing their efficiency by biofertilisers inocula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-rotted samples of grapevine cv. superior were collected from Nobaria province, Beheira Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium oxysporum Schlech. was the most fungal causing root-rot syndrome of grapevine and directly affected the yield productivity. Seven isolates of Streptomyces were isolated from grapevine rhizospheric soil and screened for antagonistic activities against F. oxysporum on dual culture plate. All isolates showed antifungal activity, but

El-Sayed H. Ziedan; Eman S. Farrag; Riad S. El-Mohamedy; Mohamed A. Abd Alla

2010-01-01

377

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

378

PLANT DISEASES IN SOUTH CAROLINA  

E-print Network

Maple) FUNGI Botryosphaeria sp. -- Botryosphaeria canker Acer platanoides (Norway Maple) FUNGI root rot ACERACEAE Acer japonicum (Japanese Maple) FUNGI Botryodiplodia sp. -- Botryodiplodia dieback spot Phytophthora sp. -- Phytophthora root rot Pythium sp. -- Pythium root rot Acer negundo (Box Elder

Duchowski, Andrew T.

379

Use of Activated Charcoal for Rn-220 Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm s{sup -1} (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft min{sup -1}) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi L{sup -1}. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn and gaseous fission products was evaluated and compared to what is believed to be present in the deposit. The results indicate that only a few percent of the total {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall {sup 220}Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm s{sup -1} (35 ft min{sup -1}) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would most likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

Coleman, R.L.

1999-03-17

380

Use of Activated Charcoal for {sup 220}Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

Coleman, R.L.

1999-03-01

381

Efficacy of amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of experimentally induced foot rot in cattle.  

PubMed

Twenty holstein heifers were intradermally inoculated in the interdigital skin with a suspension containing Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus to induce acute foot rot. Lesions, lameness, and swelling were evaluated during the study, using a subjective scoring system. Rectal temperature, species and number of bacteria isolated, and change in body weight were monitored throughout the study. Ten heifers (treated) were given amoxicillin trihydrate (10 mg/kg of body weight, IM) for 5 days, beginning at the onset of lameness. The remaining 10 heifers (controls) were given physiologic saline solution IM. Treated heifers had less severe lesions and greater weight gain than did control heifers. Rectal temperatures of treated heifers did not differ significantly from those of control heifers. It was concluded that administration of amoxicillin trihydrate early in the course of acute foot rot may reduce the severity of lesions associated with foot rot in cattle. PMID:2893570

Braun, R K; Bates, D B; Shearer, J K; Tran, T Q; el Keiey, M

1987-12-01

382

Microbial Delignification with White Rot Fungi Improves Forage Digestibility  

PubMed Central

Three wild-type white rot fungi and two cellulase-less mutants developed from Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 (formerly Sporotrichum pulverulentum) were tested for their ability to delignify grass cell walls and improve biodegradation by rumen microorganisms. Fungal-treated and control stems of Bermuda grass were analyzed for their content of ester- and ether-linked aromatics by using alkali extraction and gas chromatography, for in vitro dry weight digestion and production of volatile fatty acids in in vitro fermentations with mixed ruminal microorganisms, for loss of lignin and other aromatics from specific cell wall types by using microspectrophotometry, and for structural changes before and after in vitro degradation by rumen microorganisms by using transmission electron microscopy. P. chrysosporium K-3 and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora FP 90031-sp produced the greatest losses in lignin and improved the biodegradation of Bermuda grass over that of untreated control substrate. However, C. subvermispora removed the most lignin and significantly improved biodegradation over all other treatments. Phellinus pini RAB-83-19 and cellulase-less mutants 3113 and 85118 developed from P. chrysosporium K-3 did not improve the biodegradation of Bermuda grass lignocellulose. Results indicated that C. subvermispora extensively removed ester-linked p-coumaric and ferulic acids and also removed the greatest amount of non-ester-linked aromatics from plant cell walls. Microscopic observations further indicated that C. subvermispora removed esters from parenchyma cell walls as well as esters and lignin from the more recalcitrant cell walls (i.e., sclerenchyma and vascular tissues). C. subvermispora improved in vitro digestion and volatile fatty acid production by ruminal microorganisms by about 80%, while dry matter loss due to fungi was about 20% greater than loss in untreated control stems. The chemical and structural studies used identified sites of specific fungal attack and suggested mechanisms whereby improvement occurred. Images PMID:16349123

Akin, D. E.; Sethuraman, A.; Morrison, W. H.; Martin, S. A.; Eriksson, K.-E. L.

1993-01-01

383

QTL Conferring Fusarium Crown Rot Resistance in the Elite Bread Wheat Variety EGA Wylie  

PubMed Central

Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs. PMID:24776887

Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

2014-01-01

384

Creating a low-cost, low-particulate emissions corn cob charcoal grinder for use in Peru  

E-print Network

Indoor air pollution is a serious health risk in developing countries, and is the leading cause of death for children under five. By replacing traditional cooking fuels with charcoal, one can significantly reduce a user's ...

Thomas, Ashley Elizabeth

2008-01-01

385

EERF (Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes in detail EPA's office of Radiation Programs Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility's standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. It lists the materials and equipment that are used and explains their laboratory and survey methods.

Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.

1987-06-01

386

Suppressive Potential of Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from the Tomato Phyllosphere against Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato  

PubMed Central

The suppressive potentials of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains isolated from the tomato phyllosphere were investigated to obtain new biocontrol candidates against Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato. The suppressive activities of 20 bacterial strains belonging to these genera were examined using seedlings and potted tomato plants, and two Paenibacillus strains (12HD2 and 42NP7) were selected as biocontrol candidates against the disease. These two strains suppressed the disease in the field experiment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the treated bacterial cells colonized the root surface, and when the roots of the seedlings were treated with strain 42NP7 cells, the cell population was maintained on the roots for at least for 4 weeks. Although the bacterial strains had no direct antifungal activity against the causal pathogen in vitro, an increase was observed in the antifungal activities of acetone extracts from tomato roots treated with the cells of both bacterial strains. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis verified that the expression of defense-related genes was induced in both the roots and leaves of seedlings treated with the bacterial cells. Thus, the root-colonized cells of the two Paenibacillus strains were considered to induce resistance in tomato plants, which resulted in the suppression of the disease. PMID:24920171

Sato, Ikuo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Iwamoto, Yutaka; Aino, Masataka; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hideki; Ando, Sugihiro; Tsushima, Seiya

2014-01-01

387

Evidence from Serpula lacrymans that 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone Is a lignocellulolytic agent of divergent brown rot basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe(3+) in colonized wood. Since there is little evidence that white rot fungi produce these metabolites, one question is the extent to which independent lineages of brown rot fungi may have evolved different Fe(3+) reductants. Recently, the catechol variegatic acid was proposed to drive Fenton chemistry in Serpula lacrymans, a brown rot member of the Boletales (D. C. Eastwood et al., Science 333:762-765, 2011). We found no variegatic acid in wood undergoing decay by S. lacrymans. We found also that variegatic acid failed to reduce in vitro the Fe(3+) oxalate chelates that predominate in brown-rotting wood and that it did not drive Fenton chemistry in vitro under physiological conditions. Instead, the decaying wood contained physiologically significant levels of 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone, a reductant with a demonstrated biodegradative role when wood is attacked by certain brown rot fungi in two other divergent lineages, the Gloeophyllales and Polyporales. Our results suggest that the pathway for 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone biosynthesis may have been present in ancestral white rot basidiomycetes but do not rule out the possibility that it appeared multiple times via convergent evolution. PMID:23377930

Korripally, Premsagar; Timokhin, Vitaliy I; Houtman, Carl J; Mozuch, Michael D; Hammel, Kenneth E

2013-04-01

388

Evidence from Serpula lacrymans that 2,5-Dimethoxyhydroquinone Is a Lignocellulolytic Agent of Divergent Brown Rot Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe3+ in colonized wood. Since there is little evidence that white rot fungi produce these metabolites, one question is the extent to which independent lineages of brown rot fungi may have evolved different Fe3+ reductants. Recently, the catechol variegatic acid was proposed to drive Fenton chemistry in Serpula lacrymans, a brown rot member of the Boletales (D. C. Eastwood et al., Science 333:762-765, 2011). We found no variegatic acid in wood undergoing decay by S. lacrymans. We found also that variegatic acid failed to reduce in vitro the Fe3+ oxalate chelates that predominate in brown-rotting wood and that it did not drive Fenton chemistry in vitro under physiological conditions. Instead, the decaying wood contained physiologically significant levels of 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone, a reductant with a demonstrated biodegradative role when wood is attacked by certain brown rot fungi in two other divergent lineages, the Gloeophyllales and Polyporales. Our results suggest that the pathway for 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone biosynthesis may have been present in ancestral white rot basidiomycetes but do not rule out the possibility that it appeared multiple times via convergent evolution. PMID:23377930

Korripally, Premsagar; Timokhin, Vitaliy I.; Houtman, Carl J.; Mozuch, Michael D.

2013-01-01

389

Pythium oligandrum in the control of Fusarium rot on some bulbous plants.  

PubMed

Pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum. The mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of Fusarium rot. This effect was not observed, however, when P. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. Soaking of forced tulip bulbs in oospore suspension of P. oligandrum may reduce Fusarium rot spread and increase number of flowers, but at conc. 2.5 x 10(3)-10(4)/cm3 caused inhibition of tulip root growth. PMID:12425035

Skrzypczak, C

2001-01-01

390

Bioremediation with white rot fungus. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of white rot fungus to degrade a variety of hazardous materials. The citations examine the application of the fungus to the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol, herbicides, insecticides, and other environmentally persistent organic compounds. The results of laboratory and field studies are presented. The use of white rot fungus in biological pulping and delignification is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 50 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

391

Manufacture technique and electrical properties evaluation of bamboo charcoal polyester\\/stainless steel complex yarn and knitted fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are derivative problems of electromagnetic wave radiation accompanying the advances of science and technology nowadays\\u000a and secure protections are also emphasized gradually. To shield these electromagnetic wave radition jeopardizing people’s\\u000a health, in this study, stainless steel wires were the core yarn and bamboo charcoal polyester textured yarns were the wrapped\\u000a yarn. The bamboo charcoal polyester\\/stainless steel (BC\\/SS) complex yarns

Jia-Horng Lin; An-Pang Chen; Chin-Mei Lin; Ching-Wen Lin; Chien-Teng Hsieh; Ching-Wen Lou

2010-01-01

392

Microwave-assisted preparation of bamboo charcoal-based iron-containing adsorbents for Cr(VI) removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal-based, iron-containing adsorbent (Fe–BC) was developed by using bamboo charcoal (BC) as a supporting medium for ferric iron that was impregnated by Fe2(SO4)3 and H2SO4 simultaneous treatment, followed by microwave heating. The low-cost composite was characterized and used as an adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal from water. The results showed that the BET specific surface area, total pore volume, and

X. J. Wang; Y. Wang; M. Liu; S. Q. Xia; D. Q. Yin; Y. L. Zhang; J. F. Zhao

2011-01-01

393

Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine whether charcoal derived from the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir\\u000a ecosystem may influence soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha, a perennial grass that thrives after fire. In our first experiment, we incubated forest soils with a factorial combination\\u000a of Douglas-fir wood charcoal generated at 350°C and extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with and without

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2007-01-01

394

Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas fir ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experi- ments to determine whether charcoal derived from the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir ecosystem may influence soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha ,a perennial grass that thrives after fire. In our first experi- ment, we incubated forest soils with a factorial combination of Douglas-fir wood charcoal generated at 350°C and extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2007-01-01

395

Control of proliferation of MCF7 breast cancer cells in a commercial preparation of charcoal-stripped adult bovine serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A commercial preparation of charcoal-stripped adult bovine serum was used to culture MCF-7 cells in estrogen-free media. Use of this stripped adult bovine serum represents an alternative to calf serum which is in more limited supply, and saves charcoal-stripping of serum in the laboratory, which can be a rate-limiting step in the preparation of materials for estrogen-free tissue culture.

Wade V. Welshons; Leigh H. Grady; Kathleen S. Engler; Barbara M. Judy

1992-01-01

396

Investigation on cotton stalk and bamboo sawdust carbonization for barbecue charcoal preparation.  

PubMed

In the paper, biochar preparation from cotton stalk and bamboo sawdust by carbonization process was addressed. The physical and chemical properties and combustion characteristics of the biochar prepared using a tubular fixed bed were investigated. The combustion character index (S), the ignition temperature (Ti) and burnout temperature (Tf) were used to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the biochars. The results indicate that the yield and the volatile yield of the biochar decrease and the fixed carbon yield increases with the increase of the carbonization temperature. The ignition temperature and burnout temperature of the biochar increase and the value of S decreases when the carbonization temperature increases. The biochar produced from cotton stalk shows better combustion characteristics than the bamboo sawdust biochar does. Compared with commercial barbecue charcoal, the cotton stalk biochar produced under 600 °C can be utilized as barbecue charcoal. PMID:24280085

Xiong, Shaowu; Zhang, Shouyu; Wu, Qiaomei; Guo, Xi; Dong, Aixia; Chen, Chuan

2014-01-01

397

Bamboo charcoal inhibits growth of HeLa cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to investigate the far infrared spectral characteristics of bamboo charcoal powder and its effect on cancer cells for use in the dental field. To analyze the effects of the powder, HeLa and WI-38 cells were used and then assessed by cell adhesion assay and WST-1 assay. The powder emitted far infrared rays at wavelengths between 4 to 16 microm. The multiplication rate of WI-38 cells showed no significant differences between the conventional culture (control group) and culture on the powder (FIR group). However, at six days after incubation, HeLa cells of FIR group had a significantly lower multiplication rate compared with the control group. Based on the far infrared rays emitted in this study, bamboo charcoal powder proved to be a promising dental filler material for cancer prevention. PMID:15688731

Teraoka, Fumio; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Takahashi, Junzo

2004-12-01

398

Synthesis, in vitro macrophage response and detoxification of bamboo charcoal beads for purifying blood.  

PubMed

Bamboo charcoal beads (BCBs) were formed by coprecipitating bamboo charcoal particles with chitosan in alkaline solution. The amount of chitosan in the BCBs and their surface properties were measured. When 13-52 mg BCBs were exposed to RAW 264.7 macrophages, the amount of nitric oxide released and the cell viability were close to those of the blank. The amount of cytokine IL-6 secreted by macrophages did not depend on the dose of BCBs but macrophages secreted more TNF-alpha in response to higher doses of BCBs. However, the cytokine levels were relatively low, suggesting the favorable biocompatibility of BCBs. In adsorption experiments, BCBs adsorbed and released bovine serum albumin at particular concentrations, whereas BCBs adsorbed L-phenylalanine without a sign of release. This difference is attributed to the hydrophilicity and the pore size of the BCBs. Finally, the potential of BCBs as biocompatible adsorbents in blood detoxification is considered. PMID:20694980

Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Shyu, Chih-Liang; Chen, Szu-Hau; Li, Wen-Tyng; Wang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Chi

2010-09-15

399

Dehydrogenation of cyclohexane on oxides of rare earth elements, deposited on high-ash charcoals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.A study was made of the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane on catalysts, obtained by the deposition of the oxides of the rare earth elements (La, Nd, Y) on high-ash charcoals, as a function of the oxide concentration (Nd2O3, 0.2–10%) and the temperature (425–500°).2.The catalysts, containing 2–10% of the oxides of the rare earth elements, exhibit a high activity in the

Kh. M. Minachev; M. A. Markov

1965-01-01

400

Photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene using TiO 2 \\/bamboo charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) using TiO2-loaded bamboo charcoals (BC) prepared by wet impregnation was studied. Results obtained here can be used as the reference\\u000a for evaluating reactions in hydrocarbons, which aims at the development of an oxidative desulfurization process for fuel oils.\\u000a Technological conditions (the amount of photocatalysts, hydrogen peroxide, and TiO2 loading) were also investigated in detail. The

Juan Zhang; Dishun Zhao; Jinlong Wang; Liyan Yang

2009-01-01

401

Preparation and antibacterial efficacy of bamboo charcoal\\/polyoxometalate biological protective material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocomposites based on Keggin-type polyoxometalate H5PV2Mo10O40 (POM) and porous bamboo charcoal (BC) were prepared by activation and immobilization processes. The physical properties of the BC\\/POM composites were examined using FTIR, UV–Vis spectroscope, 31P MAS-NMR, SEM and TEM. These techniques indicated that the POM was intact on the surface of the BC matrix after impregnation. The POM particle size was found

Fu-Chu Yang; Kuo-Hui Wu; Wen-Po Lin; Ming-Kuan Hu

2009-01-01

402

Removal of nitrate-nitrogen from drinking water using bamboo powder charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption effectiveness of bamboo powder charcoal (BPC); made from the residual of Moso bamboo manufacturing; in removing nitrate-nitrogen from water has been investigated. Commercial activated carbon (CAC) was also used to compare the effectiveness of adsorption in removal of nitrate-nitrogen. The adsorption effectiveness of BPC was higher than that of CAC; regardless of the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen; in the

Kei Mizuta; Toshitatsu Matsumoto; Yasuo Hatate; Keiichi Nishihara; Tomoki Nakanishi

2004-01-01

403

Removal of elemental mercury by bamboo charcoal impregnated with H 2O 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury emission from coal combustion is an increasing environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and activated carbon (AC) adsorption has been proven an effective mercury-control method, with high-cost limit. The renewable bioresource of bamboo constitutes an important precursor for activated carbon, and the bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as low-cost sorbent used in the mercury-control. The adsorptive

Zengqiang Tan; Jianrong Qiu; Hancai Zeng; Hao Liu; Jun Xiang

2011-01-01

404

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

SciTech Connect

Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-11-30

405

Evaluation of methyl anthranilate and activated charcoal as snow goose grazing deterrents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens) damage grain crops and turf grass throughout the eastern United States, repellents are being sought. In the present experiment, 12 0.4-ha study plots were treated with methyl anthranilate (Rejex-It AG-36®, 3.4 kg a.i.), an aqueous slurry of activated charcoal (Anjan-activaid®, 3.4 kg a.i.), or left unsprayed, as a control. Both methyl anthranilate and activated

J. R. Mason; L. Clark

1995-01-01

406

Postglacial vegetational and fire history: pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal records from two Alaskan lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal analyses of sediments from two Alaskan lakes provide new data for inferring Lateglacial and Holocene environmental change. The records span the past 14,700 years at Lost Lake, 240 m a.s.l., central Alaska, north of the Alaska Range and 9600 years at Grizzly Lake, 720 m a.s.l., Copper River Plateau, south of the Alaska Range. Salix shrubs expanded

Willy Tinner; Feng Sheng Hu; Ruth Beer; Petra Kaltenrieder; Brigitte Scheurer; Urs Krähenbühl

2006-01-01

407

Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

Holmes, R.L.

1982-04-01

408

Effect of growing CNTs onto bamboo charcoals on adsorption of copper ions in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

One kind of novel hierarchical carbon nanotubes/bamboo charcoal (CNTs/BC) was prepared by CVD growth of CNTs on low-cost bamboo charcoal (BC). The obtained CNTs/BC composites were characterized by SEM and TEM observations. Adsorption of copper ions by CNTs/BC in aqueous solution was investigated. The adsorbed copper species were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the CNTs/BC composites exhibited higher adsorption capacities toward aqueous copper ions than the pristine BCs and commercial activated bamboo charcoals (ABCs) with a specific surface area of over 1000 m(2) g(-1). The adsorption capacity increases with nanotube growth time. Moreover, nitric acid treatment was used for the oxidation of the carbon surface. The surface functional groups of carbon samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Boehm's titration method, and zeta potential analysis. It was found that nitric acid treatment for CNTs/BC produced more oxygen-containing functional groups, leading to a higher copper ion adsorption capability than conventional carbon adsorbents under the same treatment condition. PMID:19053622

Zhang, Jiangnan; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Lv, Ruitao; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

2009-01-01

409

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

410

Mineral composition and charcoal determine the bacterial community structure in artificial soils.  

PubMed

To study the influence of the clay minerals montmorillonite (M) and illite (I), the metal oxides ferrihydrite (F) and aluminum hydroxide (A), and charcoal (C) on soil bacterial communities, seven artificial soils with identical texture provided by quartz (Q) were mixed with sterilized manure as organic carbon source before adding a microbial inoculant derived from a Cambisol. Bacterial communities established in artificial soils after 90 days of incubation were compared by DGGE analysis of bacterial and taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The bacterial community structure of charcoal-containing soils highly differed from the other soils at all taxonomic levels studied. Effects of montmorillonite and illite were observed for Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria, but not for Actinobacteria or Alphaproteobacteria. A weak influence of metal oxides on Betaproteobacteria was found. Barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons done for QM, QI, QIF, and QMC revealed a high bacterial diversity in the artificial soils. The composition of the artificial soils was different from the inoculant, and the structure of the bacterial communities established in QMC soil was most different from the other soils, suggesting that charcoal provided distinct microenvironments and biogeochemical interfaces formed. Several populations with discriminative relative abundance between artificial soils were identified. PMID:23289489

Ding, Guo-Chun; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Babin, Doreen; Heuer, Holger; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

2013-10-01

411

Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each method likely quantifies a distinct portion of the pyrogenic carbon. The localized nature of BC and nutrient enrichment suggests that the occurrence of fire (either climate or human-induced) and agriculture in the western Amazon were not spatially or temporally extensive. At present, we do not have evidence to indicate that BC is a better measure of fire occurrence or anthropogenic disturbance than charcoal measurements.

Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

2011-12-01

412

The essential endoplasmic reticulum chaperone Rot1 is required for protein N- and O-glycosylation in yeast.  

PubMed

Rot1 is an essential yeast protein originally shown to be implicated in such diverse processes such as ?-1,6-glucan synthesis, actin cytoskeleton dynamics or lysis of autophagic bodies. More recently also a role as a molecular chaperone has been discovered. Here, we report that Rot1 interacts in a synthetic manner with Ost3, one of the nine subunits of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex, the key enzyme of N-glycosylation. The deletion of OST3 in the rot1-1 mutant causes a temperature sensitive phenotype as well as sensitivity toward compounds interfering with cell wall biogenesis such as Calcofluor White, caffeine, Congo Red and hygromycin B, whereas the deletion of OST6, a functional homolog of OST3, has no effect. OST activity in vitro determined in membranes from rot1-1ost3? cells was found to be decreased to 45% compared with wild-type membranes, and model glycoproteins of N-glycosylation, like carboxypeptidase Y, Gas1 or dipeptidyl aminopeptidase B, displayed an underglycosylation pattern. By affinity chromatography, a physical interaction between Rot1 and Ost3 was demonstrated. Moreover, Rot1 was found to be involved also in the O-mannosylation process, as the glycosylation of distinct glycoproteins of this type were affected as well. Altogether, the data extend the role of Rot1 as a chaperone required to ensure proper glycosylation. PMID:22492205

Pasikowska, Monika; Palamarczyk, Grazyna; Lehle, Ludwig

2012-07-01

413

Lignocellulose Decomposition and Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes During Interaction of White Rot Fungi with Soil Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of white rot fungi, including two strains of Pleurotus sp., one Dichomitus squalens, and one Ganoderma applanatum, were grown on milled straw. After colonization of the straw by the fungi, sterile or nonsterile plugs of soil were added\\u000a to the fungal substrates. The influence of the sterile soil and the indigenous soil microbiota on fungal growth, overall respiration,

E. Lang; G. Eller; F. Zadrazil

1997-01-01

414

Incidence and Severity of Maize Ear Rots and Factors Responsible for Their Occurrence in Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven major maize growing districts of Uganda were surveyed for three consecutive seasons between 2002 and 2003 to establish maize ear rot incidence and severity. Sternocarpella maydis and Fusarium species particularly F. graminearum and F. verticillioides were the identified maize ear rot causing fungi. Incidence of S. maydis ranged from 2.5 to 32.5% while that of Fusarium sp. was in the range of 1.9 and 15.3%. In districts of higher altitude (above 1,800 m above sea level) F. graminearum dominated in all seasons while in districts with an altitude between 900 and 1,500 m above sea level, S. maydis was the major cause of ear rots. This observation was attributed to differences in temperature, altitude and rainfall. There was a strong positive correlation (p = 0.001) between incidence and severity for S. maydis and a weak one for Fusarium sp. because the latter would rarely infect the entire cob unlike the former. All farmers expressed concern about the quality of maize due to ear rots and sort out infected grain after harvest. However, varied uses of infected grain were noted. For example, in Kapchorwa district 82% of the respondents indicated that the infected grain is used for making local brew because the moulds give it a good taste and aroma, while in Kamuli and Masaka districts, 36% use it as animal feed ingredient. This indicates that people and animals could be ingesting mycotoxins unknowingly thus the need for sensitization programmes.

Bigirwa, G.; Kaaya, A. N.; Sseruwu, G.; Adipala, E.; Okanya, S.

415

Identification and genetic diversity of Rosellinia spp. associated with root rot of coffee in Colombia  

E-print Network

Identification and genetic diversity of Rosellinia spp. associated with root rot of coffee of potato, forest and fruit trees, as well as coffee plants. The aim of this study was to identify isolates of Rosellinia collected from coffee and other hosts using DNA sequence compar- isons of the internal transcribed

416

INVITED REVIEW A Cellular Hypothesis for the Induction of Blossom-End Rot in Tomato Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) is generally associated with a calcium (Ca) deficiency in the distal portion of tomato fruits. The visible symptom is a necrotic lesion, which is presumed to be a consequence of cell death and the subsequent leakage of solutes into the extracellular space. Environmental factors that affect either fruit cell expansion or Ca delivery

LIM C. HO; PHILIP J. WHITE

417

Things that go rot in the night - a review of biodeterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-organisms have a simple approach to life; they use whatever is available as a food source, attach themselves to practically all surfaces, multiply and build up biomass. Everyone is familiar with the phenomenon of rotting, the natural decay and recycling of materials by a wide range of life forms, including micro-organisms. This process is termed biodegradation and it is perceived

Glyn Morton

418

The evaluation of white rot fungi in the decoloration of textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the five species of white rot fungi evaluated for their ability to decolorize Amaranth, Remazol Black B, Remazol Orange, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Reactive Blue, and Tropaeolin O in agar plates, Bjerkandera sp. BOS55, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor displayed the greatest extent of decoloration. In static aqueous culture, the three cultures formed fungal mats which did not decolorize any

J Swamy; J. A. Ramsay

1999-01-01

419

SUPPRESSION OF RHIZOCTONIA ROOT ROT BY STREPTOMYCES IN BRASSICA SEED MEAL-AMENDED SOIL  

E-print Network

SUPPRESSION OF RHIZOCTONIA ROOT ROT BY STREPTOMYCES IN BRASSICA SEED MEAL-AMENDED SOIL Mark Mazzola, including Brassica napus, produce glucosinolates which upon hydrolysis yield biologically active compounds fumigation (3). Seed meal is a superior alternative to a Brassica green manure crop from several perspectives

Cohen, Michael F.

420

BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

421

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

422

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. ue to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to...

423

Improving ruminal degradability of oil palm fronds using white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of oil palm fronds (OPF) in livestock production is limited as up to 0.20 of their dry biomass is lignin. White rot fungi (WRF) are very effective basidiomycetes for biological pre-treatment as they degrade lignin extensively. Ten WRF were screened for their potential to increase OPF digestibility, which were colonized with one of the 10 WRF for 3

M. M. Rahman; M. Lourenço; H. A. Hassim; J. J. P. Baars; A. S. M. Sonnenberg; J. W. Cone; J. De Boever; V. Fievez

2011-01-01

424

Synthetic dye decolorization by white rot fungus, Ganoderma sp. WR-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolorization of recalcitrant dyes by an indigenous strain of white rot fungus isolated from bark of dead tree, WR-1 identified as Ganoderma sp. was investigated. The fermentation medium was optimized using a combination of one factor at a time and orthogonal array method. Maximum decolorization (96%) of 100ppm amaranth was achieved in 8h with optimized medium containing 2% starch and

Madhavi S. Revankar; S. S. Lele

2007-01-01

425

Peroxidase as a Component of the Signaling Pathway in Potato Cells during Ring Rot Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the activity of peroxidase, a component of the NADPH oxidase signaling pathway, in potato cells were studied. This activity increased sharply during ring rot pathogenesis. Two mechanisms of peroxidase activation were distinguished. One of them was the enzyme de novo synthesis; it was characteristic of the potato cultivar susceptible to the pathogen. Another mechanism characteristic of the resistant

I. A. Graskova; G. B. Borovskii; A. V. Kolesnichenko; V. K. Voinikov

2004-01-01

426

Assessing the relationship between the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans and selected forms of masonry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this investigation into the relationship between the domestic dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, and some non-woody building materials, it was found that S. lacrymans removed calcium, silicon and iron from sandstone, and calcium, sulphur and iron from traditional plaster. The sequestered elements were located on its hyphae, especially in the form of calcium oxalate. Degradation of the sandstone was

G. A. Low; M. E. Young; P. Martin; J. W. Palfreyman

2000-01-01

427

Molecular Methods for the Characterization and Identification of the Dry Rot Fungus Serpula lacrymans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Novel methods developed for characterization and identification of wood-inhabiting fungi target molecules of the organisms such as proteins and nucleic acids and use mycelial interaction, mating, antibodies, electrophoretic protein patterns, oligonucleotide primers and DNA sequencing. The article reviews the respective work on the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans in the Hamburg institute and also covers the international literature.

Olaf Schmidt

2000-01-01

428

Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and its Tolerance towards Copper based Wood Preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a

Anne Christine; Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

429

Screening of white-rot fungi for biological pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty two basidiomycetes, mostly white rot fungi, were grown on wheat straw. Lignin-, cellulose-, and hemicellulose-degradation was recorded in order to find a species growing on lignin preferably. The “oyster-mushroom”Pleurotus sp. “florida” showed fastest delignification of all tested fungi.

H. W. Miiller; W. Trfisch

1986-01-01

430

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY ENZYMES FROM A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants is dependent upon the lignin-degrading system of this microorganism. n part, the lignin-degrading system-consists of a family of peroxidases, which a...

431

Suppressiveness of organically and conventionally managed soils towards brown foot rot of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sandy loam soils under organic, integrated and conventional management were chosen to investigate the effect of specific agricultural management practices on suppression of brown foot rot of cereals caused by Fusarium culmorum. The relationships between suppressiveness and C and N content of the soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were investigated. Fungistasis tests and plant bioassays were compared. Differences

Inge M. B Knudsen; Kasia Debosz; John Hockenhull; Dan Funck Jensen; Susanne Elmholt

1999-01-01

432

Combinations of Fungal Antagonists for Biological Control of Armillaria Root Rot of Strawberry Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pot experiment with strawberry plants (cv. Cambridge Favourite), two isolates (Th1 and Th2) of Trichoderma harzianum were tested individually and in combination for their efficacy against the root rot pathogen Armillaria mellea. Similarly, an effective isolate of Dactylium dendroides, the ‘Shi-itake Pathogen’ (SP), was combined with isolates of T. harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum and Chaetomium olivaceum for

F. Raziq; R. T. V. Fox

2005-01-01

433

Selection of fungal antagonists for biological control of onion white rot in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fungal species were selected from a total of 76 on the basis of their antagonism to the onion white rot pathogen, Sclerotiurn cepivorwn, in dual culture. Gliocladium roseunt, G. virens, Trichoderma viride and Coniothyrium minitans exhibited their antagonism by competing successfully with the pathogen for space and nutrients whilst Chaetomium globosum and Penicillium expansion released antibiotic substances into the

Y. A. Harrison; A. Stewart

1988-01-01

434

Transcriptional and Metabolic Changes Associated to the Infection by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Inbreds with Contrasting Ear Rot Resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and grain mycotoxins in maize (Zea mays L.), which are harmful to human and animal health. Breeding and growing less susceptible plant genotypes is one alternative to reduce these detrimental effects. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms would facilitate the implementation of strategic molecular agriculture to breeding of resistant germplasm. Our aim was to identify genes and metabolites that may be related to the Fusarium reaction in a resistant (L4637) and a susceptible (L4674) inbred. Gene expression data were obtained from microarray hybridizations in inoculated and non-inoculated kernels from both inbreds. Fungal inoculation did not produce considerable changes in gene expression and metabolites in L4637. Defense-related genes changed in L4674 kernels, responding specifically to the pathogen infection. These results indicate that L4637 resistance may be mainly due to constitutive defense mechanisms preventing fungal infection. These mechanisms seem to be poorly expressed in L4674; and despite the inoculation activate a defense response; this is not enough to prevent the disease progress in this susceptible line. Through this study, a global view of differential genes expressed and metabolites accumulated during resistance and susceptibility to F. verticillioides inoculation has been obtained, giving additional information about the mechanisms and pathways conferring resistance to this important disease in maize. PMID:23637860

Campos-Bermudez, Valeria A.; Fauguel, Carolina M.; Tronconi, Marcos A.; Casati, Paula; Presello, Daniel A.; Andreo, Carlos S.

2013-01-01

435

CorA, the magnesium/nickel/cobalt transporter, affects virulence and extracellular enzyme production in the soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora) is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes soft rot disease, characterized by water-soaked soft decay, resulting from the action of cell wall-degrading exoenzymes secreted by the pathogen. Virulence in soft rot bacteria is regulated by environmental factors, host and bacterial chemical signals, and a network of global and gene-specific bacterial regulators. We isolated a mini-Tn5 mutant of P. carotovorum that is reduced in the production of extracellular pectate lyase, protease, polygalacturonase and cellulase. The mutant is also decreased in virulence as it macerates less host tissues than its parent and is severely impaired in multiplication in planta. The inactivated gene responsible for the reduced virulent phenotype was identified as corA. CorA, a magnesium/nickel/cobalt membrane transporter, is the primary magnesium transporter for many bacteria. Compared with the parent, the CorA(-) mutant is cobalt resistant. The mutant phenotype was confirmed in parental strain P. carotovorum by marker exchange inactivation of corA. A functional corA(+) DNA from P. carotovorum restored exoenzyme production and pathogenicity to the mutants. The P. carotovorum corA(+) clone also restored motility and cobalt sensitivity to a CorA(-) mutant of Salmonella enterica. These data indicate that CorA is required for exoenzyme production and virulence in P. carotovorum. PMID:21726393

Kersey, Caleb M; Agyemang, Paul A; Dumenyo, C Korsi

2012-01-01

436

Effect of method of processing foliage of Acacia mangium and inclusion of bamboo charcoal in the diet on performance of growing goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of including charcoal and of different processing methods of foliage from Acacia mangium in the diet on intake and performance of goats. In experiment 1, four male goats were used in a Latin square arrangement. The treatments were: control, no bamboo charcoal, and 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5g bamboo charcoal per kg body

Do Thi Thanh Van; Nguyen Thi Mui; Inger Ledin

2006-01-01

437

Inheritance of Phytophthora root rot resistance in red raspberry determined by generation means and molecular linkage analysis.  

PubMed

Classical and molecular methodologies were used to determine the inheritance of Phytophthora root rot (PRR) resistance in red raspberry. The varieties 'Latham' and 'Titan,' resistant and susceptible, respectively, were used to create F(1), F(2), B(1), B(2), and S(1) populations for analysis. Generational means analysis was used to calculate the components of genetic variation and estimates of narrow and broad sense heritability for the plant disease index and the incidence of petiole lesions. The plant disease index showed additive genetic variation with additional significant interactions, but the incidence of petiole lesions was non-additive. A dominant, two-gene model was shown to be the best fit for the observed segregation ratios when classification for resistance was based on a combination of all criteria measured. Molecular linkage maps were generated from the segregating B(2) population. Linkage maps of both parents were constructed from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and uncharacterized resistant gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) markers with seven linkage groups each totaling 440 and 370 cM of genetic distance, respectively. An analysis of the distributional extremes of the B(2) population identified several RAPD markers clustered on two linkage groups associated with PRR resistance. QTL analysis identified two similar genomic regions on each map that explained significant percentages of phenotypic variation observed for the disease assessment criteria. Genetic mapping supports the dominant two-gene model developed from generational means analysis. The results reconcile conflicting reports on inheritance of PRR resistance, provide a basis for further investigation of durable resistance to Phytophthora caused diseases, and indicates that recurrent selection is the appropriate approach for the development of new resistant cultivars. PMID:17592602

Pattison, Jeremy A; Samuelian, Suren K; Weber, Courtney A

2007-07-01

438

Toward a "molecular thermometer" to estimate the charring temperature of wildland charcoals derived from different biomass sources.  

PubMed

The maximum temperature experienced by biomass during combustion has a strong effect on chemical properties of the resulting charcoal, such as sorption capacity (water and nonpolar materials) and microbial degradability. However, information about the formation temperature of natural charcoal can be difficult to obtain in ecosystems that are not instrumented prior to fires. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) are molecular markers specific for pyrogenic carbon (PyC) which can provide information on the degree of aromatic condensation in charcoals. Here we apply the BPCA molecular marker method to a set of 10 charcoals produced during an experimental fire in a Pitch pine-scrub oak forest from litter and bark of pitch pine and inkberry plants in the Pinelands National Reserve in New Jersey, USA. We deployed temperature-sensitive crayons throughout the burn site, which recorded the maximum air temperature and made comparisons to the degree of thermal alteration recorded by BPCA molecular markers. Our results show an increase of the degree of aromatic condensation with monitored temperatures for bark biomass, while for needles no clear trend could be observed. For leaf-derived charcoals at increasing monitored fire temperatures, decreasing degree of aromatic condensation was obtained. This suggests that molecular markers can be used to roughly estimate the maximum fire temperatures experienced by bark and wood materials, but not based on leaf- and needle-derived materials. Possible applications include verifying declared pyrolysis temperatures of biochars and evaluating ecosystem fire temperature postburn. PMID:24040784

Schneider, Maximilian P W; Pyle, Lacey A; Clark, Kenneth L; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Schmidt, Michael W I

2013-10-15

439

Ancient charcoal as a natural archive for paleofire regime and vegetation change in the Mayumbe, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal was sampled in four soil profiles at the Mayumbe forest boundary (DRC). Five fire events were recorded and 44 charcoal types were identified. One stratified profile yielded charcoal assemblages around 530 cal yr BP and > 43.5 cal ka BP in age. The oldest assemblage precedes the period of recorded anthropogenic burning, illustrating occasional long-term absence of fire but also natural wildfire occurrences within tropical rainforest. No other charcoal assemblages older than 2500 cal yr BP were recorded, perhaps due to bioturbation and colluvial reworking. The recorded paleofires were possibly associated with short-lived climate anomalies. Progressively dry climatic conditions since ca. 4000 cal yr BP onward did not promote paleofire occurrence until increasing seasonality affected vegetation at the end of the third millennium BP, as illustrated by a fire occurring in mature rainforest that persisted until around 2050 cal yr BP. During a drought episode coinciding with the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly', mature rainforest was locally replaced by woodland savanna. Charcoal remains from pioneer forest indicate that fire hampered forest regeneration after climatic drought episodes. The presence of pottery shards and oil-palm endocarps associated with two relatively recent paleofires suggests that the effects of climate variability were amplified by human activities.

Hubau, Wannes; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Kitin, Peter; Mees, Florias; Baert, Geert; Verschuren, Dirk; Nsenga, Laurent; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

2013-09-01

440

A crop loss-related forecasting model for sclerotinia stem rot in winter oilseed rape.  

PubMed

Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) is an increasing threat to winter oilseed rape (OSR) in Germany and other European countries due to the growing area of OSR cultivation. A forecasting model was developed to provide decision support for the fungicide spray against SSR at flowering. Four weather variables-air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and sunshine duration-were used to calculate the microclimate in the plant canopy. From data reinvestigated in a climate chamber study, 7 to 11 degrees C and 80 to 86% relative humidity (RH) were established as minimum conditions for stem infection with ascospores and expressed as an index to discriminate infection hours (Inh). Disease incidence (DI) significantly correlated with Inh occurring post-growth stage (GS) 58 (late bud stage) (r(2) = 0.42, P disease risk, which is assumed when 23 Inh have accumulated after the crop has passed GS 58. The second tier provides a field-site-specific, economy-based recommendation. Based on costs of spray, expected yield, and price of rapeseed, the number of Inh corresponding to DI at the economic damage threshold (Inh(i)) is calculated. A decision to spray is proposed when Inh >/= Inh(i). Historical field data (1994 to 2004) were used to assess the impact of agronomic factors on SSR incidence. A 2-year crop rotation enhanced disease risk and, therefore, lowered the infection threshold in the model by a factor of 0.8, whereas in 4-year rotations, the threshold was elevated by a factor 1.3. Number of plants per square meter, nitrogen fertilization, and soil management did not have significant effects on DI. In an evaluation of SkleroPro with 76 historical (1994 to 2004) and 32 actual field experiments conducted in 2005, the percentage of economically correct decisions was 70 and 81%, respectively. Compared with the common practice of routine sprays, this corresponded to savings in fungicides of 39 and 81% and to increases in net return for the grower of 23 and 45 euro/ha, respectively. This study demonstrates that, particularly in areas with abundant inoculum, the level of SSR in OSR can be predicted from conditions of stem infection during late bud or flowering with sufficient accuracy, and does not require simulation of apothecial development and ascospore dispersal. SkleroPro is the first crop-loss-related forecasting model for a Sclerotinia disease, with the potential of being widely used in agricultural practice, accessible through the Internet. Its concept, components, and implementation may be useful in developing forecasting systems for Sclerotinia diseases in other crops or climates. PMID:18944183

Koch, S; Dunker, S; Kleinhenz, B; Röhrig, M; Tiedemann, A von

2007-09-01

441

Impacts upon soil quality and plant growth of bamboo charcoal addition to composted sludge.  

PubMed

In this research, the effects of bamboo charcoal on soil contaminant accumulation, soil fertility and plant growth were investigated. The results indicated that sludge composted with bamboo charcoal (BCS) significantly increased plant growth and decreased the mobility of Zn, Cu and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), compared with the composted sludge without bamboo charcoal (CS), with lower absorption and less accumulation of contaminants by the plants. Concentrations of Cu in turfgrass treated with CS were 11.7-23.4% higher than those of turfgrass treated with BCS. Concentrations of Zn in turfgrass treated with CS were 14.2-25.9% higher than those of turfgrass treated with BCS. The concentration of sigma 16PAHs (total contents of 16 PAHs that are listed by USEPA as priority pollutants for remediation based on their persistence and carcinogenic potential) in ryegrass grown in yellow loamy soil amended with CS was 680 microg kg(-1)) and was higher than that of ryegrass treated with BCS (only 439 microg kg(-1)). The biomass of fescue in BCS-treated soils increased by 13-16% compared with that of fescue in CS-treated soil. The biomass of ryegrass in BCS-treated soil was 20-27% higher than that in CS-treated soil. Chlorophyll content in turfgrass grown in CS-treated soil was lower than that in grass grown in BCS-treated soil. Compared with the control, chlorophyll contents in plants grown in soil with CS increased by about 13-22%, whereas those in plants grown in soil with BCS increased by about 20-32%. PMID:22519088

Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang

2012-01-01

442

Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato in Florida Using Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate commercial formulations of two beneficial fungi, Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices, for the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Tomato seeds cv. \\

L. E. Datnoff; S. Nemec; K. Pernezny

1995-01-01

443

Biodegradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in liquid broth by brown-rot fungi.  

PubMed

Dioxins are a class of extremely hazardous molecules that might pose a threat to the environment. This work evaluated the microbial degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD), in liquid broth using three brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungi as control. A fast and reliable extraction method with recoveries of over 98% together with a validated GC-MS method was developed, and applied to quantify 1,2,3,4-TCDD in liquid broth, mycelia and reaction flask, with detection limits of 10 ppb. Among the four strains tested, brown-rot fungus Aspergillus aculeatus showed best results, removing up to 21% of dioxin after 30-day incubation. The results open both a path for biotechnological interest in bioremediation purposes and environmental behavior studies by using brown-rot fungus. PMID:24080442

Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

2013-11-01

444

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

445

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

446

Biodegradation of Organopollutants by a White Rot Fungus in Bench Scale Reactors. Volume 1 and Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wood rotting basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent organic pollutants to carbon dioxide. Results demonstrated that this fungus can be used to degrade organic pollutants in fixed film ...

D. K. Stevens, J. A. Bumpus, R. C. Sims

1993-01-01

447

Adsorptive removal of chloramphenicol from wastewater by NaOH modified bamboo charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study described the adsorption of chloramphenicol (CAP) in wastewater on the renewable bioresource of bamboo charcoal (BC). Results showed that CAP adsorption on BC (Lnqe=1.272 LnCe+1.971) and H2SO4 modified BC (Lnqe=1.851 LnCe+0.659) were very slight, and on NaOH modified BC was significantly increased (Lnqe=0.344 LnCe+6.490). The adsorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier

Ye Fan; Bin Wang; Songhu Yuan; Xiaohui Wu; Jing Chen; Linling Wang

2010-01-01

448

The effect of low flowrates on the adsorption efficiency of hexane on charcoal  

E-print Network

trogen at a concentrati on of 689 ppm was passed through a series of sampling tubes contain1ng, 0. 200 gm, 0. 250 gm, 0. 300 gm and 0. 350 gm beds of 20-40 mesh act1vated coconut shell charcoal at flowrates ranging from 290 mL/min to 6670 mL/m1n... that adsorption is such a rapid phenomenon that the rate determining step is limited by the mass transfer rate. The equation is as follows: b C Q )W- ? j In ( (B) tb = breakthrough time, in minutes C 0 inlet concentration, in gm/cm 3 C x exit...

Easley, Larry David

2012-06-07

449

Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

2005-07-01

450

The mitochondrial genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora roreri, which is the etiologic agent of frosty pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We also compare it to the mtDNA from the closely-related species Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease of cacao. The 94 Kb mtDNA genome of M. roreri has a circular topology and codes for the typical 14 mt genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. It also codes for both rRNA genes, a ribosomal protein subunit, 13 intronic open reading frames (ORFs), and a full complement of 27 tRNA genes. The conserved genes of M. roreri mtDNA are completely syntenic with homologous genes of the 109 Kb mtDNA of M. perniciosa. As in M. perniciosa, M. roreri mtDNA contains a high number of hypothetical ORFs (28), a remarkable feature that make Moniliophthoras the largest reservoir of hypothetical ORFs among sequenced fungal mtDNA. Additionally, the mt genome of M. roreri has three free invertron-like linear mt plasmids, one of which is very similar to that previously described as integrated into the main M. perniciosa mtDNA molecule. Moniliophthora roreri mtDNA also has a region of suspected plasmid origin containing 15 hypothetical ORFs distributed in both strands. One of these ORFs is similar to an ORF in the mtDNA gene encoding DNA polymerase in Pleurotus ostreatus. The comparison to M. perniciosa showed that the 15 Kb difference in mtDNA sizes is mainly attributed to a lower abundance of repetitive regions in M. roreri (5.8 Kb vs 20.7 Kb). The most notable differences between M. roreri and M. perniciosa mtDNA are attributed to repeats and regions of plasmid origin. These elements might have contributed to the rapid evolution of mtDNA. Since M. roreri is the second species of the genus Moniliophthora whose mtDNA genome has been sequenced, the data presented here contribute valuable information for understanding the evolution of fungal mt genomes among closely-related species. PMID:22559916

Costa, Gustavo G L; Cabrera, Odalys G; Tiburcio, Ricardo A; Medrano, Francisco J; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Thomazella, Daniela P T; Schuster, Stephen C; Carlson, John E; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Meinhardt, Lyndel W

2012-05-01

451

The Effect of Interaction Between White-rot Fungi and Indigenous Microorganisms on Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-rot fungi applied for soil bioremediation have to compete with indigenous soil microorganisms. The effect of competition on both indigenous soil microflora and white-rot fungi was evaluated with regard to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with different persistence in soil. Sterile and non-sterile soil was artificially contaminated with 14C-labeled PAH consisting of three (anthracene), four (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene) and five

C. In Der Wiesche; R. Martens; F. Zadrazil

2003-01-01

452

Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp.

Ting Zhou; Karin E. Schneider; Xiu-Zhen Li