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1

Incidence of charcoal rot of sorghum and soil populations of Macrophomina phaseolina associated with sorghum and native vegetation in Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted in the Bay Region of Somalia to determine the incidence of charcoal rot in sorghum incited by Macrophomina phaseolina and the soil population of M. phaseolina in sorghum fields and areas of native vegetation. Charcoal rot was detected in 34 of 40 sorghum fields. Incidence (percent sorghum hills with diseased plants) in the four regional districts was

F. A. Gray; J. D. Mihail; R. J. Lavigne; P. M. Porter

1991-01-01

2

Control of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina by extracts of Datura metel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of Datura metel were found highly effective in suppressing against Macrophomina phaseolina, the cause of charcoal rot disease. These extracts were further subjected to successive fractionation with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the concentrations (3.125–200?mg?mL) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of leaf extract, and n-hexane fraction of fruit extract completely inhibited

Arshad Javaid; Amna Saddique

2011-01-01

3

Control of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina by extracts of Datura metel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of Datura metel were found highly effective in suppressing against Macrophomina phaseolina, the cause of charcoal rot disease. These extracts were further subjected to successive fractionation with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the concentrations (3.125–200?mg?mL) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of leaf extract, and n-hexane fraction of fruit extract completely inhibited

Arshad Javaid; Amna Saddique

2012-01-01

4

Control of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina by extracts of Datura metel.  

PubMed

Methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of Datura metel were found highly effective in suppressing against Macrophomina phaseolina, the cause of charcoal rot disease. These extracts were further subjected to successive fractionation with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the concentrations (3.125-200?mg?mL?¹) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of leaf extract, and n-hexane fraction of fruit extract completely inhibited the target fungal growth. Two compounds A and B from the n-hexane fraction of fruit extract and compound C from n-butanol fraction of leaf extract were obtained by TLC. Compound B exhibited the best antifungal activity with an MIC value of 7.81?µg?mL?¹ that was at par with that of commercial fungicide mancozeb (80% w/w). This study concludes that M. phaseolina can be effectively controlled by natural antifungal compounds in n-hexane fraction of methanolic fruit extract of D. metel. PMID:22004473

Javaid, Arshad; Saddique, Amna

2012-01-01

5

Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.  

PubMed

A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology. PMID:18289753

Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

2008-04-01

6

Degradation of organic matter from black shales and charcoal by the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune and release of DOC and heavy metals in the aqueous phase.  

PubMed

We investigated the degradation of refractory organic matter (OM) by the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune to understand the release of dissolved organic compounds, heavy metals and sulfur. The investigated OM consisted of: charcoal, the short time end product of high temperature wood alteration in the absence of oxygen and composed mainly of pure OM; and black shales composed of clay minerals, quartz, sulfides and OM formed geogenically in an abiotic long-term process. In both cases, the OM fraction contains mainly polyaromatic hydrocarbons. We investigated the degradation of these fractions by a wood-rotting basidiomycete, which is able to produce exoenzymes like peroxidases and laccases. These enzymes can perform radical reactions to oxidize OM (like lignin) and therefore hypothetically are able to degrade OM from charcoal and/or low grade metamorphic black shales. Release of new components into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) could be detected in both cases. The attack on OM in the case of black shales coincided with the release of the heavy metals Fe, Mn and Ni. By following sulfur concentrations throughout the experiment, it was shown that heavy metal release is not due to pyrite oxidation. Ground black shale and charcoal samples were inoculated with S. commune in a diluted minimal medium containing aspartic acid and glucose. The aqueous and solid phases were sampled after 1, 7, 28 and 84 days. DOC was measured as non purgeable carbon and characterized by size exclusion chromatography and UV detection. Carbon concentrations of the solid phase were determined by element analyses. After initial decrease of the DOC concentrations due to the degradation of the carbon source provided with the medium, DOC increased up to 80 mg/l after 84 days. Carbon decreased in the solid fraction confirming that this carbon was released as DOC by the fungus. The newly generated DOC formed larger agglomerations than the DOC of the growth medium. The investigation proved that the degradation of persistent carbon sources, such as charcoal and black shale, is accelerated by fungal activity. Consequently, the associated release of heavy metals is also accelerated by the fungus. Main products of the biological degradation processes were organic heavy metal complexes which can enter the environment. PMID:16483638

Wengel, Marcus; Kothe, Erika; Schmidt, Christian M; Heide, Klaus; Gleixner, Gerd

2006-08-15

7

First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea  

PubMed Central

In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide.

Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae

2014-01-01

8

Soybean phytophthora root rot: {\\\\it Phytophthora sojae\\\\\\/} races in Indiana and factors affecting disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot of soybeans caused by Phytophthora sojae has been one of the most important diseases throughout the soybean growing areas of the United States and Canada since the 1950's. Documenting the current physiological diversity of P. sojae and the role of factors affecting disease resistance are important in reducing yield losses due to this disease. Prevalence and distribution

Jose Cristino Melgar

1997-01-01

9

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

10

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

11

Lung disease 35 years after aspiration of activated charcoal in combination with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated charcoal provides effective treatment for most toxic ingestions. Accidental aspiration of activated charcoal is rare. Previously, there have been a few single cases reported on charcoal-related pulmonary complications. We describe an unusual case of pulmonary lesions 35 years after accidental aspiration of activated charcoal. The 38-year-old female patient presented with recurrent pneumothorax. A routinely performed chest roentgenogram revealed pulmonary lesions,

M. Huber; W. Pohl; G. Reinisch; J. Attems; S. Pescosta; F. Lintner

2006-01-01

12

Comparison of rhizobacterial community composition in soil suppressive or conducive to tobacco black root rot disease.  

PubMed

Work on soils suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated tobacco black root rot has focused on antagonistic pseudomonads to date. The role of non-Pseudomonas rhizosphere populations has been neglected, and whether they differ in black root rot-suppressive versus -conducive soils is unknown. To assess this possibility, tobacco was grown in a suppressive and a conducive soil of similar physicochemical properties, and rhizobacterial community composition was compared using a 16S rRNA taxonomic microarray. The microarray contains 1033 probes and targets 19 bacterial phyla. Among them, 398 probes were designed for Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes genera/species known to include strains relevant for plant protection or plant growth promotion. Hierarchical clustering as well as principal component analysis of microarray data discriminated clearly between black root rot-suppressive and -conducive soils. In contrast, T. basicola inoculation had no impact on rhizobacterial community composition. In addition to fluorescent Pseudomonas, the taxa Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Burkholderia, Comamonas and Sphingomonadaceae, which are known to comprise strains with plant-beneficial properties, were more prevalent in the suppressive soil. Mycobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirillum and others were more prevalent in the conducive soil. For selected taxa, microarray results were largely corroborated by quantitative PCR and cloning/sequencing. In conclusion, this work identified novel bacterial taxa that could serve as indicators of disease suppressiveness in soil-quality assessments, and it extends the range of bacterial taxa hypothesized to participate in black root rot suppression. PMID:19554036

Kyselková, Martina; Kopecký, Jan; Frapolli, Michele; Défago, Geneviève; Ságová-Marecková, Markéta; Grundmann, Geneviève L; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2009-10-01

13

First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl causing root rot and collar rot disease of physic nut ( Jatropha curcas L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physic nut (Jatropha curcas), an important bio-fuel crop grown in the state of Tamil Nadu, India suffered heavy losses due to a root disease in 2007.\\u000a The symptoms observed were yellowing, drooping and shedding of leaves, blackening and decaying of the collar region of the\\u000a stem and rotting of the roots. Lasiodiplodia theobromae was isolated consistently from the diseased tissues

P. Latha; V. Prakasam; A. Kamalakannan; C. Gopalakrishnan; T. Raguchander; M. Paramathma; R. Samiyappan

2009-01-01

14

Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi associated with base rot disease of Aloe vera (syn. Aloe barbadensis) were investigated in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Fungi and their percentage frequency were Aspergillus verocosa 28.03%, Fusarium oxysporium 24.24%, Plectosphaerella cucumerina 16.67%, Mammeria ehinobotryoides 15.91% and Torula herbarium 15.15%. None of the fungi isolated have been previously reported on Aloe vera in Nigeria. In pathogenicity tests, the

S. M. Ayodele; E. M. Ilondu

15

Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by a fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. Fusarium inoculation showed 80% disease incidence with 54 disease lesions per corm. Recommended dose of the chemical fungicide carbendazim significantly reduced the disease incidence to 13% and number of lesions to six per corm. Plant extract treatments exhibited variable effects on the incidence and severity of the disease. In general, all the test plant extracts managed the corm-rot disease to some extent. Aqueous bulb extracts of A. sativum and A. cepa and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale showed better disease management potential than that of the recommended dose of carbendazim. Fusarium inoculation significantly declined shoot growth. In general, carbendazim, as well as aqueous extracts, enhanced shoot growth to variable extents as compared to the Fusarium control. PMID:19557652

Riaz, Tariq; Nawaz Khan, Salik; Javaid, Arshad

2010-07-01

16

Response of three root rot fungi to strawberry phenolics and the relation of phenolics to disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pythium irregulare, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria alternata, usually associated with strawberry root rot diseases, were sensitive in vitro to several phenolics present in strawberry roots, fruits, and leaves, P. irregulare was the most sensitive. Eighteen strawberry cultivars were divided into two types, based on qualitative phenolic content. Five contained an unidentified xanthone and generally less kaempferol-7-glucoside than the remaining thirteen.

S. Nemec

1976-01-01

17

Fluorescent pseudomonad mixtures mediate disease resistance in rice plants against sheath rot ( Sarocladium oryzae ) disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains were isolated from different agro-ecosystems of Tamil Nadu, India, and\\u000a were tested for their efficacy against the sheath rot pathogen Sarocladium oryzae under in vitro, glasshouse and field conditions. Vigour and a relative performance index (RPI) were used to assay the growth\\u000a promotion and antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas strains against S. oryzae under in vitro conditions. The

Duraisamy Saravanakumar; Nallathambi Lavanya; Kannappan Muthumeena; Thiruvengadam Raguchander; Ramasamy Samiyappan

2009-01-01

18

Studies on certain aspects of chemical control of bacterial stalk rot disease of maize.  

PubMed

Sandoz seed dressing 6335 showing high efficacy in checking the growth of the maize stalk rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae Sabet in culture. Brestan, Antracol, Difolatan, Aratan, Duter, Ceresan wet, Flit-406, Cuman, Blitox-50, Streptocycline, Agrimycin, Terramycin, Actidione, Aureomycin, Chloromycetin, Penicillin G, and Streptomycin were moderately effective. The rest of the 35 chemicals was negligible in its influence. 15 different chemicals, namely Agrimycin, Streptocycline, Chloromycetin, Sodium penicillin G, Actidione, Terramycin, Aureomycin, Sandoz seed dressing 6335, Antracol, Aratan, Blitox-50, Diflotan-80, Ceresan wet, Cuman and Brestan 60 could also control the disease, but only when the plants were treated in vivo immediately after inoculation. They could not show any effectiveness, however, after 24, 48, and 72 hours of inoculation, showing their failure to control, once the infection has taken place by the pathogen. PMID:857509

Sinha, S K; Prasad, M

1977-01-01

19

Development of crown and root rot disease of tomato under irrigation with saline water.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT We studied the effect of water salinity on the incidence and severity of crown and root rot disease of tomato, as well as on the pathogen and on the plant's response to the pathogen. Irrigation with saline water significantly increased disease severity in tomato transplants inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, and mineral fertilization further increased it. In one field experiment, disease incidence in plots irrigated with saline water (electrical conductivity [EC] = 3.2 +/- 0.1 dS m(-1)) and in those irrigated with fresh water (EC = 0.4 +/- 0.1 dS m(-1)) was 75 and 38%, respectively. Disease onset was earlier and yield was lower in plots irrigated with saline water. In a second field experiment, final disease incidence 250 days after planting, was 12% in plants which had been irrigated with saline water (EC = 4.6 +/- 0.1 dS m(-1)) and 4% in those irrigated with fresh water (EC = 1.2 +/- 0.1 dS m(-1)). Irrigation of tomato transplants with 20 mM NaCl did not inhibit plant development, but partial inhibition was observed at higher NaCl concentrations. Growth of the pathogen in culture or survival of conidia added to soil were not affected by saline water. Plants which were preirrigated with saline water were more severely diseased than those preirrigated with tap water. It was concluded that disease increases effected by saline water are associated with the latter's effect on plant response. PMID:18943555

Triky-Dotan, Shachaf; Yermiyahu, Uri; Katan, Jaacov; Gamliel, Abraham

2005-12-01

20

Investigation of the radiation effects on Brown Rot disease of Golden Delicious apples, inoculated with the fungus Monilinia fructigena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 0, 1.5 and 3 KGy gamma-irradiation on Brown Rot disease affecting Golden Delicious apples are investigated.\\u000a The apples were artificially inoculated with Monilinia fructigena fungus before and after irradiation. Results show clearly\\u000a that radiation induces a delay in fungus development, even when it is not directly affected. The effect of radiation on the\\u000a apples' substrate seems to

Panayota Marcaki; Evagelia Petropoulou; Manolis Mavroyannakis

1998-01-01

21

Molecular phylogeny of Rigidoporus microporus isolates associated with white rot disease of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).  

PubMed

Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, ?-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia. PMID:24863478

Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Miettinen, Otto; Omorusi, Victor I; Evueh, Grace A; Farid, Mohd A; Gazis, Romina; Asiegbu, Fred O

2014-01-01

22

An integrated approach with Trichoderma harzianum DGA01 and hot water treatment on control of crown rot disease and retention of overall quality in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological control of crown rot disease of banana fruit was analysed using an integrated approach combining hot water treatment and Trichoderma harzianum strain DGA01. Treated fruit were stored at 22–25°C and 90–95% relative humidity for 2 weeks. The bioefficacy of fungal antagonist in vitro towards crown rot-causing pathogens namely: Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Colletotrichum musae, and Fusarium verticillioides, was

Dionisio G. Alvindia; Miriam A. Acda

2012-01-01

23

Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by management system (organic versus integrated) and cultivar, but there was no significant management system-cultivar interaction. Epidemics started 2 to 4 weeks earlier in organic orchards and on the early cv. Prima compared with integrated orchards and the late cv. Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards. PMID:18944175

Holb, I J; Scherm, H

2007-09-01

24

Development and validation of a disease forecast model for Sclerotinia rot of carrot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected crop, microclimate and pathogen variables were monitored in carrot crops for four years to identify important variables associated with the development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the start of epidemics of Sclerotinia rot of carrot. Soil moisture, and occasionally soil temperature, were the variables most closely associated with the development of apothecia and ascospores. Initial development of apothecia and ascospores

Adam J. Foster; Cezarina Kora; Mary Ruth McDonald; Gregory J. Boland

2011-01-01

25

Investigation of the radiation effects on Brown Rot disease of Golden Delicious apples, inoculated with the fungus Monilinia fructigena.  

PubMed

The effects of 0, 1.5 and 3 KGy gamma-irradiation on Brown Rot disease affecting Golden Delicious apples are investigated. The apples were artificially inoculated with Monilinia fructigena fungus before and after irradiation. Results show clearly that radiation induces a delay in fungus development, even when it is not directly affected. The effect of radiation on the apples' substrate seems to be considerable, being the main factor affecting fungal growth. Radiation doses of 1.5 and 3 KGy do not seem to produce strong differences in the fungal growth. Irradiation, however, is very effective, producing important changes of practical interest for apples infected before or after irradiation. PMID:16284856

Marcaki, P

1998-01-01

26

Lasiodiplodia theobromae is the causal agent of a damaging root and collar rot disease on the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A damaging root and collar rot disease caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was observed on adult plants of Jatropha curcas in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of this disease in Brazil, previously only\\u000a known from India.

O. L. PereiraA; D. C. Dutra; L. A. S. Dias

2009-01-01

27

Phylogeny and Population Structure of Brown Rot- and Moko Disease-Causing Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype II  

PubMed Central

The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools.

Remenant, B.; Chiroleu, F.; Lefeuvre, P.; Prior, P.

2012-01-01

28

Root Interactions in a Maize/Soybean Intercropping System Control Soybean Soil-Borne Disease, Red Crown Rot  

PubMed Central

Background Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. Principal Findings In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum). The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

Gao, Xiang; Wu, Man; Xu, Ruineng; Wang, Xiurong; Pan, Ruqian; Kim, Hye-Ji; Liao, Hong

2014-01-01

29

A role for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in stem colonisation during crown rot disease of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium pseudograminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum (Fg) can cause head blight and crown rot (CR) diseases of wheat but fungal colonisation and mycotoxin production by Fg during CR are little understood. Studies of an Australian strain of Fg demonstrated that expression of the Tri5 gene of Fg and deoxynivalenol (DON) production were induced during infection of the stem base and to levels equivalent to

Agnieszka M. Mudge; Ruth Dill-Macky; Yanhong Dong; Donald M. Gardiner; Rosemary G. White; John M. Manners

2006-01-01

30

Effect of chitin on biological control activity of Bacillus spp. and Trichoderma harzianum against root rot disease in pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bacterial isolates and one strain of Trichoderma harzianum were tested alone and in combination with chitin for efficacy in control of root rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici and Rhizoctonia solani in pepper plants under greenhouse conditions. These bacteria (Bacillus subtilis HS93 and B. licheniformis LS674) were isolated from repeatedly washed roots of pepper plants. In in vitro assays,

A. Sid Ahmed; M. Ezziyyani; C. Pérez Sánchez; M. E. Candela

2003-01-01

31

Agronomic practices and common root rot in spring wheat: Effect of tillage on disease and inoculum density of Cochliobolus sativus in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tillage, primarily zero tillage, on common root rot in spring wheat was studied at three locations in Saskatchewan. Generally, disease intensity was lower under zero than conventional tillage. It was significantly lower in 6 of 10 years at Scott and in 3 of 7 years at Swift Current. Differences occurred in wheat in oilseed - wheat -

R. D. Tinline; D. T. Spurr

1991-01-01

32

Biocontrol of Postharvest Rots in Fruit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the biological control of postharvest diseases in agricultural commodities. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of selected strains of microorganisms to biologically control postharvest diseases including mucor rot...

R. G. Roberts

1990-01-01

33

Sustainable Charcoal Production and Charcoal Briquetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustainable energy system includes energy efficiency, energy reliability, energy flexibility, fuel poverty, and environmental impacts. A sustainable biofuel has two favorable properties which are availability from renewable raw material, and its lower negative environmental impact than that of fossil fuels. Charcoal is produced by slow heating wood (carbonization) in airtight ovens or retorts, in chambers with various gases, or

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

34

Naz, a resistant cultivar on bean root rot disease in Zanjan province, northwest Iran.  

PubMed

Field bean is a major crops in different parts of northwest Iran especially Zanjan province. Recently the bean plants were severely subjected to damping off or decline disease which caused yield losses in bean growing regions. A regional research was done from 2003 to 2005 to get general information on the causal agent of disease and its control management. Infected plants were collected from different studied areas and transferred to laboratory. Crown and plant roots were cultured in PDA as common media and PPA as selective media for Fusarium species after surface sterilization with sodium hypochlorite. Plates were incubated in standard culture room then isolated fungi were identified. Different Fusarium species were isolated, however the main pathogen isolated from plant samples and soil around the roots was F. sambucium Fuckel. The disease caused up to 50% yield losses in some fields in studied areas. Study showed the "Naz" cultivar was the main resistant race to the disease and had the most yield production in the field. PMID:18396806

Saremi, H; Mohammadi, J; Okhowat, S M

2007-01-01

35

Spacelab Charcoal Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

1995-01-01

36

Genome Sequence of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum Strain CFBP6276, Causing Blackleg and Soft Rot Diseases on Potato Plants and Tubers  

PubMed Central

Pectobacterium atrosepticum strain CFBP6276 is a pectinolytic enterobacterium causing blackleg and soft rot of the stem and tuber of Solanum tuberosum. Its virulence is under the control of quorum sensing, with N-acylhomoserine lactones as communication signals. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. atrosepticum strain CFBP6276.

Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Beury-Cirou, Amelie

2013-01-01

37

Getting High Yields of the Potato: Potato Production and the Control of Its Diseases and Pests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document includes four booklets concerned with potato production. Topics covered include crop rotation, planting, watering, intercultivation, fertilizer, late blight, early blight, black scurf, charcoal rot, powdery scab, wart, brown rot, viral diseas...

1977-01-01

38

VOST charcoal specification study  

SciTech Connect

The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

1995-07-01

39

Charcoal as an Alternative Energy Source. Briquetting of Charcoal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments concerning briquetting of charcoal are described. In particular the report deals with the relation between the ultimate strength and the content of binders, cycle of drying, drying temperature, compression, and the quality of charcoal. In addi...

G. H. Pedersen

1982-01-01

40

Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates extent and instability of atherosclerosis accelerated by kidney disease in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Background. Accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular events are not only more common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but are more resistant to therapeutic interventions effective in the general population. The oral charcoal adsorbent, AST-120, currently used to delay start of dialysis, reduces circulating and tissue uremic toxins, which may contribute to vasculopathy, including atherosclerosis. We, therefore, investigated whether AST-120 affects CKD-induced atherosclerosis. Methods. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, a model of atherosclerosis, underwent uninephrectomy, subtotal nephrectomy or sham operation at 8 weeks of age and were treated with AST-120 after renal ablation. Atherosclerosis and its characteristics were assessed at 25 weeks of age. Results. Uninephrectomy and subtotal nephrectomised mice had significantly increased acceleration of atherosclerosis. AST-120 treatment dramatically reduced the atherosclerotic burden in mice with kidney damage, while there was no beneficial effect in sham-operated mice. The benefit was independent of blood pressure, serum total cholesterol or creatinine clearance. AST-120 significantly decreased necrotic areas and lessened aortic deposition of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate without affecting lesional macrophage or collagen content. Furthermore, AST-120 lessened aortic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? messenger RNA. Conclusions. AST-120 lessens the extent of atherosclerosis induced by kidney injury and alters lesion characteristics in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, resulting in plaques with a more stable phenotype with less necrosis and reduced inflammation.

Yamamoto, Suguru; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Yancey, Patricia G.; Hunley, Tracy E.; Motojima, Masaru; Fogo, Agnes B.; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio; Ichikawa, Iekuni

2011-01-01

41

Genotypic variation in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] exotic germplasm collections for drought and disease tolerance.  

PubMed

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain yield is severely affected by abiotic and biotic stresses during post-flowering stages, which has been aggravated by climate change. New parental lines having genes for various biotic and abiotic stress tolerances have the potential to mitigate this negative effect. Field studies were conducted under irrigated and dryland conditions with 128 exotic germplasm and 12 adapted lines to evaluate and identify potential sources for post-flowering drought tolerance and stalk and charcoal rot tolerances. The various physiological and disease related traits were recorded under irrigated and dryland conditions. Under dryland conditions, chlorophyll content (SPAD), grain yield and HI were decreased by 9, 44 and 16%, respectively, compared to irrigated conditions. Genotype RTx7000 and PI475432 had higher leaf temperature and grain yield, however, genotype PI570895 had lower leaf temperature and higher grain yield under dryland conditions. Increased grain yield and optimum leaf temperature was observed in PI510898, IS1212 and PI533946 compared to BTx642 (B35). However, IS14290, IS12945 and IS1219 had decreased grain yield and optimum leaf temperature under dryland conditions. Under irrigated conditions, stalk and charcoal rot disease severity was higher than under dryland conditions. Genotypes IS30562 and 1790E R had tolerance to both stalk rot and charcoal rot respectively and IS12706 was the most susceptible to both diseases. PI510898 showed combined tolerance to drought and Fusarium stalk rot under dryland conditions. The genotypes identified in this study are potential sources of drought and disease tolerance and will be used to develop better adaptable parental lines followed by high yielding hybrids. PMID:24349954

Kapanigowda, Mohankumar H; Perumal, Ramasamy; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Aiken, Robert M; Tesso, Tesfaye; Prasad, Pv Vara; Little, Christopher R

2013-01-01

42

Hydrous oxide activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for preparing of an ion exchanger, comprising: treating an ionically inert activated charcoal porous support with an aqueous solution of metal oxychloride selected from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides so as to impregnate the pores of the support with the solution; separating the treated support from excess metal oxychloride solution; converting the metal oxychloride to a hydrous metal oxide precipitate in the pores of the support at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal support have opposite zeta potentials and sufficient to hydrolyze the metal oxychloride. It also describes a process for preparing an ion exchanger comprising: treating granulated activated charcoal with a concentrated solution of a metal oxychloride from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides, degassing the mixture; and treating the resultant mixture with a base selected from the group consisting of ammonium hydroxide and alkali metal hydroxides so as to precipitate the oxychloride within the pores of the activated carbon granules as hydrous metal oxide at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal have opposite zeta potentials.

Weller, J.P.

1987-09-08

43

Biological Control of Fruit Rot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It now has been discovered that a strain of B. subtilis bacteria effectively inhibits the growth of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) on peaches when applied to preharvest peaches, effectively inhibits the growth of brown rot, gray mold rot (Botrytis ciner...

P. L. Pusey, C. L. Wilson

1989-01-01

44

Moisture insensitive charcoal canisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous monitoring of ²²²Rn concentrations in the air in houses is the most appropriate approach for the real-time measurements, but this requires complex and expensive instruments and is not practical for large studies. Activated carbon canisters have been used extensively for determining the average concentration over a period of a few days. The ''open face'' charcoal detectors have an integration

1987-01-01

45

Resistance to Phytophthora Root Rot in Contemporary Rhododendron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-seven rhododendron cultivars (genus Rhododendron L.) were screened for resistance to root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, using two levels of inoculum. While a majority (77%) of genotypes was susceptible, six cultivars had moderate resis- tance, and seven cultivars exhibited a high level of resistance to the disease. In these resistant groupings, the severity of root rot did not increase

Michael D. Wilson

46

Evaluation of Charcoal Sampling Tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Charcoal sampling tubes were constructed and compared with commercial charcoal tubes. Side by side samples were taken using the t-paired statistic. Other comparisons such as pressure drop across the tubes, ease of handling and cost were made with no signi...

R. D. Burnett P. Diamond M. P. Anderson M. L. Sweigart

1974-01-01

47

Combining Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Trichoderma strains with organic amendments and micronutrient to enhance suppression of collar and root rot disease in physic nut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal and bacterial biocontrol agents were tested individually and in combinations with oil cakes, organic manures and micronutrients for their efficacy against collar and root rot pathogen, Lasiodiplodia theobromae under in vitro, glasshouse and field conditions. Among the fungal (Trichoderma) and bacterial (Pseudomonas and Bacillus) antagonists screened against L. theobromae under in vitro conditions, Trichoderma viride (Tv1), Pseudomonas fluorescens

P. Latha; T. Anand; V. Prakasam; E. I. Jonathan; M. Paramathma; R. Samiyappan

2011-01-01

48

Activated charcoal: the untold story.  

PubMed

Introduction. To identify the prevalence and appropriateness of prescribing activated charcoal in the management of acute poisoning and to document patient compliance with treatment.Methods. A prospective study was conducted, between October 1998 and September 1999, on patients attending our accident and emergency department, with a history of overdose. Overdoses were classified as potentially toxic or non-toxic according to the history and/or information received from the National Poisons Information Service.Results. Two hundred and seventy five patients presented following overdose; 17% within one hour, 102 were prescribed charcoal (37.1%) but of these, 40 (39%) refused it, and of the 62 patients (61%) who accepted charcoal only 15 (24.2%) took all that was prescribed. Patients were 5.4 times more likely to take charcoal if they had taken a potentially toxic overdose. Of those who presented within one hour and were judged to have taken a potentially toxic overdose, only three patients took the full-prescribed amount.Conclusion. We report a substantially greater proportion of patients (39%) refusing charcoal than previously reported (9.9%). The widespread availability of TOXBASE Copyright should help redress this discrepancy. PMID:12633621

Lynch, Richard M; Robertson, Robert

2003-04-01

49

Control of phytophthora root rot of avocado with phosphorus acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot of avocado and Persea indica caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi was controlled by spraying or drenching with phosphorous acid Dartiallv neutralised with potassium hydroxide, or with phosethyl\\u000a Al. Phosphoric acid drenches increased phytophthora root rot in avocado, whereas dolomitic limestone, gypsum or diammonium\\u000a phosphate did not affect disease incidence. A twenty per cent solution of partially neutralised phosphorous

K. G. Pegg; A. W. Whiley; J. B. Saranah; R. J. Glass

1985-01-01

50

Inheritance of resistance to sclerotinia stem rot ( Sclerotinia trifoliorum) in faba beans ( Vicia faba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem rot, a fungal disease caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum Eriks., is often a serious problem in many important forage legumes including faba beans (Vicia faba L.). Understanding the inheritance of resistance to the disease is essential for effective breeding of resistant cultivars. Experiments were conducted to study the inheritance of resistance to stem rot of faba beans. The F1, F2,

Anastasios S. Lithourgidis; Dimitrios G. Roupakias; Christos A. Damalas

2005-01-01

51

The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria. PMID:471028

Fajola, A O

1979-01-01

52

USE OF CHARCOAL IN SILICOMANGANESE PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased attention towards reducing emissions of fossil CO2 due to its potential global warming effect has resulted in a focus on renewable resources, as charcoal. Since charcoal is produced from growing wood it does not contribute to global warming. This paper gives a brief review of consequences of and reasons for using charcoal in the silicomanganese (SiMn) production. Results

B. Monsen; M. Tangstad; H. Midtgaard

2004-01-01

53

Spatio-temporal analysis of spear rot and ‘marchitez sorpresiva’ in African oil palm in Surinam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial patterns of spear rot and ‘marchitez sorpresiva’ epidemics in oil palm in Surinam were analyzed using geostatistics.\\u000a Semivariogram analysis generally led to linear and spherical graphs of respectively, spear rot and marchitez incidence in\\u000a areas where the diseases were not yet under control. In both, spear rot and marchitez, semivariograms indicated focal development\\u000a in the initial stage of the

H. L. Van De Lande

1993-01-01

54

Effects of cinnamon extract, chitosan coating, hot water treatment and their combinations on crown rot disease and quality of banana fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activities of cinnamon extract (CE), piper extract (PE) and garlic extract (GE) were evaluated on banana crown rot fungi (Colletotrichum musae, Fusarium spp. and Lasiodiplodia theobromae) in vitro. The assay was conducted with extracts of CE, PE and GE with concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 0.75gL?1 of carbendazim (CBZ) on potato dextrose agar at

N. Kyu Kyu Win; P. Jitareerat; S. Kanlayanarat; S. Sangchote

2007-01-01

55

REPLACEMENT OF CHARCOAL IN VOST  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Method 0030, the Volatile rganic ampling rain VOST), or sampling volatile organics from has proven to be a original performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. n addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has b...

56

Control of rhizopus rot of peaches with postharvest treatments of tebuconazole, fludioxonil, and Pseudomonas syringae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer is a potentially serious postharvest disease of Canadian-grown peaches. Several new fungicides are effective against brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) of peaches, but little is known of their postharvest efficacies against R. stolonifer. Harvested peaches were arranged in trays, individually punctured once and co-treated with a suspension of both R. stolonifer sporangiospores and cells of

John Northover; Ting Zhou

2002-01-01

57

Influence of fungal-soil water interactions on phytophthora root rot of alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a serious problem in wet soils. This disease is caused by Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. medicaginis. The influence of soil-water interactions with P. megasperma f. sp. medicaginis and other factors on the severity of phytophthora root rot of mature alfalfa plants (10–12 weeks) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Severe and reproducible

A. K. Alva; L. E. Lanyon; K. T. Leath

1985-01-01

58

Increase in Cladosporium spp. populations and rot of wine grapes associated with leaf removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf removal reduces the epiphytic populations of several filamentous fungi found on grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Consequently this practice is used to prevent foliar diseases of grapevines and rots of grapes. In this study, the effects of leaf removal on Cladosporium rot (Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum), which often affects ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ in Chile, were characterized. The effects of leaf removal

B. A. Latorre; E. X. Briceño; R. Torres

2011-01-01

59

Leaf Spot and Stem Rot on Wilford Swallowwort Caused by Stemphylium lycopersici in Korea  

PubMed Central

In June 2012, leaf spot and stem rot were observed on Wilford Swallowwort plants grown in Cheonan, Korea. Three fungal isolates obtained from the diseased leaves and stems were identified as Stemphylium lycopersici, based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity. This is the first report of leaf spot and stem rot on Wilford Swallowwort caused by S. lycopersici.

Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee; Shim, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Yeob

2012-01-01

60

Identification and Characterisation of Bacteria Causing Soft-rot in Agave tequilana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave tequilana is the raw material for the production of the alcoholic beverage tequila. A bacterial disease has affected the A. tequilana crop in recent years. Previous reports based on colony and cell morphology, Gram stain and potato rot indicated that Erwinia sp. is the main pathogen. We isolated a several bacterial isolates capable of producing soft-rot symptoms in greenhouse

I. Jiménez-Hidalgo; G. Virgen-Calleros; O. Mart'inez-de la Vega; G. Vandemark; V. Olalde-Portugal

2004-01-01

61

The effect of oral activated charcoal on the course of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.  

PubMed

The administration of oral activated charcoal to two patients with congenital erythropoietic porphyria has previously been reported to result in a marked reduction in plasma and urinary porphyrin concentrations and in one case, clinical remission. We describe an additional case in which the use of charcoal was associated with an apparent exacerbation of the biochemical activity of the disease following an initial period of remission. This result is unexpected, and currently unexplained. We conclude that charcoal therapy in porphyria may not be without risk, and should be used with caution. PMID:8369205

Hift, R J; Meissner, P N; Kirsch, R E

1993-07-01

62

Radon transport in an activated charcoal canister  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of Rn through activated charcoal was modelled for a charcoal canister used for surface emanation measurements. Derived Rn concentration distributions in full and half charcoal charges were compared with measured Rn profiles. The distributions were also compared with an empirical expression for the measured profiles. Close agreement was observed between the measured, empirically generated and derived profiles. The influence of temperature and humidity on Rn accumulation and transport is also discussed.

Wilson, Owen J.

1989-02-01

63

Spatial variation in the charcoal pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mikael Ohlson, Anne E. Bjune, Isabella Kasin and Anveig Nordtug Wist It is well known that the soil charcoal pool varies significantly in size across different types of forest landscapes and regional climates. However, the level of variation on fine spatial scales within a given forest landscape remains poorly known. Here we use a geostatistical approach to describe the spatial structure and variability of the soil charcoal pool in a boreal forest landscape. Our study landscape is a watershed including a small lake and two distinct types of forests, viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. The study is based on 200 forest soil cores and one lake sediment core in which the amount of macroscopic charcoal was measured. The amount of charcoal in the forest soil cores was very variable and ranged from 0 to 3600 g per square meter. The variation was profound also on fine spatial scales, i.e. 0.05 - 0.2 m, and geostatistical analysis revealed only weak spatial structuring on scales from 0.05 up to 200 m. Although weak spatial structuring, there were three significant and general patterns in the soil charcoal pool. First, there was a positive relationship between the amount of charcoal in the soil and the density of the contemporary forest. Second, there was more charcoal in the spruce forest than in the pine forest. Third, the amount of charcoal in the soil increased with increasing distance from the lake. The lake sediment core, which had a depth of 3 m and an age of 11 000 years, recorded a continuous influx of macroscopic charcoal throughout the Holocene. Interestingly, the amount of charcoal in the lake sediment exceeded that in the majority of the forest soil cores, indicating a relatively high degradation rate of charcoal in the forest soil and that charcoal is well preserved in the lake sediment.

Ohlson, M.; Bjune, A. E.; Kasin, I.; Nordtug Wist, A.

2012-04-01

64

Effect of activated charcoal on acetaminophen absorption.  

PubMed

Acetaminophen intoxication can cause hepatic, renal, and myocardial necrosis which is often fatal. These lesions develop very rapidly, perhaps during the first pass of the drug through the liver. In case of acute ingestion of an overdose it is therefore essential to employ measures for reducing the absorption of acetaminophen. The effect of activated charcoal on acetaminophen absorption by normal volunteers was determined as a function of the dose of charcoal, the dosage form of acetaminophen, and the charcoal-to-acetaminophen dose ratio. The results indicate that activated charcoal can be an effective antidote for acute acetaminophen intoxication, if administered promptly and in sufficient quantity. PMID:958771

Levy, G; Houston, J B

1976-09-01

65

The occurrence of root rot and crown rot of rice in Gilan and Zanjan provinces, Iran.  

PubMed

Root rot and crown rot of rice is one of the important fungal diseases of rice in Gilan and Zanjan provinces, Iran. During 1999--2002, samples of plant and soil around the roots of infected rice plants were collected and used to identify the causal agent. Root and crown parts were surface sterilized with sodium hypochlorite and then cultured on PDA (potato dextrose agar), PPA (pepton pentacholoritobenzene agar) and CLA (carnation leaf agar) media. Soil samples prepared in water agar were used to isolate the pathogen. The causal agent was identified as Fusarium moniliforme. Colonies were initially white but turned violet to grey late. Microconidia were arranged in chain and macroconidia were cylindrical and long with 3-5 septa. The disease was severe in Zanjan province particularly along Ghezel Ozan river where the infection ranged from 70-80%. Root and crown rot was more prevalent in areas where Champa and Gerdeh were being cultivated continuously. On the other hand, Sadri cultivars had relatively less infection. Persistent cultivation of rice and seed sowing method intensified disease development and caused significant economic losses. PMID:15756834

Saremi, H; Okhovat, S M

2004-01-01

66

Analysis of TEDA on ASC-Whetlerite Charcoal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the course of research and development on charcoal, chemical impregnants were incorporated onto charcoal surfaces to afford better protection against some chemical warfare (CW) agents. The use of copper, chromium, and silver as charcoal impregnants (th...

S. H. Liang B. H. Harrison J. G. Pagotto

1987-01-01

67

Charcoal/Nitrogen Adsorption Cryocooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Refrigerator with no wear-related moving parts produces 0.5 W of cooling at 118 K. When fully developed, refrigerator needs no electrical power, and life expectancy of more than 10 yr, operates unattended to cool sensitive infrared detectors for long periods. Only moving parts in adsorption cryocooler are check valves. As charcoal is cooled in canister, gas pressure drops, allowing inlet check valve to open and admit more nitrogen. When canister is heated, pressure rises, closing inlet valve and eventually opening outlet valve.

Bard, Steven

1987-01-01

68

Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los

D. W. Sedgley; A. G. Tobin

1985-01-01

69

CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke ABSTRACT Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

70

Abiotic characteristics of soils suppressive to Aphanomyces root rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils showing suppressiveness to Aphanomyces root rot of pea in bioassays and field experiments were surveyed in an area intensively cultivated with vining pea in southern Sweden. By examining the relationships between disease suppression, soil mineralogy, and selected physicochemical properties of 24 soils with different degrees of suppressiveness, the suppressive soils could be divided into two groups, mainly on the

Lars Persson; S. Olsson

2000-01-01

71

Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia resembling those of Botrytis. Although the corticoid basidiomycetes Phanerochaete omnivora (Polyporales) and Sistotrema brinkmannii (Cantharel­ lales; both Agaricomycetes) have

S. M. Marek; K. Hansen; M. Romanish; R. G. Thorn

2009-01-01

72

Control of crown rot-causing fungal pathogens of banana by inorganic salts and a surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown rot, a disease complex caused by various fungi, is an economically significant postharvest disease in bananas. Control of banana crown rot-causing fungal pathogens, such as Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, and Fusarium verticillioides by inorganic salts, as well as a surfactant, was evaluated. The conidial germination of pathogens was totally inhibited for 2d at 4gl?1 of Na2CO3, 5gl?1

Dionisio G. Alvindia; Keiko T. Natsuaki

2007-01-01

73

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture...Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or...resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is...

2009-01-01

74

7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture...Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or...resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is...

2010-01-01

75

Diseases of Blueberry Fruit at Harvest in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blueberries were harvested from 11 cultivars and four breeding selections from four locations in 1989 and 1990. Annual disease losses at harvest averaged 9.6% and were primarily due to five diseases: Mummy berry (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi)5.6%, phomopsis soft rot (Phomopsis vaccinii)2.9%, phyllosticta rot (Phyllosticta vaccinii)0.4%, ripe rot (Colletotrichum sp.) 0.4% and alter-naria rot (Alternaria tenuissima)0.2%. Phomopsis soft rot occurred both as

W. O. Cline; R. D. Milholland

1996-01-01

76

Effect of soil flooding period on the development of avocado (Persea americana) root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi  

Microsoft Academic Search

X. Besoain, C. Arenas, E. Salgado and B. Latorre. Effect of the flooding period on the development of avocado (Persea americana) root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Root rot of avocado trees (Persea americana Mill) caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is the most destructive disease affecting avocado trees worldwide. It is often associated to clay type of soils where prolonged

X. Besoain; C. Arenas; E. Salgado; B. A. Latorre

77

Agricultural Foams as Carriers for Activated Charcoal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to agricultural foams used to carry activated charcoal. These foams are designed to contribute improved methods of distributing uniformly specific chemicals at selected areas. Economical foams have been prepared from selecte...

M. G. Lambou J. J. Spadaro E. M. Rusch

1974-01-01

78

Desorption of TEDA from Impregnated Charcoals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Triethylenediamine (TEDA) is one of the most effective charcoal impregnants for trapping organic forms of radioiodine from air. It is used in air cleaning adsorbers, air samplers, and air purifying respirator canisters and cartridges for airborne radioiod...

G. Wood

1980-01-01

79

Theophylline absorption by effervescent activated charcoal (Medicoal).  

PubMed

Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured in six volunteers given 675 mg of a sustained-release preparation (Phyllocontin). Significant reductions in both the mean recorded peak theophylline plasma concentrations and the mean 12-hour theophylline bioavailability were observed after the administration of effervescent activated charcoal (Medicoal) in single and multiple doses. These results indicate the potential use of activated charcoal in the management of theophylline poisoning. PMID:7238997

Helliwell, M; Berry, D

1981-01-01

80

New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.  

PubMed

In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease. PMID:22438040

Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

2012-08-01

81

Interpreting charcoal in New Zealand's palaeoenvironment—What do those charcoal fragments really tell us?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of charcoal as a palaeoenvironmental indicator has never been fully or adequately explained. Charcoal fragments are often interpreted as evidence for natural fires caused by lightning strike during drought or dry climatic conditions. Generally, no evidence is presented to show this to be the case. The frequency of lightning strike in New Zealand is not high and the

Kevin Butler

2008-01-01

82

Variable response of open-pollinated seedling progeny of avocado to Phytophthora root rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot, caused byPhytophthora cinnamomi Rands, is the most important disease of avocado (Persea americana Miller). In an attempt to identify root rot-resistant rootstocks that could ultimately be used under conditions in southern\\u000a Florida, we screened open-pollinated progeny of avocado from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami. From 1996 to 1998,\\u000a a total of 2,355 seedlings from 51 accessions

Randy Ploetz; Raymond J. Schnell; Jody Haynes

2002-01-01

83

Development and evaluation of a model for management of brown rot in organic apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal development of brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) on fruits was analysed in two organic apple orchards on three apple cultivars in Eastern Hungary from 2002 to 2006. The\\u000a three-parameter logistic function gave the best fit to brown rot over four non-linear growth functions in all cultivars, years\\u000a and orchards. Depending on location, year and cultivar, disease increased continuously from 6

Imre J. Holb; Barbara Balla; Ferenc Abonyi; Mónika Fazekas; Péter Lakatos; József M. Gáll

2011-01-01

84

Improved resistance to bacterial soft rot by protoplast fusion between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erwinia soft rot is a destructive disease of Brassica rapa vegetables. Reliable sources of resistance and control methods are limited, so development of highly resistant breeding lines\\u000a is desirable. Protoplasts from B. rapa and B. oleracea genotypes selected for resistance to soft rot were fused in order to combine different sources of resistance. Twelve somatic\\u000a hybrids (synthetic B. napus) were

J. P. Ren; M. H. Dickson; E. D. Earle

2000-01-01

85

Neofusicoccum parvum associated with fruit rot and shoot blight of peaches in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot blights and fruit rots comprise the most serious diseases of peaches in Greece. In this study, the importance of the\\u000a fungus Neofusicoccum parvum as a casual agent of a fruit rot and shoot blight of peach trees in Greece was investigated. This pathogen was isolated from\\u000a both immature and mature peach fruit of the cultivar “Catherine” and later on

Thomas Thomidis; Themis J. Michailides; Efstathia Exadaktylou

86

Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.  

PubMed

Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

2012-01-01

87

Variation of Pythium-induced cocoyam root rot severity in response to soil type  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Cameroon, andosols are suspected to be suppressive to cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) root rot disease (CRRD) caused by the Oomycete pathogen Pythium myriotylum. To determine factors involved in disease suppressiveness, andosols were studied in comparison to ferralsols known to be disease-conducive. Soil samples were collected from six sites of which three were in andosols around Mount Cameroon (Boteva, Njonji, and

Amayana Adiobo; Oumar Oumar; Maaike Perneel; Simon Zok; Monica Höfte

2007-01-01

88

Sorption hysteresis of benzene in charcoal particles.  

PubMed

Charcoal is found in water, soil, and sediment where it may act as a sorbent of organic pollutants. The sorption of organic compounds to natural solids often shows hysteresis. The purpose of this study was to determine the source of pronounced hysteresis that we found in the sorption of a hydrophobic compound (benzene) in water to a maple-wood charcoal prepared by oxygen-limited pyrolysis at 673 K. Gas adsorption (N2, Ar, CO2), 13C NMR, and FTIR show the charcoal to be a microporous solid composed primarily of elemental (aromatic) C and secondarily of carboxyl and phenolic C. Nonlocal density functional theory (N2, Ar) and Monte Carlo (CO2) calculations reveal a porosity of 0.15 cm3/g, specific surface area of 400 m2/g, and appreciable porosity in ultramicropores < 10 A. Benzene sorption-desorption conditions were chosen to eliminate artificial causes of hysteresis (rate-limiting diffusion, degradation, colloids effect). Charcoal sorbed up to its own weight of benzene at approximately 69% of benzene water solubility. Sorption was highly irreversible over most of the range tested (10(-4)-10(3) microg/mL). A dimensionless irreversibility index (/i) (0 < or = /i < or = 1) based on local slopes of adsorption and desorption branches was evaluated at numerous places along the isotherm. /i decreases as C increases, from 0.9-1 at low concentration to approximately 0 (approximately fully reversible) at the highest concentrations. Using sedimentation and volumetric displacement measurements, benzene is observed to cause pronounced swelling (up to > 2-fold) of the charcoal particles. It is proposed that hysteresis is due to pore deformation by the solute, which results in the pathway of sorption being different than the pathway of desorption and which leads to entrapment of some adsorbate as the polyaromatic scaffold collapses during desorption. It is suggested that intra-charcoal mass transport may be influenced by structural rearrangement of the solid, in addition to molecular diffusion. PMID:12564916

Braida, Washington J; Pignatello, Joseph J; Lu, Yuefeng; Ravikovitch, Peter I; Neimark, Alexander V; Xing, Baoshan

2003-01-15

89

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHARCOAL MANUFACTURING, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions from charcoal manufacture. The composition, quality, and rate of emissions, and their environmental effects are described. Charcoal is the solid material remaining after the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials, primarily...

90

Physical characteristics of charcoal for use in gunpowder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments are described which identify those characteristics of charcoals which are important for gunpowder manufacture. Charcoals from Alder Buckthorn, Alder, Beech and Douglas Fir woods were prepared by carbonization under nitrogen in the heat-treatment temperature range 523 to 1173 K. The charcoals were characterized by elemental analysis, differential thermal analysis, measurement of spontaneous ignition temperature, morphology using

E. Gray; H. Marsh; J. Robertson

1985-01-01

91

Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

92

Charcoal production, dispersal, and deposition from the Fort Providence experimental fire: interpreting fire regimes from charcoal records in boreal forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between charcoal production from fires and charcoal deposition in lakes is poorly under- stood, which limits the interpretation of sediment charcoal records. This calibration study assessed charcoal particle production, size, and transport during the International Crown Fire Modelling Experiment (ICFME) and compared fos- sil charcoal particle accumulation from 16 lakes in boreal forests of North America. Particle accumulation

Jason A. Lynch; James S. Clark; Brian J. Stocks

93

Charcoal: from antiquity to artificial kidney.  

PubMed

According to Herodotus, the use of charcoal was introduced in ancient Egypt; however only in 1773 Carl Willhelm Scheele utilized it for adsorbing gases. Finally, Hippocrates Yatzidis in 1963 demonstrated its binding capacity for toxic substances of endogenous or exogenous origin and used it for hemoperfusion systems. PMID:15365971

Marketos, Spyros G; Androutsos, George

2004-01-01

94

Carbon monoxide poisoning from disposable charcoal barbeques.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a common cause of accidental death and suicide. This article reports 4 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning following the inhalation of fumes from disposable charcoal barbeques in a confined space. All of the cases occurred within a 2-year period in Northern Ireland. PMID:20139755

Lyness, James R; Crane, Jack

2011-09-01

95

Polymer coating for hemoperfusion over activated charcoal.  

PubMed

Plasma polymerization (glow discharge) was used to make a polymeric coat with hexamethyldisiloxane on the surface of activated charcoal granules. These samples were examined with ESCA and SEM for surface chemical analysis, coat thickness, and uniformity, and for changes in surface topography. The effects of the coat on absorptive capacity and release of fine particles were examined. PMID:3760012

Hasirci, N; Akovali, G

1986-09-01

96

Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

Brisson, Harriet E.

1980-01-01

97

Late Quaternary stratigraphic charcoal records from Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic view regarding the cause of the extinction of at least 17 species of large mammals, birds, and reptiles in Madagascar during the late Holocene implicates human use of fire to modify the environment. However, analysis of the charcoal stratigraphy of three sediment cores from Madagascar shows that late Pleistocene and early- to mid-Holocene sediments deposited prior to human settlement often contain more charcoal than postsettlement and modern sediments. This observation, which is confirmed by independent measurements from direct assay and palynological counting techniques, suggests that widely held but previously untested beliefs concerning the importance of anthropogenic fires in late Holocene environmental changes and megafaunal extinctions of Madagascar may be based on an overly simplified version of actual prehistoric conditions. Moderate to low charcoal values characterized only the late Holocene millennia immediately prior to the presumed time of arrival of the first settlers. Human settlement is probably indicated in the stratigraphy by the sharp rise in charcoal content observed beginning ca. 1500 yr B.P. Fire appears to be a significant natural component of prehuman environments in Madagascar, but some factor, probably climate, has modulated the extent of natural burning.

Burney, David A.

1987-09-01

98

Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.).  

PubMed

Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference fungal pathogens of plant roots. Fifteen fluorescent pseudomonas isolates produced inhibition zone (8-29 mm) of the fungal growth in dual plate assay and IAA like substances (24.1-66.7 ?g/ml) and soluble P (12.7-56.80 ?g/ml) in broth culture. Among the isolates, RFP 36 caused a marked increase in seed germination, seedling biomass and control of the root borne pathogens of broad bean. PCR-RAPD analysis of these isolates along with five MTCC reference fluorescent pseudomonas strains indicated that the RFP-36 belonged to a distinct cluster and the PCR of its genomic DNA with antibiotic specific primers Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol suggested possible occurrence of gene for the potent antibiotics. Overall, the result of the study indicated the potential of the isolate RFP 36 as a microbial inoculant with multiple functions for broad bean. PMID:22282623

Indira Devi, S; Talukdar, N C; Chandradev Sharma, K; Jeyaram, K; Rohinikumar, M

2011-01-01

99

Evaluation of the occurrence of root rots on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) using different sowing methods and with different techniques of pesticide application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root rots are the main diseases caused by soil fungi and their incidence can vary according to seed treatment and sowing techniques used. They cause loss of plants, limit establishment, and canlead to reduced plant development. There are negative correlations between yield and the presence of root rots. This work was carried out in 1998 and 1999 in the province

J. B. Valenciano; P. A. Casquero; J. A. Boto; V. Marcelo

2006-01-01

100

Effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.  

PubMed

Three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (FORC) on cucumber. Two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (WDS) or vermicomposting (VMC) while the third, obtained from International Bio-Recovery (IBR), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. Three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at varying ratios, and seeded with cucumber cv. Corona. After 14 days of growth in the greenhouse, inoculum of FORC (20 mL of 5 x 10(6) micro-conidia per mL) was applied to each pot at three different times (14, 21, and 35 days). In unamended inoculated pots, the pathogen caused stunted growth and reduced flowers. Amendment of WDS in the potting mix suppressed these symptoms, while VMC and IBR had no effect. All three composts reduced the FORC colony forming units (cfu) at the end of the experiment (10 weeks). There was a large increase of fluorescent bacteria near the vicinity of roots particularly in WDS amended potting mixes. When water extracts of the composts were plated onto acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), only IBR contained a potent thermostable inhibitor to FORC. This inhibitor was removed by activated charcoal but was not partitioned into petroleum ether at acid, basic, or neutral pH. Inhibition of FORC by IBR was not due to electrical conductivity or trace elements in the compost. Contrasting effectiveness of the WDS and VMC made from the same waste suggests that composting method can influence the disease suppression properties of the finished compost. PMID:11109490

Kannangara, T; Utkhede, R S; Paul, J W; Punja, Z K

2000-11-01

101

Implications of Amino Acid Substitutions in GyrA at Position 83 in Terms of Oxolinic Acid Resistance in Field Isolates of Burkholderia glumae, a Causal Agent of Bacterial Seedling Rot and Grain Rot of Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxolinic acid (OA), a quinolone, inhibits the activity of DNA gyrase composed of GyrA and GyrB and shows antibacterial activity against Burkholderia glumae. Since B. glumae causes bacterial seedling rot and grain rot of rice, both of which are devastating diseases, the emergence of OA-resistant bacteria has important implica- tions on rice cultivation in Japan. Based on the MIC of

Yukiko Maeda; Akinori Kiba; Kouhei Ohnishi; Yasufumi Hikichi

2004-01-01

102

Preparation of charcoal from cherry stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cherry stones (CS) are carbonised at 400-1000 °C for 0-4 h in N 2 and the charcoals obtained are characterised to gain information about their chemical composition and porous texture, with a view to their use in the preparation of activated carbon. Depending on the heating conditions, the products obtained may possess a low ash content and a high fixed carbon content and are essentially microporous and macroporous solids.

Durán-Valle, Carlos J.; Gómez-Corzo, Manuel; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Pastor-Villegas, José; Rojas-Cervantes, María L.

2006-06-01

103

Adsorption isotherms of helium on activated charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of helium on activated charcoal has been measured in the pressure range 1-30 atm and in the temperature range 15-70 K. A Clapeyron like law (In Ps = A + B/ T) for fictitious saturation vapour pressure Ps above Tcr is deduced experimentally from the measurements. This law leads to a fairly good generalized correlation for all experimental data in the framework of Dubinin theory: ? 1 atm ? 101 kPa

Duband, L.; Ravex, A.; Chaussy, J.

104

Characterization of acetylated wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterize the decay of acetylated wood due to brown-rot and white-rot fungi by analysis\\u000a of chemical composition, X-ray measurements, and13C-NMR spectroscopy. The decay by brown-rot fungus became inhibited at a weight percent gain (WPG) due to acetylation of more\\u000a than 10%, and the mass loss (LOSS) due to decay became zero at a

Makoto Ohkoshi; Atsushi Kato; Kentaro Suzuki; Noriko Hayashi; Mitsuro Ishihara

1999-01-01

105

Effect of biocontrol agents and biofertilizers on root rot, yield, harvest index and nutrient uptake of cassava (Manihot esculanta Crantz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava is an important subsidiary food and industrial raw material in the tropics. Root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, poses a serious threat to cassava cultivation in Tamil Nadu, India. Field experiments (2008–09) were conducted to study the effect of biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and biofertilizers (Azospirillum, vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) on root rot,

A. C. Hridya; G. Byju; Raj Sekhar Misra

2012-01-01

106

Efficiency of different application methods of biocontrol agents and biocides in control of Fusarium root rot on some citrus rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of two biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum NB and Bacillus subtilis NB) and two commercial biocides (Plant Guard and Rhizo-N) in controlling Fusarium root rot disease on some citrus rootstocks was evaluated under artificially infested soil in green house.Fusrium root rot on citrus rootstocks seedlings i.e. sour orange (SO), volkamer lime (VL), rangpur lime (RP) and cleopatra mandarin (CL)

Riad Sedki Riad El-Mohamedy

2009-01-01

107

Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

1998-11-01

108

Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.  

PubMed

The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Bostock, Richard M; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

2013-01-01

109

In vitro adsorption of dichlorvos and parathion by activated charcoal.  

PubMed

Accidental and suicidal ingestions of organophosphate compounds continue to be a common occurrence in Turkey. Activated charcoal administration without gastric emptying has been advocated as primary therapy in most acute poisoning cases, although some references do not recommend activated charcoal use in organophosphate poisoning. This study was performed to determine the in vitro adsorption of dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (dichlorvos) and parathion by activated charcoal over a wide range of charcoal:organophosphate ratios (1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1, 10:1 and 20:1, g:g). The charcoal binding ability of dichlorvos and parathion were studied in both pH 1.2 and pH 7 environments. The supernatant was extracted with n-hexane and then analyzed by gas chromatography. Each incremental increase in charcoal dose increased the percent adsorption of dichlorvos and parathion. At the 20:1 ratio, 82.8 +/- 2.0/87.3 +/- 2.9% (pH 1.2/7.0) of dichlorvos and 59.3 +/- 4.5/64.5 +/- 6.1% (pH 1.2/7.0) of parathion were bound by activated charcoal. There were no significant differences in amounts of compound bound in the acid and neutral solutions. Large doses of activated charcoal effectively bind dichlorvos and parathion in vitro. In vivo research should be performed to determine activated charcoal's role in organophosphate poisoning cases. PMID:8145355

Guven, H; Tuncok, Y; Gidener, S; Gelal, A; Demetci, M; Fowler, J; Apaydin, S; Keskin, M

1994-01-01

110

In vitro study of oxytetracycline adsorption on activated charcoal.  

PubMed

In vitro adsorption experiments simulating pH in gastric environment and using Langmuir isotherm, showed that 408 mg of oxytetracycline was adsorbed per gram of activated charcoal. Langmuir isotherm fitted adsorption data better than a Freundlich isotherm. Freundlich isotherm showed a specific adsorption capacity of 518 mg/g for activated charcoal. Both isotherm parameters indicated a strong oxytetracycline adsorption on activated charcoal in terms of quantity and binding strength. The results demonstrate that the concomitant use of oxytetracyline and activated charcoal should be avoided. PMID:10968607

Alegakis, A K; Tzatzarakis, M N; Tsatsakis, A M; Vlachonikolis, I G; Liakou, V

2000-09-01

111

Changes in cation concentrations in red spruce wood decayed by brown rot and white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) wood blocks were incubated in modified soil block jars and inoculated with one of nine white rot or brown rot basidiomycetes. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and aluminum were determined using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy in wood incubated 0, 1.5, 4, and 8 months after inoculation. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium tended to

A. Ostrofsky; J. Jellison; K. T. Smith; W. C. Shortle

1997-01-01

112

Charcoal as an alternative energy source. sub-project: briquetting of charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal briquettes have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It appears most realistic to use binders in solution. Binders of this kind have been examined and the briquettes' mechanical properties measured. Most promising are borresperse, gum arabic, dynolex, and wood tar.

Enstad, G.G.

1982-02-02

113

EFFECTS OF FLOODING AND PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AVOCADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to determine the effects of flooding and Phytophthora root rot (caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi) on photosynthetic characteristics of seedling and grafted avocado (Persea americana). Although this disease and flooding individually reduced several different physiological parameters (net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance for CO2) when compared to nonflooded, nondiseased controls, these reductions were not

Randy C. Ploetz; Bruce Schaffer

114

Identification and characterization of a novel Iraqi isolate of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot in wheat.  

PubMed

Crown rot is one of the main important fungal diseases affecting wheat in many areas of the world, including Australia, USA, and Iran. Until now, there had been no report of this pathogen in Iraq. Plants displaying crown rot symptoms were observed in Shaat Alarab (Basra, Iraq); we investigated the causal agent of the disease. Samples were surface-sterilized in bleach (1% available chlorine) and cultured on quarter-strength potato dextrose agar plates. DNA was extracted from fungal mycelia, using a modified CTAB protocol. The ITS/5.8S regions were amplified using primer pair ITS1 and ITS4. PCR products purified using a gel extraction kit were sequenced. The sequence that was detected was used to BLAST against NCBI data. The most similar sequence was the ITS/5.8S rDNA region of Fusarium pseudograminearum (strain NRRL28062), showing 97.95% identity. This species normally causes crown rot, resulting in severe damage under dry spring conditions. A pathogenicity test employed to assess the disease-causing ability of the strain showed significant disease symptoms up to 57% infected spikelets. The results confirmed the presence of F. pseudograminearum as a causal agent of wheat crown rot in Iraq. The presence of this pathogen demands further investigations to develop resistant cultivars and/or mechanical control. PMID:22653580

Hameed, M A; Rana, R M; Ali, Z

2012-01-01

115

Effect of boron on the development of brown rot ( Monilinia laxa) on peaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements of consumers for products with low residues of pesticides have increased the need for alternative disease management practices. The concentration of boron in fruit affects its quality, shelf life and the development of physiological disorders. However, the effect of boron on the susceptibility of peach to fruit rots has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of boron

T. Thomidis; E. Exadaktylou

2010-01-01

116

Tillage, Crop Sequence, and Cultivar Effects on Sclerotinia Stem Rot Incidence and Yield in Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

al., 1999; Pennypacker and Risius, 1999). Management practices—including narrow row spacing, increased Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum plant populations, early planting dates, and high soil (Lib.) de Bary, is an important soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) disease in the North Central States. The effect of tillage, crop se- fertility—that are intended to increase soybean yields, quence, and

James E. Kurle; Craig R. Grau; Edward S. Oplinger; Alemu Mengistu

2001-01-01

117

Rhizosphere ecology and phytoprotection in soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis black root rot of tobacco.  

PubMed

Soil suppressiveness to disease is an intriguing emerging property in agroecosystems, with important implications because it enables significant protection of susceptible plants from soil-borne pathogens. Unlike many soils where disease suppressiveness requires crop monoculture to establish, certain soils are naturally suppressive to disease, and this type of specific disease suppressiveness is maintained despite crop rotation. Soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated black root rot of tobacco and other crops occur in Morens region (Switzerland) and have been studied for over 30 years. In Morens, vermiculite-rich suppressive soils formed on morainic deposits while illite-rich conducive soils developed on sandstone, but suppressiveness is of microbial origin. Antagonistic pseudomonads play a role in black root rot suppressiveness, including Pseudomonas protegens (formerly P.?fluorescens) CHA0, a major model strain for research. However, other types of rhizobacterial taxa may differ in prevalence between suppressive and conducive soils, suggesting that the microbial basis of black root rot suppressiveness could be far more complex than solely a Pseudomonas property. This first review on black root rot suppressive soils covers early findings on these soils, the significance of recent results, and compares them with other types of suppressive soils in terms of rhizosphere ecology and plant protection mechanisms. PMID:24650207

Almario, Juliana; Muller, Daniel; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2014-07-01

118

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION, GREEN PRUNING AND FUNGICIDE TREATMENTS ON BOTRYTIS BUNCH ROT OF GRAPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Grape vineyard culture practices including nitrogen fertilization, removal of leaves, and thinning of clusters, as well as fungicide treatments were evaluated for their effect on the development of Botrytis bunch rot. High nitrogen fertilization predisposed grapevines to infec- tion by Botrytis cinerea and increased disease severity. Latent infection of cups and berries as well as visible in- fection of

A. R'Houma; M. Chérif; A. Boubaker

1998-01-01

119

Microscopic charcoal as a fossil indicator of fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal preserved in lake sediments, peat, and soils provides a record of past fire occurrence. An understanding of fire history is important in evaluating interactions between vegetation, climate and human disturbances through at least the last several millennia. In this paper we review information concerning the production, dispersal, sedimentation and preservation of charcoal. We present examples of studies that have used charcoal analysis in palaeoecological reconstructions, with special emphasis on analytical techniques and problems of interpretation. Unlike pollen, which is produced continuously in fairly constant amounts, charcoal is produced in large quantities but at irregular intervals. These are a function of fire regimes that are often unique to specific vegetation types and/or climatic regions. Charcoal particles vary in size from sub-microscopic to macroscopic, with small particles presumably being transported further by wind and water than large particles. Charcoal preserves well, but it may be subject to breakage, especially when transported by water. We present theoretical models of dispersal and discuss potential problems associated with post-depositional mixing. A variety of charcoal analysis techniques have been employed during the past four decades. Most involve microscopic identification and quantification of numbers or size of individual fragments occurring in samples prepared for pollen analysis. The most commonly used method — estimating charcoal area by categorizing particles in several size classes — is both tedious and time consuming, and recently introduced techniques attempt to estimate past fire occurrence based upon point count estimation, elemental carbon analysis, magnetic measurement of sediments, electron microscope, and spectrographic analyses. A lack of standardization both within and among analysis techniques has hampered interpretation of charcoal profiles. Taphonomic processes affecting charcoal are less well understood than for pollen, and as a result interpretations of historic interactions between vegetation and fire based upon pollen and charcoal analyses are difficult. We review several studies through which advances have been made and suggest questions for future study.

Patterson, William A.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Maguire, David J.

120

Production and sorption properties of oxidized charcoals  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing the oxidized charcoals with improved selectivity with respect to cesium ion extraction from aqueous solutions has been worked out. It involves the treatment of carbonized wood by atmospheric oxygen at a temperature 200-250{degrees}C. Physical and chemical properties as well as sorbing properties of this material have been studied. The present study aims to design a method for producing the sorption materials based on oxidized wood with high selectivity for cesium, the radioisotopes of which ({sup 134,137}Cs) are of the greatest danger on the areas contaminated by radionuclides.

Ershov, B.G.; Bykov, G.L.; Seliverstov, A.F.; Gelis, V.M.; Milyutin, V.V. [Institute of Physical Chemsitry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1993-10-20

121

Metal content of charcoal in mining-impacted wetland sediments.  

PubMed

Charcoal is well known to accumulate contaminants, but its association with metals and other toxic elements in natural settings has not been well studied. Association of contaminants with charcoal in soil and sediment may affect their mobility, bioavailability, and fate in the environment. In this paper, natural wildfire charcoal samples collected from a wetland site that has been heavily contaminated by mine waste were analyzed for elemental contents and compared to the surrounding soil. Results showed that the charcoal particles were enriched over the host soils by factors of two to 40 times in all contaminant elements analyzed. Principal component analysis was carried out on the data to determine whether element enrichment patterns in the soil profile charcoal are related to those in the soils. The results suggest that manganese and zinc concentrations in charcoal are controlled by geochemical processes in the surrounding soil, whereas the concentrations of arsenic, lead, zinc, iron, phosphorus, and sulfur in charcoal are unrelated to those in the surrounding soil. This study shows evidence that charcoal in soils can have a distinct and important role in controlling contaminant speciation and fate in the environment. PMID:21093017

Baker, Leslie L; Strawn, Daniel G; Rember, William C; Sprenke, Kenneth F

2011-01-01

122

Charcoal-Burning Suicides and Strategies for Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper examines the emergence of a new method of suicide in Hong Kong by carbon monoxide poisoning generated by the burning of charcoal. In just 6 years, it has become the second most common means of suicide after jumping from heights. The profile of these charcoal-burning suicide victims is different from that of other suicide deaths. It seems

Paul S. F. Yip; Dominic T. S. Lee

2007-01-01

123

Container residue after activated charcoal administration in the emergency department.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that sources of activated charcoal (AC) used as a form of gut decontamination in the treatment of drug overdose may deliver significantly less charcoal than expected because of retained charcoal and sorbitol (ACS) from the treatment of 50 consecutive overdose patients were collected. Health care personnel delivering the dose were unaware of the study hypothesis. A total of 82 containers were obtained in this manner. Each container was labelled to contain 25 g AC and 48 g sorbitol. Five unused containers of ACS were obtained as controls. Each container was thoroughly cleaned, and the contents vacuum filtered and washed with 1 L of tap water. The tared filter paper and charcoal was dried for 24 h and weighed. The average amount of charcoal retained in each used container (retained) was 0.549 g (range 0.318-1.637 g). This accounts for 2.2% of the 25 g dose expected to be delivered. The average amount of charcoal found in each unused container (actual) was 25.892 g. The delivered dose (actual minus retained) may be calculated as 101.4% of the expected 25 g dose. When using this formulation of ACS there is no significant difference between the amount of charcoal given to an overdose patient and the amount ordered for gut decontamination. Despite the poor suspension of charcoal in sorbitol and the less than ideal conditions under which it is given, the patient receives an adequate dosage of AC if it is ordered. PMID:1621355

Harchelroad, F

1992-02-01

124

Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4(degrees)K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown t...

D. W. Sedgley C. R. Walthers E. M. Jenkins

1991-01-01

125

Charcoal adsorption of phenolic compounds present in distilled grape pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal adsorption of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity from distilled grape pomace pressing liquors (DPPL) and distilled grape pomace autohydrolysis liquors (DPAL) was carried out under anoxic conditions using commercially available activated charcoals (AC) in powdered, granulated or pelletized form. The adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second order rate, and equilibrium was reached in less than 15h. The Langmuir and Freundlich

María Luisa Soto; Andrés Moure; Herminia Domínguez; Juan Carlos Parajó

2008-01-01

126

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

127

Density and porosity as controls on charcoal storage in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies have documented very low biotic and abiotic decomposition rates of charcoal in the environment, leading to the assumption that it stays within soils after deposition. This assumption forms one tenet of a promising carbon sequestration technique, soil biochar amendment. Laboratory and greenhouse trials with biochar (charcoal produced for addition to soil) do show that charcoal remains in soils after amendment. However, when charcoal has been added to soils in field trials, its retention rate in soils is highly variable. Low retention rates have been reported in some environments, leading to questions about its physical movement across landscapes. Density and porosity are fundamental physical characteristics that play a key role in determining charcoal soil residence time. Measuring the density of charcoal has been challenging historically because of its very high porosity (approaching 80%), making standard fluid displacement methods of density measurement error-prone. Here we review techniques available to measure the density and porosity of BC, focusing on two measurements: skeletal density (the density of the solid component of BC), and envelope density (the mass of a BC sample divided by the volume of its exterior envelope). We present skeletal and envelope density data for environmental charcoal samples and for a series of laboratory-produced charcoals, showing that the skeletal density of charcoal is significantly greater than 1.0 g/cc, while the envelope density is significantly less than 1.0 g/cc. This difference means that pore connectivity and pore structure will be important to quantify to understand landscape movement of charcoal.

Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Ziegelgruber, K. L.; Dugan, B.; Gonnermann, H.; Chuang, V. J.; Zygourakis, K.

2012-04-01

128

Prevalence of Erwinia soft rot affecting cut foliage, Dracaena sanderiana ornamental industry and solution towards its management.  

PubMed

The study was carried out under net house conditions at Green Farms Ltd, Marawila to determine the occurrence and severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in Dracaena sanderiana plants and to formulate the possible control measures. Field experiment was carried out to manage the soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants. Three different soil treatments with vermicompost, cow dung and poultry manure were tested to manage the disease and plots without application were kept as control. Percent disease incidence, disease reduction and growth parameters were recorded and data were statistically analyzed. Higher percentage of disease reduction was observed in vermicompost (80%) treated plots than those with cow dung (60%) and poultry manure treated. Sprinkler application of water was found favorable to spread soft rot disease and watering through horse pope had lessened the disease incidence significantly. Moreover plant height, shoot and root biomass, number of leaves per plant, leaf length and leaf width were significantly high in vermicompost media. Weeding, removal of diseased leaves and plants, and avoiding sprinkler irrigation were helpful to reduce the disease spread from plant to plant. Vermicompost is the best substrate for suppression of the disease and promoting the growth of plant. Among the different water management practices tested to reduce the disease severity of Erwinia soft rot disease in D. sanderiana plants, water irrigated through the horse pipe was effective compare to sprinkler application. In-vitro experiment conducted to manage the Erwinia soft rot disease by using bio-agent, Pseudomonas fluorescens was found effective to reduce the growth of Erwinia under in-vitro conditions. PMID:23878983

Kayalvily, Thio Desiya; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, Arne; Mikunthan, G

2012-01-01

129

7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563...Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or...

2009-01-01

130

7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or...

2009-01-01

131

7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563...Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or...

2010-01-01

132

7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or...

2010-01-01

133

A comparison of dinitrogen fixation rates in wood litter decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen fixation rates, as estimated by the acetylene reduction technique, were determined in conifer wood litter being decayed by brown- and white-rot fungi. Average ethylene production rates were significantly higher in white-rotted wood (15.1 nmol g?1 day?1) than in brown-rotted wood (2.3 nmol g?1 day?1). This difference may be related to a higher soluble sugar content in white-versus brown-rotted wood.

M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; M. Wolosiewicz; A. E. Harvey

1989-01-01

134

Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fungi which cause rot and decay in our forests are vital members of the ecosystem. By decomposing the hard woody stems of trees they help recycle important nutrients, minerals, and carbohydrates. Unlike many organisms which are easy to see, the fungi are often hidden under bark or within living stems and their presence is not obvious. This laboratory exercise provides instructors with information about where to find and how to visualize and manipulate fungi which cause rot and decay, while discovering how ubiquitous and important they are.

John A. Johnson (University of New Brunswick;)

1989-06-06

135

First Report of Potato Stem-End Rot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Korea  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea.

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Xu, Sheng-Jun; Kim, Joon-Young; Woo, Jae-Hyoun; Hahm, Young-Il

2014-01-01

136

Control of blackleg and tuber soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews research on the causative agents of blackleg and soft rot diseases of potato, namely Pectobacterium and Dickeya species, and the disease syndrome, including epidemiological and aetiological aspects. It critically evaluates control methods used in practice based on the avoidance of the contamination of plants, in particular the use of seed testing programmes and the application of

R. L. Czajkowski; M. C. M. Pérombelon; J. A. Van Veen; J. M. Van der Wolf

2011-01-01

137

Development of a ROT22 - DATAMAP interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report (Contract NAS2-10331- Mod 10), outlines the development and validation of an interface between the three-dimensional transonic analysis program ROT22 and the Data from Aeromechanics Test and Analytics-Management and Analysis Package (DATAMAP). After development of the interface, the validation is carried out as follows. First, the DATAMAP program is used to analyze a portion of the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) data. Specifically, records 2872 and 2873 are analyzed at an azimuth of 90 deg, and record 2806 is analyzed at 60 deg. Trim conditions for these flight conditions are then calculated using the Bell performance prediction program ARAM45. Equivalent shaft, pitch, and twist angles are calculated from ARAM45 results and used as input to the ROT22 program. The interface uses the ROT22 results and creates DATAMAP information files from which the surface pressure contours and sectional pressure coefficients are plotted. Twist angles input to ROT22 program are then iteratively modified in the tip region until the computed pressure coefficients closely match the measurements. In all cases studied, the location of the shock is well predicted. However, the negative pressure coefficients were underpredicted. This could be accounted for by blade vortex interaction effects.

Shenoy, K. R.; Waak, T.; Brieger, J. T.

1986-01-01

138

Hands-On Whole Science. What Rots?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities on the science of garbage to help elementary students learn to save the earth. A rotting experiment teaches students what happens to apple slices sealed in plastic or buried in damp soil. Other activities include reading stories on the subject and conducting classroom composting or toxic materials projects. (SM)

Markle, Sandra

1991-01-01

139

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

140

Formation of charcoal from biomass in a sealed reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, samples o cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and nine species of whole biomass are pyrolyzed in sealed reactors. Very high charcoal yields (e.g., 40% from cellulose, 48% from Eucalyptus gummifera) were obtained. Higher sample loading (sample mass per unit reactor volume) increased charcoal yield and the associated exothermic heat release and lowered the reaction onset temperature. These effects were induced by the vapor-phase concentrations of the volatile products, and not the system pressure. Addition of water catalyzed the reaction and increased the char yield. These observations suggest that charcoal formation is autocatalyzed by water, an initial pyrolysis product. When whole biomass was used as a feedstock, higher charcoal yields were obtained from species with high lignin and/or low hemicellulose content.

Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Szabo, P.; Varhegyi, G.; Zelei, B. (Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1502 (Hungary))

1992-04-01

141

24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON PLANT FROM SOUTH END OF BEACH, probably 1901. (From the Robert Teagle Private Collection, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

142

Clinical Efficacy of Charcoal and Oxidized Starch in Uremia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rats made nephrotic with the aminonucleoside of puromycin and diabetic with streptozotocin had a significant reduction in the induced hyperlipidemia when fed charcoal dietary supplementation. The effect was not due to bulk alone, as cellulose dietary supp...

E. A. Friedman

1977-01-01

143

Validation of the diffusion-barrier charcoal canister method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-month study was conducted by the Technical Measurements Center, US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of indoor radon measurements using an intermittent diffusion-barrier charcoal canister sampling protocol. Diffusion-barrier charcoal canisters (DBCC) were exposed for seven days in sixteen occupied residences each week during the 26-week study. The radon concentrations measured by

D. E. Martz; J. L. George; S. T. Mamich; G. H. Jr. Langner

1989-01-01

144

Effects of orally administered activated charcoal on intestinal gas.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of activated charcoal in treating intestinal gas, following a gas producing meal, was compared with a placebo. Both the number of flatus events and breath hydrogen levels were measured. These experiments showed that orally administered activated charcoal was effective in preventing the large increase in the number of flatus events and increased breath hydrogen concentrations that normally occur following a gas-producing meal. PMID:7015846

Hall, R G; Thompson, H; Strother, A

1981-03-01

145

Characterization of basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

2014-08-01

146

Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.  

PubMed

Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates. PMID:21235190

Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

2010-01-01

147

Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR  

SciTech Connect

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-10-01

148

Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.  

PubMed Central

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases.

D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

1996-01-01

149

Adsorption effects of activated charcoal on metaldehyde toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Metaldehyde has been widely used as a main ingredient of solid fuel for making fire and slug baits in Japan. It is also marketed as a color flame tablet for party goods (ENGELFIRE). Consequently, children have been poisoned by eating such tablets which they mistook for candy. As a result, poison information center calls are increasing. According to POISINDEX, the treatment for metaldehyde poisoning consists in prevention of adsorption by activated charcoal, seizure control and airway protection. However, the optimum dose of charcoal is not established. We studied the quantitative adsorption capacity of activated charcoal for acute oral toxicity of metaldehyde in rats. In vivo toxicity and absorption tests for metaldehyde in Wister rats were done. The detoxifying effect of activated charcoal on metaldehyde toxicity and inhibition of metaldehyde absorption were investigated. Ratios used of po activated charcoal given 30 min after dosing to 400 mg metaldehyde/kg po were 5:1, 2:1, 1:1, 0.5:1. Serum metaldehyde was determined by gas chromatography in the control group (no charcoal) and the various experimental groups. Metaldehyde mortality was completely prevented at the ratio of 5:1. Gastrointestinal absorption of metaldehyde was reduced significantly by 45.3% in comparison to the control rats. There was no acetaldehyde detected in the serum of the metaldehyde-dosed rats. Metaldehyde poisoning may be prevented by early po administration of activated charcoal in a ratio of > 5:1 compared to metaldehyde. The theory that acetaldehyde is the primary toxic agent in metaldehyde poisoning should be re-evaluated. PMID:9949477

Shintani, S; Goto, K; Endo, Y; Iwamoto, C; Ohata, K

1999-02-01

150

QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.  

PubMed

Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper. PMID:24168044

Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

2014-05-01

151

Wood-rotting fungi of North America  

SciTech Connect

The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

Gilbertson, R.L.

1980-01-01

152

Effect of Root Infection by Phytophthora citricola on Avocado Root Rot Caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root systems of Persea indica (1, 2, 5, and 8-mo-old) and Persea americana (2 and 8- mo-old) were inoculated with macerated mycelia of Phytophthora citricola and challenged 48 hr later with zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Partial protection against the root rot disease caused by P. cinnamomi was induced by the prior inoculation of the avocado seedlings with P. citricola. Simultaneous

Z. A. El-Hamalawi; J. A. Menge

153

Field assessment of avocado rootstock selections for resistance to Phytophthora root rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by P. cinnamomi, is a primary constraint on avocado productivity in Australia. Numerous field trials at sites in northern NSW and southern\\u000a QLD have demonstrated significant variation in tree health amongst commercial rootstocks and recently selected material, grown\\u000a under high PRR disease pressure. Selections ‘SHSR-02’, ‘SHSR-04’, ungrafted ‘Hass’ (rooted cuttings from clonal propagation)\\u000a and the

L. A. Smith; E. K. Dann; K. G. Pegg; A. W. Whiley; F. R. Giblin; V. Doogan; R. Kopittke

2011-01-01

154

ADVANCES IN AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Detecting Avocado Phytophthora Root Rot The Use of Multispectral Photographical Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent months, intensive investigations into the detection of root rot have been carried out in certain selected avocado orchards in the Eastern Transvaal Lowveld. Multi-spectral techniques, which are superior to conventional infra-red photography, appear as an exciting new development, enabling one to distinguish at a glance between diseased and healthy trees. Not only are differences more clear-cut but it

H. T. Brodrick; B. Gilbertson; M. H. Kreitzer

1971-01-01

155

Bioactive metabolites from Stenocarpella maydis, a stalk and ear rot pathogen of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenocarpella maydis is a fungal pathogen of major importance that causes a dry-rot of maize ears and is associated with a neuromycotoxicosis in cattle grazing harvested maize fields in southern Africa and Argentina. In an effort to investigate the potential roles of S. maydis metabolites in the fungal disease cycle, ethyl acetate extracts of solid-substrate fermentations of several S. maydis isolates

Donald T. Wicklow; Kristina D. Rogers; Patrick F. Dowd; James B. Gloer

2011-01-01

156

Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1760 controls tomato foot and root rot in stonewool under industrial conditions in a certified greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1760 was isolated previously from the avocado rhizosphere, using an enrichment method for competitive tomato root tip colonizers that selects for biological control strains which act through the biological control mechanism “competition for nutrients and niches” (CNN). Here we demonstrate that strain PCL1760 showed significant biological control of tomato foot and root rot (TFRR), a disease caused

Shamil Z. Validov; Faina Kamilova; Ben J. J. Lugtenberg

2009-01-01

157

Genetic variation among Fusarium isolates from onion, and resistance to Fusarium basal rot in related Allium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to study levels of resistance to Fusarium basal rot in onion cultivars and related Allium species, by using genetically different Fusarium isolates. In order to select genetically different isolates for disease testing, a collection of 61 Fusarium isolates, 43 of them from onion (Allium cepa), was analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

Guillermo A. Galván; Carole F. S. Koning-Boucoiran; Wim J. M. Koopman; Karin Burger-Meijer; Pablo H. González; Cees Waalwijk; Chris Kik; Olga E. Scholten

2008-01-01

158

Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America  

PubMed Central

Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea.

Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

2010-01-01

159

Peach brown rot incidence related to pathogen infection at different stages of fruit development in an organic peach production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is the most widespread disease for organic peach production systems in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the favorable periods for latent infection by M. fructicola in organic systems. The field experiment was carried out during 2006, 2007 and 2008 using the cultivar Aurora. After thinning fruits were bagged using white paraffin

C. Keske; L. Amorim; L. L. May-De Mio

2011-01-01

160

Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi  

PubMed Central

Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W.; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A.; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

2014-01-01

161

Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi.  

PubMed

Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A; Brown, Daren W; Nagy, Laszlo G; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Walton, Jonathan D; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S; Grigoriev, Igor V

2014-07-01

162

Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea  

PubMed Central

The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25? and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea.

Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae

2007-01-01

163

Radon Adsorption on and Desorption from Activated Charcoal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of an active charcoal sampler for radon monitoring has become popular in recent years because of its passiveness and low price. The practical application of a passive radon sampler includes: (1) exposure of the charcoal sampler over some fixed period of time at a location to be monitored, (2) determination of the radon present in the sampler by detection of gamma radiation emitted by its progeny, and (3) interpretation of the amount of radon measured in terms of the average concentration of radon at the monitoring location during the sampling period. Various theories that describe the dynamics for the adsorption and desorption of radon on a passive charcoal sampler have been discussed in terms of practical applications for the monitoring of radon. However, extrapolation of the measured results of radon on charcoal to the time course of the ambient radon concentration is often difficult and even misleading because of the oversimplification of the theoretical models (Cohen 1983). A more generalized approach was undertaken by treating the diurnal variations in radon concentrations as poly-exponential functions and solving for explicit particular solutions of Fick's equation. The application of these solutions to various practical situations is explored. An experimental evaluation of diffusion coefficient D and adsorption coefficient k of charcoal beds in a closed system is carried out successfully by using this theoretical model.

Wang, Ding

1990-01-01

164

Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products.  

PubMed

In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 ?g kg(-1) (As) to 118 mg kg(-1) (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use. PMID:21074316

Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H O

2011-01-30

165

Treatment of foot rot in free-ranging mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) populations—does it make sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence and incidence of foot rot disease in free-ranging and captive bovine wild ruminant populations are increasing worldwide.\\u000a Even species in which the disease has not been described in the past are presently affected by the co-working pathogens Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. This paper discusses disease control measures and the expense for a successful treatment of affected populations of

Klaus Volmer; Werner Hecht; Reinhard Weiß; Dieter Grauheding

2008-01-01

166

A theoretical study of radon measurement with activated charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of radon in a bed of activated charcoal is described by diffusion equations. An analytical solution of these equations is presented for the case of constant radon concentration in the atmosphere. The solutions are given separately for short term and long term exposure. An analytical form of the calibration constant f for long term exposure and constant radon concentration in air, was found to be f=kp {D}/{?}S {sinh{?}/{D}l }/{cosh{?}/{D}l } A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program.

Nikezi?, Dragoslav; Uroševi?, Vlade

1998-02-01

167

BBQ charcoal as an important source of mercury emission.  

PubMed

In this study, the environmental significance of mercury emission has been investigated with respect to the use of the barbecue (BBQ) charcoal. For this purpose, emission gas samples collected from a total of 11 barbecue charcoal products commonly available in the Korean market were analyzed. All of these products consist of both domestic (4 types) and imported products (7 types from three countries). The emission concentration of Hg varied widely from sample to sample ranging from 114 to 496ngm(-3). The amount of Hg emission appeared to be affected by the diverse nature of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. In light of the recent reference exposure limits (REL) of Hg, it can be a potential threat to human health. As such, a proper regulation is desirable from a toxicological viewpoint to reduce the potential risk associated with the use of BBQ charcoal. PMID:18571317

Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Chang-Hee; Jung, Myung Chae; Yoon, H

2009-02-15

168

The stability and functional properties of charcoal in Ghanaian agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of biochar will lead to its eventual mineralisation to CO2, but how does this happen and how quickly will the biochar break down? This study focuses on the fate of charcoal, as an analogue for biochar, over a ten year period in rural Ghana. The objectives of the work were to determine the stability of charcoal over this timeframe, the change in its functional properties and to calibrate or validate recently established approaches to age biochar artificially. The study showed that the oxygen-to-carbon ratio of charcoal surfaces generally increases over time. Gradually the oxidation penetrates the subsurface layers, causing surface layers to erode and exposing previously un-aged surfaces to degradation.

Maxfield, Tom; Sohi, Saran

2014-05-01

169

Health effects of charcoal and wood fuel use in low-income households in Lusaka, Zambia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of this investigation provide no confirmation that the health status of charcoal users is different from that of electricity users. In wood users the subjective symptom description was similar to that of charcoal and electricity users. Wood us...

A. Ellegaard H. Egneus

1992-01-01

170

Charcoal's physical properties are key to understanding its environmental behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal is a highly porous, low density material whose physical properties play a key role in its soil behavior and its environmental fate. In considering biochar, some of its most sought-after environmental effects are a result of its physical characteristics, not its chemical or biological properties. For example, the ability of biochar to retain soil water is widely attributed to its porosity. However, charcoal physical properties are so poorly understood that they are sometimes not characterized at all in the current literature. Here we outline a suite of basic physical properties of charcoal and the likely environmental effects of their variations, with a focus on the interactions between charcoal and water. The most basic physical property of charcoal, its particle size, likely plays a role in its ability to alter the rate of drainage in soils. Particle morphology is also relevant, affecting how particles of soil and char can pack together. Bulk densities of charcoal and soil mixtures can be used to generate a simple estimate of the efficiency of char-soil packing. Charcoal density is an additionally important property and can be measured in a number of ways. Density almost certainly controls the tendency of chars to sink or float, and to erode or remain on the land surface. However, charcoal density can vary by almost a factor of 10 depending on the measurement technique used. We discuss two simple techniques available for measuring char density and the value of information provided by each approach. Finally, we report a simple, fast technique to measure total char porosity, including all pores from nanometers to 10s of micrometers in size. Porosity is at least one of the key controls on the ability of biochar to improve plant-available water, and techniques to measure it have previously been limited to the smallest fraction of pores (N2 sorption) or have required expensive, hazardous procedures (Hg porosimetry). We show that char porosity varies primarily as a function of feedstock and secondarily as a function of pyrolysis conditions.

Masiello, Caroline; Brewer, Catherine; Dugan, Brandon; Liu, Zuolin; Gonnermann, Helge; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Davies, Christian; Panzacchi, Pietro; Gao, Xiaodong; Pyle, Lacey

2014-05-01

171

Mechanism of brown-rot decay: Paradigm or paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in understanding how brown-rot fungi degrade wood has received increasing attention in recent years because of a need to identify novel targets that can be inhibited for the next generation of antifungal wood preservatives. Brown-rot fungi are unique in that they can degrade holocellulose (cellulose and hemicellulose) in wood without first removing the lignin. Furthermore, they degrade holocellulose in

Frederick Green; Terry L. Highley

1997-01-01

172

Feasibility of bioremediation by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ligninolytic enzymes of white-rot fungi have a broad substrate specificity and have been implicated in the transformation and mineralization of organopollutants with structural similarities to lignin. This review presents evidence for the involvement of these enzymes in white-rot fungal degradation of munitions waste, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bleach plant effluent, synthetic dyes, synthetic polymers, and wood preservatives.

S. Pointing

2001-01-01

173

Isolation and identification of Sclerotinia stem rot causal pathogen in Arabidopsis thaliana * §  

PubMed Central

A new stem rot disease is found to occur naturally on Arabidopsis plants in greenhouses of Fuzhou, China. In order to identify its pathogen, we conducted a series of fungal isolation and purification, plant reinoculation, and ascus and ascospore induction from the sclerotia. The isolate caused typical water-soaked lesions after reinoculation and produced sclerotia both on Arabidopsis plants and culture medium plates, and the sclerotia could be induced to produce discal apothecia and 8 binucleate ascospores per ascus. These disease symptom and fungal morphology data revealed that the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary was the pathogen for Arabidopsis stem rot. To confirm this, we further amplified its large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and compared the sequence with the known LSU rDNA sequences in GenBank. The results show that the sequence shares the highest identities with the LSU rDNAs of different S. sclerotiorum strains. Taking all these data together, we concluded that the fungus that caused the Arabidopsis stem rot is S. sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. This is the first report that Arabidopsis is naturally infected by S. sclerotiorum.

Wang, Ai-rong; Lin, Wen-wei; Chen, Xiao-ting; Lu, Guo-dong; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zong-hua

2008-01-01

174

Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests. PMID:24168046

Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

2014-03-01

175

Antagonistic Bacillus species as a biological control of ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to develop a biocontrol system for ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum. Methods In total, 392 bacteria isolated from ginseng roots and various soils were screened for their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen, and a bacterial isolate (B2-5) was selected as a promising candidate for the biocontrol because of the strong antagonistic activity of the bacterial cell suspension and culture filtrate against pathogen. Results The bacterial isolate B2-5 displayed an enhanced inhibitory activity against the pathogen mycelial growth with a temperature increase to 25°C, produced no pectinase (related to root rotting) and no critical rot symptoms at low [106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] and high (108 CFU/mL) inoculum concentrations. In pot experiments, pretreatment with the bacterial isolate in the presumed optimal time for disease control reduced disease severity significantly with a higher control efficacy at an inoculum concentration of 106 CFU/mL than at 108 CFU/mL. The establishment and colonization ability of the bacterial isolates on the ginseng rhizosphere appeared to be higher when both the bacterial isolate and the pathogen were coinoculated than when the bacterial isolate was inoculated alone, suggesting its target-oriented biocontrol activity against the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen hyphae were twisted and shriveled by the bacterial treatment, which may be a symptom of direct damage by antifungal substances. Conclusion All of these results suggest that the bacterial isolate has good potential as a microbial agent for the biocontrol of the ginseng root rot caused by F. cf. incarnatum.

Song, Minjae; Yun, Hye Young; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

176

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to the charcoal that is produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns. An afterburner was added later to study conditions for oxidizing the volatile organic co...

177

EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

178

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

179

Failure of activated charcoal to reduce the release of gases produced by the colonic flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Activated charcoal is used to treat excessive volume or malodor of intestinal gas. Our previous studies demonstrated that activated charcoal failed to bind appreciable quantities of the volumetrically important gut gases. However, the odor of feces and flatus derives primarily from trace quantities of sulfur-containing gases, primarily H2S and methanethiol, which should avidly bind to activated charcoal. The goal

Fabrizis L Suarez; Julie Furne; John Springfield; Michael D Levitt

1999-01-01

180

Activated charcoal – A novel burn rate enhancer of aluminized composite propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the discovery of activated charcoal as an effective burn rate enhancer of aluminized composite solid propellant. Experiments were carried out using a strand burner at pressures ranging from 10 to 70bar with varying fractions of activated charcoal. The results show that with the addition of activated charcoal in an aluminized composite propellant higher burn rates (in excess

Sumit Verma; P. A. Ramakrishna

2010-01-01

181

Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil---first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with

T. McClellan; J. L. Deenik; W. C. Hockaday; S. Campbell; M. J. Antal Jr.

2010-01-01

182

RECYCLE AND REUSE OF CHARCOAL MADE FROM EXCESS SLUDGE IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun

183

Constituents of various wood-rotting basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigation of n-hexane and methanol extracts of fruiting bodies of the wood-rotting fungi Fomitopsis pinicola, Ganoderma lipsiense, Fomes fomentarius and Gloeophyllum odoratum led to the isolation and identification of several triterpene derivatives and some aromatic compounds derived from lignin. These are the new natural products, namely, pinicolic acid E (16?-hydroxy-3-oxolanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid) and pinicolol C (3-oxolanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-15?,21-diol) from the crust of

Joachim Rösecke; Wilfried A König

2000-01-01

184

Potential of plant extracts in combination with bacterial antagonist treatment as biocontrol agent of red rot of sugarcane.  

PubMed

Plant extracts and antifungal microorganisms were tested singly and in combination for biocontrol of sugarcane red rot disease (Colletotrichum falcatum) using two sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars, CoC671 and CoC92061, in pot and field experiments. Leaf extracts of Abrus precatorius and Bassia latifolia and the rhizome extract of Curcuma longa reduced Colletotrichum falcatum mycelial growth by 80%, 58%, and 57%, respectively. Although sugarcane- planting materials (setts) treated individually with either Pseudomonas fluorescens Md1 or A. precatorius in pot experiments had the lowest incidences of red rot, 20.1% and 24.2%, respectively, none of the plant extracts were effective in the field. In contrast, when the two varieties were tested separately in two field locations, the setts treated with A. precatorius in combination with a spray or soil application of P. fluorescens Md1 had the lowest incidence of red rot in both locations, e.g., 3.1% and 3.4% incidence for CoC92061 in one location, and had a similar response to the chemical control. The results suggest the applicability of plant-based extracts for the suppression of sugarcane red rot disease in the field as an environment-friendly tool in combination with antagonists. PMID:17496967

Jayakumar, V; Bhaskaran, R; Tsushima, S

2007-02-01

185

Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production

Xiangfeng Dai; N. Norberg; M. J. Jr. Antal

1995-01-01

186

Pigeon navigation: Charcoal filter removes relevant information from environmental air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homing pigeons were displaced and kept until they were released in airtight containers ventilated with environmental air that could be passed through: (a) a filter made of fiberglass paper retaining large portions of the solid and liquid aerosol particles, (b) an additional filter consisting of activated charcoal, or (c) no filter (controls). Before its release, each bird was taken out

Hans G. Wallraff; Augusto Foà

1981-01-01

187

A simple method for vapor dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes.  

PubMed

A method for vapor-dosing of charcoal sorbent tubes (CST) that does not require the expense and effort of a test chamber was used to test the desorption efficiency (DE) of seven solvent vapors, representing six classes of solvents as follows: aromatic hydrocarbons (m-xylene); ether/alcohol (2-ethoxyethanol); vinyl monomers (styrene monomer, vinyl acetate); aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane); aliphatic esters (n-butyl acetate); and aliphatic acrylic monomers (methyl methacrylate). The quantities of the solvents used in these experiments would represent eight-hour exposures to concentrations of approximately 0.2 to 10 ppm. The vapor-dosing experimental system consisted of a loaded filter cassette connected directly to a CST. Vapor was generated by injecting liquid solvent onto the glass fiber filter and drawing air through the system. The solvent was desorbed from the filter and charcoal for analysis. Vapor desorption efficiency was determined from the fraction of the injected solvent evaporated from the filter and the amount recovered from the charcoal. The measured DEs were similar to those reported for liquid dosed charcoal. Vapor dosing of sorbent tubes is more representative of samples collected for industrial hygiene exposure assessment. The system is simple to use and applicable for vapor dosing of any sorbent tube. PMID:7872204

Thomas, M L; Cohen, B S

1995-01-01

188

Behavior of Highly Radioactive Iodine on Charcoal in Moist Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of highly radioactive iodine adsorbed on charcoal exposed to moist air (110 torr water vapor partial pressure) was investigated in a series of six experiments. The amount of radioactive exp 130 I on the well-insulated 28-cm exp 3 bed ranged f...

R. A. Lorenz S. R. Manning W. J. Martin

1976-01-01

189

Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earth system model of intermediate complexity (CLIMate and BiosphERe - CLIMBER-2) and a land surface model (JSBACH), which dynamically represent vegetation, are used to simulate natural fire dynamics through the last 8000 yr. Output variables of the fire model (burned area and fire carbon emissions) are used to compare model results with sediment-based charcoal reconstructions. Several approaches for processing model output are also tested. Charcoal data are reported in Z-scores with a base period of 8000-200 BP in order to exclude the strong anthropogenic forcing of fire during the last two centuries. The model-data comparison reveals a robust correspondence in fire activity for most regions considered, while for a few regions, such as Europe, simulated and observed fire histories show different trends. The difference between modelled and observed fire activity may be due to the absence of anthropogenic forcing (e.g. human ignitions and suppression) in the model simulations, and also due to limitations inherent to modelling fire dynamics. The use of spatial averaging (or Z-score processing) of model output did not change the directions of the trends. However, Z-score-transformed model output resulted in higher rank correlations with the charcoal Z-scores in most regions. Therefore, while both metrics are useful, processing model output as Z-scores is preferable to areal averaging when comparing model results to transformed charcoal records.

Brücher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

2014-04-01

190

Alluvial charcoal in the Sigatoka Valley, Viti Levu Island, Fiji  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal concentrations in alluvial sediments throughout the Sigatoka (and adjacent) catchments, western Viti Levu Island, Fiji were located, sampled and, where possible, dated. The earliest date (5579–5052 cal year BP) almost certainly predates human arrival and represents a natural fire, perhaps associated with drought conditions during an El Niño event. The next three dates are clustered around the time just

Patrick D. Nunn; Roselyn Kumar

2004-01-01

191

Experiments in waterlogging and sedimentology of charcoal: results and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil charcoal has a sporadic occurrence in sedimentary rocks since Devonian time. It is moderately common as a component of the organic material found in a wide variety of facies, but there are also some notable concentrations which occur locally. These occurrences have considerable palaeobotanical and palaeoecological value because the process of charring may result in excellent preservation of plant

Gary J. Nichols; Jenny A. Cripps; Margaret E. Collinson; Andrew C. Scott

2000-01-01

192

Emissions from Street Vendor Cooking Devices (Charcoal Grilling).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from thes...

S. Y. Lee

1999-01-01

193

Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and a land surface model JSBACH that represents vegetation dynamically are used to simulate natural fire dynamics through the last 8000 yr. Output variables of the fire model (burned area and fire carbon emissions) are used to compare model results with sediment-based charcoal reconstructions and several approaches of model output processing are tested. Charcoal data are reported in Z-scores and have been used for the period 8000 to 200 BP to exclude the post-Industrial period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model-data comparison reveals a robust correspondence in fire trends for most regions considered, while few regions, such as Europe, display different trends between simulated and observed trends. The difference between the modelled and observed fire activity could be linked to an absence of the anthropogenic forcing (e.g., human ignitions and suppression) in the model simulations, but also related to limitations of model assumptions for modelling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of spatial averaging or Z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. However, modelled Z-scores resulted in higher rank correlations with the charcoal Z-scores in most of the regions. Therefore, while both metrics are useful, the Z-score processing is more preferable for the modelled fire comparison with the charcoal records than the areal averaging.

Brücher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

2013-11-01

194

Release of offensive odorants from the combustion of barbecue charcoals.  

PubMed

A number of offensive odorants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, and ammonia were measured along with several reference pollutants (like benzene (B), CS(2), SO(2), CO, and total hydrocarbon (THC)) from combusted fumes of barbecue charcoals produced from five different countries (Korea, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the US). Although the emission concentrations of most odorants were generally below the reference guideline set by the malodor prevention law in Korea, the mean concentration of some aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) and ammonia exceeded those guidelines. As such, aldehydes were the most dominant odorant released from charcoal combustion followed by VOC and ammonia. If odorant levels of charcoal products are compared, there are great distinctions between the products of different countries. If comparison is made using the concept of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), the magnitude of SOI for the charcoal products from the five different countries varied in the order of 4.30 (Korea), 3.10 (Indonesia), 2.97 (China), 2.76 (Malaysia), and 2.76 (the US). PMID:22424818

Mahmudur Rahman, Md; Kim, Ki-Hyun

2012-05-15

195

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from charcoal grilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was quantitated in the smoke from the grilling of meat using hardwood charcoal as fuel in a table grill set. Smoke samples were collected with an ice-cooled condenser and subsequently cleaned up employing both open column- and high performance-liquid chromatography techniques. Using a PAH standard mixture, 23 PAH were identified in the smoke using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Emission levels of PAH ranged from several tens of ?g kg -1 meat for some 3- and 4-ringed PAH, to sub ?g kg -1 meat levels for the 5- and 6-ringed PAH (sum of PAH approximately 0.1 mg kg -1 meat), originating from a 10 min grilling of 0.33 kg minced lean pork. The major source of PAH emitted to the local air environment from charcoal grilling is from the combustion of the charcoal itself. The amount of PAH emitted from charcoal grilling in Sweden, time period June to August, is estimated to approximately 2 kg which is a minor source to the total emissions of PAH to the environment. However, relatively large peak exposures of PAH can be expected in a more local environment, e.g. during household grilling.

Dyremark, Anders; Westerholm, Roger; Övervik, Eva; Gustavsson, Jan-Åke

196

Pyramided QTL underlying tolerance to Phytophthora root rot in mega-environments from soybean cultivars ‘Conrad’ and ‘Hefeng 25’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora root rot (PRR) of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the second most important cause of yield loss by disease in North America, surpassed only by soybean cyst\\u000a nematode (Wrather et al. in Can J Plant Pathol 23:115–121, 2001). Tolerance can provide economically useful disease control,\\u000a conditioning partial resistance of soybean to PRR. The aims of this study were

Xiuping Li; Yingpeng Han; Weili Teng; Shuzheng Zhang; Kangfu Yu; Vaino Poysa; Terry Anderson; Junjie Ding; Wenbin Li

2010-01-01

197

Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables.

Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

2013-01-01

198

Factors affecting the infection of fruit of Vitis vinifera by the bitter rot pathogen Greeneria uvicola.  

PubMed

Bitter rot, caused by the fungus Greeneria uvicola, is one of the most important fruit rot diseases that threaten the burgeoning winegrape (Vitis vinifera) industry in the southeastern United States. Epidemiological studies were conducted to examine the period of fruit susceptibility of V. vinifera to G. uvicola, influence of temperature and duration of wetness on infection, and relative susceptibility of cultivars to bitter rot. In field studies, susceptibility of Merlot, Chardonnay, and Cabernet Franc fruit increased from bloom until véraison in 2003 and from bloom until 2 weeks before véraison in 2004. When detached V. vinifera fruit were inoculated and incubated at 14, 22, 26, and 30 degrees C for 6, 12, 18 or 24 h of wetness, 22.4 to 24.6 degrees C and 6 or 12 h of wetness were the optimal conditions for infection of fruit by G. uvicola. The relative susceptibility of 38 cultivars and selections, including 23 V. vinifera cultivars and five French-American hybrids, was determined in a detached fruit inoculation assay. A wide range in susceptibility was observed among the cultivars and selections. Fruit of cultivars of V. vinifera were significantly more susceptible than French-American hybrids. Isolates of G. uvicola differed in aggressiveness when tested on cv. Chardonnay. PMID:18943226

Longland, J M; Sutton, T B

2008-05-01

199

Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR

TREVOR M. D'SOUZA; K. Boominathan; C. A. Reddy

1996-01-01

200

Selection of potential antagonists against asparagus crown and root rot caused by Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

Crown and root rot is one of the most important diseases of asparagus crop worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum are the two species more frequently associated to this complex and their prevalence depends on the production area. The control of the disease on asparagus crop is difficult to achieve because its perennial condition and the long survival of the pathogen in the soil as chlamydospores or as mycelium in infected plant debris. Furthermore, Fusarium spp. are easily disseminated with asparagus propagation materials. Thus, control measures should aim at obtaining seedlings protection for longer than achieved with conventional pre-planting chemical treatments. The effectiveness of fungal antagonists on the control of diseases caused by soil borne fungi has been reported. The potential of Trichoderma spp. as a biological control agent against diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in tomato and asparagus has been studied . It has been suggested that microorganisms isolated from the root or rhizosphere of a specific crop may be better adapted to that crop and may provide better disease control than organisms originally isolated from other plant species. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the potential of fungal isolates from symptomless asparagus plants as biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot. PMID:19226757

Rubio-Pérez, E; Molinero-Ruiz, M L; Melero-Vara, J M; Basallote-Ureba, M J

2008-01-01

201

Possible biochemical roles of oxalic acid as a low molecular weight compound involved in brown-rot and white-rot wood decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of oxalic acid in low nitrogen and high nitrogen nutrient cultures of brown-rot and white-rot fungi are compared with the previously reported findings on fungal production of oxalic acid. The enzymatic formation of oxalic acid from oxaloacetate and glyoxylate in brown-rot and white-rot fungi is described in comparison with other microorganisms. Possible biochemical roles of oxalic acid are discussed

Mikio Shimada; Yasumi Akamtsu; Toshiaki Tokimatsu; Kayoko Mii; Takefumi Hattori

1997-01-01

202

Dibenzyl sulfide metabolism by white rot fungi.  

PubMed

Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066

Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Wong, Eddie T; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R; Pickard, Michael A

2003-02-01

203

Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated.

Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

2003-01-01

204

Activated charcoal surface area and its role in multiple-dose charcoal therapy.  

PubMed

The study hypothesis was to prove that increasing the surface area (SA) of activated charcoal (AC) will enhance theophylline elimination in multiple-dose AC therapy. Five healthy, nonsmoking, nonmedicated, volunteer men ranging from the ages of 18 to 24 years old were entered onto the study. A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted with each subject serving as their own control. Subjects fasted overnight before receiving 8 mg/kg of intravenous theophylline at the beginning of a control phase and two study phases. No AC was administered in the control phase. Two experimental phases compared Actidose Aqua AC (1,500 m2/g; Paddock Laboratories, Inc, Minneapolis, MN) with Norit A Supra AC (2,000 m2/g; Norit NV, Amersfoort, the Netherlands). In each phase, 50 g of the AC was administered orally after the conclusion of the theophylline infusion. Subsequent 50-g doses of the AC preparation were administered at 4 and 8 hours after the initial dose of AC. Serial blood samples for theophylline level determinations were obtained at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, and 12.0 hours after the completion of the theophylline infusion. For each of the three data sets, the absolute area under the absorption curve (A-AUC) was calculated to infinity using the trapezoidal rule. Additionally, the relative area under the absorption curve (R-AUC) was determined for each data set. Data were analyzed using repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. The alpha error was set at 0.05.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8240556

Ilkhanipour, K; Yealy, D M; Krenzelok, E P

1993-11-01

205

Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity vRn of radon and vXe of xenon in the trap with vRn/vXe=(0.96±0.10)×10-3 at -85 °C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y.; Liu, J.; Martens, K.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D.; Yamashita, M.; Hosokawa, K.; Murata, A.; Otsuka, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kusaba, F.; Motoki, D.; Nishijima, K.; Tasaka, S.; Fujii, K.; Murayama, I.; Nakamura, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Nishitani, Y.; Takiya, H.; Uchida, H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, J. S.; Xmass Collaboration

206

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

207

Cultivars and fungicides affect phytophthora root rot in processing tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials tested different processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) cultivars and the effect of fungicides in a site artificially infested with Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Hann, the cause of Phytophthora root rot. In a trial screening nine cultivars, with and without phosphorous acid\\u000a (PA) sprays, cultivar L343 showed more root rot at harvest than all the other cultivars, whether sprayed

W. S. Washington; Patricia McGee; Sze P. Flett; P. H. Jerie; W. J. Ashcroft

2001-01-01

208

Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by wood-rotting fungi.  

PubMed Central

The veterinary fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin was degraded in vitro by four species of wood-rotting fungi growing on wetted wheat straw containing carbonyl-14C-labeled drug. A maximum 14CO2 production of 17% per week was observed with the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum, resulting in up to 53% after 8 weeks. However, rates reached at most 0.2 and 0.9% per week, if enrofloxacin was preadsorbed to native or gamma ray-sterilized soil, respectively.

Martens, R; Wetzstein, H G; Zadrazil, F; Capelari, M; Hoffmann, P; Schmeer, N

1996-01-01

209

Haemodialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion in acute inorganic mercury poisoning.  

PubMed Central

A 29-year-old gardener developed acute renal failure following the ingestion of 'Mersil', a combination of mercurous and mercuric chloride, achieving a plasma mercury concentration of 22,000 nmol/litre (400 micrograms/litre). Haemodialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion were ineffective in removing mercury despite prior treatment with the chelating agent dimercaprol. The acute renal failure resolved after 10 days and there are no residual sequelae.

Worth, D. P.; Davison, A. M.; Lewins, A. M.; Ledgerwood, M. J.; Taylor, A.

1984-01-01

210

A charcoal-pumped 3He cryostat for neutron diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conventional 3He cryostat has been built for neutron powder diffraction measurements at variable temperatures between 0.35 and 4.2 K. A sample temperature of 0.35 K can be achieved for a period of 14 h using a reservoir of 10 l of 3He gas. The 3He pumping is done by an activated charcoal adsorption pump. Constructional details, operation and performance characteristics of the cryostat are described. An example of magnetic scattering is given.

Kockelmann, W.; Schäfer, W.; Will, G.; Chazipetros, J.; Dujka, B.; Schuster, W.

1991-07-01

211

Adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of industrially important dyes namely bromophenol blue, alizarine red-S, methyl blue, methylene blue, eriochrome black-T, malachite green, phenol red and methyl violet from aqueous media on activated charcoal has been investigated. The effect of shaking time, pH and temperature on the adsorption behaviour of these dyes has been studied. It was noted that adsorption of all the dyes on

Muhammad J. Iqbal; Muhammad N. Ashiq

2007-01-01

212

Contact burn by charcoal in an attempted suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 23-yr-old lady was inadvertently burned during an attempted suicide. After quarrelling with her boyfriend, she attempted to commit suicide by using alcohol, benzodiazepine and burning charcoal within her sealed bedroom. Her left leg fell over the edge of the bed while she was half-conscious, that resulted in direct contact with the hot pot causing 1% full thickness burn and

S. Y Ying; W. S Ho

2001-01-01

213

Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes. Brücher, T., Brovkin, V., Kloster, S., Marlon, J. R., and Power, M. J.: Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 6429-6458, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-6429-2013, 2013.

Brücher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Marlon, Jennifer; Power, Mitch

2014-05-01

214

Phytophthora sojae: root rot pathogen of soybean and model oomycete.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete pathogen of soybean, classified in the kingdom Stramenopiles. It causes 'damping off' of seedlings and root rot of older plants, with an annual cost worldwide of $1-2 billion. Owing to its economic importance, this species, along with P. infestans, has been developed as a model species for the study of oomycete plant pathogens. It is readily transformed with DNA enabling over-expression and silencing of selected genes, genetic maps have been constructed and large expressed sequence tag sequence libraries have been developed. A draft genome sequence has recently been completed. This review briefly summarizes current information about the pathogenicity, evolution, molecular biology and genomics of P. sojae. Taxonomy: Phytophthora sojae (Kaufman & Gerdman): superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Stramenopila; phylum Oomycota; class Peronosporomycetidae; order Pythiales; family Pythiaceae; genus Phytophthora. Host range: Soybean is the only economically important host. Several species of lupins have also been reported as hosts. Disease symptoms and signs: All parts of the soybean plant are susceptible to infection by P. sojae, from germinating seedlings to mature plants. In the field, P. sojae causes damping off of soybean seedlings and a root and stem rot of established plants. Leaves can be infected in the field as a result of rain splash or by deliberate inoculation in the laboratory. Damping off can affect germinating seeds or emerged seedlings and is most severe when the spring is very wet and warm (25-30 degrees C). Established plants can become infected when the soil is wet for extended periods, especially if the soil is poorly drained. Both the cortex and the vascular tissue are colonized by P. sojae, and the infection can spread rapidly along the vascular tissues in susceptible cultivars. Useful websites: http://pmgn.vbi.vt.edu, http://phytophthora.vbi.vt.edu, http://www.jgi.doe.gov/Psojae, http://www.jgi.doe.gov/Pramorum, http://www.pfgd.org, http://pamgo.vbi.vt.edu, http://soy.vbi.vt.edu, https://www.vbi.vt.edu/article/articleview/78, http://plantpath.osu.edu/faculty/dorrance.php. PMID:20507474

Tyler, Brett M

2007-01-01

215

Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR) is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20?%, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM) is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM) that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P?

2012-01-01

216

Screening of seedlings of wild Solanum species for resistance to bacterial stem rot caused by soft rot Erwinias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard effective screening procedure for evaluating resistance of young seedlings ofSolanum species to bacterial stem rot caused byErwinia species was developed. Susceptibility to stem rot caused byErwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora varied greatly among 500 differentSolanum accessions; generally accessions resistant toE. carotovora subsp.carotovora were also resistant toE. carotovora subsp.atroseptica andE. chrysanthemi. Most of the lines ofSolarium berthaultii, S. bulbocastanum, S. chacoense,

Ewa Lojkowska; Arthur Kelman

1989-01-01

217

Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.  

PubMed

Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0 × 10(6) to 4.45 × 10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814(T) = KCTC 27526(T) = GCMC 6582(T)) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

Zhang, Dian-Peng; Lu, Cai-Ge; Zhang, Tao-Tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-Wen; Liu, Wei-Cheng

2014-07-01

218

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

1982-01-01

219

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

1982-01-01

220

Charcoal production from wood and cellulose: implications to radiocarbon dates and accelerator target production  

SciTech Connect

In the direct pyrolysis of wood (Juniperus monosperma) in vacuo, charcoal yields between 25% and 40% were obtained at temperatures of greater than 300 degrees C in runs of 35 minutes, and /sup 13/C fractionation as determined from the difference between the delta/sup 13/C of the wood and charcoal amounted to approximately -2.5%. Pyrolysis of holocellulose (I) to charcoal in vacuo or in a flowing Ar atm. resulted in the production of charcoal in a yield between 25% and 40% and /sup 13/C fractionation of 0.6-0.8%. Experiments on pyrolysis of I in sealed, evacuated tubes indicated that the charcoal yields of less than or equal to 60% and fractionation of approximately -0.5% were obtained at temperatures of 550-600 degrees C. Reheating of charcoal under the vacuum revealed no loss of mass and no alteration of C isotopic composition.

Leavitt, S.W.; Donahue, D.J.; Long, A.

1982-01-01

221

Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with a particle dispersal model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To aid interpreting the source area of charcoal in lake-sediment records, we compare charcoal deposition from an experimental fire to predictions from a particle dispersal model. This provides both a theoretical framework for understanding how lake sediments reflect fire history and a foundation for simulating sediment-charcoal records. The dispersal model captures the two-dimensional patterns in the empirical data (predicted vs. observed r2 = 0.67, p < 0.001). We further develop the model to calculate the potential charcoal source area (PCSA) for several classes of fires. Results suggest that (1) variations in airborne charcoal deposition can be explained largely by the size of PCSAs relative to fire sizes and (2) macroscopic charcoal travels many kilometers, longer than suggested by dispersal data from experimental fires but consistent with dispersal data from uncontrolled fires.

Peters, Matthew Edward; Higuera, Philip Edward

2007-03-01

222

Prevalence of fluorescent pseudomonads producing antifungal phloroglucinols and\\/or hydrogen cyanide in soils naturally suppressive or conducive to tobacco black root rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain soils from Morens, Switzerland, are naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated black root rot of tobacco, and fluorescent pseudomonads are involved in this suppressiveness. Here, we compared two conducive, one moderately suppressive and one suppressive soil from Morens. Disease levels on tobacco after heavy T. basicola inoculation varied from 29% to 85% for the two conducive soils, 10% to 78%

Alban Ramette; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; Geneviève Défago

2003-01-01

223

Screening of cultivated and wild adzuki bean for resistance to race 3 of Cadophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola , cause of brown stem rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two diseases of adzuki bean, brown stem rot (BSR, caused by Cadophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola) and adzuki bean Fusarium wilt (AFW, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. adzukicola), are serious problems in Hokkaido and have been controlled using cultivars with multiple resistance. However, because a\\u000a new race of BSR, designated race 3, was identified, sources of parental adzuki bean

Norio Kondo; Hisanori Shimada; Shohei Fujita

2009-01-01

224

Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne emissions from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in Kenya and Brazil were measured during typical operating conditions. Emission factors were determined for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total nonmethane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total suspended particulates (TSP) along with charcoal production efficiency and charcoal and fuelwood carbon and energy contents. The conversion of

David M. Pennise; Kirk R. Smith; Jacob P. Kithinji; Maria Emilia Rezende; Tulio Jardim Raad; Junfeng Zhang; Chengwei Fan

2001-01-01

225

Semi-volatiles in mainstream smoke delivery from select charcoal-filtered cigarette brand variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt has been reported that charcoal added to cigarette filters selectively removes many of the more volatile chemicals, but it is not clear to what extent charcoal may reduce the delivery of important less volatile chemical constituents in mainstream cigarette smoke.MethodsWe analysed machine-derived mainstream smoke deliveries (under three smoking regimens) for variants of a charcoal-filtered cigarette commercially test-marketed in the

Bryan A Hearn; Yan S Ding; Christina Vaughan; Liqin Zhang; Gregory Polzin; Samuel P Caudill; Clifford H Watson; David L Ashley

2010-01-01

226

Synthesis and microwave electromagnetic characteristics of bamboo charcoal\\/polyaniline composites in 2–40 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal coated with polyaniline was synthesized by in situ polymerization at different bamboo charcoal\\/aniline weight ratio (BC\\/Ani=1\\/1, 1\\/2, 1\\/3) and introduced into epoxy resin to be a microwave absorber. The spectroscopic characterizations of the formation processes of bamboo charcoal\\/polyaniline composites were studied using Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron spin

K. H. Wu; T. H. Ting; G. P. Wang; C. C. Yang; C. W. Tsai

2008-01-01

227

Effects of charcoal production on maize yield, chemical properties and texture of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of charcoal production on soil textural and chemical properties were investigated in Ejura, Ghana. The aim was to study the effects of heating and charcoal residue on maize yield, soil texture and soil chemical properties. Composite samples were taken from the 0–10 cm layer of soil at charcoal-making sites and from adjacent fields (control). Twelve sites were randomly selected

Philip G. Oguntunde; Matthias Fosu; Ayodele E. Ajayi; Nick van de Giesen

2004-01-01

228

Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants  

PubMed Central

Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition.

Koutb, Mostafa

2010-01-01

229

Relationships among charcoal particles from modern lacustrine sediments and remotely sensed fire events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of charcoal particles from lacustrine sediments is a useful tool to understand fire regimes through time, and their relationships with climate and vegetation. However, the extent of the relationship between charcoal particles and their origin in terms of the spatial and temporal extent of the fire events is poorly known in the tropics. Modern sediments were collected from lakes in the Yucatan Peninsula and Central Mexico, 51 and 22 lakes respectively, to analyze their charcoal concentration and its relationships with modern fire events. Number of modern fire events was derived from the public source Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) for concentric spatial rings that ranged from 1 to 30 km of radius. The association between charcoal and fires was evaluated through the construction of linear models to explain charcoal concentration as a function of the number of fires recorded. Additionally, charcoal particles were stratified according to size to determine the association between fire distance and charcoal size classes. The relationship between total charcoal concentration and fire events was stronger for central Mexico than for the Yucatan Peninsula, which is probably the result of differences in vegetation cover. The highest determination coefficients were obtained for charcoal particle sizes ranging between 0.2 and 0.8 mm2, and for fire event distances of between 0 and 15 km from the lake. Overall, the analyses presented here offer useful tools to quantitatively and spatially reconstruct past regional fire dynamics in Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.

López-Pérez, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.

2013-05-01

230

Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.  

PubMed

In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P < 0.05) relationships were observed between brown rot and insect injury and between brown rot and the cumulative number of trapped C. pomonella. At the harvest assessment, two additional significant correlations were between brown rot and bird injury and between brown rot and growth cracks. In every case, correlation coefficients were larger in organic than in integrated blocks. Although it is well established that brown rot in pome fruits is closely associated with fruit injuries, this is the first study to provide season-long progress data on different injury types and quantitative analyses of their relative importance at different times in the growing season and across two distinct management systems. PMID:18943241

Holb, I J; Scherm, H

2008-01-01

231

Comparing modeled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes.

Bruecher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

2013-12-01

232

The Salmonella Transcriptome in Lettuce and Cilantro Soft Rot Reveals a Niche Overlap with the Animal Host Intestine  

PubMed Central

Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease.

Goudeau, Danielle M.; Parker, Craig T.; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia

2013-01-01

233

Removal of trivalent chromium from tannery waste waters using bone charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bone charcoal to remove Cr(III) from aqueous solutions by adsorption has been investigated. The adsorbent used was first characterised and then the adsorption was studied as a function of time and amount of charcoal. Tests were carried out with synthetic solutions whose Cr concentrations (500 mg L-1) were similar to those found in some effluents of Moroccan

S. Dahbi; M. Azzi; N. Saib; M. de la Guardia; R. Faure; R. Durand

2002-01-01

234

Does Charcoal Production Slow Agricultural Expansion into the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using a recursive optimization model, we analyze how the incorporation of charcoal production by pioneer farmers in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest would affect household net returns and the rate of deforestation at the early stage of forest colonization. Because charcoal production diverts scarce dry-season labor from land clearing for agriculture, deforestation by pioneer farmers may be slower. The model

Scott M. Swinton; Douglas S. White

2008-01-01

235

Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in workers of a petrochemical plant. Inhalation and dermal exposure

Berna van Wendel de Joode; Erik Tielemans; Roel Vermeulen; Hillion Wegh; Hans Kromhout

2005-01-01

236

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

237

URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

238

CO/Sub 2/ and Heat from Charcoal in Greenhouses. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the utilization of CO/sub 2/ and heat from charcoal in greenhouses. The aim of the project was as follows: 1) Technical and economical evaluation together with the design of a charcoal-fired heating system equipped with a supply syste...

T. Olsen

1985-01-01

239

Enhancing methane production during the anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol using Japanese cedar charcoal.  

PubMed

The use of Japanese cedar charcoal as a support material for microbial attachment could enhance methane production during anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol and wastewater sludge. Methane yield from a charcoal-containing reactor was approximately 1.6 times higher than that from a reactor without charcoal, and methane production was stable over 50 days when the loading rate was 2.17 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1). Examination of microbial communities on the charcoal revealed the presence of Uncultured Desulfovibrio sp. clone V29 and Pelobacter seleniigenes, known as 1,3-propandiol degraders. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were also detected in the archaeal community on the charcoal. Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, and Methanocellus were present in the charcoal-containing reactor. The concentration of propionate in the charcoal-containing reactor was also lower than that in the control reactor. These results suggest that propionate degradation was enhanced by the consumption of hydrogen by hydrogenotrophic methanogens on the charcoal. PMID:24189339

Watanabe, Ryoya; Tada, Chika; Baba, Yasunori; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

2013-12-01

240

Effect of activated charcoal on absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone, carbamazepine and phenylbutazone in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal, given as a water suspension, on the absorption and elimination of phenobarbitone 200 mg, carbamazepine 400 mg and phenylbutazone 200 mg, was studied in five healthy volunteers, using a randomized crossover design. Absorption of the drugs was almost completely prevented (more than 95%) when charcoal 50 g was ingested within five minutes of taking the

P. J. Neuvonen; E. Elonen

1980-01-01

241

Constituents of various wood-rotting basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of n-hexane and methanol extracts of fruiting bodies of the wood-rotting fungi Fomitopsis pinicola. Ganoderma lipsiense, Fomes fomentarius and Gloeophyllum odoratum led to the isolation and identification of several triterpene derivatives and some aromatic compounds derived from lignin. These are the new natural products, namely, pinicolic acid E (16alpha-hydroxy-3-oxolanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid) and pinicolol C (3-oxolanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-15alpha,21-diol) from the crust of F. pinicola, ganoderenic acid D [(E)-7beta-hydroxy-3,11,15,23-tetraoxolanosta-8,20(22)-di en-26-oic acid] and ganoderic acid N (7beta,20-dihydroxy-3,11,15,23-tetraoxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid) from G. lipsiense and ergosterol peroxide (5alpha,8alpha-epi-dioxyergost-6-en-3beta-ol) as well as ergost-7-en-3-one from F. fomentarius. From G. odoratum, dehydroeburicoic acid [24-methylene-3-oxolanosta-7,9(11)-dien-21-oic acid], the dimethylacetal of 4,4,14alpha-trimethyl-24-oxo-5alpha-chol-8-en-21-oic acid and some aromatic compounds, of which 1-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-1,2-ethandiol is a new natural product, were isolated. Furthermore, a complete set of 13C NMR data of the steryl esters 3beta-linoleyloxyergosta-7,24(28)-diene, 3beta-linoleyloxyergosta-7,24-diene and 3beta-linoleyloxyergost-7-ene, which could be identified as a mixture in all investigated fungi, could be recorded. It was proved by HPLC and TLC investigations, that the crust on top of the fruiting bodies of F. pinicola consists of lanostane derivatives. PMID:10963454

Rösecke, J; König, W A

2000-07-01

242

Diaporthaceae associated with root and crown rot of maize.  

PubMed

Several isolates of coelomycetous fungi with pigmented conidia were consistently isolated from diseased roots of Zea mays in irrigated plots monitored in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Based on their morphology, these isolates could be identified as representative of Stenocarpella macrospora, S. maydis, and Phaeocytostroma ambiguum. Although species of Stenocarpella are well-known as causal agents of cob and stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in South Africa, the occurrence and importance of P. ambiguum is less well documented and understood. To determine the role of P. ambiguum as a root pathogen of maize, pathogenicity tests were conducted under glasshouse conditions at 18 °C night and 28 °C day temperatures using a pasteurised soil, river sand and perlite medium and a 0.5 % sand-bran inoculum. Based on these results, P. ambiguum was shown to be a primary pathogen of maize, but to be less virulent than the positive control, S. maydis. Furthermore, to clarify the higher-level phylogeny of these fungal genera, isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS & LSU). Partial gene sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene were added to confirm the species monophyly. To resolve the generic placement of Phaeocytostroma, additional species such as P. sacchari, P. plurivorum and P. megalosporum were also added to the analysis. Based on these results, Stenocarpella and Phaeocytostroma were shown to be two well defined genera, belonging to Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae, being closely allied to Phomopsis (Diaporthe). All three genera were also observed to form alpha as well as beta conidia, and although this phenomenon is well documented for Phomopsis and Phaeocytostroma, it is a new observation for Stenocarpella. In spite of the differences in conidial pigmentation, no support could be obtained for polyphyly in Diaporthaceae, suggesting that as observed in Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales), conidial pigmentation is not informative at the family level in Diaporthales. PMID:22679583

Lamprecht, Sandra C; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Tewoldemedhin, Yared T; Marasas, Walter F O

2011-06-01

243

Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria  

PubMed Central

Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria.

Davidsson, Par R.; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E. T.

2013-01-01

244

Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by wood-rotting fungi.  

PubMed

The veterinary fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin was degraded in vitro by four species of wood-rotting fungi growing on wetted wheat straw containing carbonyl-14C-labeled drug. A maximum 14CO2 production of 17% per week was observed with the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum, resulting in up to 53% after 8 weeks. However, rates reached at most 0.2 and 0.9% per week, if enrofloxacin was preadsorbed to native or gamma ray-sterilized soil, respectively. PMID:8900012

Martens, R; Wetzstein, H G; Zadrazil, F; Capelari, M; Hoffmann, P; Schmeer, N

1996-11-01

245

Validation of the diffusion-barrier charcoal canister method  

SciTech Connect

A six-month study was conducted by the Technical Measurements Center, US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of indoor radon measurements using an intermittent diffusion-barrier charcoal canister sampling protocol. Diffusion-barrier charcoal canisters (DBCC) were exposed for seven days in sixteen occupied residences each week during the 26-week study. The radon concentrations measured by the DBCCs were compared to radon concentrations measured by triplicate sets of four different types of alpha-track monitors and integrated hourly radon concentrations measured by a Pylon Model AB-5 continuous radon monitor. The results were also compared with radon-daughter concentrations measured in these same residences by an Eberline WLM-1 working level monitor. Excellent agreement was observed between the integrated mean radon concentrations measured by the DBCCs compared with the six-month alpha-track results, and between the weekly DBCC readings and average weekly radon concentrations measured by the Pylon radon monitors. An intermittent sampling protocol employing six weekly DBCC measurements spaced approximately every two months throughout the year should provide estimates of the average annual indoor radon concentrations that meet the criteria established for the Grand Junction Remedial Action Program. 9 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

Martz, D.E.; George, J.L.; Mamich, S.T.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1989-05-01

246

Molecular Marker Approach on Characterizing and Quantifying Charcoal in Environmental Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is widely distributed in natural environments including soils, sediments, freshwater, seawater and the atmosphere. It is produced mostly from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to BC due to its potential influence in many biogeochemical processes. In the environment, BC exists as a continuum ranging from partly charred plant materials, charcoal residues to highly condensed soot and graphite particles. The heterogeneous nature of black carbon means that BC is always operationally-defined, highlighting the need for standard methods that support data comparisons. Unlike soot and graphite that can be quantified with well-established methods, it is difficult to directly quantify charcoal in geologic media due to its chemical and physical heterogeneity. Most of the available charcoal quantification methods detect unknown fractions of the BC continuum. To specifically identify and quantify charcoal in soils and sediments, we adopted and validated an innovative molecular marker approach that quantifies levoglucosan, a pyrogenic derivative of cellulose, as a proxy of charcoal. Levoglucosan is source-specific, stable and is able to be detected at low concentrations using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). In the present study, two different plant species, honey mesquite and cordgrass, were selected as the raw materials to synthesize charcoals. The lab-synthesize charcoals were made under control conditions to eliminate the high heterogeneity often found in natural charcoals. The effects of two major combustion factors, temperature and duration, on the yield of levoglucosan were characterized in the lab-synthesize charcoals. Our results showed that significant levoglucosan production in the two types of charcoal was restricted to relatively low combustion temperatures (150-350 degree C). The combustion duration did not cause significant differences in the yield of levoglucosan in the two charcoals. Interestingly, the low temperature charcoals are undetectable by the acid dichromate oxidation method, a popular soot/charcoal analytical approach. Our study demonstrates that levoglucosan can serve as a proxy of low temperature charcoals that are undetectable using other BC methods. Moreover, our study highlights the limitations of the common BC quantification methods to characterize the entire BC continuum.

Kuo, L.; Herbert, B. E.; Louchouarn, P.

2006-12-01

247

Charcoal produced by prescribed fire increases dissolved organic carbon and soil microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Australian forests fire is an important driver of carbon (C) storage. When biomass C is combusted it is transformed into vegetation residue (charcoal) and deposited in varying amounts and forms onto soil surfaces. The C content of charcoal is high but is largely in a chemically stable form of C, which is highly resistance to microbial decomposition. We conducted two laboratory incubations to examine the influence of charcoal on soil microbial activity as indicated by microbial respiration. Seven sites were chosen in mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria, Australia. Soil was sampled prior to burning to minimise the effects of heating or addition of charcoal during the prescribed burn. Charcoal samples were collected from each site after the burn, homogenised and divided into two size fractions. Prior to incubation, soils were amended with the two size fractions (<1 and 1-4.75 mm) and at two rates of amount (2.5 and 5% by soil dry weight). Charcoal-amended soils were incubated in the laboratory for 86 d, microbial respiration was measured nine times at day 1, 3, 8, 15, 23, 30, 45, 59 and 86 d. We found that addition of charcoal resulted in faster rates of microbial respiration compared to unamended soil. Fastest rates of microbial respiration in all four treatments were measured 1 d after addition of charcoal (up to 12 times greater than unamended soil). From 3 to 8 d, respiration rates in all four treatments decreased and only treatments with greater charcoal addition (5%) remained significantly faster than unamended soil. From 15 d to 86 d, all treatments had respiration rates similar to unamended soil. Overall, adding greater amount of charcoal (5%) resulted in a larger cumulative amount of CO2 released over the incubation period when compared to unamended soil. The second laboratory incubation focused on the initial changes in soil nutrient and microbial respiration after addition of charcoal over a 72 h period. Charcoal (<2 mm) was added at rate of 5% to soil with differing moisture content (55 and 70% water holding capacity). Microbial respiration was measured continuously and dissolved organic C (DOC), nitrogen (DON), extractable phosphorus (P), and microbial C, N and P were measured at four time points during the 72 h incubation. Our data showed that the initial spike in microbial respiration was highly correlated to the amount of DOC in the soil. Soil moisture did not significantly change the microbial response or soil nutrient availability after addition of charcoal. This study outlines one of the processes of carbon cycling that occurs immediately after fire. Charcoal deposition resulting from prescribed burning provides a transitory yet important source of C for soil microbes and stimulates microbial activity.

Poon, Cheryl; Jenkins, Meaghan; Bell, Tina; Adams, Mark

2014-05-01

248

The aromatic domains in charcoal are small: Implications for the fate and transport of pyrogenic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have applied quantitative carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to charcoals produced in the laboratory and in prescribed wildland fires. The NMR experiments quantify the relative abundance of aromatic carbon. Additionally, our dipolar-dephasing NMR experiments quantify the relative abundance of aromatic bridgehead carbons. Together, these NMR data allow us to estimate the average size of the aromatic domains (i.e. number of aromatic carbons per cluster) within the charcoal structure. Charcoals made in the lab and the field consist of small aromatic domains averaging 10 to 30 aromatic carbons per cluster. We compare this information with the molecular formulae for molecules of pyrogenic origin in dissolved organic matter from rivers. Dissolved pyrogenic molecules have similar carbon numbers to the aromatic clusters in charcoal, suggesting that soil processes may mobilize charcoal carbon by cleaving the linkages between aromatic clusters.

Hockaday, W. C.; Masiello, C. A.

2012-04-01

249

Use of charcoal haemoperfusion in the management of severely poisoned patients.  

PubMed Central

The clinical use of uncoated charcoal haemoperfusion systems, despite their efficacy, has hitherto been prevented by the occurrence of a number of adverse effects including charcoal embolism and marked thrombocytopenia. Charcoal coated with a synthetic hydrogel overcomes many of the disadvantages associated with the use of uncoated material in that there is a much reduced thrombocytopenia and no evidence of charcoal embolism. Six patients, severely poisoned as a result of overdoses of either a barbiturate or glutethimide, were haemoperfused using such a system. Four made complete recoveries, and the two patients who died had both suffered cardiorespiratory arrests before perfusion. In contrast to haemodialysis charcoal haemoperfusion is simple to initiate, less expensive in terms of manpower and equipment, and gives superior clearance data for all barbiturates and glutethimide. We believe that this technique may have a significant role to play in the management of the severely poisoned patient. Images FIG. 2

Vale, J A; Rees, A J; Widdop, B; Goulding, R

1975-01-01

250

Effects of manufacturing conditions on the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions by Makino bamboo charcoal.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of manufacturing conditions on the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions by Makino bamboo charcoal. Results show that the specific surface area and iodine number of bamboo charcoal activated at 900 degrees C were larger than those of bamboo charcoal activated at 800 degrees C. The specific surface area of bamboo charcoal activated at 800 degrees C by carbon dioxide was larger than that of charcoal activated by steam. However, a contrary result was observed when the activation temperature was 900 degrees C. The total volume and proportion of micropores in bamboo charcoal activated by carbon dioxide were greater than those in the other sample groups. However, the total volume and bulk volume of meso- and macropores, and average pore diameter for bamboo charcoal activated by steam were greater than those in the other sample groups. Using 5g bamboo charcoal (10-30 mesh) with a soaking time of 24h, a better adsorption effect on Pb2+ (100%), Cu2+ (100%), and Cr3+ (88-98%) was found. However, medium frequencies were observed for the adsorption of Cd2+ (40-80%) and Ni2+ (20-60%). Very limited adsorption of As5+ was detected in this study. For the same charcoal grain sizes, the adsorption capacity of 0.5g of charcoal was better than that of 0.1g. The improved adsorption effect of the sample group activated by steam was compared with the sample group activated by carbon dioxide. PMID:18281212

Wang, Song-Yung; Tsai, Ming-Hsiu; Lo, Sheng-Fong; Tsai, Ming-Jer

2008-10-01

251

Production of Charcoals from Cultural Waste of Mushroom and Soybean Hull  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to utilize cultural waste of mushroom and soybean hull as coke, conversion from dry cultural waste of mushroom (DCWM) and soybean hull (SH) into charcoal by carbonization at 400-800°C, and conversion from them into formed charcoal were investigated. The thermogravimetry tendency of DCWM was intermediate between xylan and lignin, and that of SH was intermediate between cellulose and xylan. Carbonization of DCWM and SH led to make charcoal with high carbon content and higher heating value than raw material. Regarding charcoal carbonized at 800°C, carbon contents of DCWM and SH were 56 and 72%, higher heating values of them were 20.59 and 25.52 MJ/kg, respectively. It was affected by high ash content of DCWM and SH, that carbon contents and higher heating values of these charcoals were lower than coke. On utilization charcoal of DCWM and SH as coke, a preventative method must be taken regarding lower heating value of these than coke. By hot-press forming at 160°C 98MPa from charcoal carbonized at 250°C of DCWM or SH, these charcoal pellets could be produced. And by carbonization at 300-800°C of the pellet formed at 70°C 98MPa from DCWM, carbonized pellet could be produced. In the same manner for producing carbonized pellet of DCWM, the carbonized pellet of SH could be produced, but maximum temperature of carbonization was about 400°C, from the phenomena that puff occur on the pellet in the process of carbonization of it at 500°C. From these results, it is considered effective for increasing energy density of biomass, to convert from raw material into charcoal or formed charcoal.

Inoue, Yoshiki; Miyamoto, Kazumichi; Machida, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Takeru; Horikoshi, Kenichi; Okamoto, Masashi

252

Genetic diversity analysis of avocado ( Persea americana Miller) rootstocks selected under greenhouse conditions for tolerance to phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora cinnamomi, the causal agent of Phytophthora Root Rot (PRR) of avocado, is the most serious disease of avocado worldwide. The development\\u000a of tolerant rootstocks to control PRR has proven to be an effective means to control the disease. However, using traditional\\u000a breeding approaches can take over a decade to produce results and there has been a limited use to

G. W. Douhan; E. Fuller; B. McKee; E. Pond

253

Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissues of ornamental plants showing symptoms of leaf spot, crown and root rot. The aim of this study was to identify these Calonectria spp. using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calonectria spp., C. pseudomexicana sp. nov. and C. tunisiana sp. nov., were recognised. Calonectria mexicana and C. polizzii are newly reported for the African continent. Pathogenicity tests with all four Calonectria spp. showed that they are able to cause disease on seedlings of Callistemon spp., Dodonaea viscosa, Metrosideros spp. and Myrtus communis. PMID:22403477

Lombard, L; Polizzi, G; Guarnaccia, V; Vitale, A; Crous, P W

2011-12-01

254

The development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of sensor types were fabricated and tested for their electrical resistance changes to compounds known to be evolved by potato tubers with soft rot caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora. On the basis of these tests, three sensors were selected for incorporation into a prototype device. The device was portable and could be used without computer control after threshold values and sensor settling criteria had been downloaded. The prototype was assessed for its discriminating power under simulated storage conditions. The device was capable of detecting one tuber with soft rot in 100 kg of sound tubers in a simulated storage crate. The device was also able to detect a tuber inoculated with E. carotovora, but without visible signs of soft rot, within 10 kg of sound tubers. The same system was able to follow the progression of the disease in a tuber stored amongst 10 kg of sound tubers when operated at 4 °C and 85% relative humidity (conditions typical of a refrigerated storage facility).

de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H. E.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H. E.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

2000-12-01

255

A new report of pre-harvest ear rot of corn caused by Geotrichum candidum from Iran.  

PubMed

In summer of 2004, samples of husk looseness ear of corn (Zea mays) (cv. 700-Karaj) were collected from corn fields in Ali-Abad (Jiroft region), Kerman province, Southeastern Iran, for diagnosis of an unusual ear decay. A fungus was isolated from the rotting kernels and subsequently identified as Geotrichum candidum. The fungal pathogen was found to be closely related to G. citri-aurantii (citrus race) based on morphological, physiological and pathogenicity properties. The fungal pathogenicity test was demonstrated by fulfilling Koch's postulates. The pathogen caused rot disease on husk looseness corn kernels in soft-dough stage of ripening. The fungus was also pathogenic on ripe lemon and green and ripe tomato fruits. Fungal isolates of corn were compared to isolates from soft-rotten potato tubers. These two groups of isolates were highly similar on the basis of their morphological, biochemical and pathogenicity characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first known report of corn ear rot caused by G. candidum in the world. PMID:18396830

Mirzaee, M R; Safarnejad, M R; Mohammadi, M

2007-01-01

256

Effects of infection of common root rot on protein content, cooking quality and other characters in pea varieties.  

PubMed

Pea varieties are known to show a considerable variability in seed yield, protein content, cooking quality and other characters over years and locations. Common root rot, a wide spread soil borne disease of peas in Europe and elsewhere, is a contributing factor in the observed variation in pea yields and pea quality characteristics such as protein content and cooking quality. It interacts with the weather and these factors together constitute important reasons for the variations observed within a single variety in the mentioned characters. The common root rot is, however, in seasons with more moderate deviations from the mean in terms of temperature and precipitation, itself able to constitute the most important source of variation in characteristics of the harvested crop. During the 1980ies and the 1990ies investigations were carried out to study the interactions between common root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches) and peas (Pisum sativum). Seed yield, protein content, cooking quality, hectolitre weight, thousand kernel weight, growing time, duration of flowering time and stem length were all significantly influenced by the fungus. PMID:11712233

Engqvist, L G

2001-10-01

257

Phenolics in maize genotypes differing in susceptibility to Gibberella stalk rot (Fusarium graminearum Schwabe).  

PubMed

The relationship between phenolic compounds and maize pith resistance to Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Gibberella stalk rot, was investigated. The phenolic acid profiles in the stalks of six maize inbred lines of varying susceptibility were evaluated from silking to grain maturity. Four different fractions of phenolic compounds were extracted from inoculated and non-inoculated (control) pith tissues: insoluble cell-wall-bound, free, soluble ester-bound, and soluble glycoside-bound phenolics. Analysis by HPLC revealed that p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the most abundant compounds in the soluble and cell-wall-bound fractions. The quantity of free, glycoside-bound, and ester-bound phenolics in the pith was lower than the level required for the inhibition of Fusarium growth or mycotoxins production; however, significant negative correlations between diferulic acid contents in the cell walls and disease severity ratings 4 days after inoculation were found. The results indicated that future studies should focus on the levels of diferulic acids during the early infection process. Diferulates may play a role in genotypic resistance of maize to Gibberella stalk rot as preformed barriers to infection. PMID:17547419

Santiago, Rogelio; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Martinez, Noelia; Malvar, Rosa A

2007-06-27

258

Improved control of anthracnose rot in loquat fruit by a combination treatment of Pichia membranifaciens with CaCl(2).  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of 2% CaCl(2) (w/v) on the antagonistic yeast Pichia membranifaciens for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in postharvest loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica L.) and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. The results showed that treatment with P. membranifaciens at 1x10(8) CFU ml(-1) or 2% CaCl(2) alone both resulted in significantly smaller lesion diameter and lower disease incidence of anthracnose rot on loquat fruit wounds compared with the controls. The biocontrol activity of P. membranifaciens on the disease was enhanced by the addition of 2% CaCl(2), the combined treatment of P. membranifaciens with CaCl(2) resulted in a remarkably improved control of the disease in comparison with the treatment of P. membranifaciens or CaCl(2) alone. P. membranifaciens in combination with CaCl(2) induced higher activities of two defense-related enzymes chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase in loquat fruit than applying the yeast or CaCl(2) alone. The in vitro experiment showed that the addition of 2% CaCl(2) in the suspensions of P. membranifaciens significantly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of C. acutatum than the yeast or CaCl(2) alone. However, adding CaCl(2) did not significantly influence the population of P. membranifaciens in NYDB medium or fruit wounds. These results suggest that CaCl(2) could improve the biocontrol activity of P. membranifaciens on anthracnose rot in loquat fruit. It is postulated that the improved control of the disease is directly because of the higher inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and indirectly because of the enhanced disease resistance in loquat fruit by the combination treatment. PMID:18590937

Cao, Shifeng; Zheng, Yonghua; Tang, Shuangshuang; Wang, Kaituo

2008-08-15

259

Diversity study on Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikks., the causal agent of clover rot in red clover crops (Trifolium pratense L.).  

PubMed

Since the 16th century, red clover has been an important crop in Europe. Since the 1940s, the European areal of red clover has been severely reduced, due to the availability of chemical fertilizers and the growing interest in maize. Nowadays there is a growing interest in red clover again, although some setbacks still remain. An important setback is the low persistence of red clover crops. Clover rot, caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss., is a major disease in Europe and reduces the persistence of red clover crops severely. The fungus infects clover plants through ascospores in the autumn, the disease develops during the winter and early spring and can kill many plants in this period. In early spring, black sclerotia, serving as surviving bodies, are formed on infected plants. Sclerotia can survive up to 7 years in the soil (Ohberg, 2006). The development of clover rot is highly dependent on the weather conditions: a humid fall, necessary for the germination of the ascospores and an overall warm winter with short periods of frost are favourable for the disease. Cold and dry winters slow the mycelial growth down too much and prevent the disease from spreading. Clover rot is difficult to control and completely resistant red clover varieties have yet to be developed. Because of the great annual variation in disease severity, plant breeders cannot use natural infection as an effective means to screen for resistant material. Breeding for resistant cultivars is being slowed down by the lack of a bio-test usable in breeding programs. When applying artificial infections, it is necessary to have an idea of the diversity of the pathogen. A diverse population will require resistance screening with multiple isolates. The objective of this research is to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates from the pathogen S. trifoliorum from various European countries. We assessed diversity using a species identification test based on the sequence of the beta-tubulin gene, vegetative compatibility grouping and AFLP. PMID:21534473

Vleugels, T; Baert, J; De Riek, J; Heungens, K; Malengier, M; Cnops, G; Van Bockstaele, E

2010-01-01

260

Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated

Kenji Okamoto; Ryuichi Kanawaku; Masaru Masumoto; Hideshi Yanase

261

Production and Degradation of Oxalic Acid by Brown Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi.

Espejo, Eduardo; Agosin, Eduardo

1991-01-01

262

Rot-Resistance of Cotton/Nylon Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cotton/nylon blends differing in the proportion of cotton to nylon, the degree of interfiber intimacy and the geometric distribution of cotton to nylon were evaluated for rot-resistance in the soil burial test. Additional soil burial data were obtained fr...

M. Greenberger A. M. Kaplan

1968-01-01

263

MINERALIZATION OF RECALCITRANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade lignin, a structurally complex, naturally occurring and environmentally persistent, non-repeating heteropolyrner. revious studies have shown that this fungus is also able-to degrade a wide variety of synthetic or...

264

Interactions of heavy metals with white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-rot fungi require trace amounts of essential heavy metals such as Cd, Mn or Zn for their growth, but these metals are toxic when present in excess. Toxic heavy metals can inhibit the growth, cause morphological and physiological changes and affect the reproduction of Basidiomycetes. Fungal species and strains differ in their sensitivity towards metals and in the protection mechanisms

Petr Baldrian

2003-01-01

265

Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in

Roland Waldner; Matti S. A. Leisola; Armin Fiechter

1988-01-01

266

Wide Variation in Virulence and Genetic Diversity of Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Strawberry in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M.; Barbetti, Martin J.

2013-01-01

267

Performance of a refrigerated charcoal trap for xenon-133.  

PubMed

The impulse response function of a charcoal trap to a bolus of xenon-133 was determined as a function of the total number of hours run both at room temperature and at 25 degrees C. The peak of the response function for a new trap at room temperature reached a value of 360 MPC at 11 h. After 150 h of operation, the impulse response function was determined at -25 degrees C reaching a value of only 35 MPC at 25 h. The exhaust concentration of a trap in a busy nuclear medicine department using 150 mCi of xenon per week was measured and found to be 1600 MPC. The trap was placed in the freezer and kept there while it continued in use. Over a period of 3 weeks, the concentration of xenon in the exhaust of the trap dropped to a value of 13 MPC, or less than 1% of its value at room temperature. PMID:7322086

Powell, M; Grando, R; Robeson, W

1981-01-01

268

[Caring for families of charcoal-burning suicide patients].  

PubMed

Charcoal-burning is the second major cause of suicide death in Taiwan. Predicting the variable damage and sequelae in this suicide mode is difficult due to the rapid combination of carbon monoxide with red blood cells. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) may result in significantly extended recovery times, causing additional stress to the family. Nurses may help increase family understanding and support and guide family members to more positive intra-family interactions, shared perspectives on the recovery process, and resource seeking behavior by depicting subsequent family life and helping the entire family develop coping strategies those allow all members to effect cognitive, emotional and behavioral change. This result may help families of attempted suicide individuals recover successfully. PMID:24310557

Pien, Feng-Chen; Feng, Hsin-Pei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

2013-12-01

269

Criticality safety study of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the practicality of developing a power reactor consisting of a graphite lattice with circulating molten uranium salt as fuel for application in central power stations. When the experiment was terminated in 1969, approximately 4710 kg of salt containing approximately 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 g of plutonium, and various fission products were transferred to two fuel drain tanks (FDTs). The almost 30.5 kg of Uranium 233 in the salt is the primary fissile constituent, but about 0.93 kg of Uranium 235 is also present. In April 1994, a gas sample from the MSRE off-gas system (OGS) indicated that uranium had migrated from the FDTs into the OGS. Further investigation revealed a likely accumulation of approximately 2.6 kg of uranium in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), which is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell (CBC) below ground level outside the MSRE building. The nuclear criticality safety (NCS) situation was further complicated by the CBC being filled with water up to the overflow pipe, which completely submerged the ACB. Thus there was not only an increased risk of criticality because of water reflection in the ACB, but also because of potential moderation in the ACB in case of water inleakage. Leakage into the ACB would result in a direct path for water between the CBC and the OGS or FDTs, thus increasing the risk of criticality in these areas. When uranium was discovered in the ACB, a number of steps, detailed in this report, were immediately taken to try to understand and ameliorate the situation. After all the actions were completed, a validation of the results obtained for the ACB was performed.

Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

1996-09-01

270

Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995–2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. Methods and Findings We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996–2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997–1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998–2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999–2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999–2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006–2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in Taiwan and Hong Kong but appeared to be greatest in people aged 15–24 y in Japan and people aged 25–64 y in the Republic of Korea. The lack of specific codes for charcoal-burning suicide in the International Classification of Diseases and variations in coding practice in different countries are potential limitations of this study. Conclusions Charcoal-burning suicides increased markedly in some East/Southeast Asian countries (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore) in the first decade of the 21st century, but such rises were not experienced by all countries in the region. In countries with a rise in charcoal-burning suicide rates, the timing, scale, and sex/age pattern of increases varied by country. Factors underlying these variations require further investigation, but may include differences in culture or in media portrayals of the method. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

2014-01-01

271

Charcoal emissions as a source of CO and carcinogenic PAH in mainstream narghile waterpipe smoke.  

PubMed

Burning charcoal is normally placed atop the tobacco to smoke the narghile waterpipe. We investigated the importance of charcoal as a toxicant source in the mainstream smoke, with particular attention to two well-known charcoal emissions: carbon monoxide (CO) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). CO and PAH yields were compared when a waterpipe was machine smoked using charcoal and using an electrical heating element. The electrical heating element was designed to produce spatial and temporal temperature distributions similar to those measured using charcoal. With a popular type of ma'assel tobacco mixture, and using a smoking regimen consisting of 105 puffs of 530ml volume spaced 17s apart, it was found that approximately 90% of the CO and 75-92% of the 4- and 5-membered ring PAH compounds originated in the charcoal. Greater than 95% of the benzo(a)pyrene in the smoke was attributable to the charcoal. It was also found that the relative proportions of individual PAH species, the "PAH fingerprint", of the mainstream smoke were highly correlated to those extracted from the unburned charcoal (R(2)>0.94). In contrast, there was no correlation between the PAH fingerprint of the electrically heated and charcoal-heated conditions (R(2)<0.02). In addition to inhaling toxicants transferred from the tobacco, such as nicotine, "tar", and nitrosamines, waterpipe smokers thus also inhale large quantities of combustion-generated toxicants. This explains why, despite the generally low temperatures attained in the narghile tobacco, large quantities of CO and PAH have been found in the smoke. PMID:18573302

Monzer, Bassel; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

2008-09-01

272

Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

2014-05-01

273

A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel  

PubMed Central

Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools.

Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butron, Ana; Holland, James B.

2013-01-01

274

Paleofire reconstruction based on an ensemble-member strategy applied to sedimentary charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

events obtained from the statistical treatment of sedimentary charcoal records rely on a number of assumptions and user's choices, increasing the uncertainty of reconstructions. Among the assumptions made when analyzing charcoal series is the choice of a filtering method for raw Charcoal Accumulation Rate (CHARraw). As there is no ultimate CHARraw filtering method, we propose an ensemble-member approach to reconstruct fire events. We modified the commonly used procedure by including a routine replicating the analysis of a charcoal record using custom smoothing parameters. Dates of robust fire events, uncertainties in fire-return intervals and fire frequencies are derived from members' distributions. An application of the method is used to quantify uncertainties due to data treatment in two CHARraw sequences from two different biomes, subalpine and boreal.

Blarquez, Olivier; Girardin, Martin P.; Leys, BéRangèRe; Ali, Adam A.; Aleman, Julie C.; Bergeron, Yves; Carcaillet, Christopher

2013-06-01

275

Some improvement of charcoal measurement techniques used for indoor radon measurements in Qatar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some improvements on charcoal measurement techniques of Rn concentration are suggested. The detection efficiency is increased by using two scintillation detectors instead of commonly used one detector. The optimum exposure time to achieve the best detecti...

W. M. Arafa H. Alneimi L. Al-Houty H. About-Leila

1993-01-01

276

Method of Removing Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds by Adsorption with Coconut Charcoal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polynuclear aromatic compounds are irreversibly adsorbed by coconut charcoal and are separated from desired constituents by treatment in a coconut column. This patent application is particularly valuable in provividing a method suitable for large scale us...

Stalling

1975-01-01

277

Preparation of Charcoal Sampling Tubes Containing Known Quantities of Adsorbed Solvents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method in widespread use for the determination of the concentration of organic solvents in the work atmosphere consists in collection of the solvent by adsorption on activated charcoal followed by desorption with carbon disulfide and measurement by ga...

B. C. Cadoff E. E. Hughes R. Alvarez J. K. Taylor

1974-01-01

278

Measurement and calculation of the sound absorption coefficient of pine wood charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although charcoal has been widely utilized for physical therapy and as a deodorant, water purifier, etc. due to its porous features, research on its role as a sound-absorbing material is rarely found. Thus, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoal were measured using an impedance tube and were compared with the theoretical predictions in the frequency range of 500˜ 5000 Hz. The theory developed in the current study only considers the lowest possible mode propagating along the air channels of the charcoal and shows good agreements with the measurements. As the frequency is increased, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoals also increase, but are lower than those of other commonly-used sound-absorbing materials.

Suh, Jae Gap; Baik, Kyung min; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Sung Soo

2013-10-01

279

Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determin...

J. Kaoma G. B. Kasali A. Ellegaard

1994-01-01

280

Efficiency and emission characteristics of two Zambia cookstoves using charcoal and coal briquettes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emission characteristics of charcoal and coal briquettes in two Zambia household cookstoves were evaluated using an improved chamber method. The two domestic appliances were the traditional mbaula and the newly developed ceramic stove, referred to as ...

J. Kaoma G. Kasali A. Ellegaard

1994-01-01

281

Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of microbial activity in soil, whereas the addition of this fraction to fungal inoculum stimulated the growth and activity of cultured fungi (as measured by serial dilution and plating). Our results suggest that high VM charcoals can contain a bioavailable C source which may increase microbial activity and inhibit inorganic N availability, whereas a comparatively lower VM content charcoal does not appear to be readily available for microbial consumption. We conclude that VM is an important charcoal property which can cause various effects on soil biological properties and warrants further investigation. Our findings also provide insight into charcoal’s effect on N cycling since the immobilization of N observed under laboratory conditions serves as a possible explanation for the adverse effect of high VM charcoal on plant growth, as reported here and in previous short-term studies across a range of ecosystems. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether the observed effects persist in the long-term.

McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2010-12-01

282

Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Activated Carbon (Charcoal) as a Food Processing Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, by a group of qualified scientists designated the Select Committee of GRAS Substances (SCOGS), provides an independent evaluation of the safety of the health aspects of activated carbon (charcoal) as a food processing aid.

1981-01-01

283

Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.  

PubMed

An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly demonstrated that isolate C06 has a great potential for being developed into a biocontrol agent. PMID:18573559

Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

2008-08-15

284

Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.  

PubMed

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

1996-01-01

285

Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.  

PubMed

The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 ?mol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. PMID:24128452

Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-02-15

286

A short history of gunpowder and the role of charcoal in its manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deflagrations caused by interactions of charcoal with potassium nitrate were discovered in 9th-century China. This led quickly to the development of primitive fuzes and ballistics. Roger Bacon, a 13th-century Franciscan monk experimented in England with gunpowder. The 18th-century saw the manufacture of charcoal by the cylinder method and the development of Waltham Abbey as the centre for gunpowder production which

E. Gray; H. Marsh; M. McLaren

1982-01-01

287

Charcoal tablets in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This double-blind, randomized, multicenter, prospective clinical trial evaluated a commercial formulation of charcoal tablets\\u000a (Eucarbon®) and tablets containing only nonactivated charcoal (carbo ligni [CL]) in 284 patients between the ages of 19 and\\u000a 70 years with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). After 12 weeks, 262 patients were available for intention-to-treat analysis.\\u000a Overall well-being, the primary efficacy parameter, was determined by means

Wolf D. Hübner; Ewald H. Moser

2002-01-01

288

Biodeterioration of brazilwood Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae—Caesalpinioideae) by rot fungi and termites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heartwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae) (commonly called brazilwood) is used for violin bow manufacture due to the unique vibrational and physical properties found in the wood. In the present work, the effects of Pycnoporus sanguineus (white-rot fungus), Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown-rot fungus), Chaetomium globosum (soft-rot fungus), and Cryptotermes brevis (dry-wood termite) on weight losses and chemical composition of extractives

Cláudia Alves da Silva; Maria Beatriz Bacellar Monteiro; Sérgio Brazolin; Gonzalo Antonio Carballeira Lopez; Andreas Richter; Márcia Regina Braga

2007-01-01

289

Identification of RAPD markers linked to fusarium crown and root rot resistance (Frl) in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) a single dominant gene ( Frl) on chromosome 9 confers resistance to fusarium crown\\u000a and root rot (crown rot) incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. To identify randomly amplified polymorphic\\u000a DNA (RAPD) markers linked to Frl, crown rot susceptible and resistant tomato lines were screened for polymorphisms using 1000\\u000a random 10-mer primers and

Gennaro Fazio; Mikel R. Stevens; John W. Scott

1999-01-01

290

Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and

Prachand Shrestha

2008-01-01

291

Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered.

Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

2010-01-01

292

Applied Technology of Bamboo Charcoal to Improvement and Purification of Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of bamboo charcoal, which is one of the carbon from wood, attracts attention from the viewpoint of the environmental protection. Bamboo charcoal has high adsorption removal ability to various substances. In addition Bamboo charcoal is effective also for the filtration of the suspended solid and the bacterium by the macro pore that originates in the plant frame structure. In present paper, a new concept of gas clean technology by bamboo charcoal and TiO2 with UV light irradiation was proposed. Its system is composed of TiO2-coated bamboo charcoal, TiO2-coated silica gel and UV lamp. Water vapor is adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and fine particles and airborne bacterium are trapped on the surface of it. Trapped contaminant is degraded by TiO2 and UV light. In addition, the degradation is promoted by •OH produced by adsorbed water vapor. The air purification sanitization possibility in high efficiency for this system was clarified.

Takimoto, Akira; Tada, Yukio; Onishi, Hajime; Fukazawa, Tomohiro

293

Activated charcoal: in vivo and in vitro studies of effect on gas formation.  

PubMed

It has been reported that activated charcoal reduces intestinal gas production after ingestion of beans as evidenced by decreased breath hydrogen excretion and decreased passage of flatus. In the present study we assessed the ability of activated charcoal to reduce intestinal gas production by in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro studies were performed using human fecal homogenates incubated with or without additional carbohydrate. In all studies hydrogen and carbon dioxide production and consumption occurred at similar rates in the charcoal-treated homogenate as compared with the untreated control. The influence of activated charcoal on gas production, in vivo, was studied by double-blind assessment of breath hydrogen excretion and flatus excretion after ingestion of a baked bean meal. No significant difference was observed in breath hydrogen concentration or number of passages of flatus in subjects who ingested 16 capsules of activated charcoal (4 g) as opposed to the placebo. We conclude that activated charcoal does not influence gas formation in vitro or in vivo. PMID:3917957

Potter, T; Ellis, C; Levitt, M

1985-03-01

294

Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station s U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBAs service life. A history of in-flight TCCS operations is presented as well as a discussion of the charcoal sampling procedures and chemical analysis results. A projected service life derived from the observed charcoal loading is provided. Recommendations for better managing TCCS resources are presented.

Perry, J. L.; Cole, H. E.; Cramblitt, E. L.; El-Lessy, H. N.; Manuel, S.; Tucker, C. D.

2003-01-01

295

The comparative efficacy of various multiple-dose activated charcoal regimens.  

PubMed

Multiple-dose activated charcoal therapy is used in the management of poisoning emergencies to enhance the elimination of enterohepatically and enteroenterically secreted toxins. This study was conducted to determine if increasing the frequency of activated charcoal administration would enhance the elimination of a toxin. In this crossover study, five healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control phase or one of three study phases. Subjects in the control phase and each of the study phases received an intravenous infusion of aminophylline (8 mg/kg). During the study phases each subject additionally received activated charcoal 50 gm and activated charcoal 12.5 gm every hour, 25 gm every 2 hours, or 50 gm every 4 hours over a 8-hour period for a cumulative activated charcoal dose of 150 gm. Ten blood samples were obtained over 12 hours and analyzed for theophylline concentrations. Using area under the curve and half-life calculations it was determined that each of the dosage regimens significantly reduced the reabsorption of theophylline and the plasma half-life when compared with control. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups. Decreasing the dose but increasing the frequency of activated charcoal administration is as effective as the traditional every 4 hour-therapy regimen. PMID:1616516

Ilkhanipour, K; Yealy, D M; Krenzelok, E P

1992-07-01

296

Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum metabolites produced during wet apple core rot.  

PubMed

Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous detection of thirteen F. avenaceum metabolites including moniliformin, acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, B1, B2, and B3 from artificially and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5.7, 152, and 12.7 microg g(-1), respectively. Seventeen of twenty naturally infected apples with wACR symptoms contained one or more of the metabolites. Fourteen of these apples contained moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins in levels up to 2.9, 51, 167, and 3.9 microg g(-1), respectively. Acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, and 2-AOD-3-ol were detected in 4, 11, 4, and 10 apples, respectively. During wet apple core rot, F. avenaceum produced high amounts of mycotoxins, which may pose a risk for consumers of apple or processed apple products. PMID:19170495

Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Frank, Jana; Thrane, Ulf

2009-02-25

297

Bioactive metabolites from Stenocarpella maydis, a stalk and ear rot pathogen of maize.  

PubMed

Stenocarpella maydis is a fungal pathogen of major importance that causes a dry-rot of maize ears and is associated with a neuromycotoxicosis in cattle grazing harvested maize fields in southern Africa and Argentina. In an effort to investigate the potential roles of S. maydis metabolites in the fungal disease cycle, ethyl acetate extracts of solid-substrate fermentations of several S. maydis isolates from maize grown in the United States were found to exhibit significant phytotoxic, antifungal, and antiinsectan activity. Chemical investigations of extracts of S. maydis isolates from Illinois and Nebraska led to the isolation or detection of the known metabolites diplodiatoxin, chaetoglobosins K and L, and (all-E)-trideca-4,6,10,12-tetraene-2,8-diol as major components. A culture of Stenocarpella macrospora from maize grown in Zambia produced diplosporin and chaetoglobosins K and L as major components that were isolated. Diplodiatoxin produced significant lesions in a maize leaf puncture wound assay. Diplosporin and chaetoglobosin K displayed moderate antiinsectan activity in dietary assays against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, while chaetoglobosin K exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Using LC-ESIMS and (1)H NMR data, diplodiatoxin was detected as a major component in S. maydis-rotted grain, stalks, and stalk residues. This constitutes the first report of chaetoglobosins K and L from S. maydis, of (all-E)-trideca-4,6,10,12-tetraene-2,8-diol from Stenocarpella, and the first reported detection of diplodiatoxin, or any other Stenocarpella metabolite, in diseased maize seeds and stalk tissues. PMID:21315311

Wicklow, Donald T; Rogers, Kristina D; Dowd, Patrick F; Gloer, James B

2011-02-01

298

Laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii.  

PubMed

The white-rot fungus Trametes trogii excretes a main laccase showing a molecular mass of 70 kDa, acidic isoelectric point and N-terminal sequence homologous to that of several phenol oxidases. The purified enzyme oxidizes a number of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds; recalcitrant molecules may be converted into substrates by introducing, in the correct position, o- or p-orienting ring-activating groups. PMID:9650252

Garzillo, A M; Colao, M C; Caruso, C; Caporale, C; Celletti, D; Buonocore, V

1998-05-01

299

Laccase from the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white-rot fungus Trametes trogii excretes a main laccase showing a molecular mass of 70?kDa, acidic isoelectric point and N-terminal sequence homol-ogous to\\u000a that of several phenol oxidases. The purified enzyme oxidizes a number of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds; recalcitrant\\u000a molecules may be converted into substrates by introducing, in the correct position, o-?or p-orienting ring-activating groups.

A. M. V. Garzillo; M. C. Colao; C. Caruso; C. Caporale; D. Celletti; V. Buonocore

1998-01-01

300

Biodegradation of environmental contaminants using white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi are a common, naturally-occurring class of wood-degrading fungi that evolved to degrade lignin. Extensive research conducted since the early 1980s has shown that many of the same mechanisms used by the fungi for lignin degradation also promote the degradation of several carbon-based environmental contaminants. These contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, chlorinated solvents, PCBs,

R. B. White; S. D. Aust

1994-01-01

301

White-rot fungal growth on sugarcane lignocellulosic residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid state culture on sugarcane chips previously fermented by yeast employing the EX-FERM process. The lignocellulosic sugarcane residue had 12.5% permanganate lignin and 81.3% holocellulose. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20° C, all fungi produced a solid residue which had a lower in vitro dry matter enzymatic digestibility than the original bagasse, with

C. Rolz; R. de Leon; M. C. de Arriola; S. de Cabrera

1987-01-01

302

Wood-rotting Fungal Flora of Kanghwa Island  

PubMed Central

Through ten field surveys in Kanghwa Island from August of 1997 to March of 2002, total 107 specimens of wood-rotting fungi belonging to the Aphyllophorales were collected and identified to the species. They taxonomically amounted to 10 families, 31 genera, and 48 species. Among them, one family, Steccherinaceae, and four genera, Australohydnum, Castanoporus, Dacryobolus and Haplotrichum were confirmed as new to Korea. Five unrecorded species, Australohydnum dregeanum, Castanoporus castaneus, Dacryobolus karstenii, Haplotrichum conspersum and Hyphoderma odontiiforme were registered here with descriptions.

Lim, Young Woon; Lee, Jin Sung; Kim, Kyung Mo

2005-01-01

303

Ligninolytic properties of different white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seven white-rot fungi were examined for the production of ligninase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. All these enzymes were found inTrametes gibbosa andTrametes hirsuta. Only manganese peroxidase and laccase were produced byPycnoporus cinnabarinus,Coriolopsis polyzona,Stereum hirsutum,Dichomitus squalens andGanoderma valesiacum. All fungi decolorized Poly B-411 and Indulin AT plates with low-N medium. The differences in enzyme pattern indicate that different species of

F. Nerud; Z. Zouchová; Z. Mišurcová

1991-01-01

304

The use of Trichoderma species to control strawberry fruit rots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature on the growth and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma species against Botrytis cinerea and Mucor\\u000a mucedo (strawberry fruit pathogens) was studied. Five strongly antagonistic isolates were further used in field experiments.\\u000a The incidence of pre-harvest rots caused by B. cinerea and the rate of post-harvest spoilage were similarly reduced when strawberry\\u000a flowers were sprayed either with the

A. Tronsmo; C. Dennis

1977-01-01

305

The significance of antibiotic production by Pseudomonas aureofaciens PA 147-2 for biological control of Phytophthora megasperma root rot of asparagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aureofaciens PA147-2 produces an antibiotic (Af+) which inhibits the growth of fungal phytopathogens on phosphate buffered potato dextrose agar (PBPDA). To determine the\\u000a role of the antibiotic in disease suppression in vivo, PA147-2 and an antibiotic-deficient Tn5 mutant (Af-) PA109, were tested for their ability to suppress root rot of Asparagus officinalis seedlings caused by Phytophthora megasperma var sojae,

F. L. Carruthers; T. Shum-Thomas; A. J. Conner; H. K. Mahanty

1995-01-01

306

Monitoring conidial density of Monilinia fructigena in the air in relation to brown rot development in integrated and organic apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a three-year Hungarian study, conidial density of Monilinia fructigena in the air determined from mid-May until harvest was related to brown rot disease progress in integrated and organic apple\\u000a orchards. Conidia of M. fructigena were first trapped in late May in both orchards in all years. Number of conidial density greatly increased after the appearance\\u000a of first infected fruit,

Imre J. Holb

2008-01-01

307

Recent rotting of the peat surface at Barnstable Saltmarsh, MA  

SciTech Connect

The large saltmarsh at Barnstable, Cape Cod, MA has three distinct zones; a well developed high marsh with widely spaced creeks and pans; an established midmarsh with many more pans and creeks, and a low marsh of inter tidal sand flats newly colonized by Spartina alterniflora. Early in marsh developed, S.a. colonizes low marsh sand flats on ridges'' or levees creating natural depressions. As time passes, the grass tufts trap more sediment allowing for their lateral expansion as they vertically accrete. Creeks systems become more defined and depressions eventually close off to form pans, and established midmarsh. Core data from the midmarsh suggests that subsequent marsh development does not proceed in such a simple manner. Some pan cores contain peat in their bottoms that is identical to the peat of the surrounding marsh. Comparison of 1960 and 1992 aerial photographs shows that not only are many midmarsh pans expanding due to rotting of the surrounding peat, but some pans that were sealed in 1960 are now open, reestablishing connections to nearby creeks and channels. This seems to indicate that the pans can rot the marsh back and expand. From the 1992 data it is apparent that marsh development involves competing growth and erosional processes. A linear progression from low marsh to high marsh does not occur. Instead, the developing marsh may go through periods of growth and recession and eventually develop into high marsh and that rotting of the marsh surface plays a significant part in this development.

Polissar, P.J.; Pack, S. (Hampshire Coll., Amherst, MA (United States). School of Natural Science)

1993-03-01

308

Biological suppression of potato ring rot by fluorescent pseudomonads.  

PubMed Central

Three strains of fluorescent pseudomonads (IS-1, IS-2, and IS-3) isolated from potato underground stems with roots showed in vitro antibiosis against 30 strains of the ring rot bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. On the basis of morphological and biochemical tests and fatty acid analysis, IS-1 and IS-2 were identified as Pseudomonas aureofaciens and IS-3 was identified as P. fluorescens biovar III. IS-1 was the most inhibitory to C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains in vitro, followed by IS-3 and IS-2. Suppression of ring rot by these antagonists was demonstrated in greenhouse trials with stem-cultured potato (cv. Russet Burbank) seedlings. Although each antagonist significantly reduced C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus populations, only IS-1 reduced infection by C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. In a second experiment, treatment with IS-1 (10(9) CFU/ml) significantly reduced ring rot infection by 23.4 to 26.7% after 5 to 8 weeks. The average C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus population was also significantly reduced by 50 to 52%. Application of different combinations of antagonist strains was not more effective than single-strain treatment. Images

de la Cruz, A R; Poplawsky, A R; Wiese, M V

1992-01-01

309

Homemade bone charcoal adsorbent for defluoridation of groundwater in Thailand.  

PubMed

High levels of fluoride in groundwater are a significant environmental and health problem in Thailand, as in many parts of the world. Small household defluoridators have several advantages over centralized treatment systems. In Thailand, however, use of bone char for water treatment has met resistance because of objectionable taste and odours of the water produced and the social resistance to handling fresh bone. This paper presents a method that uses bone charcoal as an absorbent for removing fluoride from groundwater. The commercially provided boiled bone is burned in a simple homemade furnace that can be constructed, operated and maintained easily by small rural householders. The method to produce the Thai bone char eliminates the odour and objectionable taste and also does not require the user to handle fresh bone, thus eliminating the social resistance. To evaluate the efficacy of the absorbent, batch experiments compare Thai and Indian bone char. Sorption isotherms are fit to the Freundlich and Langmuir equations and the kinetics are modelled using the pseudo first-order Lagergren equation. Results show that the sorption characteristics of Thai bone char compare favourably with the Indian bone char, with approximately 80% of the fluoride removed in both cases. PMID:20705992

Smittakorn, Sunisa; Jirawongboonrod, Nithat; Mongkolnchai-arunya, Surat; Durnford, Deanna

2010-12-01

310

Cacao Diseases: Important Threats to Chocolate Production Worldwide Black Pod: Diverse Pathogens with a Global Impact on Cocoa Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guest, D. 2007. Black pod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology 97:1650-1653. Pathogens of the Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. P. megakarya causes signifi- cant pod rot and losses due to canker in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause pod rots in Central and South America. The

David Guest

311

Factors Affecting the Estimation of Indoor Radon Using Passive Activated Charcoal Canisters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption and desorption studies of 20 activated charcoals were conducted in a monolayer and a packed bed utilizing tracer gases. Kinetic studies, using xenon-133, demonstrate the existence of a two-compartment micropore volume with entrance capillaries which together determine the response characteristics of the charcoal to external concentration gradients of tracer gases. This new two -compartment model adequately describes the adsorption and desorption dynamics of radon in the presence of water vapor. Measurements with charcoal exposed to water vapor and Rn-222 in a monolayer and packed bed for exposure intervals of 1-7 days demonstrate that the uptake rate and total quantity of adsorbed Rn-222 are highly dependent upon the amount of water adsorbed. The effect of CO_2 on radon adsorption is small in any charcoal. The measured effective diffusion coefficient of radon in a packed bed of a peat based charcoal at 15% humidity and 25^circC is 7.97 times 10^{-6} cm^2/s. Condensed water vapor in the entrance capillaries reduces the effective pore radius, increasing the diffusion half-time, both into and out of the charcoal. The amount of adsorbed water per gram of charcoal required to block the entrance capillaries varies with the charcoal type. The proposed term for this quantity is the "break-point". A two-stage diffusion barrier charcoal monitor with a long diffusion path length was developed. This design inhibits passive airflow while maintaining the amount of adsorbed water vapor in the primary charcoal adsorbent below the break-point. Water removal at the entry port allows for longer exposure times improving the integrating capability necessary for indoor exposure assessment. The long diffusion path length increases the integration time -constant for radon adsorption normally 24 hours for conventional open-faced canisters to 50 hours for the improved canister. The increased integration time-constant allows for a 7 day sample to be measured at 70% humidity and 23^ circC before the break-point is reached.

Scarpitta, Salvatore Charles

1990-01-01

312

Chemical changes in soil charcoal of differing ages inferred from DRIFT spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible charcoal fragments were manually isolated from a sandy soil from the Southern Highlands of NSW, Australia, at depths of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. In the topsoil, the charcoal had a radiocarbon age of 85 ± 35 years BP, whereas the charcoal from the 30 - 60 cm layer was radiocarbon dated at 2540 ± 35 years BP. Diffuse reflectance FTIR (DRIFT) spectra of the charcoal reveal differences in both the number of peaks detected and their magnitudes. In the IR region 750 - 3800 cm-1, the charcoal from the lower depth had less peaks (140) than that of the topsoil (217). In the 1400 - 1600 cm-1 region, generally attributed to aromatics, the peaks were larger and more numerous (22 peaks) in the 0 - 30 cm sample than those of the 30 - 60 cm depth (14 peaks). The C-H stretch of alkenes and aromatics (3000 - 3100 cm-1) was similar at both depths, but the peak generally associated with the C-H stretch of alkanes (methyl and methylene groups) at 2850 - 3000 cm-1 was smaller in 30 - 60 cm depth than in the topsoil. In contrast to the reduction in aromatic and alkane signatures, oxidised forms were more pronounced in the older, deeper charcoal. Peaks associated with the free hydroxyl O-H stretch (alcohols and phenols) at 3640 - 3610 cm-1, carboxylic acids (910 - 950 cm-1), aliphatic O-H (alcohols) (1050 - 1150 cm-1) and cellulose-like structures (1020 cm-1), which contain a large number of uncondensed, oxidised rings, were larger in the charcoal from 30 - 60 cm than in that from the topsoil. Our results confirm that charcoal is highly persistent in soils, being retained for millennia. Aromatic structures are present in both younger and older charcoal, but decay leads to a reduction in the number and area of peaks detected at 1400 - 1600 cm-1, indicating less aromaticity. Alkane C-H also decreases with aging, probably attributable to its preferential degradation by soil microbes compared with condensed aromatic structures. Concurrent with diminished aromatic and alkane structures, aging of charcoal leads to an increase in oxidised organic matter detectable as carboxylic acids, alcohols and cellulose-like structures.

Hobley, E. U.; Willgoose, G. R.; Frisia, S.; Jacobsen, G.

2012-04-01

313

Temporal variability in charcoal distribution in Permian coal: Implications for interpreting palaeowildfire history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of fossil charcoal [inertinite (Scott and Glasspool, 2007)] in coal provides evidence for palaeowildfire event/s. Charcoal distribution has been shown to vary both spatially and temporally in modern wildfires, therefore this needs to be taken into consideration when studying inertinite from palaeowildfires in order to better understand palaeowildfire history. To determine whether this variation occurs in the geological past, charcoal produced by palaeowildfires from four randomly sampled Late Permian in situ coal (fossil peat) pillars from the Kuznetsk Basin, Russia [seam 78 (a and b) and seam 88 (a and b)] have been studied using petrographic techniques. The use of in situ coal pillars are judged to be essential for this type of work as they retain the orientation of the original inertinite distribution, unlike the crushed coals that are typically used for commercial petrographic analysis. These coal pillars contain charcoal in all lithotype units, but show temporal variation both in the amount and type of inertinite between successive lithotype units. Furthermore, the pillars also contain varying amounts of charcoal both within and between seams [mean inertinite: 78(a) 29.8%, 78(b) 42.6%, 88(a) 48% and 88(b) 35%]. The distribution of this charcoal in these pillars can be used to interpret palaeowildfire type. All pillars show: (1) microscopic, scattered charcoal which is interpreted to represent background fire events and (2) macroscopic charcoal which is either scattered or contained in charcoal horizons, which is interpreted to represent surface fire events. Previous petrographic work on crushed coals by Pakh and Artser (2003) has shown that seam 78 has a higher inertinite content (33%) than seam 88 (22%), in contrast this study has shown that the pillars from seam 88 contain more inertinite (with a combined mean of 41.5%) than those from seam 78 (combined mean = 36.2%). This may suggest that during the formation of pillars 88(a,b) fires were either more frequent or that more charcoal was produced in individual fire events compared to the rest of seam 88. The variation in the amount of inertinite both within and between pillars provides evidence for temporal variation in wildfire history for the duration of both pillar and seam formation in this Late Permian peat-forming environment.

Hudspith, V. A.; Scott, A. C.; Collinson, M. E.

2012-04-01

314

Cytological aspects of compost-mediated induced resistance against fusarium crown and root rot in tomato.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential of a pulp and paper mill residues compost for the control of crown and root rot of greenhouse-grown tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was ultrastructurally investigated. Peat moss amended with compost substantially reduced disease-associated symptoms. Addition of Pythium oligandrum to either peat moss alone or peat moss amended with compost resulted in a considerable reduction in disease incidence compared with controls grown in peat moss alone. Histological and cytological observations of root samples from Fusarium-inoculated plants revealed that the beneficial effect of compost in reducing disease symptoms is associated with increased plant resistance to fungal colonization. One of the most prominent facets of compost-mediated induced resistance concerned the formation of physical barriers at sites of attempted fungal penetration. These structures, likely laid down to prevent pathogen ingress toward the vascular elements, included callose-enriched wall appositions and osmiophilic deposits around the sites of potential pathogen ingress. Invading hyphae, coated by the osmiophilic material, showed marked cellular disorganization. The use of the wheat germ agglutinin-ovomucoid-gold complex provided evidence that the wall-bound chitin was altered in severely damaged hyphae. A substantial increase in the extent and magnitude of the cellular changes induced by compost was observed when P. oligandrum was supplied to the potting substrate. This finding corroborates the current concept that amendment of composts with specific antagonists may be a valuable option for amplifying their beneficial properties in terms of plant disease suppression. PMID:18942956

Pharand, Benoît; Carisse, Odile; Benhamou, Nicole

2002-04-01

315

A comparison of charcoal measurements for reconstruction of Mediterranean paleo-fire frequency in the mountains of Corsica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire-history reconstructions inferred from sedimentary charcoal records are based on measuring sieved charcoal fragment area, estimating fragment volume, or counting fragments. Similar fire histories are reconstructed from these three approaches for boreal lake sediment cores, using locally defined thresholds. Here, we test the same approach for a montane Mediterranean lake in which taphonomical processes might differ from boreal lakes through fragmentation of charcoal particles. The Mediterranean charcoal series are characterized by highly variable charcoal accumulation rates. Results there indicate that the three proxies do not provide comparable fire histories. The differences are attributable to charcoal fragmentation. This could be linked to fire type (crown or surface fires) or taphonomical processes, including charcoal transportation in the catchment area or in the sediment. The lack of correlation between the concentration of charcoal and of mineral matter suggests that fragmentation is not linked to erosion. Reconstructions based on charcoal area are more robust and stable than those based on fragment counts. Area-based reconstructions should therefore be used instead of the particle-counting method when fragmentation may influence the fragment abundance.

Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Dezileau, Laurent; Ali, Adam A.; Bradshaw, Richard H. W.

2013-05-01

316

Temperature, moisture, and fungicide effects in managing Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet; however, recent increases in disease incidence and severity were grounds to reevaluate this pathosystem. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and intraspecific groups (ISGs) were tested for pathogenicity on resistant ('FC708 CMS') and susceptible ('Monohikari') seedlings and 10-week-old plants. Several AGs and ISGs were pathogenic on seedlings regardless of host resistance but only AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV caused significant disease on 10-week-old plants. Because fungicides need to be applied prior to infection for effective disease control, temperature and moisture parameters were assessed to identify potential thresholds that limit infection. Root and leaf disease indices were used to evaluate disease progression of AG-2-2 IIIB- and AG-2-2 IV-inoculated plants in controlled climate conditions of 7 to 22 growing degree days (GDDs) per day. Root disease ratings were positively correlated with increasing temperature of both ISGs, with maximum disease symptoms occurring at 22 GDDs/day. No disease symptoms were evident from either ISG at 10 GDDs/day but disease symptoms did occur in plants grown in growth chambers set to 11 GDDs/day. Using growth chambers adjusted to 22 GDDs/day, disease was evaluated at 25, 50, 75, and 100% moisture-holding capacity (MHC). Disease symptoms for each ISG were highest in soils with 75 and 100% MHC but disease still occurred at 25% MHC. Isolates were tested for their ability to cause disease at 1, 4, and 8 cm from the plant hypocotyl. Only AG-2-2 IIIB was able to cause disease symptoms at 8 cm during the evaluation period. In all experiments, isolates of AG-2-2 IIIB were found to be more aggressive than AG-2-2 IV. Using environmental parameters that we identified as the most conducive to disease development, azoxystrobin, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole/propiconazole, flutolanil, polyoxin D, and a water control were evaluated for their ability to suppress disease development by AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV 17 days after planting. Flutolanil, polyoxin-D, and azoxystrobin provided the highest level of disease suppression. Because R. solani AG-2-2 IIIB and AG-2-2 IV are affected by temperature and moisture, growers may be able to evaluate environmental parameters for optimization of fungicide application. PMID:20528187

Bolton, Melvin D; Panella, Lee; Campbell, Larry; Khan, Mohamed F R

2010-07-01

317

Identification and control of Ulocladium cucurbitae, causing agent of black rot of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Auger, M. Esterio and L. Meza. 2006. Identification and control of Ulocladium cucurbitae, causal agent of black rot of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). Cien. Inv. Agr. (in English) 33(1):25-32. The aim of this study was to identify the causal agent of a postharvest black rot of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.), commonly known as picada negra in Chile and to evaluate

J. Auger; M. Esterio; L. Meza

318

PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT AND STEM ROT OF EUROPEAN LARCH - OCCURRENCE AND HARMFULNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Phytophthora cactorum, P. citricola and P. gonapodyides were isolated from soil taken from forest nurseries with European larch seedlings. They were isolated from soil samples as well as from some rotted roots of seedlings collected from May till November of 2006-2007. An isolate of P. cactorum from under European larch caused root and stem rot of Alnus glutinosa, Betula

TOMASZ OSZAKO; LESZEK B. ORLIKOWSKI

319

Influence of Fusarium solani on citrus root rot caused by Phytophthora parasitica and Phytophthora citrophthora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between Fusarium solani and Phytophthora parasitica or F. solani and P. citrophthora influenced the development of root rot of citrus but depended on the temporal order of inoculation with F. solani or the two Phytophthora spp. Inoculation of citrus with either Fusarium solani and Phytophthora parasitica or Phytophthora citrophthora increased root rot compared to inoculation with P. parasitica or

L. M. Dandurand; J. A. Menge

1992-01-01

320

Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

2007-01-01

321

Ligninolytic and Nonligninolytic Mineralization of Trinitrotoluene by Several White Rot Basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is considered a toxic environmental pollutant that contaminates the soil and ground water. The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is well known for the degradation of TNT under ligninolytic condition. Very few, if any, studies have been done using other white rot fungi. In this study four fungal species, namely, P. chrysosporium, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Hypholoma fasciculare,

M. W. Perkins; S. De; L. Frederick; S. K. Dutta

2005-01-01

322

Control of Potato Tuber Rots Caused by Oomycetes with Foliar Applications of Phosphorous Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johnson, D. A., Inglis, D. A., and Miller, J. S. 2004. Control of potato tuber rots caused by oo- mycetes with foliar applications of phosphorous acid. Plant Dis. 88:1153-1159. Phosphorous acid for control of tuber rots caused by Phytophthora infestans, P. erythroseptica, and Pythium ultimum was applied to foliage of potato cultivars at various application timings and rates under growing

Dennis A. Johnson; Debra A. Inglis; Jeffrey S. Miller

2004-01-01

323

Enzymes of white-rot fungi involved in lignin degradation and ecological determinants for wood decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-rot fungi preferably degrade wood from deciduous trees, whilst wood decay by brown-rot fungi is predominant on coniferous substrates. A compilation of recent publications on ligninolytic fungal species and their substrate preference is presented. These organisms can be classified on the basis of their enzyme systems, but an unambiguous allocation to specific hosts proved to be difficult. Environmental conditions may

U. Tuor; K. Winterhalter; A. Fiechter

1995-01-01

324

Biological control of Rhizoctonia root rot on bean by phenazine- and cyclic lipopeptide-producing Pseudomonas CMR12a.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas CMR12a was previously selected as an efficient biocontrol strain producing phenazines and cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs). In this study, biocontrol capacity of Pseudomonas CMR12a against Rhizoctonia root rot of bean and the involvement of phenazines and CLPs in this ability were tested. Two different anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani, the intermediately aggressive AG 2-2 and the highly aggressive AG 4 HGI, were included in growth-chamber experiments with bean plants. The wild-type strain CMR12a dramatically reduced disease severity caused by both R. solani AGs. A CLP-deficient and a phenazine-deficient mutant of CMR12a still protected bean plants, albeit to a lesser extent compared with the wild type. Two mutants deficient in both phenazine and CLP production completely lost their biocontrol activity. Disease-suppressive capacity of CMR12a decreased after washing bacteria before application to soil and thereby removing metabolites produced during growth on plate. In addition, microscopic observations revealed pronounced branching of hyphal tips of both R. solani AGs in the presence of CMR12a. More branched and denser mycelium was also observed for the phenazine-deficient mutant; however, neither the CLP-deficient mutant nor the mutants deficient in both CLPs and phenazines influenced hyphal growth. Together, results demonstrate the involvement of phenazines and CLPs during Pseudomonas CMR12a-mediated biocontrol of Rhizoctonia root rot of bean. PMID:21405991

D'aes, Jolien; Hua, Gia Khuong Hoang; De Maeyer, Katrien; Pannecoucque, Joke; Forrez, Ilse; Ongena, Marc; Dietrich, Lars E P; Thomashow, Linda S; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Höfte, Monica

2011-08-01

325

Effects of resins and activated charcoal on the absorption of digoxin, carbamazepine and frusemide.  

PubMed Central

1. The interference of resins and activated charcoal with the absorption of digoxin, carbamazepine and frusemide was studied. 2. In a cross-over study consisting of four phases, single doses of colestipol hydrochloride (10 g), cholestyramine (8 g), activated charcoal (8 g) or water only were given to six healthy volunteers immediately after the simultaneous ingestion of digoxin (0.25 mg), carbamazepine (400 mg) and frusemide (40 mg). Plasma and urine concentrations of the test drugs and the urine volumes were determined up to 72 h. 3. The absorption of digoxin was not reduced by colestipol, moderately (30-40%, P less than 0.05) reduced by cholestyramine and greatly (96%) by charcoal. 4. The absorption of carbamazepine was not decreased by cholestyramine, slightly (10%) by colestipol and greatly (90%) by activated charcoal. 5. The absorption and the diuretic effect of frusemide were significantly diminished by all agents. The bioavailability was reduced by colestipol 80%, by cholestyramine 95% and by activated charcoal 99.5%. 6. The interference with the gastrointestinal absorption of most of the basic drugs by colestipol and cholestyramine seems to be minimal. On the other hand, the resins may seriously impair the absorption of certain acidic drugs, for example frusemide.

Neuvonen, P J; Kivisto, K; Hirvisalo, E L

1988-01-01

326

Tailoring the characteristics of carbonized wood charcoal by using different heating rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the characteristics of charcoals generated from White Lauan ( Pentacmecontorta) and Punah ( Tetrameristaglabra) by using different carbonization temperatures and heating rates. The scanning electron micrographs showed vestured pits in the White Lauan and raphide crystals in Punah as their respective anatomical characteristics. A slower heating rate resulted in a lower temperature to obtain the same amount of weight loss, regardless of the species being tested. A greater charcoal yield was obtained at a higher heating rate. The specific surface area was smaller in the charcoal produced at a higher carbonization temperature, but the heating rate had little effected. For both wood species, the axial compressive strength of the charcoal increased as the carbonization temperature was increased. The X-ray diffractograms of White Lauan and Punah woods heated at 1200°C indicated thermal decomposition of the crystal structure of cellulose, but no appreciable structural changes occurred under the tested heating rate conditions. Overall, the heating rate affected the charcoal yield but not the specific surface area, compressive strength, and crystal structure.

Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Oh, Choong-Hyeon; Park, Byung-Ho; Kang, Joo-Hyon

2014-05-01

327

Efficacy of activated charcoal administered more than four hours after acetaminophen overdose.  

PubMed

To evaluate whether administration of activated charcoal, in addition to standard N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy, after acetaminophen overdose provides additional patient benefit over NAC therapy alone, a 1-year non-randomized prospective, multi-center, observational case series was performed at three poison centers and one poison center system. Entrance criteria were all acute acetaminophen overdoses with: 1) an acetaminophen blood concentration determined to be in the toxic range by the Rumack-Matthew nomogram; and 2) all therapies, including NAC and activated charcoal, initiated between 4 and 16 h post-ingestion. There were 145 patients meeting entrance criteria, of whom 58 patients (40%) received NAC only and 87 patients (60%) received NAC and activated charcoal. Overall, 23 patients had elevations of AST or ALT greater than 1000 IU/L, of which 21 patients received NAC only (38% of total NAC only group) and 2 patients received NAC and activated charcoal (2% of total NAC+AC group). Administration of activated charcoal in this series of patients with toxic acetaminophen concentrations treated with NAC was associated with reduced incidence of liver injury, as measured by elevated serum transaminases and prothrombin times. PMID:16434328

Spiller, Henry A; Winter, Mark L; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Bangh, Stacey A

2006-01-01

328

Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood.  

PubMed

The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) react to produce hydroxyl radicals (.OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on defined media by reducing Fe(3+) and O(2) with two extracellular hydroquinones, 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ) and 4,5-dimethoxycatechol (4,5-DMC). However, it has never been shown that the hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood. We grew G. trabeum on spruce blocks and found that 2,5-DMHQ and 4,5-DMC were each present in the aqueous phase at concentrations near 20 microM after 1 week. We determined rate constants for the reactions of 2,5-DMHQ and 4,5-DMC with the Fe(3+)-oxalate complexes that predominate in wood undergoing brown rot, finding them to be 43 l mol(-1) s(-1) and 65 l mol(-1) s(-1) respectively. Using these values, we estimated that the average amount of hydroquinone-driven .OH production during the first week of decay was 11.5 micromol g(-1) dry weight of wood. Viscometry of the degraded wood holocellulose coupled with computer modelling showed that a number of the same general magnitude, 41.2 micromol oxidations per gram, was required to account for the depolymerization that occurred in the first week. Moreover, the decrease in holocellulose viscosity was correlated with the measured concentrations of hydroquinones. Therefore, hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry is one component of the biodegradative arsenal that G. trabeum expresses on wood. PMID:17107562

Suzuki, Melissa R; Hunt, Christopher G; Houtman, Carl J; Dalebroux, Zachary D; Hammel, Kenneth E

2006-12-01

329

Biological Control of Alternaria Fruit Rot of Chili by Trichoderma Species under Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma strains were evaluated under field conditions to assay their efficacy in suppressing Alternaria fruit rot disease and promoting chili plant growth. The experiment was conducted at the Botanical Garden, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh from July 2006 to March 2007. Application of Trichoderma harzianum IMI 392432 significantly (p = 0.05) suppressed the disease compared to Alternaria tenuis (T2) treatment and improved both growth and yield. The treatment T4 (T. harzianum IMI-392432 + A. tenuis) was most effective in reducing disease percentage (72.27%) compared to A. tenuis (T1) treatment. The highest seed germination rate (85.56%) and the highest growth and yield (12.5 g/plant) was also recorded in the same treatment (T4), followed by T5 (T. harzianum IMI-392433 000000 + A. tenuis), T6 (T. harzianum IMI-392434 +A. tenuis), T2 (T. virens IMI-392430 + A. tenuis), and T3 (T. pseudokoningii IMI-392431 +A. tenuis) treatment, while single treatment with A. tenuis significantly decreased these values.

Rahman, M. A.; Alam, M. Firoz

2010-01-01

330

Laccase production by the white-rot fungus Termitomyces clypeatus.  

PubMed

Laccase was detected in the culture filtrate of white-rot fungus Termitomyces clypeatus. The enzyme was found at the late phase of submerged growth in a medium containing glucose or cellulose as the carbon source. The present study indicates that laccase produced by T. clypeatus is an intracellular enzyme, released in the medium due to cell lysis at the end of the growing phase. Laccase produced by T. clypeatus is different from the extracellular polyphenol oxidase of T. albuminosus, also produced at the late phase of growth. This is the first report of laccase production by a Termitomyces sp. PMID:17440914

Bose, Shilpi; Mazumder, Sharmishtha; Mukherjee, Mina

2007-04-01

331

Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT (1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), 3,4,3'4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4'5'-hexachlorobiphenyl 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), and benzo(a)pyrene to carbon dioxide. Model studies, based on the use of DDT, suggest that the ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to metabolize these compounds is dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus.

J. A. Bumpus; M. Tien; D. Wright; S. D. Aust

1985-01-01

332

Evaluation of fructooligosaccharides separation using a fixed-bed column packed with activated charcoal.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the chromatographic separation of mixtures of saccharides may be improved by making use of activated charcoal, a promising low cost material for the separation of sugars, including fructooligosaccharides. In this work, the development of a methodology to separate fructooligosaccharides from glucose, fructose and sucrose, using a fixed bed column packed with activated charcoal is proposed. The influence of temperature, eluant concentration and step gradients were evaluated to increase the separation efficiency and fructooligosaccharide purity. The final degree of fructooligosaccharide purification and separation efficiency were about 94% and 3.03 respectively, using ethanol gradient concentration ranging from 3.5% to 15% (v/v) at 40°C. The fixed bed column packed with the activated charcoal was shown to be a promising alternative for sugar separation, mainly those rich in fructooligosaccharides, leading to solutions of acceptable degrees of purification. PMID:24583465

Kuhn, Raquel Cristine; Mazutti, Marcio A; Albertini, Lilian Buoro; Filho, Francisco Maugeri

2014-05-25

333

Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high negative charge of charcoal results from surface oxidation processes over time. This charge varies over quite a wide range of values according to soil type, which might be explained by the nature of the charred wood. The surface soil horizons at kiln site show a completely desaturated exchange complex, comparable to the reference soils. However, the raise of the base saturation in the underlying horizons reflects the past liming effect of ashes produced by wood charring that has been completely erased from the topsoil in 200 years. Exchangeable K+ in the topsoil layers of kiln sites is very low, which can be related to an enhanced selectivity for Mg++ and Ca++ on the exchange complex of old charred material. Similarly, very little Pav is extracted from charcoal-enriched horizons, suggesting that Pav is either reduced in quantity or in availability. Our data clearly highlight the long-term effect of the accumulation of charred material on the evolution of soil chemical properties due to charcoal ageing and nutrient leaching.

Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

2014-05-01

334

Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10% of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico.

Cabrera, M. E. M.; Sujo, L. C.; Villalba, L.; Peinado, J. S.; Jimenez, A. C.; Baca, A. M.; Gandara, S. D.; Villalobos, M. R.; Miranda, A. L.; Peraza, E. F. H.

2003-10-01

335

Efficacy of activated charcoal in reducing intestinal gas: a double-blind clinical trial.  

PubMed

Available data on the efficacy of activated charcoal in reducing lower intestinal gas and accompanying symptoms are conflicting. We conducted a double-blind clinical trial on two population groups in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 69) known to differ in their dietary habits and ecology of gut flora. Using lactulose as the substrate, breath hydrogen levels were measured to quantify the amount of gas produced in the colon. In comparison to a placebo, activated charcoal significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced breath hydrogen levels in both the population groups. Symptoms of bloating and abdominal cramps attributable to gaseousness were also significantly reduced in both groups by activated charcoal. PMID:3521259

Jain, N K; Patel, V P; Pitchumoni, C S

1986-07-01

336

Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

Lemieux, P.M.

1999-06-01

337

Transformation of a northern hardwood forest by aboriginal (Iroquois) fire: charcoal evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists have long debated whether Indian burning had important impacts on presettlement forests. We obtained stratigraphic evidence for fire using charcoal analysis of southern Ontario lake sediments. The record spans a period of Iroquois occupation when cultivation coincides with pollen evidence for transition from northern hardwoods to white pine\\/oak forests. Charcoal data reveal that this transition was attended by increased

J. S. Clark; P. D. Royall

1995-01-01

338

Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of multiple and single dose activated charcoal for acute self-poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that may – if given early – bind to poisons in the stomach and prevent their absorption. Current guidelines recommend giving a single dose of charcoal

Michael Eddleston; Edmund Juszczak; Nick A Buckley; Lalith Senarathna; Fahim Mohammed; Stuart Allen; Wasantha Dissanayake; Ariyasena Hittarage; Shifa Azher; K Jeganathan; Shaluka Jayamanne; MH Rezvi Sheriff; David A Warrell

2007-01-01

339

Use of activated charcoal for the purification of neon in the CLEAN experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passage of neon gas through activated charcoal is planned to be the primary method of removing impurities from the liquid neon scintillator in the CLEAN experiment. In order to quantify this technique, the breakout curves for hydrogen, nitrogen, argon and krypton impurities in neon-saturated activated charcoal were measured. Adsorption coefficients and the number of theoretical stages were measured for hydrogen in the temperature range between 300 and 80 K, nitrogen between 300 and 200 K, and argon between 300 and 190 K. The adsorption coefficient for krypton was measured at 300 K.

Harrison, M. K.; Lippincott, W. H.; McKinsey, D. N.; Nikkel, J. A.

2007-01-01

340

Effectivity of one session charcoal hemoperfusion treatment in severe carbamazepine poisoning.  

PubMed

A carbamazepine intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that presenting with coma, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and even death. We report a case of severe carbamazepine poisoning that was successfully treated with one session charcoal hemoperfusion. On admission, the patient was comatose and required ventilator support. Hemoperfusion with coated activated charcoal successfully decreased the serum carbamazepine concentration from 45 µg mL(-1) to 21 µg mL(-1) within 2 h, with subsequent clinical improvement. PMID:24578847

Isik, Yasemin; Soyoral, Lokman; Karadas, Sevdegul; Emre, Habib; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Goktas, Ugur

2013-08-01

341

Evaluation of activated charcoal as treatment for Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

The efficacy of activated charcoal as a treatment for cattle (n = 57) poisoned by Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida) was investigated. Treatment with activated charcoal resulted in full recovery, irrespective of the degree of posterior paresis, provided that this clinical sign did not develop within the first 12 hours after initial exposure to Yellow tulp-infested grazing. For instance, despite treatment, 1 of 7 cattle succumbed after manifesting mild posterior paresis 6 to 8 h after initial exposure and 3 of 3 treated cattle died after developing severe posterior paresis within 6 to 12 h. PMID:20458873

Snyman, L D; Schultz, R A; Botha, C J; Labuschagne, L; Joubert, J P J

2009-12-01

342

[Increase in the effectiveness of microbial absorption on activated charcoal upon sorbent polarization].  

PubMed

The effect of Staphylococcus albus and the contact time on hydrolytic adsorption of ions on activated charcoal SKN-2K in the physiological solution (0.9% NaCl) was investigated. Experiments were performed without polarization or with cathodic and anodic polarization of the adsorbent. The adsorbed microorganisms decreased the rate of electrolyte ion adsorption, especially in case of cathodic polarization. When activate charcoal was at negative potential (-0.2 V), up to 95% of active microorganisms was adsorbed at the initial concentration of 5.75.10(6) microorganisms per ml, while in case of anodic polarization only 43-44% of microorganisms was adsorbed. PMID:2740302

Tikhonova, L S; Belotserkovski?, M V; Dubikaìtis, A Iu; Koniukhova, S G; Strashnov, V I

1989-01-01

343

The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other of its African neighbours. The question arises whether and how money and technology transfer to increase regenerative electrical power generation should become part of a post-Kyoto process. Furthermore, better inventory data are urgently required to improve knowledge about the current state of the woodland usage and recovery. Net greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced substantially by improving the post-harvest management, charcoal production technology and/or providing alternative energy supply.

2011-01-01

344

Optimization studies on the features of an activated charcoal-supported urease system.  

PubMed

The adsorption of urease onto a well-defined solid support, petroleum-based activated charcoal, has been achieved to provide the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. In order to produce a biocompatible surface, the enzyme support system has been coated with hexamethyldisiloxane through plasma polymerization. The quality of the resulting coat was tested by electronic spectroscopy for chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Studies on the adsorption of urease, and activity and stability of the enzyme on the support have been in the direction to optimize the features of the charcoal-supported urease and improve its availability for further use in clinical applications. PMID:8853117

Kibarer, G D; Akovali, G

1996-08-01

345

Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Peach in China  

PubMed Central

In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), ?-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China.

Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D.; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi

2011-01-01

346

Biodegradation of environmental contaminants using white rot fungi  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi are a common, naturally-occurring class of wood-degrading fungi that evolved to degrade lignin. Extensive research conducted since the early 1980s has shown that many of the same mechanisms used by the fungi for lignin degradation also promote the degradation of several carbon-based environmental contaminants. These contaminants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, chlorinated solvents, PCBs, explosives, cyanide, dyes and others. The fungi use an extra-cellular, free-radical, nonspecific mode of degradation, which allows them to degrade both soluble and insoluble contaminants, whether they are absorbed or in solution. The extra-cellular substances secreted by the fungi include several enzymes (which catalyze the initial oxidation of contaminant molecules), hydrogen ions (to maintain a slightly acidic pH), electrons (to maintain a charge balance and to reduce contaminant through the breaking of chemical bonds), and the fungi secrete veratryl alcohol (a free-radical mediator that catalyzes reductions) and oxalate (an organic acid that is a highly effective reductant). Application of white rot fungi for the remediation of contaminated soils involves mixing fungal-inoculated substrates with the soil. The materials are moistened during mixing to provide an environment that is conducive to fungal growth. The soil/substrate mixture is then placed in a biocell and aerated to promote contaminant degradation. Case histories of bench-scale tests and field applications are presented.

White, R.B.; Aust, S.D. (Utah State Univ., Midvale, UT (United States))

1994-08-01

347

[Molecular identification and genetic diversity in Konnyaku's soft rot bacteria].  

PubMed

The soft rot bacteria Erwinia are an important pathogens of konnyaku and other ornamental plants. Thirty-three strains were isolated from soft-rotted konnyaku and other ornamental plants. According to the characteristics of pathogenicity and culture character on semi selective medium (crystal violet pectate, CVP), most of strains tested caused rotten symptom in tubers and stems of konnyaku, and characteristic deep cavities were formed on CVP. To amplify 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer( ITS) by PCR and electrophorese through agarose gel, most strains are clustered into two heterogeneous populations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, E.c.c. and Erwinia chrysanthemi, E. ch.. Besides, several other strains could not be identified into species by ITS-PCR. The characteristic band patterns of E.c.c. and E.ch. could be clearly distinguished by repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR,BOX and J3 primers). And the fingerprinting of E.c.c. stains were also different from each other. Dendrogram was generated from the data of primer BOX by using UPGMA analysis because the primer BOX was higher resolution than other primers (such as prime J3) for identifying the same intraspecies strains. Strains of E.c.c. were divided into five groups on the 0.1 level of linkage distance. PMID:17037047

Xiu, Jian-hua; Ji, Guang-hai; Wang, Min; Yang, Yun-liang; Li, Cheng-yun

2006-08-01

348

Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China.  

PubMed

In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), ?-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China. PMID:21980371

Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi

2011-01-01

349

The performance of charcoal-based radon detection under time-varying radon conditions: Experimental and theoretical results  

SciTech Connect

Radon adsorption by charcoal is a widely used technique for measuring indoor radon concentration, particularly when short-term results are desired. There are several different devices available, ranging from permeable envelopes filled with charcoal and open-face charcoal-filled canisters to devices incorporating diffusion limiting features to reduce losses of radon due to desorption. However, the integration characteristics of these samplers are not well understood, particularly under conditions of highly varying radon concentrations. A model for predicting the response of various types of charcoal based detectors to time-variant radon concentrations has been developed; the model predictions compare well with results from chamber experiments. Both the experimental and theoretical results have also been compared with integrated continuous-sampling measurements. The implications of these comparisons for use of charcoal for screening measurements is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Sextro, R.G.; Lee, D.D.

1988-10-01

350

Differences in crystalline cellulose modification due to degradation by brown and white rot fungi.  

PubMed

Wood-decaying basidiomycetes are some of the most effective bioconverters of lignocellulose in nature, however the way they alter wood crystalline cellulose on a molecular level is still not well understood. To address this, we examined and compared changes in wood undergoing decay by two species of brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Meruliporia incrassata, and two species of white rot fungi, Irpex lacteus and Pycnoporus sanguineus, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The overall percent crystallinity in wood undergoing decay by M. incrassata, G. trabeum, and I. lacteus appeared to decrease according to the stage of decay, while in wood decayed by P. sanguineus the crystallinity was found to increase during some stages of degradation. This result is suggested to be potentially due to the different decay strategies employed by these fungi. The average spacing between the 200 cellulose crystal planes was significantly decreased in wood degraded by brown rot, whereas changes observed in wood degraded by the two white rot fungi examined varied according to the selectivity for lignin. The conclusions were supported by a quantitative analysis of the structural components in the wood before and during decay confirming the distinct differences observed for brown and white rot fungi. The results from this study were consistent with differences in degradation methods previously reported among fungal species, specifically more non-enzymatic degradation in brown rot versus more enzymatic degradation in white rot. PMID:23063184

Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Howell, Caitlin; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Goodell, Barry; Jellison, Jody

2012-10-01

351

Biological control of postharvest fungal rot of yam (Dioscorea spp.) withBacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The potential of isolates of Bacillus subtilis from yam farm soil to control rot of yam in storage barns was investigated. Yam tubers inoculated in vivo with B. subtilis showed no rot while those inoculated with Aspergillus niger, Botryodiploidia theobromae or Penicillium oxalicum showed considerable rot. The set of yams in which B. subtilis and the fungi were simultaneously inoculated produced rot whereas those in which B. subtilis was inoculated a day before the fungi was inoculated were totally reduced or free of rot. Many fewer fungi were isolated from the surface of tubers treated with B. subtilis than from the untreated (control) and there was high recovery of B. subtilis (99-100%) throughout the period of storage. Rot build up was faster in uninoculated control tubers or those inoculated with a spoilage fungus, while those treated with the antagonist were totally reduced or free of rot. The culture filtrate of B. subtilis prevented spore germination in some spoilage fungi. The importance of this study in relation to farmers in developing countries is discussed. PMID:15770458

Okigbo, R N

2005-02-01

352

Molecular phylogenetic and pathogenetic characterization of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), the cause of dry rot on potato in Iran.  

PubMed

Members of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are common pathogens of potato, causing dry rot in the west of Iran which involved Hamedan, Kermanshah, Eilam and Kurdistan provinces. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing FSSC from infected potato tubers based on the morphological and molecular characteristics. Forty-five isolates of Fusarium were obtained from potato tubers collected from the wet market in different regions of the west of Iran and identified as FSSC through morphological characters. All of the isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy potato tubers in the planthouse. The tubers rot symptoms were observed on the 21st day after inoculation of Fusarium isolates on the tubers tested. In the tubers inoculation tests, lesion sizes were quite variable; therefore, the measurement was done to compare the depth and width of lesion expansion among the isolates. Based on the sequence data from translation elongation factor (EF-l?) gene and internal transcript spacer (ITS) regions analysis, all of the selected FSSC isolates were divided into two major groups. This is the first report on molecular identification of FSSC strains isolated from potato tubers in Iran and Fusarium falciforme was reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:24530481

Chehri, Khosrow; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza; Karimi, Naser

2014-01-01

353

A major QTL conferring crown rot resistance in barley and its association with plant height.  

PubMed

Crown rot (CR) is one of the most destructive diseases of barley and wheat. Fusarium species causing CR survive in crop residue and a growing acceptance of stubble retention practices has exacerbated disease severity and yield loss. Growing resistant cultivars has long been recognised as the most effective way to reduce CR damage but these are not available in barley. In a routine screening of germplasm, a barley landrace from China gave the best CR resistance among the genotypes tested. Using a doubled haploid population derived from this landrace crossed to Franklin, we demonstrate that the CR resistance of TX9425 was conditioned by a major QTL. The QTL, designated as Qcrs.cpi-3H, was mapped near the centromere on the long arm of chromosome 3H. Its effect is highly significant, accounting for up to 63.3% of the phenotypic variation with a LOD value of 14.8. The location of Qcrs.cpi-3H was coincident with a major QTL conferring plant height (PH) and the effect of PH on CR reaction was also highly significant. When the effect of PH was accounted for by covariance analysis, the Qcrs.cpi-3H QTL remained highly significant, accounting for over 40% of the phenotypic variation. The existence of such a major QTL implies that breeding barley cultivars with enhanced CR resistance should be feasible. PMID:19130031

Li, H B; Zhou, M X; Liu, C J

2009-03-01

354

Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.  

PubMed

After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo. PMID:24779930

Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

2013-12-01

355

Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.  

PubMed

Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no effect. Assessment of total culturable microbes in the composts showed a positive relationship between disease suppressive ability and total population levels of pseudomonads. In vitro antagonism assays between compost-isolated bacterial strains and the pathogen showed that strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the greatest antagonism. In growth room trials, strains of P. aeruginosa and nonantagonistic Pseudomonas maculicola, plus 2 biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, were tested for their ability to reduce (i) survival of F. oxysporum, (ii) colonization of plants by the pathogen, and (iii) disease severity. Cucumber seedlings grown in compost receiving P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens had reduced disease severity index scores after 8 weeks compared with control plants without bacteria. Internal stem colonization by F. oxysporum was significantly reduced by P. aeruginosa. The bacteria colonized plant roots at 1.9 × 10(6) ± 0.73 × 10(6) CFU·(g root tissue)-1 and survival was >107 CFU·(g compost)-1 after 6 weeks. The locus for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production was detected by Southern blot analysis and confirmed by PCR. The production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in liquid culture by P. aeruginosa was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that composts containing antibiotic-producing P. aeruginosa have the potential to suppress diseases caused by Fusarium species. PMID:21076480

Bradley, Geoffrey G; Punja, Zamir K

2010-11-01

356

Disease resistant plants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides transgenic plants with resistance to infection by a root-infecting fungal plant pathogen such as Phymatotrichopsis omnivora. Also provided are methods of making such plants. Further provided are nucleic acid vectors for producing such a plant. Additionally, methods are provided for growing a dicotyledonous plant that is resistant to root rot disease in soil that comprises Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, or another pathogen.

2012-03-20

357

Design and Operating Criteria for Fluorine Disposal by Reaction with Charcoal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with the charcoal-fluorine reaction for the disposal of fluorine have shown generally that this method is effective over a wide range of conditions. Pure fluorine or fluorine diluted with nitrogen to concentrations as low as 0.3 percent fluorine may be disposed of efficiently within the rate limitation. Maximum feed rates have been established and are inversely proportional to the charcoal-bed particle diameter. Moisture content in the charcoal had no appreciable effect on the disposal efficiency after the reaction zone was established and the moisture was driven off by the heat of reaction. There was no evidence of bed poisoning resulting from continued use. Design parameters may be based on the stoichiometric requirements plus sufficient excess charcoal to maintain desired efficiency toward the end of a disposal operation. The length of time a given reactor may be used continuously is limited by the rate of fluorine input and the resistance of the system to heat and fluorine attack. Refractory-lined reactors have been in routine field use at the Lewis Research Center for over a year and have given satisfactory service over a wide range of conditions.

Schmidt, Harold W.

1959-01-01

358

The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.

2012-04-01

359

Babassu charcoal: A sulfurless renewable thermo-reducing feedstock for steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and chemical properties of babassu coconut following heat treatment at temperatures of up to 1000°C are reported. Results for compressive strength, density, granulometry, heat of combustion and ash content suggest that babassu charcoal from unbroken coconuts could be used as a substitute for metallurgical coke as a reducing agent in blast furnaces. This material is one of the

F. G. Emmerich; C. A. Luengo

1996-01-01

360

An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

2009-01-01

361

Some improvements of charcoal measurement techniques used for indoor radon measurements in Qatar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some improvements on charcoal measurement techniques of Rn concentration are suggested. The detection efficiency is increased by using two scintillation detectors instead of the commonly used single detector. The optimum exposure time to achieve the best detection accuracy and the lowest minimum detectable level was estimated and found to be of the order of 4 days.

Arafa, W. M.; Alneimi, H.; Al-Houty, L.; Abou-Leila, H.

1994-07-01

362

Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical

Bruno Glaser; Johannes Lehmann; Wolfgang Zech

2002-01-01

363

4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopied June 1978 R.H. ROBERTSON, PENCIL AND CHARCOAL SKETCH, LAKE HENDERSON, FROM TAHAWUS CLUB BOAT DOCK. CA. 1914. SOURCE: ARTHUR CROCKER, PRESIDENT OF THE TAHAWUS CLUB. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

364

Effect of Activated Charcoal in Agar on the Culture of Lower Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proskauer and Berman1 have described a technique for culturing green organisms such as filamentous algae and moss protonema on an agar substrate containing activated charcoal which may simulate conditions found in nature. They ascribed the resulting morphological changes primarily to a decrease in the amount of light transmitted by the blackened agar, and considered their technique a simulation of natural

Berthold Klein; Martin Bopp

1971-01-01

365

Peasant charcoal production in the Peruvian Amazon: rainforest use and economic reliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies point to the promise of rain forest extraction for more sustainable rural development in Amazonia but often overlook important differences within traditional communities in terms of relative economic reliance upon specific forest resources. This paper reports on a study of charcoal production among forest peasants in an Amazonian river community, near Iquitos, Peru. In-depth household interviews (n=36) provided

Oliver T Coomes; Graeme J Burt

2001-01-01

366

CHARCOAL PRODUCTION AND AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION INTO THE PERUVIAN AMAZON RAINFOREST: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural expansion has traditionally led colonization of the Amazonian rainforest. Recently, pioneer farmers in the forest margins around Pucallpa, Peru, have been changing their production decisions and altering the deforestation process. In response to a government policy to protect forests in another region of the country, pioneer farmers have begun to add charcoal production to their activities. A recursive, dynamic

Ricardo Antonio Labarta-Chavarri

2004-01-01

367

Removal of phenols from water environment by activated carbon, bagasse ash and wood charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption process is gaining interest as one of the effective processes of advanced wastewater treatment for treatment of industrial effluent containing toxic materials. The present work involves an investigation of the use of three carbonaceous materials, activated carbon (AC), bagasse ash (BA) and wood charcoal (WC), as adsorbents for removal of phenol from water. Batch experiments were carried out to

Somnath Mukherjee; Sunil Kumar; Amal K. Misra; Maohong Fan

2007-01-01

368

CHARCOAL PRODUCTION DURING THE NORSE AND EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIODS IN EYJAFJALLAHREPPUR, SOUTHERN ICELAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber procurement and the use of woodlands are key issues in understanding the open landscapes of the Norse and Medieval periods in the North Atlantic islands. This paper outlines evidence for the timing and mechanisms of woodland use and deforestation in an area of southern Iceland, which is tracked through the mapping and analysis of charcoal production pits. Precise dating

M J Church; A J Dugmore; K A Mairs; A R Millard; P A Ascough; K H Roucoux

2007-01-01

369

An equilibrium-based model for measuring environmental radon using charcoal canisters.  

PubMed

Radon in indoor air is often measured using canisters of activated charcoal that function by adsorbing radon gas. The use of a diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) minimizes the effects of environmental humidity and extends the useful exposure time by several days. Many DBCC protocols model charcoal canisters as simple integrating detectors, which introduces errors due to the fact that radon uptake changes over the exposure period. Errors are compensated for by calculating a calibration factor that is nonlinear with respect to exposure time. This study involves the development and testing of an equilibrium-based model and corresponding measurement protocol that treats the charcoal canisters as a system coming into equilibrium with the surrounding radon environment. This model applies to both constant and temporally varying radon concentration situations, which was essential, as efforts are currently underway using a temporally varying radon chamber. It was found that the DBCCs equilibrate following the relationship E = (1 - e) where E is a measure of how close the DBCC is to equilibrium, t is exposure time, and q is the equilibration constant. This equilibration constant was empirically determined to be 0.019 h. The proposed model was tested in a blind test as well as compared with the currently accepted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) model. Comparisons between the two methods showed a slight decrease in measurement error when using the equilibrium-based method as compared to the U.S. EPA method. PMID:20622564

Lehnert, A L; Kearfott, K J

2010-08-01

370

Combating Deforestation? – Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination on Charcoal Consumption in Urban Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 2.7 billion people relying on woodfuels for cooking in developing countries, the dissemination of improved cooking stoves (ICS) is frequently considered an effective instrument to combat deforestation particularly in arid countries. This paper evaluates the impacts of an ICS dissemination project in urban Senegal on charcoal consumption using data collected among 624 households. The virtue of our data is

Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters

2011-01-01

371

Combating Deforestation? - Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination on Charcoal Consumption in Urban Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissemination of improved cooking stoves (ICS) is frequently considered an effective instrument to combat deforestation. This paper evaluates the impacts of an ICS dissemination project in urban Senegal implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (German Agency for International Cooperation, or GIZ). Based on a survey among 624 households, we examine the effects of the intervention on charcoal consumption.

Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters

2011-01-01

372

Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of bamboo charcoal\\/silver biological protective material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC\\/Ag) was prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC\\/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution, silver ion (Ag+) release and antibacterial properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed that the Ag particles were distributed uniformly on the BC matrix. The Ag particle size was found to be less than

Fu-Chu Yang; Kuo-Hui Wu; Ming-Jie Liu; Wen-Po Lin; Ming-Kuan Hu

2009-01-01

373

Influence of production variables and starting material on charcoal stable isotopic and molecular characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a systematic study on the effect of starting species, gas composition, temperature, particle size and duration of heating upon the molecular and stable isotope composition of high density (mangrove) and low density (pine) wood. In both pine and mangrove, charcoal was depleted in ? 13C relative to the starting wood by up to 1.6‰ and 0.8‰, respectively. This is attributed predominantly to the progressive loss of isotopically heavier polysaccharides, and kinetic effects of aromatization during heating. However, the pattern of ? 13C change was dependant upon both starting species and atmosphere, with different structural changes associated with charcoal production from each wood type elucidated by Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. These are particularly evident at lower temperatures, where variation in the oxygen content of the production atmosphere results in differences in the thermal degradation of cellulose and lignin. It is concluded that production of charcoal from separate species in identical conditions, or from a single sample exposed to different production variables, can result in significantly different ? 13C of the resulting material, relative to the initial wood. These results have implications for the use of charcoal isotope composition to infer past environmental change.

Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Wormald, P.; Snape, C. E.; Apperley, D.

2008-12-01

374

Characterization and genesis interpretation of charcoal-bearing concretions from the early Eocene Ione Formation, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charcoal core concretions have been discovered in the kaolinitic soil horizons of the Ione formation (early Eocene epoch ~52Ma BP). It is thought that the Ione Formation in the Ione Basin was deposited in delta and estuarine waters that were subsequently exhumed and exposed to a warmer, humid, tropical-like environment during the early Eocene. The formation of concretions is indicative of seasonal dryness, and the charcoal cores are evidence of wildfires and of the existence of a forest ecosystem. The mineral outer shells of the concretions have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation Quadruple Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Micro-computed tomography (MCT) scans indicate that these concretions have at least three distinct shells and a inner core with fragments of charcoal without apparent internal organization. The outer shell is mainly composed of a layered mix of kaolinite, quartz, goethite, hematite and birnessite. Some pyrite and jarosite have also been found, which could indicate that goethite may be post-depositional and a product of the bacteria-mediated oxidation of pyrite. The central shell has a similar composition, but with a higher content of iron oxyhydroxides and jarosite. The inner cores of the concretions are mainly composed of a mixture of kaolinite and quartz which correspond to the layer in which the concretions were found. The concretion cores contain loose charcoal fragments in a unsolidified kaolinite matrix. The charcoal fragments have been characterized by Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), C/N isotope analysis, and Synchrotron radiation FTIR (SR-FTIR). Analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra showed significant absorbance peaks at wavenumbers that coincided with the chemical functionality of other wood biochars. Charcoal from different concretions display (n =12) extremely similar spectra which suggest that they were originated from similar species and probably during the same event. The study of the microscopic structure of selected charcoal pieces by SR-FTIR suggests that despite their age, the internal structure was preserved. We obtained an average ?13C value of -22.79 (× 1.7, n = 12), which correspond to a C3-like photosynthetic pathway. The latter is also confirmation of the good state of preservation of this material and to the best of our knowledge constitutes the first C-isotopic record on this kind of material for the Eocene epoch.

Bair, D.; Aburto, F.

2013-12-01

375

Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a sustainable strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil chemico-physical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of C present in the hearths with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization. Approximately 80% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found today, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an improvement in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. Then, we focused on the morphological and physical characterization of several fragments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Such study enabled the identification of peculiar morphological features of tracheids, which were tentatively associated to a differential oxidation of the structures that were created during carbonization from lignine and cellulose. In order to assess the effect of soil-aging we compared the old-biochar with a modern one obtained from the same feedstock and with similar carbonization process. XRD and XRF analysis were performed on both old and modern biochar, in order to study the multiphase crystalline structure and chemical elements found. We observed mineralization and a fossilization of old biochar samples respect to the modern ones, with accumulation of several mineral oxides and a substantial presence of quartz. A graphene structure was also found, indicating weak bonds in the carbon structures, explained by inter-molecular Van der Waals forces. Furthermore, we have detected a graphite oxide structure responsible of the bending effect in the tracheid, revealed in SEM images. We consider that those results may contribute to the ongoing debate on the best, most suitable geo-engineering strategies that can potentially enable effective and sustainable carbon sequestration in agricultural soils using biochar.

Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

2014-05-01

376

Comparison of Soil Receptivity to Thielaviopsis basicola, Aphanomyces euteiches, and Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi Causing Root Rot in Pea.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Soil receptivity as a quantifiable characteristic ranging from conduciveness to suppressiveness to soilborne pea pathogens Thielaviopsis basicola and Aphanomyces euteiches was determined by analysis of differences in disease response curves obtained by artificial introduction of inoculum into natural field soil samples. Several parameters, including maximum root rot severity, the area under the health index curve, scores on the first axis of a principal component analysis (PCA) on dose responses, and Weibull model fitting were used to describe the disease responses. In all cases, the Weibull model gave satisfactory fits. PCA yielded a first axis that comprised 86% of the variance found when using Weibull predicted responses for T. basicola and 74% of the variance found for A. euteiches. This PCA axis essentially represented the average increase in disease severity due to the addition of increasing doses of inoculum to the soil. The Weibull scale parameter B, which represents the amount of inoculum necessary to increase root rot severity by 63% with respect to the level caused by pathogens naturally present in the soil, is another means of quantifying the receptivity of soils to these plant pathogens. Weibull parameter B, maximum root rot severity, the areaunder the health index curve, and the scores on the first PCA axis were strongly correlated for each of the pathogens tested individually. To compare the extent and behavior of soil receptivity responses to different pathogens, Weibull parameters B and C (slope at dose B) were chosen because of their universal definition, in contrast to PCA scores. Comparison of the average levels of Weibull parameters B and C indicated significant differences between the pathogens. Yet, no significant similarity in the ranking of the soils was found for the three pathogens, demonstrating that individual soils may interact with different pathogens in totally different ways. In general, soils were suppressive to T. basicola but conducive to A. euteiches, whereas their response to Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi ranged from conducive to suppressive. Therefore, risk assessment of soils prior to planting may require different strategies for each pathogen. Bioassays with soil samples taken before the last pea crop in 1987 and 1991 revealed a significant increase in the natural inoculum potential of soils that mainly was accounted for by A. euteiches and Pythium spp. These results strongly indicate that A. euteiches must be considered one of the most threatening pathogens to pea crops in the Netherlands. PMID:18945109

Oyarzun, P J; Dijst, G; Zoon, F C; Maas, P W

1997-05-01

377

The Charcoal Trap: Miombo woodlands versus the energy needs of people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between the dry open savannas and the moist forests in Southern Africa and occupy the vast area of 2.7 Mio km2. These ecosystems are highly disturbed by deforestation, mostly for charcoal production. Charcoal has become the largest source to satisfy urban energy demands. Even though when charcoal is a less energy-efficient fuel compared to firewood but by having higher energy densities and thus being cheaper to transport. Over the last decades, charcoal production has become a full-time employment for migrant workers, resulting in very different and no longer sustainable deforestation patterns. Strategies to reduce the pressure on the miombo woodlands have to take aspects of employment and energy demand into account. The objectives of the study were to examine above- and belowground carbon losses from an intact miombo woodland (protected forest reserve) in comparison to a highly disturbed surrounding area due to charcoal production. Detection of changes in carbon concentrations and stocks were made possible by applying biomass- and soil inventories as well as the eddy-covariance method. These local results were up-scaled to countrywide estimates of carbon lost to the atmosphere by deforestation in addition to carbon losses fossil fuel combustion. The results show, that in the worst case scenario which does not assume any regeneration, a developing country as Zambia, can easily emit as much carbon per capita as a developed Western world country such as France, when deforestation is included in the national inventory (up to 9.1 t of CO2 per capita). However, regeneration is very probably when post-harvest disturbance is low. Further studies on miombo regeneration are highly demanded.

Merbold, Lutz; Maurice, Muchinda; Mukufute M, Mukelabai; J, Scholes Robert; Waldemar, Ziegler; L, Kutsch Werner

2010-05-01

378

The Preparation and Reduction Behavior of Charcoal Composite Iron Oxide Pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the energy conversion, biomass has novel advantage, i.e., no CO2 emission, because of carbon neutral. Charcoal composite iron oxide pellets were proposed to decrease CO2 emission for the ironmaking. These pellets were promising to decrease the initial temperature for reduction reaction of carbon composite iron ore agglomerate under a rising temperature condition, such as in a blast furnace shaft. In order to obtain charcoal, Japanese cedar and cypress were carbonized from room temperature to maximum carbonization temperature (TC, max = 1273 K) at a heating rate of 200 K/h, and kept at TC, max until arrival time of 6 h. Reducing gases of CO and CH4 started releasing from relatively low temperature (500 K). In the total gas volume of carbonization, H2 gas of Japanese cedar was more than that of Japanese cypress. These woods have more CO gas volume than Newcastle blend coal has. The obtained charcoal was mixed with reagent grade hematite in the mass ratio of one to four. Then, a small amount of Bentonite was added to the mixture as a binder, and the charcoal composite iron oxide pellets were prepared and reduced at 1273, 1373 and 1473 K in nitrogen gas atmosphere. It was conirmed by the generated gas analysis during reduction reaction that charcoal composite iron oxide pellets had higher reducibility than char composite pellets using Newcastle blend coal. From the XRD analysis of the reduced pellets, it was found that the original Fe2O3 was almost reduced to Fe for 60 min at 1273 K, 20 min at 1373 K and 5~15 min at 1473 K.

Konishi, Hirokazu; Usui, Tateo; Harada, Takeshi

379

Management of Grape Diseases in Arid Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases of grapes are important limiting factors in producing wine and table grapes. Powdery mildew is the most important\\u000a disease of grapes and is managed with cultural practices and by the application of fungicides. Fungicides are used most effectively\\u000a if applied according to disease forecasting models and alternated to avoid fungicide resistance. Bunch rot is an important\\u000a disease on some

Peter L. Sholberg

380

Biosynthesis of fomannoxin in the root rotting pathogen Heterobasidion occidentale.  

PubMed

Fomannoxin is a biologically active benzohydrofuran, which has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenicity of the root rotting fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. The biosynthesis of fomannoxin was investigated through an isotopic enrichment study utilizing [1-¹³C]glucose as metabolic tracer. ¹³C NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed the labeling pattern and showed that the isoprene building block originates from the mevalonic acid pathway, whereas the aromatic motif is formed via the shikimic acid route by elimination of pyruvate from chorismic acid. A natural product, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzaldehyde, was isolated and characterized, and was suggested to be a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of fomannoxin and related secondary metabolites previously identified from the H. annosum fungal species complex. PMID:22981000

Hansson, David; Menkis, Audrius; Olson, Ke; Stenlid, Jan; Broberg, Anders; Karlsson, Magnus

2012-12-01

381

Bacteriocin-like substance inhibits potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora.  

PubMed

Soft rot is a major problem encountered in potatoes during postharvest storage. The soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora was inhibited by a novel bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) produced by Bacillus licheniformis P40. The BLS caused a bactericidal effect on E. carotovora cells at 30 microg mL(-1). Transmission electron microscopy showed that BLS-treated cells presented wrinkled bacterial surfaces and shrinkage of the whole cell, indicating plasmolysis. Erwinia carotovora cells treated with BLS were analyzed by FTIR showing differences in the 1390 cm(-1) and 1250-1220 cm(-1) bands, corresponding to assignments of membrane lipids. BLS was effective in preventing E. carotovora spoilage on potato tubers, reducing the symptoms of soft rot at 240 microg mL(-1) and higher concentrations. Soft rot development was completely blocked at 3.7 mg mL(-1). This BLS showed potential to protect potato tubers during storage. PMID:16788721

Cladera-Olivera, Florencia; Caron, Geruza R; Motta, Amanda S; Souto, André A; Brandelli, Adriano

2006-06-01

382

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

SciTech Connect

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1990-11-01

383

Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests past occurrences of anthropogenic perturbations in these forests. Insights in past forest dynamics and the relative roles of climatic and anthropogenic disturbances enhance our overall understanding of present and future forest dynamics.

Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

2014-05-01

384

Quantitative measurement of 222Rn in water by the activated charcoal passive collector method: 1. The effect of water in a collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activated charcoal passive collector method can be applied to measure the concentration of 222Rn in river water. The 222Rn collector is composed of dry activated charcoal sealed in a polyethylene bag. However, we found it very difficult to keep activated charcoal in a collector dry during the period the collector was left in a river. The degree of dampness and the time lapsed when activated charcoal became wet were thought to affect the quantity of 222Rn collected. First, we studied the effect of some parameters in the activated charcoal passive collector method qualitatively in three experiments. We found that the quantity of 222Rn collected in a collector was not so sensitive to the quantity of activated charcoal in the collector or the thickness of polyethylene film under the condition of wet activated charcoal, and that wet activated charcoal accumulated less 222Rn than dry activated charcoal. We present some equations which could explain how much 222Rn was collected in a collector when activated charcoal was submerged directly in water and when activated charcoal was packed in a polyethylene bag but completely wet. These equations were proved effective by being compared with the results of the other experiments. Finally, we recommended some conditions which proved useful when measuring at an actual river.

Yoneda, Minoru; Inoue, Yoriteru; Yoshimoto, Keizo

1994-03-01

385

Copper induction of lignin-modifying enzymes in the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trametes trogii, a white rot basidiomycete involved in wood decay worldwide, produces several ligninolytic enzymes, laccase being the dominant one, with higher titers than those reported for most other white rot fungi studied up to date. The effect of copper on in vitro production of extracellular lig- ninolytic activities was studied. CuSO4·5H2O concen- trations from 1.6 mM to 1.5 mM

L. Levin; F. Forchiassin; A. M. Ramos

2002-01-01

386

Use of soil solarization to control root rots in gerberas ( Gerbera jamesonii )  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted during the summer months of 1986–1987 and 1987–1988 in Western Australia to evaluate the effect of soil solarization on the control of root rot of gerbera an also on the microbial and nutrient status of the soil. Infested soil cores were sampled from a site where root-rot was a severe problem and were removed to a

W. Kaewruang; K. Sivasithamparam; G. E. Hardy

1989-01-01

387

Potassium phosphonate controls root rot of Xanthorrhoea australis and X minor caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil drenches and foliar sprays of potassium phosphonate protected glasshouse-grown Xanthorrhoea minor and X australis against root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Three concentrations of potassium phosphonate (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg\\/mL), applied by both methods, reduced the severity of\\u000a root rot symptoms and increased plant survival rates. Soil drenches were more effective than foliar sprays. The highest rate\\u000a of

Zahid Ali; David I. Guest

1998-01-01

388

Relative susceptibility of peach rootstocks to crown gall and Phytophthora root and crown rot in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

G. Guzmán, B.A. Latorre, R. Torres, and W.F. Wilcox. 2007. Relative susceptibility of peach rootstocks to crown gall and Phytophthora root and crown rot in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 34(1):31-40. Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and Phytophthora root and crown rot (PRCR), caused by P. cryptogea, are two major limiting factors affecting peach (Prunus persica) production in Chile. At present, Nemaguard

Gonzalo Guzman; Bernardo A. Latorre; Rene Torres; Wayne F. Wilcox

2007-01-01

389

Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to six species of white rot fungi as a function of chemical dose  

SciTech Connect

White rot fungi degrade a wide variety of environmental pollutants including many chlorinated aromatic compounds, leading to studies of degrading organic pollutants in contaminated waste waters and soils. This study looks at six species of white rot fungus and demonstrates that chemical toxicity should be expressed in terms of dose by examining the toxic effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on both developing and mature fungal mats in stationary liquid cultures, under both nitrogen-sufficient and -deficient conditions.

Alleman, B.C. (Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)); Logan, B.E.; Gilbertson, R.L. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1992-12-01

390

Decolourisation of azo dyes by white-rot fungi (WRF) isolated in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely known that white-rot fungi are suitable for treating a broad range of textile dye effluents because of their non-specific extracellular enzyme system. Three strains of white-rot fungi isolated in Singapore were screened for their ability to decolourise three azo dyes relative to the extensively studied species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The local isolate Trametes versicolor CNPR 8107 exhibited the

Yi-Chin Toh; Jocelyn Jia Lin Yen; Jeffrey Philip Obbard; Yen-Peng Ting

2003-01-01

391

Effect of short hypobaric treatments on postharvest rots of sweet cherries, strawberries and table grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of short hypobaric treatments against postharvest rots was investigated by exposing sweet cherries, strawberries and table grapes to sub-atmospheric pressures (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 atm) for different times (from 1 to 24 h). Postharvest rots of sweet cherries and strawberries arose from natural infections, whereas small table grape bunches and artificially wounded single berries were inoculated with Botrytis

Gianfranco Romanazzi; Franco Nigro; Antonio Ippolito; Mario Salerno

2001-01-01

392

Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was

CARLOS S. MERRITT; C. ADINARAYANA REDDY

1999-01-01

393

First Report of Sclerotium Rot on Cymbidium Orchids Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea.  

PubMed

Sclerotium rot was found on Cymbidium orchids at Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, in July, 2010. Symptoms occurred on low leaves, which turned yellowish, after which the entire plant wilted. Severely infected plants were blighted and eventually died. White mycelial mats and sclerotia appeared on pseudobulbs. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report of new Sclerotium rot on Cymbidium spp. caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:23323053

Han, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Seong-Chan; Lee, Jung-Sup; Soh, Jae-Woo; Kim, Su

2012-12-01

394

First Report of Sclerotium Rot on Cymbidium Orchids Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea  

PubMed Central

Sclerotium rot was found on Cymbidium orchids at Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, in July, 2010. Symptoms occurred on low leaves, which turned yellowish, after which the entire plant wilted. Severely infected plants were blighted and eventually died. White mycelial mats and sclerotia appeared on pseudobulbs. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report of new Sclerotium rot on Cymbidium spp. caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.

Lee, Seong-Chan; Lee, Jung-Sup; Soh, Jae-Woo; Kim, Su

2012-01-01

395

The potential for white-rot fungi in the treatment of pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin-degrading white-rot fungi have the unique ability to degrade\\/mineralize a broad spectrum of structurally diverse toxic environmental pollutants. Extracellular peroxidases are important in degrading some, but not all, xenobiotic compounds. More research is needed to realize the potential of white-rot fungi in field-scale applications. Recent progress in our knowledge of the biochemistry and molecular biology of the key enzymes involved

C Adinarayana Reddy

1995-01-01

396

White-rot fungi and their enzymes for the treatment of industrial dye effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates. This ligninolytic system of white-rot fungi (WRF) is directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds and dyes. This review summarizes the state of the art in the research and

Dirk Wesenberg; Irene Kyriakides; Spiros N Agathos

2003-01-01

397

RotBoost: A technique for combining Rotation Forest and AdaBoost  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel ensemble classifier generation technique RotBoost, which is constructed by combining Rotation Forest and AdaBoost. The experiments conducted with 36 real-world data sets avail- able from the UCI repository, among which a classification tree is adopted as the base learning algorithm, demonstrate that RotBoost can generate ensemble classifiers with significantly lower prediction error than either Rotation

Chun-xia Zhang; Jiang-she Zhang

2008-01-01

398

Continued studies of co-pumping of deuterium and helium on a single, 4K activated charcoal panel  

SciTech Connect

The short program undertaken in 1989 to evaluate the feasibility of co-pumping deuterium and tritium (DT) and helium on a charcoal sorbent showed that the charcoal will indeed simultaneously pump the gases. Of interest also was the fact that the total accumulation of helium (capacity) was virtually identical in constant throughput runs in which the D{sub 2}/He ratio was changed between runs. The test program described in this paper undertaken to evaluate further the co-pumping capabilities of the charcoal sorbent.

Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Batzer, T.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA)); Konishi, S.; Ohira, S.; Naruse, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-09-01

399

Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. PMID:23721067

Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

2014-06-01

400

The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

2012-07-01

401

The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry, molecular structure, resistant carbon content, microbial interactions and physical characteristics were investigated using a suite of techniques including 13C-MAS-NMR, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratio mass spectrometery, elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy and hydropyrolysis. The study results have important implications for: i.) the use of quantitative charcoal measurements within global carbon budgets and fire history reconstruction; ii.) understanding of the dynamic role of charcoal within soil and sedimentary systems. References: [1] Langenfelds RL, Francey RJ, Pak BC, Steele LP, Lloyd J, Trudinger CM, Allison CE. 2002. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001466. [2] Schimel D, Baker D. 2002. Nature 420, 29-30. [3] Levine JS, 1991. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [4] Preston CM, Schmidt MWI. 2006. Biogeoscience 3, 397-420. [5] Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M. 2006. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11, 395-419. [6] Sohi SP, Krull E, Lopez-Capel E, Bol R. 2010. Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, 105, 47-82 [7] Woolf D, Amonette J.E, Street-Perrott F.A, Lehmann J, Joseph S. 2010. Nature Communications, 1, 56. [8] Ascough PL, Bird M I, Francis SM, Thornton B, Midwood A, Scott AC, 10 Apperley D. 2011. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 75 (9), 2361-2378. [9] Zimmermann M et al. 2012. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2486.2012.02796.x

Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

2014-05-01

402

Proteomic profiling of two maize inbreds during early gibberella ear rot infection.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of gibberella ear rot in maize ears, resulting in yield losses due to mouldy and mycotoxin-contaminated grain. This study represents a global proteomic approach to document the early infection by F. graminearum of two maize inbreds, B73 and CO441, which differ in disease susceptibility. Mock- and F. graminearum-treated developing kernels were sampled 48?h post-inoculation over three field seasons. Infected B73 kernels consistently contained higher concentrations of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol than the kernels of the more tolerant inbred CO441. A total of 2067 maize proteins were identified in the iTRAQ analysis of extracted kernel proteins at a 99% confidence level. A subset of 878 proteins was identified in at least two biological replicates and exhibited statistically significantly altered expression between treatments and/or the two inbred lines of which 96 proteins exhibited changes in abundance >1.5-fold in at least one of the treatments. Many proteins associated with the defense response were more abundant after infection, including PR-10 (PR, pathogenesis-related), chitinases, xylanase inhibitors, proteinase inhibitors, and a class III peroxidase. Kernels of the tolerant inbred CO441 contained higher levels of these defense-related proteins than B73 kernels even after mock treatment, suggesting that these proteins may provide a basal defense against Fusarium infection in CO441. PMID:21751381

Mohammadi, Mohsen; Anoop, Valar; Gleddie, Steve; Harris, Linda J

2011-09-01

403

Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy.  

PubMed

Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an intensive sampling of diseased cucurbits as well as tomato and bell pepper was done and the fungal pathogens present on them were isolated. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolates were determined through a study of ribosomal RNA gene sequences (ITS cluster and D1/D2 domain of the 28S rRNA gene). Combining morphological, culture and molecular data, six species were distinguished. One of these (Pa. cucumerina) is already known. Four new species are described as Plectosphaerella citrullae, Pa. pauciseptata, Pa. plurivora and Pa. ramiseptata. Acremonium cucurbitacearum is shown to be a synonym of Nodulisporium melonis and is transferred to Plectosphaerella as Plectosphaerella melonis comb. nov. A further three known species of Plectosporium are recombined in Plectosphaerella. PMID:23105152

Carlucci, A; Raimondo, M L; Santos, J; Phillips, A J L

2012-06-01

404

Evaluation of rhizobacterial indicators of tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in farmers' fields.  

PubMed

Very few soil quality indicators include disease-suppressiveness criteria. We assessed whether 64 16S rRNA microarray probes whose signals correlated with tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in greenhouse analysis could also discriminate suppressive from conducive soils under field conditions. Rhizobacterial communities of tobacco and wheat sampled in 2 years from four farmers' fields of contrasted suppressiveness status were compared. The 64 previously identified indicator probes correctly classified 72% of 29 field samples, with nine probes for Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Sphingomonadaceae, Planctomycetes, Mycoplasma, Lactobacillus crispatus and Thermodesulforhabdus providing the best prediction. The whole probe set (1033 probes) revealed strong effects of plant, field location and year on rhizobacterial community composition, and a smaller (7% variance) but significant effect of soil suppressiveness status. Seventeen additional probes correlating with suppressiveness status in the field (noticeably for Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ochrobactrum) were selected, and combined with the nine others, they improved correct sample classification from 72% to 79% (100% tobacco and 63% wheat samples). Pseudomonas probes were not informative in the field, even those targeting biocontrol pseudomonads producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, nor was quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-synthesis gene phlD. This study shows that a subset of 16S rRNA probes targeting diverse rhizobacteria can be useful as suppressiveness indicators under field conditions. PMID:24992533

Kyselková, Martina; Almario, Juliana; Kopecký, Jan; Ságová-Mare?ková, Markéta; Haurat, Jacqueline; Muller, Daniel; Grundmann, Geneviève L; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2014-08-01

405

Molecular Differentiation and Detection of Ginseng-Adapted Isolates of the Root Rot Fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The soilborne fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans (teleomorph: Neonectria radicicola) causes root rot in a wide range of plant hosts; the disease is of particular concern in ginseng production, and in conifer and fruit tree nurseries. beta-Tubulin gene and rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data and pathogenicity assays were used to characterize isolates of C. destructans from ginseng and other hosts. The results of these studies demonstrated a high amount of sequence divergence among strains identified as C. destructans or N. radicicola, suggesting the existence of several phylogenetic species in this complex. Accordingly, we propose that the two varieties of N. radicicola be raised to species status. Certain highly aggressive ginseng isolates from Ontario, Korea, and Japan have identical ITS and beta-tubulin sequences, and form a monophyletic clade (designated "clade a"); these strains are identified as C. destructans f. sp. panacis. Other ginseng strains clustered in monophyletic groups with strains from angiosperm and conifers. A subtractive hybridization method was used to isolate genomic DNA sequences with diagnostic potential from the aggressive C. destructans Ontario ginseng isolate 1640. One of these sequences was similar to the rRNA gene intergenic spacer from a Fusarium oxysporum isolate from Pinus ponderosa, and hybridized to DNA from F. oxysporum and all C. destructans isolates tested. Primers were designed that could be used to amplify this sequence specifically from the highly aggressive, ginsengadapted C. destructans isolates from Ontario and Korea and other members of clade a. PMID:18943617

Seifert, K A; McMullen, C R; Yee, D; Reeleder, R D; Dobinson, K F

2003-12-01

406

Direct Detection of Cylindrocarpon destructans, Root Rot Pathogen of Ginseng by Nested PCR from Soil Samples  

PubMed Central

We have successfully applied the nested PCR to detect Cylindrocarpon destructans, a major pathogen causing root rot disease from ginseng seedlings in our former study. The PCR assay, in this study, was used to detect the pathogen from soils. The nested PCR using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 4 primer set and Dest 1, 4 primer set maintained the specificity in soils containing various microorganisms. For a soil DNA extraction method targeting chlamydospores, when several cell wall disrupting methods were tested, the combination of lyophilization and grinding with glass beads, which broke almost all the chlamydospores, was the strongest. The DNA extraction method which was completed based on the above was simple and time-saving because of exclusion of unnecessary stages, and efficient to apply in soils. As three ginseng fields whose histories were known were analyzed, the PCR assay resulted as our expectation derived from the field information. The direct PCR method will be utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for detecting and monitoring C. destructans in ginseng fields.

Jang, Chang Soon; Lim, Jin Ha; Seo, Mun Won; Song, Jeong Young

2010-01-01

407

Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide effects on pythium root rot of sugarcane, pythium species, and the soil microbial community.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of three protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicides, azafenidin, flumioxazin, and sulfentrazone, on Pythium root rot of sugarcane and the soil microbial community were evaluated in greenhouse experiments. Herbicides were applied as foliar and soil treatments. There were no consistent effects on plant growth or disease parameters. However, some herbicide treatments affected the relative frequency of isolation of Pythium spp. from roots and reduced colonization by the pathogenic species Pythium arrhenomanes. A comparison of sole carbon source utilization profiles indicated that soil-applied herbicides altered the functional diversity of the soil microbial community, with some variation depending on herbicide used. All three herbicides inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of P. arrhenomanes, P. aphanidermatum, and P. ultimum. Active ingredients were less inhibitory than formulated product for azafenidin and flumioxazin but not for sulfentrazone. PMID:18943113

Daugrois, J H; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L

2005-03-01

408

T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by 'Dickeya solani'.  

PubMed

The bacterium 'Dickeya solani', an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with 'Dickeya solani', the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics. PMID:22413005

Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Dunon, Vincent; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; De Proft, Maurice; Kropinski, Andrew M; Noben, Jean-Paul; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

2012-01-01

409

Comparison of Combustion Pollutants from Charania Briquettes, Consumer Barbecue Briquettes, Pakistani Mineral Development Corporation Briquettes, and Pakistani Wood Charcoal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an experimental comparison of combustion pollutants from Charania briquettes, barbecue briquettes; Pakistani natural wood charcoal; and Pakistani Mineral Development Corporation briquettes (PMDC). This study determined ...

D. L. Wilson A. R. Hawthorne

1987-01-01

410

EERF (Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes in detail EPA's office of Radiation Programs Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility's standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. It lists the materials and equipment that are used and explains their laboratory and survey methods.

Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.

1987-06-01

411

Anthropogenic Charcoal Deposits: Analogues for the Long-Term Functioning and Stability of Biochar in European Soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic charcoal deposits, characterised by thick charcoal-rich soil horizons, offer an invaluable Late Quaternary record of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) additions to soils. A traditional source of archaeological, anthracological and palaeoecological data, the potential contribution of anthropogenic charcoal deposits to soil science and assessment of carbon (C) sequestration is often overlooked. If addition of biochar to soils is to form a key component of a low-C economy, crucial questions must be addressed relating to its longevity and behaviour in the soil environment. With rare exceptions, previous studies have focussed on short-term incubation experiments and field or pot trials, often neglecting important natural soil and environmental processes. This study addresses these issues by comparing the physicochemical properties of European anthropogenic charcoal-rich deposits, with 14C ages ranging from > 43 ka to Modern, to native soils (nearby control sites). We will present results from a study of 23 charcoal-rich soil cores, collected from a 'Pre-historic' ditch mound, a Bronze Age burnt mound, a Roman furnace, and post-mediaeval and Modern Meilers, situated along a climatic gradient from Mediterranean (Southern Italy) to Humid Temperate (South Wales). The ability of charcoal to alter fertility and retain plant-available nutrients was assessed by measuring soil cation- exchange capacity. Retention of refractory C by the charcoal deposits was evaluated from their total organic C (TOC) contents, atomic H:C and O:C ratios, and residues after acid- dichromate oxidation. Picked charcoal fragments were also compared with modern biochars and biomass using: 1) their thermogravimetric recalcitrance (R50) indices (Harvey et al. 2012); and 2) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR data, to gauge the development of functional groups linked to the long-term oxidation of the particle surfaces. Radiocarbon dating was used to assess the ages of the deposits. Our study attests to the considerable potential of anthropogenic charcoal deposits as a tool to predict the fate, functioning and C-sequestration potential of PyC in soils on long (102 - 103yr) time scales, which are inaccessible to field and laboratory experiments. Centuries to millennia after charcoal addition, these charcoal-rich soils have undergone limited environmental degradation and still display significant recalcitrance and C-sequestration potential.

Mugford, Ian; Street-Perrot, Alayne; Santín, Cristina; Denman, Huw

2014-05-01

412

Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum fuels and ethanol contributed 5.4%; electricity, 1.6%; and coal, 1.0%. Most of the

P. B. Onaji; R. V. Siemons

1993-01-01

413

NMR-based estimates of the molecular dimensions in wildfire charcoal: Implications for predictions of biochar residence time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermochemical conversion of biomass to energy and fuels generates charcoal as a co-product. Charcoals derived from sustainable biomass sources—biochars—are an inherently stable form of carbon, relatively long residence times in the environment. Biochars can have potentially beneficial properties as soil fertility amendments, which has further stimulated research on the use of biochars for soil carbon sequestration as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, it is challenging to assess the long-term stability of biochar carbon using laboratory or field incubations because these are comprised of short-term observations. In this study, we make use of ancient charcoals from the boreal forests of Alaska and Scandanavia. We have deliberately selected charcoals from organic soil horizons, as to investigate the inherent biological and chemical stability of charcoal C without the protective influence of soil minerals. We use 14C radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the charcoals, differential scanning calorimetry to assess thermal stability, and solid-state 13C NMR to assess the chemical structure. Specifically, we employ C-H dipolar-dephasing NMR experiments to estimate the relative abundance and molecular dimensions of condensed aromatic domains and aliphatic structures. We test the hypothesis that the environmental stability, as determined by apparent 14C age and thermal stability, is related to the extent of ring condensation in the charcoal structure. Preliminary results suggest that the dimension of the condensed aromatic ring clusters may be an important molecular parameter to include in algorithms used to model/predict the residence time of charcoal and biochar C in soil.

Hockaday, William; Kane, Evan; Huang, Rixiang; Von Bargen, Justin; Davis, Rebecca; Ohlson, Mikael

2014-05-01

414

Adsorption capacities and related characteristics of wood charcoals carbonized using a one-step or two-step process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugi (Cryptomeria japonlca D. Don) wood powder was carbonized at varying temperatures by a onestep process up to 1000‡C and a two-step process using\\u000a wood charcoal as the raw material up to 1600‡C. This study was conducted to evaluate the adsorptive properties of wood charcoal\\u000a and discuss the mechanism of its adsorptive function in relation to the physical and anatomical

Lilibeth Pulido-Novicio; Toshimitsu Hata; Yasuji Kurimoto; Shuichi Doi; Shigehisa Ishihara; Yuji Imamura

2001-01-01

415

Advantage of Florisil over charcoal separation in a mechanized testosterone radioimmunoassay.  

PubMed

We have facilitated radiommunoassay of testosterone by mechanizing every pipetting step and separating bound from free hormone by shaking assay tubes with activated magnesium silicate (Florisil) in a multi-tube Vortex mixer. Compared with dextran-charcoal separation, Florisil separation has the advantage that testosterone is only negligibly adsorbed except during active shaking, so that the interval for adding adsorbent does not produce discrepancies in bound hormone estimates between first and last assay tubes in a series. Our method gave CVs of 5% (within assay) and 6% (between assay) for samples containing 4.0 mug of testosterone per liter, considerably better than those obtained with charcoal (respectively 12 and 15%). The assay also had low blank values and demonstrated excellent accuracy. PMID:6251984

Harman, S M; Tsitouras, P D; Kowatch, M A; Kowarski, A A

1980-10-01

416

A comparative study of carbon dioxide adsorption on multi-walled carbon nanotubes versus activated charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the quilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were experimentally investigated at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The maximum storage capacity for both materials was obtained at lowest temperature and highest pressure under study. The amount of CO2 adsorbed on MWCNT is 2 times higher than that of activated Charcoal whereas the specific surface area of activated carbon is aboute 2 times higher than MWNT. The experimental data of CO2 adsorption have been analyzed using different model isotherms such as the Freundlich and Langmuir. Heat of adsorption evaluated from a set of isotherms based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation indicated physical nature of adsorption mechanism.

Khalili, S.; Ghoreyshi, A. A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Davoodi, M.

2012-09-01

417

Monte Carlo counting efficiencies for measuring Rn in a charcoal canister  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level of 222Rn adsorbed in an activated charcoal canister may be determined by direct measurement of the canister, using a NaI detector. The counting efficiency of this arrangement depends on the Rn distribution in the charcoal, and this varies as a function of sampling period. Provided the Rn profile can be predicted, a Monte Carlo program can be used to simulate the counting arrangement. The Rn distribution in a canister used for surface emanation measurements can be described accurately by use of an empirical expression. Three time dependent coefficients were used in the expression to determine the shape of the distribution as a function of sampling period. Counting efficiencies were estimated by use of a simple Monte Carlo program and these were all found to be in close agreement with measured values for various sampling periods.

Wilson, Owen J.

1990-03-01

418

[An activated charcoal filter for eliminating volatile anesthetics. A contribution to the management of malignant hyperthermia].  

PubMed

Anesthesia machines may not be contaminated with anesthetic vapors when a patient susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MHS) is to be anesthetized. A clean machine may not always be available, and recommended protocols for preparing a contaminated machine are cumbersome and time-consuming. We suggest the use of an activated charcoal filter that is easily assembled from spare parts available in many anesthesiology departments (Fig. 2). It consists of an HME container (Servo-Humidifier 150, Siemens-Elema), a sieve set from an anesthesia circuit (7a/8-ISO, Dräger, Lübeck), and grained activated charcoal (2.5 mm, Merck, Darmstadt). All parts are autoclavable. The filter adsorbs anesthetic vapors quantitatively (Fig. 3) without affecting humidity, nitrous oxide concentration, or circuit resistance. Storage of such a filter may obviate the need to keep a clean anesthesia machine available for MHS patients. PMID:2635839

Jantzen, J P; Eck, J; Kleemann, P P

1989-11-01

419

Metastatic calcinosis circumscripta treated with an oral charcoal absorbent in a dog.  

PubMed

A five-year-old West Highland white terrier dog was admitted to the teaching hospital of Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University due to swelling and pain of the foot pads. Examinations revealed that the dog had renal failure and calcinosis circumscripta on its foot pads. The diagnosis was metastatic calcinosis circumscripta secondary to renal failure. An oral charcoal adsorbent (Kremezin) was used to treat this condition. Following this treatment, a significant decrease in the Ca x P value (the serum calcium level x the serum phosphorus level) was observed, and the dog's condition improved dramatically. This case suggests that charcoal adsorbent (Kremezin) may be useful for treating metastatic calcinosis circumscripta in dogs. PMID:11558549

Komori, S; Washizu, M

2001-08-01

420

Comparison of three buffers used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.  

PubMed

Growth of Legionella spp. on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with 3-(n-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 3-(n-morpholino)-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO), or n-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer was similar. With three exceptions, growth was no different in buffered yeast extract broth supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with MOPS or ACES buffer. PMID:8308131

Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

1993-12-01

421

Adsorption of H2, Ne, and N2 on Activated Charcoal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

9-page report presents measured adsorption isotherms of hydrogen, neon, and nitrogen on activated charcoal for temperatures from 77 to 400 K and pressures from 1 to 80 atmospheres (0.1 to 8.1 MPa). Heats of adsorption calculated from isotherms also presented. Report gives expressions, based on ideal-gas law, which show relationship between different definitions of volume of gas adsorbed and used in describing low-pressure isotherms.

Chang, C. K.; Tward, E.; Boudaie, K. I.

1986-01-01

422

Determining the sizes of micropores in activated charcoals by the pulsed NMR method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulsed NMR method was used to measure the nuclear spin-spin relaxation of protons of water adsorbed in micropores of activated charcoal (AC) samples with different porous structures. A correlation was found between the spin-spin relaxation time of water protons in AC with completely filled micropores and the volume density of water primary adsorption centers in the AC samples. An equation for approximating obtained dependences is proposed that allows us to determine the volume of micropores in AC.

Gogelashvili, G. Sh.; Khozina, E. V.; Vartapetyan, R. Sh.; Ladychuk, D. V.; Grunin, Yu. B.

2011-07-01

423

Evaluation of methyl anthranilate and activated charcoal as snow goose grazing deterrents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens) damage grain crops and turf grass throughout the eastern United States, repellents are being sought. In the present experiment, 12 0.4-ha study plots were treated with methyl anthranilate (Rejex-It AG-36®, 3.4 kg a.i.), an aqueous slurry of activated charcoal (Anjan-activaid®, 3.4 kg a.i.), or left unsprayed, as a control. Both methyl anthranilate and activated

J. R. Mason; L. Clark

1995-01-01

424

Removal of nitrate-nitrogen from drinking water using bamboo powder charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption effectiveness of bamboo powder charcoal (BPC); made from the residual of Moso bamboo manufacturing; in removing nitrate-nitrogen from water has been investigated. Commercial activated carbon (CAC) was also used to compare the effectiveness of adsorption in removal of nitrate-nitrogen. The adsorption effectiveness of BPC was higher than that of CAC; regardless of the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen; in the

Kei Mizuta; Toshitatsu Matsumoto; Yasuo Hatate; Keiichi Nishihara; Tomoki Nakanishi

2004-01-01

425

An activated charcoal-based, liquid scintillation-analyzed airborne Rn detector  

SciTech Connect

An inexpensive, easy-to-use detector for measuring airborne /sup 222/Rn based on /sup 222/Rn diffusion and absorption in activated charcoal is presented. The detector uses chemical extraction and liquid scintillation for measurement of the /sup 222/Rn concentration, is designed to be insensitive to temperature and humidity effects, and obtains sensitivity levels of 675 CPM (Bq L-1)-1 (25 CPM (pCi L-1)-1) at room temperature.

Schroeder, M.C.; Vanags, U.; Hess, C.T.

1989-07-01

426

Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400–1600°C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal\\/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum\\/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of

Junmin Qian; Jiping Wang; Zhihao Jin

2004-01-01

427

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

SciTech Connect

Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-11-30

428

The uses of charcoal to reconstruct fire history in deep time.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire and combustion have been an integral part of the Earth system for over 400 million years (Scott and Glasspool, 2006; Bowman et al, 2009) and are now an integral part of our industrial world (Bowman et al., 2011). Studying fire and fire events has significant practical application yet fire science is a discipline still with many unanswered questions. Macroscopic charcoal provides an important indicator of past fire events and yields information not only on the occurrence of fires but also on the identity of the plants that have been burnt, as well as on fire temperature (Scott, 2010). There is an intimate link between fire and the evolution of atmospheric oxygen (e.g. Glasspool and Scott, 2010) and the fact that fire can be intimately linked to sedimentation events means that it has a more important role in deep time Earth systems processes than has been fully appreciated. However, much research still needs to be undertaken, across a range of modern ecological settings, to permit a better understanding of the distribution of charcoal in the fossil record and what it implies for our interpretation of past fire events (Scott, 2000, 2010; Glasspool and Scott in press). Until more data is collated on the generation and subsequent incorporation of charcoal into the sedimentary environment it is unlikely that we will be able to comment comprehensively on the scale, nature and frequency of past fires and so their impact on atmospheric evolution or the development of Earth system processes.

Scott, A. C.; Glasspool, I. J.

2012-04-01

429

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

430

[Enhancement of laccase activity by combining white rot fungal strains].  

PubMed

The method of combining white rot fungal strains was used to enhance laccase activity, and the interaction mechanism between strains was also studied. The laccase activity of combined fungi of strain 55 (Trametes trogii) and strain m-6 (Trametes versicolor) were 24.13 and 4.07-fold higher than that of strain 55 and strain m-6, respectively. No inhibitory effect was observed when the two strains were co-cultivated. On plate cultivation, there was hyphal interference in the contact area, where laccase activity was the highest followed by brown pigmentation. In liquid cultivation, strain m-6 played much more important role on enhancement of laccase activity, and the laccase activity of strain 55 by adding strain m-6 was 7.03-fold higher than that of strain m-6 by adding strain 55, furthermore, filter sterilized- and high temperature autoclaved-extracellular substances of strain m-6 could also stimulate strain 55 to excrete more laccase, which led to 6.79-fold and 4. 60-fold increase in laccase activity by adding 20 mL, respectively. The native staining results of Native-PAGE showed that the types of laccase isozymes were not changed when strains were co-cultured, but the concentration of three types increased. PMID:20391719

He, Rong-yu; Liu, Xiao-feng; Yan, Zhi-ying; Yuan, Yue-xiang; Liao, Yin-zhang; Li, Xu-dong

2010-02-01

431

Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed Central

The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) (28%), 2,2'-diphenic acid (17%), and unidentified metabolites (7%). Nonextractable metabolites accounted for 35% of the total radioactivity. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and UV spectroscopy analyses. 18O2-labeling experiments indicated that one atom of oxygen was incorporated into the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism spectra of the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol indicated that the absolute configuration of the predominant enantiomer was 9R,10R, which is different from that of the principal enantiomer produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Significantly less phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol was observed in incubations with the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor SKF 525-A (77% decrease), 1-aminobenzotriazole (83% decrease), or fluoxetine (63% decrease). These experiments with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and 18O2 labeling and the formation of phenanthrene trans-9R,10R-dihydrodiol as the predominant metabolite suggest that P. ostreatus initially oxidizes phenanthrene stereoselectively by a cytochrome P-450 monoxygenase and that this is followed by epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed hydration reactions.

Bezalel, L; Hadar, Y; Fu, P P; Freeman, J P; Cerniglia, C E

1996-01-01

432

Production of Dissolved Organic Matter During Fungal Wood Rot Decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter mediates numerous biogeochemical processes in soil systems impacting subsurface microbial activity, redox chemistry, soil structure, and carbon and nitrogen sequestration. The structure and chemistry of DOM is a function of the inherited chemistry of the source material, the type of microbial action that has occurred, and selective interaction with mineral substrates. The type of fungal decomposition imparted to woody tissue is a major factor in determining the nature of DOM in forest soils. In order to investigate the relationship between fungal decomposition and the nature of DOM in coniferous forest soils we conducted 32-week inoculation studies on spruce sapwood with basidiomycete brown-rot wood decay fungi where leachable dissolved and colloidal organic matter was separated from decayed residue. A detailed examination of the organic fractions was conducted using 13C-labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, solid-state 13C-NMR, and electrospray mass spectrometry. The progressive stages of microbial decay (cellulolytic and ligninolytic) were manifested in the chemical composition of the DOM which showed an evolution from a composition initially polysaccharide rich to one dominated by mildly oxidized and demethylated lignin. Upon removal of all polysaccharides at 16 weeks the DOM (up to 10% by weight of the original tissue) looked chemically distinct from the degraded residue

Filley, T. R.; Jellison, J.; Goodell, B.; Kelley, S.; Davis, M.

2002-12-01

433

Stabilization of lignin peroxidases in white rot fungi by tryptophan.  

PubMed Central

Supplementation of various cultures of white rot fungi with tryptophan was found to have a large stimulatory effect on lignin peroxidase activity levels. This enhancement was greater than that observed in the presence of the lignin peroxidase recycling agent veratryl alcohol. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we found that tryptophan does not act to induce lignin peroxidase expression at the level of gene transcription. Instead, the activity enhancement observed is likely to result from the protective effect of tryptophan against H2O2 inactivation. In experiments using a partially purified lignin peroxidase preparation, tryptophan and its derivative indole were determined to function in the same way as veratryl alcohol in converting compound II, an oxidized form of lignin peroxidase, to ferric enzyme, thereby completing the catalytic cycle. Furthermore, tryptophan was found to be a better substrate for lignin peroxidase than veratryl alcohol. Inclusion of either tryptophan or indole enhanced the oxidation of the azo dyes methyl orange and Eriochrome blue black. Stimulation of azo dye oxidations by veratryl alcohol has previously been shown to be due to its enzyme recycling function. Our data allow us to propose that tryptophan stabilizes lignin peroxidase by acting as a reductant for the enzyme.

Collins, P J; Field, J A; Teunissen, P; Dobson, A D

1997-01-01

434

Microsomal transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by white rot fungi.  

PubMed

The enzymatic mechanism for the transformation of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) by different white-rot fungi strains was studied. With the exception of Ganoderma applanatum 8168, all strains from a collection of 17 different fungi cultures were able to deplete parathion. Three strains showing the highest activities were selected for further studies: Bjerkandera adusta 8258, Pleurotus ostreatus 7989 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 3641. These strains depleted 50 to 96% of terbufos, azinphos-methyl, phosmet and tribufos after four-days exposure to the pesticides. In order to identify the cellular localization of the transformation activity, the extracellular and microsomal fractions of Pleuronts ostreatus 7989 were evaluated in vitro. While the activities of ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) were detected in the extracellular fraction, no enzymatic modification of any of the five pesticides tested could be found, suggesting the intracellular origin of the transformation activity. In accordance with this observation the microsomal fraction was found able to transform three OPPs with the following rates: 10 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for phosmet, 5.7 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for terbufos, and 2.2 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for azinphos-methyl. The products from these reactions and from the transformation of trichlorfon and malathion, were identified by mass-spectrometry. These results, supported by specific inhibition experiments and the stringent requirement for NADPH during the in vitro assays suggest the involvement of a cytochrome P450. PMID:14669870

Jauregui, Juan; Valderrama, Brenda; Albores, Arnulfo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

2003-12-01

435

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed Central

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for [14C]lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. Toxicity studies showed that PCP concentrations above 4 mg/liter (15 microM) prevented growth when fungal cultures were initiated by inoculation with spores. The lethal effects of PCP could, however, be circumvented by allowing the fungus to establish a mycelial mat before adding PCP. With this procedure, the fungus was able to grow and mineralize [14C]PCP at concentrations as high as 500 mg/liter (1.9 mM).

Mileski, G J; Bumpus, J A; Jurek, M A; Aust, S D

1988-01-01

436

Ligninolytic enzymes of the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata.  

PubMed Central

One oxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) and three lignin peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.-) were purified from the culture liquid of the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata Fr. All the enzymes were glycoproteins. The oxidase had Mr 64,000 and the lignin peroxidases I, II and III had Mr values 42,000, 45,000 and 44,000 respectively. The lignin peroxidases were found to share common antigenic determinants: lignin peroxidases II and III were serologically indistinguishable and lignin peroxidase I was related but distinguishable. The oxidase did not share any immunological properties with the lignin peroxidases. Lignin peroxidases of Phlebia contain protoporphyrin IX as a prosthetic group. In the presence of H2O2 and an electron donor, veratryl alcohol, lignin peroxidases exhibit spectral shifts analogous to those of animal catalase (EC 1.11.1.6). Phlebia enzymes show optimal activity at pH 3-4.5 at 40 degrees C and are stable in the pH range 5-6. They modify Kraft lignin and phenolic compounds containing hydroxy and methoxy groups. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Niku-Paavola, M L; Karhunen, E; Salola, P; Raunio, V

1988-01-01

437

Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each method likely quantifies a distinct portion of the pyrogenic carbon. The localized nature of BC and nutrient enrichment suggests that the occurrence of fire (either climate or human-induced) and agriculture in the western Amazon were not spatially or temporally extensive. At present, we do not have evidence to indicate that BC is a better measure of fire occurrence or anthropogenic disturbance than charcoal measurements.

Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

2011-12-01

438

Impact of charcoal waste application on the soil organic matter content and composition of an Haplic Cambisol from South Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some regions in Brazil, charcoal is usually applied to the soil with the purpose to improve its fertility and its organic carbon (SOC) content. In Brazil, the use of charcoal waste from steel industry with agronomic purposes represents also an alternative and sustainable fate for this material. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of Eucalyptus charcoal waste application on the SOC content and on the soil organic matter (SOM) composition. Increasing doses of charcoal (0, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1) were applied to an Haplic Cambisol, in Irati, South-Brazil. Charcoal was initially applied on the soil surface, and then it was incorporated at 10 cm with a harrow. Soil undisturbed and disturbed samples (four replicates) were collected in September 2011 (1 y and 9 months) after charcoal incorporation. Four soil depths were evaluated (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and each replicate was composed by three subsamples collected within each plot. The soil samples were air dried, passed through a 9.51 mm sieve and thereafter through a 2.00 mm sieve. The SOC content and total N were quantified by dry combustion. The SOM was concentrated with fluoridric acid 10% and then the SOM composition was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis along the soil profile. The main impact of charcoal application occurred at the 0-5 cm layer of the area treated with the highest dose: SOC content increased in 15.5 g kg-1 in comparison to the soil without charcoal application. The intermediary doses also increased the SOC content, but the differences were not significant. No differences for N content were found in this soil depth. Further results were observed in the 10-20 cm soil depth, where the highest dose increased the SOC content and N content. Furthermore, this treatment increased the recalcitrance of the SOM, mainly at the 0-5 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. No differences between doses of charcoal application were found in the 20-30 cm soil depth, suggesting that the charcoal has not migrated so deep in soil even after almost two years of its incorporation.

dos Anjos Leal, Otávio; Pinheiro Dick, Deborah; Cylene Lombardi, Kátia; Gonçalves Maciel, Vanessa

2014-05-01

439

Eco-friendly Rot and Crease Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric using Citric Acid and Chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citric acid (CA) along with chitosan was used on bleached jute fabrics to impart anti crease and rot resistance properties in one step. The treatment was carried out by pad-dry-cure method in presence of sodium hypophosphite monohydrate catalyst. Curing at 150° Centigrade for 5 min delivered good crease resistant property (dry crease recovery angle is 244°) and high rot resistance simultaneously by a single treatment, which are durable for five washings with distilled water. Strength retention of jute fabric after 21 days soil burial was found to be 81 % and the loss (%) in strength due to this treatment was 15-18 %. The results showed that chitosan and CA treated-fabric exhibited higher rot resistance (as indicated by soil burial test) when compared to either CA or chitosan by individual treatment. The effect of CA and chitosan combination on the resistance to rotting of jute fabric was found to be synergistic which is higher than the sum of the effects of individual chemicals. CA possibly reacts with hydroxyl groups in cellulose or chitosan to form ester. The CA and chitosan finished fabric has adverse effect on stiffness. Thermal studies showed that final residue left at 500° C was much higher for CA and chitosan treated fabric than untreated jute fabric. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the formation of ester cross-linkage between the jute fibre, CA and chitosan and hence it is understood that this rot resistant finish on jute fabric become durable by this mechanism.

Samanta, A. K.; Bagchi, A.

2013-03-01

440

Coexisting Curtobacterium bacterium promotes growth of white-rot fungus Stereum sp.  

PubMed

White-rot basidiomycetes are the main decomposers of woody biomass in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms in decayed wood. A wood-rotting fungus, Stereum sp. strain TN4F, was isolated from a fruit body, and its coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate; natural white-rot decayed wood. The effects of bacteria on fungal growth were examined by confrontational assay in vitro. A growth-promoting bacterium for this Stereum strain was identified as Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19, using 16SrRNA sequencing. A confrontational assay revealed that Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19 significantly promoted the mycelial growth of Stereum sp. TN4F in the direction of the bacterial colony, without direct contact between the mycelium and bacterial cells. This is the first report of a positive interaction between a white-rot fungus and a coexisting bacterial strain in vitro. PMID:22101455

Kamei, Ichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Enami, Daisuke; Meguro, Sadatoshi

2012-02-01