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Sample records for charcoal rot disease

  1. DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: CHARCOAL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield losses due to charcoal rot occur regularly. Yield losses of 20-30% due to root and stem infections of soybean caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Macrophomina phaseolina have been reported in some fields in years highly favorable for disease development. This bulletin summarizes the...

  2. Charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot is reported occasionally on alfalfa in the U.S. and has also been found in Australia, Pakistan, Uganda, east Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The fungus causing the disease is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical countries. It causes disease on more than 500 crop and we...

  3. Charcoal Rot Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes and Prelimary Genetic Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic importance in the United States that causes significant yield losses. In 2002 (30), 2003 (30), 2004 (44) and 2005 (81) a total of 185 soybean genotypes in maturity groups III, IV and V we...

  4. Charcoal Rot Disease Assessment of Soybean Genotypes Using a Colony Forming Unit Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a disease of economic significance in the United States and around the world. Yield losses will remain high until resistant genotypes are developed. Progress in developing resistant genotypes is hampered beca...

  5. Potassium and phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  6. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  7. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina causes more yield loss in soybean than most other diseases in the southern U.S.A. There are no commercial genotypes marketed as resistant to charcoal rot of soybean. Reactions of 27 maturity group (MG) III, 29 Early MG IV, 34 Late MG IV, and 59 MG V gen...

  8. Resistance to charcoal rot identified in ancestral soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, is an economically important disease on soybean and other crops including maize, sorghum, and sunflowers. Without effective cultural or chemical options to control charcoal rot in soybean, finding sources of genetic resistance is o...

  9. Soybean Seed Composition in Cultivars Differing in Resistance to Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] cultivars of maturity group (MG) IV were selected based on their susceptibility to charcoal rot disease caused by a soilborne fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Seed composition and nitrogen fixation in soybean has not been well investigated under charcoal rot infestat...

  10. Effects of directed fungicides sprays and potash form on charcoal rot of soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of fungicides to control charcoal rot of soybean was conducted in a field planted annually to soybean or snap bean since 2002 with moderate to high seedling disease losses to charcoal rot. Treatments were applied on 18 Jul at 60 psi and on 7 Aug at 80 psi using a high-pressure hydraulic ...

  11. Resistance to toxin-mediated fungal infection: role of lignins, isoflavones, other seed phenolics, sugars and boron in the mechanism of resistance to charcoal rot disease in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effects of charcoal rot and drought on total seed phenol, isoflavones, sugars, and boron in susceptible (S) and moderately resistant (MR) soybean genotypes to charcoal rot pathogen. A field experiment was conducted for two years under ir...

  12. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  13. Nitric Oxide Production by Necrotrophic Pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the Host Plant in Charcoal Rot Disease of Jute: Complexity of the Interplay between Necrotroph–Host Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2′,7′-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  14. Effects of Seed Treatment, In-Furrow Sprays, and Herbicides Treatments on Charcoal Rot of June-Planted Soybean, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of chemical and biological fungicides to control charcoal rot of soybean was conducted in a field planted annually to soybean or snap bean since 2002 with moderate to high seedling disease losses to charcoal rot. Seed treatment slurries were created by adding distilled water to the test ...

  15. Resistance mechanisms to toxin-mediated charcoal rot infection in maturity group III soybean: role of seed phenol lignin soflavones sugars and seed minerals in charcoal rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, and thought to infect the plants through roots by a toxin-mediated mechanism, resulting in yield loss and poor seed quality, especially under drought conditions. The mechanism by which this infection occurs is not y...

  16. Fungicide, herbicide, and genotype effects on charcoal rot and phomopsis seed decay in soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield limiting diseases such as charcoal rot and Phomopsis seed decay have significant impact on the economic potential for soybeans because there are few methods for management of these diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate application of the herbicide lactofen, the fungicide azo...

  17. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed and of these 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 44 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in MS. All optimized loci were poly...

  18. Antagonistic potential of fluorescent pseudomonads and control of charcoal rot of chickpea caused by Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Anuj; Kharwar, R N

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates were tested against charcoal rot of chickpea both in green house as well as in field conditions. Most of the isolates reduced charcoal rot disease and promoted plant growth in green house. A marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in P. fluorescens treated plants. Among all the P. fluorescens isolates Pf4-99, was found most effective in the improvement of chickpea crop in green house as well as in field. Pf4-99 effectively promoted plant growth and produced indole acetic acid in culture medium. This isolate also inhibited the mycelial growth of the M. phaseolina under in vitro conditions and reduced the disease severity Potential isolate (Pf4-99) also significantly increased the biomass of the chickpea plants, shoot length, root length and protein content of the chickpea seeds. A part from these, the total number of seeds per plant and their weight were also enhanced. The colonization of Pf4-99 reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora by which indirectly enhanced the seed germination and vigour index of seedlings. The observations revealed that isolate Pf4-99 is quite effective to reduce the charcoal rot disease both in field and greenhouse, and also increases seed yields significantly Therefore, this isolate appears to be an efficient biocontrol agent against charcoal rot disease as well as yield increasing rhizobacterium. PMID:17717979

  19. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and mustard seed meal for control of charcoal rot in California strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and mustard seed meal (MSM) appear to be promising non-fumigant alternatives for soilborne disease control. However studies of their effect on charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in California strawberry are limited. ASD with rice bran 20 t ha-1 (ASD-RB...

  20. Registration of DT99-16864 soybean germplasm line with moderate resistance to charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich, is a disease that is a world-wide problem in soybean production for which no highly resistant cultivars are currently available. Soybean germplasm line DT99-16864, a maturity group V line, was developed by the U.S. Department of Ag...

  1. Seasonal progress of charcoal rot and its impact on soybean productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on yield of soybean were evaluated in the field using two genotypes each in maturity groups III and IV. Four separate experiments were established in an area of a field fumigated with methyl bromide. The experiments were: 1) artificiall...

  2. Suppression of charcoal rot in soybean by moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa GS-33 under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep; Paradeshi, Jayasinh; Chaudhari, Bhushan

    2016-08-01

    Charcoal rot severely limits the soybean crop yield under saline conditions. The present studies focus on biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of phenazine producing moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GS-33) in soybean under saline soil conditions. A marine isolate; GS-33 was identified as P. aeruginosa based on polyphasic characterization. This strain showed potent in vitro biocontrol activity against charcoal rot causing fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. It was capable of producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid even at elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, GS-33 possessed other biocontrol traits like production of siderophores, HCN and protease under saline conditions. Multiple traits for plant growth promotion such as synthesis of IAA, NH3 , and solubilization of phosphate were also exhibited by GS-33. Plant growth promoting and biocontrol control potentials of GS-33 were evaluated by pot assay under saline soil conditions. Higher biomass and chlorophyll content were observed in GS-33 treated seedlings. A greater reduction in charcoal rot caused by fungal pathogens under both normal and saline soil conditions in GS-33 treated seedlings was observed. In a nut shell, phenazine producing halotolerant strain GS-33 could mitigate saline soil conditions (abiotic stress) and infestation of M. phaseolina (biotic stress) in soybean. PMID:27213894

  3. Evaluation of bacteria isolated from rice rhizosphere for biological control of charcoal rot of sorghum caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Humayun, Pagidi; Kiran, Bandru Keerthi; Kannan, Iyer Girish Kumar; Vidya, Meesala Sree; Deepthi, Kanala; Rupela, Om

    2011-06-01

    charcoal rot disease in sorghum. PMID:25187130

  4. Greenhouse evaluation of commercial soybean cultivars adapted to the northern United States for resistance to charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty (30) and sixty-seven (67) commercially available soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars from Wisconsin (Maturity group (MG) I-II) and Indiana (MG II-III), respectively, were evaluated for charcoal rot (CR; Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid) resistance using a cut-stem greenhouse assay. ...

  5. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  6. Rapid Diagnosis of Soybean Seedling Blight Caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Soybean Charcoal Rot Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina Using LAMP Assays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenchen; Song, Bi; Zhang, HaiFeng; Wang, YuanChao; Zheng, XiaoBo

    2015-12-01

    A new method of direct detection of pathogenic fungi in infected soybean tissues has been reported here. The method rapidly diagnoses soybean seedling blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani and soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, and features loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The primers were designed and screened using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) as target DNAs of both pathogens. An ITS-Rs-LAMP assay for R. solani and an ITS-Mp-LAMP assay for M. phaseolina that can detect the pathogen in diseased soybean tissues in the field have been developed. Both LAMP assays efficiently amplified the target genes over 60 min at 62°C. A yellow-green color (visible to the naked eye) or intense green fluorescence (visible under ultraviolet light) was only observed in the presence of R. solani or M. phaseolina after addition of SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the ITS-Rs-LAMP assay was 10 pg μl⁻¹ of genomic DNA; and that of the ITS-Mp-LAMP assay was 100 pg μl⁻¹ of genomic DNA. Using the two assays described here, we successfully and rapidly diagnosed suspect diseased soybean samples collected in the field from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. PMID:26606587

  7. Beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.).

    PubMed

    Shweta, Bhatia; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Arora, Daljit Singh; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-09-01

    Rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. Two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as PS1 and PS2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. After 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both PS1 and PS2 caused clear inhibition zones in dual cultures, restricting the growth of M. phaseolina by 71% and 74%, respectively. Both the strains were capable of producing siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and causing phosphate solubilization under normal growth conditions. These strains, when used as inoculants in groundnut, enhanced germination up to 15% and 30% with subsequent increase in grain yield by 66% and 77%, respectively. Conversely, when the pathogen alone was testeds 57% decrease in yield was recorded. Thus the studies revealed the potential of the two pseudomonads not only as biocontrol agents against M. phaseolina, but also as a good growth promoter for groundnut. PMID:18852515

  8. Genetic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions for charcoal rot in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a leading agronomic crop and it is contributing to food and agricultural security with expanding production in diverse regions around the world. Although soybean is attacked by several diseases and pests, and progress has been made in understanding and managing some of these pathogens and...

  9. Non-fumigant approaches for controlling Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot of strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne disease management without chemical fumigants is a major challenge for strawberry production in California. Current re-registrations and regulations are likely to intensify this obstacle by severely limiting availability of fumigants on a large percentage of strawberry acreage. Anaerobic s...

  10. Evaluation of native bacteria and manganese phosphite for alternative control of charcoal root rot of soybean.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Ester; Viso, Natalia Pin; Montecchia, Marcela; Zilli, Carla; Balestrasse, Karina; Carmona, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potential agents to control plant pathogens and their combined use with biopesticides such as phosphites may constitute a novel strategy to incorporate in disease management programs. In the present study, 11 bacterial isolates were selected on the basis of their antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina in dual-culture tests, and their plant growth promoting traits. Selected isolates were characterised on the basis of auxin and siderophore production, phosphate solubilisation and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Two of these isolates, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens 9 and Bacillus subtilis 54, were further evaluated for their inhibitory capacity against M. phaseolina using in vitro (on soybean seeds) and in vivo (greenhouse assay) tests. Both bacteria were applied individually as well as in combined treatment with manganese phosphite as seed treatments. Damage severity on soybean seeds was significantly reduced, compared with the untreated control, by both bacterial strains; however, the individual application of phosphite showed to be least effective in controlling M. phaseolina. Interestingly, the phosphite treatment improved its performance under greenhouse conditions compared to the results from the in vitro assays. In the greenhouse trials, the greatest reductions in disease severity were achieved when strain P. fluorescens 9 was applied singly or when strain B. subtilis 54 was combined with manganese phosphite, achieving 82% of control in both cases. This work is the first to report the control of M. phaseolina using combined treatment with PGPR and phosphite under greenhouse conditions. PMID:26505310

  11. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bigirimana, Vincent de P.; Hua, Gia K. H.; Nyamangyoku, Obedi I.; Höfte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium sp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discoloration, chaffiness, and sterility and are all seed-transmitted. Rice sheath rot disease symptoms are found in all rice-growing areas of the world. The disease is now getting momentum and is considered as an important emerging rice production threat. The disease can lead to variable yield losses, which can be as high as 85%. This review aims at improving our understanding of the disease etiology of rice sheath rot and mainly deals with the three most reported rice sheath rot pathogens: S. oryzae, the Fusarium fujikuroi complex, and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Causal agents, pathogenicity determinants, interactions among the various pathogens, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and control options will be discussed. PMID:26697031

  12. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs. PMID:27178300

  13. Sorghum pathology and biotechnology - A fungal disease perspective: Part II. Anthracnose, stalk rot, and downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases and stalk rots are among the most damaging diseases of sorghum in terms of lost production potential, thus commanding considerable research time and expenditure. This review will focus on anthracnose, a fungal disease that causes both foliar symptoms and stalk rots along with the st...

  14. Charcoal agar, a new growth medium for the fish disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, J G; Stevenson, R M

    1985-01-01

    Charcoal is an effective replacement for serum in media for the isolation and culture of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. The medium, KDM-C, contains 10 g of peptone, 0.5 g of yeast extract, 1 g of L-cysteine hydrochloride, 1 g of activated charcoal, and 15 g of agar per liter and is adjusted to pH 6.8 with NaOH before autoclaving. Eight strains of R. salmoninarum grew from dilute inocula as well on KDM-C as on a standard serum-containing medium (KDM-2). The medium was effective for both primary isolations from fish and repeated transfers and has potential value for antigen preparation and physiological studies. Images PMID:4083882

  15. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals produced by B. sonorensis for suppression of charcoal rot of Arachis hypogaea L.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Urja; Saraf, Meenu

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sonorensis MBCU2 isolated from vermicompost-amended soil from Gujarat, India showed most antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture screening. The culture supernatant of MBCU2 completely suppressed the mycelia growth of pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of allelochemicals in the culture filtrate. Results of scanning electron microscopy revealed that MBCU2 caused morphological alteration in mycelia of M. phaseolina as evident by hyphal lysis and perforation. Lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin) produced by MBCU2 were detected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as well as liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Pot trial studies conducted by seed bacterization with MBCU2 resulted in statistically significant increase in Arachis hypogaea L. vegetative growth parameters such as root length (91%), shoot length (252%), fresh weight (71%), dry weight (57%), number of pod (128%), and number of seed (290%) in M. phaseolina infested soil over control as well as decreased M. phaseolina disease severity. We suggest that allelochemicals production can be linked to the mechanism of protection of A. hypogaea L. from M. phaseolina by B. sonorensis MBCU2. PMID:25346523

  16. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  17. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  18. Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot disease of blueberry with gypsum and compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot disease of blueberry caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi is becoming more prevalent as a consequence of widespread adoption of drip irrigation. This creates higher moisture content in the root zone more conducive for the pathogen. Options for disease control under organic management are limi...

  19. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  20. Activated Charcoal

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACTIVATED CHARCOAL are as follows:Trapping chemicals to stop some types of poisoning when used as a ... Charbon Végétal, Charbon Végétal Activé, Charcoal, Gas Black, Lamp Black, Medicinal Charcoal, Noir de Gaz, Noir de ...

  1. Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

  2. Indirect selection for resistance to ear rot and leaf diseases in maize lines using biplots.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G S; Camargos, R B; Balestre, M; Von Pinho, R G; C Melo, W M

    2015-01-01

    Leaf disease and ear rot have caused reductions in maize yield in Brazil and other producer countries. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze the association between husked ear yield and the severity of maize white spot, gray leaf spot, helminthosporium, and ear rot caused by Fusarium verticillioides and Diplodia maydis using biplots in a mixed-model approach. The responses of 238 lines introduced to Brazil and four controls were evaluated using an incomplete block design with three replicates in two locations: Lavras and Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two experiments were conducted in each location, one with F. verticillioides and the other with D. maydis. The mixed models elucidated the relationship between yield, leaf disease, and ear disease. Significant genotype x environment and genotype x pathogen interactions were observed. In conclusion, husked ear yield is more associated with ear rot than with the leaf diseases evaluated, justifying the indirect selection for resistance to kernel rot in maize-F. verticillioides and maize-D. maydis pathosystems by yield evaluation. PMID:26400335

  3. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  4. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  5. Activated Charcoal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat poisonings, reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile ... lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Decreasing gas (flatulence). Some studies show that activated charcoal is effective ...

  6. Charcoal burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bakic, M.C.

    1988-12-27

    A combustible fuel apparatus is described comprising: side walls formed contiguous with and extending upward from a base and converging to form a closed container, having stacked charcoal fuel particles therein. The base may be placed directly on a substantially horizontal surface and the container may be ignited and substantially burned to ash, and the charcoal fuel particles may be ignited and sufficiently burned for cooking, wherein the charcoal fuel particles are stacked on the base in a relatively stable position prior to the igniting of the container, and are maintained in a relatively stable position during and after the igniting and burning of the container, whereby a mound of ignited charcoal fuel particles remains on the substantially horizontal surface after the burning of the container, the mound having a configuration substantially similar to the shape of the container prior to the combustion thereof.

  7. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    PubMed

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally. PMID:26714102

  8. Collar rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collar rot of lentil is an important seedling disease particularly under high moisture and high temperature conditions. It is caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. The pathogen has an extremely wide host range, and produces sclerotia, which can survive in the soil for many years. Infe...

  9. Interactions Between the Bud Rot Disease of Oil Palm and Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; de Sousa Ramalho, Francisco; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) causes great losses to the oil palm plantations, and therefore, the spatial and temporal distribution of this insect should be studied, to manage its populations. Insect sampling was done for 2 yr in an oil palm plantation from Colombia. In total, 60 pheromone traps were used in healthy palm trees and infected ones with the Bud Rot disease. On the other hand, developmental stages of this insect were quantified on healthy and diseased palms for two consecutive years. Number of adult R. palmarum per sampling was higher in the plantation with diseased palm trees, 3.85 and 74.7 insects per trap, than in those with healthy ones, 1.91 and 9.48 insects per trap, in the first and second years, respectively. After the integration of pheromone traps, there was a significant increase in the infestation level at all stages of development of the insect. For the first time, the presence of R. palmarum attracted to diseased palms is reported. The association between R. palmarum and the Bud Rot disease is a cause of death and great loss to the oil palm plantations. PMID:26791821

  10. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chia-Lin; Huang, Shun-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Ann, Pao-Jen; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Yang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Han; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Lee, Hui-Lin; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98%) of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s), which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination. PMID:26485142

  11. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chia-Lin; Huang, Shun-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Ann, Pao-Jen; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Yang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Han; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Lee, Hui-Lin; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98%) of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s), which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination. PMID:26485142

  12. Corky root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

  13. Pythium Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium root rot is a disease that is found in agricultural and nursery soils throughout the United States and Canada. It is caused by several Pythium species, and the symptoms are typified by leaf or needle chlorosis, stunting, root rot, and plant death. The disease is favored by wet soils, overc...

  14. Analysis of Yeast Flora Associated with Grape Sour Rot and of the Chemical Disease Markers

    PubMed Central

    Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Marchetti, Rosa

    1987-01-01

    The frequency and the density of the species associated with grape sour rot in different cultivars were determined. The most frequent species in the rotten grapes, Candida krusei, Kloeckera apiculata, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and a less frequent species, Issatchenkia occidentalis, when inoculated with Saccharomycopsis crataegensis were able to induce in vitro the symptoms of the disease. The gas chromatographic determination of the volatile compounds in the headspace was used to evaluate the metabolic role of the different species associated with the disease. These analyses made it possible to presume that, whereas some species, such as Candida krusei and Hanseniaspora uvarum, can be considered responsible for these modifications and in particular for the ethyl acetate production, others, such as Saccharomycopsis crataegensis, can promote the development of the former species. PMID:16347305

  15. The effect of temperature on Rhizoctonia disease development and fungicide efficacy in controlling Rhizoctonia root rot on sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugarbeet. This disease has recently been increasing in occurrence and severity in sugarbeet production areas in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Since the intraspecific groups AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-...

  16. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    PubMed

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents. PMID:15750748

  17. The expansion of brown rot disease throughout Bolivia: possible role of climate change.

    PubMed

    Castillo, José Antonio; Plata, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating plant disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum species complex and affects different crops. Bacterial wilt infecting potato is also known as brown rot (BR) and is responsible for significant economic losses in potato production, especially in developing countries. In Bolivia, BR affects up to 75% of the potato crop in areas with high incidence and 100% of stored potatoes. The disease has disseminated since its introduction to the country in the mid-1980s mostly through contaminated seed tubers. To avoid this, local farmers multiply seed tubers in highlands because the strain infecting potatoes cannot survive near-freezing temperatures that are typical in the high mountains. Past disease surveys have shown an increase in seed tubers with latent infection in areas at altitudes lower than 3000 m a.s.l. Since global warming is increasing in the Andes Mountains, in this work, we explored the incidence of BR in areas at altitudes above 3000 m a.s.l. Results showed BR presence in the majority of these areas, suggesting a correlation between the increase in disease incidence and the increase in temperature and the number of irregular weather events resulting from climate change. However, it cannot be excluded that the increasing availability of latently infected seed tubers has boosted the spread of BR. PMID:26991236

  18. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    PubMed

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália. PMID:26911161

  19. Biocontrol of the Potato Blackleg and Soft Rot Diseases Caused by Dickeya dianthicola

    PubMed Central

    Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Cigna, Jérémy; Quêtu-Laurent, Angélique; Caron, Aline; Munier, Euphrasie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    Development of protection tools targeting Dickeya species is an important issue in the potato production. Here, we present the identification and the characterization of novel biocontrol agents. Successive screenings of 10,000 bacterial isolates led us to retain 58 strains that exhibited growth inhibition properties against several Dickeya sp. and/or Pectobacterium sp. pathogens. Most of them belonged to the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. In vitro assays revealed a fitness decrease of the tested Dickeya sp. and Pectobacterium sp. pathogens in the presence of the biocontrol agents. In addition, four independent greenhouse assays performed to evaluate the biocontrol bacteria effect on potato plants artificially contaminated with Dickeya dianthicola revealed that a mix of three biocontrol agents, namely, Pseudomonas putida PA14H7 and Pseudomonas fluorescens PA3G8 and PA4C2, repeatedly decreased the severity of blackleg symptoms as well as the transmission of D. dianthicola to the tuber progeny. This work highlights the use of a combination of biocontrol strains as a potential strategy to limit the soft rot and blackleg diseases caused by D. dianthicola on potato plants and tubers. PMID:26497457

  20. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650–660), far red (720–730) and blue (440–450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

  1. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to three seed borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-borne diseases of soybeans caused by Phomopsis longicolla (Phomopsis seed decay), Cercospora kukuchii (purple seed stain), and M. phaseolina (charcoal rot) are economically important seed-borne diseases that affect seed quality. Commercial cultivars marketed as resistant to all the three disea...

  2. Pythium Root Rot (and Feeder Root Necrosis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium species cause a number of diseases on corn. Among the Pythium diseases, root rot presents the least conspicuous aboveground symptoms. Broadly defined, root rot also includes feeder root necrosis. At least 16 species of Pythium are known to cause root rot of corn. These include P. acanthicu...

  3. Disease Lesion Mimics of Maize as a Potential Source of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium ear rot of maize is a major problem worldwide, often resulting in poor quality grain and contamination with a family of mycotoxins called fumonisins. Fumonisins are produced by Fusarium verticillioides and related species and are acutely toxic to certain livestock. They function by inhibi...

  4. Nitrogen Fertilizer Affects the Severity of Anthracnose Crown Rot Disease of Greenhouse Grown Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the severity of anthracnose crown rot was evaluated in three greenhouse studies. Strawberry plants were fertilized three times weekly with a modified Hoagland's Nutrient Solution containing the treatments and inoculated eight weeks after treat...

  5. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  6. Irrigation management: effects of soybean diseases on seed composition in genotypes differing in their disease resistance under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Nutritional qualities of soybean seed are determined by the quantity and quality of seed composition components (protein, oil, fatty acids, isoflavones, and minerals). Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseol...

  7. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  8. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  9. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    PubMed

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

  10. Root Interactions in a Maize/Soybean Intercropping System Control Soybean Soil-Borne Disease, Red Crown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Man; Xu, Ruineng; Wang, Xiurong; Pan, Ruqian; Kim, Hye-Ji; Liao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. Principal Findings In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum). The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices. PMID:24810161

  11. Effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro and its effects on disease severity of soybean in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina culture growth in vitro and the disease severity of charcoal rot in soybean at Stoneville, MS and Jackson, TN. Glyphosate inhibited M. phaseolina growth in a linear dose dependent manner when ...

  12. Cylindrocarpon root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cylindrocarpon root rot of alfalfa has been found sporadically in Canada and the northern United States. The etiology of this disease is not fully understood, but the priority for research has not been high because of its infrequent occurrence. The infected area of the root initially has a water-soa...

  13. The Effect of Potassium Nitrate on the Reduction of Phytophthora Stem Rot Disease of Soybeans, the Growth Rate and Zoospore Release of Phytophthora Sojae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium nitrate (KNO3) application on Phytophthora stem rot disease reduction of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. Chusei-Hikarikuro and Sachiyutaka, and fungal growth and zoospore release of a Phytophthora sojae isolate were investigated under laboratory conditions. The application of 4-...

  14. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  15. Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

    PubMed

    Dania, Victor Ohileobo; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Ayodele, Maria; Kumar, P Lava

    2014-01-01

    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria-the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ≤ 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers. PMID:25674452

  16. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

  17. FIELD AND GREENHOUSE EVALUATION OF BEAN GERMPLASM FOR ROOT ROT AND OTHER DISEASES IN NEW YORK, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot is a significant production constraint in beans worldwide in both temperate and tropical soils leading to complete crop loss under severe conditions. Two trials were conducted on common bean lines under root rot conditions in the field at the Cornell’s Vegetable Research Farm near Geneva, N...

  18. Assessment of organic seed treatments in a pea disease nursery to manage seed and root rot on peas, 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-one organic seed treatments consisting of biological, non-biological and a combination of each were evaluated in a pea root rot field nursery in Prosser, WA for their potential to manage seed and root rot pathogens of processed peas. Non-treated seed and a commercial seed treatment (Capta...

  19. Brown Root Rot of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin describes the disease of alfalfa called brown root rot (BRR) including: the disease symptoms, the fungal pathogen and its biology, its distribution, and disease management. Since the 1920s, BRR has been regarded as an important disease of forage legumes, including alfalfa, in northern ...

  20. Reaction of selected soybean cultivars to Rhizoctonia root rot and other damping-off disease agents.

    PubMed

    Amer, M A

    2005-01-01

    Eight soybean cultivars; Giza 21. Giza 22, Giza 35, Giza 82, Giza 83, Crawford, Holladay and Toamo were evaluated to Rhizoctonia root rot using agar plate and potted plant techniques. Data cleared that, in agar plate assay all soybean cultivars were moderately susceptible (MS), although the differences between them were significant (P=0.05). Generally, in potted assay, the reactions were resistant (R) or moderately resistant (MR) to root rots. Also, the differences between cultivars were significant (P=0.05). These cultivars were inoculated under greenhouse conditions with Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii Generally, G21 had the least pre-emergence damping-off followed by Giza 35, Crawford and Giza 83 with averages of 19.0, 20.0, 20.5 and 21.5%, respectively. In case of post-emergence, Giza 35 had the least values, followed by Giza 21, Crawford and Giza 82 with averages 3.95, 4.10, 4.10 and 4.25%, respectively. Under naturally infested soil in the field conditions the reactions of the same cultivars to damping-off were evaluated in two successive seasons. In 2002 season, G35 had the least pre-emergence damping-off % followed by Giza 21 and Giza 22 with averages of 22.61, 24.33 and 29.33%, respectively. Also, G35 had the least post-emergence damping-off % followed by Toamo and Giza 21 with averages of 9.40, 10.33 and 10.41%, respectively. In 2003 season, the same trend was appeared with light grade where Giza 35 had the least pre-emergence damping of % followed by Giza 22 and Giza 21 with averages of 30.67, 31.00 and 36.67%, respectively and Giza 35 was the most resistant cultivar against post-emergence damping-off, followed by Giza 21 and Giza 22 with averages of 10.91, 11.32 and 11.80%, respectively. Generally, Giza 21 significantly surpassed the other cultivars in plant height, number of pods per plant and 100-seed weight. Moreover, also it had second grade with the other traits. PMID:16637203

  1. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    The volatile organic sampling train (VOST) is currently one the leading methodologies available for the sampling and analysis of volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) and products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from stationary sources at very low levels. However, revisions to the original method are necessary to maintain VOST as a viable regulatory tool. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. The following carbon-based candidate sorbents were considered: Tenax-GR (a graphitized Tenax); a Petroleum-based Charcoal; Ambersorbe XE-340 (hydrophobic carbonized resin bead); Anasorb 747 (beaded active carbon with very regular pore size); Carbosieve{reg_sign} S-III (carbon molecular sieve); and a Beaded Activated Charcoal (BAC) (with a very regular pore size). The results indicated that Tenax-GR showed significantly poorer performance than the other candidates in preliminary experimental results. Ambersorb did not retain the gaseous volatile organic compounds tested as well as the others and recovery of vinyl chloride was very low at all levels of spiking. Carbosieve was eliminated as a candidate replacement because of cost and handling problems. The petroleum-based charcoal was eliminated because of difficulties in handling a finely-divided powder. The availability of Anasorb 747 proved to be the deciding factor between it and the BAC. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb{reg_sign} 747 a good choice for replacement of SKC Lot 104. 1 tab.

  2. Field application of safe chemical elicitors induced the expression of some resistance genes against grey mold and cottony rot diseases during snap bean pods storage.

    PubMed

    El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Rashid, Ismail A S; Abou-Ali, Rania M; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2016-01-15

    Phaseolus vulgaris is subjected to serious post-harvest diseases such as grey mold and cottony rot diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pythium aphanidermatum, respectively. In current study, potassium silicate (KSi), potassium thiosulfate (KTS) and potassium sulfate (KS) suppressed moderately the growth of B. cinerea and P. aphanidermatum in vitro. The applied treatments significantly suppressed grey mold and cottony rot of Xera and Valentino snap beans varieties' pods stored at 7 ± 1°C and 90-95% RH for 20 days. Ethylene responsive factor (ERF), polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP), phosphatase associated to defense (PA) and pathogenesis-related protein (PR1) defense genes were over-expressed in leaves tissue of both bean varieties responding positively to potassium salts field application. The expression of these genes was influenced by plant genotype and environment as it varied by snap bean varieties. Accumulation of ERF, GIP, PA and PR1 genes transcript under KTS at 4000 ppm treatment were the highest in Xera tissues (3.5-, 4.8-, 4- and 4.8-fold, respectively). In conclusion, pre-harvest potassium salt in vivo application could be used as effective safe alternatives to fungicides against grey mold and cottony rot diseases of snap beans during storage for up to 20 days at 7 ± 1°C. PMID:26526133

  3. Charcoal filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  4. Isolation, characterization, and formulation of antagonistic bacteria for the management of seedlings damping-off and root rot disease of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Khabbaz, Salah Eddin; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

    2014-01-01

    Antagonistic bacteria are common soil inhabitants with potential to be developed into biofungicides for the management of seedling damping-off, root rot, and other soil-borne diseases of various crops. In this study, antagonistic bacteria were isolated from a commercial potato field and screened for their growth inhibition of fungal and oomycete pathogens in laboratory tests. The biocontrol potential of the 3 most effective antagonistic bacteria from the in vitro tests was evaluated against seedling damping-off and root rot of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. Based on phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, and sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA gene, the 3 antagonistic bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (isolate 9A-14), Pseudomonas sp. (isolate 8D-45), and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 8B-1). All 3 bacteria promoted plant growth and suppressed Pythium damping-off and root rot of cucumber seedlings in growth-room assays. Both pre- and post-planting application of these bacteria to an infested peat mix significantly increased plant fresh masses by 113%-184% and percentage of healthy seedlings by 100%-290%, and decreased damping-off and root rot severity by 27%-50%. The peat and talc formulations of these antagonistic bacteria applied as seed or amendment treatments to the infested peat mix effectively controlled Pythium damping-off and root rot of cucumber seedlings and enhanced plant growth. The survival of all 3 antagonistic bacteria in peat and talc formulations decreased over time at room temperature, but the populations remained above 10(8) CFU/g during the 180-day storage period. The peat formulation of a mixture of 3 bacteria was the best seed treatment, significantly increasing the plant fresh masses by 245% as compared with the Pythium control, and by 61.4% as compared with the noninfested control. This study suggests that the indigenous bacteria from agricultural soils can be developed and formulated as biofungicides for minimizing

  5. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment. PMID:25492807

  6. Genetic analysis of resistance gene analogues from a sugarcane cultivar resistant to red rot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the important approaches for disease control in sugarcane is to develop a disease resistant variety; this may be accomplished through identification of resistance genes in sugarcane. In this study, PCR primers targeting the conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) class and kinas...

  7. Sugarbeet Cultivar Evaluation for Bacterial Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugarbeet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, studies were conducted to establish an assa...

  8. Cultivar selection for bacterial root rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States, which has frequently been found in association with Rhizoctonia root rot. To reduce the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, st...

  9. BGRcast: A Disease Forecast Model to Support Decision-making for Chemical Sprays to Control Bacterial Grain Rot of Rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hwan; Ko, Sug-Ju; Cha, Kwang-Hong; Park, Eun Woo

    2015-12-01

    A disease forecast model for bacterial grain rot (BGR) of rice, which is caused by Burkholderia glumae, was developed in this study. The model, which was named 'BGRcast', determined daily conduciveness of weather conditions to epidemic development of BGR and forecasted risk of BGR development. All data that were used to develop and validate the BGRcast model were collected from field observations on disease incidence at Naju, Korea during 1998-2004 and 2010. In this study, we have proposed the environmental conduciveness as a measure of conduciveness of weather conditions for population growth of B. glumae and panicle infection in the field. The BGRcast calculated daily environmental conduciveness, Ci , based on daily minimum temperature and daily average relative humidity. With regard to the developmental stages of rice plants, the epidemic development of BGR was divided into three phases, i.e., lag, inoculum build-up and infection phases. Daily average of Ci was calculated for the inoculum build-up phase (Cinf ) and the infection phase (Cinc ). The Cinc and Cinf were considered environmental conduciveness for the periods of inoculum build-up in association with rice plants and panicle infection during the heading stage, respectively. The BGRcast model was able to forecast actual occurrence of BGR at the probability of 71.4% and its false alarm ratio was 47.6%. With the thresholds of Cinc = 0.3 and Cinf = 0.5, the model was able to provide advisories that could be used to make decisions on whether to spray bactericide at the pre- and post-heading stage. PMID:26672893

  10. BGRcast: A Disease Forecast Model to Support Decision-making for Chemical Sprays to Control Bacterial Grain Rot of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Hwan; Ko, Sug-Ju; Cha, Kwang-Hong; Park, Eun Woo

    2015-01-01

    A disease forecast model for bacterial grain rot (BGR) of rice, which is caused by Burkholderia glumae, was developed in this study. The model, which was named ‘BGRcast’, determined daily conduciveness of weather conditions to epidemic development of BGR and forecasted risk of BGR development. All data that were used to develop and validate the BGRcast model were collected from field observations on disease incidence at Naju, Korea during 1998–2004 and 2010. In this study, we have proposed the environmental conduciveness as a measure of conduciveness of weather conditions for population growth of B. glumae and panicle infection in the field. The BGRcast calculated daily environmental conduciveness, Ci, based on daily minimum temperature and daily average relative humidity. With regard to the developmental stages of rice plants, the epidemic development of BGR was divided into three phases, i.e., lag, inoculum build-up and infection phases. Daily average of Ci was calculated for the inoculum build-up phase (Cinf) and the infection phase (Cinc). The Cinc and Cinf were considered environmental conduciveness for the periods of inoculum build-up in association with rice plants and panicle infection during the heading stage, respectively. The BGRcast model was able to forecast actual occurrence of BGR at the probability of 71.4% and its false alarm ratio was 47.6%. With the thresholds of Cinc = 0.3 and Cinf = 0.5, the model was able to provide advisories that could be used to make decisions on whether to spray bactericide at the pre- and post-heading stage. PMID:26672893

  11. Genetic and pathogenic variability of Indian strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causing black rot disease in crucifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh; Dhar, Shri; Yadava, D K

    2011-12-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel) Dowson (Xcc) causing black rot of crucifers is a serious disease in India and causes >50% crop losses in favorable environmental conditions. Pathogenic variability of Xcc, X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and X. axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) were tested on 19 cultivars of cruciferae including seven Brassica spp. viz., B. campestris, B. carinata, B. juncea, B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa, and Raphanus sativus for two consecutive years viz., 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 under field conditions at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Xcc (22 strains) and other species of Xanthomonas (2 strains), they formed three distinct groups of pathogenic variability i.e., Group 1, 2, and 3 under 50% minimum similarity coefficient. All strains of Xcc clustered under Groupl except Xcc-C20. The strains of Xcc further clustered in 6 subgroups viz., A, B, C, D, E, and F based on diseases reaction on host. Genetic variability of 22 strains of Xcc was studied by using Rep-PCR (REP-, BOX- and ERIC-PCR) and 10 strains for hrp (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenecity) gene sequence analysis. Xcc strains comprised in cluster 1, Xac under cluster 2, while Xoo formed separate cluster 3 based on >50% similarity coefficient. Cluster 1 was further divided into 8 subgroups viz., A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H at 75% similarity coefficient. The hrpF gene sequence analysis also showed distinctness of Xcc strains from other Xanthomonads. In this study, genetic and pathogenic variability in Indian strains of Xcc were established, which will be of immense use in the development of resistant genotypes against this bacterial pathogen. PMID:21956666

  12. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot is a soilborne disease of lentil caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, and is favored by cool (11-19 C or 52 - 66 F) and wet soil conditions. The disease starts as reddish or dark brown lesions on lentil plants near the soil line, and develops into sunken lesions an...

  13. Response of the Andean diversity panel to root rot in a root rot nursery in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Andean Diversity Panel (ADP) was evaluated under low-fertility and root rot conditions in two trials conducted in 2013 and 2015 in Isabela, Puerto Rico. About 246 ADP lines were evaluated in the root rot nursery with root rot and stem diseases caused predominantly by Fusarium solani, which cause...

  14. The influence of phosphorus concentration on the development of Pythium root rot disease of seedling geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse production systems, growers may increase nutrient supply to meet production demands or decrease nutrient supply due to cost or environmental concerns. Only a few floriculture crops’ response in different nutrient environments to a handful of diseases are well known. Seeding geraniums...

  15. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  16. First Report of Charcoal Rot of Sunflower in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid 'Pioneer 63M82') was observed with uneven maturation in west central Minnesota near Aldrich (Todd County) in late September, 2009. The field's soil type was sandy loam and cropping history was oats in 2008 preceded by four years of alfalfa. M...

  17. TOWARDS INTEGRATED CONTROL OF FROSTY POD ROT (MONILIOPHTHORA RORERI) OF CACAO: A MODEL PROGRAMME FOR PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a major biological constraint to cocoa production in Latin America. The pathogen is still in an invasive phase and poses a continuing threat to other cocoa growing areas of Latin America (Brazil and Bolivia), having recently invade...

  18. Genome Sequence of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum Strain CFBP6276, Causing Blackleg and Soft Rot Diseases on Potato Plants and Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Beury-Cirou, Amélie

    2013-01-01

    Pectobacterium atrosepticum strain CFBP6276 is a pectinolytic enterobacterium causing blackleg and soft rot of the stem and tuber of Solanum tuberosum. Its virulence is under the control of quorum sensing, with N-acylhomoserine lactones as communication signals. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. atrosepticum strain CFBP6276. PMID:23788545

  19. A Leaf-Inhabiting Endophytic Bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. KB6, Enhances Sweet Potato Resistance to Black Rot Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chi Eun; Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kwon, Suk Yoon; An, Donghwan; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-03-01

    Rhodococcus species have become increasingly important owing to their ability to degrade a wide range of toxic chemicals and produce bioactive compounds. Here, we report isolation of the Rhodococcus sp. KB6, which is a new leaf-inhabiting endophytic bacterium that suppresses black rot disease in sweet potato leaves. We determined the 7.0 Mb draft genome sequence of KB6 and have predicted 19 biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites, including heterobactins, which are a new class of siderophores. Notably, we showed the first internal colonization of host plants with Rhodococcus sp. KB6 and discuss its potential as a biocontrol agent for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26767576

  20. Dry root rot of chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry root rot of chickpea is a serious disease under dry hot summer conditions, particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Ethiopia, and in central and southern India. It usually occurs at reproductive stages of the plant. Symptoms include drooping of petioles and leaflets of the tips, but not the low...

  1. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  2. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. PMID:23376194

  3. Pseudomonads associated with midrib rot and soft rot of butterhead lettuce and endive.

    PubMed

    Cottyn, B; Vanhouteghem, K; Heyrman, J; Bleyaert, P; Van Vaerenbergh, J; De Vos, P; Höfte, M; Maes, M

    2005-01-01

    During the past ten years, bacterial soft rot and midrib rot of glasshouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) and field-grown endive (Cichorium endivia L.) has become increasingly common in the region of Flanders, Belgium. Severe losses and reduced market quality caused by bacterial rot represent an important economical threat for the production sector. Symptoms of midrib rot are a brownish rot along the midrib of one or more inner leaves, often accompanied by soft rot of the leaf blade. Twenty-five symptomatic lettuce and endive samples were collected from commercial growers at different locations in Flanders. Isolations of dominant bacterial colony types on dilution plates from macerated diseased tissue extracts yielded 282 isolates. All isolates were characterized by colony morphology and fluorescence on pseudomonas agar F medium, oxidase reaction, and soft rot ability on detached chicory leaves. Whole-cell fatty acid methyl esters profile analyses identified the majority of isolates (85%) as belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, which included members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (14%) and of the genera Pseudomonas (73%), Stenotrophomonas (9%), and Acinetobacter (3%). Predominant bacteria were a diverse group of fluorescent Pseudomonas species. They were further differentiated based on the non-host hypersensitive reaction on tobacco and the ability to rot potato slices into 4 phenotypic groups: HR-/P- (57 isolates), HR-/P+ (54 isolates), HR+/P (16 isolates) and HR+/P+ (35 isolates). Artificial inoculation of suspensions of HR-, pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads in the leaf midrib of lettuce plants produced various symptoms of soft rot, but they did not readily cause symptoms upon spray inoculation. Fluorescent pseudomonads with phenotype HR+ were consistently isolated from typical dark midrib rot symptoms, and selected isolates reproduced the typical midrib rot symptoms when spray-inoculated onto healthy lettuce plants. PMID

  4. Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of subarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani and is one of the most severe soil-borne diseases of sugarbeet in Minnesota and North Dakota. Rhizoctonia root and crown rot may reduce yield significantly, and diseased beets may cause problems in storage piles. Fields with...

  5. Biological Control of Phacidiopycnis Rot in ‘d’Anjou’ Pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis rot, caused by Phacidiopycnis piri, is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of pears (Pyrus) in the U.S. and a major disease of ‘d’Anjou’ pears grown in Washington State. Phacidiopycnis rot can originate from infection of wounds on the fruit. In this study, two biocontrol...

  6. Fungitoxicity of some higher plants and synergistic activity of their essential oils against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K

    Twenty five plant species were screened for their volatile components against hyphal growth and sclerotia formation of Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides (CA), Lippia alba (LA), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were found to be strongly toxic. Their volatile active factors were isolated in the form of essential oils which were tested for toxicity individually and in six combinations (1:1 v/v) viz. CA-LA, LA-AI, CA-AI, CA-EG, and EG-AI. The oil combinations were found to be more fungitoxic than the individual oils. The CA-LA, LA-AI, EG-AI, and CA-EG combinations exhibited a broad fnngitoxic spectrum while CA-AI, LA-EG combinations possessed a narrow range of toxicity. None of the six oil combinations showed phytotoxic behaviour on seed germination, seedling growth and general morphology of Hordeum vulgare. PMID:18697732

  7. Advances in the development of sunflower germplasm with resistance to both Sclerotinia stalk rot and head rot - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia diseases remain the most significant of all diseases on both oilseed and confection sunflower production in the U.S. In 2007 Sclerotinia stalk rot and head rot affected 30% and 26%, respectively, of fields surveyed in North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Kansas, Colorado and Texas. S...

  8. Black streak root rot of lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black streak root rot of lentil is caused by the soil borne fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. The pathogen is widespread. The disease shows symptoms of black streaking on root, and stunted plants. The disease is favored by cool and moist weather. Management of the disease rely on avoiding fields wi...

  9. Transgenic sweet potato expressing thionin from barley gives resistance to black rot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in leaves and storage roots.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimamura, Takashi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Hori, Etsuko; Koda, Katsunori; Otani, Motoyasu; Hirai, Masana; Nakamura, Kenzo; Imaeda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Black rot of sweet potato caused by pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata severely deteriorates both growth of plants and post-harvest storage. Antimicrobial peptides from various organisms have broad range activities of killing bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. Plant thionin peptide exhibited anti-fungal activity against C. fimbriata. A gene for barley α-hordothionin (αHT) was placed downstream of a strong constitutive promoter of E12Ω or the promoter of a sweet potato gene for β-amylase of storage roots, and introduced into sweet potato commercial cultivar Kokei No. 14. Transgenic E12Ω:αHT plants showed high-level expression of αHT mRNA in both leaves and storage roots. Transgenic β-Amy:αHT plants showed sucrose-inducible expression of αHT mRNA in leaves, in addition to expression in storage roots. Leaves of E12Ω:αHT plants exhibited reduced yellowing upon infection by C. fimbriata compared to leaves of non-transgenic Kokei No. 14, although the level of resistance was weaker than resistance cultivar Tamayutaka. Storage roots of both E12Ω:αHT and β-Amy:αHT plants exhibited reduced lesion areas around the site inoculated with C. fimbriata spores compared to Kokei No. 14, and some of the transgenic lines showed resistance level similar to Tamayutaka. Growth of plants and production of storage roots of these transgenic plants were not significantly different from non-transgenic plants. These results highlight the usefulness of transgenic sweet potato expressing antimicrobial peptide to reduce damages of sweet potato from the black rot disease and to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals. PMID:22212462

  10. Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

  11. Agro-ecological variations of sheath rot disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae and DNA fingerprinting of the pathogen's population structure.

    PubMed

    Tajul Islam Chowdhury, M; Salim Mian, M; Taher Mia, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of regional and seasonal variations on the incidence and severity of sheath rot, a major seed-borne disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae, data on incidence and severity were collected from 27 selected fields in the Gazipur, Rangpur, Bogra, Chittagong, Comilla, Gopalgonj, Jessore, Manikgonj, and Bhola districts of Bangladesh in rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Cultural variability of 29 pathogen isolates obtained from 8 different locations was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and genetic variability was determined by DNA fingerprinting using variable number tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction markers. Overall, disease incidence and severity were higher in irrigated rice. Disease incidence and severity were highest in the Bhola district in rain-fed rice and lowest in irrigated rice. Mycelial growth of 29 representative isolates was found to vary on PDA and the isolates were divided into 6 groups. The range of the overall size of conidia of the selected isolates was 2.40-7.20 x 1.20-2.40 μm. Analysis of the DNA fingerprint types of the 29 isolates of S. oryzae, obtained from the amplification reactions, revealed 10 fingerprinting types (FPTs) that were 80% similar. FPT-1 was the largest group and included 13 isolates (44.8%), while FPT-2 was the third largest group and included 3 isolates. Each of FPT-3, 4, 5, and 6 included only 1 isolate. We observed no relationship between cultural and genetic groupings. PMID:26782461

  12. Tolerance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici is distributed worldwide, and is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Fruit rot, caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. Resistance to fruit rot o...

  13. Dig Alfalfa Plants to Assess Root Rots and Yield Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digging alfalfa plants and inspecting their crowns and roots for rot is critical to assess stand health and production potential. Brown root rot (BRR) has been a significant plant disease on alfalfa for decades but until recently was thought to only cause significant damage in western Canada. With i...

  14. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  15. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  16. The plant pathogen Pantoea ananatis produces N-acylhomoserine lactone and causes center rot disease of onion by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Yamazaki, Go; Ishida, Akio; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2007-11-01

    A number of gram-negative bacteria have a quorum-sensing system and produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) that they use them as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. Pantoea ananatis is reported as a common colonist of wheat heads at ripening and causes center rot of onion. In this study, we demonstrated that P. ananatis SK-1 produced two AHLs, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). We cloned the AHL-synthase gene (eanI) and AHL-receptor gene (eanR) and revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of EanI/EanR showed high identity to those of EsaI/EsaR from P. stewartii. EanR repressed the ean box sequence and the addition of AHLs resulted in derepression of ean box. Inactivation of the chromosomal eanI gene in SK-1 caused disruption of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves, which were recovered by adding exogenous 3-oxo-C6-HSL. These results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing system involved the biosynthesis of EPS, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves in P. ananatis SK-1. PMID:17827290

  17. The Plant Pathogen Pantoea ananatis Produces N-Acylhomoserine Lactone and Causes Center Rot Disease of Onion by Quorum Sensing▿

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Yamazaki, Go; Ishida, Akio; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    A number of gram-negative bacteria have a quorum-sensing system and produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) that they use them as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. Pantoea ananatis is reported as a common colonist of wheat heads at ripening and causes center rot of onion. In this study, we demonstrated that P. ananatis SK-1 produced two AHLs, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). We cloned the AHL-synthase gene (eanI) and AHL-receptor gene (eanR) and revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of EanI/EanR showed high identity to those of EsaI/EsaR from P. stewartii. EanR repressed the ean box sequence and the addition of AHLs resulted in derepression of ean box. Inactivation of the chromosomal eanI gene in SK-1 caused disruption of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves, which were recovered by adding exogenous 3-oxo-C6-HSL. These results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing system involved the biosynthesis of EPS, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves in P. ananatis SK-1. PMID:17827290

  18. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder.

  19. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  20. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products

    PubMed Central

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  1. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products.

    PubMed

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-11-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  2. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, and FPR is one of the most destructive diseases of this important perennial crop in the Americas. This hemibiotroph infects only cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty days, culminating in plant necrosis and sporulation of the fungus without the formation of a basidiocarp. Results We sequenced and assembled 52.3 Mb into 3,298 contigs that represent the M. roreri genome. Of the 17,920 predicted open reading frames (OFRs), 13,760 were validated by RNA-Seq. Using read count data from RNA sequencing of cacao pods at 30 and 60 days post infection, differential gene expression was estimated for the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of this plant-pathogen interaction. The sequencing data were used to develop a genome based secretome for the infected pods. Of the 1,535 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 1,355 were expressed in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. Analysis of the data revealed secretome gene expression that correlated with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. Conclusions Genome sequencing and RNA-Seq was used to determine and validate the Moniliophthora roreri genome and secretome. High sequence identity between Moniliophthora roreri genes and Moniliophthora perniciosa genes supports the taxonomic relationship with Moniliophthora perniciosa and the relatedness of this fungus to other basidiomycetes. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from infected plant tissues revealed differentially expressed genes in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. The secreted protein genes that were upregulated in the biotrophic phase are primarily associated with breakdown of the intercellular matrix and modification of the fungal mycelia, possibly to mask the fungus from plant defenses. Based on the

  3. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  4. Stachbotrys Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

  5. Armillaria root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First described on grapevines in California in the 1880s, Armillaria root rot occurs in all major grape-growing regions of the state. The causal fungus, Armillaria mellea, infects woody grapevine roots and the base of the trunk (the root collar), resulting in a slow decline and eventual death of the...

  6. Sorghum recombinant inbred lines segregating for stay-green QTL's and leaf dhurrin content show differential reaction to stalk rot diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association between post-flowering drought tolerance and the stay-green phenotype in sorghum is well established. More recent studies link the stay-green phenotype with levels of dhurrin and soluble sugars in the leaves. Post-flowering drought response has always been associated with stalk rot r...

  7. Charcoal/Nitrogen Adsorption Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Refrigerator with no wear-related moving parts produces 0.5 W of cooling at 118 K. When fully developed, refrigerator needs no electrical power, and life expectancy of more than 10 yr, operates unattended to cool sensitive infrared detectors for long periods. Only moving parts in adsorption cryocooler are check valves. As charcoal is cooled in canister, gas pressure drops, allowing inlet check valve to open and admit more nitrogen. When canister is heated, pressure rises, closing inlet valve and eventually opening outlet valve.

  8. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  9. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1985-09-30

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

  10. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this s...

  11. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within a growing season using airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a serious and destructive disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infections is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  12. Molecular genetic characterization of the interaction of stem rot (Sclerotium Oryzae) and rice (Oryza Sativa).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotium oryzae is the causal agent of stem rot disease in rice, one of the most important rice diseases in California. Resistance to stem rot, derived from a wild relative of rice called Oryza rufipogon, was identified over twenty years ago and has been crossed into various California breeding li...

  13. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  14. Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot expansion within a growing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infestations is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this study was to use airborne multispectral imagery...

  15. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region. PMID:26214435

  16. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants. PMID:15151303

  17. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  18. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  19. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  20. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  1. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  2. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  3. Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

    1995-12-31

    In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

  4. Mechanically robust, chemically inert superhydrophobic charcoal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian-Bo; Li, Liang; Knyazeva, Anastassiya; Weston, James; Naumov, Panče

    2016-08-11

    We report a fast and cost-effective strategy towards the preparation of superhydrophobic composites where a double-sided adhesive tape is paved with charcoal particles. The composites are mechanically robust, and resistant to strong chemical agents. PMID:27405255

  5. Mapping the Legacies of Historic Charcoal Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Raab, A.; Raab, T. A.; Takla, M.; Nicolay, A.; Rösler, H.

    2014-12-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. We present methods and results of our work in this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field and of additional studies on kiln site distribution in regions of the Northern European Lowlands. The large-scale excavations in the mine forefield provide exact information on kiln site geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield. To detect kiln sites for larger areas, an automated GIS based mapping routine, based on a combination of morphometric parameters, was developed and evaluated. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield, with 1355 kiln sites that are wider than 12 m. These relatively large kiln sites could be mapped with detection rates that are close to those of manual digitization using the automated routine. First results for different study areas indicate that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  6. Fluidized bed charcoal particle production system

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.

    1985-04-09

    A fluidized bed charcoal particle production system, including apparatus and method, wherein pieces of combustible waste, such as sawdust, fragments of wood, etc., are continuously disposed within a fluidized bed of a pyrolytic vessel. Preferably, the fluidized bed is caused to reach operating temperatures by use of an external pre-heater. The fluidized bed is situated above an air delivery system at the bottom of the vessel, which supports pyrolysis within the fluidized bed. Charcoal particles are thus formed within the bed from the combustible waste and are lifted from the bed and placed in suspension above the bed by forced air passing upwardly through the bed. The suspended charcoal particles and the gaseous medium in which the particles are suspended are displaced from the vessel into a cyclone mechanism where the charcoal particles are separated. The separated charcoal particles are quenched with water to terminate all further charcoal oxidation. The remaining off-gas is burned and, preferably, the heat therefrom used to generate steam, kiln dry lumber, etc. Preferably, the bed material is continuously recirculated and purified by removing tramp material.

  7. Mapping cotton root rot infestations over a 10-year interval with airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the pathogen Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate information regarding temporal changes of cotton root rot infestations within fields is important for the management and c...

  8. Effect of actigard and other new fungicides on phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. Between 2003 and 2008, we observed many watermelon farms in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, where growers did not harvest the crop due to severe fruit rot. The Natio...

  9. First report of Fusarium torulosum causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen species of Fusarium have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, eight species have been reported in the northern United S...

  10. Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. Plants belonging to the core collection of U.S. watermelon plant introductions (PI) were grown in a field on raised plastic beds to evaluate for fruit rot resistance in 2009. Fi...

  11. New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. It has also been considered as an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association (NWA). Managing Phytophthora fruit rot can be dif...

  12. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  13. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  14. Vine kill interval and temperature effects on Fusarium dry rot development in Russet Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot disease development in potato storage is universal to all market sectors and regions. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate three possible management decisions that may impact Fusarium dry rot development in storage: a) vine kill to harvest time, b) harvested tuber pulp...

  15. First Report of Fusarium redolens Causing Crown Rot of Wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  16. The effect of long term storage on bacterial soft rot resistance in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial soft rot is a serious disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), causing rapid tuber tissue maceration and, consequently, marketable yield loss. Soft rot bacteria, especially Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pbc), are favored by moist conditions, which are prevalent in large p...

  17. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  18. Leaf Spot and Stem Rot on Wilford Swallowwort Caused by Stemphylium lycopersici in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee; Shim, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2012-01-01

    In June 2012, leaf spot and stem rot were observed on Wilford Swallowwort plants grown in Cheonan, Korea. Three fungal isolates obtained from the diseased leaves and stems were identified as Stemphylium lycopersici, based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity. This is the first report of leaf spot and stem rot on Wilford Swallowwort caused by S. lycopersici. PMID:23323055

  19. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  20. First report of Calonectria hongkongensis causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot is a major pre- and post-harvest disease problem in rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at the USDA-TARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and tissue sections (1 mm2) were superficially sterilized with 70% ethanol and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. ...

  1. Commercial Sugar Beet Cultivars Evaluated for Resistance to Bacterial Root Rot in Idaho, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, a study was conducted to identify resistan...

  2. Cultural Practices and Chemical Treatments Affect Phytophthora Root Rot Severity of Blueberries Grown in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of commercial blueberries and is most severe when blueberries are grown in wet soils with poor drainage. Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot include small, yellow or red leaves, lack of new growth, root necrosis, and a smaller than normal root system. Inf...

  3. Effect of Cultural Practices and Fungicides on Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in the Carolinas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Southeastern U.S. To develop strategies to manage Phytophthora fruit rot, we evaluated the effects of two cultural practices (raised bare ground and plastic mulched ...

  4. Survival of southern highbush blueberry cultivars in Phytophthora Root Rot Infested fields in South Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of commercial blueberries and is most severe when blueberries are grown in wet soils with poor drainage. Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot include small, yellow or red leaves, lack of new growth, root necrosis, and a smaller root system than healthy plan...

  5. Evaluation of Actigard and Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S., and has been considered as a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association (NWA). Managing Phytophthora fruit rot can be difficult because of the l...

  6. Experimental Sugar Beet Cultivars Evaluated for Resistance Bacterial Root Rot in Idaho, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, a study was conducted to identify resistan...

  7. Spatiotemporal characterization of Sclerotinia crown rot epidemics in pyrethrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown rot, caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum is a disease of pyrethrum in Australia that may cause substantial decline in plant density. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the disease were quantified in 14 fields spread across three growing seasons. Fitting the binary ...

  8. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  9. Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

  10. Etiology and Epidemiological Conditions Promoting Fusarium Root Rot in Sweetpotato.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, A C; Quesada-Ocampo, L M

    2016-08-01

    Sweetpotato production in the United States is limited by several postharvest diseases, and one of the most common is Fusarium root rot. Although Fusarium solani is believed to be the primary causal agent of disease, numerous other Fusarium spp. have been reported to infect sweetpotato. However, the diversity of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina is unknown. In addition, the lack of labeled and effective fungicides for control of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato creates the need for integrated strategies to control disease. Nonetheless, epidemiological factors that promote Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato remain unexplored. A survey of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina identified six species contributing to disease, with F. solani as the primary causal agent. The effects of storage temperature (13, 18, 23, 29, and 35°C), relative humidity (80, 90, and 100%), and initial inoculum level (3-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter mycelia plug) were examined for progression of Fusarium root rot caused by F. solani and F. proliferatum on 'Covington' sweetpotato. Fusarium root rot was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) at lower temperatures (13°C), low relative humidity levels (80%), and low initial inoculum levels for both pathogens. Sporulation of F. proliferatum was also reduced under the same conditions. Qualitative mycotoxin analysis of roots infected with one of five Fusarium spp. revealed the production of fumonisin B1 by F. proliferatum when infecting sweetpotato. This study is a step toward characterizing the etiology and epidemiology of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato, which allows for improved disease management recommendations to limit postharvest losses to this disease. PMID:27050570

  11. Expression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from Trichoderma harzianum in strawberry increases tolerance to crown rot diseases but interferes with plant growth.

    PubMed

    Mercado, José A; Barceló, Marta; Pliego, Clara; Rey, Manuel; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Ruano-Rosa, David; López-Herrera, Carlos; de Los Santos, Berta; Romero-Muñoz, Fernando; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The expression of antifungal genes from Trichoderma harzianum, mainly chitinases, has been used to confer plant resistance to fungal diseases. However, the biotechnological potential of glucanase genes from Trichoderma has been scarcely assessed. In this research, transgenic strawberry plants expressing the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from T. harzianum, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, have been generated. After acclimatization, five out of 12 independent lines analysed showed a stunted phenotype when growing in the greenhouse. Moreover, most of the lines displayed a reduced yield due to both a reduction in the number of fruit per plant and a lower fruit size. Several transgenic lines showing higher glucanase activity in leaves than control plants were selected for pathogenicity tests. When inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum, one of the most important strawberry pathogens, transgenic lines showed lower anthracnose symptoms in leaf and crown than control. In the three lines selected, the percentage of plants showing anthracnose symptoms in crown decreased from 61 % to a mean value of 16.5 %, in control and transgenic lines, respectively. Some transgenic lines also showed an enhanced resistance to Rosellinia necatrix, a soil-borne pathogen causing root and crown rot in strawberry. These results indicate that bgn13.1 from T. harzianum can be used to increase strawberry tolerance to crown rot diseases, although its constitutive expression affects plant growth and fruit yield. Alternative strategies such as the use of tissue specific promoters might avoid the negative effects of bgn13.1 expression in plant performance. PMID:26178245

  12. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  13. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p < 0.0005), the Cmax by 77% (p < 0.0005), and the amount of pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p < 0.0005). When charcoal was administered 2 h after pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion. PMID:9029746

  14. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  15. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

  16. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  17. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  18. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHARCOAL MANUFACTURING, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from charcoal manufacture. The composition, quality, and rate of emissions, and their environmental effects are described. Charcoal is the solid material remaining after the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials, primarily...

  19. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum

    PubMed Central

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches. PMID:25883287

  20. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches. PMID:25883287

  1. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  2. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  3. Heritability of fruit rot resistance in American cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot is the primary threat to cranberry production in the northeastern U.S., and increasingly in other growing regions. Efficacy of chemical control is variable since the disease is caused by a complex of pathogenic fungi. In addition, cranberries are often grown in environmentally sensitive ar...

  4. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored. PMID:26476306

  5. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  6. Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisson, Harriet E.

    1980-01-01

    Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

  7. Characterization of Cichopeptins, New Phytotoxic Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 and Their Role in Bacterial Midrib Rot Disease of Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Jui; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Ongena, Marc; Debois, Delphine; Leclère, Valerie; Jacques, Philippe; Bleyaert, Peter; Höfte, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The lettuce midrib rot pathogen Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 produces seven bioactive compounds with biosurfactant properties. Two compounds exhibited necrosis-inducing activity on chicory leaves. The structure of the two phytotoxic compounds, named cichopeptin A and B, was tentatively characterized. They are related cyclic lipopeptides composed of an unsaturated C12-fatty acid chain linked to the N-terminus of a 22-amino acid peptide moiety. Cichopeptin B differs from cichopeptin A only in the last C-terminal amino acid residue, which is probably Val instead of Leu/Ile. Based on peptide sequence similarity, cichopeptins are new cyclic lipopeptides related to corpeptin, produced by the tomato pathogen Pseudomonas corrugata. Production of cichopeptin is stimulated by glycine betaine but not by choline, an upstream precursor of glycine betaine. Furthermore, a gene cluster encoding cichopeptin synthethases, cipABCDEF, is responsible for cichopeptin biosynthesis. A cipA-deletion mutant exhibited significantly less virulence and rotten midribs than the parental strain upon spray inoculation on lettuce. However, the parental and mutant strains multiplied in lettuce leaves at a similar rate. These results demonstrate that cichopeptins contribute to virulence of P. cichorii SF1-54 on lettuce. PMID:25961750

  8. Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lei-Jie; Yuan, Ting-Lu; Zhang, Dong; Guo, Yan; Wang, Yufeng; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen’s growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36–48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1) gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum’s ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk. PMID:26974960

  9. Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; He, Juan; Jia, Lei-Jie; Yuan, Ting-Lu; Zhang, Dong; Guo, Yan; Wang, Yufeng; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2016-03-01

    The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen's growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36-48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1) gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum's ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk. PMID:26974960

  10. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured...

  15. Sclerotinia stem and crown rot of chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold of chickpea is caused by three soil borne fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, S. minor and S. trifoliorum, causing either stem rot and crown rot. Stem infection, usually above ground and initiated by ascospores through carpogenic germination of scleroia produces stem rot, whereas crown infe...

  16. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fun...

  17. Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi Melinda Miller-Butler and Barbara J. Smith ABSTRACT. Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of blueberries especially when grown in areas with poor drainage. Re...

  18. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Infection of fruit by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caus...

  19. [Paraquat poisoning and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal].

    PubMed

    López Lago, A M; Rivero Velasco, C; Galban Rodríguez, C; Mariño Rozados, A; Piñeiro Sande, N; Ferrer Vizoso, E

    2002-06-01

    Paraquat is a common herbicide in Spain. In our country there are a few cases of this intoxication and it presents a high mortality even if the patients ingest a minimal amount. We present two cases of accidental poisoning with paraquat. These patients were admitted three hours after ingestion of toxin. They were treated with with orogastric lavage, activated charcoal, N-acetylcysteine, Fuller's earth, cathartics, support measures and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal. With these treatments both patients had a undetectable levels of paraquat 48 hours after and improvement of their symptoms, gastric and intestinal predominantly . We present the graphics of evolution of the plasma and urine levels of paraquat in both patients. We review the different aspects of treatment and update of this poisoning. PMID:12152392

  20. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease. PMID:22438040

  1. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  2. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet. PMID:26474333

  3. Identification of Microdochium bolleyi Associated with Basal Rot of Creeping Bent Grass in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Choi, Hyo Weon; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of basal rot occurred sporadically on creeping bent grasses growing at a golf course in Hampyeong, Korea in April 2007. Ten isolates of Microdochium sp. were obtained from leaves and crowns of the diseased bent grasses. All isolates were identified as Microdochium bolleyi based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report on M. bolleyi associated with basal rot on creeping bent grass in Korea. PMID:23990737

  4. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  5. Charcoal deposition and redeposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary charcoal, diatom and phytolith records of the past 1500 years at Elk Lake, Minnesota, in combination with sediment trap studies and a transect of surface sediment samples, document the mechanisms by which previously deposited charcoal is redeposited and finally buried in this lake. The frequent correspondence of high diatom concentrations and peaks of phytolith and charcoal fragments suggest that currents and turbulence related to lake circulation are responsible for winnowing charcoal and phytoliths from shallow water depositional sites to deeper areas of the lake. High diatom concentrations in the record relate to increased nutrient fluxes also supplied by circulation. Despite the fact that the watershed and area around Elk Lake has not been burned since AD 1922, charcoal continues to reach the profundal zone from littoral source areas in Elk Lake. The variable redeposition of within-lake charcoal requires evaluation before fire-history records can be related to global, regional or even local fire events.

  6. paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Vannière, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

  7. BBQ charcoal combustion as an important source of trace metal exposure to humans.

    PubMed

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Won; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2010-04-15

    To provide information about charcoal combustion as an important source of atmospheric trace metal pollution, 11 charcoal products were combusted and PM(10) filter samples were collected. The PM-bound metal elements were extracted by microwave acid digestion and analyzed by ICP-AES. The concentrations of trace metal elements ranged from a few to 10(5)ng m(-3) in the following order of magnitude: Zn>Pb>Mg>Ba>Cu>V>Cr>Co>Cd>Ni>Mn>Se>As. Emissions of most elements from charcoal combustion were high compared to other sources. In case of Cd, Co, and Ni, their concentrations exceeded the inhalation minimum risk levels (MRLs) of the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US-ATSDR) for chronic duration exposure by a factor of 30, 3.9, and 2.2, respectively. Likewise, Cd levels exceeded the US-ATSDR MRLs for acute-duration exposure by a factor of 10, while those of Pb and Cd exceeded air quality guideline (AQG) of the World Health Organization (WHO) by a factor of 29 and 59, respectively. Mn levels also exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Reference Air Concentrations (RfCs) by a factor of 2.7. This study shows that barbecue charcoal combustion can be an important source of trace metal emissions to the atmosphere with potential health risks. PMID:20031319

  8. Soft Rot of Tomato Caused by Mucor racemosus in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2005-12-01

    A soft rot of fruits caused by Mucor racemosus occurred on cherry tomato collected in Agricultural Products Wholesale Market in Jinju, Korea. The disease infection usually occurred wounded areas after cracking of fruits. At first, the lesions started with water soaked and rapidly softened and diseased lesion gradually expanded. Colonies were white to brownish to gray in color. Sporangia were 32~54 µm in size and globose in shape. Sporangiophores were 8~14 µm in width. Sporangiospores were 5~12 × 4~8 µm in size, ellipsoidal to subglobose in shape. Columella was 27~42 µm in size, obovoid, ellipsoidal, cylindrical-ellipsoidal, slightly pyriform in shape. Chlamydospores were numerous in sporangiophores and barrelshaped when young, subglobose in old cultures. Optimum growth temperature was about 25℃. The fungus was identified as M. racemosus Fres. This is the first report of soft rot on cherry tomato caused by M. racemosus in Korea. PMID:24049508

  9. Charcoal as an alternative energy source. sub-project: briquetting of charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Enstad, G.G.

    1982-02-02

    Charcoal briquettes have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It appears most realistic to use binders in solution. Binders of this kind have been examined and the briquettes' mechanical properties measured. Most promising are borresperse, gum arabic, dynolex, and wood tar.

  10. Change detection of cotton root rot infection over a 10-year interval using airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central United States. Accurate information regarding the spatial and temporal infections of the disease within fields is important for effective management and control of the disease. The objecti...

  11. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  12. Pythium and Fusarium species causing seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed rot and damping-off is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. This disease may have been overlooked as a cause of poor stand establishment and reduced vigor of adult plants. Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause...

  13. Assessing the mineralisation of charcoal carbon in temperate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascough, P. L.; Tilston, E.; Garnett, M.

    2012-04-01

    Charcoal is pyrolized biomass characterized by its high C content and environmental recalcitrance. Recently 'biochar' has emerged as a concept as a means of long-term C sequestration with a sequestration potential that is comparable with current global anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions (5.5-9.5 Pg C yr-1 and 5.4 Pg C yr-1, respectively). However, charcoal is not a permanent C sink and estimates of charcoal degradation rates vary from the decadal or centennial timescales, with soil residence times in the order of thousands of years. Possible mechanisms of charcoal degradation include biotically and abiotically-mediated transformation and mineralization processes, resulting in a range of products of varying recalcitrance, including CO2. In soil science the decomposition of organic matter is routinely estimated by measuring CO2 efflux, but a key obstacle for the quantification of charcoal-derived CO2 is the accurate and precise apportionment of C sources arising from slow decomposition rates. Moreover, the addition of charcoal to soil can promote decomposition of indigenous soil organic matter and the concomitant increase in CO2 production does not therefore necessarily demonstrate mineralization of the charcoal C. Radiocarbon (14C) offers significant benefits in this regard as a sensitive technique for C source apportionment. We used the 14C content of CO2 respired by a surface soil to quantify the rate of charcoal mineralization, thus demonstrating the efficacy and sensitivity of our 14C approach for estimating charcoal degradation. During incubation the variations in charcoal-derived C mineralization are consistent with the loss of more labile components in the charcoal with a maximum of 2.1% of the evolved CO2-C being attributable to mineralisation of charcoal C. Extrapolation to an annual basis suggests that the loss rate of charcoal C is <1%, supporting the view that rates of charcoal C respiration are slow in temperate woodland soil. Implications for

  14. Microscopic charcoal as a fossil indicator of fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, William A.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Maguire, David J.

    Charcoal preserved in lake sediments, peat, and soils provides a record of past fire occurrence. An understanding of fire history is important in evaluating interactions between vegetation, climate and human disturbances through at least the last several millennia. In this paper we review information concerning the production, dispersal, sedimentation and preservation of charcoal. We present examples of studies that have used charcoal analysis in palaeoecological reconstructions, with special emphasis on analytical techniques and problems of interpretation. Unlike pollen, which is produced continuously in fairly constant amounts, charcoal is produced in large quantities but at irregular intervals. These are a function of fire regimes that are often unique to specific vegetation types and/or climatic regions. Charcoal particles vary in size from sub-microscopic to macroscopic, with small particles presumably being transported further by wind and water than large particles. Charcoal preserves well, but it may be subject to breakage, especially when transported by water. We present theoretical models of dispersal and discuss potential problems associated with post-depositional mixing. A variety of charcoal analysis techniques have been employed during the past four decades. Most involve microscopic identification and quantification of numbers or size of individual fragments occurring in samples prepared for pollen analysis. The most commonly used method — estimating charcoal area by categorizing particles in several size classes — is both tedious and time consuming, and recently introduced techniques attempt to estimate past fire occurrence based upon point count estimation, elemental carbon analysis, magnetic measurement of sediments, electron microscope, and spectrographic analyses. A lack of standardization both within and among analysis techniques has hampered interpretation of charcoal profiles. Taphonomic processes affecting charcoal are less well understood

  15. Metal content of charcoal in mining-impacted wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leslie L; Strawn, Daniel G; Rember, William C; Sprenke, Kenneth F

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal is well known to accumulate contaminants, but its association with metals and other toxic elements in natural settings has not been well studied. Association of contaminants with charcoal in soil and sediment may affect their mobility, bioavailability, and fate in the environment. In this paper, natural wildfire charcoal samples collected from a wetland site that has been heavily contaminated by mine waste were analyzed for elemental contents and compared to the surrounding soil. Results showed that the charcoal particles were enriched over the host soils by factors of two to 40 times in all contaminant elements analyzed. Principal component analysis was carried out on the data to determine whether element enrichment patterns in the soil profile charcoal are related to those in the soils. The results suggest that manganese and zinc concentrations in charcoal are controlled by geochemical processes in the surrounding soil, whereas the concentrations of arsenic, lead, zinc, iron, phosphorus, and sulfur in charcoal are unrelated to those in the surrounding soil. This study shows evidence that charcoal in soils can have a distinct and important role in controlling contaminant speciation and fate in the environment. PMID:21093017

  16. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow. PMID:26964338

  17. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedgley, D. W.; Tobin, A. G.; Batzer, T. H.; Call, W. R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals- pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  18. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  19. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  20. Grapevine bunch rots: impacts on wine composition, quality, and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.

    PubMed

    Steel, Christopher C; Blackman, John W; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2013-06-01

    Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these being Botrytis cinerea (gray mold); however, there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and fungi found in subtropical climates (e.g., Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola ). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimize wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odors and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex affects wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimize wine faults and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified. PMID:23675852

  1. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and

  2. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C.M.; Scala, F.R.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

  4. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Indira Devi, S; Talukdar, N C; Chandradev Sharma, K; Jeyaram, K; Rohinikumar, M

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference fungal pathogens of plant roots. Fifteen fluorescent pseudomonas isolates produced inhibition zone (8-29 mm) of the fungal growth in dual plate assay and IAA like substances (24.1-66.7 μg/ml) and soluble P (12.7-56.80 μg/ml) in broth culture. Among the isolates, RFP 36 caused a marked increase in seed germination, seedling biomass and control of the root borne pathogens of broad bean. PCR-RAPD analysis of these isolates along with five MTCC reference fluorescent pseudomonas strains indicated that the RFP-36 belonged to a distinct cluster and the PCR of its genomic DNA with antibiotic specific primers Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol suggested possible occurrence of gene for the potent antibiotics. Overall, the result of the study indicated the potential of the isolate RFP 36 as a microbial inoculant with multiple functions for broad bean. PMID:22282623

  5. Influence of charcoal burning induced pyrolysis on soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Nicolay, Alexander; Pötzsch, Bastian; Fritzsche, Marie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Lusatia, Northeastern Germany, the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kilns in the forests north of Cottbus. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained around Cottbus from several thousand charcoal kilns which had internal diameters up to 20 m. For the study site with 35 km2 area, the until now prospected total ground area below the charcoal kilns which was potentially affected by the pyrolysis is about 0,5 km2. Historic data indicates that the pyrolysis in the charcoal kiln took up to several weeks, for the kilns with a diameter of 20 m about 20 days. To characterize the depth of thermal alteration of soils below the kiln our current focus is on the differentiation of the iron hydroxides by small-scale vertical analysis of soil profiles. The study site is situated 16 km northeast of Cottbus at the opencast mine Jänschwalde. Field work was done during the archaeological rescue excavation of a charcoal kiln in a 50 m long trench crossing an about 15 m wide charcoal kiln. One vertical profile outside the charcoal kiln and two vertical profiles below the charcoal kiln were chosen for analysis. The magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ on the undisturbed profile and ex situ on stepwise heated samples (105, 350, 550, 750 and 950°C). The total iron content was quantified ex situ by x-ray fluorescence. Our first results indicate a change in the magnetic susceptibility in the contact area of the mineral soil and the charcoal kiln. The influence of the pyrolysis on the soil is restricted to areas where the soil was not shielded against the heat by ash or organic material.

  6. Rhizoctonia seed, seedling, and wet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn can cause seed and seedling rot of both lentil and chickpea as well as many other agricultural crops worldwide. The pathogen is favored in cool, sandy soil with high organic matter under no-till or reduced-till soil management practices. Survival spor...

  7. Cultivar selection for sugarbeet root rot resistance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

  8. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize. PMID:25724693

  9. Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, T; Utkhede, R S; Paul, J W; Punja, Z K

    2000-11-01

    Three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (FORC) on cucumber. Two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (WDS) or vermicomposting (VMC) while the third, obtained from International Bio-Recovery (IBR), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. Three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at varying ratios, and seeded with cucumber cv. Corona. After 14 days of growth in the greenhouse, inoculum of FORC (20 mL of 5 x 10(6) micro-conidia per mL) was applied to each pot at three different times (14, 21, and 35 days). In unamended inoculated pots, the pathogen caused stunted growth and reduced flowers. Amendment of WDS in the potting mix suppressed these symptoms, while VMC and IBR had no effect. All three composts reduced the FORC colony forming units (cfu) at the end of the experiment (10 weeks). There was a large increase of fluorescent bacteria near the vicinity of roots particularly in WDS amended potting mixes. When water extracts of the composts were plated onto acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), only IBR contained a potent thermostable inhibitor to FORC. This inhibitor was removed by activated charcoal but was not partitioned into petroleum ether at acid, basic, or neutral pH. Inhibition of FORC by IBR was not due to electrical conductivity or trace elements in the compost. Contrasting effectiveness of the WDS and VMC made from the same waste suggests that composting method can influence the disease suppression properties of the finished compost. PMID:11109490

  10. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury, scald, or other injury....

  11. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563....1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury....

  12. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury, scald, or other injury....

  13. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563....1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury....

  14. Breeding for fruit rot resistance in Vaccinium macrocarpon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cranberry fruit rot complex can cause severe crop loss and requires multiple fungicide applications each year. To identify sources of fruit rot resistance, fungicides were withheld from our germplasm collection in 2003 and 2004 and the collection was rated for fruit rot (1-5 scale, 1=no rot, 5=...

  15. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  16. Tubular bamboo charcoal for anode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Biao

    2014-12-01

    The anode material plays a significant role in determining the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, the bamboo charcoal tube is proposed as a novel anode substrate by carbonizing the natural bamboo. Its surface functional groups, biocompatibility and internal resistance are thoroughly investigated. Performance of the MFCs with a conventional graphite tube anode and a bamboo charcoal tube anode is also compared. The results indicate that the tubular bamboo charcoal anode exhibits advantages over the graphite tube anode in terms of rougher surface, superior biocompatibility and smaller total internal resistance. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis for the bamboo charcoal reveals that the introduced C-N bonds facilitate the electron transfer between the biofilm and electrodes. As a result, the MFC with a bamboo charcoal tube anode achieves a 50% improvement in the maximum power density over the graphite tube case. Furthermore, scale-up of the bamboo charcoal tube anode is demonstrated by employing a bundle of tubular bamboo charcoal to reach higher power output.

  17. Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

  18. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  19. Using mosaicked airborne imagery to assess cotton root rot infection on a regional basis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease in many of the cotton production areas in Texas. Since 2012, many cotton growers in Texas have used the Topguard fungicide to control this disease in their fields under Section 18 emergency exemptions. Airborne images have been used to monitor the...

  20. Mycoleptodiscus Crown and Root Rot of Alfalfa: An Emerging Problem in Minnesota and Wisconsin?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoleptodiscus crown and root rot was observed on alfalfa plants from southeastern MN and southwestern WI during the summer of 2009. The disease was observed in new plantings and established stands. Although the disease has been known since the 1950's, it has not caused severe problems in alfalfa p...

  1. Combining fuzzy set theory and nonlinear stretching enhancement for unsupervised classification of cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a destructive disease affecting cotton production. Accurate identification of infected areas within fields is useful for cost-effective control of the disease. The uncertainties caused by various infection stages and newly infected plants make it difficult to achieve accurate clas...

  2. Creating prescription maps from historical imagery for site-specific management of cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is a severe plant disease that has affected cotton production for over a century. Recent research found that a commercial fungicide, Topguard (flutriafol), was able to control this disease. As a result, Topguard Terra Fungic...

  3. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  4. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Disease-free sugarcane planting materials are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. The present study was undertaken to develop loop-mediated isothermal...

  5. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  6. Evaluating spectral measures derived from airborne multispectral imagery for detecting cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for more than 100 years, but effective practices for its control are still lacki...

  7. Evaluating unsupervised and supervised image classification methods for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for over a century, but effective practices for its control are still lacking. R...

  8. Evaluation of Commercial Melon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Crown Rot, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting melon onto rootstocks to manage soil-borne diseases is a relatively new strategy being tested in the U.S.A. Grafting is being successfully used to manage various soil borne diseases in parts of Asia and Europe. Commercial rootstocks were evaluated for tolerance to crown rot caused by Phyt...

  9. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon in southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici is a prevalent disease in most watermelon producing regions of the world. The disease was first reported in 1940 in Florida. It is particularly severe in the southeastern United States, where about 50% of the watermelon fruit are produced (FL, GA, AL, SC, N...

  10. The Mitochondrial Genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa are closely related basidiomycetes that cause two important diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): frosty pod rot and the witches' broom disease, respectively. A comparison of the complete mitochondrial genomes of these pathogens shows a high degr...

  11. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  12. Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

  13. Report of postharvest rot of kiwifruit in Korea caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kwon, Young Ho; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-08-01

    In May 2014, sclerotinia rot symptoms caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were observed on stored kiwifruit in Jinju, South Korea. The symptoms appeared as soft, water-soaked lesions on fruit covered with a white mycelium. The morphological characteristics and the internal transcribed spacer sequences of rRNA of the pathogen isolated from the sclerotinia rot showed it to be S. sclerotiorum. This was confirmed by performing a pathogenicity test with pure cultures of S. sclerotiorum and by reisolating S. sclerotiorum from artificially inoculated kiwifruits. Our results should help promote a better understanding of the diseases that affect kiwifruit and improve practices for postharvest disease control in the kiwifruit industry. PMID:25996522

  14. Reduction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of charcoal smoke during grilling by charcoal preparation using high carbonisation and a preheating step.

    PubMed

    Chaemsai, Suriyapong; Kunanopparat, Thiranan; Srichumpuang, Jidapa; Nopharatana, Montira; Tangduangdee, Chairath; Siriwattanayotin, Suwit

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal-grilling may lead to contamination of food with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the grilling process. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of charcoal preparation on 16 USEPA priority PAHs in the smoke produced during the grilling process. Firstly, mangrove charcoal was prepared at carbonisation temperatures of 500, 750 and 1000 °C. The charcoal were then preheated by burning at 650 °C. This preheating step is usually used to prepare hot charcoal for the grilling process in the food industry. In this study, charcoal was preheated at different burning times at 5, 20 min and 5 h, at which time partial and whole charcoal glowed, and charcoal was completely burnt, respectively. Finally, PAHs in the smoke were collected and determined by GC/MS. The result showed that charcoal prepared at a carbonisation temperature of 500 °C had higher levels of PAHs released into the smoke. In contrast, charcoal produced at 750 and 1000 °C had lower PAHs released for all burning times. In addition, PAHs released for 5, 20 min and 5 h of burning time were about 19.9, 1.2 and 0.7 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 500 °C, and about 0.9-1.4, 0.8-1.2 and 0.15-0.3 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 750 and 1000 °C, respectively. Therefore, this research suggests that food grilled using charcoal carbonised at a high temperature of about 750 °C presents a lower risk of PAH contamination. In addition, in the preheating step, whole charcoal should fully glow in order to reduce the PAH content in charcoal before grilling. PMID:26785749

  15. 24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON PLANT FROM SOUTH END OF BEACH, probably 1901. (From the Robert Teagle Private Collection, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  16. INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Formation of charcoal from biomass in a sealed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. ); Szabo, P.; Varhegyi, G.; Zelei, B. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, samples o cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and nine species of whole biomass are pyrolyzed in sealed reactors. Very high charcoal yields (e.g., 40% from cellulose, 48% from Eucalyptus gummifera) were obtained. Higher sample loading (sample mass per unit reactor volume) increased charcoal yield and the associated exothermic heat release and lowered the reaction onset temperature. These effects were induced by the vapor-phase concentrations of the volatile products, and not the system pressure. Addition of water catalyzed the reaction and increased the char yield. These observations suggest that charcoal formation is autocatalyzed by water, an initial pyrolysis product. When whole biomass was used as a feedstock, higher charcoal yields were obtained from species with high lignin and/or low hemicellulose content.

  18. Relative efficacy and palatability of three activated charcoal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R P; Navarro, K R; Krenzelok, E P

    1980-02-01

    The addition of bentonite with or without chocolate syrup improved the palatability of activated charcoal preparations. Furthermore, bentonite did not significantly reduce the efficacy of charcoal to absorb aspirin. Chocolate syrup reduced the adsorption effectiveness significantly. The mixtures have a reduced shelf-life when premixed with water. However, the dry ingredients can be pre-weighed and sealed in a large jar. Water can be added just prior to administration. PMID:7361450

  19. Fluorine gettering by activated charcoal in a radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, L.K.; Toth, L.M.

    1988-10-01

    Activated charcoal has been shown to be an effective gettering agent for the fluorine gas that is liberated in a radiation environment. Even though activated charcoal is a commonly used getter, little is known about the radiation stability of the fluorine-charcoal product. This work has shown that not only is the product stable in high gamma radiation fields, but also that radiation enhances the capacity of the charcoal for the fluorine. The most useful application of this work is with the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt because the radioactive components (fission products and actinides) cause radiolytic damage to the solid LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (64.5, 30.3, 5.0, 0.13 mol %, respectively) resulting in the liberation of fluorine gas. This work has also demonstrated that the maximum damage to the fuel salt by approx.3 /times/ 10/sup 7/ R/h gamma radiation is approximately 2%, at which point the rate of recombination of fluorine with active metal sites within the salt lattice equals the rate of fluorine generation. The enhanced reactivity of the activated charcoal and radiation stability of the product ensures that the gettered fluorine will stay sequestered in the charcoal.

  20. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  1. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  2. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates. PMID:21235190

  3. Activated charcoal for acute overdose: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Juurlink, David N

    2016-03-01

    Sometimes mistakenly characterized as a 'universal antidote,' activated charcoal (AC) is the most frequently employed method of gastrointestinal decontamination in the developed world. Typically administered as a single dose (SDAC), its tremendous surface area permits the binding of many drugs and toxins in the gastrointestinal lumen, reducing their systemic absorption. Like other decontamination procedures, the utility of SDAC attenuates with time, and, although generally safe, it is not free of risk. A large body of evidence demonstrates that SDAC can reduce the absorption of drugs and xenobiotics but most such studies involve volunteers and have little generalizability to clinical practice. Few rigorous clinical trials of SDAC have been conducted, and none validate or refute its utility in those patients who are intuitively most likely to benefit. Over the past decade, a growing body of observational data have demonstrated that SDAC can elicit substantial reductions in drug absorption in acutely poisoned patients. The challenge for clinicians rests in differentiating those patients most likely to benefit from SDAC from those in whom meaningful improvement is doubtful. This is often a difficult determination not well suited to an algorithmic approach. The present narrative review summarizes the data supporting the benefits and harms of SDAC, and offers pragmatic suggestions for clinical practice. PMID:26409027

  4. Prehospital activated charcoal: the way forward

    PubMed Central

    Greene, S; Kerins, M; O'Connor, N

    2005-01-01

    Methods: A postal questionnaire was used to determine the current level of use of prehospital activated charcoal by ambulance NHS trusts, the incidence of associated complications, and barriers preventing the routine use of prehospital SDAC. Results: A completed questionnaire was returned by 36 of the 39 ambulance NHS trusts in the UK (response rate 92%). Currently none of the trusts that responded to the questionnaire provides prehospital SDAC as an intervention. The most common barriers to the provision of prehospital SDAC are the current lack of evidence in the medical literature proving it is effective in improving patient outcome and the lack of a recognised protocol for its administration. Other issues included concerns regarding potential complications, ambulance turnaround times, lack of availability of SDAC, and lack of funding. Conclusions: A lack of published evidence proving efficacy remains the most important factor in preventing the routine administration of SDAC to appropriate patients in the prehospital environment. Further research in this setting is required to determine the usefulness of this therapy. PMID:16189043

  5. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J; White, James F

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  6. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S.; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J.; White, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  7. Application of Genomic and Quantitative Genetic Tools to Identify Candidate Resistance Genes for Brown Rot Resistance in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Parfitt, Dan E.; Bostock, Richard M.; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar ‘Dr. Davis’ and a brown rot resistant introgression line, ‘F8,1–42’, derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

  8. LIMITED FUNGICIDE APPLICATIONS AFFECT BERRY ROT SEVERITY AND RESVERATROL CONTENT OF MUSCADINE GRAPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry rot diseases reduce yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but those losses may be minimized by fungicide applications. The fungicides, myclobutanil, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole, were applied sequentially to two muscadine cultivars every ten days beginning at early bloom and stopping at pr...

  9. Ground-based technologies for cotton root rot control: Results from a three-year experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall goal of this research is to develop ground-based technologies for disease detection and mapping which can maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of CRR (cotton root rot) treatments. Accurately mapping CRR could facilitate a much more economical solution than treating entire fields. Th...

  10. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within and across growing seasons using remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore Shear (Duggar), is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern U.S. More recently, a fungicide, flutriafol, has been evaluated in Texas and was found to have the potential for controlling ...

  11. Pre-breeding for root rot resistance using root morphology and shoot length.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to identify new wheat varieties that display field resistance/tolerance to root rot diseases, such as those caused by Rhizoctonia and Pythium. We are tapping into the genetic diversity of ‘synthetic’ hexaploid wheats (genome composition AABBDD), which were generated at CIMMYT by artifici...

  12. Crop damage from Sclerotinia crown rot and risk factors in pyrethrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor, is a prevalent disease in pyrethrum fields in Australia. Management involves the application of fungicides during the rosette stage of plant development during autumn to early spring in fields approaching first-harvest, althoug...

  13. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  14. Mycoleptodiscus Crown and Root Rot on Alfalfa in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoleptodiscus crown and root rot, caused by Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, was identified causing severe disease in seven commercial production fields in southeastern Minnesota and southwestern Wisconsin during the summer of 2009. Both newly seeded fields and established fields were affected. In the ...

  15. Remote sensing for assessing cotton defoliation, regrowth control and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton defoliation and post-harvest destruction are important cultural practices for cotton production. Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton yield and lint quality. This paper presents exemplary applications of remote sensing technology for evaluating cotton def...

  16. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil root rot symptoms were observed in commercial fields in the US Pacific Northwest during the unusually cool and moist spring weather of 2010. Symptoms included sunken lesions on root and stem with brown discoloration, resembling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Rhizoctonia solani was i...

  17. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  18. Pre-Breeding for root rot resistance using root morphology traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rot caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani can be a major yield-limiting disease in minimal tillage or direct-seeded cereal production systems. Reduced tillage greatly influences the plant residue retained on the soil surfaces. This retained residue (green bridge) provides increased d...

  19. Assessment of inoculation methods to identify resistance to Fusarium crown rot in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium pseudograminearum, is one of the most pervasive diseases of wheat throughout the world. F. culmorum is the most prevalent causal agent in Turkey while F. pseudograminearum is the most predominant in the US. Consistent and reliable screening methods...

  20. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  1. Effect of phytophthora capsici crown rot on watermelon rootstocks and grafts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon in the southeastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera is also gaining acceptance in our l...

  2. Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

  3. Plant growth promotion may compensate for losses due to moderate Aphanomyces root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted to investigate the use of chemically-induced resistance and biocontrol bacteria for reducing sugar beet root rot disease caused by the oomycete organism Aphanomyces cochlioides. Stand establishment, yield, and quality analysis of sugarbeets from replicated field plots...

  4. First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...

  5. Species Identification and Variation in the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex mixtures of pathogenic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot, with the contribution by any given fungus to the disease varying from bed to bed, cultivar to cultivar, season to season, and across regions. Furthermore, population variability within the individual fungal species across growing region...

  6. Screening of pea genotypes for resistance to root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 is one of the major pathogens that causes pea root rot and stunting in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. The disease is most severe in fields where wheat has been mono-cropped for a number of years or where cereal cover crops are incorporated just before pea seedin...

  7. Deployment of novel sources of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stalk rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower-growing areas worldwide. The progress of traditional breeding for Sclerotinia resistance, which relies on incorporating genetic factors from various partially resistant breeding lines, has been very slow...

  8. Evaluation of Wild Sunflower Species for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stalk Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important diseases affecting sunflower production in the United States is stalk rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Genetic resistance to Sclerotinia has gradually improved in commercial sunflower cultivars, but better levels of resistance are still needed. A greenhouse screeni...

  9. Evaluation of pea accessions and commercial cultivars for Fusarium Root Rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) can result in major yield losses in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Currently no fungicides effectively manage this disease. Previous studies evaluated the Pisum germplasm collection for resistance to Fsp, however, evaluations of commercial marke...

  10. Rhizosphere ecology and phytoprotection in soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis black root rot of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Almario, Juliana; Muller, Daniel; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    Soil suppressiveness to disease is an intriguing emerging property in agroecosystems, with important implications because it enables significant protection of susceptible plants from soil-borne pathogens. Unlike many soils where disease suppressiveness requires crop monoculture to establish, certain soils are naturally suppressive to disease, and this type of specific disease suppressiveness is maintained despite crop rotation. Soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated black root rot of tobacco and other crops occur in Morens region (Switzerland) and have been studied for over 30 years. In Morens, vermiculite-rich suppressive soils formed on morainic deposits while illite-rich conducive soils developed on sandstone, but suppressiveness is of microbial origin. Antagonistic pseudomonads play a role in black root rot suppressiveness, including Pseudomonas protegens (formerly P. fluorescens) CHA0, a major model strain for research. However, other types of rhizobacterial taxa may differ in prevalence between suppressive and conducive soils, suggesting that the microbial basis of black root rot suppressiveness could be far more complex than solely a Pseudomonas property. This first review on black root rot suppressive soils covers early findings on these soils, the significance of recent results, and compares them with other types of suppressive soils in terms of rhizosphere ecology and plant protection mechanisms. PMID:24650207

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Onkendi, Edward M; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa. PMID:26744374

  12. Identification of QTL for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in Soybean Plant Introduction 194639

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a difficult disease to manage, although some gains have been made through breeding for quantitative resistance. The objective was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling partial ...

  13. Assessment of the elution of charcoal, cellulose acetate, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters.

    PubMed

    Agyei-Aye, K; Appleton, S; Rogers, R A; Taylor, C R

    2004-08-01

    This experiment was designed to study the release of cellulose acetate fibers, charcoal, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters. For the first time in such studies, efforts were made to identify the particles that were eluted using other analytical techniques in addition to light microscopy. Other corrective measures were also implemented. During the studies it was found that trimming of larger filters to fit smaller filter housings introduced cellulose acetate-like particles from the fibers of the filter material. Special, custom made-to-fit filters were used instead. Tools such as forceps that were used to retrieve filters from their housings were also found to introduce fragments onto the filters. It is believed that introduction of such debris may have accounted for the very large number of cellulose acetate and charcoal particles that had been reported in the literature. Use of computerized particle-counting microscopes appeared to result in excessive number of particles. This could be because the filter or smoke pads used for such work do not have the flat and level surfaces ideal for computerized particle-counting microscopes. At the high magnifications that the pads were viewed for particles, constant focusing of the microscope would be essential. It was also found that determination of total particles by using extrapolation of particle count by grid population usually gave extremely high particle counts compared to the actual number of particles present. This could be because particle distributions during smoking are not uniform. Lastly, a less complex estimation of the thickness of the particles was adopted. This and the use of a simple mathematical conversion coupled with the Cox equation were utilized to assess the aerodynamic diameters of the particles. Our findings showed that compared to numbers quoted in the literature, only a small amount of charcoal, cellulose acetate shards, and other particles are

  14. RF Magnetic Shielding Effects of a Bincho-Charcoal Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Keisuke; Itoh, Mineo

    Recently, there has been increased interest for electromagnetic shielding in the radio frequency (RF) region. The use of effective electromagnetic shields has, moreover, been required to improve the electromagnetic environment. The present paper has applied bincho-charcoal, a high quality charcoal found in Japan, to improve RF electromagnetic shields. Bincho-charcoal makes an excellent shield, due to a very large value of relative permittivity in the RF region. In the present research, the evaluation of the RF magnetic shielding degree SDH of the bincho-charcoal was limited to a plate being exposed to an electromagnetic wave. The SDH of the single plate was found to increase with an increase in RF frequency over the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The value of SDH at 100 MHz was found to be about 15 dB. The present authors have, furthermore, improved the value of SDH by the use of a triple plate, constructed from three bincho-charcoal plates. The SDH of the triple plate at 100 MHz was found to be improved by about 15 dB over that of the single plate. In addition, the SDH was shown to be improved by the superposition of a copper plate over the triple plate.

  15. Detection of potato brown rot and ring rot by electronic nose: from laboratory to real scale.

    PubMed

    Biondi, E; Blasioli, S; Galeone, A; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; Lucchese, C; Braschi, I

    2014-11-01

    A commercial electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with a metal oxide sensor array was trained to recognize volatile compounds emitted by potatoes experimentally infected with Ralstonia solanacearum or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, which are bacterial agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively. Two sampling procedures for volatile compounds were tested on pooled tubers sealed in 0.5-1 L jars at room temperature (laboratory conditions): an enrichment unit containing different adsorbent materials (namely, Tenax(®) TA, Carbotrap, Tenax(®) GR, and Carboxen 569) directly coupled with the e-nose (active sampling) and a Radiello(™) cartridge (passive sampling) containing a generic Carbograph fiber. Tenax(®) TA resulted the most suitable adsorbent material for active sampling. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 57.4 and 81.3% total samples as healthy or diseased, when using active and passive sampling, respectively. These results suggested the use of passive sampling to discriminate healthy from diseased tubers under intermediate and real scale conditions. 80 and 90% total samples were correctly classified by LDA under intermediate (100 tubers stored at 4°C in net bag passively sampled) and real scale conditions (tubers stored at 4°C in 1.25 t bags passively sampled). Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensorial analysis data under laboratory conditions highlighted a strict relationship between the disease severity and the responses of the e-nose sensors, whose sensitivity threshold was linked to the presence of at least one tuber per sample showing medium disease symptoms. At intermediate and real scale conditions, data distribution agreed with disease incidence (percentage of diseased tubers), owing to the low storage temperature and volatile compounds unconfinement conditions adopted. PMID:25127615

  16. Systems approach-based mitigation of postharvest diseases to overcome trade barriers for Washington apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens were reported as new postharvest fruit rot diseases in Washington State in the mid-2000s. Both diseases can cause significant postharvest losses of fruit if left uncontrolled, and the two fungi have be...

  17. Binding Potency of Heparin Immobilized on Activated Charcoal for DNA Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Snezhkova, E A; Tridon, A; Evrard, B; Nikolaev, V G; Uvarov, V Yu; Tsimbalyuk, R S; Ivanuk, A A; Komov, V V; Sakhno, L A

    2016-02-01

    In vitro experiments showed that heparin adsorbed on activated charcoal can bind antibodies raised against native and single-stranded DNA in a diluted sera pool with a high level of these DNA. Thus, heparin used as anticoagulant during hemosorption procedure can demonstrate supplementary therapeutic activity resulting from its interaction with various agents involved in acute and chronic inflammatory reactions such as DNA- and RNA-binding substances, proinflammatory cytokines, complement components, growth factors, etc. Research and development of heparin-containing carbonic adsorbents for the therapy of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems to be a promising avenue in hematology. PMID:26902353

  18. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  19. BBQ charcoal as an important source of mercury emission.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Chang-Hee; Jung, Myung Chae; Yoon, H

    2009-02-15

    In this study, the environmental significance of mercury emission has been investigated with respect to the use of the barbecue (BBQ) charcoal. For this purpose, emission gas samples collected from a total of 11 barbecue charcoal products commonly available in the Korean market were analyzed. All of these products consist of both domestic (4 types) and imported products (7 types from three countries). The emission concentration of Hg varied widely from sample to sample ranging from 114 to 496ngm(-3). The amount of Hg emission appeared to be affected by the diverse nature of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. In light of the recent reference exposure limits (REL) of Hg, it can be a potential threat to human health. As such, a proper regulation is desirable from a toxicological viewpoint to reduce the potential risk associated with the use of BBQ charcoal. PMID:18571317

  20. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  6. Rhizoctonia damping-off stem canker and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

  7. Identification of sources of resistance to sugarcane red rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, adversely affects sugarcane stand establishment in Louisiana by rotting planted stalks. Since cultivar resistance is the most effective control method, a study was conducted to identify sources of resistance to red rot and evaluate variability within Sacc...

  8. Evaluation of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, A.G.; Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. In this study, small coconut charcoal granules were utilized as the sorbent, and braze alloys and low temperature curing cements were used as the bonding agents for attachment to a copper support structure. Problems of scale-up of the bonding agent to a 40 cm diam panel were also investigated. Our results indicate that acceptable helium pumping performance of braze bonded and cement bonded charcoals can be achieved over the range of operating conditions expected in fusion reactors.

  9. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  10. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  11. Charcoal's physical properties are key to understanding its environmental behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, Caroline; Brewer, Catherine; Dugan, Brandon; Liu, Zuolin; Gonnermann, Helge; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Davies, Christian; Panzacchi, Pietro; Gao, Xiaodong; Pyle, Lacey

    2014-05-01

    Charcoal is a highly porous, low density material whose physical properties play a key role in its soil behavior and its environmental fate. In considering biochar, some of its most sought-after environmental effects are a result of its physical characteristics, not its chemical or biological properties. For example, the ability of biochar to retain soil water is widely attributed to its porosity. However, charcoal physical properties are so poorly understood that they are sometimes not characterized at all in the current literature. Here we outline a suite of basic physical properties of charcoal and the likely environmental effects of their variations, with a focus on the interactions between charcoal and water. The most basic physical property of charcoal, its particle size, likely plays a role in its ability to alter the rate of drainage in soils. Particle morphology is also relevant, affecting how particles of soil and char can pack together. Bulk densities of charcoal and soil mixtures can be used to generate a simple estimate of the efficiency of char-soil packing. Charcoal density is an additionally important property and can be measured in a number of ways. Density almost certainly controls the tendency of chars to sink or float, and to erode or remain on the land surface. However, charcoal density can vary by almost a factor of 10 depending on the measurement technique used. We discuss two simple techniques available for measuring char density and the value of information provided by each approach. Finally, we report a simple, fast technique to measure total char porosity, including all pores from nanometers to 10s of micrometers in size. Porosity is at least one of the key controls on the ability of biochar to improve plant-available water, and techniques to measure it have previously been limited to the smallest fraction of pores (N2 sorption) or have required expensive, hazardous procedures (Hg porosimetry). We show that char porosity varies primarily

  12. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  13. Pyramiding Sclerotinia head rot and stalk rot resistances into elite sunflower breeding lines with the aid of DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work was conducted in 2008 to determine the stalk rot resistance of RILs from the RHA 280 x RHA 801 population, as well as to begin introgression of previously identified QTL for head rot resistance into elite sunflower germplasm lines. The stalk rot RILs and their testcrosses with cms HA 89 were t...

  14. Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot

  15. Revised phylogeny and novel horizontally acquired virulence determinants of the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    PubMed

    Nykyri, Johanna; Niemi, Outi; Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot

  16. Using airborne imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and untreated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over a century. Recent field studies have shown that Topguard fungicide has considerable promise for controlling this disease. With the authorization (Section 18 exe...

  17. Determining Tolerance in Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici using Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southeastern United States. Various rootstocks have been used for grafting watermelon in Asia and Europe to manage soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium ...

  18. A genome-wide association study reveals genes associated with fusarium ear rot resistance in a maize core diversity panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a ne...

  19. Influence of iron on cylindrocarpon root rot development on ginseng.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Punja, Zamir K

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Cylindrocarpon root rot, caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans, is an important disease on ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Canada. We studied the effects of iron (Fe) on disease severity and pathogen growth. When Hoagland's solution was amended with Fe at 56 and 112 mug/ml compared with 0 mug/ml, disease initiation and final severity on hydroponically maintained ginseng roots was significantly (P<0.0001) enhanced. Under field conditions, wounding of roots with a fine needle followed by application of 0.05% FeNaEDTA to the rhizosphere of treated plants significantly enhanced Cylindrocarpon root rot in 2003 and 2004 compared with unwounded roots with Fe or wounded roots without Fe. Foliar applications of Fe (as FeNaEDTA) to ginseng plants three times during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons significantly increased Fe levels in root tissues. These roots developed larger lesions following inoculation with C. destructans in vitro. When radioactive Fe ((59)Fe) was applied to the foliage of ginseng plants, it was detected in the secondary phloem and in cortical and epidermal tissues within 1 week. Artificially wounded areas on the roots accumulated more (59)Fe than healthy areas. Diseased tissue also had threefold higher levels of phenolic compounds and Fe compared with adjoining healthy tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed enhanced levels of protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, phloridizin, and quercetin. Phenolic compounds produced in diseased and wounded tissues sequestered Fe in vitro. The effects of Fe on mycelial growth, conidial germ tube length, and secondary branching of germ tubes of C. destructans were examined in vitro. When grown on Chrome-azurol S medium, Fe also was sequestered by C. destructans through siderophore production, which was visualized as a clearing pigmented zone at the margin of colonies. Mycelial dry weight was significantly increased in glucose/ yeast broth

  20. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to the charcoal that is produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile organic co...

  1. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER (PROJECT SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simu-lator was constructed and tested to de-termine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that pro-duced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile or-ganic ...

  2. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    PubMed

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning. PMID:26403022

  3. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  4. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section 454.10 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section 454.10 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  7. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section 454.10 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section 454.10 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 454.10 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. 454.10 Section 454.10 Protection of Environment... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Char and Charcoal Briquets Subcategory § 454.10 Applicability; description of the manufacture of char and charcoal briquets subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. RECYCLE AND REUSE OF CHARCOAL MADE FROM EXCESS SLUDGE IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun

    Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

  11. Evaluating Waste Charcoal as Potential Rubber Composite Filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, charcoal in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural products was evaluated as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated styrene-butadiene lat...

  12. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  13. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  14. Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  16. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  17. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING) - PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  18. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area. PMID:18786626

  19. A simple method for vapor dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M L; Cohen, B S

    1995-01-01

    A method for vapor-dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes (CST) that does not require the expense and effort of a test chamber was used to test the desorption efficiency (DE) of seven solvent vapors, representing six classes of solvents as follows: aromatic hydrocarbons (m-xylene); ether/alcohol (2-ethoxyethanol); vinyl monomers (styrene monomer, vinyl acetate); aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane); aliphatic esters (n-butyl acetate); and aliphatic acrylic monomers (methyl methacrylate). The quantities of the solvents used in these experiments would represent eight-hour exposures to concentrations of approximately 0.2 to 10 ppm. The vapor-dosing experimental system consisted of a loaded filter cassette connected directly to a CST. Vapor was generated by injecting liquid solvent onto the glass fiber filter and drawing air through the system. The solvent was desorbed from the filter and charcoal for analysis. Vapor desorption efficiency was determined from the fraction of the injected solvent evaporated from the filter and the amount recovered from the charcoal. The measured DEs were similar to those reported for liquid dosed charcoal. Vapor dosing of sorbent tubes is more representative of samples collected for industrial hygiene exposure assessment. The system is simple to use and applicable for vapor dosing of any sorbent tube. PMID:7872204

  20. Changes in Molecular Size Distribution of Cellulose during Attack by White Rot and Brown Rot Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kleman-Leyer, K; Agosin, E; Conner, A H; Kirk, T K

    1992-04-01

    The kinetics of cotton cellulose depolymerization by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated with solid-state cultures. The degree of polymerization (DP; the average number of glucosyl residues per cellulose molecule) of cellulose removed from soil-block cultures during degradation by P. placenta was first determined viscosimetrically. Changes in molecular size distribution of cellulose attacked by either fungus were then determined by size exclusion chromatography as the tricarbanilate derivative. The first study with P. placenta revealed two phases of depolymerization: a rapid decrease to a DP of approximately 800 and then a slower decrease to a DP of approximately 250. Almost all depolymerization occurred before weight loss. Determination of the molecular size distribution of cellulose during attack by the brown rot fungus revealed single major peaks centered over progressively lower DPs. Cellulose attacked by P. chrysosporium was continuously consumed and showed a different pattern of change in molecular size distribution than cellulose attacked by P. placenta. At first, a broad peak which shifted at a slightly lower average DP appeared, but as attack progressed the peak narrowed and the average DP increased slightly. From these results, it is apparent that the mechanism of cellulose degradation differs fundamentally between brown and white rot fungi, as represented by the species studied here. We conclude that the brown rot fungus cleaved completely through the amorphous regions of the cellulose microfibrils, whereas the white rot fungus attacked the surfaces of the microfibrils, resulting in a progressive erosion. PMID:16348694

  1. Changes in Molecular Size Distribution of Cellulose during Attack by White Rot and Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kleman-Leyer, Karen; Agosin, Eduardo; Conner, Anthony H.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of cotton cellulose depolymerization by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated with solid-state cultures. The degree of polymerization (DP; the average number of glucosyl residues per cellulose molecule) of cellulose removed from soil-block cultures during degradation by P. placenta was first determined viscosimetrically. Changes in molecular size distribution of cellulose attacked by either fungus were then determined by size exclusion chromatography as the tricarbanilate derivative. The first study with P. placenta revealed two phases of depolymerization: a rapid decrease to a DP of approximately 800 and then a slower decrease to a DP of approximately 250. Almost all depolymerization occurred before weight loss. Determination of the molecular size distribution of cellulose during attack by the brown rot fungus revealed single major peaks centered over progressively lower DPs. Cellulose attacked by P. chrysosporium was continuously consumed and showed a different pattern of change in molecular size distribution than cellulose attacked by P. placenta. At first, a broad peak which shifted at a slightly lower average DP appeared, but as attack progressed the peak narrowed and the average DP increased slightly. From these results, it is apparent that the mechanism of cellulose degradation differs fundamentally between brown and white rot fungi, as represented by the species studied here. We conclude that the brown rot fungus cleaved completely through the amorphous regions of the cellulose microfibrils, whereas the white rot fungus attacked the surfaces of the microfibrils, resulting in a progressive erosion. PMID:16348694

  2. Development of a ROT22 - DATAMAP interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, K. R.; Waak, T.; Brieger, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    This report (Contract NAS2-10331- Mod 10), outlines the development and validation of an interface between the three-dimensional transonic analysis program ROT22 and the Data from Aeromechanics Test and Analytics-Management and Analysis Package (DATAMAP). After development of the interface, the validation is carried out as follows. First, the DATAMAP program is used to analyze a portion of the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) data. Specifically, records 2872 and 2873 are analyzed at an azimuth of 90 deg, and record 2806 is analyzed at 60 deg. Trim conditions for these flight conditions are then calculated using the Bell performance prediction program ARAM45. Equivalent shaft, pitch, and twist angles are calculated from ARAM45 results and used as input to the ROT22 program. The interface uses the ROT22 results and creates DATAMAP information files from which the surface pressure contours and sectional pressure coefficients are plotted. Twist angles input to ROT22 program are then iteratively modified in the tip region until the computed pressure coefficients closely match the measurements. In all cases studied, the location of the shock is well predicted. However, the negative pressure coefficients were underpredicted. This could be accounted for by blade vortex interaction effects.

  3. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  4. Hands-On Whole Science. What Rots?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Presents activities on the science of garbage to help elementary students learn to save the earth. A rotting experiment teaches students what happens to apple slices sealed in plastic or buried in damp soil. Other activities include reading stories on the subject and conducting classroom composting or toxic materials projects. (SM)

  5. Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local area burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Brewer, Simon C.; McConaghy, Scott; Mueller, Joshua; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2015-11-01

    Fire is one of the most prevalent disturbances in the Earth system, and its past characteristics can be reconstructed using charcoal particles preserved in depositional environments. Although researchers know that fires produce charcoal particles, interpretation of the quantity or composition of charcoal particles in terms of fire source remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a unique four-year dataset of charcoal deposited in traps from a native tallgrass prairie in mid-North America to test which environmental factors were linked to charcoal measurements on three spatial scales. We investigated small and large charcoal particles commonly used as a proxy of fire activity at different spatial scales, and charcoal morphotypes representing different types of fuel. We found that small (125-250 μm) and large (250 μm-1 mm) particles of charcoal are well-correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.88) and likely reflect the same spatial scale of fire activity in a system with both herbaceous and woody fuels. There was no significant relationship between charcoal pieces and fire parameters <500 m from the traps. Moreover, local area burned (<5 km distance radius from traps) explained the total charcoal amount, and regional burning (200 km radius distance from traps) explained the ratio of non arboreal to total charcoal (NA/T ratio). Charcoal variables, including total charcoal count and NA/T ratio, did not correlate with other fire parameters, vegetation cover, landscape, or climate variables. Thus, in long-term studies that involve fire history reconstructions, total charcoal particles, even of a small size (125-250 μm), could be an indicator of local area burned. Further studies may determine relationships among amount of charcoal recorded, fire intensity, vegetation cover, and climatic parameters.

  6. Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time. PMID:25288973

  7. Identifying quantitative trait loci for resistance to Sclerotinia head rot in two USDA sunflower germplasms.

    PubMed

    Yue, B; Radi, S A; Vick, B A; Cai, X; Tang, S; Knapp, S J; Gulya, T J; Miller, J F; Hu, J

    2008-08-01

    Sclerotinia head rot is a major disease of sunflower in the world, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping could facilitate understanding of the genetic basis of head rot resistance and breeding in sunflower. One hundred twenty-three F2:3 and F2:4 families from a cross between HA 441 and RHA 439 were studied. The mapping population was evaluated for disease resistance in three field experiments in a randomized complete block design with two replicates. Disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) were assessed. A genetic map with 180 target region amplification polymorphism, 32 simple sequence repeats, 11 insertion-deletion, and 2 morphological markers was constructed. Nine DI and seven DS QTL were identified with each QTL explaining 8.4 to 34.5% of phenotypic variance, suggesting the polygenic basis of the resistance to head rot. Five of these QTL were identified in more than one experiment, and each QTL explained more than 12.9% of phenotypic variance. These QTL could be useful in sunflower breeding. Although a positive correlation existed between the two disease indices, most of the respective QTL were located in different chromosomal regions, suggesting a different genetic basis for the two indices. PMID:18943211

  8. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

  9. Leuconostoc spp. Associated with Root Rot in Sugar Beet and Their Interaction with Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Strausbaugh, Carl A

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc spp. Initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly understood; therefore, a more thorough investigation was conducted. In total, 203 Leuconostoc isolates were collected from recently harvested sugar beet roots in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon during 2010 and 2012: 88 and 85% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 6 and 15% L. pseudomesenteroides, 2 and 0% L. kimchi, and 4 and 0% unrecognized Leuconostoc spp., respectively. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, haplotype 11 (L. mesenteroides isolates) comprised 68 to 70% of the isolates in both years. In pathogenicity field studies with commercial sugar beet 'B-7', all Leuconostoc isolates caused more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) when combined with R. solani than when inoculated alone in both years. Also, 46 of the 52 combination treatments over the 2 years had significantly more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) than the fungal check. The data support the conclusion that a synergistic interaction leads to more rot when both Leuconostoc spp. and R. solani are present in sugar beet roots. PMID:26735061

  10. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period. PMID:25288943

  11. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in southern Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcox, George

    1999-04-01

    Charcoal analysis of three archaeological sites in southern Syria in the vicinity of the Jebel al Arab (formerly Jebel Druze) indicates that during the Early Bronze Age an association consisting predominately of Pistacia, deciduous oak and almond was exploited. During the Middle Bronze Age these taxa diminish and are partially replaced by more steppic species or introduced wood such as olive. During the Roman period evergreen oak appeared in the region and gradually replaced the deciduous oak which is now restricted to a small area. The gradual replacement of deciduous oaks by evergreen oaks has been observed in other areas of the Mediterranean basin during the Holocene. Conifer charcoal such as pine and cedar is present on the sites, but it is not clear whether these were local or imported from farther away, for example, the Lebanese highlands. During the Middle Bronze Age olive wood was also used as combustible but here also its exact origin is not known.

  13. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  14. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora.

    PubMed

    Marek, S M; Hansen, K; Romanish, M; Thorn, R G

    2009-06-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia resembling those of Botrytis. Although the corticoid basidiomycetes Phanerochaete omnivora (Polyporales) and Sistotrema brinkmannii (Cantharellales; both Agaricomycetes) have been suggested as teleomorphs of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA and subunit 2 of RNA polymerase II from multiple isolates indicate that it is neither a basidiomycete nor closely related to other species of Botrytis (Sclerotiniaceae, Leotiomycetes). Phymatotrichopsis omnivora is a member of the family Rhizinaceae, Pezizales (Ascomycota: Pezizomycetes) allied to Psilopezia and Rhizina. PMID:20198139

  15. Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Marlon, Jennifer; Power, Mitch

    2014-05-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes. Brücher, T., Brovkin, V., Kloster, S., Marlon, J. R., and Power, M. J.: Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 6429-6458, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-6429-2013, 2013.

  16. Susceptibility of Maize to Stalk Rot Caused by Fusarium graminearum Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Mutants.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Ocampo, L M; Al-Haddad, J; Scruggs, A C; Buell, C R; Trail, F

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a destructive pathogen of cereals that can cause stalk rot in maize. Stalk rot results in yield losses due to impaired grain filling, premature senescence, and lodging, which limits production and harvesting of ears. In addition, mycotoxins can make infected tissues unfit for silage. Our objectives were to evaluate the natural variation in stalk rot resistance among maize inbreds, to establish whether deoxynivalenol (DON)- and zearalenone (ZEA)-deficient strains are pathogenic on a panel of diverse inbreds, and to quantify the accumulation of DON in infected stalk tissue. Wild-type F. graminearum and mycotoxin mutants (DON and ZEA) were used to separately inoculate stalks of 9-week-old plants of 20 inbreds in the greenhouse. Plants were evaluated for lesion area at the inoculation point at 0, 2, 14, and 28 days postinoculation and tissues around lesions were sampled to determine the DON content. Regardless of their ability to produce DON or ZEA, all tested F. graminearum strains caused stalk rot; however, significant differences in disease levels were detected. Among the tested inbreds, Mp717 was resistant to all three F. graminearum strains while Mp317 and HP301 were only partially resistant. Accumulation of DON was significantly lower in infected stalks of the resistant and partially resistant inbreds than the susceptible inbreds. Analysis of the 20 inbreds using data from 17 simple-sequence repeats revealed population structure among the individuals; however, there was no association between genetic clustering and stalk rot resistance. These findings are an additional step toward breeding maize inbreds suitable for planting in fields infested with F. graminearum. PMID:27050573

  17. Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

  18. Wood-rotting fungi of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

  19. Contaminant breakthrough: A theoretical study of charcoal sampling tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Y.H.; Nelson, J.H. )

    1990-06-01

    A previously developed theoretical model was applied to investigate contaminant breakthrough on charcoal sampling tubes. Associated with the model are two important theoretical parameters. These parameters are k' (a rate constant) and tau (the time required for 50% contaminant breakthrough). In this study, values of K' and tau were determined for n-heptane at five different concentration levels in air: 98, 117, 234, 330, and 988 ppm. These values were used along with pertinent theoretical considerations to calculate the entire (0-100%) breakthrough curve (plot of percent breakthrough versus time) regarding the adsorbance of n-heptane on charcoal sampling tubes. In addition, available experimental data for perchloroethylene, isobutyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane were used in conjunction with the theory to generate theoretical breakthrough curves over the entire range of 0 to 100%. In each case, calculated theoretical breakthrough curves are in remarkable agreement with corresponding experimental data. With the use of an additional theoretical parameter, a, the theory was extended to calculate the weight of contaminant collected on a single element (section) of a charcoal sampling tube at 10% breakthrough and at each of several different contaminant assault concentrations.

  20. The Impact of Media Reporting on the Emergence of Charcoal Burning Suicide in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Gunnell, David; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning suicide with the incidence of such deaths in Taiwan during 1998–2002. A counting process approach was used to estimate the incidence of suicides and intensity of news reporting. Conditional Poisson generalized linear autoregressive models were performed to assess the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides with the actual number of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides the following day. We found that increases in the reporting of charcoal burning suicide were associated with increases in the incidence of charcoal burning suicide on the following day, with each reported charcoal burning news item being associated with a 16% increase in next day charcoal burning suicide (p<.0001). However, the reporting of other methods of suicide was not related to their incidence. We conclude that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicides appears to have contributed to the rapid rise in the incidence of the novel method in Taiwan during the initial stage of the suicide epidemic. Regulating media reporting of novel suicide methods may prevent an epidemic spread of such new methods. PMID:23383027

  1. NMR characterization of 13C-benzene sorbed to natural and prepared charcoals.

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S; Skjemstad, Jan O

    2006-03-15

    We investigated how the NMR properties of uniformly 13C-labeled benzene molecules are influenced by sorption to charcoals produced in the laboratory and collected from the field following wildfires. Uniformly 13C-labeled benzene was sorbed to two charcoals produced in the laboratory at 450 and 850 degrees C. The chemical shift of benzene sorbed to the higher-temperature charcoal was 5-6 ppm lower than that of benzene sorbed to the lower-temperature charcoal. This difference was attributed to stronger diamagnetic ring currents (which cause a shift to lower ppm values) in the more condensed or "graphitic" high-temperature charcoal. The chemical shift of benzene sorbed to two charcoals collected from the field following wildfires indicated a degree of charcoal graphitization intermediate between that of the two laboratory-prepared charcoals. Variable contact time and dipolar dephasing experiments showed that the molecular mobility of sorbed benzene molecules increased with increasing charcoal graphitization, and also increased with increasing benzene concentration. We propose that the chemical shift displacement of molecules sorbed to charcoal could be used to identify molecules sorbed to black carbon in heterogeneous matrixes such as soils and sediments, and to establish how condensed or "graphitic" the black carbon is. PMID:16570595

  2. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    PubMed

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper. PMID:24168044

  3. First evidence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia as the causal agent of dry rot canker of sugar beet in Nebraska, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is the primary source of domestic sucrose in the United States. In 2011, a sugar beet field in Morrill County NE was noted with wilting and yellowing symptoms suggestive of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot (RCRR), an important disease of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia s...

  4. Difference between chitosan and oligochitosan in growth of Monilinia fructicola and control of brown rot in peach fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitosan (CS) and oligochitosan (OCS), as natural antifungal agents, have been primarily used as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The effectiveness of these two agents on the growth of Monilinia fructicola to control brown rot has not yet been...

  5. Using airborne multispectral imagery to monitor cotton root rot progression in fungicide-treated and non-treated cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot has affected cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S for over 100 years. A fungicide, flutriafol, has shown considerable promise for controlling this disease in field studies in the last few years. With the temporary authorization for use of the fungicide to contr...

  6. Characterization of two peanut oxalate oxidase genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  7. First report of Lasmenia sp. causing rachis necrosis, flower abortion, fruit rot and leaf spots on rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rambutan is an exotic tropical fruit that has increased in commercial importance for growers in Puerto Rico. In 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on both leaves and inflorescences were observed. A total of 276 diseased samples from these plant parts were collected at commercial orchards, Agricult...

  8. The prevalence of different strains of Rhizoctonia solani associated with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot symptoms in Ontario sugarbeet fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) [Rhizoctonia solani Kühn] is an important disease of sugarbeets in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A survey of commercial sugarbeet fields was completed in 2010 and 2011 to determine the range of R. solani anastomosis groups (AGs) and inter-specific groups (ISGs) ...

  9. The Salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344 grows to 50-fold greater populations in the pres...

  10. The Interaction between Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and Cylindrocladium Black Rot (CBR) in Runner Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR), caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum, and root-knot nematode, caused by Meloidogyne arenaria, are important soilborne diseases on peanut. Greenhouse and microplot experiments were conducted with the runner peanut genotypes C724-19-15 (resistant to M. arenaria), Geor...

  11. Effects of Cultural Practices and Chemical Treatments on Phytophthora Root Rot Severity of Blueberries Grown in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, is an important disease of highbush, southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberry. Southern highbush cultivars are being grown in the southeastern U.S. for their early fruit production and reduced chilling requirement; however, as the acre...

  12. Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

    2010-01-01

    Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

  13. Screening a dry bean Andean diversity panel for potential sources of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, are among the most economically important root and hypocotyl diseases in the world and affect a wide range of hosts including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). To identify potential sources of resistance, screening material was ...

  14. Screening of a dry bean Andean diversity panel for potential sources of resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is a major problem in most sugar beet production areas and can cause substantial losses in both yield and quality. Over the last decade, it has become the most prevalent root disease of sugar beet in Michigan and several other regi...

  15. Pre- and post-harvest development of Phytophthora fruit rot on watermelons treated with fungicides in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is a serious disease in most watermelon producing regions in southeastern U.S., and has caused devastating loss over the past few years. In many instances, severe losses occurred after harvest during transportation. Experiments were conducted in 2010, 201...

  16. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, MCM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, JM; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones. PMID:25684775

  17. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A; Brown, Daren W; Nagy, Laszlo G; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Walton, Jonathan D; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-07-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  18. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  19. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A.; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  20. Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae

    2007-01-01

    The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25℃ and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

  1. Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

  2. Trichoderma viride induces pathogenesis related defense response against rot pathogen infection in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Savaliya, Disha D; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2015-08-01

    The study examine induction of defense enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of pathogenesis related proteins in rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) challenged groundnut seedlings in response to Trichoderma viride JAU60. Seeds of five groundnut varieties differing in collar rot susceptibility were sown under non-infested, pathogen infested and pathogen+T. viride JAU60 seed treatment. Collar rot disease evident between 31.0% (J-11, GG-2) and 67.4% (GG-20) in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infested which was significantly reduced from 58.1% (J-11, GG-2) to 51.6% (GG-20) by Trichoderma treatment. The specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) and β-1,3 glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) elevated 3.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively, at 3 days; phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) evident 1.6-fold higher at 6 days; and chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) sustained 2.3-2.8 folds up to 9 days in Trichoderma treated+pathogen infested seedlings of tolerant varieties (J-11, GG-2) compared with moderate and susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20). T. viride JAU60 induces defense enzymes in a different way for tolerant and susceptible varieties to combat the disease. This study indicates the synergism activation of defense enzymes under the pathogenic conditions or induced resistance by T. viride JAU60 in a different groundnut varieties susceptible to collar rot disease. PMID:26160540

  3. [Traveler's diarrhea in Turkey. Prospective randomized therapeutic comparison of charcoal versus tannin albuminate/ethacridine lactate].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J; Raedsch, R; Kruis, W

    1992-12-15

    In most cases traveler's diarrhea is a self-limiting disease not requiring professional assistance. As data on self-treatment are very limited, a prospective randomized trial was performed in 620 German tourists spending a two week-holiday in Turkey. 31.6% of these travelers developed diarrhea and 186 were assigned to two treatment groups, receiving either medical coal or a combination of tannalbuminate and ethacridinlactate (TA/EL). In the TA/EL group stool frequencies significantly earlier returned to normal and complaints of moderate to severe abdominal pain were recorded less frequently (50 vs. 82.2%) than in patients receiving charcoal preparations. Both medications were well tolerated and TA/EL appeared more efficient for self medication of uncomplicated traveler's diarrhea. PMID:1287425

  4. Development of a DNA Microarray-Based Assay for the Detection of Sugar Beet Root Rot Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sebastian; Christ, Daniela S; Ehricht, Ralf; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet root rot diseases that occur during the cropping season or in storage are accompanied by high yield losses and a severe reduction of processing quality. The vast diversity of microorganism species involved in rot development requires molecular tools allowing simultaneous identification of many different targets. Therefore, a new microarray technology (ArrayTube) was applied in this study to improve diagnosis of sugar beet root rot diseases. Based on three marker genes (internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1 alpha, and 16S ribosomal DNA), 42 well-performing probes enabled the identification of prevalent field pathogens (e.g., Aphanomyces cochlioides), storage pathogens (e.g., Botrytis cinerea), and ubiquitous spoilage fungi (e.g., Penicillium expansum). All probes were proven for specificity with pure cultures from 73 microorganism species as well as for in planta detection of their target species using inoculated sugar beet tissue. Microarray-based identification of root rot pathogens in diseased field beets was successfully confirmed by classical detection methods. The high discriminatory potential was proven by Fusarium species differentiation based on a single nucleotide polymorphism. The results demonstrate that the ArrayTube constitute an innovative tool allowing a rapid and reliable detection of plant pathogens particularly when multiple microorganism species are present. PMID:26524545

  5. Charcoal morphometry for paleoecological analysis: The effects of fuel type and transportation on morphological parameters1

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Alastair J.; Belcher, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. • Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. • Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. • Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems. PMID:25202644

  6. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  7. Recovery and Determination of Adsorbed Technetium on Savannah River Site Charcoal Stack Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, Kristy G.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Farmer, Orville T.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2008-03-01

    Experimental results are provided for the sample analyses for technetium (Tc) in charcoal samples placed in-line with a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing stack effluent stream as a part of an environmental surveillance program. The method for Tc removal from charcoal was based on that originally developed with high purity charcoal. Presented is the process that allowed for the quantitative analysis of 99Tc in SRS charcoal stack samples with and without 97Tc as a tracer. The results obtained with the method using the 97Tc tracer quantitatively confirm the results obtained with no tracer added. All samples contain 99Tc at the pg g-1 level.

  8. Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

  9. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 2; The effect of contaminants on the CH sub 3 I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of various contaminants, namely NO{sub 2} SO{sub 2}, 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)), and NH{sub 3}, on the radioiodine removal efficiency of triethylenediamine (TEDA)-impregnated charcoal filters has been studied, and an attempt was made to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The effects of the contaminants on the CH{sub 3}I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal under dry and humid conditions are described. Based on our results, the efficiency of TEDA charcoal is degraded most by NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} has a negligible effect, and MEK produces a mild degradation. The degree of degradation parallels the contaminant's ability to be chemisorbed on the TEDA impregnant. The combined effect of water vapor and a contaminant of the charcoal efficiency is different for each contaminant. Nitrogen dioxide absorbed under dry conditions is more effective in degrading the CH{sub 2}I removal efficiency of the charcoal that when absorbed under humid conditions. On the other hand, a completely opposite result is observed for SO{sub 2}. The MEK contaminant behaves similarly to SO{sub 2} but the effect of humidity was less significant than for SO{sub 2}. Ammonia has no effect on the efficiency of the charcoal regardless of humidity.

  10. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  11. DNA Based Genetic Variation for Red Rot Resistance in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic difference between twelve red rot resistant and five susceptible genotypes of sugarcane cultivated in Pakistan were studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initial screening was done using 300 markers and four genotypes (two resistant and two susceptible for red rot). ...

  12. Cultivar Selection for Sugar Beet Root Rot Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

  13. New Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the past several years, Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (causal agent: Phytophthora capsici) has been considered an important problem and a top research priority by the National Watermelon Association. Management of Phytophthora fruit rot is particularly difficult because of the long durati...

  14. RotCFD Software Validation - Computational and Experimental Data Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Ovidio Montalvo

    2014-01-01

    RotCFD is a software intended to ease the design of NextGen rotorcraft. Since RotCFD is a new software still in the development process, the results need to be validated to determine the software's accuracy. The purpose of the present document is to explain one of the approaches to accomplish that goal.

  15. Factors Influencing Development of Root Rot on Ginseng Caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Punja, Zamir K

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT The fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zins) Scholten is the cause of root rot (disappearing root rot) in many ginseng production areas in Canada. A total of 80 isolates of C. destructans were recovered from diseased roots in a survey of ginseng gardens in British Columbia from 2002-2004. Among these isolates, 49% were classified as highly virulent (causing lesions on unwounded mature roots) and 51% were weakly virulent (causing lesions only on previously wounded roots). Pectinase and polyphenoloxidase enzymes were produced in vitro by C. destructans isolates when they were grown on pectin and phenol as a substrate, respectively. However, highly virulent isolates produced significantly (P < 0.001) higher enzyme levels compared with weakly virulent isolates. Histopathological studies of ginseng roots inoculated with a highly virulent isolate revealed direct hyphal penetration through the epidermis, followed by intracellular hyphal growth in the cortex. Subsequent cell disintegration and accumulation of phenolic compounds was observed. Radial growth of highly and weakly virulent isolates on potato dextrose agar was highest at 18 and 21 degrees C, respectively and there was no growth at 35 degrees C. Mycelial mass production was significantly (P disease development, ginseng roots were grown hydroponically in Hoagland's solution. Lesions were significantly larger (P < 0.001) at pH 5.0 compared with pH 7.0 and wounding enhanced disease by a highly virulent isolate at both pHs. In artificially infested soil, 2-year-old ginseng roots were most susceptible to Cylindrocarpon root rot among all root ages tested (1 to 4 years) when evaluated using a combined scale of disease incidence and severity. Root rot severity was significantly (P < 0.002) enhanced by increasing the inoculum density from 3.45 x 10(2) CFU/g of soil to 1.86 x 10(3) CFU/g of soil. Disease

  16. Induction of apoptotic cell death leads to the development of bacterial rot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii.

    PubMed

    Kiba, Akinori; Sangawa, Yasutaka; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Yao, Nan; Park, Pyoyun; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2006-02-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii is the major causal agent of bacterial rot of lettuce. Collapse and browning symptoms were observed in lettuce leaf tissue from 15 to 24 h after inoculation (HAI) with P. cichorii; superoxide anion generation was detected at 1 to 6 HAI; and cell death was induced at 6 HAI, reaching a maximum at approximately 9 and 12 HAI. Heterochromatin condensation and DNA laddering also were observed within 3 HAI. Pharmacological studies showed that induction of cell death and DNA laddering was closely associated with de novo protein synthesis, protein kinase, intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNase, serine protease, and caspase III-like protease. Moreover, chemicals, which inhibited the induction of cell death and DNA laddering, also suppressed the development of disease symptoms. These results suggest that apoptotic cell death might be closely associated with the development of bacterial rot caused by P. cichorii. PMID:16529373

  17. Comparing modeled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruecher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes.

  18. Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Mortality after Charcoal Burning Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Yi-Chia; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Yang, Huang-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jen-Fen; Lin, Wey-Ran; Wang, I-Kuan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on risk factors for mortality in charcoal burning suicide. In this observational study, we analyzed the data of 126 patients with charcoal burning suicide that seen between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to status of renal damage as acute kidney injury (N = 49) or non-acute kidney injury (N = 77). It was found that patients with acute kidney injury suffered severer complications such as respiratory failure (P = 0.002), myocardial injury (P = 0.049), hepatic injury (P < 0.001), rhabdomyolysis (P = 0.045) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (P = 0.028) than patients without acute kidney injury. Moreover, patients with acute kidney injury suffered longer hospitalization duration (16.9 ± 18.3 versus 10.7 ± 10.9, P = 0.002) and had higher mortality rate (8.2% versus 0%, P = 0.011) than patients without injury. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was demonstrated that serum creatinine level (P = 0.019) and heart rate (P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for mortality. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with acute kidney injury suffered lower cumulative survival than without injury (P = 0.016). In summary, the overall mortality rate of charcoal burning suicide population was 3.2%, and acute kidney injury was a powerful predictor of mortality. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27430168

  19. Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Mortality after Charcoal Burning Suicide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Yi-Chia; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Yang, Huang-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jen-Fen; Lin, Wey-Ran; Wang, I-Kuan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on risk factors for mortality in charcoal burning suicide. In this observational study, we analyzed the data of 126 patients with charcoal burning suicide that seen between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to status of renal damage as acute kidney injury (N = 49) or non-acute kidney injury (N = 77). It was found that patients with acute kidney injury suffered severer complications such as respiratory failure (P = 0.002), myocardial injury (P = 0.049), hepatic injury (P < 0.001), rhabdomyolysis (P = 0.045) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (P = 0.028) than patients without acute kidney injury. Moreover, patients with acute kidney injury suffered longer hospitalization duration (16.9 ± 18.3 versus 10.7 ± 10.9, P = 0.002) and had higher mortality rate (8.2% versus 0%, P = 0.011) than patients without injury. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was demonstrated that serum creatinine level (P = 0.019) and heart rate (P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for mortality. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with acute kidney injury suffered lower cumulative survival than without injury (P = 0.016). In summary, the overall mortality rate of charcoal burning suicide population was 3.2%, and acute kidney injury was a powerful predictor of mortality. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27430168

  20. Antagonistic Bacillus species as a biological control of ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minjae; Yun, Hye Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a biocontrol system for ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum. Methods In total, 392 bacteria isolated from ginseng roots and various soils were screened for their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen, and a bacterial isolate (B2-5) was selected as a promising candidate for the biocontrol because of the strong antagonistic activity of the bacterial cell suspension and culture filtrate against pathogen. Results The bacterial isolate B2-5 displayed an enhanced inhibitory activity against the pathogen mycelial growth with a temperature increase to 25°C, produced no pectinase (related to root rotting) and no critical rot symptoms at low [106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] and high (108 CFU/mL) inoculum concentrations. In pot experiments, pretreatment with the bacterial isolate in the presumed optimal time for disease control reduced disease severity significantly with a higher control efficacy at an inoculum concentration of 106 CFU/mL than at 108 CFU/mL. The establishment and colonization ability of the bacterial isolates on the ginseng rhizosphere appeared to be higher when both the bacterial isolate and the pathogen were coinoculated than when the bacterial isolate was inoculated alone, suggesting its target-oriented biocontrol activity against the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen hyphae were twisted and shriveled by the bacterial treatment, which may be a symptom of direct damage by antifungal substances. Conclusion All of these results suggest that the bacterial isolate has good potential as a microbial agent for the biocontrol of the ginseng root rot caused by F. cf. incarnatum. PMID:24748838

  1. Detection of hidden pre-industrial charcoal kilns by high-resolution LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decade, systematic archaeological excavations in the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany) have revealed one of the largest, archaeologically excavated pre-industrial charcoal production area in Central Europe. Many of the charcoal kiln relics are easy to detect by survey as they lie close to the surface and charcoal pieces hint on their existence. In the excavations the remains of the charcoal kilns are distinct, black circles in the light-coloured sands. To date, in the former Königlich-Taubendorfer Forst c. 800 remains of charcoal hearths have been excavated and documented by archaeologists in an area of about 20 km2. Further c. 300 charcoal hearths are prospected by survey. Unfortunately, the spatial information about the charcoal kiln sites in Lower Lusatia (and elsewhere) is incomplete since we only have data from the archaeological excavation and prospection in the directly affected mining district. To fill this gap, we decided to test the applicability of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data for charcoal kiln prospection. The particularly improved quality of the recent high-resolution light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enabled the computer-aided detection of charcoal kilns and their evaluation using a geographical information system (GIS). Following data processing, the charcoal kilns are visible as buttons-like shapes in the shaded-relief maps (SRM). The characteristic shapes arise because the kiln plates are some centimetres to decimetres higher than the ditches around them. Numerous ground checks confirmed the applicability of the prospection by ALS data. But, we also assume that c. 10% of the charcoal kilns remain unidentified. A 26.6 km2 study area in the Tauerscher Forst, a forest about 10 km northwest of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde, was selected for prospection using a 1 m resolution ALS data set from the year 2011. Today, the area is forested with pine, and no archaeological excavation has been carried out so far

  2. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation. PMID:26347927

  3. Multiple-dose activated charcoal in acute self-poisoning: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Juszczak, Edmund; Buckley, Nick A; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Warrell, David A

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The case-fatality for intentional self-poisoning in the rural developing world is 10–50-fold higher than that in industrialised countries, mostly because of the use of highly toxic pesticides and plants. We therefore aimed to assess whether routine treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal, to interrupt enterovascular or enterohepatic circulations, offers benefit compared with no charcoal in such an environment. Methods We did an open-label, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial of six 50 g doses of activated charcoal at 4-h intervals versus no charcoal versus one 50 g dose of activated charcoal in three Sri Lankan hospitals. 4632 patients were randomised to receive no charcoal (n=1554), one dose of charcoal (n=1545), or six doses of charcoal (n=1533); outcomes were available for 4629 patients. 2338 (51%) individuals had ingested pesticides, whereas 1647 (36%) had ingested yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seeds. Mortality was the primary outcome measure. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN02920054. Findings Mortality did not differ between the groups. 97 (6·3%) of 1531 participants in the multiple-dose group died, compared with 105 (6·8%) of 1554 in the no charcoal group (adjusted odds ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·70–1·33). No differences were noted for patients who took particular poisons, were severely ill on admission, or who presented early. Interpretation We cannot recommend the routine use of multiple-dose activated charcoal in rural Asia Pacific; although further studies of early charcoal administration might be useful, effective affordable treatments are urgently needed. PMID:18280328

  4. Quantitative trait locus responsible for resistance to Aphanomyces root rot (black root) caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs. in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kazunori; Ogata, Naoki; Kubo, Tomohiko; Kawasaki, Shinji; Mikami, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs., is one of the most serious diseases of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Identification and characterization of resistance genes is a major task in sugar beet breeding. To ensure the effectiveness of marker-assisted screening for Aphanomyces root rot resistance, genetic analysis of mature plants' phenotypic and molecular markers' segregation was carried out. At a highly infested field site, some 187 F(2) and 66 F(3) individuals, derived from a cross between lines 'NK-310mm-O' (highly resistant) and 'NK-184mm-O' (susceptible), were tested, over two seasons, for their level of resistance to Aphanomyces root rot. This resistance was classified into six categories according to the extent and intensity of whole plant symptoms. Simultaneously, two selected RAPD and 159 'NK-310mm-O'-coupled AFLP were used in the construction of a linkage map of 695.7 cM. Each of nine resultant linkage groups was successfully anchored to one of nine sugar beet chromosomes by incorporating 16 STS markers. Combining data for phenotype and molecular marker segregation, a single QTL was identified on chromosome III. This QTL explained 20% of the variance in F(2) population (in the year 2002) and 65% in F(3) lines (2003), indicating that this QTL plays a major role in the Aphanomyces root rot resistance. This is the first report of the genetic mapping of resistance to Aphanomyces-caused diseases in sugar beet. PMID:18813904

  5. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  6. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

  7. Concentrations and bioaccessibilities of trace elements in barbecue charcoals.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Annabel; Turner, Andrew

    2013-11-15

    Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers. Total concentrations (available to boiling aqua regia) were greater in briquetted products (with mean concentrations ranging from 0.16 μg g(-1) for Cd to 3240 μg g(-1) for Al) than in lumpwoods (0.007 μg g(-1) for Cd to 28 μg g(-1) for Fe), presumably because of the use of additives and secondary constituents (e.g. coal) in the former. On ashing, and with the exception of Hg, elemental concentrations increased by factors ranging from about 1.5 to 50, an effect attributed to the combustion of organic components and offset to varying extents by the different volatilities of the elements. Concentrations in the ashed products that were bioaccessible, or available to a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that simulates, successively, the chemical conditions in the human stomach and intestine, exhibited considerable variation among the elements studied. Overall, however, bioaccessible concentrations relative to corresponding total concentrations were greatest for As, Cu and Ni (attaining 100% in either or both simulated PBET phases in some cases) and lowest for Pb (generally <1% in both phases). A comparison of bioaccessible concentrations in ashed charcoals with estimates of daily dietary intake suggest that Al and As are the trace elements of greatest concern to human health from barbecuing. PMID:24140519

  8. Validation of the diffusion-barrier charcoal canister method

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, D.E.; George, J.L.; Mamich, S.T.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    A six-month study was conducted by the Technical Measurements Center, US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of indoor radon measurements using an intermittent diffusion-barrier charcoal canister sampling protocol. Diffusion-barrier charcoal canisters (DBCC) were exposed for seven days in sixteen occupied residences each week during the 26-week study. The radon concentrations measured by the DBCCs were compared to radon concentrations measured by triplicate sets of four different types of alpha-track monitors and integrated hourly radon concentrations measured by a Pylon Model AB-5 continuous radon monitor. The results were also compared with radon-daughter concentrations measured in these same residences by an Eberline WLM-1 working level monitor. Excellent agreement was observed between the integrated mean radon concentrations measured by the DBCCs compared with the six-month alpha-track results, and between the weekly DBCC readings and average weekly radon concentrations measured by the Pylon radon monitors. An intermittent sampling protocol employing six weekly DBCC measurements spaced approximately every two months throughout the year should provide estimates of the average annual indoor radon concentrations that meet the criteria established for the Grand Junction Remedial Action Program. 9 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure of Monilinia fructicola During Brown Rot Epidemics Within Individual Peach Tree Canopies.

    PubMed

    Everhart, S E; Scherm, H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the fine-scale genetic structure of populations of the brown rot pathogen Monilinia fructicola within individual peach tree canopies to better understand within-tree plant pathogen diversity and to complement previous work on spatiotemporal development of brown rot disease at the canopy level. Across 3 years in a total of six trees, we monitored disease development, collected isolates from every M. fructicola symptom during the course of the season, and created high-resolution three-dimensional maps of all symptom and isolate locations within individual canopies using an electromagnetic digitizer. Each canopy population (65 to 173 isolates per tree) was characterized using a set of 13 microsatellite markers and analyzed for evidence of spatial genetic autocorrelation among isolates during the epidemic phase of the disease. Results showed high genetic diversity (average uh=0.529) and high genotypic diversity (average D=0.928) within canopies. The percentage of unique multilocus genotypes within trees was greater for blossom blight isolates (78.2%) than for fruit rot isolates (51.3%), indicating a greater contribution of clonal reproduction during the preharvest epidemic. For fruit rot isolates, between 54.2 and 81.7% of isolates were contained in one to four dominant clonal genotypes per tree having at least 10 members. All six fruit rot populations showed positive and significant spatial genetic autocorrelation for distance classes between 0.37 and 1.48 m. Despite high levels of within-tree pathogen diversity, the contribution of locally available inoculum combined with short-distance dispersal is likely the main factor generating clonal population foci and associated spatial genetic clustering within trees. PMID:25317843

  10. Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables. PMID:23404399

  11. Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r = 0.957 **, P < 0.01). The amount of isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation ( DT50) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal inceased from 0 to 50 g kg - 1 (for Paddy soil, DT50 values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT50 from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT50 from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

  12. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Kharbat, E.; Goplakrishnan, C.

    1992-12-01

    Digital image processing, is employed in this remarch study in order to visually investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated char/coal particles as well as the effect of interactivecombustion in two-particle char/coal arrays. Preliminary experiments are conducted on miniature isolated candles as well as two-candle arrays.

  13. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

  14. Commercial charcoal production in the Ibarapa district of southwestern Nigeria: forestry dividends and welfare implications.

    PubMed

    Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

    2010-01-01

    Logging activities have long provided both wood fuel and charcoal for household and commercial use in rural and urban communities in developing countries. However, logging problems range from deforestation to threatened household air quality from burning wood and charcoal. This exploratory case study triangulated 15 in-depth interviews among charcoal bulk buyers and the workers, observations of workers at two èédú (charcoal) commercial depots in Igbo-Ora and of workers in the forest, and review of studies in academic database. Three categories of people are working in the business ranging from the producers in the forests (alaake) to the bulk buyers (olowo) in the middle and the wholesalers (ajagunta) in the city. A small team of 4-8 people can produce three pickup truck loads of charcoal in 2 weeks, and a large team between 7-8 loads. The olowo and the alaake have associations, membership cards, and meet to discuss business progress and regulate members' economic behavior. Close to 35,000 bags of charcoal of 450 pickup trucks may make the journey weekly from Ibarapa. Overall, the charcoal business is informal, and the local people also frown at cutting any useful indigenous trees ascertaining that an individual's actions may affect the whole community. The role of community health educators is important in the dissemination of effects of deforestation through charcoal production. PMID:22192943

  15. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

  16. Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-11-30

    Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. PMID:25048757

  17. Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

    1991-08-01

    The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

  18. ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM CHARCOAL LIGHTER FLUID AND REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. ...

  19. Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

  20. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 1; The adsorption and desorption behavior of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on triethylenediamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoals, used in nuclear reactors to safeguard against the release of airborne radioiodine, which show high efficiency under various reactor operation and accident conditions when the are new. However, during normal operation, charcoal filters are continuously degraded (or weathered) due to the adsorption of moisture and other air contaminants. The effect of weathering on the efficiency of charcoal for removing radioiodine is of great interest. The results of a study on the adsorption behavior of various contaminants NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK)) and NH{sub 3} on TEDA charcoal are presented. This study is an attempt to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The adsorption and desorption of characteristics of these contaminants range from completely irreversible (NO{sub 2}) to completely reversible (NH{sub 3}). The effect of absorbed water (or humidity) on absorption is different for each contaminant. Absorbed water increases the absorption rate and capacity of TEDA charcoal for NO{sub 2}. However, it appears that SO{sub 2} is absorbed as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the wet charcoal. Absorbed water slightly reduces the adsorption capacity of the charcoal for MEK, but does not affect the absorption of NH{sub 3}.

  1. Carbon Sequestration and Fertility after Centennial Time Scale Incorporation of Charcoal into Soil

    PubMed Central

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m−2) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m−2). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters’ estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

  2. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  3. Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

    2014-05-01

    In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to

  4. Molecular Marker Approach on Characterizing and Quantifying Charcoal in Environmental Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, L.; Herbert, B. E.; Louchouarn, P.

    2006-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is widely distributed in natural environments including soils, sediments, freshwater, seawater and the atmosphere. It is produced mostly from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to BC due to its potential influence in many biogeochemical processes. In the environment, BC exists as a continuum ranging from partly charred plant materials, charcoal residues to highly condensed soot and graphite particles. The heterogeneous nature of black carbon means that BC is always operationally-defined, highlighting the need for standard methods that support data comparisons. Unlike soot and graphite that can be quantified with well-established methods, it is difficult to directly quantify charcoal in geologic media due to its chemical and physical heterogeneity. Most of the available charcoal quantification methods detect unknown fractions of the BC continuum. To specifically identify and quantify charcoal in soils and sediments, we adopted and validated an innovative molecular marker approach that quantifies levoglucosan, a pyrogenic derivative of cellulose, as a proxy of charcoal. Levoglucosan is source-specific, stable and is able to be detected at low concentrations using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). In the present study, two different plant species, honey mesquite and cordgrass, were selected as the raw materials to synthesize charcoals. The lab-synthesize charcoals were made under control conditions to eliminate the high heterogeneity often found in natural charcoals. The effects of two major combustion factors, temperature and duration, on the yield of levoglucosan were characterized in the lab-synthesize charcoals. Our results showed that significant levoglucosan production in the two types of charcoal was restricted to relatively low combustion temperatures (150-350 degree C). The combustion duration did not cause significant differences in the yield of

  5. Interaction of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae in Strawberry Black Root Rot

    PubMed Central

    LaMondia, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    A split-root technique was used to examine the interaction between Pratylenchus penetrans and the cortical root-rotting pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae in strawberry black root rot. Plants inoculated with both pathogens on the same half of a split-root crown had greater levels of root rot than plants inoculated separately or with either pathogen alone. Isolation of R. fragariae from field-grown roots differed with root type and time of sampling. Fungal infection of structural roots was low until fruiting, whereas perennial root colonization was high. Isolation of R. fragariae from feeder roots was variable, but was greater from feeder roots on perennial than from structural roots. Isolation of the fungus was greater from structural roots with nematode lesions than from non-symptomatic roots. Rhizoctonia fragariae was a common resident on the sloughed cortex of healthy perennial roots. From this source, the fungus may infect additional roots. The direct effects of lesion nematode feeding and movement are cortical cell damage and death. Indirect effects include discoloration of the endodermis and early polyderm formation. Perhaps weakened or dying cells caused directly or indirectly by P. penetrans are more susceptible to R. fragariae, leading to increased disease. PMID:19265969

  6. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material – though anisotropically contracted – and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: • Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope. • Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven. • Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls. PMID:26150989

  7. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls. PMID:26150989

  8. Towards an inventory of historic charcoal production fields in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Takla, Melanie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Bonhage, Alexander; Hirsch, Florian; Rösler, Horst

    2015-04-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. Based on our results from this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field, we attempted to detect and map other large occurrences of charcoal kiln remains in the state of Brandenburg. For the mine forefield, archaeological excavations provide certain and exact information on kiln site location and geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield, using a manual digitization for thorough mapping in forest areas north of Cottbus, and an automated mapping approach for detection of kiln sites for additional areas in Brandenburg. Potential areas of large-scale production were identified in a GIS-based analysis of environmental and historic data. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield. First results of mapping for larger areas indicate similar densities, but smaller diameters of kiln sites in other charcoal production fields; and show that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  9. Towards an improvement of carbon accounting for wildfires: incorporation of charcoal production into carbon emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan H.; Santin, Cristina; de Groot, Bill

    2015-04-01

    Every year fires release to the atmosphere the equivalent to 20-30% of the carbon (C) emissions from fossil fuel consumption, with future emissions from wildfires expected to increase under a warming climate. Critically, however, part of the biomass C affected by fire is not emitted during burning, but converted into charcoal, which is very resistant to environmental degradation and, thus, contributes to long-term C sequestration. The magnitude of charcoal production from wildfires as a long-term C sink remains essentially unknown and, to the date, charcoal production has not been included in wildfire emission and C budget models. Here we present complete inventories of charcoal production in two fuel-rich, but otherwise very different ecosystems: i) a boreal conifer forest (experimental stand-replacing crown fire; Canada, 2012) and a dry eucalyptus forest (high-intensity fuel reduction burn; Australia 2014). Our data show that, when considering all the fuel components and quantifying all the charcoal produced from each (i.e. bark, dead wood debris, fine fuels), the overall amount of charcoal produced is significant: up to a third of the biomass C affected by fire. These findings indicate that charcoal production from wildfires could represent a major and currently unaccounted error in the estimation of the effects of wildfires in the global C balance. We suggest an initial approach to include charcoal production in C emission models, by using our case study of a boreal forest fire and the Canadian Fire Effects Model (CanFIRE). We also provide recommendations of how a 'conversion factor' for charcoal production could be relatively easily estimated when emission factors for different types of fuels and fire conditions are experimentally obtained. Ultimately, this presentation is a call for integrative collaboration between the fire emission modelling community and the charcoal community to work together towards the improvement of C accounting for wildfires.

  10. Genomic regions associated with incidence of disease in cattle using DNA pooling and a high density single nucleotide polymorphism array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic regions associated with general disease (respiratory disease, foot rot, and pinkeye) in beef cattle were identified using treatment records on 2,849 animals. General disease cases included animals treated for bovine respiratory disease, foot rot, or pinkeye. Untreated cohorts, matched on b...

  11. Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066

  12. [Caring for families of charcoal-burning suicide patients].

    PubMed

    Pien, Feng-Chen; Feng, Hsin-Pei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2013-12-01

    Charcoal-burning is the second major cause of suicide death in Taiwan. Predicting the variable damage and sequelae in this suicide mode is difficult due to the rapid combination of carbon monoxide with red blood cells. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) may result in significantly extended recovery times, causing additional stress to the family. Nurses may help increase family understanding and support and guide family members to more positive intra-family interactions, shared perspectives on the recovery process, and resource seeking behavior by depicting subsequent family life and helping the entire family develop coping strategies those allow all members to effect cognitive, emotional and behavioral change. This result may help families of attempted suicide individuals recover successfully. PMID:24310557

  13. Mechanisms of charcoal degradation during its initial stages of decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2010-05-01

    Future climatic changes might result in an increased potential for wildfires, whereby incorporation of charred biomass into soil would increase. The incomplete combustion of biomass results in the production of a chemically heterogeneous class of highly condensed compounds known as pyrogenic C (PyC), which is generally considered resistant to microbial degradation. Recently, studies based on short-term laboratory incubations with soil have indicated that PyC can also eventually degrade (Baldock and Smernik, 2002; Hamer et al., 2004) and it is now widely accepted that a significant quantity of these resistant fraction of soil must have undergone degradation in terrestrial environments. Charcoal has been shown to decompose faster in the initial stages (first 2-3 months) and stabilize later (Kuzyakov et al., 2009). However, studies describing charcoal transformation processes remain scarce. The different potential degradation mechanisms have not yet been studied in combination, and therefore the relative importance for PyC degradation has not been evaluated. We are conducting an incubation experiment to study the biological, chemical and physical degradation/stabilization processes of PyC in soil under controlled conditions. We use Pinus ponderosa 13C/15N labeled (13C: 800 per mil, 15N: 4.2 atom %) wood and charcoal (pyrolysed at 450 °C under N2 atmosphere). We incubate soil from Lägeren forest (Wettingen, Switzerland) with three kind of organic inputs, labeled wood, char and no littler control. The decomposition rates would be estimated based on 13C of CO2 entrapped in NaOH. Time course destructive sampling would be done during the study. Lyophilized soil subsamples will be used for analysis of the amount of 13C incorporation in the microbial biomass using fumigation extraction method and phospholipids fatty acid analysis (PLFA). The remaining PyC in the soil would be characterized for the changes in its chemistry at the molecular level using Benzenepolycarboxlic

  14. Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpf, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

  15. Criticality safety study of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1996-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the practicality of developing a power reactor consisting of a graphite lattice with circulating molten uranium salt as fuel for application in central power stations. When the experiment was terminated in 1969, approximately 4710 kg of salt containing approximately 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 g of plutonium, and various fission products were transferred to two fuel drain tanks (FDTs). The almost 30.5 kg of Uranium 233 in the salt is the primary fissile constituent, but about 0.93 kg of Uranium 235 is also present. In April 1994, a gas sample from the MSRE off-gas system (OGS) indicated that uranium had migrated from the FDTs into the OGS. Further investigation revealed a likely accumulation of approximately 2.6 kg of uranium in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), which is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell (CBC) below ground level outside the MSRE building. The nuclear criticality safety (NCS) situation was further complicated by the CBC being filled with water up to the overflow pipe, which completely submerged the ACB. Thus there was not only an increased risk of criticality because of water reflection in the ACB, but also because of potential moderation in the ACB in case of water inleakage. Leakage into the ACB would result in a direct path for water between the CBC and the OGS or FDTs, thus increasing the risk of criticality in these areas. When uranium was discovered in the ACB, a number of steps, detailed in this report, were immediately taken to try to understand and ameliorate the situation. After all the actions were completed, a validation of the results obtained for the ACB was performed.

  16. Efficacy of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate in the treatment of oral paraquat intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, P; Friedman, P A; Lovejoy, F H

    1985-02-01

    The binding capacity of activated charcoal for paraquat was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared with Fuller's earth. In vitro activated charcoal absorbs paraquat and is as effective as Fuller's earth. Activated charcoal's absorbing capacity for paraquat is increased when it is suspended in magnesium citrate and is maximal at pH 7.8. Paraquat (200 mg/kg) administered orally to male mice, followed 30 minutes later by activated charcoal, Fuller's earth (4 gm/kg), and magnesium citrate (0.01 cc/gm) resulted in a survival rate of 31% in the controls, 63% in the activated charcoal and Fuller's earth groups, and 69% in the magnesium citrate group (P values not significant). When activated charcoal was administered concomitantly with magnesium citrate, the survival rate was improved significantly to 94% (P less than 0.01). The efficacy and greater availability of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate make these materials the treatment of choice for gastrointestinal decontamination in oral paraquat poisoning. PMID:3970396

  17. Charcoal as evidence of fire regimes in the Pleistocene of the California Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. C.; Hardiman, M.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, R. S.

    2012-04-01

    Charcoal has been recovered from a range of late Pleistocene sites both in Santa Cruz Island and Santa Rosa Island, belonging to the California Channel Islands. Sediments have been dated using radiocarbon measurements based on wood charcoal, fungal sclerotia, glassy carbon and fecal pellets and are given as calendar years bp. Charcoal assemblages from samples dating from 24,694 to 12,900 years are dominated by coniferous wood charcoal. Little angiosperm charcoal was recovered in any of the samples. Fungal sclerotia are frequent in a number of samples from a range of ages both on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. Fecal pellets are common in most samples and abundant in others. Some of the fecal pellets have hexagonal sides and are likely to represent termite frass. The sediments are fluvial in origin and the distribution of charcoal is irregular. The charcoal records a significant record of fire before the earliest documented human arrival on the islands and there is no evidence for a catstrophic fire triggered by a cometary impact at the onset of the younger Dryas, 12,900 cal years bp.

  18. Comparison of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in prevention of drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, P J; Vartiainen, M; Tokola, O

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of activated charcoal and ipecac syrup in the prevention of drug absorption was studied in 6 healthy adult volunteers, using a randomized, cross-over design. Paracetamol 1000 mg, tetracycline 500 mg and aminophylline 350 mg were ingested on an empty stomach with 100 ml water. Then, after 5 or 30 min, the subjects ingested, either activated charcoal suspension (50 g charcoal), syrup of ipecac, or, only after 5 min, water 300 ml. Activated charcoal, given either after 5 or 30 min, significantly (p less than 0.01 or less 0.05) reduced the absorption of these 3 drugs measured, for example as AUC0-24 h. Syrup of ipecac caused emesis on each occasion, with a mean delay of 15 min. When ipecac was given 5 min after the drugs, its effect on absorption was significant, but when it was given after 30 min only the absorption of tetracycline was reduced. Activated charcoal was significantly (p less than 0.05) more effective than ipecac in reducing drug absorption when given at the same time points. In cases of acute intoxication, depending on the quality and quantity of the drugs ingested, the relative efficacy of charcoal and ipecac may be somewhat different from that observed in the present study. Despite its emetic action, however, ipecac syrup is not very effective in preventing drug absorption and, in general, activated charcoal should also be given after induced emesis or gastric lavage. PMID:6134626

  19. Systems of HESS-APPEL'ROT Type and Zhukovskii Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragović, Vladimir; Gajić, Borislav; Jovanović, Božidar

    We start with a review of a class of systems with invariant relations, so called {\\it systems of Hess--Appel'rot type} that generalizes the classical Hess--Appel'rot rigid body case. The systems of Hess-Appel'rot type carry an interesting combination of both integrable and non-integrable properties. Further, following integrable line, we study partial reductions and systems having what we call the {\\it Zhukovskii property}: these are Hamiltonian systems with invariant relations, such that partially reduced systems are completely integrable. We prove that the Zhukovskii property is a quite general characteristic of systems of Hess-Appel'rote type. The partial reduction neglects the most interesting and challenging part of the dynamics of the systems of Hess-Appel'rot type - the non-integrable part, some analysis of which may be seen as a reconstruction problem. We show that an integrable system, the magnetic pendulum on the oriented Grassmannian $Gr^+(4,2)$ has natural interpretation within Zhukovskii property and it is equivalent to a partial reduction of certain system of Hess-Appel'rot type. We perform a classical and an algebro-geometric integration of the system, as an example of an isoholomorphic system. The paper presents a lot of examples of systems of Hess-Appel'rot type, giving an additional argument in favor of further study of this class of systems.

  20. Global regulation of Staphylococcus aureus genes by Rot.

    PubMed

    Saïd-Salim, B; Dunman, P M; McAleese, F M; Macapagal, D; Murphy, E; McNamara, P J; Arvidson, S; Foster, T J; Projan, S J; Kreiswirth, B N

    2003-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide array of cell surface and extracellular proteins involved in virulence. Expression of these virulence factors is tightly controlled by numerous regulatory loci, including agr, sar, sigB, sae, and arl, as well as by a number of proteins with homology to SarA. Rot (repressor of toxins), a SarA homologue, was previously identified in a library of transposon-induced mutants created in an agr-negative strain by screening for restored protease and alpha-toxin. To date, all of the SarA homologues have been shown to act as global regulators of virulence genes. Therefore, we investigated the extent of transcriptional regulation of staphylococcal genes by Rot. We compared the transcriptional profile of a rot agr double mutant to that of its agr parental strain by using custom-made Affymetrix GeneChips. Our findings indicate that Rot is not only a repressor but a global regulator with both positive and negative effects on the expression of S. aureus genes. Our data also indicate that Rot and agr have opposing effects on select target genes. These results provide further insight into the role of Rot in the regulatory cascade of S. aureus virulence gene expression. PMID:12511508

  1. Charcoal emissions as a source of CO and carcinogenic PAH in mainstream narghile waterpipe smoke.

    PubMed

    Monzer, Bassel; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2008-09-01

    Burning charcoal is normally placed atop the tobacco to smoke the narghile waterpipe. We investigated the importance of charcoal as a toxicant source in the mainstream smoke, with particular attention to two well-known charcoal emissions: carbon monoxide (CO) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). CO and PAH yields were compared when a waterpipe was machine smoked using charcoal and using an electrical heating element. The electrical heating element was designed to produce spatial and temporal temperature distributions similar to those measured using charcoal. With a popular type of ma'assel tobacco mixture, and using a smoking regimen consisting of 105 puffs of 530ml volume spaced 17s apart, it was found that approximately 90% of the CO and 75-92% of the 4- and 5-membered ring PAH compounds originated in the charcoal. Greater than 95% of the benzo(a)pyrene in the smoke was attributable to the charcoal. It was also found that the relative proportions of individual PAH species, the "PAH fingerprint", of the mainstream smoke were highly correlated to those extracted from the unburned charcoal (R(2)>0.94). In contrast, there was no correlation between the PAH fingerprint of the electrically heated and charcoal-heated conditions (R(2)<0.02). In addition to inhaling toxicants transferred from the tobacco, such as nicotine, "tar", and nitrosamines, waterpipe smokers thus also inhale large quantities of combustion-generated toxicants. This explains why, despite the generally low temperatures attained in the narghile tobacco, large quantities of CO and PAH have been found in the smoke. PMID:18573302

  2. What can we tell from particle morphology in Mesozoic charcoal assemblages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Alastair; Belcher, Claire

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary charcoal particles provide a valuable record of palaeofire activity on both human and geological timescales. Charcoal is both an unambiguous indicator of wildfire, and a means of preservation of plant material in an inert form; thus it records not only the occurrence and extent of wildfire, but also the species affected. While scanning electron microscopy can be usefully employed for precise taxonomic identification of charcoals, the time and cost associated with this limit the extent to which the technique is employed. Morphometric analysis of mesocharcoal particles (c. 125-1000 µm) potentially provides a simple method for obtaining useful information from optical microscopy images. Grass fires have been shown to produce mesocharcoal particles with a higher length-to-width ratio than woodland fuel sources. In Holocene archives, aspect ratio measurements are thus used to infer the broad taxonomic affinity of the burned vegetation. Since Mesozoic charcoals display similarly heterogeneous morphologies, we investigate whether there is a similar potential to infer the broad botanical affinities of Mesozoic charcoal assemblages from simple morphological metrics. We have used image analysis to analyse a range of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks representing different vegetation communities and depositional environments, and also to determine the range of charcoal particle morphologies which can be produced from different modern taxa under laboratory conditions. We find that modern charcoals break down into mesocharcoal particles of very variable aspect ratio, and this appears to be dependent on taxonomic position. Our analysis of fragmented laboratory-produced charcoals indicates that pteridophytes produce much more elongate particles than either conifers or non-grass angiosperms. We suggest that for charcoal assemblages that predate the evolution of grasses, high average aspect ratios may be a useful indicator of the burning of a pteridophyte

  3. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR) is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20 %, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM) is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM) that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P < 0.01), accounting for a SHR incidence reduction of about 20 %. Conclusions These results suggest that AM will be useful in dissecting other complex traits in sunflower, thus providing a valuable tool to assist in crop breeding. PMID:22708963

  4. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Nara Lúcia Perondi; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Bettiol, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil. PMID:27176597

  5. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot.

    PubMed

    Ghini, Raquel; Fortes, Nara Lúcia Perondi; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Bettiol, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil. PMID:27176597

  6. Black carbon quantification in charcoal-enriched soils by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), the solid residue of the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, is ubiquitous in soil and sediments, fulfilling several environmental services such as long-term carbon storage. BC is a particularly important terrestrial carbon pool due to its large residence time compared to thermally unaltered organic matter, which is largely attributed to its aromatic structure. However, BC refers to a wide range of pyrogenic products from partly charred biomass to highly condensed soot, with a degree of aromaticity and aromatic condensation varying to a large extend across the BC continuum. As a result, BC quantification largely depends on operational definitions, with the extraction efficiency of each method varying across the entire BC range. In our study, we investigated the adequacy of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the quantification of BC in charcoal-enriched soils collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial charcoal kilns in forest and cropland of Wallonia, Belgium, where charcoal residues are mixed to uncharred soil organic matter (SOM). We compared the results to the fraction of the total organic carbon (TOC) resisting to K2Cr2O7 oxidation, another simple method often used for BC measurement. In our soils, DSC clearly discriminates SOM from chars. SOM is less thermally stable than charcoal and shows a peak maximum around 295°C. In forest and agricultural charcoal-enriched soils, three peaks were attributed to the thermal degradation of BC at 395, 458 and 523°C and 367, 420 and 502 °C, respectively. In cropland, the amount of BC calculated from the DSC peaks is closely related (slope of the linear regression = 0.985, R²=0.914) to the extra organic carbon content measured at charcoal kiln sites relative to the charcoal-unaffected adjacent soils, which is a positive indicator of the suitability of DSC for charcoal quantification in soil. The first BC peak, which may correspond to highly degraded charcoal, contributes to a

  7. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    PubMed

    Woollen, Emily; Ryan, Casey M; Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Ribeiro, Natasha; Lisboa, Sá N

    2016-09-19

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. PMID:27502380

  8. GammaScorpion: mobile gamma-ray tomography system for early detection of basal stem rot in oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Jaafar; Hassan, Hearie; Shari, Mohamad Rabaie; Mohd, Salzali; Mustapha, Mahadi; Mahmood, Airwan Affendi; Jamaludin, Shahrizan; Ngah, Mohd Rosdi; Hamid, Noor Hisham

    2013-03-01

    Detection of the oil palm stem rot disease Ganoderma is a major issue in estate management and production in Malaysia. Conventional diagnostic techniques are difficult and time consuming when using visual inspection, and destructive and expensive when based on the chemical analysis of root or stem tissue. As an alternative, a transportable gamma-ray computed tomography system for the early detection of basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palms due to Ganoderma was developed locally at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang, Malaysia. This system produces high quality tomographic images that clearly differentiate between healthy and Ganoderma infected oil palm stems. It has been successfully tested and used to detect the extent of BSR damage in oil palm plantations in Malaysia without the need to cut down the trees. This method offers promise for in situ inspection of oil palm stem diseases compared to the more conventional methods.

  9. Effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to soil on nitrate leaching in calcaric soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Shinogi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate leaching in soils is often an important aspect in agriculture. Nitrate is leached from the root zone, where plants can utilize them, by surplus rainfall because little nitrate is absorbed by soil colloids. Miyako Island (target area) is located in the subtropical zone and comprised of coral limestone with high permeability. Land surface is covered with calcaric dark red soil that is called “Shimajiri-Maji”. Since the soil has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity, fertilizer-derived nitrogen easily leaches from the root zone during surplus rainfall and the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops is relatively low. Biochars, charcoal produced from pyrolysis of biomass, are known to adsorb dissolved nitrate. Sugarcane bagasse is the main biomass resource on the island because agriculture is the main industry on the island and sugarcane is cultivated in approximately 70% of the farmland. However, the adsorption characteristics of bagasse-charcoals for nitrate have not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependency of carbonization temperatures on the nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse-charcoals and the effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to the soil on NO3-N transport in the soil for optimal use of bagasse-charcoal as a soil amendment in Miyako Island. Sugarcane bagasse were air-dried and heated in a batch-type carbonization furnace at five different carbonization temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) with a holding time of 2 h. Nitrate adsorption by soil and bagasse-charcoals at each carbonization temperature was measured by the batch equilibrium technique. NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils (rates of charcoal addition: 0, 5 and 10 wt %) was evaluated in the column experiments. The breakthrough curves of NO3-N concentrations in the effluents from the bottom of the columns were analyzed with a convective-dispersion model. The model described one-dimensional transport of a sorbing solute

  10. Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

    2014-07-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

  11. Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    rate did not differ by sex/age group in Taiwan and Hong Kong but appeared to be greatest in people aged 15–24 y in Japan and people aged 25–64 y in the Republic of Korea. The lack of specific codes for charcoal-burning suicide in the International Classification of Diseases and variations in coding practice in different countries are potential limitations of this study. Conclusions Charcoal-burning suicides increased markedly in some East/Southeast Asian countries (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore) in the first decade of the 21st century, but such rises were not experienced by all countries in the region. In countries with a rise in charcoal-burning suicide rates, the timing, scale, and sex/age pattern of increases varied by country. Factors underlying these variations require further investigation, but may include differences in culture or in media portrayals of the method. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24691071

  12. Phenolic constituents of Celosia cristata L. susceptible to spinach root rot pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaolin; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Tahara, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    Cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone, 1), known as a host-specific attractant towards the zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides, a cause of root rot and damping-off diseases of Chenopodiaceae, was found in the Amaranthaceae plant, Celosia cristata, that is susceptible to the pathogen. The content of 1 in Celosia seedlings was quantified as 1.4 microg/g fresh weight. A new isoflavone, cristatein (5-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 2), and five known flavonoids were also identified. PMID:17031042

  13. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The

  14. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  15. Release of SR98 Sugarbeet Germplasm with High Levels of Resistance to Rhizoctonia Damping-Off, Crown and Root Rot, and Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SR98 (PI 655951) is a sugarbeet germplasm with smooth, low soil tare root and high levels of resistance to damping-off and crown and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG2-2). Previous smooth–root releases have been highly susceptible to diseases caused by R. solani, and the SR98 has incorporate...

  16. Registration of D95-5048 Soybean Germplasm Line Resistant to Phytophthora Rot and Soybean Cyst Nematode Races 3 and 14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean germplasm line D95-5048 was released in May 2005. The objective was to provide private and public soybean breeders with a parent to develop high yielding, multiple pest resistant cultivars. Phytophthora rot (PR) and soybean cyst nematode (SCN) continue to be serious yield-limiting diseases...

  17. ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

  18. Pseudomonas induces salinity tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and resistance to Fusarium root rot through the modulation of indole-3-acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Jabborova, Dilfuza; Hashem, Abeer

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses cause changes in the balance of phytohormones in plants and result in inhibited root growth and an increase in the susceptibility of plants to root rot disease. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether microbial indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a role in the regulation of root growth and microbially mediated control of root rot of cotton caused by Fusarium solani. Seed germination and seedling growth were improved by both NaCl and Mg2SO4 (100 mM) solutions when treated with root-associated bacterial strains Pseudomonas putida R4 and Pseudomonas chlororaphis R5, which are able to produce IAA. These bacterial strains were also able to reduce the infection rate of cotton root rot (from 70 to 39%) caused by F. solani under gnotobiotic conditions. The application of a low concentration of IAA (0.01 and 0.001 μg/ml) stimulated plant growth and reduced disease incidence caused by F. solani (from 70 to 41–56%, respectively). Shoot and root growth and dry matter increased significantly and disease incidence was reduced by bacterial inoculants in natural saline soil. These results suggest that bacterial IAA plays a major role in salt stress tolerance and may be involved in induced resistance against root rot disease of cotton. PMID:26587006

  19. Identification of Crucifer Accessions from the NC-7 and NE-9 Plant Introduction Collections that are Resistant to Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) Races 1 and 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pam.) Dawson (Xcc), is a serious disease of vegetable crucifers worldwide. The USDA NC-7 and NE-9 regional plant introduction stations maintain vegetable, mustard and oilseed crucifers, of which 4084 accessions were available for testing, ...

  20. Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koutb, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition. PMID:23956668

  1. Research of morphology structure and properties of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjiu; Feng, Aifen

    2015-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber, the tensile properties, friction properties and hygroscopicity of it, the bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber and the ordinary acrylic fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The burning behaviors of the two kinds of fibers were observed by burning test, and their cross-sectional and longitudinal morphology was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM pictures showed that there are the uneven sizes of microspores on the surface of bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber and in it. It was found that the friction coefficients of the bamboo charcoal acrylic fiber are smaller and its tensile and moisture absorption are better than those of the ordinary acrylic fiber. However, there are no obvious differences of the burning behaviors between the two fibers.

  2. Efficacy of charcoal cathartic versus ipecac in reducing serum acetaminophen in a simulated overdose.

    PubMed

    McNamara, R M; Aaron, C K; Gemborys, M; Davidheiser, S

    1989-09-01

    The traditional role of gastric emptying as the initial step in the management of the poisoned patient has recently been questioned; immediate activated charcoal administration has been recommended by some. In the setting of acetaminophen overdose, ipecac-induced emesis may interfere with subsequent oral antidotal therapy. Therefore, we conducted a study to compare the efficacy of initial therapy with ipecac with therapy with activated charcoal-cathartic in a simulated acetaminophen overdosage. Ten healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects ingested 3.0 g acetaminophen, followed by either no intervention, 30 mL syrup of ipecac, or 50 g activated charcoal-sorbitol solution at one hour. Serial acetaminophen levels were determined at intervals over eight hours. Both interventions significantly reduced the area under the curve compared with control (P less than .05). When comparing ipecac with activated charcoal-cathartic, no significant difference was noted among these groups. PMID:2569851

  3. Activated charcoal-carboxymethylcellulose gel formulation as an antidotal agent for orally ingested aspirin.

    PubMed

    Mathur, L K; Jaffe, J M; Colaizzi, J L; Moriarty, R W

    1976-07-01

    The in vivo effect on aspirin absorption of a potentially more palatable form of activated charcoal was compared to that of a simple aqueous slurry of activated charcoal. The experimental formulation consisted of 20.0 g of activated charcoal, 2.25 g of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and 42.8 ml of water; it was tested with and without chocolate syrup as a flavoring agent added just prior to administration. Six subjects were treated in crossover fashion following an aspirin dose of 972 mg. Total urinary excretion of salicylate was measured over 48 hours. Although all three treatments appeared to be effective in reducing the rate and extent of aspirin absorption, the slurry was significantly more effective in reducing the total amount absorbed than the charcoal-CMC gel with chocolate syrup. The slight difference in effectiveness between the gel formulation with and without the chocolate syrup was not significant. PMID:941924

  4. Combustion efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions from charcoal production kilns in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.; Babbitt, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Charcoal is one of the major energy resources in tropical countries. We investigate the combustion processes in charcoal production kilns in Zambia and Brazil. The Zambian kilns were made of earth and there was sufficient air for combustion inside the kilns. The Brazilian kilns were made of bricks which limited the available oxygen. The combustion efficiency and the concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6} alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic compounds produced were monitored throughout the combustion processes. The contributions of charcoal production processes to the atmospheric sources of these gases were estimated. The strategies for improving charcoal yield and reducing emissions of carbon-containing compounds are discussed.

  5. Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Nicole; Harper, David; Rials, Timothy; Elder, Thomas

    2006-05-17

    In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The multivariate models of charcoal were able to distinguish between species and wood thermal treatments, revealing that the characteristics of the wood charcoal depend not only on the wood species, but also on the carbonization temperature. This work demonstrates the potential of mid infrared spectroscopy in the whiskey industry, from the identification and classification of the wood species for the mellowing process to the chemical characterization of the barrels after the toasting and charring process. PMID:19127715

  6. Measurement and calculation of the sound absorption coefficient of pine wood charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Jae Gap; Baik, Kyung min; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Sung Soo

    2013-10-01

    Although charcoal has been widely utilized for physical therapy and as a deodorant, water purifier, etc. due to its porous features, research on its role as a sound-absorbing material is rarely found. Thus, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoal were measured using an impedance tube and were compared with the theoretical predictions in the frequency range of 500˜ 5000 Hz. The theory developed in the current study only considers the lowest possible mode propagating along the air channels of the charcoal and shows good agreements with the measurements. As the frequency is increased, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoals also increase, but are lower than those of other commonly-used sound-absorbing materials.

  7. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. PMID:25560914

  8. Cacao diseases: A history of old enemies and new encounters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book reviews the current knowledge of cacao pathogens and their management methods. Topics discussed include the history, biology, and genetic diversity of Moniliophthora (causing witches’ broom and frosty pod rot) and Phytophthora species (causing black pod rot) that cause diseases resulting i...

  9. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan

    2016-02-01

    Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP) have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment. PMID:27076716

  10. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

  11. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    DOEpatents

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-04-05

    Radioactive iodine and radioactive methyliodide can be more than 99.7 per cent removed from the air stream of a nuclear reactor by passing the air stream through a 2-inch thick filter which is made up of impregnated charcoal prepared by contacting the charcoal with a solution containing KOH, iodine or an iodide, and an oxyacid, followed by contacting with a solution containing a tertiary amine.

  12. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental

  13. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP) have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment. PMID:27076716

  14. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors using a semi-empirical expression.

    PubMed

    Montero Cabrera, M E; Sujo, L Colmenero; Villalba, L; Peinado, J Sáenz; Jiménez, A Cano; Miranda, A López; Peraza, E F Herrera

    2003-10-01

    Several calibration settings of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A set of functions and graphs were developed for relations between radon concentration in air and adsorbed activity in DBCC, when calibrated in small chambers. Both the integration time for 10% of DBCC of a batch, and the radon adsorption coefficient for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were determined. Thus, a semi-empirical expression for detector calibration was applied. PMID:14522237

  15. The GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Denker, C.; Kneer, F.; Al Erdogan, N.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S. M.; Beck, C.; Bello González, N.; Collados, M.; Hahn, T.; Hirzberger, J.; Hofmann, A.; Louis, R. E.; Nicklas, H.; Okunev, O.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Popow, E.; Seelemann, T.; Volkmer, R.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    The GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) is one of three first-light instruments of the German 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The GFPI uses two tunable etalons in collimated mounting. Thanks to its large-format, high-cadence CCD detectors with sophisticated computer hard- and software it is capable of scanning spectral lines with a cadence that is sufficient to capture the dynamic evolution of the solar atmosphere. The field-of-view (FOV) of 50 arcsec × 38 arcsec is well suited for quiet Sun and sunspot observations. However, in the vector spectropolarimetric mode the FOV reduces to 25 arcsec × 38 arcsec. The spectral coverage in the spectroscopic mode extends from 530-860 nm with a theoretical spectral resolution of R ≈ 250,000, whereas in the vector spectropolarimetric mode the wavelength range is at present limited to 580-660 nm. The combination of fast narrow-band imaging and post-factum image restoration has the potential for discovery science concerning the dynamic Sun and its magnetic field at spatial scales down to ˜50 km on the solar surface.

  16. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...

  17. Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

  18. Applied Technology of Bamboo Charcoal to Improvement and Purification of Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takimoto, Akira; Tada, Yukio; Onishi, Hajime; Fukazawa, Tomohiro

    The use of bamboo charcoal, which is one of the carbon from wood, attracts attention from the viewpoint of the environmental protection. Bamboo charcoal has high adsorption removal ability to various substances. In addition Bamboo charcoal is effective also for the filtration of the suspended solid and the bacterium by the macro pore that originates in the plant frame structure. In present paper, a new concept of gas clean technology by bamboo charcoal and TiO2 with UV light irradiation was proposed. Its system is composed of TiO2-coated bamboo charcoal, TiO2-coated silica gel and UV lamp. Water vapor is adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and fine particles and airborne bacterium are trapped on the surface of it. Trapped contaminant is degraded by TiO2 and UV light. In addition, the degradation is promoted by •OH produced by adsorbed water vapor. The air purification sanitization possibility in high efficiency for this system was clarified.

  19. Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

  20. Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Cole, H. E.; Cramblitt, E. L.; El-Lessy, H. N.; Manuel, S.; Tucker, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station s U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBAs service life. A history of in-flight TCCS operations is presented as well as a discussion of the charcoal sampling procedures and chemical analysis results. A projected service life derived from the observed charcoal loading is provided. Recommendations for better managing TCCS resources are presented.

  1. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself. PMID:27192198

  2. Estimation of emissions from charcoal lighter fluid and review of alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.L.; Stockton, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. VOCs contribute to the formation of ozone; therefore, the ozone nonattainment issue has focused attention on VOCs emitted from many sources. VOCs are emitted when charcoal lighter fluid is used, but these emissions are difficult to quantify. Evaporative VOC losses occur from the lighter fluid prior to ignition, and combustion VOC losses occur from burning lighter-fluid-soaked charcoal briquettes. This study evaluates tests conducted to date on charcoal lighter fluid emissions. The information is most complete for evaporative VOC losses. The estimates vary greatly, however, based on the length of time between application of the lighter fluid and ignition. The limited tests conducted to date have not distinguished lighter fluid from charcoal-briquette combustion emissions.

  3. Chemical and Isotopic Thresholds in Charring: Implications for the Interpretation of Charcoal Mass and Isotopic Data.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Lacey A; Hockaday, William C; Boutton, Thomas; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Kinney, Timothy J; Masiello, Caroline A

    2015-12-15

    Charcoal plays a significant role in the long-term carbon cycle, and its use as a soil amendment is promoted as a C sequestration strategy (biochar). One challenge in this research area is understanding the heterogeneity of charcoal properties. Although the maximum reaction temperature is often used as a gauge of pyrolysis conditions, pyrolysis duration also changes charcoal physicochemical qualities. Here, we introduce a formal definition of charring intensity (CI) to more accurately characterize pyrolysis, and we document variation in charcoal chemical properties with variation in CI. We find two types of responses to CI: either linear or threshold relationships. Mass yield decreases linearly with CI, while a threshold exists across which % C, % N, and δ(15)N exhibit large changes. This CI threshold co-occurs with an increase in charcoal aromaticity. C isotopes do not change from original biomass values, supporting the use of charcoal δ(13)C signatures to infer paleoecological conditions. Fractionation of N isotopes indicates that fire may be enriching soils in (15)N through pyrolytic N isotope fractionation. This influx of "black N" could have a significant impact on soil N isotopes, which we show theoretically using a simple mass-balance model. PMID:26523420

  4. Phanerozoic concentrations of atmospheric oxygen reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasspool, Ian J.; Scott, Andrew C.

    2010-09-01

    Variations of the Earth's atmospheric oxygen concentration (pO2) are thought to be closely tied to the evolution of life, with strong feedbacks between uni- and multicellular life and oxygen. On the geologic timescale, pO2 is regulated by the burial of organic carbon and sulphur, as well as by weathering. Reconstructions of atmospheric O2 for the past 400million years have therefore been based on geochemical models of carbon and sulphur cycling. However, these reconstructions vary widely, particularly for the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic eras. Here we show that the abundance of charcoal in mire settings is controlled by pO2, and use this proxy to reconstruct the concentration of atmospheric oxygen for the past 400million years. We estimate that pO2 was continuously above 26% during the Carboniferous and Permian periods, and that it declined abruptly around the time of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. During the Triassic and Jurassic periods, pO2 fluctuated cyclically, with amplitudes up to 10% and a frequency of 20-30million years. Atmospheric oxygen concentrations have declined steadily from the middle of the Cretaceous period to present-day values of about 21%. We conclude, however, that variation in pO2 was not the main driver of the loss of faunal diversity during the Permo-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction events.

  5. Homemade bone charcoal adsorbent for defluoridation of groundwater in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Smittakorn, Sunisa; Jirawongboonrod, Nithat; Mongkolnchai-arunya, Surat; Durnford, Deanna

    2010-12-01

    High levels of fluoride in groundwater are a significant environmental and health problem in Thailand, as in many parts of the world. Small household defluoridators have several advantages over centralized treatment systems. In Thailand, however, use of bone char for water treatment has met resistance because of objectionable taste and odours of the water produced and the social resistance to handling fresh bone. This paper presents a method that uses bone charcoal as an absorbent for removing fluoride from groundwater. The commercially provided boiled bone is burned in a simple homemade furnace that can be constructed, operated and maintained easily by small rural householders. The method to produce the Thai bone char eliminates the odour and objectionable taste and also does not require the user to handle fresh bone, thus eliminating the social resistance. To evaluate the efficacy of the absorbent, batch experiments compare Thai and Indian bone char. Sorption isotherms are fit to the Freundlich and Langmuir equations and the kinetics are modelled using the pseudo first-order Lagergren equation. Results show that the sorption characteristics of Thai bone char compare favourably with the Indian bone char, with approximately 80% of the fluoride removed in both cases. PMID:20705992

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood pyrolyis in charcoal production furnaces.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joyce Mara dos Santos; Ré-Poppi, Nilva; Santiago-Silva, Mary

    2006-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in smoke samples from wood carbonization during charcoal production, in both particulate matter (PM) and gaseous phases. Samples were acquired using a medium-volume air sampler at 1.5 m distance from the furnace. Particle-bound PAH were collected on Fluoropore polytetrafluoroethylene filters and gas-phase PAH were collected into sorbent tubes with XAD-2 resin. PAH were extracted with dichloromethane-methanol and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed total emission from the furnace of 26 microg/m3 for the 16 PAH and 2.8 microg/m3 for the 10 genotoxic PAH (from fluoranthene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene). High emission of 16 PAH in the first 8 h of wood carbonization was detected (64 microg/m3; 56% of the total emission). Associated with PM, 11% of the total emission of 16 PAH (in both phases) and 60% of 10 genotoxic PAH were found. Relative ratios (for example, [Phe]/[Phe]+[Ant]) for the PAH of the same molecular weight were obtained and compared with the published data. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaP(eq)) were estimated using the list of toxic equivalent factors suggested by . The values of 0.30 and 0.06 mg/m3 were obtained for the total concentrations of BaP(eq) in PM and gaseous phase, respectively. PMID:16499903

  7. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Lincon Rafael; da Silva, Renan César Dias; Cardoso, Atalita Francis; de Mello Pelá, Gláucia; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots). Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line), spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m2. Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS), and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS) in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha) and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha) being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot. PMID:26060437

  8. Screening strawberry plants for anthracnose disease resistance using traditional and molecular techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose is one of the most destructive diseases of strawberry which may cause fruit rot, leaf and petiole lesions, crown rot, wilt, and death. Crop loss due to anthracnose diseases can reach into the millions of dollars. Three species of Colletotrichum are considered causative agents of anthr...

  9. Achievements and challenges in legume breeding for pest and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield stability of legume crops is constrained by a number of pest and diseases. Major diseases are rusts, powdery and downy mildews, ascochyta blight, botrytis gray molds, anthracnoses, damping-off, root rots, collar rot, vascular wilts and white mold. Parasitic weeds, viruses, bacteria, nematodes ...

  10. Soybean fungal soil-borne diseases: a parameter for measuring the effect of agricultural intensification on soil health.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Brandán, C; Huidobro, J; Grümberg, B; Scandiani, M M; Luque, A G; Meriles, J M; Vargas-Gil, S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of agricultural intensification on soil microbial diversity, chemical and physical parameters, and the decrease of the incidence of sudden death syndrome (Fusarium crassistipitatum) and charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) in soybean. Soils under different management systems were evaluated during 2 crop cycles: soybean monoculture for 24 and 11 years, soybean-maize rotation for 15 and 4 years, 1 year of soybean, and native vegetation. The incidence of both soil-borne diseases was higher under monoculture than under rotation. Increased populations of potential biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp., fluorescent pseudomonads) were associated with rotation treatments, especially in 2010-2011. The comparison of agricultural vs. native vegetation soil and the average of agricultural cycles showed that microbial biomass carbon and glomalin-related soil protein were higher in the rotation system than in monoculture (50% and 77%, respectively). Furthermore, from the community-level functional diversity (Biolog Eco plates), McIntosh index showed lower functional diversity in monoculture than in rotation and native vegetation plots. Agricultural intensification reduced microbial biomass carbon, glomalin-related soil protein, organic matter, total nitrogen, aggregate stability, and yield, and increased bulk density. Soil quality degradation was associated with the establishment of soil-borne pathogens and increased soybean plant susceptibility to disease. PMID:24498984

  11. Suppression of seed rot and preemergence of chickpea by seed treatments with fluorescent pseudomonads in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A

    2006-01-01

    Species of Pythium isolated from rotted chickpea seeds and damped-off seedlings and chickpea soils at experimental field of Agriculture faculty of Tehran University in Karaj area that caused seed rot and preemergence damping-off of chickpea were Pyhium ultimum var. ultimum. One of the most important of soilborne fungal pathogens of the chickpea in Iran is seed rot and preemergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum Trow. Consequently, growers can expect as much as > 80% reduction in stand and yield if measures are not taken to control Pythium. Currently, most commercial seeds of chickpea are treated with pesticides. Fluorescent pseudomonads applied to seed are known to reduce soilborne diseases of chickpea caused by Pythium spp. In this study rotted chickpea seeds and diseased seedlings and soil samples were collected from experimental field in Karaj. Soils and roots used as sources of bacteria were collected from field. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated by plating samples on S1 and King's Medium B (KMB). Bacteria were preserved in 0.1 M MgSO4 for long-term storage; and NAG (containing 2% glucose) slants and plates at 4 degrees C short-term storage. Of 20 fluorescent pseudomonads isolated on S1 medium, 2 isolates selected for next tests. All strains significantly increased emergence as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial; isolate Pf-4 consistently provided the best protection against Pythium. Seedling emergence from all bacteria seed treatments was statistically lower than the chemical treatments. All strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seed treatment with metalaxyl were statistically better than captan in sterilized soil. In nonsterilized soil collected from the field artificially infested with P. ultimum, all strains significantly increased fresh weight of chickpea as compared to the infested control in greenhouse trial. Seedling emergence from seed treatment

  12. Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...

  13. Inhibitory effect and enzymatic analysis of E-cinnamaldehyde against sclerotinia carrot rot.

    PubMed

    Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaolin; Sun, Xiaoting; Xie, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Jingze; Hai-Wei, Fan; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect of E-cinnamaldehyde (EC) against causal agent of storage carrot rot, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Based on the results, EC was able to completely inhibit mycelial growth of three isolates (P>0.05) in both volatile and contact phases after 6days at the concentrations 200μl and 1μl/ml, respectively. In addition, EC at concentrations 1 and 10μl/ml completely inhibited carpogenic germination of three isolates. The results of in vivo trials showed that EC at the concentration of 10μl/ml was able to control the disease caused by isolates 1 and 3. However the disease caused by isolate 2 was inhibited with the concentration of 20μl/ml. In enzyme analyses, the activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase did not change in the inoculated carrots after application of EC. Furthermore, the level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase decreased. These results indicated that EC does not have any potential to be considered as resistance inducers against sclerotinia carrot rot. PMID:26821652

  14. Screening bactericidal effect of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strains against causal agent of potato soft rot.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Zaromi, Samaneh; Baghaee-Ravari, Sareh; Khodaygan, Pejman; Falahati-Rastegar, Mahrokh

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the potential of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) strains producing bacteriocin as a tool to control potato soft rot disease. Thirty out of 48 purified bacterial strains were characterized as Pcc using specific PCR and phenotypic tests. The pathogenicity and pectate degrading assays were recorded positive for 13 strains. Bacteriocin typing clustered producers into three groups according to their antimicrobial spectra. Majority of the producers except strains of group II showed antibacterial activity toward relative genus and the role of UV or mitomycin C was inductive. In addition, none of the distant genus was sensitive to Pcc bacteriocins except Rhizobium vitis. Molecular detection of four bacteriocins including carotovoricin, carosin S1, S2 and carosin D was performed. Overall, 54.5% of group I, 47.3 and 70% of groups II and III strains carried carotovoricin and four strains harbored gene corresponding to carosin S1. According to our data divers antimicrobial patterns obtained by Pcc strains and existence of new bateriocines could be possible. Moreover, our findings recommended that direct application of P29 or expression of corresponding genes of Pog22 or P21 in a nonpathogenic strain as a biocontrol agent may improve soft rot disease control. PMID:26523939

  15. Identification of putative candidate genes for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrid) using LD-based association mapping.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram K; Banerjee, Nandita; Khan, M S; Yadav, Sonia; Kumar, Sanjeev; Duttamajumder, S K; Lal, Ram Ji; Patel, Jinesh D; Guo, H; Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum that has a colossal damage potential. The fungus, prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, keeps on producing new pathogenic strains leading to breakdown of resistance in newly released varieties and hence the deployment of linked markers for marker-assisted selection for resistance to this disease can fine tune the breeding programme. This study based on a panel of 119 sugarcane genotypes fingerprinted for 944 SSR alleles was undertaken with an aim to identify marker-trait associations (MTAs) for resistance to red rot. Mixed linear model containing population structure and kinship as co-factor detected four MTAs that were able to explain 10-16 % of the trait variation, individually. Among the four MTAs, EST sequences diagnostic of three could be BLAST searched to the sorghum genome with significant sequence homology. Several genes encoding important plant defence related proteins, viz., cytochrome P450, Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter-1, MAP Kinase-4, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Ring finger domain protein and others were localized to the vicinity of these MTAs. These positional candidate genes are worth of further investigation and possibly these could contribute directly to red rot resistance, and may find a potential application in marker-assisted sugarcane breeding. PMID:26961118

  16. Antagonistic and Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma asperellum ZJSX5003 Against the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqian; Sun, Ruiyan; Yu, Jia; Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Chen, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of seven strains of Trichoderma asperellum collected from the fields in Southern China was assessed against Fusarium graminearum (FG) the causal agent of corn stalk rot of maize were in vitro for their antagonistic properties followed by statistical model of principal compound analysis to identify the beneficial antagonist T. asperellum strain. The key factors of antagonist activity were attributed to a total of 13 factors including cell wall degrading enzymes (chitnase, protease and β-glucanases), secondary metabolites and peptaibols and these were analyzed from eight strains of Trichoderma. A linear regression model demonstrated that interaction of enzymes and secondary metabolites of T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 enhanced the antagonist activity against FG. Further, this strain displayed a disease reduction of 71 % in maize plants inoculated with FG compared to negative control. Pointing out that the T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 is a potential source for the development of a biocontrol agent against corn stalk rot. PMID:27407296

  17. Chemical changes in soil charcoal of differing ages inferred from DRIFT spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobley, E. U.; Willgoose, G. R.; Frisia, S.; Jacobsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Visible charcoal fragments were manually isolated from a sandy soil from the Southern Highlands of NSW, Australia, at depths of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. In the topsoil, the charcoal had a radiocarbon age of 85 ± 35 years BP, whereas the charcoal from the 30 - 60 cm layer was radiocarbon dated at 2540 ± 35 years BP. Diffuse reflectance FTIR (DRIFT) spectra of the charcoal reveal differences in both the number of peaks detected and their magnitudes. In the IR region 750 - 3800 cm-1, the charcoal from the lower depth had less peaks (140) than that of the topsoil (217). In the 1400 - 1600 cm-1 region, generally attributed to aromatics, the peaks were larger and more numerous (22 peaks) in the 0 - 30 cm sample than those of the 30 - 60 cm depth (14 peaks). The C-H stretch of alkenes and aromatics (3000 - 3100 cm-1) was similar at both depths, but the peak generally associated with the C-H stretch of alkanes (methyl and methylene groups) at 2850 - 3000 cm-1 was smaller in 30 - 60 cm depth than in the topsoil. In contrast to the reduction in aromatic and alkane signatures, oxidised forms were more pronounced in the older, deeper charcoal. Peaks associated with the free hydroxyl O-H stretch (alcohols and phenols) at 3640 - 3610 cm-1, carboxylic acids (910 - 950 cm-1), aliphatic O-H (alcohols) (1050 - 1150 cm-1) and cellulose-like structures (1020 cm-1), which contain a large number of uncondensed, oxidised rings, were larger in the charcoal from 30 - 60 cm than in that from the topsoil. Our results confirm that charcoal is highly persistent in soils, being retained for millennia. Aromatic structures are present in both younger and older charcoal, but decay leads to a reduction in the number and area of peaks detected at 1400 - 1600 cm-1, indicating less aromaticity. Alkane C-H also decreases with aging, probably attributable to its preferential degradation by soil microbes compared with condensed aromatic structures. Concurrent with diminished aromatic and alkane

  18. Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of

  19. The Salmonella Transcriptome in Lettuce and Cilantro Soft Rot Reveals a Niche Overlap with the Animal Host Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Goudeau, Danielle M.; Parker, Craig T.; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

  20. Diaporthaceae associated with root and crown rot of maize.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Sandra C; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Tewoldemedhin, Yared T; Marasas, Walter F O

    2011-06-01

    Several isolates of coelomycetous fungi with pigmented conidia were consistently isolated from diseased roots of Zea mays in irrigated plots monitored in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Based on their morphology, these isolates could be identified as representative of Stenocarpella macrospora, S. maydis, and Phaeocytostroma ambiguum. Although species of Stenocarpella are well-known as causal agents of cob and stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in South Africa, the occurrence and importance of P. ambiguum is less well documented and understood. To determine the role of P. ambiguum as a root pathogen of maize, pathogenicity tests were conducted under glasshouse conditions at 18 °C night and 28 °C day temperatures using a pasteurised soil, river sand and perlite medium and a 0.5 % sand-bran inoculum. Based on these results, P. ambiguum was shown to be a primary pathogen of maize, but to be less virulent than the positive control, S. maydis. Furthermore, to clarify the higher-level phylogeny of these fungal genera, isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS & LSU). Partial gene sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene were added to confirm the species monophyly. To resolve the generic placement of Phaeocytostroma, additional species such as P. sacchari, P. plurivorum and P. megalosporum were also added to the analysis. Based on these results, Stenocarpella and Phaeocytostroma were shown to be two well defined genera, belonging to Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae, being closely allied to Phomopsis (Diaporthe). All three genera were also observed to form alpha as well as beta conidia, and although this phenomenon is well documented for Phomopsis and Phaeocytostroma, it is a new observation for Stenocarpella. In spite of the differences in conidial pigmentation, no support could be obtained for polyphyly in Diaporthaceae, suggesting that as observed in Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales), conidial