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Sample records for charge sensitive amplifier

  1. High sensitivity charge amplifier for ion beam uniformity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  2. Charge-sensitive poly-silicon TFT amplifiers for a-Si:H pixel particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, G.; Perez-Mendez, V. ); Hack, M.; Lewis, A. )

    1992-04-01

    Prototype charge-sensitive poly-Si TFT amplifiers have been made for the amplification of signals (from an a-Si:H pixel diode used as an ionizing particle detector). They consist of a charge-sensitive gain stage, a voltage gain stage and a source follower output stage. The gain-bandwidth product of the amplifier is {approximately} 300 MHz. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of 0.2 pF, it gives a charge-to-voltage gain of {approximately} 0.02 mV/electrons with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec. An equivalent noise charge of the front-end TFT is {approximately} 1000 electrons for a shaping time of 1 {mu}sec.

  3. Reset charge sensitive amplifier for NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Li, Qiang; Ge, Liangquan; Liu, Xiyao; Luo, Qun

    2015-03-01

    The time constant of the output signal of the front-end readout circuit of a traditional gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure is affected by temperature, measurement environment and the signal transmission cable, so it is difficult to get a good resolution spectrum, especially at higher counting rates. In this paper, a reset charge sensitive amplifier (RCSA) is designed for the gamma-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl)+PMT structure. The designed RCSA outputs a step signal, thus enabling the acquisition of double-exponential signals with a stable time constant by using the next stage of a CR differentiating circuit. The designed RCSA is mainly composed of a basic amplifying circuit, a reset circuit and a dark current compensation circuit. It provides the output step signal through the integration of the PMT output charge signal. When the amplitude of the step signal exceeds a preset voltage threshold, it triggers the reset circuit to generate a reset pulse (about 5µs pulse width) to reset the output signal. Experimental results demonstrated that the designed RCSA achieves a charge sensitivity of 4.26×10(10)V/C, with a zero capacitance noise of 51.09fC and a noise slope of 1.98fC/pF. Supported by the digital shaping algorithm of the digital multi-channel analyzer (DMCA), it can maintain good energy resolution with high counting rates up to 150kcps and with a temperature range from -19°C to 50°C. PMID:25544664

  4. Longitudinal space charge amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) driven microbunching instability in electron beam formation systems of X-ray FELs is a recently discovered effect hampering beam instrumentation and FEL operation. The instability was observed in different facilities in infrared and visible wavelength ranges. In this paper we propose to use such an instability for generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray radiation. A typical longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA) consists of few amplification cascades (drift space plus chicane) with a short undulator behind the last cascade. If the amplifier starts up from the shot noise, the amplified density modulation has a wide band, on the order of unity. The bandwidth of the radiation within the central cone is given by inverse number of undulator periods. A wavelength compression could be an attractive option for LSCA since the process is broadband, and a high compression stability is not required. LSCA can be used as a cheap addition to the existing or planned short-wavelength FELs. In particular, it can produce the second color for a pump-probe experiment. It is also possible to generate attosecond pulses in the VUV and X-ray regimes. Some user experiments can profit from a relatively large bandwidth of the radiation, and this is easy to obtain in LSCA scheme. Finally, since the amplification mechanism is broadband and robust, LSCA can be an interesting alternative to self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL) in the case of using laser-plasma accelerators as drivers of light sources.

  5. Charge amplifier with bias compensation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  6. Improvement of spectroscopic performance using a charge-sensitive amplifier circuit for an X-ray astronomical SOI pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T. G.; Tanaka, T.; Uchida, H.; Matsumura, H.; Arai, Y.; Mori, K.; Nishioka, Y.; Takenaka, R.; Kohmura, T.; Nakashima, S.; Kawahito, S.; Kagawa, K.; Yasutomi, K.; Kamehama, H.; Shrestha, S.

    2015-06-01

    We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors series, named ``XRPIX'', based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel technology, for future X-ray astronomical satellites. The XRPIX series offers high coincidence time resolution (~ 1 ?s), superior readout time (~ 10 ?s), and a wide energy range (0.5-40 keV) . In the previous study, we successfully demonstrated X-ray detection by event-driven readout of XRPIX2b. We here report recent improvements in spectroscopic performance. We successfully increased the gain and reduced the readout noise in XRPIX2b by decreasing the parasitic capacitance of the sense-node originated in the buried p-well (BPW) . On the other hand, we found significant tail structures in the spectral response due to the loss of the charge collection efficiency when a small BPW is employed. Thus, we increased the gain in XRPIX3b by introducing in-pixel charge sensitive amplifiers instead of having even smaller BPW . We finally achieved the readout noise of 35 e- (rms) and the energy resolution of 320 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV without significant loss of the charge collection efficiency.

  7. A position-sensitive micro-channel plate detector with a parallel-strip resistive anode and integrated charge-sensitive amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yu, D.; Liu, J.; Lu, R.; Cai, X.

    2015-11-01

    A one-dimensional position-sensitive micro-channel plate detector with parallel-strip resistive anode and dedicated amplifiers has been constructed. The detector is tested by a 241Am α -source and the spatial resolution of 0.2 mm is achieved.

  8. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    DOEpatents

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  9. Sensitivity enhancers for chemically amplified resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsvold, William R.; Kwong, Ranee W.; Montgomery, Warren; Moreau, Wayne M.; Sachdev, Harbans S.; Welsh, Kevin M.

    1990-06-01

    The addition of phenolic compounds to positive tone chemically amplified resists has increased sensitivity by approximately 2X for Deep UV exposures and up to 5Xfor X-ray imaging. Sensitivity enhancement during e-heam exposures was only 20%. Additives like hydroquinone sensitize various acid generators including triphenyl sulfonium triflate (TPS) and N-tosyloxyphthalimide (PTS) without affecting contrast and image profiles. The sensitization occurs in poly(t-butyloxycarbonyloxystyrene) as well as in base soluble resins. With PTS, the predominant mechanism is believed to involve electron transfer from the excited singlet or triplet state of the additive to the acid generator. For onium salt, direct photolysis plays a significant role in acid generation so that the effect of the additives is not as great as with PTS.

  10. Method and apparatus for linear low-frequency feedback in monolithic low-noise charge amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2006-02-14

    A charge amplifier includes an amplifier, feedback circuit, and cancellation circuit. The feedback circuit includes a capacitor, inverter, and current mirror. The capacitor is coupled across the signal amplifier, the inverter is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier, and the current mirror is coupled to the input of the signal amplifier. The cancellation circuit is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier. A method of charge amplification includes providing a signal amplifier; coupling a first capacitor across the signal amplifier; coupling an inverter to the output of the signal amplifier; coupling a current mirror to the input of the signal amplifier; and coupling a cancellation circuit to the output of the signal amplifier. A front-end system for use with radiation sensors includes a charge amplifier and a current amplifier, shaping amplifier, baseline stabilizer, discriminator, peak detector, timing detector, and logic circuit coupled to the charge amplifier.

  11. Monolithic integrated circuit charge amplifier and comparator for MAMA readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Edward H.; Smeins, Larry G.

    1991-01-01

    Prototype ICs for the Solar Heliospheric Observatory's Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) have been developed; these ICs' charge-amplifier and comparator components were then tested with a view to pulse response and noise performance. All model performance predictions have been exceeded. Electrostatic discharge protection has been included on all IC connections; device operation over temperature has been consistent with model predictions.

  12. Fast Charge Sensing of a Cavity-Coupled Double Quantum Dot Using a Josephson Parametric Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, J.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Quintana, C. M.; Eichler, C.; Hartke, T. R.; Petta, J. R.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate fast readout of a double quantum dot (DQD) that is coupled to a superconducting resonator. Utilizing a parametric amplifier beyond its range of linear amplification, we improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by a factor of 2000 compared to the situation with the parametric amplifier turned off. With an integration time of 400 ns comparable to the inverse effective bandwidth, we achieve a SNR of 76. By measuring the SNR as a function of the integration time, we extract an equivalent charge sensitivity of 8 ×10-5 e /√{Hz } . The high SNR allows us to acquire a DQD charge-stability diagram in just 20 ms. At such a high data rate, it is possible to acquire charge-stability diagrams in a live "video mode," enabling real-time tuning of the DQD confinement potential.

  13. Modelling nanofluidic field amplified sample stacking with inhomogeneous surface charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, Christopher; Pennathur, Sumita

    2015-11-01

    Nanofluidic technology has exceptional applications as a platform for biological sample preconcentration, which will allow for an effective electronic detection method of low concentration analytes. One such preconcentration method is field amplified sample stacking, a capillary electrophoresis technique that utilizes large concentration differences to generate high electric field gradients, causing the sample of interest to form a narrow, concentrated band. Field amplified sample stacking has been shown to work well at the microscale, with models and experiments confirming expected behavior. However, nanofluidics allows for further concentration enhancement due to focusing of the sample ions toward the channel center by the electric double layer. We have developed a two-dimensional model that can be used for both micro- and nanofluidics, fully accounting for the electric double layer. This model has been used to investigate even more complex physics such as the role of inhomogeneous surface charge.

  14. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-02-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available.

  15. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-01-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available. PMID:26830136

  16. Implementation and analysis of an innovative digital charge amplifier for hysteresis reduction in piezoelectric stack actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Bazghaleh, Mohsen Grainger, Steven; Cazzolato, Ben; Lu, Tien-Fu; Oskouei, Reza

    2014-04-15

    Smart actuators are the key components in a variety of nanopositioning applications, such as scanning probe microscopes and atomic force microscopes. Piezoelectric actuators are the most common smart actuators due to their high resolution, low power consumption, and wide operating frequency but they suffer hysteresis which affects linearity. In this paper, an innovative digital charge amplifier is presented to reduce hysteresis in piezoelectric stack actuators. Compared to traditional analog charge drives, experimental results show that the piezoelectric stack actuator driven by the digital charge amplifier has less hysteresis. It is also shown that the voltage drop of the digital charge amplifier is significantly less than the voltage drop of conventional analog charge amplifiers.

  17. Source follower or charge amplifier? An experimental comparison using a detector with integrated electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Sampietro, M.; Fasoli, L.; Bertuccio, G.

    1996-08-01

    In spectroscopy systems where the front-end amplifier is an external circuit, charge sensitive preamplifiers have been shown to be superior in performance with respect to voltage amplifiers as the first stage of amplification. The paper studies how these two circuit configurations behave when they are integrated in high resolution semiconductor detectors of very small capacitance. This paper for the first time compares, in this new condition, the stability of amplification of the source follower with the optimum behavior of the charge preamplifier, reporting its dependence on the detector bias, on the input transistor bias, and on the operating temperature. This paper then discusses the consequent loss in linearity and resolution that a system with an integrated source follower may undergo depending on the type of reset mechanism. The point of how the instabilities of the integrated feedback capacitance limit the performance of an integrated charge amplifier is also addressed. The analysis is based on experimental results obtained with the same detector with integrated electronics used in the two different configurations.

  18. Digital filter design with zero shift on charge amplifiers for low shock calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozato, H.; Bruns, T.; Volkers, H.; Oota, A.

    2014-03-01

    Zero shift caused by the low frequency response of charge amplifiers is one of the most significant factors in shock measurements with long duration, such as low shock calibration of accelerometers. In order to reproduce the same zero shift as the charge amplifier, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters were developed by applying a second order transfer function to the high pass characteristic in the low frequency part of the measured frequency response of charge amplifiers. For the experimental verification of the zero shift using the IIR filter, input/output signals of the charge amplifier were investigated by using rectangular waveforms with a peak voltage of 2 V and pulse width of 10 ms and 5 ms, respectively. As indicated by the results, the IIR filter succeeds in following the same zero shift as the charge amplifier.

  19. An Introduction to Phase-Sensitive Amplifiers: An Inexpensive Student Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the principle of operation of phase-sensitive amplifiers. Gives three examples, suitable for undergraduate laboratory use, of the use of phase-sensitive, or "lock-in" amplifiers. Concludes with a description of an inexpensive lock-in amplifier which has an overall voltage gain of 1000. (Author/MLH)

  20. Privacy-Sensitive Congestion Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresford, Alastair R.; Davies, Jonathan J.; Harle, Robert K.

    National-scale congestion charging schemes are increasingly viewed as the most viable long-term strategy for controlling congestion and maintaining the viability of the road network. In this paper we challenge the widely held belief that enforceable and economically viable congestion charging schemes require drivers to give up their location privacy to the government. Instead we explore an alternative scheme where privately-owned cars enforce congestion charge payments by using an on-board vehicle unit containing a camera and wireless communications. Our solution prevents centralised tracking of vehicle movements but raises an important issue: should we trust our neighbours with a little personal information in preference to entrusting it all to the government?

  1. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-12-31

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs.

  2. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs.

  3. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  4. An HEMT-Based Cryogenic Charge Amplifier for Sub-kelvin Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Juillard, A.; Jin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and noise performance of a fully cryogenic (T=4 K) high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-based charge amplifier for readout of sub-kelvin semiconductor radiation detectors. The amplifier is being developed for use in direct detection dark matter searches such as the cryogenic dark matter search and will allow these experiments to probe weakly interacting massive particle masses below 10 GeV/c^2 while retaining background discrimination. The amplifier dissipates ≈ 1 mW of power and provides an open loop voltage gain of several hundreds. The measured noise performance is better than that of JFET-based charge amplifiers and is dominated by the noise of the input HEMT. An optimal filter calculation using the measured closed loop noise and typical detector characteristics predicts a charge resolution of σ _q =106 eV (35 electrons) for leakage currents below 4 × 10^{-15} A.

  5. Spacecraft Charging Sensitivity to Material Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating spacecraft charging behavior of a vehicle in the space environment requires knowledge of the material properties relevant to the charging process. Implementing surface and internal charging models requires a user to specify a number of material electrical properties including electrical resistivity parameters (dark and radiation induced), dielectric constant, secondary electron yields, photoemission yields, and breakdown strength in order to correctly evaluate the electric discharge threat posed by the increasing electric fields generated by the accumulating charge density. In addition, bulk material mass density and/or chemical composition must be known in order to analyze radiation shielding properties when evaluating internal charging. We will first describe the physics of spacecraft charging and show how uncertainties in material properties propagate through spacecraft charging algorithms to impact the results obtained from charging models. We then provide examples using spacecraft charging codes to demonstrate their sensitivity to material properties. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize the importance in having good information on relevant material properties in order to best characterize on orbit charging threats.

  6. High-sensitivity bunch charge monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, N. I.; Fateev, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    The conceptual design for a high-sensitivity bunch charge monitor is presented. The device operates with short, spaced bunches. For optimal performance, the bunch duration should be less than 10 ns and bunch spacing should be more than 100 ns. Sensitivity of the monitor is close to 10 V per nanocoulomb. The equivalent scheme and the output signal shape are also presented. Such a monitor seems to be promising for the bunch charge measurements of beams like those in TESLA or ILC projects.

  7. Design of a charge sensitive preamplifier on high resistivity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Rescia, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Strueder, L.; Kemmer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A low noise, fast charge sensitive preamplifier was designed on high resistivity, detector grade silicon. It is built at the surface of a fully depleted region of n-type silicon. This allows the preamplifier to be placed very close to a detector anode. The preamplifier uses the classical input cascode configuration with a capacitor and a high value resistor in the feedback loop. The output stage of the preamplifier can drive a load up to 20pF. The power dissipation of the preamplifier is 13mW. The amplifying elements are ''Single Sided Gate JFETs'' developed especially for this application. Preamplifiers connected to a low capacitance anode of a drift type detector should achieve a rise time of 20ns and have an equivalent noise charge (ENC), after a suitable shaping, of less than 50 electrons. This performance translates to a position resolution better than 3..mu..m for silicon drift detectors. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Low threshold amplified spontaneous emission and ambipolar charge transport in non-volatile liquid fluorene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Zhao, Li; Inoue, Munetomo; Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Kim, Ju-Hyung; Yoshida, Kou; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Nakanotani, Hajime; Mager, Loic; Méry, Stéphane; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-02-11

    Highly fluorescent non-volatile fluidic fluorene derivatives functionalized with siloxane chains were synthesized and used in monolithic solvent-free liquid organic semiconductor distributed feedback lasers. The photoluminescence quantum yield values, the amplified spontaneous emission thresholds and the ambipolar charge carrier mobilities demonstrate that this class of materials is extremely promising for organic fluidic light-emitting and lasing devices. PMID:26734693

  9. High-sensitivity stress-sensitive differential amplifier with gain control and temperature compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingjing; Yue, Ruifeng; Liu, Li-Tian

    2001-10-01

    An essential issue of almost all sensors using piezoresistive effect of silicon is the sensing of the stress induced by external cause such as pressure for pressure sensor, inertial force for inertial sensor, etc. Traditional piezoresistor array need relatively large area, exhibits low sensitivity, and need complex circuit for (delta) R/R to current or voltage measurement transaction. Using Stress-Sensitive Differential Amplifier, or SSDA, is an effective solution to the above-mentioned problems. SSDA exhibits relatively high sensitivity and low power dissipation. But, although it's temperature coefficient is lower compared to piezoresistor stress - sensing element, temperature compensation is still imperative. In this paper, the principles of SSDA are presented. A new SSDA circuit is designed. Using such circuit the sensitivity can be greatly increased, and such an increase need no any extra cost in circuit area, power dissipation, circuit complexity, etc. A new technic for the SSDA's gain control is developed, which makes the setting of the sensors' dynamic range simple; A temperature compensation circuit is also designed and integrated with the SSDA.

  10. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  11. A reusable piezo-immunosensor with amplified sensitivity for ceruloplasmin based on plasma-polymerized film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Li, Dan; Wu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2004-01-01

    A reusable piezoelectric immunosensor with amplified sensitivity has been developed for the detection of ceruloplasmin (CP) in human serum. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was deposited with plasma-polymerized n-butyl amine film with the surface topology further characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Anti-ceruloplasmin antibody (CP-Ab) was electrostatically adsorbed on the PPF-modified crystal via an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer of alginate. It was found that the alginate-mediated immobilization interface could allow for antibodies to be largely immobilized with well-retained immunoactivity. In particular, a simple regeneration process for the sensor produced, i.e. by shifting the pH, can also be realized. Moreover, an optimized assay medium containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) was tested with enhanced immunosensing response (sensitivity). A dynamic concentration range of two orders of magnitude and a detection limit of 0.15mugml(-1) of CP were observed. Analytical results of clinical samples show that the developed immunoassay is comparable with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. However, it presents some superior advantages over the traditional sandwich format in that the analyzing performances are direct, rapid and simple without multiple separation and labeling steps. PMID:18969281

  12. Simulation of Cascaded Longitudinal-Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (Fast) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cascaded Longitudinal Space Charge Amplifiers (LSCA) have been proposed as a mechanism to generate density modulation over a board spectral range. The scheme has been recently demonstrated in the optical regime and has confirmed the production of broadband optical radiation. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performance of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility to produce broadband ultraviolet radiation. Our studies are carried out using elegant with included tree-based grid-less space charge algorithm.

  13. Simulation of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier for broadband radiation production using a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-10-02

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as harmful in free-electron lasers as they can seed unfavorable energy modulations that can result in density modulations with associated emittance dilution. It was pointed out, however, that such \\micro-bunching instabilities" could be potentially useful to support the generation of broadband coherent radiation. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beam lines capable of controlling LSC induced density modulations. In the present paper we augment these previous investigations by combining a grid-less space charge algorithm with the popular particle-tracking program elegant. This high-fidelity model of the space charge is used to benchmark conventional LSC models. We then employ the developed model to optimize the performance of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier using beam parameters comparable to the ones achievable at Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility currently under commissioning at Fermilab

  14. Simulation of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier for coherent radiation generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as harmful in free-electron lasers as they can seed unfavorable energy modulations that can result in density modulations with associated emittance dilution. This "micro-bunching instabilities" is naturally broadband and could possibly support the generation of coherent radiation over a broad region of the spectrum. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beam lines capable of controlling LSC induced density modulations. In the present paper we refine these previous investigations by combining a grid-less space charge algorithm with the popular particle-tracking program ELEGANT. This high-fidelity model of the space charge is used to benchmark conventional LSC models. We finally employ the developed model to investigate the performance of a cascaded LSC amplifier using beam parameters comparable to the ones achievable at Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility currently under commissioning at Fermilab.

  15. Theory and modeling of a relativistic klystron amplifier with high space charge for microsecond applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Fazio, M.V.; Faehl, R.J.; Kwan, T.J.; Rickel, D.G.; Stringfield, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss basic Relativistic Klystron Amplifier physics. We show that in the intense space-charge regime the maximum power extraction does not coincide with the maximum harmonic bunching. In addition, we show that as the beam is bunched, the additional power stored in the Coulomb fields does not add significantly to the overall power extraction. Because of these effects, the power extraction at 1.3 GHz for a 500 kV, 5 kA beam with reasonable beam-to-wall spacing is limited to around 35%. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Normal Hearing Sensitivity at Low-to-Middle Frequencies with 34% Prestin-Charge Density

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Fang, Jie; Gao, Jiangang; Yu, Yiling; Lagarde, Marcia Mellado; Zuo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) provide a positive mechanical feedback to enhance the cochlea's hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Although the OHC-specific, somatic motor protein prestin is required for cochlear amplification, it remains unclear whether prestin can provide sufficient cycle-by-cycle feedback. In cochlear mechanical modeling, varying amounts of OHC motor activity should provide varying degrees of feedback efficiency to adjust the gain of cochlear amplifier at resonant frequencies. Here we created and characterized two new prestin-hypomorphic mouse models with reduced levels of wild-type prestin. OHCs from these mice exhibited length, total elementary charge movement (Qmax), charge density, and electromotility intermediate between those of wild-type and prestin-null mice. Remarkably, measurements of auditory brainstem responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions from these mice displayed wild-type like hearing sensitivities at 4–22 kHz. These results indicate that as low as 26.7% Qmax, 34.0% charge density and 44.0% electromotility in OHCs were sufficient for wild-type-like hearing sensitivity in mice at 4–22 kHz, and that these in vitro parameters of OHCs did not correlate linearly with the feedback efficiency for in vivo gain of the cochlear amplifier. Our results thus provide valuable data for modeling cochlear mechanics and will stimulate further mechanistic analysis of the cochlear amplifier. PMID:23029017

  17. Low-sensitivity, frequency-selective amplifier circuits for hybrid and bipolar fabrication.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, C.; Dunn, W. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A network is described which is suitable for realizing a low-sensitivity high-Q second-order frequency-selective amplifier for high-frequency operation. Circuits are obtained from this network which are well suited for realizing monolithic integrated circuits and which do not require any process steps more critical than those used for conventional monolithic operational and video amplifiers. A single chip version using compatible thin-film techniques for the frequency determination elements is then feasible. Center frequency and bandwidth can be set independently by trimming two resistors. The frequency selective circuits have a low sensitivity to the process variables, and the sensitivity of the center frequency and bandwidth to changes in temperature is very low.

  18. A dual mode charge pump with adaptive output used in a class G audio power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Feng; Zhenfei, Peng; Shanshan, Yang; Zhiliang, Hong; Yang, Liu

    2011-04-01

    A dual mode charge pump to produce an adaptive power supply for a class G audio power amplifier is presented. According to the amplitude of the input signals, the charge pump has two level output voltage rails available to save power. It operates both in current mode at high output load and in pulse frequency modulation (PFM) at light load to reduce the power dissipation. Also, dynamic adjustment of the power stage transistor size based on load current at the PFM mode is introduced to reduce the output voltage ripple and prevent the switching frequency from audio range. The prototype is implemented in 0.18 μm 3.3 V CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the maximum power efficiency of the charge pump is 79.5% @ 0.5x mode and 83.6% @ 1x mode. The output voltage ripple is less than 15 mV while providing 120 mA of the load current at PFM control and less than 18 mV while providing 300 mA of the load current at current mode control. An analytical model for ripple voltage and efficiency calculation of the proposed PFM control demonstrates reasonable agreement with measured results.

  19. Phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry amplified by gated Raman pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Li; Fan, Mengqiu; Li, Jin

    2015-12-01

    A long-range phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, based on the gated Raman amplification (RA). This technique can reduce the amplified spontaneous emissions (ASE) noise of the Raman pump while extend the sensing distance. A direct-detection based phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) with an operation range of 50 km and a spatial resolution of 20 m has been demonstrated. The influence of different delay time of the gated Raman pump on the Φ-OTDR system is also discussed.

  20. Fabrication of a highly sensitive penicillin sensor based on charge transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ro; Rahman, M M; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2009-03-15

    A highly sensitive penicillin biosensor based on a charge-transfer technique (CTTPS) has been fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. CTTPS comprised a charge accumulation technique for penicilloic acid and H(+) ions perception system. With the proposed CTTPS, it is possible to amplify the sensing signals without external amplifier by using the charge accumulation cycles. The fabricated CTTPS exhibits excellent performance for penicillin detection and exhibit a high-sensitivity (47.852 mV/mM), high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), large span (1445 mV), wide linear range (0-25 mM), fast response time (<3s), and very good reproducibility. A very lower detection limit of about 0.01 mM was observed from the proposed sensor. Under optimum conditions, the proposed CTTPS outstripped the performance of the widely used ISFET penicillin sensor and exhibited almost eight times greater sensitivity as compared to ISFET (6.56 mV/mM). The sensor system is implemented for the measurement of the penicillin concentration in penicillin fermentation broth. PMID:18977651

  1. Shot noise limit of sensitivity of chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Kozawa, Takahiro; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2015-11-01

    With the improvement of resolution, the shot noise effect becomes a serious concern in the lithography used for high-volume production of semiconductor devices. In this study, the shot noise limit of the sensitivity of chemically amplified resists was investigated from the viewpoint of sensitivity enhancement, assuming extreme ultraviolet lithography. The latent images of line-and-space patterns with 11 nm half-pitch were calculated using a Monte Carlo method. The effect of secondary electron blur was eliminated to clarify the shot noise limit of line edge roughness (LER). When the requirement for line width roughness (LWR) was assumed to be 10% critical dimension (CD), the shot noise limit of sensitivity was >100 mJ cm-2. For the 20% CD LWR, the shot noise limits of sensitivity for the 10, 20, and 30 wt % acid generator concentrations were 20, 9, and 7 mJ cm-2, respectively.

  2. First demonstration of high-order QAM signal amplification in PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier.

    PubMed

    Umeki, T; Tadanaga, O; Asobe, M; Miyamoto, Y; Takenouchi, H

    2014-02-10

    We demonstrate the phase sensitive amplification of a high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal using non-degenerate parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The interaction between the pump, signal, and phase-conjugated idler enables us to amplify arbitrary phase components of the signal. The 16QAM signals are amplified without distortion because of the high gain linearity of the PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier (PSA). Both the phase and amplitude noise reduction capabilities of the PSA are ensured. Phase noise cancellation is achieved by using the interaction with the phase-conjugated idler. A degraded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is restored by using the gain difference between a phase-correlated signal-idler pair and uncorrelated excess noise. The applicability of the simultaneous amplification of multi-carrier signals and the amplification of two independent polarization signals are also confirmed with a view to realizing ultra-high spectrally efficient signal amplification. PMID:24663539

  3. Mitigation of nonlinear distortion in hybrid Raman/phase-sensitive amplifier links.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Henrik; Olsson, Samuel L I; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A

    2016-01-25

    Hybrid systems combining distributed Raman amplification and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are investigated in numerical simulations. We focus on the mitigation of fiber nonlinearities and the impact of the span power map which is also important in systems employing optical phase conjugation or phase-conjugated twin waves. We simulate multi-span PSA links with and without distributed Raman amplification and show that by including distributed Raman amplification, the transmission distance increases more at optimum launch power than in the linear regime. For a 5-channel WDM QPSK PSA-amplified system, we observe a transmission reach increase by a factor of 8.1 by including ideal distributed Raman amplification. PMID:26832472

  4. Experimental implementation of a nonlinear beamsplitter based on a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yami; Feng, Jingliang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Yaxian; Jing, Jietai

    2016-03-01

    Beamsplitters have played an important role in quantum optics experiments. They are often used to split and combine two beams, especially in the construct of an interferometer. In this letter, we experimentally implement a nonlinear beamsplitter using a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier, which is based on four-wave mixing in hot rubidium vapor. Here we show that, despite the different frequencies of the two input beams, the output ports of the nonlinear beamsplitter exhibit interference phenomena. We make measurements of the interference fringe visibility and study how various parameters, such as the intensity gain of the amplifier, the intensity ratio of the two input beams, and the one and two photon detunings, affect the behavior of the nonlinear beamsplitter. It may find potential applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing.

  5. The design of charge-sensitive preamplifier with differential JFET input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hai-jun; Zhang, Liu-qiang; Xiao, Sha-li; Li, Xian-cang; Huang, Zhen-hua

    2013-09-01

    In the highly sensitive detection field, charge-sensitive amplifier is widely used in the preamplifier of detectors, however, the high voltage applied to these detectors (such as CZT nuclear detector) often make serious noise, which may influence the sensitivity of the detector. Despite the traditional passive filter circuit to eliminate the noise of the power, but if the power supply accuracy isn't high enough and the passive circuit eliminate the power supply noise is incomplete. The noise still may affect the performance of the final system. According to the need of nuclear detection and photoelectric detection, a kind of differential JFET charge-sensitive preamplifier is proposed in this paper, which eliminates the power-supply noise and Johnson noise of bias resistance. First, theoretical analysis of the traditional JFET circuit is proved and simulation of the JFET circuit is performed with ORCAD software, which prove that power-supply noise effect the preamplifier. Next, simulation of the innovative circuit is performed with ORCAD software. Finally, the fabricated circuit board is tested with avalanche photo diode (APD). It is shown that the charge-sensitive preamplifier with differential JFET input can significantly eliminate the power-supply noise and Johnson noise of resistance (both low frequency and high frequency) and realize a high sensitivity.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity as an Amplifier of Subjective and Behavioral Tobacco Abstinence Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Guillot, Casey R.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic cognitive vulnerability factor described as an amplifier of negative emotional states, is implicated in the maintenance of cigarette smoking and cessation difficulties. The current study aimed to examine the role of anxiety sensitivity in predicting abstinence-induced changes in nicotine withdrawal, smoking urges and smoking behavior during an experimental relapse analogue task (RAT). Method Participants were 258 non-treatment seeking smokers (M [SD] age = 44.0 [10.73]; 69.8% male). Participants attended two counterbalanced experimental sessions including smoking deprivation (16 hours of smoking abstinence) and smoking as usual. The Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU) were completed at each session in addition to the RAT. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine the predictive impact of anxiety sensitivity on withdrawal and urges during smoking deprivation. Follow-up mediational analyses were conducted to examine whether abstinence-induced withdrawal and urges mediated responding during the RAT. Results Anxiety sensitivity amplified the effects of experimentally manipulated acute abstinence on subjective nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking urges. Additionally, higher levels of anxiety sensitivity indirectly predicted shorter latency to smoking initiation after deprivation during the RAT through the effects of greater abstinence-induced nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to increased smoking during the RAT, although this may be partially attributed to the type of laboratory assessment employed. Conclusions Elevated anxiety sensitivity appears to impact initiation of smoking after nicotine deprivation through the effects of abstinence-induced withdrawal and smoking urges. PMID:25015688

  7. Numerical Investigation of a Cascaded Longitudinal Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-06-01

    In a cascaded longitudinal space-charge amplifier (LSCA), initial density noise in a relativistic e-beam is amplified via the interplay of longitudinal space charge forces and properly located dispersive sections. This type of amplification process was shown to potentially result in large final density modulations [1] compatible with the production of broadband electromagnetic radiation. The technique was recently demonstrated in the optical domain [2]. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performances of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). We especially explore the properties of the produced broadband radiation. Our studies have been conducted with a grid-less three-dimensional space-charge algorithm.

  8. Fast and sensitive detection of an oscillating charge

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, X.; Hasko, D. G.; Milne, W. I.

    2015-07-13

    We investigate the high-frequency operation of a percolation field effect transistor to monitor microwave excited single trapped charge. Readout is accomplished by measuring the effect of the polarization field associated with the oscillating charge on the AC signal generated in the channel due to charge pumping. This approach is sensitive to the relative phase between the polarization field and the pumped current, which is different from the conventional approach relying on the amplitude only. Therefore, despite the very small influence of the single oscillating trapped electron, a large signal can be detected. Experimental results show large improvement in both signal-to-noise ratio and measurement bandwidth.

  9. Charge integration successive approximation analog-to-digital converter for focal plane applications using a single amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter for on-chip focal-plane image sensor applications. The analog-to-digital converter utilizes a single charge integrating amplifier in a charge balancing architecture to implement successive approximation analog-to-digital conversion. This design requires minimal chip area and has high speed and low power dissipation for operation in the 2-10 bit range. The invention is particularly well suited to CMOS on-chip applications requiring many analog-to-digital converters, such as column-parallel focal-plane architectures.

  10. Quantum correlations of an entangled state propagating through a phase-sensitive amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian; Anderson, Brian; Horrom, Travis; Glasser, Ryan; Jones, Kevin; Lett, Paul

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the advance and delay of information transmitted through an optical phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA). We start with a two-mode entangled state created by four-wave mixing in hot 85Rb vapor and measure the mutual information shared by the two modes. We then pass one of these two modes through a PSA and investigate the shift of the mutual information as a function of the PSA phase. The cross-correlation between the two modes of a bipartite EPR state can be advanced by propagation through a fast-light medium and, the extra noise added by a phase-insensitive amplifier has been shown to limit the advance of entanglement, preventing the mutual information from traveling superluminally. In the case of a PSA, however, it is well known that no extra noise will be added for the correct PSA phase (e.g. at the maximal amplification and the maximal deamplification). It is therefore of interest to examine the behavior of the dispersion and the mutual information when passing a signal through a PSA operated at different phases. The behavior of other correlation measures like the quantum discord will be presented as well. Based upon work supported by AFOSR and NSF (PFC at JQI).

  11. Investigation on gain characteristics in non-degenerate cascaded phase sensitive parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Lan; Yu, Chong-xiu; Shen, Xiang-wei; Sang, Xin-zhu; Yuan, Jin-hui; Zeng, Xiao-fang; Xin, Xiang-jun

    2012-05-01

    We theoretically and experimentally show the impact of the ratio between the signal and idler generated from the PIA part on the gain characteristics in the continuous wave (CW) pump non-degenerate cascaded phase-sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier (PS-FOPA). The results show that the length of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) used for generating the idler can cause the variation of power ratio between the idler and signal, which significantly affects the gain characteristics of the PS-FOPA under the small signal gain condition. To obtain high gain, it is better to choose long HNLF to generate idler. In our experiment, 5.5 dB gain and 18 nm bandwidth (on/off gain>10 dBm) in PS-FOPA can be achieved when 300 m-long HNLF instead of 200 m-long HNLF is used in PIA.

  12. New two dimensional position sensitive proportional detectors using charge division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. G.; Cowan, P. L.; Henins, A.; Brennan, S.

    1986-05-01

    Several two dimensional position sensitive proportional counters have been built. The cathodes can encode the position of the event in one or two dimensions using capacitative charge division techniques; a backgammon configuration encodes in one dimension with anode encoding of the second dimension, or a new cathode pattern can be used to encode in two dimensions. Details of the construction and performance are given.

  13. Asymmetric MQW semiconductor optical amplifier with low-polarization sensitivity of over 90-nm bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkanta, Julie E.; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Abdul-Majid, Sawsan; Zhang, Jessica; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    An exhausted capacity of current Passive Optical Networks has been anticipated as bandwidth-hungry applications such as HDTV and 3D video become available to end-users. To enhance their performance, the next generation optical access networks have been proposed, using optical carriers allocated within the E-band (1360-1460 nm). It is partly motivated by the low-water peak fiber being manufactured by Corning. At these wavelengths, choices for low cost optical amplifiers, with compact size, low energy consumption and feasibility for integration with other optoelectronic components are limited, making the semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) a realistic solution. An experimental characterization of a broadband and low polarization sensitive asymmetric multi quantum well (MQW) SOA operating in the E-band is reported. The SOA device is composed of nine 6 nm In1-xGaxAsyP1-y 0.2% tensile strained asymmetric MQW layers sandwiched between nine latticed matched 6 nm InGaAsP barrier layers. The active region is grown on an n-doped InP substrate and buried by p-doped InGaAsP layers. The SOA devices have 7-degrees tilt anti-reflected coated facets, with 2 μm ridge width, and a cavity length of 900 μm. For input powers of -10 dBm and -20 dBm, a maximum gain of 20 dB at 1360 nm with a polarization insensitivity under 3 dB for over 90 nm bandwidth is measured. Polarization sensitivity of less than 0.5 dB is observed for some wavelengths. Obtained results indicate a promising SOA with broadband amplification, polarization insensitivity and high gain. These SOAs were designed and characterized at the Photonics Technology Laboratory, University of Ottawa, Canada.

  14. Compensation of the detector capacitance presented to charge-sensitive preamplifiers using the Miller effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Inyong; Kang, Taehoon; Wells, Byron T.; D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Hammig, Mark D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an integrated circuit design for a modified charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) that compensates for the effect of capacitance presented by nuclear radiation detectors and other sensors. For applications that require large area semiconductor detectors or for those semiconductor sensors derived from high permittivity materials such as PbSe, the detector capacitance can degrade the system gain and bandwidth of a front-end preamplifier, resulting in extended rise times and attenuated output voltage signals during pulse formation. In order to suppress the effect of sensor capacitance, we applied a bootstrap technique into a traditional CSA. The technique exploits the Miller effect by reducing the effective voltage difference between the two sides of a radiation detector which minimizes the capacitance presented to the differential common-source amplifier. This new configuration is successfully designed to produce effective gain even at high detector capacitance. The entire circuit, including a core CSA with feedback components and a bootstrap amplifier, are implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage.

  15. An ultralow noise current amplifier based on superconducting quantum interference device for high sensitivity applications.

    PubMed

    Granata, C; Vettoliere, A; Russo, M

    2011-01-01

    An integrated ultrahigh sensitive current amplifier based on a niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed. The sensor design is based on a multiturn signal coil coupled to a suitable SQUID magnetometer. The signal coil consists of 60 square niobium turns tightly coupled to a superconducting flux transformer of a SQUID magnetometer. The primary coil (pick-up coil) of the flux transformer has been suitably designed in order to accommodate the multiturn input coil. It has a side length of 10 mm and a width of 2.4 mm. In such a way we have obtained a signal current to magnetic flux transfer coefficient (current sensitivity) as low as 62 nA∕Φ(0). The sensor has been characterized in liquid helium by using a direct coupling low noise readout electronic and a standard modulated electronic in flux locked loop configuration for the noise measurements. Beside the circuit complexity, the sensor has exhibited a smooth and free resonance voltage-flux characteristic guaranteeing a reliable and a stable working operation. Considering a SQUID magnetic flux noise of S(Φ)(1∕2) = 1.8 μΦ(0)∕Hz(1∕2) at T = 4.2 K, a current noise as low as 110 fA∕Hz(1∕2) is obtained. Such a value is about a factor two less than the noise of other SQUIDs of the same category. As an application, Nyquist noise measurements of integrated test resistors using the current sensing noise thermometer technique are reported. Due to its high performance such a sensor can be employed in all applications requiring an extremely current sensitivity like the readout of the gravitational wave detectors and the current sensing noise thermometry. PMID:21280839

  16. Low polarization-sensitive asymmetric multi-quantum well semiconductor amplifier for next-generation optical access networks.

    PubMed

    Nkanta, Julie E; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Khan, Kaiser; Benhsaien, Abdessamad; Abdul-Majid, Sawsan; Zhang, Jessica; Hall, Trevor J

    2013-08-15

    A broadband and low-polarization-sensitive multi-quantum well semiconductor optical amplifier with an asymmetric structure is reported for operation in the E-band wavelength range. A gain peak of 20 dB for a bandwidth of more than 50 nm is measured for both TE and TM polarizations. A maximum polarization sensitivity of 3 dB is measured for a broad wavelength range from 1340 to 1440 nm. PMID:24104677

  17. Chemically amplified soft-x-ray resists: sensitivity, resolution, and molecular photodesorption.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, G D; Hwang, R Q; Schulberg, M T; Tichenor, D A; Early, K

    1993-12-01

    The sensitivity, ion photodesorption, and lithographic performance of selected novolac-based chemically amplified resists have been studied at an exposure wavelength of 140 Å. Flood exposures of the resits AZ PF514, AZ PN114, and SAL 601 yield D(0.9) values of 2.5-3.5 mJ/cm(2) for 0.25-µm-thick films. Contrast values range from 3 for AZ PN114 to 5 for SAL 601. Photodesorption of fragment ions induced by 140-Å radiation has been examined in AZ PN114 by using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and compared with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). Mass-integrated ion desorption yields from AZ PN114 are found to be ∼ 90 times less per exposure than from PMMA. Soft-x-ray projection imaging in AZ PF514 and SAL 601 has been characterized by use of a multilayer-coated 20 × Schwarzschild objective and a transmissive Ge/Si mask illuminated by a laser plasma source. PMID:20856564

  18. LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    De Shong, J.A. Jr.

    1957-12-31

    A logarithmic current amplifier circuit having a high sensitivity and fast response is described. The inventor discovered the time constant of the input circuit of a system utilizing a feedback amplifier, ionization chamber, and a diode, is inversely proportional to the input current, and that the amplifier becomes unstable in amplifying signals in the upper frequency range when the amplifier's forward gain time constant equals the input circuit time constant. The described device incorporates impedance networks having low frequency response characteristic at various points in the circuit to change the forward gain of the amplifler at a rate of 0.7 of the gain magnitude for every two times increased in frequency. As a result of this improvement, the time constant of the input circuit is greatly reduced at high frequencies, and the amplifier response is increased.

  19. A novel charge sensitive preamplifier without the feedback resistor

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuccio, G. . Dipt. di Elettronica e Informazione); Rehak, P.; Xi, D. )

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor is presented. No external device or circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The detector leakage and signal current flows away through the gate of the first JFET which works with its gate to source junction slightly forward biased. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is accomplished by an additional feedback loop, which permits to equalize the current flowing through the forward baised gate to source junction and the current coming from the detector. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using an input JFET with a transconductance to gate capacitance ratio of 4 mS/5.4 pF.

  20. A novel charge sensitive preamplifier without the feedback resistor

    SciTech Connect

    Bertuccio, G.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.

    1992-07-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor is presented. No external device or circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The detector leakage and signal current flows away through the gate of the first JFET which works with its gate to source junction slightly forward biased. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is accomplished by an additional feedback loop, which permits to equalize the current flowing through the forward baised gate to source junction and the current coming from the detector. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using an input JFET with a transconductance to gate capacitance ratio of 4 mS/5.4 pF.

  1. Design of Low-Noise Output Amplifiers for P-channel Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on High-Resistivity Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, S.; Frost, F. Dion R.; Groulx, R.; Holland, S.E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.F.; Roe, N. A.; Wang, G.; Yu, Y.

    2011-12-22

    We describe the design and optimization of low-noise, single-stage output amplifiers for p-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for scientific applications in astronomy and other fields. The CCDs are fabricated on high-resistivity, 4000–5000 -cm, n-type silicon substrates. Single-stage amplifiers with different output structure designs and technologies have been characterized. The standard output amplifier is designed with an n{sup +} polysilicon gate that has a metal connection to the sense node. In an effort to lower the output amplifier readout noise by minimizing the capacitance seen at the sense node, buried-contact technology has been investigated. In this case, the output transistor has a p{sup +} polysilicon gate that connects directly to the p{sup +} sense node. Output structures with buried-contact areas as small as 2 μm × 2 μm are characterized. In addition, the geometry of the source-follower transistor was varied, and we report test results on the conversion gain and noise of the various amplifier structures. By use of buried-contact technology, better amplifier geometry, optimization of the amplifier biases and improvements in the test electronics design, we obtain a 45% reduction in noise, corresponding to 1.7 e{sup −} rms at 70 kpixels/sec.

  2. A Stimulated Raman Scattering CMOS Pixel Using a High-Speed Charge Modulator and Lock-in Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Lioe, De Xing; Mars, Kamel; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) lock-in pixel to observe stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) using a high speed lateral electric field modulator (LEFM) for photo-generated charges and in-pixel readout circuits is presented. An effective SRS signal generated after the SRS process is very small and needs to be extracted from an extremely large offset due to a probing laser signal. In order to suppress the offset components while amplifying high-frequency modulated small SRS signal components, the lock-in pixel uses a high-speed LEFM for demodulating the SRS signal, resistor-capacitor low-pass filter (RC-LPF) and switched-capacitor (SC) integrator with a fully CMOS differential amplifier. AC (modulated) components remained in the RC-LPF outputs are eliminated by the phase-adjusted sampling with the SC integrator and the demodulated DC (unmodulated) components due to the SRS signal are integrated over many samples in the SC integrator. In order to suppress further the residual offset and the low frequency noise (1/f noise) components, a double modulation technique is introduced in the SRS signal measurements, where the phase of high-frequency modulated laser beam before irradiation of a specimen is modulated at an intermediate frequency and the demodulation is done at the lock-in pixel output. A prototype chip for characterizing the SRS lock-in pixel is implemented and a successful operation is demonstrated. The reduction effects of residual offset and 1/f noise components are confirmed by the measurements. A ratio of the detected small SRS to offset a signal of less than 10−5 is experimentally demonstrated, and the SRS spectrum of a Benzonitrile sample is successfully observed. PMID:27089339

  3. A Stimulated Raman Scattering CMOS Pixel Using a High-Speed Charge Modulator and Lock-in Amplifier.

    PubMed

    Lioe, De Xing; Mars, Kamel; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) lock-in pixel to observe stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) using a high speed lateral electric field modulator (LEFM) for photo-generated charges and in-pixel readout circuits is presented. An effective SRS signal generated after the SRS process is very small and needs to be extracted from an extremely large offset due to a probing laser signal. In order to suppress the offset components while amplifying high-frequency modulated small SRS signal components, the lock-in pixel uses a high-speed LEFM for demodulating the SRS signal, resistor-capacitor low-pass filter (RC-LPF) and switched-capacitor (SC) integrator with a fully CMOS differential amplifier. AC (modulated) components remained in the RC-LPF outputs are eliminated by the phase-adjusted sampling with the SC integrator and the demodulated DC (unmodulated) components due to the SRS signal are integrated over many samples in the SC integrator. In order to suppress further the residual offset and the low frequency noise (1/f noise) components, a double modulation technique is introduced in the SRS signal measurements, where the phase of high-frequency modulated laser beam before irradiation of a specimen is modulated at an intermediate frequency and the demodulation is done at the lock-in pixel output. A prototype chip for characterizing the SRS lock-in pixel is implemented and a successful operation is demonstrated. The reduction effects of residual offset and 1/f noise components are confirmed by the measurements. A ratio of the detected small SRS to offset a signal of less than 10(-)⁵ is experimentally demonstrated, and the SRS spectrum of a Benzonitrile sample is successfully observed. PMID:27089339

  4. Inhibition of cathepsin proteases attenuates migration and sensitizes aggressive N-Myc amplified human neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Gangoda, Lahiru; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Fonseka, Pamali; Edgington, Laura E.; Ang, Ching-Seng; Ozcitti, Cemil; Bogyo, Matthew; Parker, Belinda S.; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma arises from the sympathetic nervous system and accounts for 15% of childhood cancer mortality. Amplification of the oncogene N-Myc is reported to occur in more than 20% of patients. While N-Myc amplification status strongly correlates with higher tumour aggression and resistance to treatment, the role of N-Myc in the aggressive progression of the disease is poorly understood. N-Myc being a transcription factor can modulate the secretion of key proteins that may play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. Characterising the soluble secreted proteins or secretome will aid in understanding their role in the tumour microenvironment, such as promoting cancer cell invasion and resistance to treatment. The aim of this study is to characterise the secretome of human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 (N-Myc amplified, more aggressive) and SH-SY5Y (N-Myc non-amplified, less aggressive) cells. Conditioned media from SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines were subjected to proteomics analysis. We report a catalogue of 894 proteins identified in the secretome isolated from the two neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y. Functional enrichment analysis using FunRich software identified enhanced secretion of proteins implicated in cysteine peptidase activity in the aggressive N-Myc amplified SK-N-BE2 secretome compared to the less tumorigenic SH-SY5Y cells. Protein-protein interaction-based network analysis highlighted the enrichment of cathepsin and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition sub-networks. For the first time, inhibition of cathepsins by inhibitors sensitized the resistant SK-N-BE2 cells to doxorubicin as well as decreased its migratory potential. The dataset of secretome proteins of N-Myc amplified (more aggressive) and non-amplified (less aggressive) neuroblastoma cells represent the first inventory of neuroblastoma secretome. The study also highlights the prominent role of cathepsins in the N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma pathogenesis. As N-Myc amplification correlates with aggressive neuroblastoma and chemotherapy-based treatment failure, co-treatment with cathepsin inhibitors might be a better avenue for disease management. PMID:25883214

  5. Amplified RNase H activity in Escherichia coli B/r increases sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bockrath, R.; Wolff, L.; Farr, A.; Crouch, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Strains of E. coli B/r transformed with the plasmid pSK760 were found to be sensitized to inactivation by ultraviolet radiation (UV) and to have elevated levels of RNase H activity. Strains transformed with the carrier vector pBR322 or the plasmid pSK762C derived from pSK760 but with an inactivated rnh gene were not sensitized. UV-inactivation data for strains having known defects in DNA repair and transformed with pSK760 suggested an interference by RNase H of postreplication repair: uvrA cells were strongly sensitized, wild-type and uvrA recF cells were moderately sensitized and recA cells were not sensitized; and minimal medium recovery was no longer apparent in sensitized uvrA cells. Biochemical studies showed that post-UV DNA synthesis was sensitized and that the smaller amounts of DNA synthesized after irradiation, while of normal reduced size as indicated by sedimentation position in alkaline sucrose gradients, did not shift to a larger size (more rapidly sedimenting) upon additional incubation. The authors suggest an excess level of RNase H interferes with reinitiation of DNA synthesis on damage templates to disturb the normal pattern of daughter strand gaps and thereby to inhibit postreplication repair.

  6. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-K.; Jeun, M.; Jang, H.-J.; Cho, W.-J.; Lee, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Material preparation, surface functionalization and anti-HBsAg immobilization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03146j

  7. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-K; Jeun, M; Jang, H-J; Cho, W-J; Lee, K H

    2015-10-28

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL(-1)) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases. PMID:26399739

  8. Auditory Sensitivity and the Prelinguistic Vocalizations of Early-Amplified Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hapsburg, Deborah; Davis, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Vocalization development has not been studied thoroughly in infants with early-identified hearing loss who receive hearing aids in the 1st year of life. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between auditory sensitivity and prelinguistic vocalization patterns in infants during the babbling stage. Method: Spontaneous…

  9. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24–72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia. PMID:26441669

  10. Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides.

    PubMed

    Merz, Thomas; Wenninger, Matthias; Weinberger, Michael; Riedle, Eberhard; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim; Schütz, Martin

    2013-11-14

    Charge transfer in DNA cannot be understood without addressing the complex conformational flexibility, which occurs on a wide range of timescales. In order to reduce this complexity four dinucleotide models 1X consisting of benzophenone linked by a phosphodiester to one of the natural nucleosides X = A, G, T, C were studied in water and methanol. The theoretical work focuses on the dynamics and electronic structure of 1G. Predominant conformations in the two solvents were obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. 1G in MeOH adopts mainly an open geometry with a distance of 12–16 Å between the two aromatic parts. In H2O the two parts of 1G form primarily a stacked conformation yielding a distance of 5–6 Å. The low-lying excited states were investigated by electronic structure theory in a QM/MM environment for representative snapshots of the trajectories. Photo-induced intramolecular charge transfer in the S1 state occurs exclusively in the stacked conformation. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy with 1X reveals fast charge transfer from S1 in both solvents with varying yields. Significant charge transfer from the T1 state is only found for the nucleobases with the lowest oxidation potential: in H2O, charge transfer occurs with 3.2 × 10(9) s(-1) for 1A and 6.0 × 10(9) s(-1) for 1G. The reorganization energy remains nearly unchanged going from MeOH to the more polar H2O. The electronic coupling is rather low even for the stacked conformation with H(AB) = 3 meV and explains the moderate charge transfer rates. The solvent controls the conformational distribution and therefore gates the charge transfer due to differences in distance and stacking. PMID:24084688

  11. Application of system-identification by ARMarkov and sensitivity analysis to noise-amplifier models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovetta, Nicolas; Schmid, Peter; Sipp, Denis; McKeon, Beverley

    2011-11-01

    Separated flow often exhibit amplification of external noise sources via an interaction with shear layer instabilities. In order to manipulate this amplification process we consider a data-based control design strategy. The first step is to build a state-space representation of the input-output transfer function. An auto-regressive representation is used that explicitly includes Markov parameters (ARMarkov). This is then coupled with the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) which yields a reduced-order state-space representation of the problem. In real experiments the data is contaminated by measurement noise or by non-linearities which are not accounted for by the present approach. In order to enforce robustness of the identification-realization procedure a sensitivity analysis of the algorithm is performed. These sensitivities provide quantitative criteria to find the most robust way of identifying the system using the ARMarkov/ERA algorithm. The system-identification and sensitivity framework will be demonstrated on the Ginzburg-Landau equation. Support from the Partner University Fund (PUF) is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Sensitive enzyme-amplified electrical immunoassay for protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, J L; Mirhabibollahi, B; Kroll, R G

    1990-01-01

    An amperometric electrochemical immunoassay specific for protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus was developed. The method was based on a sandwich immunosorbent assay and incorporated an enzyme amplification step, using a NAD-specific redox cycle generating NADH (C. H. Stanley, A. Johannsson, and C. H. Self, J. Immunol. Methods 83:89-95, 1985). Reduction of the mediator, ferricyanide, was dependent on the initial concentration of antigen. The final potential was measured by using a Pt disk electrode polarized at +0.8 V to the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The assay was rapid (4 h) and generated protein A- and cell (S. aureus)-dependent signals. The system was highly sensitive and could detect 10 pg of protein A ml-1 and less than 100 CFU of S. aureus ml-1. Similar sensitivities were observed with S. aureus cultures inoculated into beef and milk, but the sensitivity was reduced slightly (ca. 10(3) g-1) with samples of Cheddar cheese. PMID:2268148

  13. Sensitive enantioanalysis of β-blockers via field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanhua; Zhang, Huige; Rahman, Zia Ur; Wang, Weifeng; Li, Xi; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an on-line sample preconcentration technique, field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal by electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump, was applied to realize a highly sensitive chiral analysis of β-blocker enantiomers by MEEKC. The introduction of a water plug in capillary before the electrokinetic injection provided the effective preconcentration of chiral compounds. And then the water was moving out of the column from the injection end under the effect of the EOF, which avoided dilution of the stacked β-blocker enantiomers concentration suffering from the presence of water in separation buffer. Moreover, the addition of H3 PO4 and methanol in the sample solution greatly improved the enhancement efficiency further. Under optimized conditions, more than 2700-fold enhancement in sensitivity was obtained for each enantiomer of bupranolol (BU), alprenolol (AL), and propranolol (PRO) via electrokinetic injection. LODs were 0.10, 0.10, 0.12, 0.11, 0.02, and 0.02 ng/mL for S-BU, R-BU, S-AL, R-AL, S-PRO, and R-PRO, respectively. Eventually, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BU, AL, and PRO in serum samples with good recoveries ranging from 93.4 to 98.2%. PMID:24798241

  14. Amplified photoacoustic performance and enhanced photothermal stability of reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods for sensitive photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyungwon; Kumar, Dinesh; Kim, Haemin; Sim, Changbeom; Chang, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jung-Mu; Kim, Hyuncheol; Lim, Dong-Kwon

    2015-03-24

    We report a strongly amplified photoacoustic (PA) performance of the new functional hybrid material composed of reduced graphene oxide and gold nanorods. Due to the excellent NIR light absorption properties of the reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods (r-GO-AuNRs) and highly efficient heat transfer process through the reduced graphene oxide layer, r-GO-AuNRs exhibit excellent photothermal stability and significantly higher photoacoustic amplitudes than those of bare-AuNRs, nonreduced graphene oxide coated AuNRs (GO-AuNRs), or silica-coated AuNR, as demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. The linear response of PA amplitude from reduced state controlled GO on AuNR indicates the critical role of GO for a strong photothermal effect of r-GO-AuNRs. Theoretical studies with finite-element-method lab-based simulation reveal that a 4 times higher magnitude of the enhanced electromagnetic field around r-GO-AuNRs can be generated compared with bare AuNRs or GO-AuNRs. Furthermore, the r-GO-AuNRs are expected to be a promising deep-tissue imaging probe because of extraordinarily high PA amplitudes in the 4-11 MHz operating frequency of an ultrasound transducer. Therefore, the r-GO-AuNRs can be a useful imaging probe for highly sensitive photoacoustic images and NIR sensitive therapeutics based on a strong photothermal effect. PMID:25751167

  15. Temperature sensitivity analysis of dopingless charge-plasma transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Vishwas; Kumar, Anup; Sahu, Chitrakant; Singh, Jawar

    2016-03-01

    The junctionless field-effect transistors (JLFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-10 nm regime due to simplified fabrication process and less short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards process parameter variation is a major concern. Therefore, in this paper, sensitivity towards temperature variation of recently proposed dopingless (DL) double-gate field-effect transistor (DGFET) and JL-DGFET is reported. Different digital and analog performance metrics were considered and compared for both devices of similar geometries. We observed that the drive current of DL-DGFET decreases with temperature, while, it increases in JL-DGFET because both devices are affected by different scattering mechanisms at higher temperature. The variation in ION and IOFF in DL-DGFET are only 0.095 μ A/K and 0.2 nA /K , respectively, while, in JL-DGFET the changes are 0.25 μ A/K and 0.34 nA /K , respectively, above room temperature. Below room temperature, it was found that the incomplete ionization effect in JL-DGFET severely affects the drive current, however, DL-DGFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed DL-DGFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be employed for cryogenics to high temperature applications.

  16. Reduced Sensitivity to Charge Noise in Semiconductor Spin Qubits via Symmetric Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, M. D.; Maune, B. M.; Andrews, R. W.; Borselli, M. G.; Eng, K.; Jura, M. P.; Kiselev, A. A.; Ladd, T. D.; Merkel, S. T.; Milosavljevic, I.; Pritchett, E. J.; Rakher, M. T.; Ross, R. S.; Schmitz, A. E.; Smith, A.; Wright, J. A.; Gyure, M. F.; Hunter, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate improved operation of exchange-coupled semiconductor quantum dots by substantially reducing the sensitivity of exchange operations to charge noise. The method involves biasing a double dot symmetrically between the charge-state anticrossings, where the derivative of the exchange energy with respect to gate voltages is minimized. Exchange remains highly tunable by adjusting the tunnel coupling. We find that this method reduces the dephasing effect of charge noise by more than a factor of 5 in comparison to operation near a charge-state anticrossing, increasing the number of observable exchange oscillations in our qubit by a similar factor. Performance also improves with exchange rate, favoring fast quantum operations.

  17. Method and apparatus for detection of charge on ions and particles

    DOEpatents

    Fuerstenau, Stephen Douglas; Soli, George Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a tessellated array detector with charge collecting plate (or cup) electrode pixels and amplifying circuitry integrated into each pixel making it sensitive to external electrostatic charge; a micro collector/amplifier pixel design possessing a small capacitance to ensure a high charge to voltage signal conversion for low noise/high sensitivity operation; a micro-fabricated array of such pixels to create a useful macroscopic target area for ion and charged particle collection.

  18. Charge Recombination Control for High Efficiency Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Pan, Zhenxiao; Zhong, Xinhua

    2016-02-01

    Benefiting from the unique excellent optoelectronic properties of quantum dot light absorbers, quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSCs) are a promising candidate for the low-cost third-generation solar cells. Over the past few years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of QDSCs presents a rapid evolution from less than 1% to beyond 8%. Charge recombination is regarded as one of the most significant factors in limiting the photovoltaic performance of QDSCs. A significant improvement in the PCE of QDSCs has been obtained by charge recombination control. Some effective routes to suppress charge recombination processes, such as adopting preprepared high-quality QD sensitizers, tailoring the electronic properties of QDs, and interface engineering with the use of organic or inorganic thin layer overcoating the sensitized photoanode have been overviewed in this perspective. Also, the possible accesses to better performance (higher efficiency and stability) of the QDSCs have been proposed on the basis of achievements obtained previously. PMID:26758605

  19. A sensitive charge scanning probe based on silicon single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, Su; Xinxing, Li; Hua, Qin; Xiaofeng, Gu

    2016-04-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) are known to be extremely sensitive electrometers owing to their high charge sensitivity. In this work, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator-based SET scanning probe. The fabricated SET is located about 10 μm away from the probe tip. The SET with a quantum dot of about 70 nm in diameter exhibits an obvious Coulomb blockade effect measured at 4.1 K. The Coulomb blockade energy is about 18 meV, and the charge sensitivity is in the order of 10‑5‑10‑3 e/Hz1/2. This SET scanning probe can be used to map charge distribution and sense dynamic charge fluctuation in nanodevices or circuits under test, realizing high sensitivity and high spatial resolution charge detection. Project supported by the Instrument Developing Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YZ201152), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11403084), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (Nos. JUSRP51510, JUDCF12032), and the Graduate Student Innovation Program for Universities of Jiangsu Province (No. CXLX12_0724).

  20. Reduced Sensitivity to Charge Noise in Semiconductor Spin Qubits via Symmetric Operation.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; Maune, B M; Andrews, R W; Borselli, M G; Eng, K; Jura, M P; Kiselev, A A; Ladd, T D; Merkel, S T; Milosavljevic, I; Pritchett, E J; Rakher, M T; Ross, R S; Schmitz, A E; Smith, A; Wright, J A; Gyure, M F; Hunter, A T

    2016-03-18

    We demonstrate improved operation of exchange-coupled semiconductor quantum dots by substantially reducing the sensitivity of exchange operations to charge noise. The method involves biasing a double dot symmetrically between the charge-state anticrossings, where the derivative of the exchange energy with respect to gate voltages is minimized. Exchange remains highly tunable by adjusting the tunnel coupling. We find that this method reduces the dephasing effect of charge noise by more than a factor of 5 in comparison to operation near a charge-state anticrossing, increasing the number of observable exchange oscillations in our qubit by a similar factor. Performance also improves with exchange rate, favoring fast quantum operations. PMID:27035289

  1. Enhanced Laboratory Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine-Structure Constant using Highly Charged Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2010-09-17

    We study atomic systems that are in the frequency range of optical atomic clocks and have enhanced sensitivity to potential time variation of the fine-structure constant {alpha}. The high sensitivity is due to coherent contributions from three factors: high nuclear charge Z, high ionization degree, and significant differences in the configuration composition of the states involved. Configuration crossing keeps the frequencies in the optical range despite the large ionization energies. We discuss a few promising examples that have the largest {alpha} sensitivities seen in atomic systems.

  2. PULSE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-06-17

    The improvement of pulse amplifiers used with scintillation detectors is described. The pulse amplifier circuit has the advantage of reducing the harmful effects of overloading cause by large signal inputs. In general the pulse amplifier circuit comprises two amplifier tubes with the input pulses applied to one amplifier grid and coupled to the second amplifier tube through a common cathode load. The output of the second amplifier is coupled from the plate circuit to a cathode follower tube grid and a diode tube in connected from grid to cathode of the cathode follower tube. Degenerative feedback is provided in the second amplifier by coupling a signal from the cathode follower cathode to the second amplifier grid. The circuit proqides moderate gain stability, and overload protection for subsequent pulse circuits.

  3. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  4. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOEpatents

    Bertuccio, G.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.

    1994-09-13

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier. 6 figs.

  5. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOEpatents

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Rehak, Pavel; Xi, Deming

    1994-09-13

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier.

  6. Real-space observation of unbalanced charge distribution inside a perovskite-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Victor W; Weber, Stefan A L; Javier Ramos, F; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Li, Dan; Domanski, Anna L; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Ahmad, Shahzada; Berger, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite-sensitized solar cells have reached power conversion efficiencies comparable to commercially available solar cells used for example in solar farms. In contrast to silicon solar cells, perovskite-sensitized solar cells can be made by solution processes from inexpensive materials. The power conversion efficiency of these cells depends substantially on the charge transfer at interfaces. Here we use Kelvin probe force microscopy to study the real-space cross-sectional distribution of the internal potential within high efficiency mesoscopic methylammonium lead tri-iodide solar cells. We show that the electric field is homogeneous through these devices, similar to that of a p-i-n type junction. On illumination under short-circuit conditions, holes accumulate in front of the hole-transport layer as a consequence of unbalanced charge transport in the device. After light illumination, we find that trapped charges remain inside the active device layers. Removing these traps and the unbalanced charge injection could enable further improvements in performance of perovskite-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25242041

  7. Intercellular Communication Amplifies Stressful Effects in High-Charge, High-Energy (HZE) Particle-Irradiated Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    AUTSAVAPROMPORN, Narongchai; DE TOLEDO, Sonia M.; BUONANNO, Manuela; JAY-GERIN, Jean-Paul; HARRIS, Andrew L.; AZZAM, Edouard I.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlay the biological effects of particulate radiations is essential for space exploration and for radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the role of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in modulating harmful effects induced in confluent cultures wherein most cells are traversed by one or more radiation tracks. We focused on the effect of radiation quality (linear energy transfer; LET) on junctional propagation of DNA damage and cell death among the irradiated cells. Confluent normal human fibroblasts were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV protons (LET ~0.2 keV/μm) or 1 GeV/u iron ions (LET ~151 keV/μm) and were assayed for clonogenic survival and for micronucleus formation, a reflection of DNA damage, shortly after irradiation and following longer incubation periods. Iron ions were ~2.7 fold more effective than protons at killing 90% of the cells in the exposed cultures when assayed within 5–10 minutes after irradiation. When cells were held in the confluent state for several hours after irradiation, substantial repair of potentially lethal damage (PLDR), coupled with a reduction in micronucleus formation, occurred in cells exposed to protons, but not in those exposed to iron ions. In fact, such confluent holding after exposure to a similarly toxic dose of iron ions enhanced the induced toxic effect. However, following iron ion irradiation, inhibition of GJIC by 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid eliminated the enhanced toxicity and reduced micronucleus formation to levels below those detected in cells assayed shortly after irradiation. The data show that low LET radiation induces strong PLDR within hours, but that high LET radiation with similar immediate toxicity does not induce PLDR and its toxicity increases with time following irradiation. The results also show that GJIC among irradiated cells amplifies stressful effects following exposure to high, but not LET radiation, and that GJIC has only minimal effect on cellular recovery following low LET irradiation. PMID:21905305

  8. Characteristics of Highly Sensitive pH Sensors with Charge Accumulation Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizawa, Takeshi; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Ishida, Makoto

    2006-12-01

    A charge-transfer-type pH sensor operated by charge accumulation was demonstrated, and it was confirmed that its pH sensitivity was 1130 mV/pH with five signal integration cycles. The most familiar pH sensor using a semiconductor is the ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET). The sensitivity of our pH sensor was 20 times higher than that of the ISFET. The sensitivity of the ISFET, which is similar in structure to a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, is restricted by the Nernst equation (59 mV/pH at room temperature). The output signal from an ISFET disappears into its noise as pH variation becomes small. The charge-transfer-type pH sensor increases the pH output signal to integrate signals in the time domain that are noise-free. It is expected that with this sensor it is possible to measure small pH signal variations.

  9. Success of the PCR-based replication assay depends on the number of methylation sensitive restriction sites in the PCR amplifying region.

    PubMed

    Metta, M K; Tantravahi, S; Kunaparaju, R

    2015-01-01

    The PCRbased replication assay is one of the most simple, quick and economical methods for the analysis of episomal replication. However, in spite of its advantages the method has not been able to replace the southernbased replication assay, the latter of which is a tedious and timeconsuming process. This is due to the generation of spurious amplification products in the PCRbased replication assay. The replication assay is based on the use of methylationsensitive restriction endonucleases (eg. DpnI, MboI) to distinguish bacterial replicated (adenosine methylated) and mammalian replicated plasmids (adenosine nonmethylated). In this work we addressed the problem by evaluating (a) restriction enzyme digestion and (b) the minimum number of restriction sites that are required in the amplifying region. The efficiency of restriction digestion was tested by subjecting the plasmid to one and two rounds of digestion. Multiple rounds of digestions were found to be inefficient in preventing false positives when the number of DpnI sites in the amplifying region is less than 8. However, use of a minimum of 15 DpnI sites in the amplifying region was found to overcome the false positives. PMID:26068910

  10. Charge generation by heavy ions in power MOSFETs, burnout space predictions, and dynamic SEB sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Calvel, P.; Baiget, A.; Peyrotte, C.; Gaillard, R.

    1992-01-01

    The transport, energy loss, and charge production of heavy ions in the sensitive regions of IRF 150 power MOSFETs are described. The dependence and variation of transport parameters with ion type and energy relative to the requirements for single event burnout in this part type are discussed. Test data taken with this power MOSFET are used together with analyses by means of a computer code of the ion energy loss and charge production in the device to establish criteria for burnout and parameters for space predictions. These parameters are then used in an application to predict burnout rates in a geostationary orbit for power converters operating in a dynamic mode. Comparisons of rates for different geometries in simulating SEU (single event upset) sensitive volumes are presented.

  11. Development of Charge Sensitive Infrared Phototransistors for the Far-Infrared Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, R.; Komiyama, S.; Kawada, M.; Matsuura, S.; Doi, Y.; Satoh, T.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-08-01

    Ultra-highly-sensitive far-infrared detectors are developed for potential application to astronomy. The detectors exploit a novel mechanism called Charge Sensitive Infrared Phototransistors (CSIPs), in which an upper quantum well (QW) in GaAs/AlGaAs double QW structures is positively charged up by photo-excitation via inter-subband transition. This causes the conductance of the lower QW channel to increase. The device is effectively a phototransistor, in which the upper QW serves as a photo-sensitive gate to the source-drain channel provided by the lower QW. Resultant extraordinary high photoconductive gain makes CSIPs so sensitive as to detect single photons. CSIPs are well established in the mid-infrared ( = 12-20 m), achieving noise equivalent power around 1.9 10 W/Hz with a quantum efficiency of 7 %. CSIPs have been demonstrated to work in longer wavelengths up to 45 m, but the sensitivity was not as high as in the shorter wavelengths, probably due to lower quantum efficiency. Reported here is a remarkable improvement in the performance of longer wavelength CSIPs (45 m), achieved primarily by optimizing the doping concentration in the upper QW. This work indicates that longer wavelength CSIPs are promising detectors for the astronomical application.

  12. Ultrafast interfacial charge transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized and quantum dot solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Hirendra N.

    2013-02-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) appeared to be one of the good discovery for the solution of energy problem. We have been involved in studying ultrafast interfacial electron transfer dynamics in DSSC using femtosecond laser spectroscopy. However it has been realized that it is very difficult to design and develop higher efficient one, due to thermodynamic limitation. Again in DSSC most of the absorbed photon energy is lost as heat within the cell, which apart from decreasing the efficiency also destabilizes the device. It has been realized that quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) are the best bet where the sensitizer dye molecules can be replaced by suitable quantum dot (QD) materials in solar cell. The quantum-confinement effect in semiconductors modifies their electronic structure, which is a very important aspect of these materials. For photovoltaic applications, a long-lived charge separation remains one of the most essential criteria. One of the problems in using QDs for photovoltaic applications is their fast charge recombination caused by nonradiative Auger processes, which occur predominantly at lower particle sizes due to an increase in the Coulomb interaction between electrons and holes. Various approaches, such as the use of metal-semiconductor composites, semiconductor-polymer composite, and semiconductor core-shell heterostructures, have been attempted to minimize the fast recombination between electrons and holes. To make higher efficient solar devices it has been realised that it is very important to understand charge carrier and electron transfer dynamics in QD and QD sensitized semiconductor nanostructured materials. In the present talk, we are going to discuss on recent works on ultrafast electron transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles/film [1-12] and charge (electron/hole) transfer dynamics in quantum dot core-shell nano-structured materials [13-17].

  13. Factors limiting the sensitivity and dynamic range of a seismic system employing analog magnetic tape recording and a seismic amplifier with adjustable gain settings and several output levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Jerry P.; Van Schaack, John R.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of modernizing the low-speed-tape-recorder portable seismic systems and considering the possibilities for the design of a cassette-tape-recorder seismic refraction system, the factors that limit the sensitivity and dynamic range of such systems have been reviewed. These factors will first be stated briefly, and then their influence on systems such as the new 5-day-tape seismic system will be examined in more detail. To fix ideas, we shall assume that the system consists of the following elements: 1. A seismic sensor: usually a moving coil inertial seismometer with a period of about 1 second, a coil resistance of about 5000 ohms, and an effective motor constant of 1.0 V/cm/sec (across a 10K load terminating the seismometer sensitivity-and-damping-adjustment resistive network). 2. A seismic amplifier/voltage controlled oscillator unit made up of the following components: a) A fixed gain preamplifier with an input resistance of 10K and an internal noise level of 0.5 muVpp referred to the preamp input (0.1 Hz <= freq. <= 30 hz). b) An adjustable gain (0 to 42 db in 6 db steps) intermediate amplifier c) One or more fixed gain output amplifiers. d) Two sections of 6 db/octave bandpass filter serving to couple the 3 amplifier stages together. e) Voltage controlled oscillators for each output amplifier to produce modulated FM carriers for recording on separate tape tracks or modulated FM subcarriers for subsequent multiplexing and direct recording on tape in the California Network format. 3. An analog magnetic tape recorder: e.g. the PI 5100 (15/80 ips recording in the FM mode or in the direct mode with the 'broad-band' variant-of the Cal Net multiplex system, or 15/16 ips recording in the direct mode with the standard Cal Net multiplex system), or the Sony TC-126 cassette recorder operating in the direct record mode with the standard Cal Net multiplex system. 4. Appropriate magnetic tape playback equipment: e.g., the Bell and Howell 3700-B for the PI-5100 or the Sony TC 126 for its own tapes. 5. Appropriate discriminators (employing subtractive compensation, at least for the multiplexed systems) to restore the data signals to their original forms. 6. An A/D convertor to digitize the seismic signals for computer processing and/or a strip chart recorder (e.g., the Siemens Oscillomink) for playout of the data.

  14. Sensitivity of Battery Electric Vehicle Economics to Drive Patterns, Vehicle Range, and Charge Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.

    2012-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs discourage many potential purchasers. Making an economic comparison with conventional alternatives is complicated in part by strong sensitivity to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies that affect vehicle utilization and battery wear. Identifying justifiable battery replacement schedules and sufficiently accounting for the limited range of a BEV add further complexity to the issue. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Battery Ownership Model to address these and related questions. The Battery Ownership Model is applied here to examine the sensitivity of BEV economics to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies when a high-fidelity battery degradation model, financially justified battery replacement schedules, and two different means of accounting for a BEV's unachievable vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are employed. We find that the value of unachievable VMT with a BEV has a strong impact on the cost-optimal range, charge strategy, and battery replacement schedule; that the overall cost competitiveness of a BEV is highly sensitive to vehicle-specific drive patterns; and that common cross-sectional drive patterns do not provide consistent representation of the relative cost of a BEV.

  15. Enhancement of the sensitivity of a recirculation fibre ring interferometer with pulsed pumping of an intracavity optical erbium-doped fibre amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, E I; Bazarov, E N; Gubin, Vladimir P; Sazonov, Aleksandr I; Starostin, Nikolay I; Oussov, Aleksey I

    2004-07-31

    The signal sensitivity and detection capability of a recirculation fibre ring interferometer (RFRI) are studied experimentally upon pulsed pumping of an intracavity ytterbium-sensitised erbium-doped fibre amplifier (YEDFA). It is shown that the number of effective circulations of light in the ring resonator can be substantially increased in the transient regime above the self-excitation threshold when, however, lasing has yet no time to develop. It is found that the required transient regime is achieved due to the self-restriction (drop) of amplification in YEDFA caused by the saturation of the active medium with increasing radiation power in the resonator. The increase in the signal sensitivity of the RFRI and its detection capability by factors of 25 and 4, respectively, is demonstrated in the pulsed regime of the YEDFA. (fibreoptic devices)

  16. A new mussel-inspired polydopamine sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells: controlled synthesis and charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Boeun; Ko, Min Jae; Jin, Mingshi; Kim, Ji Man; Jung, Duk-Young

    2012-10-29

    The efficient electron injection by direct dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer and strong adhesion of mussel-inspired synthetic polydopamine (PDA) dyes with TiO(2) electrode is demonstrated. Spontaneous self-polymerization of dopamine using dip-coating (DC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in basic buffer solution were applied to TiO(2) layers under a nitrogen atmosphere, which offers a facile and reliable synthetic pathway to make the PDA dyes, PDA-DC and PDA-CV, with conformal surface and perform an efficient dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer. Both synthetic methods led to excellent photovoltaic results and the PDA-DC dye exhibited larger current density and efficiency values than those in the PDA-CV dye. Under simulated AM 1.5 G solar light (100 mW cm(-2)), a PDA-DC dye exhibited a short circuit current density of 5.50 mW cm(-2), corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.2 %, which is almost 10 times that of the dopamine dye-sensitized solar cell. The PDA dyes showed strong adhesion with the nanocrystalline TiO(2) electrodes and the interface engineering of a dye-adsorbed TiO(2) surface through the control of the coating methods, reaction times and solution concentration maximized the overall conversion efficiency, resulting in a remarkably high efficiency. PMID:23001762

  17. Charge transport through split photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Ahmed, Irfan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan; Khalidin, Zulkeflee

    2014-04-28

    Charge transport and recombination are relatively ignored parameters while upscaling dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Enhanced photovoltaic parameters are anticipated by merely widening the devices physical dimensions, viz., thickness and area as evident from the device design adopted in reported large area DSCs. These strip designs lead to ≤50% loss in photocurrent compared to the high efficiency lab scale devices. Herein, we report that the key to achieving higher current density (J{sub SC}) is optimized diffusion volume rather than the increased photoelectrode area because kinetics of the devices is strongly influenced by the varied choices of diffusion pathways upon increasing the electrode area. For a given electrode area and thickness, we altered the photoelectrode design by splitting the electrode into multiple fractions to restrict the electron diffusion pathways. We observed a correlation between the device physical dimensions and its charge collection efficiency via current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The modified electrode designs showed >50% increased J{sub SC} due to shorter transport time, higher recombination resistance and enhanced charge collection efficiency compared to the conventional ones despite their similar active volume (∼3.36 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 3}). A detailed charge transport characteristic of the split devices and their comparison with single electrode configuration is described in this article.

  18. Visualizing interfacial charge transfer in dye sensitized nanoparticles using x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. Y.; Smolentsev, G.; Guo, J.; Attenkofer, K.; Kurtz, C.; Jennings, G.; Lockard, J. V.; Stickrath, A. B.; Chen, L. X.

    2011-01-01

    A molecular level understanding of the structural reorganization accompanying interfacial electron transfer is important for rational design of solar cells. Here we have applied XTA (X-ray transient absorption) spectroscopy to study transient structures in a heterogeneous interfacial system mimicking the charge separation process in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with Ru(dcbpy){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (RuN3) dye adsorbed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surfaces. The results show that the average Ru-NCS bond length reduces by 0.06 {angstrom}, whereas the average Ru-N(dcbpy) bond length remains nearly unchanged after the electron injection. The differences in bond-order change and steric hindrance between two types of ligands are attributed to their structural response in the charge separation. This study extends the application of XTA into optically opaque hybrid interfacial systems relevant to the solar energy conversion.

  19. The influence of charge transport and recombination on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingkui; Chen, Peter; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2009-01-12

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transient voltage decay measurements are applied to compare the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using organic electrolytes, ionic liquids and organic-hole conductors as hole transport materials (HTM). Nano-crystalline titania films sensitized by the same heteroleptic ruthenium complex NaRu(4-carboxylic acid-4'-carboxylate) (4,4'-dinonyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)(NCS)(2) , coded Z-907Na are employed as working electrodes. The influence of the nature of the HTM on the photovoltaic figures of merit, that is, the open circuit voltage, short circuit photocurrent and fill factor is evaluated. In order to derive the electron lifetime, as well as the electron diffusion coefficient and charge collection efficiency, EIS measurements are performed in the dark and under illumination corresponding to realistic photovoltaic operating conditions of these mesoscopic solar cells. A theoretical model is established to interpret the frequency response off the impedance under open circuit conditions, which is conceptually similar to photovoltage transient decay measurements. Important information on factors that govern the dynamics of electron transport within the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film and charge recombination across the dye sensitized heterojunction is obtained. PMID:19115326

  20. A low-noise, wide-band CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier for use with APD/LSO PET detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, M.J.; Andreaco, M.S.; Binkley, D.M.; Rochelle, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The recent emergence of LSO as a potential scintillator for positron emission tomography (PET) and recent improvements in avalanche photodiode (APD) technology offer encouragement that an APD/LSO based PET detector may be commercially viable in the near future. An important component of any APD/LSO based PET detector will be the preamplifier used to read out the low-level detector signals. Due to the large number of detectors (>18,000) in a high-resolution PET scanner, the preamplifier must be implemented as a monolithic integrated circuit. Additionally, in order to achieve the timing resolution required for high resolution PET, the preamplifier must have a large band-width and a low equivalent input noise voltage. This paper presents a CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier design which uses local feedback to improve the performance of the common gate transistor. The modified cascode circuit is analyzed and compared with a previously reported simple folded cascode circuit. A prototype circuit was fabricated in a 2 {micro}m NWELL CMOS process. The prototype amplifier has a measured 10--90% rise-time of 7 ns with an external input capacitance of {approximately}6 pF and has an equivalent input noise voltage of {approximately}1.1 nV/rt-Hz above the flicker noise corner. A pulse height resolution of 14.3% FWHM and a timing resolution of 1.57 ns FWHM (vs. plastic) were obtained with the preamplifier, an Advanced Photonix 5 mm diameter beveled-edge APD and a 3.5 x 3.5 x 22 mm{sup 3} Teflon wrapped LSO crystal.

  1. An Amplifier Concept for Spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Acremann, Y.; Yu, X.W.; Tulapurkar, A.A.; Scherz, A.; Chembrolu, V.; Katine, J.A.; Carey, M.J.; Siegmann, H.C.; Stohr, J.

    2009-05-11

    Typical spin-dependent devices proposed for information processing lack one of the most important features provided by charge based logic: they do not provide gain. In this letter we show the basic concept of a spin amplifier and propose ways to amplify a spin current at room temperature.

  2. Operational Amplifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  3. Characterization of a New Charge Sensitive Preamplifier (CSP) for the Electromagnetic Calorimeters of the ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaping; Cai, Xu; Yin, Zhongbao

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE calorimeters PHOS and EMCal (including its extension DCal) are based on Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) photosensors with Charge Sensitive Preamplifiers (CSPs) for readout of the scintillating elements. A new CSP has been developed on the basis of the design of the PHOS CSP, but modified to meet the requirements of the EMCal and DCal. Modifications were made specifically for a different APD choice with different characteristics, and also with the goals of less noise, faster rise time, and reduced cost. This paper presents a detailed description of the new CSP features and the test results.

  4. Amplifier Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2006-12-01

    By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

  5. Development of a sensitive amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay to monitor the interactions between pTEFb and Tat.

    PubMed

    Burlein, Christine; Bahnck, Carolyn; Bhatt, Triveni; Murphy, Dennis; Lemaire, Peter; Carroll, Steve; Miller, Michael D; Lai, Ming-Tain

    2014-11-15

    The viral transactivator protein (Tat) plays an essential role in the replication of human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1) by recruiting the host positive transcription elongation factor (pTEFb) to the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery to enable an efficient HIV-1 RNA elongation process. Blockade of the interaction between Tat and pTEFb represents a novel strategy for developing a new class of antiviral agents. In this study, we developed a homogeneous assay in AlphaLISA (amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay) format using His-tagged pTEFb and biotinylated Tat to monitor the interaction between Tat and pTEFb. On optimizing the assay conditions, the signal-to-background ratio was found to be greater than 10-fold. The assay was validated with untagged Tat and peptides known to compete with Tat for pTEFb binding. The Z' of the assay is greater than 0.5, indicating that the assay is robust and can be easily adapted to a high-throughput screening format. Furthermore, the affinity between Tat and pTEFb was determined to be approximately 20 pM, and only 7% of purified Tat was found to be active in forming tertiary complex with pTEFb. Development of this assay should facilitate the discovery of a new class of antiviral agents providing HIV-1 patients with broader treatment choices. PMID:25132562

  6. A convenient and sensitive method for haloacetic acid analysis in tap water by on-line field-amplified sample-stacking CE-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Hung, Sih-Hua; Her, Guor-Rong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we propose a simple strategy based on flow injection and field-amplified sample-stacking CE-ESI-MS/MS to analyze haloacetic acids (HAAs) in tap water. Tap water was passed through a desalination cartridge before field-amplified sample-stacking CE-ESI-MS/MS analysis to reduce sample salinity. With this treatment, the signals of the HAAs increased 300- to 1400-fold. The LODs for tap water analysis were in the range of 10 to 100 ng/L, except for the LOD of monochloroacetic acid (1 μg/L in selected-ion monitoring mode detection). The proposed method is fast, convenient, and sensitive enough to perform on-line analysis of five HAAs in the tap water of Taipei City. Four HAAs, including trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, dibromoacetic acid, and monobromoacetic acid, were detected at concentrations of approximately 1.74, 1.15, 0.16, and 0.15 ppb, respectively. PMID:24019225

  7. Enhanced response and sensitivity of self-corrugated graphene sensors with anisotropic charge distribution

    PubMed Central

    Yol Jeong, Seung; Jeong, Sooyeon; Won Lee, Sang; Tae Kim, Sung; Kim, Daeho; Jin Jeong, Hee; Tark Han, Joong; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Yang, Sunhye; Seok Jeong, Mun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a high-performance molecular sensor using self-corrugated chemically modified graphene as a three dimensional (3D) structure that indicates anisotropic charge distribution. This is capable of room-temperature operation, and, in particular, exhibiting high sensitivity and reversible fast response with equilibrium region. The morphology consists of periodic, “cratered” arrays that can be formed by condensation and evaporation of graphene oxide (GO) solution on interdigitated electrodes. Subsequent hydrazine reduction, the corrugated edge area of the graphene layers have a high electric potential compared with flat graphene films. This local accumulation of electrons interacts with a large number of gas molecules. The sensitivity of 3D-graphene sensors significantly increases in the atmosphere of NO2 gas. The intriguing structures have several advantages for straightforward fabrication on patterned substrates, high-performance graphene sensors without post-annealing process. PMID:26053892

  8. Sensitive and direct determination of lithium by mixed-mode chromatography and charged aerosol detection.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lulu; Wigman, Larry; Zhang, Kelly

    2015-08-21

    A sensitive analytical method using mixed mode HPLC separation coupled with charged aerosol detection (CAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of lithium. The method is capable of separating lithium ion from different drug matrices and other ions in a single run thus eliminating the organic matrix and ionic analyte interferences without extensive sample preparation such as derivatization and extraction. The separation space and chromatographic conditions are defined by systematic studies of the retention behaviors of lithium and potential interfering ions and different type of pharmaceutical APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) under reversed-phase, HILIC and cation/anion exchange mechanisms. Compared to other current analytical techniques for lithium analysis, the presented method provides a new approach and demonstrates high sensitivity (0.02ng for LOD and 0.08ng for LOQ in both standard and sample solution). The method has been validated for pharmaceutical samples and can be potentially applied to biological, food and environmental samples. PMID:26184708

  9. Enhanced response and sensitivity of self-corrugated graphene sensors with anisotropic charge distribution.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Yol; Jeong, Sooyeon; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Daeho; Jeong, Hee Jin; Han, Joong Tark; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Yang, Sunhye; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a high-performance molecular sensor using self-corrugated chemically modified graphene as a three dimensional (3D) structure that indicates anisotropic charge distribution. This is capable of room-temperature operation, and, in particular, exhibiting high sensitivity and reversible fast response with equilibrium region. The morphology consists of periodic, "cratered" arrays that can be formed by condensation and evaporation of graphene oxide (GO) solution on interdigitated electrodes. Subsequent hydrazine reduction, the corrugated edge area of the graphene layers have a high electric potential compared with flat graphene films. This local accumulation of electrons interacts with a large number of gas molecules. The sensitivity of 3D-graphene sensors significantly increases in the atmosphere of NO2 gas. The intriguing structures have several advantages for straightforward fabrication on patterned substrates, high-performance graphene sensors without post-annealing process. PMID:26053892

  10. Evaluation of sensitivity for positive tone non-chemically and chemically amplified resists using ionized radiation: EUV, x-ray, electron and ion induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Washio, Masakazu; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2013-03-01

    The different exposure sources induce a different energy deposition in resist materials. Linear energy transfer (LET) effect for resist sensitivity is very important issue from the viewpoint of radiation induced chemical reactions for high-volume nanofabrication. The sensitivities of positive tone non-chemically (non-CA, ZEP) and chemically amplified (CA, UV-3) resist materials are evaluated using various ionized radiation such as EUV, soft X-rays, EB and various ion beams. Since the notations of sensitivity of resist vary with exposure sources, in order to evaluate systematically, the resist sensitivity were estimated in terms of absorbed dose in resist materials. Highly-monochromated EUV and soft X-rays (6.7 nm - 3.1 nm) from the BL27SU of the SPring-8, high energy ion beams (C6+, Ne10+, Mg12+, Si14+ , Ar18+, Kr36+ and Xe54+) with 6 MeV/u from MEXP of HIMAC, EB from low energy EB accelerator (Hamamatsu Photonics, EB-engine®, 100 kV) and EB lithography system (30 keV and 75keV) were used for the exposure. For non-CA and CA resist materials, it was found that LET effects for sensitivity would be hardly observed except for heavier ion beams. Especially, in the case of the high energy ion beam less than Si14+ with 6 MeV/u, it is suggested that the radiation induced chemical reaction would be equivalent to EUV, soft X-ray and EB exposure. Hence, it indicates that the resist sensitivity could be systematically evaluated by absorbed dose in resist materials.

  11. Ultra-sensitive speciation analysis of mercury by CE-ICP-MS together with field-amplified sample stacking injection and dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, YiQuan; Cheng, Xian; Mo, Fan; Huang, LiMei; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Yongning; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-01

    A simple dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) from water sample, and a sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) by using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) with field-amplified sample stacking injection (FASI) were first reported in this study. The DSPE used thiol cotton particles as adsorbent, and is simple and effective. It can be used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace mercury compounds in water samples within 30 min with a satisfied recovery and no mercury species alteration during the process. The FASI enhanced the sensitivity of CE-ICP-MS with 25-fold, 29-fold and 27-fold for MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) , respectively. Using FASI-CE-ICP-MS together with DSPE, we have successfully determined ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) in tap water with a limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.26-0.45 pg/mL, an RSD (n = 3) < 6% and a recovery of 92-108%. Ultra-high sensitivity, as well as much less sample and reagent consumption and low operating cost, make our method a valuable technique to the speciation analysis of ultra-trace mercury. PMID:26643127

  12. Depth-charge static and time-dependence perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code block for both static and time-dependence perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Labortary. The DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analysis of realistic multidimensional reactor models.

  13. Coreactant enhanced anodic electrochemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots at low potential for sensitive biosensing amplified by enzymatic cycle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Ju, Huangxian

    2008-07-15

    This work used sulfite as a coreactant to enhance the anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of mercaptopropionic acid modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs). This strategy proposed the first coreactant anodic ECL of QDs and led to a sensitive ECL emission of QDs in aqueous solution at relatively low potential. In the presence of dissolved oxygen, the stable ECL emission resulted from the excited QDs. Thus, an ECL detection method was proposed at +0.90 V (vs Ag/AgCl) based on the quenching of excited QDs by the analyte. Using tyrosine as a model compound, whose electrooxidized product could quench the excited QDs and thus the ECL emission, an analytical method for detection of tyrosine in a wide concentration range was developed. Furthermore, by combining an enzymatic cycle of trace tyrosinase to produce the oxidized product with an energy-transfer process, an extremely sensitive method for ECL detection of tyrosine with a subpicomolar limit of detection was developed. The sulfite-enhanced anodic ECL emission provided an alternative for traditional ECL light emitters and a new methodology for extremely sensitive ECL detection of mono- and dihydroxybenzenes at relatively low anodic potential. This strategy could be easily realized and opened new avenues for the applications of QDs in ECL biosensing. PMID:18522432

  14. Charge separation in solid-state dye-sensitized heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, U.; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Moser, J.E.; Haque, S.A.; Durrant, J.R.; Graetzel, M.; Klug, D.R.

    1999-08-18

    Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells are presently under intensive investigation, as they offer an attractive alternative to conventional p--n junction devices. Solid-state versions have been described where the electrolyte present in the pores of the malodorous oxide film is replaced by a large band gap p-type semiconductor. In this way, a solid-state heterojunction of very large contact area is formed. Light is absorbed by the dye that is located at the interface. Upon excitation, the dye injects electrons into the conduction band of the oxide and is regenerated by hole injection into the p-type conductor. High incident photon-to-electric current conversion efficiencies have been achieved recently with a cell consisting of a dye-derivatized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film contacted by a new organic hole conductor. The great advantage of such systems with regard to conventional p--n junctions is that only majority carriers are involved in the photoelectric conversion process. Moreover, these are generated by the dye precisely at the site of the junction where the electric field is maximal, enhancing charge separation. Photoelectric conversion by conventional solar cells involves minority carriers whose lifetime is restricted due to recombination. As they are generated throughout the semiconductor and away from the junction, expensive high-purity materials are required in order to maintain the minority carrier diffusion length at a level where current losses are avoided. While the dynamics of photoinduced redo processes in photoelectrochemical systems have been studied in great detail, little is known about the electron-transfer dynamics in solid-state sensitized junctions. Here the authors report for the first time on the direct observation of photoinduced, interfacial charge separation across a dye-sensitized solid-state heterojunction by means of picosecond transient absorption laser spectroscopy.

  15. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

  16. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  17. Isotope-Resolved and Charge-Sensitive Force Imaging Using Scanned Single Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Rastawicki, Dominik; Liu, Yang; Mar, Warren; Manoharan, Hari; Miglio, Anna; Melinte, Sorin; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; He, Lianhua; Liu, Fang; Zhou, Aihui

    Originally conceived as surface imaging instruments, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) were recently used to probe molecular chemical bonds with exquisite sensitivity. Remarkably, molecule-functionalized scanning tips can also provide direct access to the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum (IETS) of the terminal molecule. Here we report atomic manipulation experiments addressing carbon monoxide (CO) isotopes at low temperatures. The unique and quantifiable dependence of the CO vibrational modes offers insight into tip-controlled force and charge sensing of surface adsorbates, subsurface defects, and quantum nanostructures. The specific behavior of the monitored vibrational modes originates from the interplay of interaction forces between the top electrode--a scanned tip functionalized with a single molecule--and the atomic scale force field surrounding the target atomically-assembled nanostructure. We also present density functional theory (DFT) computations that have been performed in order to scrutinize and visualize the vibrational spectroscopic fingerprints and local force fields.

  18. Extreme chemical sensitivity of nonlinear conductivity in charge-ordered LuFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shi; Li, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Tian, Huanfang; Qin, Yuanbin; Zeng, Lunjie; Ma, Chao; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi

    2012-03-01

    Nonlinear transport behaviors are crucial for applications in electronic technology. At the nonlinear critical turning point, the nonequilibrium states cause rich physics responses to environment. The corresponding study in this field is crucial for physics and industry application. Here nonlinear conductivity in charge-ordered (CO) LuFe2O4 has been demonstrated. Remarkable resistivity switching behavior was observed and the gas-sensing property can be reversibly tuned by a small alternation of partial pressure and/or chemical components of the environment. These facts allow us to use LuFe2O4 materials as a sensitive chemical gas sensor in technological applications. Careful analysis of the gas sensing process in LuFe2O4 suggests a novel sensing mechanism in sharp contrast with that discussed for the conventional gas sensors which depend fundamentally on surface chemical reactions.

  19. Extreme chemical sensitivity of nonlinear conductivity in charge-ordered LuFe2O4

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shi; Li, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Tian, Huanfang; Qin, Yuanbin; Zeng, Lunjie; Ma, Chao; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear transport behaviors are crucial for applications in electronic technology. At the nonlinear critical turning point, the nonequilibrium states cause rich physics responses to environment. The corresponding study in this field is crucial for physics and industry application. Here nonlinear conductivity in charge-ordered (CO) LuFe2O4 has been demonstrated. Remarkable resistivity switching behavior was observed and the gas-sensing property can be reversibly tuned by a small alternation of partial pressure and/or chemical components of the environment. These facts allow us to use LuFe2O4 materials as a sensitive chemical gas sensor in technological applications. Careful analysis of the gas sensing process in LuFe2O4 suggests a novel sensing mechanism in sharp contrast with that discussed for the conventional gas sensors which depend fundamentally on surface chemical reactions. PMID:22448317

  20. Ultra-low noise charge sensitive preamplifier for scintillation detection with avalanche photodiodes in PET applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D.; Lecomte, R.; Lapointe, M.; Martel, G.; Carrier, C.; Karuta, B.; Duval, F.

    1987-02-01

    The need for compact, fast, low-noise front-end electronics in high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) has prompted this effort to design a preamplifier suitable for avalanche photodiode-based scintillation detectors. Due to the small signals from the detectors (< .03 rhoC/meV), a preamplifier with ultra-low noise performance in the 5 to 20 MHz range is essential to achieve the timing resolution required by the PET application. Out of many available technologies, a new third generation MOSFET was selected and implemented as input transistor in an original charge sensitive (CSP) design. Performance among the best reported to date are obtained. The new design was implemented as a dual-channel preamplifier in high density hybrid (thick film) technology.

  1. Performance of a new monolithic eight channel charge sensitive preamplifier-shaper

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, T.

    1991-08-01

    A monolithic eight channel CMOS time-invariant preamplifier/shaper has been designed and built by Chuck Britton of ORNL in collaboration with Ray Yarema and Tom Zimmerman of Fermilab. Each of the eight channels incorporates a charge sensitive preamplifier and two shaping stages. The resultant weighting function is similar to CR-RC{sup 3}. The peaking time is approximately 200 ns, and the charge gain approximately in the range of 50--70 mv/fc. The layout was done on a Tinychip pad frame and the device was fabricated in a 2{mu} P-well process by Orbit. Figure 1 shows the chip layout. The channels are on an 84{mu} pitch to fit on a Tinychip without folding the layout. The design can be easily expanded to a larger number of channels. This paper describes results of tests performed on this device at Fermilab. The tests were done with a bare die which was directly wirebonded to a printed circuit board. This minimizes parasitic effects which can become significant when using large packages. Results may be somewhat different when using the standard 40 pin package. 6 figs.

  2. LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.; Stone, R.S.

    1959-03-10

    Electronic,amplifier circuits, especially a logai-ithmic amplifier characterizxed by its greatly improved strability are discussed. According to the in ention, means are provided to feed bach the output valtagee to a diode in the amplifier input circuit, the diode being utilized to produce the logarithmic characteristics. The diode is tics, The diode isition therewith and having its filament operated from thc same source s the filament of the logarithmic diode. A bias current of relatively large value compareii with the signal current is continuously passed through the compiting dioie to render the diode insensitivy to variations in the signal current. by this odes kdu to variaelled, so that the stability of the amlifier will be unimpaired.

  3. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1984-02-02

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  4. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Wright, James T.

    1986-01-01

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  5. Enhanced charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing collector-shell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Manda; Huang, Fuzhi; Xiang, Wanchun; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Spiccia, Leone

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured porous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were prepared by screen printing of an ITO nanoparticle paste onto conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The ITO films were subsequently coated with thin layers of TiO2 by the hydrolysis of TiCl4 to form the collector-shell photoelectrodes. The morphology of films was analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that a uniform coating of TiO2 was achieved when three or more deposition cycles were applied. Dye-sensitized solar cells were constructed with the collector-shell photoelectrodes using an electrolyte containing the [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+ (bpy = 2,2‧-bipyridine) redox couple and MK-2, an organic sensitizer and efficiencies of 3.3% achieved. Charge transport in cells utilizing the collector-shell electrodes was found to be 2-6 times faster than those utilizing P25-based TiO2 electrodes.

  6. Nanostructured materials and their charge transport properties in photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsaing, Anita Kristine

    Since the big progress of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) by adopting TiO2 nanoparticles for a photoanode in 1991, DSCs have been intensively studied as an alternative to conventional Si-based solar cells. As a main component of DSCs, a photoanode composed of a nanostructured semiconducting oxide network plays a significant role in determining performances of DSCs in terms of light harvesting efficiency (LHE) and charge collection efficiency related to charge transport and recombination. Nanomaterials with various morphologies, such as particles, rods and tubes have been fabricated and investigated to improve performances of DSCs. Among them, submicrometer-sized aggregates of nanocrystallites have demonstrated to be promising as a photoanode of DSCs for higher power conversion efficiency. Such hierarchical structures make it possible to have both high specific surface area for dye molecule adsorption and internal light scattering within the photoanode, leading to a much enhanced LHE. This work focused on the surface modification and charge transport characterization of such hierarchically structured photoanodes. First, a core-shell configuration was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, which was achieved by depositing ultrathin TiO2 layer on inner surface of ZnO aggregate film in which the TiO2 shell was anticipated to act as a chemical and energy barrier. Although the ALD-TiO2 coating failed to improve chemical stability of the ZnO aggregate against to an acidic dye solution due to the ultrathin thickness (< 1 nm), the ALD-TiO2 shell layer effectively suppressed charge recombination at the interface. As a result of the reduced charge recombination, Voc, and FF of DSCs were increased, leading to 20 % enhancement of power conversion efficiency. Second, effects of annealing temperatures on ALD-TiO2 coated aggregates of ZnO nanocrystallites were investigated in terms of sintering behavior and charge transport. 350 °C as the maximum temperature was typically used to preserve the specific surface area of ZnO aggregates. Nitrogen sorption analyses revealed that the ALD-TiO2 layer improved thermal stability of ZnO aggregates at high temperature, ALD-TiO2 coated ZnO aggregates retained the same specific surface area even annealed at 450 °C. The higher annealing temperature resulted in an improved crystallinity, resulting in the highest charge transfer resistance when annealed at 450 °C. As a result, the DSC with photoanode made of ALD-TiO2 coated ZnO aggregates annealed at 450 °C showed the highest Voc and FF, with a little reduced Jsc and thus, the highest power conversion efficiency. Third, charge transport properties such as electron lifetime, chemical diffusion coefficient and diffusion length of ZnO nanorod aggregates were investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterize charge transport properties, and it was found that increased crystal sizes and widened necks with higher annealing temperature reduced charge diffusion resistance (Rd), and increased diffusion length from 50 microm to 140 microm. As a result, the power conversion efficiency increased 25 %. Lastly, TiO2 nanoparticles were added into TiO2 aggregates with different ratios; 10 wt% and 20 wt% nanoparticle. As a result, diffusion resistance was found to be reduced and the corresponding diffusion length was increased by filling the bottlenecks between adjacent aggregates with nanoparticles, while additional reduction of diffusion resistance was not observed when the amount of the added TiO 2 nanoparticles increased from 10 to 20 wt%, indicating that there is a saturation point for charge transport. Even though there was no significant impact of the added nanoparticles on electron lifetime despite of the increase of surface area, admixing TiO2 aggregates with TiO2 nanoparticles improved Jsc and eventually leaded to the enhanced efficiency by 30 % as a result of the improved diffusion length and increased surface area.

  7. Amplified Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…

  8. Optical Transitions in Highly Charged Californium Ions with High Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine-Structure Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Ong, A.

    2012-08-01

    We study electronic transitions in highly charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, α. The transitions are in the optical range despite the large ionization energies because they lie on the level crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf16+ is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf16+ has very large nuclear charge and large ionization energy, resulting in the largest α sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters.

  9. Ce-based metal-organic frameworks and DNAzyme-assisted recycling as dual signal amplifiers for sensitive electrochemical detection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a sensitive electrochemical aptasensor was designed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection based on Ce-based metal-organic frameworks (Ce-MOFs) and Zn(2+) dependent DNAzyme-assisted recycling as dual signal amplifiers. Herein, Ce-MOFs were decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain AuNPs/Ce-MOFs, and the resultant AuNPs/Ce-MOFs not only acted as nanocarriers to capture -SH terminated hairpin probes 2 (HP2) for acquiring HP2/AuNPs/Ce-MOFs signal probes, but also as catalysts to catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA). In the presence of target LPS, report DNA was released from the prepared duplex DNA and then hybridized with hairpin probes 1 (HP1, which were immobilized on the electrode). With the help of Zn(2+), report DNA could act as Zn(2+) dependent DNAzyme to cleave HP1 circularly. Then a large amount of capture probes were produced on the electrode to combine with HP2/AuNPs/Ce-MOFs signal probes. When the detection solution contained electrochemical substrate of AA, AuNPs/Ce-MOFs could oxide AA to obtain enhanced signal. Under the optimized conditions, this proposed aptasensor for LPS exhibited a low detection limit of 3.3 fg/mL with a wide linear range from 10fg/mL to 100ng/mL. PMID:27132003

  10. In situ amplified electrochemical aptasensing for sensitive detection of adenosine triphosphate by coupling target-induced hybridization chain reaction with the assembly of silver nanotags.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Lin, Youxiu; Lin, Yuping; Wei, Qiaohua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2016-01-01

    Biomolecular immobilization and construction of the sensing platform are usually crucial for the successful development of a high-efficiency detection system. Herein we report on a novel and label-free signal-amplified aptasensing for sensitive electrochemical detection of small molecules (adenosine triphosphate, ATP, used in this case) by coupling with target-induced hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and the assembly of electroactive silver nanotags. The system mainly consisted of two alternating hairpin probes, a partial-pairing trigger-aptamer duplex DNA and a capture probe immobilized on the electrode. Upon target ATP introduction, the analyte attacked the aptamer and released the trigger DNA, which was captured by capture DNA immobilized on the electrode to form a newly partial-pairing double-stranded DNA. Thereafter, the exposed domain at trigger DNA could be utilized as the initator strand to open the hairpin probes in sequence, and propagated a chain reaction of hybridization events between two alternating hairpins to form a long nicked double-helix. The electrochemical signal derived from the assembled silver nanotags on the nicked double-helix. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical aptasensor could exhibit a high sensitivity and a low detection limit, and allowed the detection of ATP at a concentration as low as 0.03 pM. Our design showed a high selectivity for target ATP against its analogs because of the high-specificity ATP-aptamer reaction, and its applicable for monitoring ATP in the spiking serum samples. Improtantly, the distinct advantages of the developed aptasensor make it hold a great potential for the development of simple and robust sensing strategies for the detection of other small molecules by controlling the apatmer sequence. PMID:26695229

  11. Complexation of polyaniline and graphene for efficient counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells: Enhanced charge transfer ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei; Wang, Min; Ma, Chunqing; Yuan, Shuangshuang

    2014-06-01

    With an aim of significantly enhancing charge-transfer ability of counter electrodes and therefore photovoltaic performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), here we pioneerly report the complexation of polyaniline (PANi) and graphene as well as their employment as counter electrodes (CEs) in efficient DSSCs. Owing to the covalent bond between PANi (N atoms) and graphene (C atoms), charge transfer kinetics is dramatically elevated, which can be confirmed by the enhancement on electrocatalytic activity toward triiodides and a decrease in charge-transfer resistance. A power conversion efficiency of 7.70% is determined from DSSC using PANi-8 wt‰ graphene complex CE in comparison with 6.40% from pure PANi CE-based DSSC. The high conversion efficiency, facile charge-transfer in combination with simple preparation, relatively low cost, and scalability demonstrates the potential use of PANi-graphene complexes in robust DSSCs.

  12. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    DOEpatents

    Gresham, Christopher A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger P.

    2008-07-22

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  13. A Simple Capacitive Charge-Division Readout for Position-Sensitive Solid-State Photomultiplier Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Du, Junwei; Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Yang, Yongfeng; Di, Kun; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    A capacitive charge-division readout method for reading out a 2 × 2 array of 5 mm × 5 mm position-sensitive solid-state photomultipliers (PS-SSPM) was designed and evaluated. Using this analog multiplexing method, the 20 signals (16 position, 4 timing) from the PS-SSPM array are reduced to 5 signals (4 position, 1 timing), allowing the PS-SSPM array to be treated as an individual large-area PS-SSPM module. A global positioning approach can now be used, instead of individual positioning for each PS-SSPM in the array, ensuring that the entire light signal is utilized. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and flood histogram quality at different bias voltages (27.5 V to 32.0 V at 0.5 V intervals) and a fixed temperature of 0 °C were evaluated by coupling a 6 × 6 array of 1.3 mm × 1.3 mm × 20 mm polished LSO crystals to the center of the PS-SSPM array. The timing resolution was measured at a fixed bias voltage of 31.0 V and a fixed temperature of 0 °C. All the measurements were evaluated and compared using capacitors with different values and tolerances. Capacitor values ranged from 0.051 nf to 10 nf, and the capacitance tolerance ranged from 1% to 20%. The results show that better performance was achieved using capacitors with smaller values and better capacitance tolerance. Using 0.2 nf capacitors, the SNR, energy resolution and timing resolution were 24.3, 18.2% and 8.8 ns at a bias voltage 31.0 V, respectively. The flood histogram quality was also evaluated by using a 10 × 10 array of 1 mm × 1 mm × 10 mm polished LSO crystals and a 10 × 10 array of 0.7 mm × 0.7 mm × 20 mm unpolished LSO crystals to determine the smallest crystal size resolvable. These studies showed that the high spatial resolution of the PS-SSPM was preserved allowing for 0.7 mm crystals to be identified. These results show that the capacitive charge-division analog signal processing method can significantly reduce the number of electronic channels, from 20 to 5, while retaining the excellent performance of the detector. PMID:25558081

  14. Single electron charge sensitivity of liquid-gated carbon nanotube transistors.

    PubMed

    Sharf, Tal; Wang, Neng-Ping; Kevek, Joshua W; Brown, Morgan A; Wilson, Heather; Heinze, Stefan; Minot, Ethan D

    2014-09-10

    Random telegraph signals corresponding to activated charge traps were observed with liquid-gated CNT FETs. The high signal-to-noise ratio that we observe demonstrates that single electron charge sensing is possible with CNT FETs in liquids at room temperature. We have characterized the gate-voltage dependence of the random telegraph signals and compared to theoretical predictions. The gate-voltage dependence clearly identifies the sign of the activated trapped charge. PMID:25160798

  15. Phase properties of multicomponent superposition states in various amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang-Soo; Kim, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    There have been theoretical studies for generation of optical coherent superposition states. Once the superposition state is generated it is natural to ask if it is possible to amplify it without losing the nonclassical properties of the field state. We consider amplification of the superposition state in various amplifiers such as a sub-Poissonian amplifier, a phase-sensitive amplifier and a classical amplifier. We show the evolution of phase probability distribution functions in the amplifier.

  16. Cryomicroscopy of radiation sensitive specimens on unmodified graphene sheets: Reduction of electron-optical effects of charging?

    PubMed Central

    Sader, Kasim; Stopps, Martyn; Calder, Lesley J.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Images of radiation-sensitive specimens obtained by electron microscopy suffer a reduction in quality beyond that expected from radiation damage alone due to electron beam-induced charging or movement of the specimen. For biological specimens, charging and movement are most severe when they are suspended in an insulating layer of vitreous ice, which is otherwise optimal for preserving hydrated specimens in a near native state. We image biological specimens, including a single particle protein complex and a lipid-enveloped virus in thin, vitreous ice films over suspended sheets of unmodified graphene. We show that in such preparations, the charging of ice, as assessed by electron-optical perturbation of the imaging beam, is eliminated. We also use the same specimen supports to record high resolution images at liquid nitrogen temperature of monolayer paraffin crystals grown over graphene. PMID:23664842

  17. Optical transitions in highly charged californium ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant.

    PubMed

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Ong, A

    2012-08-17

    We study electronic transitions in highly charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, α. The transitions are in the optical range despite the large ionization energies because they lie on the level crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf(16+) is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf(16+) has very large nuclear charge and large ionization energy, resulting in the largest α sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters. PMID:23006353

  18. Dual-pH Sensitive Charge-Reversal Polypeptide Micelles for Tumor-Triggered Targeting Uptake and Nuclear Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Han, Shi-Song; Li, Ze-Yong; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Han, Kai; Zeng, Zheng-Yang; Hong, Wei; Li, Wen-Xin; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Liu, Yun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-06-01

    A novel dual-pH sensitive charge-reversal strategy is designed to deliver antitumor drugs targeting to tumor cells and to further promote the nuclei internalization by a stepwise response to the mildly acidic extracellular pH (≈6.5) of a tumor and endo/lysosome pH (≈5.0). Poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-leucine) diblock copolymer is synthesized and the lysine amino residues are amidated by 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride to form β-carboxylic amide, making the polypeptides self-assemble into negatively charged micelles. The amide can be hydrolyzed when exposed to the mildly acidic tumor extracellular environment, which makes the micelles switch to positively charged and they are then readily internalized by tumor cells. A nuclear targeting Tat peptide is further conjugated to the polypeptide via a click reaction. The Tat is amidated by succinyl chloride to mask its positive charge and cell-penetrating function and thus to inhibit nonspecific cellular uptake. After the nanoparticles are internalized into the more acidic intracellular endo/lysosomes, the Tat succinyl amide is hydrolyzed to reactivate the Tat nuclear targeting function, promoting nanoparticle delivery into cell nuclei. This polypeptide nanocarrier facilitates tumor targeting and nuclear delivery simultaneously by simply modifying the lysine amino residues of polylysine and Tat into two different pH-sensitive β-carboxylic amides. PMID:25626995

  19. Influences of cation charge density on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells: lithium, sodium, potassium, and dimethylimidazolium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yushuai; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Min; Dong, Xiandui

    2011-08-28

    We investigate the dependence of the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells on the cations with different charge densities, such as lithium (Li(+)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and dimethylimidazolium (DMI(+)). The efficiencies of light harvesting, electron injection and charge collection were evaluated to clarify the influence of cation selection on photocurrent generation. It is found that the short-circuit photocurrents of DSCs gradually diminish with decreasing cation charge densities, partially owing to reduced electron injection rates which are intimately related to the reaction Gibbs free energies. Further experiments indicate that the upward movement of conduction band edge results in decreased reaction Gibbs free energy of electron injection from Li(+) to DMI(+). At an irradiation of 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5 sunlight, the open-circuit photovoltage and the fill factor of a typical dye-sensitized solar cell increase in the order of Li(+) < Na(+) < K(+) < DMI(+). Analyses of impedance data reveal that the increase of cell photovoltage mainly correlates with the upward shift of the conduction band edge induced by the adsorption of low-charge-density cations on the surface of titania nanocrystals. A J-V model was proposed to understand the improvement of the fill factor. It is found that the increase of the fill factor stems from the decrease of recombination current density under the equilibrium state in the dark by fitting the J-V data with the model. PMID:21769357

  20. Sensitivity of ion induced charge pulses to the electrical and crystallographic properties of 60° dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breese, M. B. H.; King, P. J. C.; Grime, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    This letter reports evidence that the size of MeV ion induced charge pulses measured from epitaxial Si0.875Ge0.125/Si depends on both the crystallographic and electrical properties of the 60° misfit dislocations present. The results are correlated with both backscattered and transmission ion channeling analysis. With the sample in nonchanneled alignment the measured ion induced charge pulses depend on the number of charge carriers which recombine at the dislocations. With the sample in channeled alignment the rotated (110) and (11¯0) planes around the 60° dislocations affect the local rate of carrier generation and so alter the size of the measured ion induced charge pulses.

  1. LC/ESI-MS/MS detection of FAs by charge reversal derivatization with more than four orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity[S

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, James G.; Rohan, Gajendra; Sadilek, Martin; Gelb, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of fatty acids (FAs) is an important area of analytical biochemistry. Ultra high sensitivity FA analysis usually is done with gas chromatography of pentafluorobenzyl esters coupled to an electron-capture detector. With the popularity of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometers coupled to liquid chromatography, it would be convenient to develop a method for ultra high sensitivity FA detection using this equipment. Although FAs can be analyzed by ESI in negative ion mode, this method is not very sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate a new method of FA analysis based on conversion of the carboxylic acid to an amide bearing a permanent positive charge, N-(4-aminomethylphenyl)pyridinium (AMPP) combined with analysis on a reverse-phase liquid chromatography column coupled to an ESI mass spectrometer operating in positive ion mode. This leads to an ∼60,000-fold increase in sensitivity compared with the same method carried out with underivatized FAs. The new method is about 10-fold more sensitive than the existing method of gas chromatography/electron-capture mass spectrometry of FA pentafluorobenzyl esters. Furthermore, significant fragmentation of the precursor ions in the nontag portion improves analytical specificity. We show that a large number of FA molecular species can be analyzed with this method in complex biological samples such as mouse serum. PMID:23945566

  2. Position sensitive anodes for MCP read-out using induced charge measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagutzki, O.; Lapington, J. S.; Worth, L. B. C.; Spillman, U.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the method of an indirect detection of a MCP charge avalanche projected onto a resistive layer (G. Battistoni, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 202 (1982) 459). If the sheet resistance is favourable one can detect the charge cloud by the capacitive coupling to an anode structure a few millimetres behind the layer. The anode structure can be, for example, a wedge-and-strip electrode pattern (M. Unverzagt, Diplomarbeit, Universität Frankfurt 1992, private communication) as it is used for directly collecting the electron avalanche from a MCP. Detection of the induced charge is beneficial in several respects. Firstly, image distortions produced by secondary electron mediated charge redistribution are eliminated. Secondly, the noise component due to quantized charge collection, commonly referred to as partition noise, is not present. In addition, the dielectric substrate can function both as an element of the vacuum enclosure and HV insulator, making the electrical connections easily accessible and the pattern operable at ground potential, independently of detector operating voltages. This technique can be used to simplify the electronic design requirements where varying high voltages are required at the detector input face such as plasma analysers, etc. It also has application in the manufacture of intensifier tubes (J. Barnstedt, M. Grewing, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., these proceedings) where the inclusion of a readout pattern inside the intensifier body with associated electrical feed-throughs can prove problematic. We will present data on the performance of such detection geometries using several types of charge division anode, and discuss the advantages compared with the "traditional" charge collecting method.

  3. Examination of the charge-sensitive vibrational modes in bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Uruichi, Mikio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Yakushi, Kyuya; Kawamoto, Atushi; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2005-08-18

    We reinvestigated the two C=C stretching modes of the five-membered rings of ET (ET = bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene), namely, nu(2) (in-phase mode) and nu(27) (out-of-phase mode). The frequency of the nu(27) mode of ET(+) was corrected to be approximately 1400 cm(-1), which was identified from the polarized infrared reflectance spectra of (ET)(ClO(4)), (ET)(AuBr(2)Cl(2)), and the deuterium- or (13)C-substituted compounds of (ET)(AuBr(2)Cl(2)). It was clarified from DFT calculations that the frequency of the nu(27) mode of the flat ET(0) molecule was significantly different from that of the boat-shaped ET(0) molecule. We obtained the linear relationship between the frequency and the charge on the molecule, rho, for the flat ET molecule, which was shown to be nu(27)(rho) = 1398 + 140(1 - rho) cm(-1). The frequency shift due to oxidation is remarkably larger than that reported in previous studies. The fractional charges of several ET salts in a charge-ordered state can be successfully estimated by applying this relationship. Therefore, the nu(27) mode is an efficient probe to detect rho in the charge-transfer salts of ET. Similarly, a linear relationship for the nu(2) mode was obtained as nu(2)(rho) = 1447 + 120(1 - rho). This relationship was successfully applied to the charge-poor molecule of theta-type ET salts in the charge-ordered state but could not be applied to the charge-rich molecule. This discrepancy was semiquantitatively explained by the hybridization between the nu(2) and nu(3) modes. PMID:16852928

  4. Highly sensitive detection of net hydrogen charged into austenitic stainless steel with secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Awane, Tohru; Fukushima, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Takashi; Matsuoka, Saburo; Murakami, Yukitaka; Miwa, Shiro

    2011-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to detect local distributions of hydrogen in various materials. However, it has been well-known that it is extremely difficult to analyze net hydrogen (H(N)) in metals with SIMS. This was because hydrogen, which is originated from moisture (H(2)O), hydrocarbon (C(x)H(y)) or other organic materials (C(x)H(y)O(z)) existing on a sample surface or in the SIMS chamber, is simultaneously detected in the SIMS measurement of the H(N), and the H(N) and the background-originated hydrogen (H(BG)) cannot be distinguished in a SIMS profile. The effective method for reductions and determinations of the H(BG) in hydrogen measurements of metallic materials with the SIMS method has not been established. The present paper shows an effective method for reduction and estimation of H(BG) in SIMS analyses of hydrogen charged into type 316 L austenitic stainless steel, and an accurate estimation method of the net charged hydrogen. In this research, a silicon wafer is sputtered by a primary ion beam of a SIMS near an analyzed area (silicon sputtering method) to reduce H(BG). An uncharged type 316 L sample was prepared for estimation of H(BG) in SIMS measurements of the hydrogen-charged sample. The gross intensities of hydrogen between the hydrogen-charged sample and the uncharged sample were compared. The gross intensities of hydrogen of the uncharged sample (26.8-74.5 cps) were much lower than the minimal gross intensities of hydrogen of the hydrogen-charged sample (462-1140 cps). Thus, we could reduce the H(BG) enough to estimate the hydrogen charged into the type 316 L sample. Moreover, we developed a method to determine intensities of H(BG) in the measurement of the hydrogen-charged sample by estimating the time-variation of hydrogen intensities in the measurements of the uncharged sample. The intensities of the charged hydrogen can be obtained by subtracting the estimated intensities of the H(BG) from the gross intensities of hydrogen of the hydrogen-charged sample. The silicon sputtering method used to reduce H(BG) and the determination method for H(BG) in this research can be applied to the accurate hydrogen analysis for other various metallic materials. PMID:21401058

  5. High-sensitivity single NV magnetometry by spin-to-charge state mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Shields, Brendan; Bauch, Erik; Lukin, Mikhail; Walsworth, Ronald; Trifonov, Alexei

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are atom-like quantum system in a solid state matrix whom its structure allows optical readout of the electronic spin. However, the optimal duration of optical readout is limited by a singlet state lifetime making single shot spin readout out of reach. On the other side, the NV center charge state readout can be extremely efficient (up to 99% fidelity) by using excitation at 594 nm. We will present a new method of spin readout utilizing a spin-depending photoionization process to map the electronic spin state of the NV onto the its charge state. Moreover, pre-selection on the charged state allows to minimize data acquisition time. This scheme improves single NV AC magnetometry by a factor of 5 and will benefit other single NV center experiments as well.

  6. How well can charge transfer inefficiency be corrected? A parameter sensitivity study for iterative correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Holger; Massey, Richard; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Cropper, Mark; Cordes, Oliver; Gow, Jason; Kohley, Ralf; Marggraf, Ole; Niemi, Sami; Rhodes, Jason; Short, Alex; Verhoeve, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Radiation damage to space-based charge-coupled device detectors creates defects which result in an increasing charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) that causes spurious image trailing. Most of the trailing can be corrected during post-processing, by modelling the charge trapping and moving electrons back to where they belong. However, such correction is not perfect - and damage is continuing to accumulate in orbit. To aid future development, we quantify the limitations of current approaches, and determine where imperfect knowledge of model parameters most degrades measurements of photometry and morphology. As a concrete application, we simulate 1.5 × 109 `worst-case' galaxy and 1.5 × 108 star images to test the performance of the Euclid visual instrument detectors. There are two separable challenges. If the model used to correct CTI is perfectly the same as that used to add CTI, 99.68 per cent of spurious ellipticity is corrected in our setup. This is because readout noise is not subject to CTI, but gets overcorrected during correction. Secondly, if we assume the first issue to be solved, knowledge of the charge trap density within Δρ/ρ = (0.0272 ± 0.0005) per cent and the characteristic release time of the dominant species to be known within Δτ/τ = (0.0400 ± 0.0004) per cent will be required. This work presents the next level of definition of in-orbit CTI calibration procedures for Euclid.

  7. Charge Transfer Induced Multifunctional Transitions with Sensitive Pressure Manipulation in a Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junye; Zhou, Long; Cheng, Jinguang; Hu, Zhiwei; Kuo, Changyang; Pao, Chih-Wen; Jang, Lingyun; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Dai, Jianhong; Zhang, Sijia; Feng, Shaomin; Kong, Panpan; Yuan, Zhen; Yuan, Jie; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Liu, Tao; Jin, Changqing; Long, Youwen

    2015-07-01

    The metal-organic framework {[Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(CN)4]2Co(4,4'-bipyridine)}·4H2O (Fe2Co-MOF) with single-chain magnetism undergoes an intermetallic charge transfer that converts the Fe2Co charge/spin configurations from Fe(3+)LS-Co(2+)HS-Fe(3+)LS to Fe(2+)LS-Co(3+)LS-Fe(3+)LS (LS = low spin, HS = high spin) around 220 K under ambient pressure. A series of coherent phase transitions in structure, magnetism, permittivity and ferroelectricity are found to take place accompanying with the charge transfer, making Fe2Co-MOF a unique ferroelectric single-chain magnet at low temperature. Moreover, our detailed measurements of magnetization, dielectric constant, and Raman scattering under high pressures illustrate that the charge transfer as well as the resulting multifunctional transitions can be readily induced to occur at room temperature by applying a tiny external pressure of about 0.5 kbar. The present study thus provides a pressure well-controllable multifunctional material with potential applications in a broad temperature region across room temperature. PMID:26083272

  8. Integrating a redox-coupled dye-sensitized photoelectrode into a lithium-oxygen battery for photoassisted charging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingzhe; Ren, Xiaodi; Ma, Lu; Wu, Yiying

    2014-01-01

    With a high theoretical specific energy, the non-aqueous rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery is a promising next-generation energy storage technique. However, the large charging overpotential remains a challenge due to the difficulty in electrochemically oxidizing the insulating lithium peroxide. Recently, a redox shuttle has been introduced into the electrolyte to chemically oxidize lithium peroxide. Here, we report the use of a triiodide/iodide redox shuttle to couple a built-in dye-sensitized titanium dioxide photoelectrode with the oxygen electrode for the photoassisted charging of a lithium-oxygen battery. On charging under illumination, triiodide ions are generated on the photoelectrode, and subsequently oxidize lithium peroxide. Due to the contribution of the photovoltage, the charging overpotential is greatly reduced. The use of a redox shuttle to couple a photoelectrode and an oxygen electrode offers a unique strategy to address the overpotential issue of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries and also a distinct approach for integrating solar cells and batteries. PMID:25277368

  9. Three dimensional indium-tin-oxide nanorod array for charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghong; Guo, Peijun; Li, Shi-Qiang; Buchholz, D Bruce; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-10-22

    In this article, we report the design, fabrication, characterization, and simulation of three-dimensional (3D) dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), using ordered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorod (NR) arrays as the photoanode, and compare them with conventional planar (2D) DSSCs. The ITO NR array used in the 3D cell greatly improves its performance by providing shorter electron pathways and reducing the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons. We observed a 10-20% enhancement of the energy conversion efficiency, primarily due to an increased short circuit current. This finding supports the concept of using 3D photoanodes with optically transparent and conducting nanorods for the enhancement of the energy-harvesting devices that require short charge collection distance without sacrificing the optical thickness. Thus, unlike the conventional solar cell structure, the functions for photon collection and charge transport are decoupled to allow for improved cell designs. PMID:25147966

  10. KPiX, An Array of Self Triggered Charge Sensitive Cells Generating Digital Time and Amplitude Information

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, D.; Herbst, R.; Brau, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Frey, R.; Haller, G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.; Nelson, T.; Radeka, V.; Strom, D.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis

    2008-12-11

    The Silicon Detector proposed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires electronic read-out that can be tightly coupled to the silicon detectors envisioned for the tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. The KPiX is a 1024-channel read-out chip that bump-bonds to the detector and communicates through a few digital signals, power, and detector bias. The KPiX front-end is a low-noise dual-range charge-amplifier with a dynamic range of 17 bit, achieved by autonomous switching of the feedback capacitor. The device takes advantage of the ILC duty cycle of 1 ms trains at 5 Hz rate by lowering the supply current after the data acquisition cycle for an average power consumption of <20 {micro}W/channel. During the 1 ms train, up to four events exceeding a programmable threshold can be stored, the amplitude as a voltage on a capacitor for subsequent digitization, the event time in digital format. The chip can be configured for other than ILC applications.

  11. Micrometre resolution of a charge integrating microstrip detector with single photon sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; David, C.; Dinapoli, R.; Elbracht-Leong, S.; Gorelick, S.; Graafsma, H.; Henrich, B.; Johnson, I.; Lohmann, M.; Mozzanica, A.; Radicci, V.; Rassool, R.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Sobott, B.

    2012-01-01

    A synchrotron beam has been used to test the spatial resolution of a single-photon-resolving integrating readout-chip coupled to a 320 µm-thick silicon strip sensor with a dedicated readout system. Charge interpolation methods have yielded a spatial resolution of σx ≃ 1.8 µm for a 20 µm-pitch strip. PMID:22514170

  12. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television Applications: Low-Voltage SAW Amplifiers on Multilayer GaAs/ZnO Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.; Cameron, Thomas P.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis addresses the acoustoelectric issues concerning the amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and the reflection of SAWs from slanted reflector gratings on GaAs, with application to a novel acoustic charge transport (ACT) device architecture. First a simple model of the SAWAMP was developed, which was subsequently used to define the epitaxially grown material structure necessary to provide simultaneously high resistance and high electron mobility. In addition, a segmented SAWAMP structure was explored with line widths on the order of an acoustic wavelength. This resulted in the demonstration of SAWAMPS with an order of magnitude less voltage and power requirements than previously reported devices. A two-dimensional model was developed to explain the performance of devices with charge confinement layers less then 0.5 mm, which was experimentally verified. This model was extended to predict a greatly increased gain from the addition of a ZnO overlay. These overlays were experimentally attempted, but no working devices were reported due to process incompatibilities. In addition to the SAWAMP research, the reflection of SAWs from slanted gratings on GaAs was also studied and experimentally determined reflection coefficients for both 45 deg grooves and Al stripes on GaAs have been reported for the first time. The SAWAMp and reflector gratings were combined to investigate the integrated ring oscillator for application to the proposed ACT device and design parameters for this device have been provided.

  13. Enhanced Charge Separation Efficiency in Pyridine-Anchored Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells by Linker Elongation.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Agrawal, Saurabh; Ezoe, Masayuki; Mori, Shogo; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2015-11-01

    A series of zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS22-24) having a pyridine anchoring group are designed and synthesized to investigate the structural dependence on performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. The pyridine-anchor zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS23 shows 79?% incident-photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) and 6.1?% energy conversion efficiency, which are comparable with similar phthalocyanine dyes having a carboxylic acid anchoring group. Based on DFT calculations, the high IPCE is attributed with the mixture of an excited-state molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the orbitals of TiO2 . Between pyridine and carboxylic acid anchor dyes, opposite trends are observed in the linker-length dependence of the IPCE. The red-absorbing PcS23 is applied for co-sensitization with a carboxyl-anchor organic dye D131 that has a complementary spectral response. The site-selective adsorption of PcS23 and D131 on the TiO2 surface results in a panchromatic photocurrent response for the whole visible-light region of sun light. PMID:26222758

  14. Orbital Topology Controlling Charge Injection in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thorsten; Žídek, Karel; Zheng, Kaibo; Abdellah, Mohamed; Chábera, Pavel; Persson, Petter; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2014-04-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells are emerging as a promising development of dye-sensitized solar cells, where photostable semiconductor quantum dots replace molecular dyes. Upon photoexcitation of a quantum dot, an electron is transferred to a high-band-gap metal oxide. Swift electron transfer is crucial to ensure a high overall efficiency of the solar cell. Using femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy, we find the rate of electron transfer to be surprisingly sensitive to the chemical structure of the linker molecules that attach the quantum dots to the metal oxide. A rectangular barrier model is unable to capture the observed variation. Applying bridge-mediated electron-transfer theory, we find that the electron-transfer rates depend on the topology of the frontier orbital of the molecular linker. This promises the capability of fine tuning the electron-transfer rates by rational design of the linker molecules. PMID:26274464

  15. Co-delivery of erlotinib and doxorubicin by pH-sensitive charge conversion nanocarrier for synergistic therapy.

    PubMed

    He, Yongju; Su, Zhigui; Xue, Lingjing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Can

    2016-05-10

    Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib has been recently reported that could dramatically synergize their apoptotic response to DNA damage agent doxorubicin (DOX). To translate this synergistic therapy into in vivo anticancer therapy and clinical practice, we designed a novel pH-sensitive charge conversion nanocarrier (M-HHG2C18-L) that contained erlotinib/DOX combination and produced a sequential staggered drug release for synergistic lung cancer therapy. In this study, a synthetic zwitterionic oligopeptide lipid (1,5-dioctadecyl-l-glutamyl2-histidyl-hexahydrobenzoic acid, HHG2C18) was used to construct a pH-sensitive lipid bilayer (HHG2C18-L), which was subsequently applied to coat amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN-NH2). Erlotinib and DOX were separately incorporated into HHG2C18-L and MSN-NH2 respectively to obtain pH-sensitive charge conversion erlotinib/DOX co-delivery nanoparticles (M-HHG2C18-L(E+D)). We confirmed that M-HHG2C18-L(E+D) were able to reverse surface zeta potential from negative to positive at tumor extracellular pH, thus facilitating the targeted cancer cell internalization. Furthermore, as erlotinib was sequestered in the exterior lipid bilayer and the controlled release ability of MSN-NH2, erlotinib released faster than DOX during the cellular transport. Additionally, HHG2C18-L became more positive at tumor intracellular pH and enhanced Coulombic repulsion with MSN-NH2, leading to increased sequential staggered release of erlotinib and DOX. Due to the pretreatment and time-staggered inhibition of EGFR with erlotinib and the enhanced intracellular release of DOX to the nucleus, the maximized synergistic cell killing effect was achieved. Compared to non-sensitive erlotinib/DOX co-delivery nanoparticles (M-SPC-L(E+D)) and simultaneous DRUG coadministration. M-HHG2C18-L(E+D) with sequential staggered drug release and pH-sensitive charge conversional properties showed great synergistic effects in antiproliferation and apoptosis of A549 human cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo study demonstrated that M-HHG2C18-L(E+D) exhibited considerable tumor accumulation and potent suppression of tumor growth in Lewis lung carcinoma tumor bearing mice. It was also demonstrated that M-HHG2C18-L(E+D) showed no systemic toxicity and possessed distinguished effect on extending survival period. These results suggested that M-HHG2C18-L(E+D) had great potential application in cancer treatment. PMID:26945977

  16. The effect of molecular aggregates over the interfacial charge transfer processes on dye sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Planells, Miquel; Forneli, Amparo; Martinez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Sanchez-Diaz, Antonio; Sarmentero, Maria Angeles; Ballester, Pablo; Palomares, Emilio; O'Regan, Brian C.

    2008-04-14

    The electron transfer reaction between the photoinjected electrons in the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} mesoporous sensitized films and the oxidized electrolyte in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) plays a major role on the device efficiency. In this communication we show that, although the presence of molecular aggregates on the free base porphyrin DSSC limits the device photocurrent response under illumination, they form an effective hydrophobic barrier against the oxidized electrolyte impeding fast back-electron transfer kinetics. Therefore, their drawback can be overcome by designing dyes with peripheral moieties that prevent the formation of the aggregates and are able to achieve efficiencies as high as 3.2% under full sun.

  17. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-03-19

    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide variety of applications in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. PMID:24568726

  18. High-surface-area architectures for improved charge transfer kinetics at the dark electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffeditz, William L; Katz, Michael J; Deria, Pravas; Martinson, Alex B F; Pellin, Michael J; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2014-06-11

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) redox shuttles other than triiodide/iodide have exhibited significantly higher charge transfer resistances at the dark electrode. This often results in poor fill factor, a severe detriment to device performance. Rather than moving to dark electrodes of untested materials that may have higher catalytic activity for specific shuttles, the surface area of platinum dark electrodes could be increased, improving the catalytic activity by simply presenting more catalyst to the shuttle solution. A new copper-based redox shuttle that experiences extremely high charge-transfer resistance at conventional Pt dark electrodes yields cells having fill-factors of less than 0.3. By replacing the standard Pt dark electrode with an inverse opal Pt electrode fabricated via atomic layer deposition, the dark electrode surface area is boosted by ca. 50-fold. The resulting increase in interfacial electron transfer rate (decrease in charge-transfer resistance) nearly doubles the fill factor and therefore the overall energy conversion efficiency, illustrating the utility of this high-area electrode for DSCs. PMID:24828106

  19. Linear signal-compensated amplifier for reactor power measuring channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleeq, M. Tahir; Atique-ur-Rahman, Ahmed, Eijaz

    2006-07-01

    A linear amplifier with automatic signal compensation has been developed for nuclear channels. The amplifier controls its sensitivity automatically according to the reference input within the desired settings and has automatic signal compensation capability for use in the nuclear channels. The amplifier will be used in the existing safety channel of Pakistan Research Reactor-1, where the system has an independent sensitivity control unit for manual compensation of xenon effect. The new amplifier will improve the safety of the system. The amplifier is tested and the results found are in very good agreement with the designed specifications. This article presents design and construction of the amplifier and test results.

  20. Linear signal-compensated amplifier for reactor power measuring channels

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleeq, M. Tahir; Atique-ur-Rahman,; Ahmed, Eijaz

    2006-07-15

    A linear amplifier with automatic signal compensation has been developed for nuclear channels. The amplifier controls its sensitivity automatically according to the reference input within the desired settings and has automatic signal compensation capability for use in the nuclear channels. The amplifier will be used in the existing safety channel of Pakistan Research Reactor-1, where the system has an independent sensitivity control unit for manual compensation of xenon effect. The new amplifier will improve the safety of the system. The amplifier is tested and the results found are in very good agreement with the designed specifications. This article presents design and construction of the amplifier and test results.

  1. Study of Small-Molecule-Membrane Protein Binding Kinetics with Nanodisc and Charge-Sensitive Optical Detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangzhong; Guan, Yan; Wang, Shaopeng; Xu, Han; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-02-16

    Nanodisc technology provides membrane proteins with a nativelike lipid bilayer and much-needed solubility and enables in vitro quantification of membrane protein binding with ligands. However, it has been a challenge to measure interaction between small-molecule ligands and nanodisc-encapsulated membrane proteins, because the responses of traditional mass-based detection methods scale with the mass of the ligands. We have developed a charge-sensitive optical detection (CSOD) method for label-free measurement of the binding kinetics of low molecular mass ligands with nanodisc-encapsulated membrane proteins. This microplate-compatible method is sensitive to the charge instead of the mass of a ligand and is able to measure both large and small molecules in a potentially high-throughput format. Using CSOD, we measured the binding kinetics between peptide and small-molecule ligands and a nanodisc-encapsulated potassium ion channel protein, KcsA-Kv1.3. Both association and dissociation rate constants for these ligands are obtained for the first time. The CSOD results were validated by the consistency of the values with reported binding affinities. In addition, we found that CSOD can tolerate up to 3.9% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and up to 10% serum, which shows its compatibility with realistic sample conditions. PMID:26752355

  2. Nanocomposite semi-solid redox ionic liquid electrolytes with enhanced charge-transport capabilities for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Iwona A; Marszalek, Magdalena; Orlowska, Justyna; Ozimek, Weronika; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Kulesza, Pawel J; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-08-10

    The ability of Pt nanostructures to induce the splitting of the II bond in iodine (triiodide) molecules is explored here to enhance electron transfer in the iodine/iodide redox couple. Following the dispersal of Pt nanoparticles at 2 % (weight) level, charge transport was accelerated in triiodide/iodide-containing 1,3-dialkylimidazolium room-temperature ionic liquid. If both Pt nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were introduced into the ionic-liquid-based system, a solid-type (nonfluid) electrolyte was obtained. By using solid-state voltammetric (both sandwich-type and microelectrode-based) methodology, the apparent diffusion coefficients for charge transport increased to approximately 1×10(-6)  cm(2)  s(-1) upon the incorporation of the carbon-nanotube-supported iodine-modified Pt nanostructures. A dye-sensitized solar cell comprising TiO2 covered with a heteroleptic Ru(II) -type sensitizer (dye) and the semisolid triiodide/iodide ionic liquid electrolyte admixed with carbon-nanotube-supported Pt nanostructures yielded somewhat higher power conversion efficiencies (up to 7.9 % under standard reporting conditions) than those of the analogous Pt-free system. PMID:26119519

  3. SQUARE WAVE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Leavitt, M.A.; Lutz, I.C.

    1958-08-01

    An amplifier circuit is described for amplifying sigmals having an alternating current component superimposed upon a direct current component, without loss of any segnnent of the alternating current component. The general circuit arrangement includes a vibrator, two square wave amplifiers, and recombination means. The amplifier input is connected to the vibrating element of the vibrator and is thereby alternately applied to the input of each square wave amplifier. The detailed circuitry of the recombination means constitutes the novelty of the annplifier and consists of a separate, dual triode amplifier coupled to the output of each square wave amplifier with a recombination connection from the plate of one amplifier section to a grid of one section of the other amplifier. The recombination circuit has provisions for correcting distortion caused by overlapping of the two square wave voltages from the square wave amplifiers.

  4. Development of a sensitive RT-PCR method for amplifying and sequencing near full-length HCV genotype 1 RNA from patient samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) agents for hepatitis C virus (HCV) span a variety of targets, including proteins encoded by the NS3/4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B genes. Treatment with DAAs has been shown to select variants with sequence changes in the HCV genome encoding amino acids that may confer resistance to the treatment. In order to assess these effects in patients, a Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed to sequence these regions of HCV from patient plasma. Methods A method was developed to amplify and sequence genotype 1 HCV RNA from patient plasma. Optimization of HCV RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, and nested PCR steps were performed. The optimization of HCV RNA isolation, design of RT-PCR primers, optimization of RT-PCR amplification conditions and reagents, and the evaluation of the RT-PCR method performance is described. Results The optimized method is able to successfully, accurately, and reproducibly amplify near full-length genotype 1 HCV RNA containing a wide range of concentrations (103 to 108 IU/mL) with a success rate of 97%. The lower limit of detection was determined to be 1000 IU/mL HCV RNA. Conclusions This assay allows viral sequencing of all regions targeted by the most common DAAs currently in development, as well as the possibility to determine linkage between variants conferring resistance to multiple DAAs used in combination therapy. PMID:23402332

  5. Intensity ratio measurements for density sensitive lines of highly charged Fe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Safdar; Shimizu, Erina; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Hara, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2015-07-01

    Intensity ratio of density sensitive emission lines emitted from Fe ions in the extreme ultraviolet region is important for astrophysics applications. We report high-resolution intensity ratio measurements for Fe ions performed at Tokyo EBIT laboratory by employing a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer. The experimental intensity ratios of Fe X and Fe XII are plotted as a function of electron density for different electron beam currents. The experimental results are compared with the predicted intensity ratios from the model calculations.

  6. Improvement in light harvesting in a dye sensitized solar cell based on cascade charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Leung, Wallace Woon-Fong; Wang, Jingchuan

    2013-08-21

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) offer the potential of being low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the power conversion efficiency is limited as they cannot utilize all photons of the visible solar spectrum. A novel design of a core-shell photoanode is presented herein where a thin shell of infrared dye is deposited over the core of a sensitized TiO2 nanofiber. Specifically, a ruthenium based dye (N719) sensitized TiO2 nanofiber is wrapped by a thin shell of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). In addition to broadening the absorption spectrum, this core-shell configuration further suppresses the electron-hole recombination process. Instead of adopting the typical Förster resonance energy transfer, upon photons being absorbed by the infrared dye, electrons are transferred efficiently through a cascade process from the CuPc to the N719 dye, the conduction band of TiO2, the FTO electrode and finally the external circuit. Concurrently, photons are also absorbed by the N719 dye with electrons being transferred in the cell. These additive effects result in a high power conversion efficiency of 9.48% for the device. The proposed strategy provides an alternative method for enhancing the performance of DSSCs for low-cost renewable energy in the future. PMID:23831867

  7. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lihua E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng E-mail: shi@ou.edu

    2014-02-28

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  8. Multi-Spatial-Mode Noiseless Optical Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corzo-Trejo, Neil; Marino, Alberto; Lett, Paul

    2012-06-01

    One of the most commonly-used optical linear amplifiers, the phase-insensitive amplifier (PIA), always degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of the amplified signal, and the degradation depends on the amount of gain. This problem can be avoided by the proper use of a phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA). An ideal PSA, under certain conditions, can amplify signals without degrading the signal-to-noise ratio of the input. In this sense, the PSA behaves as a noiseless amplifier. In particular, if the PSA can support multiple spatial modes it could perform noiseless amplification of images which is an important goal in imaging research. We implement a phase-sensitive optical amplifier using a four-wave mixing (4WM) process in rubidium vapor. We observe performance near the quantum limit for this type of amplifier over a range of experimental parameters. We compare the results to the ones expected for a PIA and find that our PSA behaves better than the PIA, as expected. Additionally, we observe that the amplifier supports multiple spatial modes (images) without a significant degradation of the input signal-to-noise ratio. To confirm the multi-spatial-mode character we study the behavior of the 4WM-based PSA for different spatial patterns and different spatial frequencies.

  9. Quantum dynamics simulations of interfacial charge-transfer in organic dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Luis G. C.; da Silva, R.; Hoff, D. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe a novel time-dependent quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics method for studying electron transfer in dye sensitized semiconductor interfaces, that takes into account the interacting electron-hole quantum dynamics, the underlying nuclear fluctuations and solvation dynamics. We provide a comprehensive investigation of the quantum dynamics, the electronic and the structural properties of prototypical D- π-A organic dyes sensitizing the TiO2 anatase surface, both in vacuum and solvated by liquid acetonitrile. The organic dyes are comprised of an electron donating moiety and an anchoring acceptor moiety, conjugated by thiophene bridges. Although interfacial electron transfer is very efficient, it is demonstrated that the coupling between the photoexcited electron and the hole delays the electron injection. Simulations demonstrate that the solvent screens the dye from the surface, narrowing the absorption peaks and delaying the electron injection. We have also studied several aspects that are relevant for the recombination process, such as the role played by surface defects and the interaction of redox species with the TiO2 surface, and the effect of additives. J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 21169 (2012). The authors acknowledge support from CNPq and CAPES, Brazil

  10. Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Gyuseong.

    1992-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was {approximately}400 MHz and the noise charge {approximately}1000 electrons at a 1 {mu}sec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of {approximately}0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.

  11. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Plut, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

  12. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.

    1995-01-03

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.

  13. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  14. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  15. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  16. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  17. Amplified OTDR systems for multipoint corrosion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Jehan F; Silva, Marcionilo J; Coêlho, Isnaldo J S; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F

    2012-01-01

    We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations. PMID:22737017

  18. Holographic modification of TiO{sub 2} nanostructure for enhanced charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinsoo; Yoon, Junghwan; Jin, Minhea; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2012-08-15

    We show that the photocurrent and energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells can be greatly enhanced with holographic modification to the morphology of TiO{sub 2} electrode. The nanoporous electrode coated onto conducting glass was irradiated by three interfering laser beams at 1064 nm incident from the backside of the substrate. This generated two-dimensional periodic pillars of higher density in the electrode, through which the photoexcited electrons could be extracted more effectively. The cells fabricated with modified electrodes exhibited average photocurrent and efficiency of 17.14 mA/cm{sup 2} and 9.03%, while 14.91 mA/cm{sup 2} and 7.83% were obtained from the reference cells. It was attributed to the enhanced charge transport accompanied by the reduction of internal resistance of the electrode.

  19. Ultrafast charge separation dynamics in opaque, operational dye-sensitized solar cells revealed by femtosecond diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Elham; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.

    2016-04-01

    Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells are based on highly diffusive mesoscopic layers that render these devices opaque and unsuitable for ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy measurements in transmission mode. We developed a novel sub-200 femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy scheme combined with potentiostatic control to study various solar cells in fully operational condition. We studied performance optimized devices based on liquid redox electrolytes and opaque TiO2 films, as well as other morphologies, such as TiO2 fibers and nanotubes. Charge injection from the Z907 dye in all TiO2 morphologies was observed to take place in the sub-200 fs time scale. The kinetics of electron-hole back recombination has features in the picosecond to nanosecond time scale. This observation is significantly different from what was reported in the literature where the electron-hole back recombination for transparent films of small particles is generally accepted to occur on a longer time scale of microseconds. The kinetics of the ultrafast electron injection remained unchanged for voltages between +500 mV and –690 mV, where the injection yield eventually drops steeply. The primary charge separation in Y123 organic dye based devices was clearly slower occurring in two picoseconds and no kinetic component on the shorter femtosecond time scale was recorded.

  20. Ultrafast charge separation dynamics in opaque, operational dye-sensitized solar cells revealed by femtosecond diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghadiri, Elham; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E

    2016-01-01

    Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells are based on highly diffusive mesoscopic layers that render these devices opaque and unsuitable for ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy measurements in transmission mode. We developed a novel sub-200 femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy scheme combined with potentiostatic control to study various solar cells in fully operational condition. We studied performance optimized devices based on liquid redox electrolytes and opaque TiO2 films, as well as other morphologies, such as TiO2 fibers and nanotubes. Charge injection from the Z907 dye in all TiO2 morphologies was observed to take place in the sub-200 fs time scale. The kinetics of electron-hole back recombination has features in the picosecond to nanosecond time scale. This observation is significantly different from what was reported in the literature where the electron-hole back recombination for transparent films of small particles is generally accepted to occur on a longer time scale of microseconds. The kinetics of the ultrafast electron injection remained unchanged for voltages between +500 mV and -690 mV, where the injection yield eventually drops steeply. The primary charge separation in Y123 organic dye based devices was clearly slower occurring in two picoseconds and no kinetic component on the shorter femtosecond time scale was recorded. PMID:27095505

  1. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  2. Control of charge recombination dynamics in dye sensitized solar cells by the use of conformally deposited metal oxide blocking layers.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Emilio; Clifford, John N; Haque, Saif A; Lutz, Thierry; Durrant, James R

    2003-01-15

    We report herein a methodology for conformally coating nanocrystalline TiO2 films with a thin overlayer of a second metal oxide. SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2 overlayers were fabricated by dipping mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 films in organic solutions of their respective alkoxides, followed by sintering at 435 degrees C. These three metal oxide overlayers are shown in all cases to act as barrier layers for interfacial electron transfer processes. However, experimental measurements of film electron density and interfacial charge recombination dynamics under applied negative bias were vary significantly for the overlayers. A good correlation was observed between these observations and the point of zero charge of the different metal oxides. On this basis, it is found that the most basic overlayer coating, Al2O3 (pzc = 9.2), is optimal for retarding interfacial recombination losses under negative applied bias. These observations show good correlation with current/voltage analyses of dye sensitized solar cell fabricated from these films, with the Al2O3 resulting in an increase in V(oc) of up to 50 mV and a 35% improvement in overall device efficiency. These observations are discussed and compared with an alternative TiCl4 posttreatment of nanocrystalline TiO2 films with regard to optimizing device efficiency. PMID:12517161

  3. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  4. Variation of stress with charging rate due to strain-rate sensitivity of silicon electrodes of Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharr, Matt; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its enormous theoretical energy density. Fracture during electrochemical cycling has limited the practical viability of silicon electrodes, but recent studies indicate that fracture can be prevented by taking advantage of lithiation-induced plasticity. In this paper, we provide experimental insight into the nature of plasticity in amorphous LixSi thin films. To do so, we vary the rate of lithiation of amorphous silicon thin films and simultaneously measure stresses. An increase in the rate of lithiation results in a corresponding increase in the flow stress. These observations indicate that rate-sensitive plasticity occurs in a-LixSi electrodes at room temperature and at charging rates typically used in lithium-ion batteries. Using a simple mechanical model, we extract material parameters from our experiments, finding a good fit to a power law relationship between the plastic strain rate and the stress. These observations provide insight into the unusual ability of a-LixSi to flow plastically, but fracture in a brittle manner. Moreover, the results have direct ramifications concerning the rate-capabilities of silicon electrodes: faster charging rates (i.e., strain rates) result in larger stresses and hence larger driving forces for fracture.

  5. Ultrafast charge separation dynamics in opaque, operational dye-sensitized solar cells revealed by femtosecond diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiri, Elham; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells are based on highly diffusive mesoscopic layers that render these devices opaque and unsuitable for ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy measurements in transmission mode. We developed a novel sub-200 femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy scheme combined with potentiostatic control to study various solar cells in fully operational condition. We studied performance optimized devices based on liquid redox electrolytes and opaque TiO2 films, as well as other morphologies, such as TiO2 fibers and nanotubes. Charge injection from the Z907 dye in all TiO2 morphologies was observed to take place in the sub-200 fs time scale. The kinetics of electron-hole back recombination has features in the picosecond to nanosecond time scale. This observation is significantly different from what was reported in the literature where the electron-hole back recombination for transparent films of small particles is generally accepted to occur on a longer time scale of microseconds. The kinetics of the ultrafast electron injection remained unchanged for voltages between +500 mV and –690 mV, where the injection yield eventually drops steeply. The primary charge separation in Y123 organic dye based devices was clearly slower occurring in two picoseconds and no kinetic component on the shorter femtosecond time scale was recorded. PMID:27095505

  6. A label-free and enzyme-free ultra-sensitive transcription factors biosensor using DNA-templated copper nanoparticles as fluorescent indicator and hairpin DNA cascade reaction as signal amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sha, Liang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Guangfeng

    2016-08-15

    Detection and quantification of specific protein with ultralow concentration play a crucial role in biotechnological applications and biomedical diagnostics. In this paper, a label-free and enzyme-free amplified fluorescent biosensor has been developed for transcription factors detection based on AT-rich double-stranded DNA-templated copper nanoparticles (ds DNA/Cu NPs) and hairpin DNA cascade reaction. This strategy was demonstrated by using nuclear factor-kappa B p50 (NF-κB p50) and specific recognition sequences as a model case. In this assay, a triplex consists of double-stranded DNA containing NF-κB p50 specifically binding sequences and a special design single-stranded DNA (Trigger) which is able to activate the hairpin DNA cascade amplifier (HDCA). In the presence of NF-κB p50, the triplex became unstable since the target bound to the recognition sequences with strong affinity. The selective binding event confirmed that the Trigger was successfully released from the triplex and initiated HDCA to yield the product which could effectively template the formation of fluorescent Cu NPs. The experimental results revealed that the advanced strategy was ultra-sensitive for detecting NF-κB p50 in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1000 pM with a detection limit of 0.096 pM. In addition, the relative standard deviation was 4.08% in 3 repetitive assays of 500 pM NF-κB p50, which indicated that the reproducibility of this strategy was acceptable. Besides desirable sensitivity, the developed biosensor also showed high selectivity, cost-effective, and simplified operations. In addition, the proposed biosensing platform is versatile. By conjugating with various specific recognition units, it could hold considerable potential to sensitive and selective detect various DNA-binding proteins and might find wide applications in biomedical fields. PMID:27045526

  7. Charge recombination mechanism to explain the negative capacitance in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie-Feng, Feng; Kun, Zhao; Hai-Tao, Dai; Shu-Guo, Wang; Xiao-Wei, Sun

    2016-03-01

    Negative capacitance (NC) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been confirmed experimentally. In this work, the recombination behavior of carriers in DSC with semiconductor interface as a carrier’s transport layer is explored theoretically in detail. Analytical results indicate that the recombination behavior of carriers could contribute to the NC of DSCs under small signal perturbation. Using this recombination capacitance we propose a novel equivalent circuit to completely explain the negative terminal capacitance. Further analysis based on the recombination complex impedance show that the NC is inversely proportional to frequency. In addition, analytical recombination resistance is composed by the alternating current (AC) recombination resistance (Rrac) and the direct current (DC) recombination resistance (Rrdc), which are caused by small-signal perturbation and the DC bias voltage, respectively. Both of two parts will decrease with increasing bias voltage. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204209 and 60876035) and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin City, China (Grant No. 13JCZDJC32800).

  8. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  9. High efficiency class-I audio power amplifier using a single adaptive supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenfei, Peng; Shanshand, Yang; Yong, Feng; Yang, Liu; Zhiliang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    A high efficiency class-I linear audio power amplifier (PA) with an adaptive supply is presented. Its efficiency is improved by a dynamic supply to reduce the power transistors' voltage drop. A gain compression technique is adopted to make the amplifier accommodate a single positive supply. Circuit complicity and chip area are reduced because no charge pump is necessary for the negative supply. A common shared mode voltage and a symmetric layout pattern are used to minimize the non-linearity. A peak efficiency of 80% is reached at peak output power. The measured THD+N before and after the supply switching point are 0.01% and 0.05%, respectively. The maximum output power is 410 mW for an 8 Ω speaker load. Unlike switching amplifiers, the class-I amplifier operates as a linear amplifier and hence has a low EMI. The advantage of a high efficiency and low EMI makes the class-I amplifier suitable for portable and RF sensitive applications.

  10. Progress on diamond amplified photo-cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Kewisch, J.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wu, Q.; Muller, E.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    Two years ago, we obtained an emission gain of 40 from the Diamond Amplifier Cathode (DAC) in our test system. In our current systematic study of hydrogenation, the highest gain we registered in emission scanning was 178. We proved that our treatments for improving the diamond amplifiers are reproducible. Upcoming tests planned include testing DAC in a RF cavity. Already, we have designed a system for these tests using our 112 MHz superconducting cavity, wherein we will measure DAC parameters, such as the limit, if any, on emission current density, the bunch charge, and the bunch length. The diamond-amplified photocathode, that promises to support a high average current, low emittance, and a highly stable electron beam with a long lifetime, is under development for an electron source. The diamond, functioning as a secondary emitter amplifies the primary current, with a few KeV energy, that comes from the traditional cathode. Earlier, our group recorded a maximum gain of 40 in the secondary electron emission from a diamond amplifier. In this article, we detail our optimization of the hydrogenation process for a diamond amplifier that resulted in a stable emission gain of 140. We proved that these characteristics are reproducible. We now are designing a system to test the diamond amplifier cathode using an 112MHz SRF gun to measure the limits of the emission current's density, and on the bunch charge and bunch length.

  11. A Validated High-Throughput Fluorometric Method for Determination of Omeprazole in Quality Control Laboratory via Charge Transfer Sensitized Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Ahmed, Sameh A

    2016-03-01

    A high-throughput 96-microwell plate fluorometric method was developed and validated to determine omeprazole (OMZ) in its dosage forms. The method was based on the charge-transfer (CT) sensitized fluorescence reaction of OMZ with 2, 3-dichloro-5, 6-dicyano-1, 4-benzoquinone (DDQ). This fluorescence reaction provided a new approach for simple, sensitive and selective determinations of OMZ in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present method, the fluorescence reaction was carried out in 96-microwell plates as reaction vessels in order to increase the automation of the methodology and the efficiency of its use in quality control laboratories. All factors affecting the fluorescence reaction were carefully studied and the conditions were optimized. The stoichiometry of the fluorescence reaction between OMZ and DDQ was determined and the reaction mechanism was suggested. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 100-6000ng/ml with the lowest LOD of 33ng/ml. Analytical performance of the proposed assay, in terms of accuracy and precision, was statistically validated and the results were satisfactory; RSD was <2.6% and the accuracy was 98.6-101.6%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OMZ in its dosage forms; the recovery values were 98.26-99.600.95-2.22%. The developed methodology may provide a safer, automated and economic tool for the analysis of OMZ in quality control laboratories. PMID:26634706

  12. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  13. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  14. Low noise tuned amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A bandpass amplifier employing a field effect transistor amplifier first stage is described with a resistive load either a.c. or directly coupled to the non-inverting input of an operational amplifier second stage which is loaded in a Wien Bridge configuration. The bandpass amplifier may be operated with a signal injected into the gate terminal of the field effect transistor and the signal output taken from the output terminal of the operational amplifier. The operational amplifier stage appears as an inductive reactance, capacitive reactance and negative resistance at the non-inverting input of the operational amplifier, all of which appear in parallel with the resistive load of the field effect transistor.

  15. A sensitive non-derivatization method for apramycin and impurities analysis using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and charged aerosol detection.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhen; Guo, Zhimou; Liu, Xiaoda; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Xingguo; Jin, Yan; Liang, Lina; Li, Huisu; Wei, Jie; Wu, Ningpeng

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive non-derivatization method was developed for the analysis of apramycin and impurites using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and charged aerosol detection (CAD). Sample was pretreated with an effective SPE method (recovery >90%) to remove interference with apramycin impurities from sulfate, then analyzed with direct injection. Different chromatography modes of separation and choices of HILIC column were investigated in search of a direct analysis method. The HILIC-CAD method was optimized using a cysteine-bonded zwitterionic HILIC column and compared to the strong cation exchange-ultraviolet (SCX-UV) method with post-column derivatization recommended by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (veterinary) 2010. The improved chromatographic resolution and peak shape with the HILIC-charged aerosol detection method allows for increase of sample load to 48.9µg from only 2.8µg with the SCX-UV approach. More than 16 impurities were detected with this method with improved resolution, and four were identified with MS, while only 7 impurities were detected with the SCX-UV method. Moreover, the current method has a good precision and reproducibility. The intra-day and inter-day of peak area variability was less than or equal to 4.760% RSD and 9.950%, respectively. The average limit of detection and quantization was 80ng and 200ng injected on the column, respectively. The overall results demonstrated that the presented method can be used as an alternative to SCX-UV method in the analysis of apramycin and impurities. PMID:26695285

  16. Charge integrating type position-sensitive proportional chamber for time-resolved measurements using intense X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1985-02-01

    A position-sensitive detecting system for time-resolved diffraction measurements with very intensive X-ray sources has been developed. It consists of a charge integrating type gas-filled detector, multichannel analog multiplexers, a signal processor and a memory (120 ch.×128 phases×24 bits). The detector is 120 mm long in effective length by 10 mm×10 mm in cross section with a single anode of 20 μm diameter. One of the cathode planes consists of 120 cathode strips with a pitch of 1 mm. The spatial resolution is equal to the pitch under a certain detector current limit. The gas gain is adjustable to an appropriate value according to the X-ray intensity range of interest. For experiments with 8 keV X-ray sources, maximum absorption rates of 9×10 7 photons/s·mm with low applied voltage and minimum absorption rates of about 3 photons/s·mm with high applied voltage can be achieved. This system was applied to a time-resolved X-ray diffraction study on frog muscle using a synchrotron radiation source at the Photon Factory and we could collect diffraction patterns with a time resolution of 10 ms and only 10 stimulations.

  17. Semiconductor hierarchically structured flower-like clusters for dye-sensitized solar cells with nearly 100% charge collection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xukai; Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Ye, Meidan; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-11-21

    By combining the ease of producing ZnO nanoflowers with the advantageous chemical stability of TiO2, hierarchically structured hollow TiO2 flower-like clusters were yielded via chemical bath deposition (CBD) of ZnO nanoflowers, followed by their conversion into TiO2 flower-like clusters in the presence of TiO2 precursors. The effects of ZnO precursor concentration, precursor amount, and reaction time on the formation of ZnO nanoflowers were systematically explored. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated by utilizing these hierarchically structured ZnO and TiO2 flower clusters exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.16% and 2.73%, respectively, under 100 mW cm(-2) illumination. The intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) studies suggested that flower-like structures had a fast electron transit time and their charge collection efficiency was nearly 100%. PMID:24081015

  18. pH-, sugar-, and temperature-sensitive electrochemical switch amplified by enzymatic reaction and controlled by logic gates based on semi-interpenetrating polymer networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Naifei

    2012-02-01

    Phenylboronic acid (PBA) moieties are grafted onto the backbone of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), forming the PAA-PBA polyelectrolyte. The semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) films composed of PAA-PBA and poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (PDEA) were then synthesized on electrode surface with entrapped horseradish peroxidase (HRP), designated as PDEA-(PAA-PBA)-HRP. The films demonstrated reversible pH-, fructose-, and thermo-responsive on-off behavior toward electroactive probe K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in its cyclic voltammetric (CV) response. This multiswitchable CV behavior of the system could be further employed to control and modulate the electrochemical reduction of H(2)O(2) catalyzed by HRP immobilized in the films with K(3)Fe(CN)(6) as the mediator in solution. The responsive mechanism of the system was also explored and discussed. The pH-sensitive property was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the PAA component of the films and the probe at different pH; the thermo-responsive behavior originated from the structure change of PDEA hydrogel component of the films with temperature; the fructose-sensitive property was ascribed to the structure change of the films induced by the complexation between the PBA constituent and the sugar. This smart system could be used as a 3-input logic network composed of enabled OR (EnOR) gates in chemical or biomolecular computing by combining the multiresponsive property of the films and the amplification effect of bioelectrocatalysis and demonstrated the potential perspective for fabricating novel multiswitchable electrochemical biosensors and bioelectronic devices. PMID:22239642

  19. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-06-09

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9–11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  20. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-06-01

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9-11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  1. Diode amplifier of modulated optical beam power

    SciTech Connect

    D'yachkov, N V; Bogatov, A P; Gushchik, T I; Drakin, A E

    2014-11-30

    Analytical relations are obtained between characteristics of modulated light at the output and input of an optical diode power amplifier operating in the highly saturated gain regime. It is shown that a diode amplifier may act as an amplitude-to-phase modulation converter with a rather large bandwidth (∼10 GHz). The low sensitivity of the output power of the amplifier to the input beam power and its high energy efficiency allow it to be used as a building block of a high-power multielement laser system with coherent summation of a large number of optical beams. (lasers)

  2. DIAMOND AMPLIFIER FOR PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    RAO,T.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CHANG,X.; HULBERT,S.; JOHNSON,P.D.; KEWISCH,J.

    2004-06-21

    We report a new approach to the generation of high-current, high-brightness electron beams. Primary electrons are produced by a photocathode (or other means) and are accelerated to a few thousand electron-volts, then strike a specially prepared diamond window. The large Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) provides a multiplication of the number of electrons by about two orders of magnitude. The secondary electrons drift through the diamond under an electric field and emerge into the accelerating proper of the ''gun'' through a Negative Electron Affinity surface of the diamond. The advantages of the new approach include the following: (1) Reduction of the number of primary electrons by the large SEY, i.e. a very low laser power in a photocathode producing the primaries. (2) Low thermal emittance due to the NEA surface and the rapid thermalization of the electrons. (3) Protection of the cathode from possible contamination from the gun, allowing the use of large quantum efficiency but sensitive cathodes. (4) Protection of the gun from possible contamination by the cathode, allowing the use of superconducting gun cavities. (5) Production of high average currents, up to ampere class. (6) Encapsulated design, making the ''load-lock'' systems unnecessary. This paper presents the criteria that need to be taken into account in designing the amplifier.

  3. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Immunosensing Platform Based on CdSeTe@CdS:Mn Core-Shell Quantum Dots-Sensitized TiO2 Amplified by CuS Nanocrystals Conjugated Signal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Gao-Chao; Zhu, Hua; Du, Dan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-03-15

    A new, ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical immunosensing platform was established on the basis of CdSeTe@CdS:Mn core-shell quantum dots-sensitized TiO2 coupled with signal amplification of CuS nanocrystals conjugated signal antibodies. In this proposal, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, Ag) was selected as an example of target analyte to show the analytical performances of the platform. Specifically, TiO2-modified electrode was first assembled with CdSeTe alloyed quantum dots (AQDs) via electrostatic adsorption assisted by oppositely charged polyelectrolyte, and then further deposited with CdS:Mn shells on the surface of CdSeTe AQDs via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction strategy, forming TiO2/CdSeTe@CdS:Mn sensitization structure, which was used as photoelectrochemical matrix to immobilize capture CEA antibodies (Ab1); signal CEA antibodies (Ab2) were labeled with CuS nanocrystals (NCs) to form Ab2-CuS conjugates, which were employed as signal amplification elements when specific immunoreaction occurred. The ultrahigh sensitivity of this immunoassay resulted from the following two aspects. Before detection of target Ag, the TiO2/CdSeTe@CdS:Mn sensitization structure could adequately harvest the exciting light with different bands, evidently expedite the electron transfer, and effectively depress the charge recombination, resulting in noticeably increased photocurrent. When target Ag existed, the Ab2-CuS conjugates could dramatically decrease the photocurrent due to competitive absorption of exciting light and consumption of electron donor for CuS NCs coupled with steric hindrance of Ab2 molecules. The fabricated photoelectrochemical immunosensor showed a low limit of detection of 0.16 pg/mL and a wide linear range from 0.5 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL for CEA detection, and it also exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, and stability. PMID:26910366

  4. Effect of Molecular Coupling on Ultrafast Electron-Transfer and Charge-Recombination Dynamics in a Wide-Gap ZnS Nanoaggregate Sensitized by Triphenyl Methane Dyes.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Tushar; Maity, Partha; Dana, Jayanta; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2016-03-01

    Wide-band-gap ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized, and after sensitizing the NCs with series of triphenyl methane (TPM) dyes, ultrafast charge-transfer dynamics was demonstrated. HRTEM images of ZnS NCs show the formation of aggregate crystals with a flower-like structure. Exciton absorption and lumimescence, due to quantum confinement of the ZnS NCs, appear at approximately 310 and 340 nm, respectively. Interestingly, all the TPM dyes (pyrogallol red, bromopyrogallol red, and aurin tricarboxylic acid) form charge-transfer complexes with the ZnS NCs, with the appearance of a red-shifted band. Electron injection from the photoexcited TPM dyes into the conduction band of the ZnS NCs is shown to be a thermodynamically viable process, as confirmed by steady-state and time-resolved emission studies. To unravel charge-transfer (both electron injection and charge recombination) dynamics and the effect of molecular coupling, femtosecond transient absorption studies were carried out in TPM-sensitized ZnS NCs. The electron-injection dynamics is pulse-width-limited in all the ZnS/TPM dye systems, however, the back electron transfer differs, depending on the molecular coupling of the sensitizers (TPM dyes). The detailed mechanisms for the above-mentioned processes are discussed. PMID:26548569

  5. Synthesis and photoinduced charge-transfer properties of a ZnFe2O4-sensitized TiO2 nanotube array electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyong; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Qidong; Chen, Guohua

    2011-03-15

    TiO2 nanotube arrays sensitized with ZnFe2O4 nano-crystals were successfully fabricated by a two-step process of anodization and a vacuum-assistant impregnation method followed by annealing. The sample was studied by an environmental scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction to characterize its morphology and chemical composition. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra and a photoelectrochemical measurement approved that the ZnFe2O4 sensitization enhanced the probability of photoinduced charge separation and extended the range of the photoresponse of TiO2 nanotube arrays from the UV to visible region. In addition, the behaviors of photoinduced charge transfer in a TiO2 nanotube array electrode before and after sensitization by ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals were comparatively studied. The photoluminescence of the TiO2 nanotube array electrode became suppressed, and the surface photovoltage responses on the spectrum were significantly enhanced after the introduction of ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals. The transfer dynamics of the photoinduced charges were observed directly by a transient photovoltage measurement, which revealed a fast charge separation at the interface between ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals and TiO2 nanotubes upon light excitation. PMID:21332125

  6. DIRECT COUPLED AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-09-19

    A transistor amplifier is designed for vyery small currents below 10/sup -8/ amperes. The filrst and second amplifier stages use unusual selected transistors in which the current amplification increases markedly for values of base current below 10/sup -6/ amperes.

  7. Linearly polarized fiber amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.

    2004-11-30

    Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.

  8. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  9. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  10. Strong sensitivity of x-ray emission lines following charge exchange between highly charged ions and H (1 s ) in weakly screened media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariatore, N. D.; Otranto, S.

    2015-11-01

    We use the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method to analyze charge exchange processes between fully stripped projectiles with H (1 s ) in a screened environment at impact energies in the range 18 eV/amu to 10 keV/amu. For Fe+26 projectiles, (n ,l )-state selective charge exchange and line emission cross sections are presented for Debye screening lengths from 15 a.u. up to the unscreened case limit. At low-impact energies, a strong dependence of the hardness ratio on the Debye screening length is found. We show that such strong dependence also evidences itself for Ne+10,P+15,Ar+18, and Kr+36 projectiles. Clear indications of this dependence are noticeable in the photonic spectra even for large screening lengths (˜100 a.u.).

  11. Space charge effects in polymer-based light-emitting diodes studied by means of a polarization sensitive electroreflectance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelotti, F.; Bussi, S.; Dominici, L.; Bertolotti, M.; Bao, Z.

    2002-05-01

    We used a single wavelength electro-optical reflection technique to study the creation of space charge distributions in a polymer light emitting diode, by monitoring the real third order nonlinear optical response of the electroluminescent layer. The diode is based on an aluminum/polymer/indium tin oxide stack, where the polymer is a derivative of poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) in which oxidiazole groups were grafted as side chains. The measured signal is strongly influenced by a space charge distribution and by screening in the organic layer. The space charge distribution is the superposition of a long lived contribution, close to indium tin oxide, due to charges trapped in deep levels, and of that of relatively mobile charges injected in the polymer film. In the frame of a model which takes into account Debye-Hückel screening, with screening length equal to 100 nm we estimated the carrier density of the long lived charge distribution to be 4.8×1023 m-3, for a uniform distribution in a 110-nm-thick layer. The influence of the injection of mobile charges on the electro-optic signal is an order of magnitude smaller than that of trapped charges. The real third order susceptibility of the polymer is estimated to be χ(3)=4×10-21 m2/V2.

  12. Tuning Broadband Microwave Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Alaniz, Gabriel

    2003-09-05

    The PEP-II/DA {Phi} NE/ALS longitudinal feedback systems are complex wide bandwidth systems requiring analog, digital and microwave circuits. The solid-state amplifier is one of the components in the microwave circuit that is required to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities that exist in the PEP-II accelerator. The suppression is achieved by using an antenna as a kicker structure that provides an electric field in order to increase or decrease the energy of particles passing through the structure. The amplifier is made up of sixteen 30 to 35W microstrip GaAs FET modules that are combined to obtain 500W over a bandwidth of 850MHz to 1850MHz. The amplifier malfunctioned causing a reduction in the functionality and power output of the individual GaAs FET modules. The amplifier must be repaired. After repair, the amplifier must be tuned to optimize the gain while maintaining proper power output. The amplifier is tuned using microstrip circuit techniques. A variety of microstrip methods are used to obtain the proper line impedance. The result is a working amplifier that operates efficiently.

  13. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Hallberg, Carl; Cecil, Jim

    1994-01-01

    A state-of-the-art instrumentation amplifier capable of being used with most types of transducers has been developed at the Kennedy Space Center. This Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) can eliminate costly measurement setup item and troubleshooting, improve system reliability and provide more accurate data than conventional amplifiers. The USCA can configure itself for maximum resolution and accuracy based on information read from a RAM chip attached to each transducer. Excitation voltages or current are also automatically configured. The amplifier uses both analog and digital state-of-the-art technology with analog-to-digital conversion performed in the early stages in order to minimize errors introduced by offset and gain drifts in the analog components. A dynamic temperature compensation scheme has been designed to achieve and maintain 12-bit accuracy of the amplifier from 0 to 70 C. The digital signal processing section allows the implementation of digital filters up to 511th order. The amplifier can also perform real-time linearizations up to fourth order while processing data at a rate of 23.438 kS/s. Both digital and analog outputs are available from the amplifier.

  14. Multipass optical parametric amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Jeys, T.H.

    1996-08-01

    A compact, low-threshold, multipass optical parametric amplifier has been developed for the conversion of short-pulse (360-ps) 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser radiation into eye-safe 1572-nm radiation for laser ranging and radar applications. The amplifier had a threshold pump power of as low as 45{mu}J, and at three to four times this threshold pump power the amplifier converted 30{percent} of the input 1064-nm radiation into 1572-nm output radiation. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  15. Amplify Interest in STS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L; Mays, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities in which students construct simple crystal radio sets and amplifiers out of diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. Provides conceptual background, materials needed, instructions, diagrams, and classroom applications. (MDH)

  16. Fully relayed regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Alexander J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors, to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

  17. Ultrafast polarisation spectroscopy of photoinduced charges in a conjugated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A. A.; Parashchuk, D. Yu; van Loosdrecht, P.; Pshenichnikov, M. S.

    2009-07-01

    Tunable optical parametric generators and amplifiers (OPA), proposed and developed by Akhmanov and his colleagues, have become the working horses in exploration of dynamical processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of using ultrafast polarisation-sensitive two-colour spectroscopy, performed with a set of two OPAs, to study charge photogeneration and transport in conjugated polymers and their donor-acceptor blends.

  18. Ultrafast polarisation spectroscopy of photoinduced charges in a conjugated polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Bakulin, A A; Loosdrecht, P van; Pshenichnikov, M S; Parashchuk, D Yu

    2009-07-31

    Tunable optical parametric generators and amplifiers (OPA), proposed and developed by Akhmanov and his colleagues, have become the working horses in exploration of dynamical processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of using ultrafast polarisation-sensitive two-colour spectroscopy, performed with a set of two OPAs, to study charge photogeneration and transport in conjugated polymers and their donor-acceptor blends. (special issue devoted to the 80th birthday of S.A. Akhmanov)

  19. High stability amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An electrical RF signal amplifier for providing high temperature stability and RF isolation and comprised of an integrated circuit voltage regulator, a single transistor, and an integrated circuit operational amplifier mounted on a circuit board such that passive circuit elements are located on side of the circuit board while the active circuit elements are located on the other side is described. The active circuit elements are embedded in a common heat sink so that a common temperature reference is provided for changes in ambient temperature. The single transistor and operational amplifier are connected together to form a feedback amplifier powered from the voltage regulator with transistor implementing primarily the desired signal gain while the operational amplifier implements signal isolation. Further RF isolation is provided by the voltage regulator which inhibits cross-talk from other like amplifiers powered from a common power supply. Input and output terminals consisting of coaxial connectors are located on the sides of a housing in which all the circuit components and heat sink are located.

  20. Noise in chi (3) and photorefractive amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternklar, Shmuel; Glick, Yaakov

    1995-12-01

    A comparison of the noise characteristics of chi (3) and photorefractive coherent amplifiers reveals basic differences in their dependence on operating parameters. Unlike all types of chi (3) amplifiers, which are shown to have a well-defined optimum working point in the region of the self-stimulated scattering threshold, the photorefractive amplifier can be made increasingly quieter by lowering the pump power. This is demonstrated by use of highly doped Co:BaTiO3 in a tight-focus reflection grating geometry. It is shown that scattering from inhomogeneities in the crystal is the major limiting noise source and is significantly higher than predictions resulting from fundamental considerations such as random space-charge noise. An extremely high small-signal gain of 107 was measured with this crystal and geometry. To our knowledge this is the highest photorefractive gain reported to date.

  1. Determination of {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O sensitivity factors and charge-exchange processes in low-energy ion scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, H.; Chater, R. J.; Fearn, S.; Symianakis, E.; Kilner, J. A.; Brongersma, H. H.

    2012-10-08

    Quantitative analysis in low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) requires an understanding of the charge-exchange processes to estimate the elemental sensitivity factors. In this work, the neutralization of He{sup +} scattered by {sup 18}O-exchanged silica at energies between 0.6 and 7 keV was studied. The process is dominated by Auger neutralization for E{sub i} < 0.8 keV. An additional mechanism starts above the reionization threshold. This collision-induced neutralization becomes the dominant mechanism for E{sub i} > 2 keV. The ion fractions P{sup +} were determined for Si and O using the characteristic velocity method to quantify the surface density. The {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O sensitivity ratio indicates an 18% higher sensitivity for the heavier O isotope.

  2. Polorization insensitive optical amplifier consisting of two semiconductor laser amplifiers and a polarization insensitive isolator in series

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, M.; Matsumoto, T. )

    1989-12-01

    A polarization insensitive optical amplifier consisting of two semiconductor laser amplifiers and a polarization insensitive isolator in series is presented. The polarization insensitive isolator serves not only to eliminate the cavity coupling between two amplifiers, but also to rotate any polarized forward light by 90{degrees}. Experience demonstrate the elimination of cavity coupling and a low polarization sensitivity of 0.6 dB with a high gain of 26 dB.

  3. LOW-LEVEL DIRECT CURRENT AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1959-05-01

    A d-c amplifier is described. Modulation is provided between a d-c signal and an alternating current to give an output signal proportional to the d- c signal. The circuit has high sensitivity and accuracy. (T.R.H.)

  4. Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szepesi, Z.

    1971-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

  5. Enhanced charge-carrier transfer by CdS and Ag2S quantum dots co-sensitization for TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongqing; Ji, Gangqiang; Guan, Debin; Wang, Bin; Wu, Xueliang

    2015-11-01

    Thioglycollic acid was employed as a molecular linker to prepare CdS and/or Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) for the co-sensitization of TiO2 nanotube arrays through the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The microstructure, chemical composition, and photoabsorption of the prepared samples were analyzed by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DAS). The interfacial separation and transport of photoinduced charge carries were also examined by applying current-voltage characteristics (J-V), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transient open circuit potential plots, and Mott-Schottky techniques. The sizes of the CdS and Ag2S QDs were found to be 6 and 4 nm, respectively. The co-sensitized samples demonstrate significantly enhanced photo absorption, greatly reduced charge transfer resistance at the semiconductor interfaces, positive shift of the flat band, elongated electron lifetimes, and accelerated interfacial separation and transport of the photoinduced charge carriers. A critical operation sequence is to first carry out the deposition of the CdS QDs that are less mismatched with TiO2 crystal lattice, followed by the deposition of Ag2S QDs. The samples prepared in this manner presented the best optoelectronic characteristics with a short photocurrent density of 9.5 mA·cm(-2). This value is 7.6% higher than 8.83 mA·cm(-2) of the sample prepared by depositing the more mismatched Ag2S QDs followed by deposition of CdS. This value is 18.8% higher than 8 mA·cm(-2) of the Ag2S-only sensitized sample, and 22.6% higher than 7.75 mA·cm(-2) of the CdS-only sensitized sample. PMID:26142959

  6. Modular Amplifier/Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belohoubek, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    Two proposed solar-powered microwave transmitter modules would include amplifiers in direct contact with antenna dipoles so that metalization of dipoles serves as heat-dissipation areas for amplifiers. In integrated energy converter (solar radiation to microwaves), solar cells feed dc power directly to microwave amplifier/antenna modules. Antenna elements also serve as heat sinks for amplifiers.

  7. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

  8. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    1997-01-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

  9. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm–1). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics. PMID:25710188

  10. High input impedance amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1995-01-01

    High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

  11. Ab Initio Simulation of Charge Transfer at the Semiconductor Quantum Dot/TiO 2 Interface in Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xin, Xukai; Li, Bo; Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Biswas, Rana; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-07-24

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have emerged as a promising solar architecture for next-generation solar cells. The QDSSCs exhibit a remarkably fast electron transfer from the quantum dot (QD) donor to the TiO2 acceptor with size quantization properties of QDs that allows for the modulation of band energies to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of solar cells. In order to understand the mechanisms that underpin this rapid charge transfer, the electronic properties of CdSe and PbSe QDs with different sizes on the TiO2 substrate are simulated using a rigorous ab initio density functional method. Our method capitalizes on localized orbitalmore » basis set, which is computationally less intensive. Quite intriguingly, a remarkable set of electron bridging states between QDs and TiO2 occurring via the strong bonding between the conduction bands of QDs and TiO2 is revealed. Such bridging states account for the fast adiabatic charge transfer from the QD donor to the TiO2 acceptor, and may be a general feature for strongly coupled donor/acceptor systems. All the QDs/TiO2 systems exhibit type II band alignments, with conduction band offsets that increase with the decrease in QD size. This facilitates the charge transfer from QDs donors to TiO2 acceptors and explains the dependence of the increased charge transfer rate with the decreased QD size.« less

  12. STABILIZED FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Fishbine, H.L.; Sewell, C. Jr.

    1957-08-01

    Negative feedback amplifiers, and particularly a negative feedback circuit which is economical on amode power consumption, are described. Basically, the disclosed circuit comprises two tetrode tubes where the output of the first tube is capacitamce coupled to the grid of the second tube, which in turn has its plate coupled to the cathode of the first tube to form a degenerative feedback circuit. Operating potential for screen of the second tube is supplied by connecting the cathode resistor of the first tube to the screen, while the screen is by-passed to the cathode of its tube for the amplified frequencies. Also, the amplifier incorporates a circuit to stabilize the transconductance of the tubes by making the grid potential of each tube interdependent on anode currents of both lubes by voltage divider circuitry.

  13. Radiation and particle detector and amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, K. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A radiation or charged particle detector is described which incorporates a channel multiplier structure to amplify the detected rays or particles. The channel multiplier structure has a support multiplying element with a longitudinal slot along one side. The element supports a pair of plates positioned contiguous with the slot. The plates funnel the particles or rays to be detected into the slotted aperture and the element, thus creating an effectively wide aperture detector of the windowless type.

  14. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist processes: I. Relationship between sensitivity and chemical gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-05-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography used for mask and mold fabrication is an indispensable technology in the lithography used for high-volume production of semiconductor devices. With the reduction in the critical dimensions of semiconductor devices, the requirement for EB lithography also becomes severe. In this study, the feasibility of single nano patterning using EB lithography with a chemically amplified resist process was investigated. The latent images of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) were calculated on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EB resists. Simulations indicated that the line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch can be resolved with line edge roughness of 0.9-1.9 nm with a sensitivity of 270 µC cm-2 using a 3 nm electron beam.

  15. Visualizing interfacial charge transfer in Ru-dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Smolentsev, G.; Guo, J.; Attenkofer, K.; Kurtz, C.; Jennings, G.; Lockard, J. V.; Stickrath, A. B.; Chen, L. X.

    2011-03-01

    A molecular level understanding of the structural reorganization accompanying interfacial electron transfer is important for rational design of solar cells. Here we have applied XTA (X-ray transient absorption) spectroscopy to study transient structures in a heterogeneous interfacial system mimicking the charge separation process in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with Ru(dcbpy){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (RuN3) dye adsorbed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surfaces. The results show that the average Ru-NCS bond length reduces by 0.06 {angstrom}, whereas the average Ru?N(dcbpy) bond length remains nearly unchanged after the electron injection. The differences in bond-order change and steric hindrance between two types of ligands are attributed to their structural response in the charge separation. This study extends the application of XTA into optically opaque hybrid interfacial systems relevant to the solar energy conversion.

  16. Charge transport in zirconium doped anatase nanowires dye-sensitized solar cells: Trade-off between lattice strain and photovoltaic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archana, P. S.; Gupta, Arunava; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan

    2014-10-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is doped up to 5 at. % in anatase TiO2 nanowires by electrospinning and used as working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Variations observed in the photovoltaic parameters were correlated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, open circuit voltage decay, and X-ray diffraction measurements. Results show that homovalent substitution of Zr in TiO2 increased the chemical capacitance and electron diffusion coefficient which in turn decreased charge transport resistance and charge transit time. However, lattice strain due to size mismatch between the Zr4+ and Ti4+ ions decreased open circuit voltage and fill factor thereby setting a trade-off between doping concentration and photovoltaic properties.

  17. Charge transport in zirconium doped anatase nanowires dye-sensitized solar cells: Trade-off between lattice strain and photovoltaic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Archana, P. S.; Gupta, Arunava; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan

    2014-10-13

    Zirconium (Zr) is doped up to 5 at. % in anatase TiO{sub 2} nanowires by electrospinning and used as working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Variations observed in the photovoltaic parameters were correlated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, open circuit voltage decay, and X-ray diffraction measurements. Results show that homovalent substitution of Zr in TiO{sub 2} increased the chemical capacitance and electron diffusion coefficient which in turn decreased charge transport resistance and charge transit time. However, lattice strain due to size mismatch between the Zr{sup 4+} and Ti{sup 4+} ions decreased open circuit voltage and fill factor thereby setting a trade-off between doping concentration and photovoltaic properties.

  18. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  19. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  20. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  1. Improved sensitivity to charged Higgs searches in top quark decays t→ bH +→ b( τ + ν τ ) at the LHC using τ polarisation and multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmed; Barreiro, Fernando; Llorente, Javier

    2011-09-01

    We present an analysis with improved sensitivity to the light charged Higgs (m_{H+} < mt-mb) searches in the top quark decays t→ bH +→ b( τ + ν τ )+c.c. in the tbar{t} and single t/bar{t} production processes at the LHC. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), one anticipates the branching ratio {mathcal{B}} (H+ totau+ν_{tau})˜eq1 over almost the entire allowed tanβ range. Noting that the τ + arising from the decay H +→ τ + ν τ are predominantly right-polarized, as opposed to the τ + from the dominant background W +→ τ + ν τ , which are left-polarized, a number of H +/ W +→ τ + ν τ discriminators have been proposed and studied in the literature. We consider hadronic decays of the τ ±, concentrating on the dominant one-prong decay channel τ ±→ ρ ± ν τ . The energy and p T of the charged prongs normalised to the corresponding quantities of the ρ ± are convenient variables which serve as τ ± polariser. We use the distributions in these variables and several other kinematic quantities to train a boosted decision tree (BDT). Using the BDT classifier, and a variant of it called BDTD, which makes use of decorrelated variables, we have calculated the BDT(D)-response functions to estimate the signal efficiency vs. the rejection of the background. We argue that this chain of analysis has a high sensitivity to light charged Higgs searches up to a mass of 150 GeV in the decays t→ bH + (and charge conjugate) at the LHC. For the case of single top production, we also study the transverse mass of the system determined using Lagrange multipliers.

  2. Charge transfer emission in coumarin 343 sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle: A direct measurement of back electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, H.N.

    1999-11-25

    Electron injection and back electron transfer dynamics in coumarin 343 (C-343) adsorbed on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are studied by picosecond transient absorption and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The direct detection of electrons in the nanoparticles and the parent cation are monitored using picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, and the corresponding dynamics of the adsorbate are monitored by time-resolved absorption spectra of the cation radical of C-343 in the visible region. When the electron returns from the nanoparticles to the present cation, a low quantum yield red-shifted charge transfer emission is observed. Measuring the charge transfer emission lifetimes by a picosecond time-resolved fluorimeter, the author gets an exact rate of back electron transfer reaction from the nanoparticle to the parent cation.

  3. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  4. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  5. Tuneable, non-degenerated, nonlinear, parametrically-excited amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolev, Amit; Bucher, Izhak

    2016-01-01

    The proposed parametric amplifier scheme can be tuned to amplify a wide range of input frequencies by altering the parametric excitation with no need to physically modify the oscillator. Parametric amplifiers had been studied extensively, although most of the work focused on amplifiers that are parametrically excited at a frequency twice the amplifier's natural frequency. These amplifiers are confined to amplifying predetermined frequencies. The proposed parametric amplifier's bandwidth is indeed tuneable to nearly any input frequency, not bound to be an integer multiple of a natural frequency. In order to tune the stiffness and induce a variable frequency parametric excitation, a digitally controlled electromechanical element must be incorporated in the realization. We introduce a novel parametric amplifier with nonlinearity, Duffing type hardening, that bounds the otherwise unlimited amplitude. Moreover, we present a multi degree of freedom system in which a utilization of the proposed method enables the projection of low frequency vector forces on any eigenvector and corresponding natural frequency of the system, and thus to transform external excitations to a frequency band where signal levels are considerably higher. Using the method of multiple scales, analytical expressions for the responses have been retrieved and verified numerically. Parametric studies of the amplifiers' gain, sensitivities and spatial projection of the excitation on the system eigenvectors were carried out analytically. The results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach over existing schemes. Practical applications envisaged for the proposed method will be outlined.

  6. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima, Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm(-2) and maintains high admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4 weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes. Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-μm-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify (amplification factor: ∼200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue. PMID:27125910

  7. Molecular charge contact biosensing based on the interaction of biologically modified magnetic beads with an ion-sensitive field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Yuuya; Sakata, Toshiya

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we report a novel method of biomolecular recognition based on the molecular charge contact (MCC). As one of the MCC biosensing method, the interaction between DNA-coated magnetic beads and a silicon-based semiconductor, an ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) could be detected for DNA molecular recognition events using the principle of the field effect, which enables detecting ionic or molecular charges. After DNA-coated magnetic beads had been introduced and brought in contact with the gate surface by a magnet, the threshold voltage of the ISFET was shifted in the positive direction by immobilization, hybridization and extension reaction of DNA molecules on magnetic beads. This positive shift was based on the increase in negative charges of the phosphate groups in them. Then, the ISFET device could be reused a couple of dozen times continuously and cost-effectively because the oligonucleotide probes were tethered to the magnetic beads, but this was not done directly on the gate surface of the ISFET. Moreover, the MCC biosensing method enabled discrimination of a single nucleotide polymorphism. By creating an interaction of magnetic beads with the semiconductor, we can expect enhancement of the reaction efficiency in a solution and reuse of the device by separating the reaction field from the sensing substrate. PMID:24595376

  8. Effects of initial-fixed charge density on pH-sensitive hydrogels subjected to coupled pH and electric field stimuli: a meshless analysis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T Y; Li, Hua; Yew, Y K; Lam, K Y

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of initial fixed-charge density on the response behavior of pH-sensitive hydrogels subjected to coupled stimuli, namely, solution pH and externally applied electric field. This is the first instance in which a coupled stimuli numerical analysis has been carried out for these polymer gels, which are used as active sensing/actuating elements in advanced biomicroelectromechanical systems devices. In this work, a chemo-electro-mechanical formulation, termed the multi-effect-coupling pH-stimulus (MECpH) model, is first presented. This mathematical model takes into account the ionic species diffusion, electric potential coupling, and large mechanical deformation. In addition, a correlation between the diffusive hydrogen ions and fixed-charge groups on the hydrogel polymeric chains is established based on the Langmuir absorption isotherm, and incorporated accordingly into the MECpH model. To solve the resulting highly nonlinear and highly coupled partial differential equations of this mathematical model, the Hermite-Cloud method, a novel true meshless technique, is employed. To demonstrate the accuracy and robustness the MECpH model, computed numerical results are compared with experimental data available from literature. Following this validation, several numerical studies are carried out to investigate the effects of initial fixed-charge density on the volumetric variations of these pH-stimulus-responsive hydrogels when immersed in buffered solutions. PMID:17408319

  9. Influence of TiO2 nanotube morphology and TiCl4 treatment on the charge transfer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Hong; Chae, Sang Youn; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Koo, Kee-Kahb; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2013-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs), and surface-modified NTAs with a TiCl4 treatment. The photovoltaic efficiencies of the DSSCs using TiO2 NP, NTA, and TiCl4-treated NTA electrodes are 4.25, 4.74, and 7.47 %, respectively. The highest performance was observed with a TiCl4-treated TiO2 NTA photoanode, although in the case of the latter two electrodes, the amounts of N719 dye adsorbed were similar and 68 % of that of the NP electrode. Electrochemical impedance measurements show that the overall resistance, including the charge-transfer resistance, was smaller with NTA morphologies than with NP morphologies. We suggest that a different electron transfer mechanism along the one-dimensional nanostructure of the TiO2 NTAs contributes to the smaller charge-transfer resistance, resulting in a higher short circuit current ( J sc), even at lower dye adsorption. Furthermore, the TiCl4-treated NTAs showed even smaller charge-transfer resistance, resulting in the highest J sc value, because the downward shift in the conduction band edge improves the electron injection efficiency from the excited dye into the TiCl4-treated TiO2 electrodes.

  10. Negative electrospray ionization on porous supporting tips for mass spectrometric analysis: electrostatic charging effect on detection sensitivity and its application to explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melody Yee-Man; Man, Sin-Heng; Che, Chi-Ming; Lau, Kai-Chung; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2014-03-21

    The simplicity and easy manipulation of a porous substrate-based ESI-MS technique have been widely applied to the direct analysis of different types of samples in positive ion mode. However, the study and application of this technique in negative ion mode are sparse. A key challenge could be due to the ease of electrical discharge on supporting tips upon the application of negative voltage. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of supporting materials, including polyester, polyethylene and wood, on the detection sensitivity of a porous substrate-based negative ESI-MS technique. By using nitrobenzene derivatives and nitrophenol derivatives as the target analytes, it was found that the hydrophobic materials (i.e., polyethylene and polyester) with a higher tendency to accumulate negative charge could enhance the detection sensitivity towards nitrobenzene derivatives via electron-capture ionization; whereas, compounds with electron affinities lower than the cut-off value (1.13 eV) were not detected. Nitrophenol derivatives with pKa smaller than 9.0 could be detected in the form of deprotonated ions; whereas polar materials (i.e., wood), which might undergo competitive deprotonation with the analytes, could suppress the detection sensitivity. With the investigation of the material effects on the detection sensitivity, the porous substrate-based negative ESI-MS method was developed and applied to the direct detection of two commonly encountered explosives in complex samples. PMID:24492411

  11. Negatively Charged Amino Acids Near and in Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Domain of TRPM4 Channel Are One Determinant of Its Ca2+ Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Tanimoto, Akira; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Hibino, Hiroshi; Ito, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel melastatin subfamily member 4 (TRPM4) is a broadly expressed nonselective monovalent cation channel. TRPM4 is activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca2+, which is essential for the activation. The Ca2+ sensitivity is known to be regulated by calmodulin and membrane phosphoinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). Although these regulators must play important roles in controlling TRPM4 activity, mutation analyses of the calmodulin-binding sites have suggested that Ca2+ binds to TRPM4 directly. However, the intrinsic binding sites in TRPM4 remain to be elucidated. Here, by using patch clamp and molecular biological techniques, we show that there are at least two functionally different divalent cation-binding sites, and the negatively charged amino acids near and in the TRP domain in the C-terminal tail of TRPM4 (Asp-1049 and Glu-1062 of rat TRPM4) are required for maintaining the normal Ca2+ sensitivity of one of the binding sites. Applications of Co2+, Mn2+, or Ni2+ to the cytosolic side potentiated TRPM4 currents, increased the Ca2+ sensitivity, but were unable to evoke TRPM4 currents without Ca2+. Mutations of the acidic amino acids near and in the TRP domain, which are conserved in TRPM2, TRPM5, and TRPM8, deteriorated the Ca2+ sensitivity in the presence of Co2+ or PI(4,5)P2 but hardly affected the sensitivity to Co2+ and PI(4,5)P2. These results suggest a novel role of the TRP domain in TRPM4 as a site responsible for maintaining the normal Ca2+ sensitivity. These findings provide more insights into the molecular mechanisms of the regulation of TRPM4 by Ca2+. PMID:25378404

  12. DRIFT COMPENSATED DIRECT COUPLED AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Windsor, A.A.

    1959-05-01

    An improved direct-coupled amplifier having zerolevel drift correction is described. The need for an auxiliary corrective-potential amplifier is eliminated thereby giving protection against overload saturation of the zero- level drift correcting circuit. (T.R.H.)

  13. Broadband RF-distribution amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Radio frequency amplifier to distribute reference frequencies within communications systems and provide automatic gain control with low phase distortion is described. Use of photocell in electronic circuit to produce desired conditions is explained. Operation of entire amplifier circuit is analyzed.

  14. Real-time tuning of a double quantum dot using a Josephson parametric amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, J.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Quintana, C. M.; Eichler, C.; Hartke, T. R.; Petta, J. R.

    Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPAs) have enabled advances in readout of quantum systems. Here we demonstrate JPA-assisted readout of a cavity-coupled double quantum dot (DQD). Utilizing a JPA we improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by a factor of 2000 compared to the situation with the parametric amplifier turned off. At an interdot charge transition we achieve a SNR of 76 (19 dB) with an integration time τ = 400 ns, which is limited by the linewidth of our cavity. By measuring the SNR as a function of τ we extract an equivalent charge sensitivity of 8 ×10-5 e /√{ Hz} . We develop a dual-gate-voltage rastering scheme that allows us to acquire a DQD charge stability diagram in just 20 ms. Such rapid data acquisition rates enable device tuning in live ``video-mode,'' where the results of parameter changes are immediately displayed. Live tuning allows the DQD confinement potential to be rapidly tuned, a capability that will become increasingly important as semiconductor spin qubits are scaled to a larger number of dots. Research is supported by the Packard Foundation, ARO Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0149, DARPA QuEST Grant No. HR0011-09-1-0007, and the NSF (Grants No. DMR-1409556 and DMR-1420541).

  15. Ab Initio Simulation of Charge Transfer at the Semiconductor Quantum Dot/TiO 2 Interface in Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Xukai; Li, Bo; Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Biswas, Rana; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-07-24

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have emerged as a promising solar architecture for next-generation solar cells. The QDSSCs exhibit a remarkably fast electron transfer from the quantum dot (QD) donor to the TiO2 acceptor with size quantization properties of QDs that allows for the modulation of band energies to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of solar cells. In order to understand the mechanisms that underpin this rapid charge transfer, the electronic properties of CdSe and PbSe QDs with different sizes on the TiO2 substrate are simulated using a rigorous ab initio density functional method. Our method capitalizes on localized orbital basis set, which is computationally less intensive. Quite intriguingly, a remarkable set of electron bridging states between QDs and TiO2 occurring via the strong bonding between the conduction bands of QDs and TiO2 is revealed. Such bridging states account for the fast adiabatic charge transfer from the QD donor to the TiO2 acceptor, and may be a general feature for strongly coupled donor/acceptor systems. All the QDs/TiO2 systems exhibit type II band alignments, with conduction band offsets that increase with the decrease in QD size. This facilitates the charge transfer from QDs donors to TiO2 acceptors and explains the dependence of the increased charge transfer rate with the decreased QD size.

  16. STABILIZED TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Noe, J.B.

    1963-05-01

    A temperature stabilized transistor amplifier having a pair of transistors coupled in cascade relation that are capable of providing amplification through a temperature range of - 100 un. Concent 85% F to 400 un. Concent 85% F described. The stabilization of the amplifier is attained by coupling a feedback signal taken from the emitter of second transistor at a junction between two serially arranged biasing resistances in the circuit of the emitter of the second transistor to the base of the first transistor. Thus, a change in the emitter current of the second transistor is automatically corrected by the feedback adjustment of the base-emitter potential of the first transistor and by a corresponding change in the base-emitter potential of the second transistor. (AEC)

  17. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  18. Shared experiences are amplified.

    PubMed

    Boothby, Erica J; Clark, Margaret S; Bargh, John A

    2014-12-01

    In two studies, we found that sharing an experience with another person, without communicating, amplifies one's experience. Both pleasant and unpleasant experiences were more intense when shared. In Study 1, participants tasted pleasant chocolate. They judged the chocolate to be more likeable and flavorful when they tasted it at the same time that another person did than when that other person was present but engaged in a different activity. Although these results were consistent with our hypothesis that shared experiences are amplified compared with unshared experiences, it could also be the case that shared experiences are more enjoyable in general. We designed Study 2 to distinguish between these two explanations. In this study, participants tasted unpleasantly bitter chocolate and judged it to be less likeable when they tasted it simultaneously with another person than when that other person was present but doing something else. These results support the amplification hypothesis. PMID:25274583

  19. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerullo, Giulio; De Silvestri, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been spectacular developments in ultrafast laser technology, due to the introduction of solid state active materials and of new mode-locking and amplification techniques. These advances, together with the discovery of new nonlinear optical crystals, have fostered the introduction of ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers as a practical source of femtosecond pulses tunable across the visible and infrared spectral ranges. This article summarizes the recent progress in the development of ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers, giving the basic design principles for different frequency ranges and in addition presenting some advanced designs for the generation of ultrabroadband, few-optical-cycle pulses. Finally, we also briefly discuss the possibility of applying parametric amplification schemes to large-scale, petawatt-level systems.

  2. Linearized microwave amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, A.; Crampton, D.; Hahn, C.; Wachs, M.

    1992-03-01

    The paper examines the effect of shaping and amplitude and phase transfer characteristics of high-power amplifiers (HPAs) by design in order to optimize amplifier performance for both linearity and efficiency. Practical results obtained from both L-band and C-band SSPAs, and Ku-band TWTAs are presented. In this procedure, the circuit is optimized in a two-step procedure. Initially, an active device is embedded in a microwave matching structure. The key design considerations are low loss, broad bandwidth, and circuit stability. The circuit is then optimized to produce the desired transfer characteristic. To ensure that this second step converges to a useful solution, sample transfer functions are precomputed to assist in the circuit optimization process. The use of interactive real-time computer modeling to search for desired amplitude and phase responses yields significant improvements in the linearity and efficiency of typical linearized HPAs.

  3. Helical Fiber Amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahy; Goldberg, Lew

    2002-12-17

    A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

  4. Charge separation and efficient light energy conversion in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells based on binary ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wenger, Bernard; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E; Teuscher, Joël; Kantlehner, Willi; Mezger, Jochen; Stoyanov, Edmont V; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2005-05-11

    A 7.4% power conversion efficiency at air mass (AM) 1.5 full sunlight was reached with a mesoscopic solar cell employing a new binary ionic liquid electrolyte composed of 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide in conjunction with the amphiphilic ruthenium complex NaRu(4-carboxylic acid-4'-carboxylate)(4,4'-dinonyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(NCS)(2), coded as Z-907Na. Ultramicroelectrode voltammetric, nanosecond laser transient absorbance, and photovoltaic measurements show that a high iodide concentration is required for dye regeneration to compete efficiently with charge recombination. A surprisingly fast reductive quenching process is turned on in pure iodide melts. This channel is unproductive, explaining the lower photocurrents observed under these conditions. PMID:15869308

  5. Effect of cholesterol and charge on pore formation in bilayer vesicles by a pH-sensitive peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, F; Nir, S; Szoka, F C

    1996-01-01

    The effect of cholesterol on the bilayer partitioning of the peptide GALA (WEAALAEALAEALAEHLAEALAEALEALAA) and its assembly into a pore in large unilamellar vesicles composed of neutral and negatively charged phospholipids has been determined. GALA undergoes a conformational change from a random coil to an amphipathic alpha-helix when the pH is reduced from 7.0 to 5.0, inducing at low pH leakage of contents from vesicles. Leakage from neutral or negatively charged vesicles at pH 5.0 was similar and could be adequately explained by the mathematical model (Parente, R. A., S. Nir, and F. C. Szoka, Jr., 1990. Mechanism of leakage of phospholipid vesicle contents induced by the peptide GALA. Biochemistry. 29:8720-8728) which assumed that GALA becomes incorporated into the vesicle bilayer and irreversibly aggregates to form a pore consisting of 10 +/- 2 peptides. Increasing cholesterol content in the membranes resulted in a reduced efficiency of the peptide to induce leakage. Part of the cholesterol effect was due to reduced binding of the peptide to cholesterol-containing membranes. An additional effect of cholesterol was to increase reversibility of surface aggregation of the peptide in the membrane. Results could be explained and predicted with a model that retains the same pore size, i.e., 10 +/- 2 peptides, but includes reversible aggregation of the monomers to form the pore. Resonance energy transfer experiments using fluorescently labeled peptides confirmed that the degree of reversibility of surface aggregation of GALA was significantly larger in cholesterol-containing liposomes, thus reducing the efficiency of pore formation. PMID:8968598

  6. Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth reduction factor.

  7. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  8. Nanoscale femtosecond imaging of transient hot solid density plasmas with elemental and charge state sensitivity using resonant coherent diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Chung, H.-K.; Gutt, C.; Huang, L. G.; Zacharias, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we propose to exploit the low energy bandwidth, small wavelength, and penetration power of ultrashort pulses from XFELs for resonant Small Angle Scattering (SAXS) on plasma structures in laser excited plasmas. Small angle scattering allows to detect nanoscale density fluctuations in forward scattering direction. Typically, the SAXS signal from laser excited plasmas is expected to be dominated by the free electron distribution. We propose that the ionic scattering signal becomes visible when the X-ray energy is in resonance with an electron transition between two bound states (resonant coherent X-ray diffraction). In this case, the scattering cross-section dramatically increases so that the signal of X-ray scattering from ions silhouettes against the free electron scattering background which allows to measure the opacity and derived quantities with high spatial and temporal resolution, being fundamentally limited only by the X-ray wavelength and timing. Deriving quantities such as ion spatial distribution, charge state distribution, and plasma temperature with such high spatial and temporal resolution will make a vast number of processes in shortpulse laser-solid interaction accessible for direct experimental observation, e.g., hole-boring and shock propagation, filamentation and instability dynamics, electron transport, heating, and ultrafast ionization dynamics.

  9. Probing sensitivity to charged scalars through partial differential widths: τ →K π π ντ decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileo, Nicolas; Kiers, Ken; Szynkman, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    We define and test C P -even and C P -odd partial differential widths for the process τ →K π π ντ assuming that an intermediate heavy charged scalar contributes to the decay amplitude. Adopting a model-independent approach, we use a Monte Carlo simulation in order to study the number of events needed to recover information on the new physics from these observables. Our analysis of the C P -odd observables indicates that the magnitude of fHηP , which is related to the new-physics contribution, can be recovered with an uncertainty smaller than 3% for 3 ×1 06 events. This number of events would also allow one to retrieve certain parameters appearing in the Standard Model amplitude at the percent level. In addition, we discuss the possibility of using the proposed observables to study specific models involving two Higgs doublets, such as the aligned two-Higgs-doublet model. This analysis is undertaken within the context of the upcoming super B-factories, which are expected to provide a considerably larger number of events than that which was supplied by the B-factories. Moreover, a similar set of observables could be employed to study other decay modes such as τ →π π π ντ , τ →K K π ντ and τ →K K K ντ.

  10. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  11. Fractional charge search

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour.

  12. Solvent sensitive intramolecular charge transfer dynamics in the excited states of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-nitrobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajib; Nandi, Amitabha; Palit, Dipak K

    2016-03-01

    Organic molecules substituted with the nitro group show efficient nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, which are a consequence of the strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character of the molecules because of the strong electron withdrawing nature of the nitro group and rapid responsiveness because of highly movable π-electrons. Dynamics of the ICT process in the excited states of a push-pull biphenyl derivative, namely, 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-nitrobiphenyl (DNBP), an efficient NLO material, has been investigated using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results have been corroborated with DFT and TDDFT calculations. In solvents of large polarity, e.g. acetonitrile, the ultrafast ICT process of DNBP is associated with the barrierless twisting of the N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) group with respect to the nitrobenzene moiety to populate the twisted ICT (or TICT) state, and the rate of this process is solely governed by the viscosity of the medium. In solvents of moderate polarity, e.g. ethyl acetate, the rate of the twisting process is significantly slowed down and the LE and TICT states remain in equilibrium because of a low energy barrier for interconversion between these two states. By further lowering the polarity of the solvent, e.g. in dioxane, the twisting process is completely retarded. In nonpolar solvents, e.g. cyclohexane, a reverse twisting motion towards the planar geometry (i.e. the PICT process) has been evident in the excited state dynamics. In this solvent, the S1 state undergoes an ultrafast intersystem crossing to the triplet state because of its close proximity with the T2 state. PMID:26907751

  13. REGENERATIVE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Kabell, L.J.

    1958-11-25

    Electrical circults for use in computers and the like are described. particularly a regenerative bistable transistor amplifler which is iurned on by a clock signal when an information signal permits and is turned off by the clock signal. The amplifier porforms the above function with reduced power requirements for the clock signal and circuit operation. The power requirements are reduced in one way by employing transformer coupling which increases the collector circuit efficiency by eliminating the loss of power in the collector load resistor.

  14. Amplifying Electrochemical Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Jun; Han, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimeric reporter compounds have been invented for use in sensing and amplifying electrochemical signals from molecular recognition events that involve many chemical and biological entities. These reporter compounds can be formulated to target specific molecules or molecular recognition events. They can also be formulated to be, variously, hydrophilic or amphiphilic so that they are suitable for use at interfaces between (1) aqueous solutions and (2) electrodes connected to external signal-processing electronic circuits. The invention of these reporter compounds is expected to enable the development of highly miniaturized, low-power-consumption, relatively inexpensive, mass-producible sensor units for diverse applications.

  15. Response of an environment-sensitive intramolecular charge transfer probe towards solubilization of liposome membranes by a non-ionic detergent: Association and dissociation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2012-10-01

    The present report describes an endeavor to follow the solubilization of DMPC and DMPG liposome membranes by a non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 on the lexicon of environment-sensitive intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) photophysics of an extrinsic molecular probe 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2, 4-dienoic acid methyl ester (DPDAME). The prospective applicability of the probe to function as a reporter for detergent-sequestered solubilization of liposome membranes is argued on the basis of comparison of the spectral properties of the probe in various environments. Fluorescence anisotropy study delineates the degree of motional restriction imposed on the probe in different microheterogeneous assemblies. The kinetics of association of the probe with the liposome membranes and the dissociation kinetics of TX-100-sequestered solubilization process of the liposomes have been monitored by the stopped-flow fluorescence technique and the results are rationalized in relevance to fluorescence anisotropy study.

  16. Mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing'ao

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm2).

  17. IonCCD™ for direct position-sensitive charged-particle detection: from electrons and keV ions to hyperthermal biomolecular ions.

    PubMed

    Hadjar, Omar; Johnson, Grant; Laskin, Julia; Kibelka, Gottfried; Shill, Scott; Kuhn, Ken; Cameron, Chad; Kassan, Scott

    2011-04-01

    A novel, low-cost, pixel-based detector array (described elsewhere Sinha and Wadsworth (76(2), 1) is examined using different charged particles, from electrons to hyperthermal (<100 eV) large biomolecular positive and negative ions, including keV small atomic and molecular ions. With this in mind, it is used in instrumentation design (beam profiling), mass spectrometry, and electron spectroscopy. The array detector is a modified light-sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) that was engineered for direct charged-particle detection by replacing the semiconductor part of the CCD pixel with a conductor Sinha and Wadsworth (76(2), 1). The device is referred to as the IonCCD. For the first time, we show the direct detection of 250-eV electrons, providing linearity response of the IonCCD to the electron beam current. We demonstrate that the IonCCD detection efficiency is virtually independent from the particle energy (250 eV, 1250 eV), impact angle (45(o), 90(o)) and flux. By combining the IonCCD with a double-focusing sector field mass spectrometer (MS) of Mattauch-Herzog geometry (MH-MS), we demonstrate fast data acquisition. Detection of hyperthermal biomolecular ions produced using an electrospray ionization source (ESI) is also presented. In addition, the IonCCD was used as a beam profiler to characterize the beam shape and intensity of 15 eV protonated and deprotonated biomolecular ions at the exit of an rf-only collisional quadrupole. This demonstrates an ion-beam profiling application for instrument design. Finally, we present simultaneous detection of 140 eV doubly protonated biomolecular ions when the IonCCD is combined with the MH-MS. This demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous separation and micro-array deposition of biological material using a miniature MH-MS. PMID:21472600

  18. Charge-Transfer Complexation at Carminic Acid-CdS Interface and Its Impact on the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Naila; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Munir, Shamsa; Hana, Amina; Jabeen, Uzma; Nosheen, Erum; Habib, Banafsha; Khan, Arif Ullah; Hassan, Zubair; Siddiq, Muhammad; Hussain, Hazrat

    2015-04-01

    We report for the first time charge-transfer complex formation at the interface of carminic acid and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. The complex formation was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Carminic acid, in different concentrations, was chemisorbed on the surface of CdS nanoparticles. Grafting of carminic acid on CdS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of both carminic acid and CdS nanoparticles matched well for the injection of electron from LUMO of carminic acid to the conduction band of cadmium sulfide. The photoactive nanohybrid material was used in dye-sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of carminic acid functionalized CdS nanoparticles was found to be double the value obtained for the reference device and remained constant over a certain concentration range owing to the complex formation at the interface. However, raising the concentration of carminic acid beyond 2.5 × 10-5 M resulted in a decrease in efficiency. This was ascribed to charge recombination due to the presence of ungrafted carminic acid molecules.

  19. DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BOHON, J.; CHANG, X.; GROVER, R.; ISAKOVIC, A.; RAO, T.; WU, Q.

    2007-11-26

    High-average-current linear electron accelerators require photoinjectors capable of delivering tens to hundreds of mA average current, with peak currents of hundreds of amps. Standard photocathodes face significant challenges in meeting these requirements, and often have short operational lifetimes in an accelerator environment. We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission amplifiers for photocathodes, which are intended to increase the achievable average current while protecting the cathode from the accelerator. The amplifier is a thin diamond wafer which converts energetic (few keV) primary electrons into hundreds of electron-hole pairs via secondary electron emission. The electrons drift through the diamond under an external bias and are emitted into vacuum via a hydrogen-terminated surface with negative electron affinity (NEA). Secondary emission gain of over 200 has been achieved. Two methods of patterning diamond, laser ablation and reactive-ion etching (RIE), are being developed to produce the required geometry. A variety of diagnostic techniques, including FTIR, SEM and AFM, have been used to characterize the diamonds.

  20. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  1. Self-amplified piezoelectric nanogenerator with enhanced output performance: The synergistic effect of micropatterned polymer film and interweaved silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Hua, Bo; You, Sujian; Bu, Chenghao; Yu, Xiaolei; Yu, Zhenhua; Cheng, Nian; Cai, Bo; Liu, Huiqin; Li, Shasha; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shengxiang; Liu, Kan; Zhang, Nangang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator with self-amplified output is prepared with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/silver nanowire (Ag NW)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) sandwich structure. The Ag NWs facilitate the collection of induced charge generated by the piezoelectric film, and the micro-patterned PDMS films multiply the devices sensitivity under external compression. The nanogenerator exhibits good performance, with a peak open circuit voltage of 1.2 V, and a peak short circuit current of 82 nA. These findings highlight the potential of the nanogenerator in self-powered devices and wearable energy harvesters.

  2. Effective amplifier noise for an optical receiver based on linear mode avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1989-01-01

    The rms noise charge induced by the amplifier for an optical receiver based on the linear-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) was analyzed. It is shown that for an amplifier with a 1-pF capacitor and a noise temperature of 100 K, the rms noise charge due to the amplifier is about 300. Since the noise charge must be small compared to the signal gain, APD gains on the order of 1000 will be required to operate the receiver in the linear mode.

  3. Highly Efficient Visible-to-NIR Luminescence of Lanthanide(III) Complexes with Zwitterionic Ligands Bearing Charge-Transfer Character: Beyond Triplet Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mei; Du, Bin-Bin; Zhu, Yi-Xuan; Yue, Mei-Qin; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Two zwitterionic-type ligands featuring π-π* and intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) excited states, namely 1,1'-(2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene)bis(methylene)dipyridinium-4-olate (TMPBPO) and 1-dodecylpyridin-4(1 H)-one (DOPO), have been prepared and applied to the assembly of lanthanide coordination complexes in an effort to understand the ligand-direction effect on the structure of the Ln complexes and the ligand sensitization effect on the luminescence of the Ln complexes. Due to the wide-band triplet states plus additional ILCT excitation states extending into lower energy levels, broadly and strongly sensitized photoluminescence of f→f transitions from various Ln(3+) ions were observed to cover the visible to near-infrared (NIR) regions. Among which, the Pr, Sm, Dy, and Tm complexes simultaneously display both strong visible and NIR emissions. Based on the isostructural feature of the Ln complexes, color tuning and single-component white light was achieved by preparation of solid solutions of the ternary systems Gd-Eu-Tb (for TMPBPO) and La-Eu-Tb and La-Dy-Sm (for DOPO). Moreover, the visible and NIR luminescence lifetimes of the Ln complexes with the TMPBPO ligand were investigated from 77 to 298 K, revealing a strong temperature dependence of the Tm(3+) ((3) H4 ) and Yb(3+) ((2) F5/2 ) decay dynamics, which has not been explored before for their coordination complexes. PMID:26784018

  4. Metatronic transistor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettiar, Uday K.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing the notion of metamaterials, in recent years the concept of a circuit and lumped circuit elements have been extended to the optical domains, providing the paradigm of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, as a powerful tool for design and study of more complex systems at the nanoscale. In this paper we present a design for a new metatronic element, namely, a metatronic transistor that functions as an amplifier. As shown by our analytical and numerical paper here, this metatronic transistor provides gain as well as isolation between the input and output ports of such two-port device. The cascadability and fan-out aspects of this element are also explored.

  5. Amplified wind turbine apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An invention related to the utilization of wind energy and increasing the effects thereof for power generation is described. Amplified wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein ambient inlet air is prerotated in a first air rotation chamber having a high pressure profile increasing the turbulence and Reynolds number thereof. A second rotation chamber adjacent and downstream of the turbine has a low pressure core profile whereby flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter exits the turbine apparatus through a draft anti-interference device. Interference with ambient winds at the outlet of the turbine apparatus is thus eliminated. Pivotable vanes controlled in response to prevailing wind direction admit air to the chambers and aid in imparting rotation. A central core may be utilized for creating the desired pressure profile in the chamber.

  6. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, M.A.

    1985-10-22

    A laser pulse is injected into an unstable ring resonator-amplifier structure. Inside this resonator the laser pulse is amplified, spatially filtered and magnified. The laser pulse is recirculated in the resonator, being amplified, filtered and magnified on each pass. The magnification is chosen so that the beam passes through the amplifier in concentric non-overlapping regions similar to a single pass MOPA. After a number of passes around the ring resonator the laser pulse is spatially large enough to exit the ring resonator system by passing around an output mirror.

  7. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Mark A.

    1985-01-01

    A laser pulse is injected into an unstable ring resonator-amplifier structure. Inside this resonator the laser pulse is amplified, spatially filtered and magnified. The laser pulse is recirculated in the resonator, being amplified, filtered and magnified on each pass. The magnification is chosen so that the beam passes through the amplifier in concentric non-overlapping regions similar to a single pass MOPA. After a number of passes around the ring resonator the laser pulse is spatially large enough to exit the ring resonator system by passing around an output mirror.

  8. Wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, D.J.; Bado, P.

    1988-11-01

    We describe a wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier which is used to amplify nanosecond slices from a single-frequency cw dye laser or 50-ps pulses emitted by a diode laser to energies in the 10-mJ range. The amplified 5-ns slices generated by the cw-pumped line narrowed dye laser are Fourier transform limited. The 50-ps pulses emitted by a gain-switched diode laser are amplified by more than 10 orders of magnitude in a single stage.

  9. Optical Amplifier for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Gamble, Lisa J.; Diffey, William M.; Keys, Andrew S.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an optical amplifier designed to amplify a spatially sampled component of an optical wavefront to kilowatt average power. The goal is means for implementing a strategy of spatially segmenting a large aperture wavefront, amplifying the individual segments, maintaining the phase coherence of the segments by active means, and imaging the resultant amplified coherent field. Applications of interest are the transmission of space solar power over multi-megameter distances, as to distant spacecraft, or to remote sites with no preexisting power grid.

  10. Optical amplifier for space applications.

    PubMed

    Fork, R L; Cole, S; Diffey, W; Gamble, L; Keys, A

    1999-12-01

    We describe an optical amplifier designed to amplify a spatially sampled component of an optical wavefront to kilowatt average power. The goal is means for implementing a strategy of spatially segmenting a large aperture wavefront, amplifying the individual segments, maintaining the phase coherence of the segments by active means, and imaging the resultant amplified coherent field. Applications of interest are the transmission of space solar power over multi-megameter distances, as to distant spacecraft, or to remote sites with no preexisting power grid. PMID:19401734

  11. 3-D TiO2 nanoparticle/ITO nanowire nanocomposite antenna for efficient charge collection in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gill Sang; Lee, Sangwook; Noh, Jun Hong; Chung, Hyun Suk; Park, Jong Hoon; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2014-05-01

    TiO2 nanoparticle (NP)/ITO nanowire (NW) nanocomposites for use as photoelectrode materials were fabricated to improve the charge collection efficiency in solid state dye sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs). The average current density for ss-DSSCs containing TiO2 NP/ITO NW arrays was 7.2 mA cm-2 that was 98% higher than that for the conventional TiO2 NP ss-DSSCs. The intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) studies exhibited that the electron diffusion length of TiO2 NP/ITO-NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs was in the range of 4.3-5.6 μm, longer than that of TiO2 NP solar cells (2.6-4.1 μm). The longer diffusion length was responsible for the boosted current densities of TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs. We also employed the TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite photoelectrode to inorganic-organic perovskite solar cells whose energy conversion efficiency was 7.5%.TiO2 nanoparticle (NP)/ITO nanowire (NW) nanocomposites for use as photoelectrode materials were fabricated to improve the charge collection efficiency in solid state dye sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs). The average current density for ss-DSSCs containing TiO2 NP/ITO NW arrays was 7.2 mA cm-2 that was 98% higher than that for the conventional TiO2 NP ss-DSSCs. The intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) studies exhibited that the electron diffusion length of TiO2 NP/ITO-NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs was in the range of 4.3-5.6 μm, longer than that of TiO2 NP solar cells (2.6-4.1 μm). The longer diffusion length was responsible for the boosted current densities of TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite ss-DSSCs. We also employed the TiO2 NP/ITO NW nanocomposite photoelectrode to inorganic-organic perovskite solar cells whose energy conversion efficiency was 7.5%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of a 3-D TiO2 nanoparticle (NP)/ITO nanowire (NW) nanocomposite photoelectrode, photovoltaic properties, J-V curves for the best performance cells, and the plot of dye loading vs. active layer thickness. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00621f

  12. Deflection amplifier for image dissectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Balanced symmetrical y-axis amplifier uses zener-diode level shifting to interface operational amplifiers to high voltage bipolar output stages. Nominal voltage transfer characteristic is 40 differential output volts per input volt; bandwidth, between -3-dB points, is approximately 8 kHz; loop gain is nominally 89 dB with closed loop gain of 26 dB.

  13. Suicide Risk: Amplifiers and Attenuators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plutchik, Robert; Van Praag, Herman M.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to integrate findings on correlates of suicide and violent risk in terms of a theory called a two-stage model of countervailing forces, which assumes that the strength of aggressive impulses is modified by amplifiers and attenuators. The vectorial interaction of amplifiers and attenuators creates an unstable equilibrium making prediction…

  14. Laser amplifier developments at Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.A.; Brucker, J.P.; Honig, E.M.; McCown, A.W.; Romero, V.O.; York, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    Electron-beam pumped laser amplifiers have been modified to address the mission of krypton-fluoride excimer laser technology development. Methods are described for improving the performance and reliability of two pre-existing amplifiers at minimal cost and time. Preliminary performance data are presented to support the credibility of the approach.

  15. The cis-isomer performs better than the trans-isomer in porphyrin-sensitized solar cells: interfacial electron transport and charge recombination investigations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyang; Ambre, Ram B; Mane, Sandeep B; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2015-08-21

    We report characterizations and device performance for dye-sensitized solar cells using cis- and trans-isomers of 2D-?-2A zinc porphyrins with carboxyphenyl and thienyl groups in their meso-positions. Under identical experimental conditions with similar dye loadings, we observed overall power conversion efficiencies of 2.44% and 0.88% for devices made of cis-2S2A and trans-2S2A, respectively. This uneven performance among cis and trans isomers under the same experimental conditions can be rationalized with detailed investigations via spectroscopic, quantum chemical, and femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion investigations. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that a small amount of electron density is localized over carboxyphenyl groups in the LUMO of cis-2S2A, but there is no electron density populated on the carboxyphenyl groups in the LUMO of trans-2S2A. The femtosecond fluorescence decay measurements revealed that the excited-state lifetime of trans-2S2A on Al2O3 is half of that of cis-2S2A on Al2O3. Moreover, the dye-to-TiO2 electron injection time of trans-2S2A is 2.54 ps, which is shorter than that of cis-2S2A/TiO2 (2.95 ps). Electrochemical impedance spectra measured under one sun illumination also revealed that the charge recombination time of cis-2S2A is longer than that of trans-2S2A. This thorough understanding of isomeric effects on the performance of porphyrins will serve as a guideline for the design of future sensitizing dyes for solar cells. PMID:26174451

  16. Charge transport improvement employing TiO2 nanotube arrays as front-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Andrea; Sacco, Adriano; Bianco, Stefano; Manfredi, Diego; Cappelluti, Federica; Hernandez, Simelys; Quaglio, Marzia; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2013-02-21

    TiO(2) nanotube (NT) arrays with different lengths were fabricated by anodic oxidation of Ti foil and free-standing NT membranes were detached by the metal substrate and bonded on the fluorine-doped tin oxide surface implementing an easy procedure. Morphology of the as-grown material and of the prepared photoanode was investigated by means of electron microscopy, deepening the investigation on the thermal treatment effect. Crystalline orientation and exposed surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements, showing suitable characteristics for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). DSCs were assembled employing a microfluidic housing system. The cell performances and the electron transport properties as a function of the tube length, before and after a TiCl(4) treatment, were characterized by I-V electrical measurements, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay. Fitting the impedance spectra with an equivalent circuit, it was possible to obtain information on the electron diffusion properties into the TiO(2) nanotubes. A comparison with the charge transport properties evaluated in nanoparticle-based photoanodes witnesses a noteworthy increase of electron lifetime and diffusion length, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency up to 7.56%. PMID:22918400

  17. The influence of electron injection and charge recombination kinetics on the performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells: effects of the 4-tert-butylpyridine additive.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Hui-Ping; Reddy, Nagannagari Masi; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Lu, Hsueh-Pei; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-04-01

    The effects of the 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) additive in the electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of two push-pull porphyrin sensitizers (YD12 and YD12CN) were examined. Addition of TBP significantly increased the open-circuit voltage (VOC) for YD12 (from 550 to 729 mV) but it was to a lesser extent for YD12CN (from 544 to 636 mV); adding TBP also had the effect of reducing the short-circuit current density (JSC) slightly for YD12 (from 17.65 to 17.19 mA cm(-2)) but it led to a significant reduction for YD12CN (from 16.45 to 9.78 mA cm(-2)). The resulting power conversion efficiencies of the YD12 devices increase from 6.2% to 8.5% whereas those of the YD12CN devices decrease from 5.8% to 4.5%. Based on measurements of temporally resolved photoelectric transients of the devices and femtosecond fluorescence decays of thin-film samples, the poor performance of the YD12CN device in the presence of TBP can be understood as being due to the enhanced charge recombination, decreased electron injection, and a lesser extent of inhibition of the intermolecular energy transfer. PMID:23423579

  18. Fast terahertz imaging using a quantum cascade amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Yuan Wallis, Robert; Jessop, David Stephen; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Klimont, Adam; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.

    2015-07-06

    A terahertz (THz) imaging scheme based on the effect of self-mixing in a 2.9 THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier has been demonstrated. By coupling an antireflective-coated silicon lens to the facet of a QC laser, with no external optical feedback, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress lasing action, creating a THz QC amplifier. The addition of reflection from an external target to the amplifier creates enough optical feedback to initiate lasing action and the resulting emission enhances photon-assisted transport, which in turn reduces the voltage across the device. At the peak gain point, the maximum photon density coupled back leads to a prominent self-mixing effect in the QC amplifier, leading to a high sensitivity, with a signal to noise ratio up to 55 dB, along with a fast data acquisition speed of 20 000 points per second.

  19. Final amplifier design and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.A.; Hanson, D.E.

    1991-12-31

    The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met.

  20. Final amplifier design and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.A.; Hanson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met.

  1. Design and simulation of a gyroklystron amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, M. S. Swati, M. V.; Jain, P. K.

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper, a design methodology of the gyroklystron amplifier has been described and subsequently used for the design of a typically selected 200 kW, Ka-band, four-cavity gyroklystron amplifier. This conceptual device design has been validated through the 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and nonlinear analysis. Commercially available PIC simulation code “MAGIC” has been used for the electromagnetic study at the different location of the device RF interaction structure for the beam-absent case, i.e., eigenmode study as well as for the electron beam and RF wave interaction behaviour study in the beam present case of the gyroklystron. In addition, a practical problem of misalignment of the RF cavities with drift tubes within the tube has been also investigated and its effect on device performance studied. The analytical and simulation results confirmed the validity of the gyroklystron device design. The PIC simulation results of the present gyroklystron produced a stable RF output power of ∼218 kW for 0% velocity spread at 35 GHz, with ∼45 dB gain, 37% efficiency, and a bandwidth of 0.3% for a 70 kV, 8.2 A gyrating electron beam. The simulated values of RF output power have been found in agreement with the nonlinear analysis results within ∼5%. Further, the PIC simulation has been extended to study a practical problem of misalignment of the cavities axis and drift tube axis of the gyroklystron amplifier and found that the RF output power is more sensitive to misalignments in comparison to the device bandwidth. The present paper, gyroklystron device design, nonlinear analysis, and 3D PIC simulation using commercially available code had been systematically described would be of use to the high-power gyro-amplifier tube designers and research scientists.

  2. 60 and 94 GHz quasi-optical monolithic PHEMT amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlecht, Erich Theilmann

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and testing of quasi-optical monolithic array amplifiers at 60 and 94 GHz. The 60 GHz amplifier is based on the ``grid'' amplifier approach integrating small cells 1/8 wavelength on a side. Each cell consists of a differential amplifier built from two pseudomorphic high mobility electron transistors. The cell receives and transmits from stripe antennas which also convey the gate and drain bias voltages across the array. The amplifier also uses polarizers to keep the cross-polarized input and output signals separated. Also described is a focusing test set comprising transmit and receive horns and two ellipsoidal reflectors as well as the amplifier itself. This gives greater sensitivity than the conventional test method, and allows the input and output return losses to be measured in addition to the gain. A further advantage is the greater precision with which the interaction between amplifier and optical signal beams can be investigated. The test results indicated that the gain of the circuit was -1.3 dB, rather than +7 dB. This disparity is investigated along several fronts. Detailed analysis of the optical system/test set is discussed. wHis is based on Gaussian beam analysis, and losses due to reflector spillover, beam truncation and beam mismatch at the amplifier surface and at the transmit and receive horns are considered. The models for the passive circuitry are modified based on results calculated by a moment method computer code written for this work. Losses due to beam spreading and scattering between amplifier active surface and polarizers are analyzed in detail and found to be significant. The work concludes with a report on an initial attempt to construct a large cell array for 94 GHz using monolithically fabricated active circuitry along with patch antennas for input and output.

  3. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  4. Characterization of SLUG microwave amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoi, I.-C.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; McDermott, R.; Mutus, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Fowler, A.; Sank, D.; White, T.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of superconducting circuits quantum technology, a near quantum-limited amplifier at GHz frequency is needed to enable high fidelity measurements. We describe such an amplifier, the SQUID based, superconducting low inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. We measure the full scattering matrix of the SLUG. In particular, we measure both forward and reverse gain, as well as reflection. We see 15dB forward gain with added noise from one quanta to several quanta. The -1 dB compression point is around -95 dBm, about two orders of magnitude higher than that of typical Josephson parametric amplifiers. With these properties, SLUG is well suited for the high fidelity, simultaneous multiplexed readout of superconducting qubits.

  5. Amplifier arrays for CMB polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Lawrence, Charles R.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Wells, Mary M.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Cryogenic low noise amplifier technology has been successfully used in the study of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). MMIC (Monolithic Millimeter wave Integrated Circuit) technology makes the mass production of coherent detection receivers feasible.

  6. A novel research approach on the dynamic properties of photogenerated charge carriers at Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films by a frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun; Song, Xi-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The changed SPV with chopping frequencies indicate the separation speeds of photogenerated charge carriers in different films. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}S-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films show good photoelectric responses in visible-light region. • Frequency-modulated SPV give dynamic information and evidence of Ag{sub 2}S QDSSCs’ performance. • Frequency-modulated SPV can supply complementary information in the study of Ag{sub 2}S ODSSCs. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films with different amount of Ag{sub 2}S were fabricated by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers at different spectral regions were studied by the frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology. Some novel dynamic information of photogenerated charge carriers in a wide spectral range is found. The results indicate that the rate and direction of separation (diffusion) for photogenerated charge carriers are closely related to the performance of quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on the Ag{sub 2}S/TiO{sub 2} nano-structure.

  7. Monitoring the intramolecular charge transfer process in the Z907 solar cell sensitizer: a transient Vis and IR spectroscopy and ab initio investigation.

    PubMed

    Azzaroli, Nicolò; Lobello, Maria Grazia; Lapini, Andrea; Iagatti, Alessandro; Bussotti, Laura; Di Donato, Mariangela; Calogero, Giuseppe; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo; Foggi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We have analyzed the excited state dynamics of the heteroleptic [(NCS)2Ru(bpy-(COOH)2)(bpy-(C6H13)2)] Z907 solar cell sensitizer in solution and when adsorbed onto thin TiO2 films, by combining transient visible and infrared (IR) spectroscopies with ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. Upon excitation with ultra-short pulses in ethanol and dimethyl-sulphoxide solutions, the visible spectra show the appearance of a positive signal around 650 nm, within the instrumental time resolution (<100 fs), which in ethanol undergoes a red-shift in about 20 ps. Measurements in the IR indicate that, upon excitation, both the CN and CO marker bands, associated with the NCS and COOH groups, downshift in frequency, in response to intramolecular ligand + metal (Ru-NCS) to ligand' (bpy-COOH2) charge transfer (LML'CT). Vibrational cooling is observed in both solvents; in ethanol it is overtaken by the hydrogen bond dynamics. On the basis of DFT/TDDFT calculations, explicitly modeling the interaction of the NCS and COOH groups with solvent (ethanol) molecules, we rationalize the observed IR and visible spectral evolution as arising from the change in the hydrogen-bond network, which accompanies the transition to the lowest-energy triplet state. This interpretation provides a consistent explanation of what is also observed in the transient visible spectra. Transient IR measurements repeated for molecules adsorbed on TiO2 and ZrO2 films, allow us to identify the structural changes signaling the dye triplet excited state formation and evidence multiexponential electron injection rates into the semiconductor TiO2 film. PMID:26220307

  8. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge magnitude of initial drops from a precipitation event, gross cloud charge can be estimated and necessary precautions can be taken during convective cloud events. Being a site of high lightning incidence in tropics, Kerala state is affected in India and calls for much attention in lightning hazards mitigation. Installing this charge sensor and atmospheric electric field mill, an attempt to a better warning system can be attempted.

  9. Membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with field-amplified sample injection CE-UV for high-sensitivity analysis of six cardiovascular drugs in human urine sample.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Qing; Hu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    An effective dual preconcentration method involving off-line membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) and on-line field-amplified sample injection (FASI) was proposed for the extraction of six cardiovascular drugs, including mexiletine, xylocaine, propafenone, propranolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol from aqueous solution prior to CE-UV. In MS-LLLME, the analytes were extracted from 9 mL sample solution into toluene, and then back extracted into a drop of acceptor phase of 10 μL 20 mmol/L acetic acid. After that, the acceptor phase was directly introduced into CE for FASI without any modification. In FASI process, water plug was hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar, 3 s) into the capillary prior to sample injection (+6 kV, 18 s). Six target analytes were separated in less than 10 min at 25°C with a BGE consisting of 70 mmol/L Tris-H3 PO4 (pH 2.2) containing 10% v/v methanol. Under the optimized conditions, LODs obtained by the proposed MS-LLLME-FASI-CE-UV method were in the range of 0.02-0.82 μg/L (based on S/N = 3) with enrichment factors of 546- to 7300-fold for the target analytes. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.7-12.9% (n = 7). Good linearity (R(2) = 0.9928-0.9997) was obtained in concentration range of 0.1-100 μg/L for mexiletine and propranolol, 0.2-100 μg/L for xylocaine and metoprolol, 0.5-100 μg/L for propafenone and 2.0-100 μg/L for carvedilol, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for real-time determination of metoprolol in human urine samples within 26 h after uptake. PMID:26763094

  10. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  11. Ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical immunoassay for CA19-9 detection based on CdSe@ZnS quantum dots sensitized TiO2NWs/Au hybrid structure amplified by quenching effect of Ab2@V(2+) conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Fan, Gao-Chao; Abdel-Halim, E S; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2016-03-15

    A novel, enhanced photoelectrochemical immunoassay was established for sensitive and specific detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, Ag). In this protocol, TiO2 nanowires (TiO2NWs) were first decorated with Au nanoparticles to form TiO2NWs/Au hybrid structure, and then coated with CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) via the layer-by-layer method, producing TiO2NWs/Au/CdSe@ZnS sensitized structure, which was employed as the photoelectrochemical matrix to immobilize capture CA19-9 antibodies (Ab1); whereas, bipyridinium (V(2+)) molecules were labeled on signal CA19-9 antibodies (Ab2) to form Ab2@V(2+) conjugates, which were used as signal amplification elements. The TiO2NWs/Au/CdSe@ZnS sensitized structure could adequately absorb light energy and dramatically depress electron-hole recombination, resulting in evidently enhanced photocurrent intensity of the immunosensing electrode. While target Ag were detected, the Ab2@V(2+) conjugates could significantly decrease the photocurrent detection signal because of strong electron-withdrawing property of V(2+) coupled with evident steric hindrance of Ab2. Thanks to synergy effect of TiO2NWs/Au/CdSe@ZnS sensitized structure and quenching effect of Ab2@V(2+) conjugates, the well-established photoelectrochemical immunoassay exhibited a low detection limit of 0.0039 U/mL with a wide linear range from 0.01 U/mL to 200 U/mL for target Ag detection. This proposed photoelectrochemical protocol also showed good reproducibility, specificity and stability, and might be applied to detect other important biomarkers. PMID:26433066

  12. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  13. Single Ion Quantum Lock-In Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2011-05-01

    Invented by Dicke, the lock-in measurement is a phase-sensitive detection scheme that can extract a signal with a known carrier frequency from an extremely noisy environment. Here we report on the implementation of a quantum analog to the classical lock- in amplifier. All the lock-in operations: modulation, detection and mixing, are performed via the application of non-commuting quantum operators on the electronic spin state of a single trapped Sr+ ion. We increase its sensitivity to external fields while extending phase coherence by three orders of magnitude, to more than one second. With this technique we measure magnetic fields with sensitivity of 25 pT /√{ Hz } , and light shifts with an uncertainty below 140 mHz after 1320 seconds of averaging. These sensitivities are limited by quantum projection noise and, to our knowledge, are more than two orders of magnitude better than with other single-spin probe technologies. As a first application we perform light shift spectroscopy of a narrow optical quadruple transition. We remark that the quantum lock-in technique is generic and can potentially enhance the sensitivity of any quantum sensor. (http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.4885)

  14. Fully differential cryogenic transistor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

    2013-10-01

    We have constructed a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating in the 4.2 K-300 K temperature range. The amplifier can be operated at high-bias setting, where it dissipates 5 mW, has noise temperature TN ? 0.7 K at RS ? 5 k? and >40 MHz bandwidth at 4.2 K bath temperature. The bias setting can be adjusted: at our lowest tested setting the amplifier dissipates <100 ?W, has noise temperature TN ? 2 K at RS ? 25 k? and >2 MHz bandwidth. The 1/f noise corner frequency is a few times 10 kHz. We foresee the amplifier to have an application in the readout of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detectors (STJs) and Transition Edge Sensors (TESes). We have verified the practical use of the amplifier by reading out a 4.2 K 480-SQUID array with 40 MHz bandwidth and <8 10-8 ?0/Hz1/2 flux noise.

  15. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, M.A.

    1983-08-31

    The invention is a method and apparatus for providing a reflex ring laser system for amplifying an input laser pulse. The invention is particularly useful in laser fusion experiments where efficient production of high-energy and high power laser pulses is required. The invention comprises a large aperture laser amplifier in an unstable ring resonator which includes a combination spatial filter and beam expander having a magnification greater than unity. An input pulse is injected into the resonator, e.g., through an aperture in an input mirror. The injected pulse passes through the amplifier and spatial filter/expander components on each pass around the ring. The unstable resonator is designed to permit only a predetermined number of passes before the amplified pulse exits the resonator. On the first pass through the amplifier, the beam fills only a small central region of the gain medium. On each successive pass, the beam has been expanded to fill the next concentric non-overlapping region of the gain medium.

  16. Noise characterization of multiport amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randa, J.

    2001-10-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the definition and measurement of the noise figure and parameters to characterize multiport devices, particularly differential amplifiers. A parametrization in terms of the noise matrix appears to be the most practical. The noise figure for a given output port is defined and related to the noise matrix and scattering parameters of the device, as well as the correlations between different input noise waves. The degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio is obtained from a special choice of the input correlation function. Two examples are considered in detail: a three-port differential amplifier and a four-port mixed-mode amplifier, both with reflectionless terminations. The noise figures, effective input temperatures, and gains are related to the results of a series of hot-cold measurements, as in the familiar two-port case.

  17. Ultra small electron beam amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, J. A., Jr.; Kosmahl, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    Data on field emission and microfabrication technologies relevant to the development of low-power electron-beam amplifiers and oscillators are discussed. The fabrication of a thin-film field-emission (TFFE) cathode for a 1-W electron-beam amplifier is examined. Some TFFE cathodes have been developed and tested in electron guns. Recent experimental results reveal that a beam can be formed from the field-emission cathode, and the TFFE cathode is applicable for devices operating below 3 kV at currents of less than 20 mA. The use of microfabrication techniques to construct slow-wave circuits is studied, and the use of finned structures as the slow-wave circuit for an electron-beam oscillator or amplifier is proposed.

  18. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, J.L.

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

  19. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. [Pleasanton, CA

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output.

  20. Optical amplifiers for coherent lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard

    1996-01-01

    We examine application of optical amplification to coherent lidar for the case of a weak return signal (a number of quanta of the return optical field close to unity). We consider the option that has been explored to date, namely, incorporation of an optical amplifier operated in a linear manner located after reception of the signal and immediately prior to heterodyning and photodetection. We also consider alternative strategies where the coherent interaction, the nonlinear processes, and the amplification are not necessarily constrained to occur in the manner investigated to date. We include the complications that occur because of mechanisms that occur at the level of a few, or one, quantum excitation. Two factors combine in the work to date that limit the value of the approach. These are: (1) the weak signal tends to require operation of the amplifier in the linear regime where the important advantages of nonlinear optical processing are not accessed, (2) the linear optical amplifier has a -3dB noise figure (SN(out)/SN(in)) that necessarily degrades the signal. Some improvement is gained because the gain provided by the optical amplifier can be used to overcome losses in the heterodyned process and photodetection. The result, however, is that introduction of an optical amplifier in a well optimized coherent lidar system results in, at best, a modest improvement in signal to noise. Some improvement may also be realized on incorporating more optical components in a coherent lidar system for purely practical reasons. For example, more compact, lighter weight, components, more robust alignment, or more rapid processing may be gained. We further find that there remain a number of potentially valuable, but unexplored options offered both by the rapidly expanding base of optical technology and the recent investigation of novel nonlinear coherent interference phenomena occurring at the single quantum excitation level. Key findings are: (1) insertion of linear optical amplifiers in well optimized conventional lidar systems offers modest improvements, at best, (2) the practical advantages of optical amplifiers, especially fiber amplifiers, such as ease of alignment, compactness, efficiency, lightweight, etc., warrant further investigation for coherent lidar, (3) the possibility of more fully optical lidar systems should be explored, (4) advantages gained by use of coherent interference of optical fields at the level of one, or a few, signal quanta should be explored, (5) amplification without inversion, population trapping, and use of electromagnetic induced transparency warrant investigation in connection with coherent lidar, (6) these new findings are probably more applicable to earth related NASA work, although applications to deep space should not be excluded, and (7) our own work in the Ultrafast Laboratory at UAH along some of the above lines of investigation, may be useful.

  1. Amplifier-Discriminator-Multiplexor card

    SciTech Connect

    Graupman, D.

    1986-02-01

    The Amplifier-Discriminator-Multiplexor (ADM) card described was designed for the External Muon Identifier at the 15 ft Bubble Chamber. The general scheme of the data readout of the External Muon Identifier is based on the use of a master clock. The ADM card serves to amplify the signals from the proportional tubes, discriminate them, latch the signals in parallel into a shift register. The data are then shifted out serially to the Time Digitizing System, using the master clock. The shift registers are loaded, and the latches are reset every sixteen cycles of the master clock. (LEW)

  2. Implementation of a preamplifier-amplifier system for radiation detectors used in Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, A. A.; Arroyave, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the assembly and testing of a preamplification and amplification system for pulses produced by gaseous radiation detectors commonly used in Mössbauer spectroscopy. The system is composed by a pair of commercial integrated circuits A203 and A206, which operate as charge sensitive preamplifier-shaping amplifier and linear amplifier-low level discriminator, respectively. The integrated circuits were interconnected in the unipolar output mode and placed inside a metallic shielding, which prevents noise amplification for a suitable signal-noise ratio. The system was tested by irradiating a proportional counter LND-45431 with characteristic X rays of 6.3 keV and gamma rays of 14.4 keV emitted by a Mössbauer radioactive source of 57Co (Rh). Unipolar pulses with Gaussian profile were obtained at the output of the linear amplifier, whose amplitudes were close to 0.4 V for 6.3 keV X rays and 1.4 V for 14.4 keV gamma rays. Pulse height spectra showed that the system allows a satisfactory identification of the X-rays and gamma rays emitted by the 57Co source, giving the possibility to make a good selection of the 14.4 keV peak for having a suitable signal-noise ratio in the Mössbauer spectra. Absorption percentages of 14 % were found by taking the Mössbauer spectra of a natural iron absorber. The assembly and tests of the system are presented through this paper.

  3. Functional importance of Ψ38 and Ψ39 in distinct tRNAs, amplified for tRNAGln(UUG) by unexpected temperature sensitivity of the s2U modification in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lu; Kon, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    The numerous modifications of tRNA play central roles in controlling tRNA structure and translation. Modifications in and around the anticodon loop often have critical roles in decoding mRNA and in maintaining its reading frame. Residues U38 and U39 in the anticodon stem–loop are frequently modified to pseudouridine (Ψ) by members of the widely conserved TruA/Pus3 family of pseudouridylases. We investigate here the cause of the temperature sensitivity of pus3Δ mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and find that, although Ψ38 or Ψ39 is found on at least 19 characterized cytoplasmic tRNA species, the temperature sensitivity is primarily due to poor function of tRNAGln(UUG), which normally has Ψ38. Further investigation reveals that at elevated temperatures there are substantially reduced levels of the s2U moiety of mcm5s2U34 of tRNAGln(UUG) and the other two cytoplasmic species with mcm5s2U34, that the reduced s2U levels occur in the parent strain BY4741 and in the widely used strain W303, and that reduced levels of the s2U moiety are detectable in BY4741 at temperatures as low as 33°C. Additional examination of the role of Ψ38,39 provides evidence that Ψ38 is important for function of tRNAGln(UUG) at permissive temperature, and indicates that Ψ39 is important for the function of tRNATrp(CCA) in trm10Δ pus3Δ mutants and of tRNALeu(CAA) as a UAG nonsense suppressor. These results provide evidence for important roles of both Ψ38 and Ψ39 in specific tRNAs, and establish that modification of the wobble position is subject to change under relatively mild growth conditions. PMID:25505024

  4. A position sensitive microchannel photomultiplier for ultraviolet space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Bixler, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1986-01-01

    The 25-mm microchannel-plate, position-sensitive UV astronomy photomultiplier tube presented is intended for the EOM-1 Spacelab Mission's FAUST payload and conducts wide-field imaging surveys in the VUV over the 1400-1800-A range. The sealed detector encompasses a CsI photocathode deposited on the inner surface of a MgF2 window, a stack of microchannel plates, and a wedge-and-strip two-dimensional position-sensing anode. Since the wedge-and-strip principle requires only three anode signals, flight electronics can be reduced to three charge amplifiers and three analog-to-digital converters.

  5. The School as an Amplifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, William S.

    1966-01-01

    This paper attempts to show that adaptation of mathematics to the input-output model of the school can provide powerful assistance in the measurement and analysis of school quality and its determinants. The mathematical relationship described here relates an educational model to the field of electronics. More specifically, the amplifier, a device…

  6. Improved traveling wave maser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Traveling Wave Maser /TWM/ that operates at S-band frequencies is characterized by a greatly improved gain-bandwidth product with relatively low equivalent-noise temperature. Tests indicate that its performance exceeds that of any other type of S-band amplifier.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.B. . Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-11-01

    The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

  8. Enzyme-free and sensitive electrochemical determination of the FLT3 gene based on a dual signal amplified strategy: Controlled nanomaterial multilayers and a target-catalyzed hairpin assembly.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingying; Ren, Qunxiang; Liu, Bo; Qin, Yan; Zhao, Shuang

    2016-04-15

    An isothermal, enzyme-free and sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor was developed for the detection of the FLT3 gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). First, aminated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AMWNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were alternately self-assembled on a gold electrode using a layer-by-layer strategy. Then, the hairpin DNA probe 1 (H1), with a thiol group at the 3' end and a ferrocenyl moiety (Fc) at the 5' end, was immobilized on the AMWNTs/AuNPs multilayer films through Au-S bonding. When the target DNA (TD) appeared, it hybridized with and opened the hairpin structure of H1, and Fc was forced away from the electrode surface, leading to a significant decrease in the current peak of square wave voltammetry. Subsequently, the hairpin DNA probe 2 (H2) bound to H1, freeing the TD to trigger another reaction cycle. The combination of this target-catalyzed hairpin assembly and the LBL assembly of nanomaterials achieved a detection limit of 0.1 pM with a wide linear range of 0.1-1000 pM. The sensor discriminated between mismatched DNA and the target DNA with high selectivity. This dual signal amplification strategy is relatively simple and inexpensive because it does not need any enzymes or sophisticated equipment and successfully assayed the FLT3 gene from real samples. PMID:26584077

  9. Broadband Characterization of a 100 to 180 GHz Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Deal, W. R.; Mei, X. B.; Lai, R.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric science and weather forecasting require measurements of the temperature and humidity vs. altitude. These sounding measurements are obtained at frequencies close to the resonance frequencies of oxygen (118 GHz) and water (183 GHz) molecules. We have characterized a broadband amplifier that will increase the sensitivity of sounding and other instruments at these frequencies. This study demonstrated for the first t1me continuous low noise amplification from 100 to 180 GHz. The measured InP monolithic millimeter-wave Integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier had more than 18 dB of gain from 100 to 180 GHz and 15 dB of gain up to 220 GHz. This is the widest bandwidth low noise amplifier result at these frequencies to date. The circuit was fabricated in Northrop Grumman Corporation 35 nm InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT).

  10. Erbium Doped Fiber Sources and Amplifiers for Optical Fiber Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Jefferson L.

    1996-08-01

    This thesis explores the use of erbium-doped fiber in lasers, amplified spontaneous emission sources, and amplifiers with particular attention to applications involving fiber sensor technology. Erbium-doped fiber laser output power is shown to be strongly dependent on the erbium dopant concentration in a fiber. Using multiple fibers with various erbium ion concentrations, laser output powers are found to decrease as erbium concentration is increased. Upconversion in paired ions is successfully used to model the lasers, resulting in a better understanding of the loss mechanism involved. Further investigation shows that co-doping an erbium-doped fiber with aluminum helps eliminate upconversion in paired ions, and an optimum ratio of 20 aluminum ions for every erbium ion is established. Upconversion due to paired ions is also used to predict the behavior of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers as a function of the erbium ion concentration. With this knowledge of concentration dependence, a low doped, high output power fiber is chosen for use as an amplified spontaneous emission source in a fiber optic gyroscope. Used as a single pass broadband source in one propagation direction and as a signal amplifier in the other direction, this source is tested experimentally in a high quality fiber gyroscope. Experimental results reveal an unexpected dependence on the polarization states of the optical pump and the gyroscope output signal. A theory of polarization anisotropy in the erbium ions is developed in full and accurately models the experimental observations. Using this model to optimize the source, a fiber gyroscope output stability of 4 parts per million is obtained experimentally, approaching the requirements of inertial navigation. This model is also used to explore novel single polarization amplified spontaneous emission sources. Large scale amplified sensor arrays are examined theoretically to determine component and amplification requirements. For balanced gain and loss sections on the distribution lines, amplifier spacing that maximizes the output signal to noise ratio is found by equating the noise created by the amplifiers with shot noise. The output signal to noise ratio is shown to be weakly sensitive to the amplifier gain on the distribution lines.

  11. Isothermal amplified detection of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Yue; Gamson, Adam S; Roembke, Benjamin T; Nakayama, Shizuka; Sintim, Herman O

    2014-05-01

    This review highlights various methods that can be used for a sensitive detection of nucleic acids without using thermal cycling procedures, as is done in PCR or LCR. Topics included are nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), loop-mediated amplification (LAMP), Invader assay, rolling circle amplification (RCA), signal mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), nicking endonuclease signal amplification (NESA) and nicking endonuclease assisted nanoparticle activation (NENNA), exonuclease-aided target recycling, Junction or Y-probes, split DNAZyme and deoxyribozyme amplification strategies, template-directed chemical reactions that lead to amplified signals, non-covalent DNA catalytic reactions, hybridization chain reactions (HCR) and detection via the self-assembly of DNA probes to give supramolecular structures. The majority of these isothermal amplification methods can detect DNA or RNA in complex biological matrices and have great potential for use at point-of-care. PMID:24643211

  12. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

    2016-01-01

    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  13. Designing nanostructured one-dimensional TiO2 nanotube and TiO2 nanoparticle multilayer composite film as photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells to increase the charge collection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilavasan, Jeganathan; Al-Jassim, Maufick; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2015-01-01

    A photoanode consisting of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) was designed for efficient charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells. TNT and TNP films were fabricated on a conductive glass substrate by using electrophoretic deposition and doctor-blade methods, respectively. The TNP, TNT, and TNT/TNP bi-layer electrodes exhibit solar cell efficiencies of 5.3, 7.4, and 9.2%, respectively. Solar cell performance results indicate a higher short-circuit current density (Jsc) for the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode when compared to a TNT or TNP electrode alone. The open-circuit voltages (Voc) of TNT/TNP and TNT electrodes are comparable while the Voc of TNP electrode is inferior to that of the TNT/TNP electrode. Fill factors of TNT/TNP, TNT, and TNP electrodes also exhibit similar behaviors. The enhanced efficiency of the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode is found to be mainly due to the enhancement of charge collection efficiency, which is confirmed by the charge transport parameters measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS analyses also revealed that the TNT/TNP incurs smaller charge transport resistances and longer electron life times when compared to those of TNT or TNP electrodes alone. It was demonstrated that the TNT/TNP bi-layer electrode can possess the advantages of both rapid electron transport rate and a high light scattering effect.

  14. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  15. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  16. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  17. 338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William; Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.

  18. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  19. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  20. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John L.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  1. Compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H.Z.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Tate, J.; Chen, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    A compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling wave amplifier is being developed. The device is a three-stage tube with the output section running as a fourth harmonic gyro-TWT, the input section running as a fundamental gyro-TWT, and the middle operating at the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. Radiation is suppressed by servers between the sections. The operating beam of the tube is produced by a magnetron injection gun (MIG). A TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit consisting of mode converters and a filter waveguide is employed for both input and output sections to solve the mode competition problem, which is pervasive in gyro-TWT operation. The input section has an input coupler designed as a TE{sub 0n} mode launcher. It excites a signal at the fundamental cyclotron frequency (17.5 GHz), which is amplified in the first TWT interaction region. So far the device is similar to a two-stage harmonic gyro-TWT. The distinction is that in the three-stage device the second section will be optimized not for output power but for fourth harmonic bunching of the beam. A gyroklystron amplifier has also been designed. The configuration is similar to the gyro-TWT but with the traveling wave interaction structures replaced by mode selective special complex cavities. Cold test results of the wideband input coupler and the TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit have been obtained.

  2. Cascading electron and hole transfer dynamics in a CdS/CdTe core-shell sensitized with bromo-pyrogallol red (Br-PGR): slow charge recombination in type II regime.

    PubMed

    Maity, Partha; Debnath, Tushar; Chopra, Uday; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    2015-02-14

    Ultrafast cascading hole and electron transfer dynamics have been demonstrated in a CdS/CdTe type II core-shell sensitized with Br-PGR using transient absorption spectroscopy and the charge recombination dynamics have been compared with those of CdS/Br-PGR composite materials. Steady state optical absorption studies suggest that Br-PGR forms strong charge transfer (CT) complexes with both the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell. Hole transfer from the photo-excited QD and QD core-shell to Br-PGR was confirmed by both steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Charge separation was also confirmed by detecting electrons in the conduction band of the QD and the cation radical of Br-PGR as measured from femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Charge separation in the CdS/Br-PGR composite materials was found to take place in three different pathways, by transferring the photo-excited hole of CdS to Br-PGR, electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to the CdS QD, and direct electron transfer from the HOMO of Br-PGR to the conduction band of the CdS QD. However, in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system hole transfer from the photo-excited CdS to Br-PGR and electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to CdS take place after cascading through the CdTe shell QD. Charge separation also takes place via direct electron transfer from the Br-PGR HOMO to the conduction band of CdS/CdTe. Charge recombination (CR) dynamics between the electron in the conduction band of the CdS QD and the Br-PGR cation radical were determined by monitoring the bleach recovery kinetics. The CR dynamics were found to be much slower in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system than in the CdS/Br-PGR system. The formation of the strong CT complex and the separation of charges cascading through the CdTe shell help to slow down charge recombination in the type II regime. PMID:25583154

  3. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  4. Series transistors isolate amplifier from flyback voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, W.

    1967-01-01

    Circuit enables high sawtooth currents to be passed through a deflection coil and isolate the coil driving amplifier from the flyback voltage. It incorporates a switch consisting of transistors in series with the driving amplifier and deflection coil. The switch disconnects the deflection coil from the amplifier during the retrace time.

  5. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  6. Bio-isolated DC operational amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Possibility of shocks from leakage currents can be reduced by use of isolated preamplifiers. Amplifier consists of battery-powered operational amplifier coupled by means of light-emitting diodes to another amplifier which may be grounded and operated from ac power mains or separate battery supply.

  7. Solid state ku-band power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, H. C.; Lockyear, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two types of IMPATT diode reflection amplifiers and a transmission amplifier are given. The Ku-band IMPATT diode development is discussed. Circuitry and electrical performance of the final version of the Ku-band amplifier is described. Construction details and an outline and mounting drawing are presented.

  8. Influence of counter-anions during electrochemical deposition of ZnO on the charge transport dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christoph; Beu, Max; Schlettwein, Derck

    2015-01-21

    Porous ZnO/EosinY films have been electrochemically deposited by oxygen reduction in the presence of a zinc salt from EosinY-containing aqueous solutions, with either chloride or perchlorate as the counter anion. EosinY was removed and the films were sensitised by D149. These electrodes were used for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs), and charge transport in the porous network was studied by intensity modulated current/voltage spectroscopy (IMVS/IMPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under illumination. Doping of ZnO during the electrodeposition could be proven by changes in the charge transport in ZnO and could be shown to occur when chloride was used as the counter ion. By using perchlorate as the counter ion, on the other hand, a more reproducible occupation of trap levels was obtained at, however, slightly lower voltages in DSCs whose origin is discussed in detail. PMID:25474267

  9. A CMOS integrating amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P.; Young, G.R.; Moscone, C.G.

    1998-06-01

    A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain-of-10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1,000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5-bit digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results.

  10. A CMOS Integrating Amplifier for the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Jones, J.P. Jr.; Young, G.R.; Moscone, C.G.

    1997-11-01

    A CMOS integrating amplifier has been developed for use in the PHENIX Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The amplifier, consisting of a charge-integrating amplifier followed by a variable gain amplifier (VGA), is an element of a photon measurement system comprising a photomultiplier tube, a wideband, gain of 10 amplifier, the integrating amplifier, and an analog memory followed by an ADC and double correlated sampling implemented in software. The integrating amplifier is designed for a nominal full scale input of 160 pC with a gain of 20 mV/pC and a dynamic range of 1000:1. The VGA is used for equalizing gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5 bits digital control, and the risetime is held to approximately 20 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS are presented. A complete noise analysis of the integrating amplifier and the correlated sampling process is included as well as a comparison of calculated, simulated and measured results.

  11. Particle-Charge Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen; Wilson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    An instrument for rapidly measuring the electric charges and sizes (from approximately 1 to approximately 100 micrometers) of airborne particles is undergoing development. Conceived for monitoring atmospheric dust particles on Mars, instruments like this one could also be used on Earth to monitor natural and artificial aerosols in diverse indoor and outdoor settings for example, volcanic regions, clean rooms, powder-processing machinery, and spray-coating facilities. The instrument incorporates a commercially available, low-noise, ultrasensitive charge-sensing preamplifier circuit. The input terminal of this circuit--the gate of a field-effect transistor--is connected to a Faraday-cage cylindrical electrode. The charged particles of interest are suspended in air or other suitable gas that is made to flow along the axis of the cylindrical electrode without touching the electrode. The flow can be channeled and generated by any of several alternative means; in the prototype of this instrument, the gas is drawn along a glass capillary tube (see upper part of figure) coaxial with the electrode. The size of a particle affects its rate of acceleration in the flow and thus affects the timing and shape of the corresponding signal peak generated by the charge-sensing amplifier. The charge affects the magnitude (and thus also the shape) of the signal peak. Thus, the signal peak (see figure) conveys information on both the size and electric charge of a sensed particle. In experiments thus far, the instrument has been found to be capable of measuring individual aerosol particle charges of magnitude greater than 350 e (where e is the fundamental unit of electric charge) with a precision of +/- 150 e. The instrument can sample particles at a rate as high as several thousand per second.

  12. NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.

    1996-10-01

    Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d`Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations.

  13. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  14. A noise-rejecting current amplifier for surface atmospheric ion flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    1997-09-01

    Large area electrodes are required to determine atmospheric charge fluxes at the earth's surface. These also act as antennas for power line hum, swamping the small atmospheric electric signals. A battery-powered head-amplifier resolving 0.025 pA is described here, which uses active compensation to substantially cancel the interference, allowing the atmospheric charge fluxes to be resolved in the presence of the interference. The overall response is nominally -100 mV/pA, with 30 dB of 50 Hz rejection. The head amplifier can drive a low impedance line.

  15. Ultra low-noise charge coupled device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Special purpose CCD designed for ultra low-noise imaging and spectroscopy applications that require subelectron read noise floors, wherein a non-destructive output circuit operating near its 1/f noise regime is clocked in a special manner to read a single pixel multiple times. Off-chip electronics average the multiple values, reducing the random noise by the square-root of the number of samples taken. Noise floors below 0.5 electrons rms are possible in this manner. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a three-phase CCD horizontal register is used to bring a pixel charge packet to an input gate adjacent a floating gate amplifier. The charge is then repeatedly clocked back and forth between the input gate and the floating gate. Each time the charge is injected into the potential well of the floating gate, it is sensed non-destructively. The floating gate amplifier is provided with a reference voltage of a fixed value and a pre-charge gate for resetting the amplifier between charge samples to a constant gain. After the charge is repeatedly sampled a selected number of times, it is transferred by means of output gates, back into the horizontal register, where it is clocked in a conventional manner to a diffusion MOSFET amplifier. It can then be either sampled (destructively) one more time or otherwise discarded.

  16. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  17. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  18. ULTRA-STABILIZED D. C. AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Hartwig, E.C.; Kuenning, R.W.; Acker, R.C.

    1959-02-17

    An improved circuit is described for stabilizing the drift and minimizing the noise and hum level of d-c amplifiers so that the output voltage will be zero when the input is zero. In its detailed aspects, the disclosed circuit incorporates a d-c amplifier having a signal input, a second input, and an output circuit coupled back to the first input of the amplifier through inverse feedback means. An electronically driven chopper having a pair of fixed contacts and a moveable contact alternately connects the two inputs of a difference amplifier to the signal input. The A. E. error signal produced in the difference amplifier is amplified, rectified, and applied to the second input of the amplifier as the d-c stabilizing voltage.

  19. Cascading electron and hole transfer dynamics in a CdS/CdTe core-shell sensitized with bromo-pyrogallol red (Br-PGR): slow charge recombination in type II regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Partha; Debnath, Tushar; Chopra, Uday; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast cascading hole and electron transfer dynamics have been demonstrated in a CdS/CdTe type II core-shell sensitized with Br-PGR using transient absorption spectroscopy and the charge recombination dynamics have been compared with those of CdS/Br-PGR composite materials. Steady state optical absorption studies suggest that Br-PGR forms strong charge transfer (CT) complexes with both the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell. Hole transfer from the photo-excited QD and QD core-shell to Br-PGR was confirmed by both steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Charge separation was also confirmed by detecting electrons in the conduction band of the QD and the cation radical of Br-PGR as measured from femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Charge separation in the CdS/Br-PGR composite materials was found to take place in three different pathways, by transferring the photo-excited hole of CdS to Br-PGR, electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to the CdS QD, and direct electron transfer from the HOMO of Br-PGR to the conduction band of the CdS QD. However, in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system hole transfer from the photo-excited CdS to Br-PGR and electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to CdS take place after cascading through the CdTe shell QD. Charge separation also takes place via direct electron transfer from the Br-PGR HOMO to the conduction band of CdS/CdTe. Charge recombination (CR) dynamics between the electron in the conduction band of the CdS QD and the Br-PGR cation radical were determined by monitoring the bleach recovery kinetics. The CR dynamics were found to be much slower in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system than in the CdS/Br-PGR system. The formation of the strong CT complex and the separation of charges cascading through the CdTe shell help to slow down charge recombination in the type II regime.Ultrafast cascading hole and electron transfer dynamics have been demonstrated in a CdS/CdTe type II core-shell sensitized with Br-PGR using transient absorption spectroscopy and the charge recombination dynamics have been compared with those of CdS/Br-PGR composite materials. Steady state optical absorption studies suggest that Br-PGR forms strong charge transfer (CT) complexes with both the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell. Hole transfer from the photo-excited QD and QD core-shell to Br-PGR was confirmed by both steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Charge separation was also confirmed by detecting electrons in the conduction band of the QD and the cation radical of Br-PGR as measured from femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Charge separation in the CdS/Br-PGR composite materials was found to take place in three different pathways, by transferring the photo-excited hole of CdS to Br-PGR, electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to the CdS QD, and direct electron transfer from the HOMO of Br-PGR to the conduction band of the CdS QD. However, in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system hole transfer from the photo-excited CdS to Br-PGR and electron injection from the photo-excited Br-PGR to CdS take place after cascading through the CdTe shell QD. Charge separation also takes place via direct electron transfer from the Br-PGR HOMO to the conduction band of CdS/CdTe. Charge recombination (CR) dynamics between the electron in the conduction band of the CdS QD and the Br-PGR cation radical were determined by monitoring the bleach recovery kinetics. The CR dynamics were found to be much slower in the CdS/CdTe/Br-PGR system than in the CdS/Br-PGR system. The formation of the strong CT complex and the separation of charges cascading through the CdTe shell help to slow down charge recombination in the type II regime. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images of the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell, measurements of the emission quantum yields of the QD materials, ultrafast transient absorption studies of the CdS quantum dot CdS/CdTe type II core-shell and bromo-pyrogallol red (Br-PGR), the steady state absorption of Br-PGR and the emission of the CdS QD and CdS/CdTe core-shell and the transient absorption spectrum of the cation radical of bromo-pyrogallol red (Br-PGR) (uncorrected). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05829a

  20. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  1. Evapotranspiration amplifies European summer drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuling, Adriaan J.; van Loon, Anne F.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Lehner, Irene; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard; Bernhofer, Christian; Grünwald, Thomas; Prasse, Heiko; Spank, Uwe

    2013-05-01

    is typically associated with a lack of precipitation, whereas the contribution of evapotranspiration and runoff to drought evolution is not well understood. Here we use unique long-term observations made in four headwater catchments in central and western Europe to reconstruct storage anomalies and study the drivers of storage anomaly evolution during drought. We provide observational evidence for the "drought-paradox" in that region: a consistent and significant increase in evapotranspiration during drought episodes, which acts to amplify the storage anomalies. In contrast, decreases in runoff act to limit storage anomalies. Our findings stress the need for the correct representation of evapotranspiration and runoff processes in drought indices.

  2. Charge transfer of doubly charged and trebly charged ions with atomic hydrogen at thermal energies

    SciTech Connect

    Heil, T.G.; Butler, S.E.; Dalgarno, A.

    1983-05-01

    The charge transfer of doubly charged and trebly charged ions of C, N, O, and Ne with atomic hydrogen at thermal energies is studied. Adiabatic potential-energy curves and radial coupling matrix elements are presented. The collision cross sections are calculated after transforming to a diabatic basis. For the trebly charged ions, there exists at least one exit channel into which charge transfer is highly probable. Cross sections for doubly charged ions are sensitive to the energy-level structure of the ionic species.

  3. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  4. Charge Transfer Dynamics at Dye-Sensitized ZnO and TiO2 Interfaces Studied by Ultrafast XUV Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Borgwardt, Mario; Wilke, Martin; Kampen, Thorsten; Mähl, Sven; Xiao, Manda; Spiccia, Leone; Lange, Kathrin M.; Kiyan, Igor Yu.; Aziz, Emad F.

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer from photoexcited ruthenium-based N3 dye molecules into ZnO thin films received controversial interpretations. To identify the physical origin for the delayed electron transfer in ZnO compared to TiO2, we probe directly the electronic structure at both dye-semiconductor interfaces by applying ultrafast XUV photoemission spectroscopy. In the range of pump-probe time delays between 0.5 to 1.0 ps, the transient signal of the intermediate states was compared, revealing a distinct difference in their electron binding energies of 0.4 eV. This finding strongly indicates the nature of the charge injection at the ZnO interface associated with the formation of an interfacial electron-cation complex. It further highlights that the energetic alignment between the dye donor and semiconductor acceptor states appears to be of minor importance for the injection kinetics and that the injection efficiency is dominated by the electronic coupling. PMID:27073060

  5. Charge Transfer Dynamics at Dye-Sensitized ZnO and TiO2 Interfaces Studied by Ultrafast XUV Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Borgwardt, Mario; Wilke, Martin; Kampen, Thorsten; Mähl, Sven; Xiao, Manda; Spiccia, Leone; Lange, Kathrin M; Kiyan, Igor Yu; Aziz, Emad F

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer from photoexcited ruthenium-based N3 dye molecules into ZnO thin films received controversial interpretations. To identify the physical origin for the delayed electron transfer in ZnO compared to TiO2, we probe directly the electronic structure at both dye-semiconductor interfaces by applying ultrafast XUV photoemission spectroscopy. In the range of pump-probe time delays between 0.5 to 1.0 ps, the transient signal of the intermediate states was compared, revealing a distinct difference in their electron binding energies of 0.4 eV. This finding strongly indicates the nature of the charge injection at the ZnO interface associated with the formation of an interfacial electron-cation complex. It further highlights that the energetic alignment between the dye donor and semiconductor acceptor states appears to be of minor importance for the injection kinetics and that the injection efficiency is dominated by the electronic coupling. PMID:27073060

  6. Charge Transfer Dynamics at Dye-Sensitized ZnO and TiO2 Interfaces Studied by Ultrafast XUV Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgwardt, Mario; Wilke, Martin; Kampen, Thorsten; Mähl, Sven; Xiao, Manda; Spiccia, Leone; Lange, Kathrin M.; Kiyan, Igor Yu.; Aziz, Emad F.

    2016-04-01

    Interfacial charge transfer from photoexcited ruthenium-based N3 dye molecules into ZnO thin films received controversial interpretations. To identify the physical origin for the delayed electron transfer in ZnO compared to TiO2, we probe directly the electronic structure at both dye-semiconductor interfaces by applying ultrafast XUV photoemission spectroscopy. In the range of pump-probe time delays between 0.5 to 1.0 ps, the transient signal of the intermediate states was compared, revealing a distinct difference in their electron binding energies of 0.4 eV. This finding strongly indicates the nature of the charge injection at the ZnO interface associated with the formation of an interfacial electron-cation complex. It further highlights that the energetic alignment between the dye donor and semiconductor acceptor states appears to be of minor importance for the injection kinetics and that the injection efficiency is dominated by the electronic coupling.

  7. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    PubMed Central

    Mikalsen, Åse Kristine Rognmo; Yoccoz, Nigel Gilles; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear. PMID:24765588

  8. Spacecraft Charging and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Cooke, David; Ferguson, Dale

    2010-10-01

    Satellites and spacecraft materials can become charged to tens or even thousands of volts when ions in the space environment collide with spacecraft. This can sometimes cause electrical discharge of differentially or internally charged spacecraft materials, which can adversely affect satellite operations. Additionally, high-energy ions can penetrate spacecraft materials and deposit their energy within sensitive electronics, causing component damage or failure. To consider various approaches for spacecraft charge mitigation, 150 technologists from around the world representing government, academia, and industry met at the 11th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference (SCTC) in Albuquerque, N. M., on 20-24 September 2010. The conference was held against the backdrop of the apparent charging event of the Galaxy 15 satellite, which some speculate triggered this geosynchronous communications satellite to cease operations, thereby adversely affecting related satellite-reliant communities (see J. Allen, Space Weather, 8, S06008, doi:10.1029/2010SW000588, 2010)

  9. Efficient Blue-Colored Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Enhanced Charge Collection by Using an in Situ Photoelectrochemically Generated Conducting Polymer Hole Conductor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Holcombe, Thomas W; Boschloo, Gerrit; Johansson, Erik M J; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-05-18

    A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5 % was achieved by efficiently incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dye with a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenediothiophene) (PEDOT) hole-transporting material (HTM) that was formed in situ, compared with a PCE of 2.9 % for small molecular spiro-OMeTAD-based solid-state dye solar cells (sDSCs). The high PCE for PEDOT-based sDSCs is mainly attributed to the significantly enhanced charge-collection efficiency, as a result of the three-order-of-magnitude higher hole conductivity (0.53 S cm(-1) ) compared with that of the widely used low molecular weight HTM spiro-OMeTAD (3.5×10(-4)  S cm(-1) ). PMID:26919196

  10. Bactericidal Dendritic Polycation Cloaked with Stealth Material via Lipase-Sensitive Intersegment Acquires Neutral Surface Charge without Losing Membrane-Disruptive Activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lulu; He, Chen; Hui, Liwei; Xie, Yuntao; Li, Jia-Min; He, Wei-Dong; Yang, Lihua

    2015-12-23

    Net cationicity of membrane-disruptive antimicrobials is necessary for their activity but may elicit immune attack when administered intravenously. By cloaking a dendritic polycation (G2) with poly(caprolactone-b-ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG), we obtain a nanoparticle antimicrobial, G2-g-(PCL-b-PEG), which exhibits neutral surface charge but kills >99.9% of inoculated bacterial cells at ≤8 μg/mL. The observed activity may be attributed PCL's responsive degradation by bacterial lipase and the consequent exposure of the membrane-disruptive, bactericidal G2 core. Moreover, G2-g-(PCL-b-PEG) exhibits good colloidal stability in the presence of serum and insignificant hemolytic toxicity even at ≥2048 μg/mL. suggesting good blood compatibility required for intravenous administration. PMID:26632646

  11. Introduction of Peripheral Carboxylates to Decrease the Charge on Tm(3+) DOTAM-Alkyl Complexes: Implications for Detection Sensitivity and in Vivo Toxicity of PARACEST MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Suchý, Mojmír; Milne, Mark; Elmehriki, Adam A H; McVicar, Nevin; Li, Alex X; Bartha, Robert; Hudson, Robert H E

    2015-08-27

    A series of structurally modified Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes as potential PARACEST MRI contrast agents has been synthesized with the aim to decrease the overall positive charge associated with these molecules and increase their biocompatibility. Two types of structural modification have been performed, an introduction of terminal carboxylate arms to the alkyl side chains and a conjugation of one of the alkyl side chains with aspartic acid. Detailed evaluation of the magnetic resonance imaging chemical exchange contrast associated with the structurally modified contrast agents has been performed. In contrast to the acutely toxic Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes, the structurally modified compounds were found to be tolerated well during in vivo MRI studies in mice; however, only the aspartic acid modified chelates produced an amide proton-based PARACEST signal. PMID:26214576

  12. Cryogenic CMOS circuits for single charge digital readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, Kevin; Gurrieri, T. M.; Hamlet, J.; Carroll, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    The readout of a solid state qubit often relies on single charge sensitive electrometry. However the combination of fast and accurate measurements is non trivial due to large RC time constants due to the electrometers resistance and shunt capacitance from wires between the cold stage and room temperature. Currently fast sensitive measurements are accomplished through rf reflectrometry. I will present an alternative single charge readout technique based on cryogenic CMOS circuits in hopes to improve speed, signal-to-noise, power consumption and simplicity in implementation. The readout circuit is based on a current comparator where changes in current from an electrometer will trigger a digital output. These circuits were fabricated using Sandia's 0.35μm CMOS foundry process. Initial measurements of comparators with an addition a current amplifier have displayed current sensitivities of < 1nA at 4.2K, switching speeds up to ˜120ns, while consuming ˜10μW. I will also discuss an investigation of noise characterization of our CMOS process in hopes to obtain a better understanding of the ultimate limit in signal to noise performance.

  13. Cryogenic CMOS circuits for single charge digital readout.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Longoria, Erin Michelle; Eng, Kevin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Young, Ralph Watson

    2010-03-01

    The readout of a solid state qubit often relies on single charge sensitive electrometry. However the combination of fast and accurate measurements is non trivial due to large RC time constants due to the electrometers resistance and shunt capacitance from wires between the cold stage and room temperature. Currently fast sensitive measurements are accomplished through rf reflectrometry. I will present an alternative single charge readout technique based on cryogenic CMOS circuits in hopes to improve speed, signal-to-noise, power consumption and simplicity in implementation. The readout circuit is based on a current comparator where changes in current from an electrometer will trigger a digital output. These circuits were fabricated using Sandia's 0.35 {micro}m CMOS foundry process. Initial measurements of comparators with an addition a current amplifier have displayed current sensitivities of < 1nA at 4.2K, switching speeds up to {approx}120ns, while consuming {approx}10 {micro}W. I will also discuss an investigation of noise characterization of our CMOS process in hopes to obtain a better understanding of the ultimate limit in signal to noise performance.

  14. Development of a HgCdTe photomixer and impedance matched GaAs FET amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanley, J. F.; Paulauskas, W. A.; Taylor, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    A research program for the development of a 10.6 micron HgCdTe photodiode/GaAs field effect transistor amplifier package for use at cryogenic temperatures (77k). The photodiode/amplifier module achieved a noise equivalent power per unit bandwidth of 5.7 times 10 to the 20th power W/Hz at 2.0 GHz. The heterodyne sensitivity of the HgCdTe photodiode was improved by designing and building a low noise GaAs field effect transistor amplifier operating at 77K. The Johnson noise of the amplifier was reduced at 77K, and thus resulted in an increased photodiode heterodyne sensitivity.

  15. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  16. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

  17. The high gain 1310nm Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkiewicz, Jarosław Piotr; CzyŻak, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Due to the growing demand for transmission capacity, it has become essential to utilize multiple wavelength domains in one transmission system. To take full advantage of parallel 1550/1310 nm transmission, efficient 1310 nm amplification techniques are needed, such as the 1310 nm Raman amplifier. In the paper, we present detailed studies regarding the design of the 1310 nm Raman amplifier. Based on numerical simulations, we propose an efficient 1310 nm Raman amplifier design, utilizing the 1240 nm quantum-dot pumping lasers. The designed Raman amplifier is built and characterized. The achieved gain in a QD-laser pumped 1310 nm Raman amplifier was 19.5 dB. The presented results open the way for enhanced utilization of the 1310 nm Raman amplifier in the opto-telecommunication systems.

  18. Signal-Conditioning Amplifier Recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John

    2003-01-01

    Signal-conditioning amplifier recorders (SCAmpRs) have been proposed as a means of simplifying and upgrading the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Measurement System (GMS), which is a versatile data-acquisition system that gathers and records a variety of measurement data before and during the launch of a space shuttle. In the present version of the GMS system, signal conditioning amplifiers digitize and transmit data to a VME chassis that multiplexes up to 416 channels. The data is transmitted via a high-speed data bus to a second VME chassis where it is available for snapshots. The data is passed from the second VME chassis to a high-speed data recorder. This process is duplicated for installations at two launch pads and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Since any failure of equipment in the data path results in loss of data, much of the system is redundant. The architecture of the existing GMS limits expansion or any modification to the system to meet changing requirements because of the cost and time required. A SCAmpR-based system is much more flexible. The basis of the simplification, flexibility, and reliability is the shifting of the recording function to the individual amplifier channels. Each SCAmpR is a self-contained single channel data acquisition system, which in its current implementation, has a data storage capacity of up to 30 minutes when operating at the fastest data sampling rates. The SCAmpR channels are self-configuring and self-calibrating. Multiple SCAmpR channels are ganged on printed circuit boards and mounted in a chassis that provides power, a network hub, and Inter-Range Instrument Group (IRIG) time signals. The SCAmpR channels share nothing except physical mounting on a circuit board. All circuitry is electrically separate for each channel. All that is necessary to complete the data acquisition system is a single master computer tied to the SCAmpR channels by standard network equipment. The size of the data acquisition system dictates the requirements for the specific network equipment.

  19. A dc amplifier for nuclear particle measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macnee, A. B.; Masnari, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    A monolithic preamplifier-postamplifier combination has been developed for use with solid state particle detectors. The direct coupled amplifiers employ interdigitated n-channel JFET's, diodes, and diffused resistors. The circuits developed demonstrate the feasibility of matching the performance of existing discrete component designs. The fabrication procedures for the monolithic amplifier fabrication are presented and the results of measurements on a limited number of sample amplifiers are given.

  20. Broadband Microwave Amplifier Design with Lumped Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, Metin

    2016-03-01

    This study introduces a broadband microwave amplifier design that utilizes the measured scattering parameters of active devices without assuming an initial topology for the matching networks or an analytic form of the system transfer function. The algorithm can be extended to design multistage broadband microwave amplifiers. An example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method. It was found that the proposed method provides very good initials for CAD tools to further improve amplifier performance by working on the element values.

  1. Locoregional MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Morales La Madrid, Andres; Volchenboum, Samuel; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Pyatt, Robert; Liu, Don; Pytel, Peter; Lavarino, Cinzia; Rodriguez, Eva; Cohn, Susan L

    2012-10-01

    MYCN-amplification is strongly associated with other high-risk prognostic factors and poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Infrequently, amplification of MYCN has been identified in localized tumors with favorable biologic features. Outcome for these children is difficult to predict and optimal treatment strategies remain unclear. We report a 5-month-old who presented with an MYCN-amplified INSS stage 3, pelvic neuroblastoma. The tumor had favorable histology, hyperdiploidy, and lacked 1p36 and 11q23 aberrations. Although the patient met the criteria for high-risk neuroblastoma, because of the discordant prognostic markers we elected to treat her according to an intermediate-risk protocol. She remains event-free more than 18 months. PMID:22213566

  2. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  3. Resonant isolator for maser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.; Quinn, R. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An isolator is described for use in a low noise maser amplifier, which provides low loss across a wide bandwidth and which can be constructed at moderate cost. The isolator includes a train of garnet or ferrite elements extending along the length of a microwave channel parallel to the slow wave structure, with the elements being of staggered height, so that the thin elements which are resonant to the microwaves are separated by much thicker elements. The thick garnet or ferrite elements reduce the magnetic flux passing through the thin elements to permit altering of the shape of the thin elements so as to facilitate their fabrication and to provide better isolation with reduced loss, by increasing the thickness of the thin elements and decreasing their length and width.

  4. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  5. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth R.; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Alvin; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary L.

    2015-05-19

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  6. Direct nuclear-pumped laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1981-01-01

    A (He-3)-Xe gas mixture, excited by the He-3(n,p)H-3 reaction, has been employed to amplify the output of a (He-3)Xe direct nuclear-pumped laser. Lasing occurred at the 2.63 micron line of XeI in the oscillator. The oscillator output was reflected through 180 deg and passed through the amplifier system. Power measurements of the oscillator output and the amplifier output show the laser power to be amplified by a factor of 3 for the (He-3)-Xe system. Amplification by a factor of 5 was obtained for a (He-3)-CO system.

  7. High efficiency Ka-band MMIC amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugland, Edward J.

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the Ka-band MMIC power amplifier program. New materials, material growth techniques, device designs and circuit design techniques have made it possible to design and fabricate MMIC amplifiers with both high efficiency and high power at Ka-band and higher frequencies. MMIC amplifiers using pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices presently achieve 400 mW with 25 percent efficiency at Ka-band and 1 W, 35 percent efficient amplifiers are being developed.

  8. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  9. Retrodiction for optical attenuators, amplifiers, and detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Loudon, Rodney; Jeffers, John

    2004-09-01

    The transformation that an attenuator makes on the state of an optical field is the time reverse of that of an amplifier. Thus predicting the output state for an amplifier is equivalent to retrodicting the input state of an attenuator. We explore the consequences of this equivalence for simple optical quantum communication channels. One counterintuitive consequence is that the mean number of photons sent into an amplifier as retrodicted from a measurement of the number of output photons does not include the contribution of the amplifier noise.

  10. Class E/F switching power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor); Rutledge, David B. (Inventor); Kee, Scott David (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention discloses a new family of switching amplifier classes called class E/F amplifiers. These amplifiers are generally characterized by their use of the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) phase correction technique to eliminate of the loss normally associated with the inherent capacitance of the switching device as utilized in class-E amplifiers, together with a load network for improved voltage and current wave-shaping by presenting class-F.sup.-1 impedances at selected overtones and class-E impedances at the remaining overtones. The present invention discloses a several topologies and specific circuit implementations for achieving such performance.

  11. Ping-pong auto-zero amplifier with glitch reduction

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Mark R.

    2008-01-22

    A ping-pong amplifier with reduced glitching is described. The ping-pong amplifier includes a nulling amplifier coupled to a switching network. The switching network is used to auto-zero a ping amplifier within a ping-pong amplifier. The nulling amplifier drives the output of a ping amplifier to a proper output voltage level during auto-zeroing of the ping amplifier. By being at a proper output voltage level, glitches associated with transitioning between a ping amplifier and a pong amplifier are reduced or eliminated.

  12. A high-power 95 GHz gyro-TWT amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kreischer, K.E.; Basten, M.; Blank, M.; Danly, B.G.; Guss, W.C.; Temkin, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    The need for radar systems with greater resolution has led to renewed interest in the development of efficient high-power amplifiers at 95 GHz. The gyro-TWT is capable of producing high power with the added attraction of having lower ohmic loading on the smooth fast-wave interaction circuit than conventional slow-wave sources. We have completed a comprehensive desip of a 95 GHz gyro-TWT amplifier that is capable of producing 120 kill of output power with an efficiency of 30%, a saturated gain of 38 dB and an instantaneous bandwidth of over 5 GHz. Our concept uses an annular beam produced by a MIG electron source and operates in the TE{sub 5,1} cylindrical waveguide mode. Realistic beam parameters from gun simulations were, included in our efficiency calculations. In addition, our design includes the use of a compact superconducting magnet, quasi-optical input and output couplers and a sever to supress oscillations. The overall mechanical design shows that a compact, lightweight amplifier with adequate beam clearance is possible. This report also includes a study of a gyro-TWT using a solid on-axis beam from a Pierce-wiggler electron source coupling with a TE{sub 1,n} waveguide mode. Nonlinear models indicated that an efficient interaction with the waveguide mode was possible, however, beam simulations indicated that the high current density beam had large internal space charge forces that caused a substantial degradation of the beam quality.

  13. A high-power 95 GHz gyro-TWT amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kreischer, K.E.; Basten, M.; Blank, M.; Danly, B.G.; Guss, W.C.; Temkin, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    The need for radar systems with greater resolution has led to renewed interest in the development of efficient high-power amplifiers at 95 GHz. The gyro-TWT is capable of producing high power with the added attraction of having lower ohmic loading on the smooth fast-wave interaction circuit than conventional slow-wave sources. We have completed a comprehensive desip of a 95 GHz gyro-TWT amplifier that is capable of producing 120 kill of output power with an efficiency of 30%, a saturated gain of 38 dB and an instantaneous bandwidth of over 5 GHz. Our concept uses an annular beam produced by a MIG electron source and operates in the TE[sub 5,1] cylindrical waveguide mode. Realistic beam parameters from gun simulations were, included in our efficiency calculations. In addition, our design includes the use of a compact superconducting magnet, quasi-optical input and output couplers and a sever to supress oscillations. The overall mechanical design shows that a compact, lightweight amplifier with adequate beam clearance is possible. This report also includes a study of a gyro-TWT using a solid on-axis beam from a Pierce-wiggler electron source coupling with a TE[sub 1,n] waveguide mode. Nonlinear models indicated that an efficient interaction with the waveguide mode was possible, however, beam simulations indicated that the high current density beam had large internal space charge forces that caused a substantial degradation of the beam quality.

  14. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  15. A rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of venlafaxine by charge transfer complexation reaction with p-bromanil and p-chloranil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2011-04-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of venlafaxine in pure and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods were based on the reaction of venlafaxine as n-electron donor with π-acceptors namely, p-bromanil and p-chloranil. The method for the determination of venlafaxine over a concentration range of 5-100 and 5-150 ng/mL, for p-bromanil and p-chloranil methods, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were satisfactory, the relative standard deviations did not exceed 1.69%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of venlafaxine in its pharmaceutical preparations with good accuracy; the mean recovery percentages were 99.80%. The results were compared favorably with those of the reference method.

  16. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  17. Study on the properties and charge generation in dye-sensitized n-TiO 2|dye|p-CuI solid state photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusop, M.; Shirata, T.; Sirimanne, P. M.; Soga, T.; Jimbo, T.; Umeno, M.

    2006-08-01

    Transparent semiconducting copper iodide (CuI) films were prepared by XeCl Excimer laser and their characteristics are investigated. These films exhibited optical transmittance over 80% in the wavelength range from 400 to 900 nm and minimum resistivity of about 2 kΩ cm -1. The optical absorption of the these films shows a remarkable blue shift compared to that of polycrystalline of CuI, which can be explained from the viewpoint formation of ultra fine of CuI grains. The titanium dioxide (TiO 2) films have been prepared by sol-gel method. The properties of pulsed laser deposited CuI and TiO 2 films in power output of n-TiO 2|dye|p-CuI cells is studied. An efficient charge generation is observed through the illumination of TiO 2 layer of the fabricated n-TiO 2|dye|p-CuI solid state photovoltaic solar cells. From the current-voltage characteristics, the fill factor and power conversion efficiency were about of 45 and 3%, respectively. The maximum photo-current of about 12.5 mA/cm 2 and photo-voltage of 475 mV under AM 1.5 conditions were obtained for the n-TiO 2|dye|p-CuI solid states photovoltaic solar cells with good reproducibility. Adsorbed dye molecules to the TiO 2 surface act as a relay, especially under illumination through TiO 2 layer in the wave range region of 300-400 nm.

  18. A new TPE-based tetrapodal ligand and its Ln(iii) complexes: multi-stimuli responsive AIE (aggregation-induced emission)/ILCT(intraligand charge transfer)-bifunctional photoluminescence and NIR emission sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Xuan; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Pan, Mei; Wang, Hai-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-01-01

    A tetrapodal zwitterionic-type ligand featuring both AIE (aggregation-induced emission) and ILCT (intraligand charge transfer) properties, namely 1,1',1'',1'''-(4,4',4'',4'''-(ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayl)tetrakis(benzene-4,1-diyl))tetrakis(methylene)tetrapyridin-4(1H)-one (TPE-4PO) has been designed and applied to the assembly of lanthanide complexes LIFM-21(Ln) (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy). Apart from sensitization of NIR emission of Sm(3+) and Dy(3+), the resulting ligand and lanthanide complexes show both AIE and ILCT-related photoluminescence behaviors. The photo-response of this system to different aggregation states, solvents' polarity and mechanical grinding was demonstrated by distinguishable emission intensities and colours. PMID:26646712

  19. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  20. Bridge/amplifier configuration for switched arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, O. D.

    1977-01-01

    Bridge network connected to differential amplifier and used with bubble-domain memories draws no power during standby and can be arrayed with other bridge amplifiers of like design. Two-node arrangement greatly simplifies conventional configurations where more than two nodes are involved.

  1. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  2. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  3. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Laird P. [Livermore, CA; Carder, Bruce M. [Antioch, CA; Gagnon, William L. [Berkeley, CA

    1981-03-17

    Apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse.

  4. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2010-11-02

    A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).

  5. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1981-03-17

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13 figs.

  6. A fluidic/pneumatic interface amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbert, D. E.; Kegel, T. M.

    The development of a low cost, reliable, linear pressure amplifier to interface Laminar Proportional Amplifiers (LPA) to pneumatic controllers is presented. The amplifier consists of an LPA input stage and an output stage consisting of a venturi in series with a bellows nozzle valve. The LPA output drives the bellows nozzle valve thereby altering the flowrate through the venturi. The pressure within the venturi throat region, which is the amplifier output, changes with the flowrate. Non-linear characteristics, due to supersonic flow within the venturi, are altered through the use of feedback to the LPA input. A computer based model, to aid in optimizing the amplifier design, is developed. This model incorporates the effects of shock waves and boundary layers within the venturi. Good correspondence between the model and an experimental prototype is shown.

  7. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, Ask S.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise performance of the amplifier is also investigated for both configurations. Our results show an on/off gain exceeding 20 dB at 1810 nm for which the obtained effective noise figure is below 3 dB.

  8. An enhanced glucose biosensor using charge transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ro; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Ishida, Makoto

    2008-12-01

    An enhanced glucose biosensor based on a charge transfer technique glucose sensor (CTTGS) is described and demonstrated experimentally. In the proposed CTTGS, which is accumulation method (d-gluconate+H(+)) ion perception system, the quality of output signal with "signal integration cycles" is high. With the proposed CTTGS it is possible to amplify the sensing signals without an external amplifier by using an accumulation cycle. It can be supposed that measurements of small (d-gluconate+H(+)) ion fluctuation are difficult by ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) because the theoretical maximum sensitivity is only 59 mV/pH and the small output signals are buried in the 1/f noise component of the metal-insulator-semi-conductor field-effect transistor (MISFET). Therefore, the CTTGS has many advantages, such as high sensitivity, high accuracy, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and has been successfully demonstrated using a charge transfer technique. The CTTGS exhibited excellent performance for glucose with a large span (1445 mV) and good reproducibility. Moreover, the CTTGS has good sensitivity in this range of 7.22mV/mM, a lower detection limit of about 0.01 mM/L and an upper detection limit of about 200 mM/L compared with amperometric glucose analysis which has been studied recently. Under optimum conditions, the proposed CTTGS exceeds the performance of the widely used ISFET glucose sensor. The sensitivity of the CTTGS (7.22 mV/mM) was seven times higher than that of the ISFET (1 mV/mM). Furthermore, the sensitivity obtained for human glucose levels was 29.06 mV/mM with a non-linear error of +/-0.27%; the linearity is y=0.0294x+1.8612 and R(2)=0.9999, which is acceptable for clinical application. Real sample analysis is investigated in blood glucose level by our developed CTTGS ISFET system. PMID:18640027

  9. Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Goda, K; Tsia, K K; Jalali, B

    2009-04-30

    Ultrafast real-time optical imaging is an indispensable tool for studying dynamical events such as shock waves, chemical dynamics in living cells, neural activity, laser surgery and microfluidics. However, conventional CCDs (charge-coupled devices) and their complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) counterparts are incapable of capturing fast dynamical processes with high sensitivity and resolution. This is due in part to a technological limitation-it takes time to read out the data from sensor arrays. Also, there is the fundamental compromise between sensitivity and frame rate; at high frame rates, fewer photons are collected during each frame-a problem that affects nearly all optical imaging systems. Here we report an imaging method that overcomes these limitations and offers frame rates that are at least 1,000 times faster than those of conventional CCDs. Our technique maps a two-dimensional (2D) image into a serial time-domain data stream and simultaneously amplifies the image in the optical domain. We capture an entire 2D image using a single-pixel photodetector and achieve a net image amplification of 25 dB (a factor of 316). This overcomes the compromise between sensitivity and frame rate without resorting to cooling and high-intensity illumination. As a proof of concept, we perform continuous real-time imaging at a frame speed of 163 ns (a frame rate of 6.1 MHz) and a shutter speed of 440 ps. We also demonstrate real-time imaging of microfluidic flow and phase-explosion effects that occur during laser ablation. PMID:19407796

  10. Allelic dilution obscures detection of a biologically significant resistance mutation in EGFR-amplified lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Mukohara, Toru; Zejnullahu, Kreshnik; Lifshits, Eugene; Borrás, Ana M.; Gale, Christopher-Michael; Naumov, George N.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Jarrell, Emily; Sun, Jason; Tracy, Sean; Zhao, Xiaojun; Heymach, John V.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Jänne, Pasi A.

    2006-01-01

    EGFR is frequently mutated and amplified in lung adenocarcinomas sensitive to EGFR inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib. A secondary mutation, T790M, has been associated with acquired resistance but has not been shown to be sufficient to render EGFR mutant/amplified lung cancers resistant to EGFR inhibitors. We created a model for studying acquired resistance to gefitinib by prolonged exposure of a gefitinib-sensitive lung carcinoma cell line (H3255; EGFR mutated and amplified) to gefitinib in vitro. The resulting resistant cell line acquired a T790M mutation in a small fraction of the amplified alleles that was undetected by direct sequencing and identified only by a highly sensitive HPLC-based technique. In gefitinib-sensitive lung cancer cells with EGFR mutations and amplifications, exogenous introduction of EGFR T790M effectively conferred resistance to gefitinib and continued ErbB-3/PI3K/Akt signaling when in cis to an activating mutation. Moreover, continued activation of PI3K signaling by the PIK3CA oncogenic mutant, p110α E545K, was sufficient to abrogate gefitinib-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that allelic dilution of biologically significant resistance mutations may go undetected by direct sequencing in cancers with amplified oncogenes and that restoration of PI3K activation via either a T790M mutation or other mechanisms can provide resistance to gefitinib. PMID:16906227

  11. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  12. Fiber networks amplify active stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Martin; Ronceray, Pierre; Broedersz, Chase

    Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses. While fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by microscopic active units is not well understood. I will present a comprehensive theoretical study of force transmission in these networks. I will show that the linear, small-force response of the networks is remarkably simple, as the macroscopic active stress depends only on the geometry of the force-exerting unit. In contrast, as non-linear buckling occurs around these units, local active forces are rectified towards isotropic contraction and strongly amplified. This stress amplification is reinforced by the networks' disordered nature, but saturates for high densities of active units. I will show that our predictions are quantitatively consistent with experiments on reconstituted tissues and actomyosin networks, and that they shed light on the role of the network microstructure in shaping active stresses in cells and tissue.

  13. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A confocal resonator or White Cell resonator is provided, including two or three curvilinearly shaped mirrors facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on the resonator axis between the mirrors (confocal resonator) or adjacent to one of the mirrors (White Cell). In a first embodiment, two mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. The optical gain medium may be solid-state, liquid or gaseous medium and may be pumped longitudinally or transversely. In a second embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror in a White Cell configuration, and the optical gain medium is positioned at or adjacent to one of the mirrors. Defocusing means and optical gain medium cooling means are optionally provided with either embodiment, to controllably defocus the light beam, to cool the optical gain medium and to suppress thermal lensing in the gain medium.

  14. Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  15. QIE: performance studies of the next generation charge integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Hirschauer, J.; Freeman, J.; Hughes, E.; Hare, D.; Dal Monte, L.; Whitbeck, A.; Zimmerman, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Phase 1 upgrade of the Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will include two new generations (named QIE10 and QIE11) of the radiation-tolerant flash ADC chip known as the Charge Integrator and Encoder or QIE. The QIE integrates charge from a photo sensor over a 25 ns time period and encodes the result in a non-linear digital output while having a good sensitivity in both the higher and the lower energy values. The charge integrator has the advantage of analyzing fast signals coming from the calorimeters as long as the timing and pulse information is available. The calorimeters send fast, negative polarity signals, which the QIE integrates in its non-inverting input amplifier. The input analog signal enters the QIE chip through two points: signal and reference. The chip integrates the difference between these two values. This helps in getting rid of the incoming noise, which is effectively cancelled out in the difference. Over a period of about six months between September, 2013 and April, 2014 about 320 QIE10 and about 20 QIE11 chips were tested in Fermilab using a single-chip test stand where every individual chip was tested for its characteristic features using a clam-shell. The results of those tests performed on the QIE10 and QIE11 are summarized in this document.

  16. QIE: Performance Studies of the Next Generation Charge Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Hirschauer, J.; Freeman, J.; Hughes, E.; Hare, D.; Dal Monte, L.; Whitbeck, A.; Zimmerman, T.

    2015-02-06

    The Phase 1 upgrade of the Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will include two new generations (named QIE10 and QIE11) of the radiation-tolerant flash ADC chip known as the Charge Integrator and Encoder or QIE. The QIE integrates charge from a photo sensor over a 25 ns time period and encodes the result in a non-linear digital output while having a good sensitivity in both the higher and the lower energy values. The charge integrator has the advantage of analyzing fast signals coming from the calorimeters as long as the timing and pulse information is available. The calorimeters send fast, negative polarity signals, which the QIE integrates in its non-inverting input amplifier. The input analog signal enters the QIE chip through two points: signal and reference. The chip integrates the difference between these two values. This helps in getting rid of the incoming noise, which is effectively cancelled out in the difference. Over a period of about six months between September, 2013 and April, 2014 about 320 QIE10 and about 20 QIE11 chips were tested in Fermilab using a single-chip test stand where every individual chip was tested for its characteristic features using a clam-shell. The results of those tests performed on the QIE10 and QIE11 are summarized in this document.

  17. Capability of charge signal conversion and transmission by water chains confined inside Y-shaped carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yusong; Lu, Hangjun; Zhang, Yuanzhao; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong

    2013-01-01

    The molecular scale signal conversion, transmission, and amplification by a single external charge through a water-mediated Y-shaped nanotube have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the signal converting capability is highly sensitive to the magnitude of the charge, while the signal transmitting capability is independent of the charge signal. There is a sharp two-state-like transition in the signal converting capacity for both positive and negative charges. When the charge magnitude is above a threshold (|q| ? ~0.7 e), the water dipole orientations in the main tube can be effectively controlled by the signaling charge (i.e., signal conversion), and then be transmitted and amplified through the Y-junction, despite the thermal noises and interferences between branch signals. On the other hand, the signal transmitting capability, characterized by the correlation between the two water dipole orientations in the two branches, is found to be always larger than 0.6, independent of charge signals, indicating that the water-mediated Y-tube is an excellent signal transmitter. These findings may provide useful insights for the future design of molecular scale signal processing devices based on Y-shaped nanotubes. PMID:23298064

  18. Semiconductor optical amplifiers and Raman amplification for 1310-nm dense wavelength division multiplexed transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Paweł; Czyżak, Paweł; de Waardt, Huug; Turkiewicz, Jarosław Piotr

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the utilization of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and quantum-dot laser-based Raman amplifiers in high-capacity dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) 1310-nm transmission systems. Performed simulations showed that in a 10×40 Gbit/s system, the utilization of a single Raman amplifier in a back-propagation scheme can extend the maximum error-free (bit error rate <10-9) transmission distance by approximately 25 km in comparison with the same system utilizing only an SOA used as a preamplifier. We successfully applied a Raman amplifier in an 8×2×40 Gbit/s 1310-nm polarization multiplexed (PolMux) DWDM transmission over 25 km. Conducted experiments showed that the utilization of a Raman amplifier in this system leads to 4-dB improvement of the average channel sensitivity in comparison to the same system utilizing SOAs. This sensitivity improvement can be translated into a higher power budget. Moreover, lower input optical power in a system utilizing a Raman amplifier reduces the four-wave mixing interactions. The obtained results prove that Raman amplification can be successfully applied in 1310-nm high-capacity transmission systems, e.g., to extend the reach of 400G and 1T Ethernet systems.

  19. A Low-Noise Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ratowsky, R.P.; Dijaili, S.; Kallman, J.S.; Feit, M.D.; Walker, J.

    1999-03-23

    Optical amplifiers are essential devices for optical networks, optical systems, and computer communications. These amplifiers compensate for the inevitable optical loss in long-distance propagation (>50 km) or splitting (>10x). Fiber amplifiers such as the erbium-doped fiber amplifier have revolutionized the fiber-optics industry and are enjoying widespread use. Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are an alternative technology that complements the fiber amplifiers in cost and performance. One obstacle to the widespread use of SOAs is the severity of the inevitable noise output resulting from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Spectral filtering is often used to reduce ASE noise, but this constrains the source spectrally, and improvement is typically limited to about 10 dB. The extra components also add cost and complexity to the final assembly. The goal of this project was to analyze, design, and take significant steps toward the realization of an innovative, low-noise SOA based on the concept of ''distributed spatial filtering'' (DSF). In DSF, we alternate active SOA segments with passive free-space diffraction regions. Since spontaneous emission radiates equally in all directions, the free-space region lengthens the amplifier for a given length of gain region, narrowing the solid angle into which the spontaneous emission is amplified [1,2]. Our innovation is to use spatial filtering in a differential manner across many segments, thereby enhancing the effect when wave-optical effects are included [3]. The structure quickly and effectively strips the ASE into the higher-order modes, quenching the ASE gain relative to the signal.

  20. Variability in the pattern of random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Khandka, D K; Tuna, M; Tal, M; Nejidat, A; Golan-Goldhirsh, A

    1997-12-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a simple method to detect DNA polymorphism. It is sensitive to reaction conditions. Small changes in the reactants' concentration cause variations in amplification products. Using DNA from Asparagus officinalis, Dactylis glomerata, Mercurialis annua and Escherichia coli, we examined variability in the amplification pattern associated with reaction constituents. An increase in the ratio of Taq DNA polymerase to DNA in the reaction increased the number of amplified fragments. Increasing the concentration of primer resulted in the amplification of low molecular weight DNA fragments, while lowering the concentration resulted in high molecular weight fragments. Subsets of amplified fragments required different concentrations of magnesium for their highest intensity. Mechanical shearing of DNA obtained by sonication led to reduction in amplification of a subset of products. Enzymatic fragmentation of DNA by restriction enzymes led to loss or gain of specific fragments, depending on the DNA, primer, and restriction enzyme. RAPD markers of pooled DNA of anonymous pedigree should be critically evaluated for frequent 'false positive' markers. PMID:9504820

  1. CMOS Optoelectronic Lock-In Amplifier With Integrated Phototransistor Array.

    PubMed

    An Hu; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P

    2010-10-01

    We describe the design and development of an optoelectronic lock-in amplifier (LIA) for optical sensing and spectroscopy applications. The prototype amplifier is fabricated using Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. complementary metal-oxide semiconductor 0.35-μm technology and uses a phototransistor array (total active area is 400 μm × 640μm) to convert the incident optical signals into electrical currents. The photocurrents are then converted into voltage signals using a transimpedance amplifier for subsequent convenient signal processing by the LIA circuitry. The LIA is optimized to be operational at 20-kHz modulation frequency but is operational in the frequency range from 13 kHz to 25 kHz. The system is tested with a light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source. The noise and signal distortions are suppressed with filters and a phase-locked loop (PLL) implemented in the LIA. The output dc voltage of the LIA is proportional to the incident optical power. The minimum measured dynamic reserve and sensitivity are 1.31 dB and 34 mV/μW, respectively. The output versus input relationship has shown good linearity. The LIA consumes an average power of 12.79 mW with a 3.3-V dc power supply. PMID:23853373

  2. Low Noise Amplifiers and Receivers for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Gaier, Todd; Tanner, Alan; Varonen, Mikko; Samoska, Lorene; Brown, Shannon; Lambrigsten, Bjorn; Reising, Steven; Tanabe, Jordan; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas; Parashare, Chaitali

    2012-01-01

    The study of atmospheric dynamics and climatology depend on accurate and frequent measurements of temperature and humidity profiles of the atmosphere. These measurements furthermore enable highly accurate measurements of ocean topography by providing total column water vapour data for radar path delay correction. The atmospheric temperature profile is characterized at the oxygen molecule absorption frequencies (60 and 118 GHz) and the humidity profile at the water molecule absorption frequencies (23 and 183 GHz). Total column measurements can be achieved by comparing measured radiometric temperatures at atmospheric window channels, such as 90, 130, and 166 GHz. The standard receiver technology for these frequencies was diode mixers with MMIC LNAs being applied at the lower frequencies. The sensitivity of millimeter wave receivers improved significantly with the introduction of the low noise 35 nm gate length InP MMIC amplifiers. We currently achieve 3 dB noise figure at 180 GHz and 2 dB noise figure at 90 GHz with our MMIC low noise amplifiers (LNAs) in room temperature. These amplifiers and the receivers we have built using them made it possible to conduct highly accurate airborne measurements campaigns from the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, develop millimeter wave internally calibrated radiometers for altimeter radar path delay correction, and build prototypes of large arrays of millimeter receivers for a geostationary interferometric sounder. We use the developed millimeter wave receivers to measure temperature and humidity profiles in the atmosphere and in hurricanes as well as to characterize the path delay error in ocean topography alitmetery.

  3. Low Noise Amplifiers and Receivers for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Gaier, Todd; Tanner, Alan; Varonen, Mikko; Samoska, Lorene; Brown, Shannon; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Reising, Steven; Tanabe, Jordan; Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas; Parashare, Chaitali

    2011-01-01

    The study of atmospheric dynamics and climatology depend on accurate and frequent measurements of temperature and humidity profiles of the atmosphere. These measurements furthermore enable highly accurate measurements of ocean topography by providing total column water vapour data for radar path delay correction. The atmospheric temperature profile is characterised at the oxygen molecule absorption frequencies (60 and 118 GHz) and the humidity profile at the water molecule absorption frequencies (23 and 183 GHz). Total column measurements can be achieved by comparing measured radiometric temperatures at atmospheric window channels, such as 90, 130 and 166 GHz. The standard receiver technology for these frequencies was diode mixers with MMIC LNAs being applied at the lower frequencies. The sensitivity of millimetre wave receivers improved significantly with the introduction of the low noise 35 nm gate length InP MMIC amplifiers. We currently achieve 3 dB noise figure at 180 GHz and 2 dB noise figure at 90 GHz with our MMIC low noise amplifiers (LNAs) in room temperature. These amplifiers and the receivers we have built using them made it possible to conduct highly accurate airborne measurement campaigns from the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, develop millimeter wave internally calibrated radiometers for altimeter radar path delay correction, and build prototypes of large arrays of millimeter receivers for a geostationary interferometric sounder. We use the developed millimeter wave receivers to measure temperature and humidity profiles in the atmosphere and in hurricanes as well as to characterize the path delay error in ocean topography altimetry.

  4. Squeezing with a flux-driven Josephson parametric amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, E. P.; Zhong, L.; Eder, P.; Baust, A.; Haeberlein, M.; Hoffmann, E.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; di Candia, R.; Solano, E.; Ihmig, M.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA) are promising devices for the implementation of continuous-variable quantum communication protocols. Operated in the phase-sensitive mode, they allow for amplifying a single quadrature of the electromagnetic field without adding any noise. While in practice internal losses introduce a finite amount of noise, our device still adds less noise than an ideal phase-insensitive amplifier. This property is a prerequisite for the generation of squeezed states. In this work, we reconstruct the Wigner function of squeezed vacuum, squeezed thermal and squeezed coherent states with our dual-path method [L. Zhong et al. arXiv:1307.7285 (2013); E. P. Menzel et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 100401 (2010)]. In addition, we illuminate the physics of squeezed coherent microwave fields. This work is supported by SFB 631, German Excellence Initiative via NIM, EU projects SOLID, CCQED, PROMISCE and SCALEQIT, MEXT Kakenhi ``Quantum Cybernetics,'' JSPS FIRST Program, the NICT Commissioned Research, Basque Government IT472-10, Spanish MINECO FIS2012-36673-C03-02, and UPV/EHU UFI 11/55.

  5. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    PubMed Central

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  6. Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase φ(t) is Sφ(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and simulation. To conclude, this article is intended as a tutorial, a review, and a systematic treatise on the subject, supported by extensive experiments. PMID:23221210

  7. Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

  8. Identification of Druggable Cancer Driver Genes Amplified across TCGA Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; McGee, Jeremy; Chen, Xianming; Doman, Thompson N.; Gong, Xueqian; Zhang, Youyan; Hamm, Nicole; Ma, Xiwen; Higgs, Richard E.; Bhagwat, Shripad V.; Buchanan, Sean; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Staschke, Kirk A.; Yadav, Vipin; Yue, Yong; Kouros-Mehr, Hosein

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects have advanced our understanding of the driver mutations, genetic backgrounds, and key pathways activated across cancer types. Analysis of TCGA datasets have mostly focused on somatic mutations and translocations, with less emphasis placed on gene amplifications. Here we describe a bioinformatics screening strategy to identify putative cancer driver genes amplified across TCGA datasets. We carried out GISTIC2 analysis of TCGA datasets spanning 14 cancer subtypes and identified 461 genes that were amplified in two or more datasets. The list was narrowed to 73 cancer-associated genes with potential “druggable” properties. The majority of the genes were localized to 14 amplicons spread across the genome. To identify potential cancer driver genes, we analyzed gene copy number and mRNA expression data from individual patient samples and identified 40 putative cancer driver genes linked to diverse oncogenic processes. Oncogenic activity was further validated by siRNA/shRNA knockdown and by referencing the Project Achilles datasets. The amplified genes represented a number of gene families, including epigenetic regulators, cell cycle-associated genes, DNA damage response/repair genes, metabolic regulators, and genes linked to the Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, JAK/STAT, NF-KB and MAPK signaling pathways. Among the 40 putative driver genes were known driver genes, such as EGFR, ERBB2 and PIK3CA. Wild-type KRAS was amplified in several cancer types, and KRAS-amplified cancer cell lines were most sensitive to KRAS shRNA, suggesting that KRAS amplification was an independent oncogenic event. A number of MAP kinase adapters were co-amplified with their receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the FGFR adapter FRS2 and the EGFR family adapter GRB7. The ubiquitin-like ligase DCUN1D1 and the histone methyltransferase NSD3 were also identified as novel putative cancer driver genes. We discuss the patient tailoring implications for existing cancer drug targets and we further discuss potential novel opportunities for drug discovery efforts. PMID:24874471

  9. Cascaded transformerless DC-DC voltage amplifier with optically isolated switching devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A very high voltage amplifier is provided in which plural cascaded banks of capacitors are switched by optically isolated control switches so as to be charged in parallel from the preceding stage or capacitor bank and to discharge in series to the succeeding stage or capacitor bank in alternating control cycles. The optically isolated control switches are controlled by a logic controller whose power supply is virtually immune to interference from the very high voltage output of the amplifier by the optical isolation provided by the switches, so that a very high voltage amplification ratio may be attained using many capacitor banks in cascade.

  10. A low-noise and fast pre-amplifier and readout system for SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroth, M.; Achenbach, P.; Downie, E.; Thomas, A.

    2015-07-01

    To operate silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) in a demanding environment with large temperature gradients, different amplifier concepts were characterized by analyzing SiPM pulse-shapes and charge distributions. A fully differential 4-wire SiPM pre-amplifier with separated tracks for the bias voltage and with good common-mode noise suppression was developed and successfully tested. To achieve highest single-pixel resolutions an online after-pulse and pile-up suppression was realized with fast readout electronics based on digital filters.

  11. Event-driven charge-coupled device design and applications therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, John P. (Inventor); Ricker, Jr., George R. (Inventor); Burke, Barry E. (Inventor); Prigozhin, Gregory Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An event-driven X-ray CCD imager device uses a floating-gate amplifier or other non-destructive readout device to non-destructively sense a charge level in a charge packet associated with a pixel. The output of the floating-gate amplifier is used to identify each pixel that has a charge level above a predetermined threshold. If the charge level is above a predetermined threshold the charge in the triggering charge packet and in the charge packets from neighboring pixels need to be measured accurately. A charge delay register is included in the event-driven X-ray CCD imager device to enable recovery of the charge packets from neighboring pixels for accurate measurement. When a charge packet reaches the end of the charge delay register, control logic either dumps the charge packet, or steers the charge packet to a charge FIFO to preserve it if the charge packet is determined to be a packet that needs accurate measurement. A floating-diffusion amplifier or other low-noise output stage device, which converts charge level to a voltage level with high precision, provides final measurement of the charge packets. The voltage level is eventually digitized by a high linearity ADC.

  12. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  13. Calculating and optimizing inter-electrode capacitances of charge division microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yan; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Hong-Ji; Wang, Hai-Feng; He, Ling-Ping; Jin, Fang-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Based on the principle of charge division microchannel plate detectors, the inter-electrode capacitances of charge division anodes which are related to electronic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier and crosstalk effect of the anode are presented. Under all the requirements of charge division microchannel plate detectors such as the imaging linearity and spatial resolution, decreasing the inter-electrode capacitances is one way to improve the imaging performance. In this paper, we illustrate the simulation process of calculating the inter-electrode capacitances. Moreover, a Wedge and Strip (WSZ) anode is fabricated with the picosecond laser micromachining process. Comparing the simulated capacitances and measured capacitances, the three-dimensional finite element method is proved to be valid. Furthermore, by adjusting the design parameters of the anode, the effects of the substrate permittivity, insulation width and the size of pitch on the inter-electrode capacitances have been analysed. The structure of the charge division anode has been optimized based on the simulation data.

  14. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor); Olson, Todd E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A resonator or a White Cell cavity is provided, including two or more mirrors (planar or curvilinearly shaped) facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on a resonator axis between the mirrors or adjacent to one of the mirrors. In a first embodiment, two curvilinear mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. A second embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and one planar mirror, with a gain medium positioned in the optical path between each curvilinear mirror and the planar mirror. A third embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and two planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses a curvilinear mirror and three planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses four planar mirrors and a focusing lens system, with a gain medium positioned between the four mirrors. A fifth embodiment uses first and second planar mirrors, a focusing lens system and a third mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the third mirror. A sixth embodiment uses two planar mirrors and a curvilinear mirror and a fourth mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the fourth mirror. In a seventh embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror, all curvilinear, in a White Cell configuration, and a gain medium is positioned adjacent to one of the mirrors.

  15. Cryogenic Amplifier Based Receivers at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore and; Schlecht, Erich; Lin, Robert; Deal, William

    2012-01-01

    The operating frequency of InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based amplifiers has moved well in the submillimeter-wave frequencies over the last couple of years. Working amplifiers with usable gain in waveguide packages has been reported beyond 700 GHz. When cooled cryogenically, they have shown substantial improvement in their noise temperature. This has opened up the real possibility of cryogenic amplifier based heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths for ground-based, air-borne, and space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary, and Earth science applications. This paper provides an overview of the science applications at submillimeter wavelengths that will benefit from this technology. It also describes the current state of the InP HEMT based cryogenic amplifier receivers at submillimeter wavelengths.

  16. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  17. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua; Caves, Carlton M.

    2014-12-04

    The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state σ for the ancillary mode; σ determines the properties of the added noise.

  18. Tachyonic information transfer in parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, G.; Kozhekin, A.; Kofman, A. G.

    1999-03-01

    The injection of spectrally narrow probe wavepackets into quantized parametrically amplifying media can give rise to transient tachyonic wavepackets. Remarkably, their quantum information, albeit causal, is confined to times corresponding to superluminal velocities, which is advantageous for communications.

  19. Ku band low noise parametric amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A low noise, K sub u-band, parametric amplifier (paramp) was developed. The unit is a spacecraft-qualifiable, prototype, parametric amplifier for eventual application in the shuttle orbiter. The amplifier was required to have a noise temperature of less than 150 K. A noise temperature of less than 120 K at a gain level of 17 db was achieved. A 3-db bandwidth in excess of 350 MHz was attained, while deviation from phase linearity of about + or - 1 degree over 50 MHz was achieved. The paramp operates within specification over an ambient temperature range of -5 C to +50 C. The performance requirements and the operation of the K sub u-band parametric amplifier system are described. The final test results are also given.

  20. High dynamic range Josephson parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, Nicolas; Murch, Kater W.; Vijay, Rajamani

    Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPAs) have become the technology of choice to amplify small amplitude microwave signals since they show noise performances close to the quantum limit of amplification. An important challenge that faces this technology is the low dynamic range of current devices, which limits the number of measurements that can be performed concurrently and the rate of information acquisition for single measurements. We have fabricated and tested novel parametric amplifiers based on arrays of up to 100 SQUIDS. The amplifiers produce gain in excess of 20 dB over a large bandwidth and match the dynamic range achieved with traveling wave devices. Compared to the latter devices they are fabricated in a single lithography step and we will show that their bandwidth performance can be further extended using a recently developed impedance matching technique.

  1. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P., Tran, V., Chau, R.

    2012-10-01

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments. The circuit has a bandwidth up to 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ≤1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. Various amplifying designs are shown, although the increased amplification decreases bandwidth. Bench tests show that the amplifier can withstand significant common mode DC voltage and measure 10 ns, and 50 mV signals.

  2. Tester periodically registers dc amplifier characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cree, D.; Wenzel, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Motor-driven switcher-recorder periodically registers the zero drift and gain drift signals of a dc amplifier subjected to changes in environment. A time coding method is used since several measurements are shared on a single recorder trace.

  3. How to characterize the nonlinear amplifier?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallistratova, Dmitri Kouznetsov; Cotera, Carlos Flores

    1994-01-01

    The conception of the amplification of the coherent field is formulated. The definition of the coefficient of the amplification as the relation between the mean value of the field at the output to the value at the input and the definition of the noise as the difference between the number of photons in the output mode and square of the modulus of the mean value of the output amplitude are considered. Using a simple example it is shown that by these definitions the noise of the nonlinear amplifier may be less than the noise of the ideal linear amplifier of the same amplification coefficient. Proposals to search another definition of basic parameters of the nonlinear amplifiers are discussed. This definition should enable us to formulate the universal fundamental lower limit of the noise which should be valid for linear quantum amplifiers as for nonlinear ones.

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  5. Efficient Power Amplifier for Motor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated amplifier supplies high current as efficiently as low current needed for starting and running motor. Key to efficiency of motor-control amplifier is V-channel metal-oxide/semiconductor transistor Q1. Device has low saturation resistance. However, has large gate input capacitance and small margin between its turn-on voltage and maximum allowable gate-to-source voltage. Circuits for output stages overcome limitations of VMOS device.

  6. MMIC Amplifiers for 90 to 130 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Pukala, David; Peralta, Alejandro; Bryerton, Eric; Morgan, Matt; Boyd, T.; Hu, Ming; Schmitz, Adele

    2007-01-01

    This brief describes two monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier chips optimized to function in the frequency range of 90 to 130 GHz, covering nearly all of F-band (90 - 140 GHz). These amplifiers were designed specifically for local-oscillator units in astronomical radio telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). They could also be readily adapted for use in electronic test equipment, automotive radar systems, and communications systems that operate between 90 and 130 GHz.

  7. High-Frequency, Conformable Organic Amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Reuveny, Amir; Lee, Sunghoon; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Fuketa, Hiroshi; Siket, Christian M; Lee, Sungwon; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takayasu; Bauer, Siegfried; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Large-bandwidth, low-operation-voltage, and uniform organic amplifiers are fabricated on ultrathin foils. By the integration of short-channel OTFTs and AlOx capacitors, organic amplifiers with a bandwidth of 25 kHz are realized, demonstrating the highest gain-bandwidth product (GBWP) reported to date. Owing to material and process advancements, closed-loop architectures operate at frequencies of several kilohertz with an area smaller than 30 mm(2) . PMID:26922899

  8. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation. 11 figs.

  9. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, Victor E. [Livermore, CA; Haas, Roger A. [Pleasanton, CA; Krupke, William F. [Pleasanton, CA; Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation.

  10. Some Notes on Wideband Feedback Amplifiers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-03-16

    The extension of the passband of wideband amplifiers is a highly important problem to the designer of electronic circuits. Throughout the electronics industry and in many research programs in physics and allied fields where extensive use is made of video amplifiers, the foremost requirement is a passband of maximum width. This is necessary if it is desired to achieve a more faithful reproduction of transient wave forms, a better time resolution in physical measurements, or perhaps just a wider band gain-frequency response to sine wave signals. The art of electronics is continually faced with this omnipresent amplifier problem. In particular, the instrumentation techniques of nuclear physics require amplifiers with short rise times, a high degree of gain stability, and a linear response to high signal levels. While the distributed amplifier may solve the problems of those seeking only a wide passband, the requirements of stability and linearity necessitate using feedback circuits. This paper considers feedback amplifiers from the standpoint of high-frequency performance. The circuit conditions for optimum steady-state (sinusoidal) and transient response are derived and practical circuits (both interstage and output) are presented which fulfill these conditions. In general, the results obtained may be applied to the low-frequency end.

  11. V-band IMPATT power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schell, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    This program is the result of the continuing demand and future requirement for a high data rate 60-GHz communications link. A reliable solid-state transmitter which delivers the necessary power over a wide bandwidth using the present IMPATT diode technology required the development of combining techniques. The development of a 60-GHz IMPATT power combiner amplifier is detailed. The results form a basis from which future wideband, high-power IMPATT amplifiers may be developed. As a result, several state-of-the-art advancements in millimeter-wave components technology were achieved. Specific achievements for the amplifier integration were: development of a nonresonant divider/combiner circuit; reproducible multiple junction circulator assemblies; and reliable high power 60-GHz IMPATT diodes. The various design approaches and tradeoffs which lead to the final amplifier configuration are discussed. A detailed circuit design is presented for the various amplifier components, and the conical line combiner, radial line combiner, and circulator development are discussed. The performance of the amplifier, the overall achievement of the program, the implications of the results, and an assessment of future development needs and recommendations are examined.

  12. Minimization of dispersion in an ultrafast chirped pulse amplifier using adaptive learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, A.; Moores, M. D.; Mei, B.; Krause, J. L.; Siders, C. W.; Reitze, D. H.

    Minimizing residual frequency dispersion that accompanies pulse stretching, amplification, and recompression is an important consideration in ultrashort chirped-pulse amplifiers. Here we show how an adaptive learning algorithm can be used in conjunction with a pulse shaper to compensate for higher-order and nonlinear dispersion in a chirped-pulse amplifier. Using spectral blueshifting as a sensitive diagnostic for pulse shape, we implement a `learning loop' comprised of the pulse shaper, strong field laser ionization, and a genetic algorithm to minimize dispersion through the amplifier. We verify our optimization results using frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements and also show theoretically and experimentally that spectral blueshifting is indeed a sensitive diagnostic for pulse shape, and specifically, for higher-order dispersion.

  13. Exponential Gain and Saturation of a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, S. V.; Gluskin, E.; Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Dejus, R. J.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Eidelman, Y. I.; Hahne, M. W.; Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.; Nassiri, A.; Sajaev, V.; Soliday, R.; Tieman, B. J.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Wang, X. J.; Wiemerslage, G.; Yang, B. X.

    2001-06-01

    Self-amplified spontaneous emission in a free-electron laser has been proposed for the generation of very high brightness coherent x-rays. This process involves passing a high-energy, high-charge, short-pulse, low-energy-spread, and low-emittance electron beam through the periodic magnetic field of a long series of high-quality undulator magnets. The radiation produced grows exponentially in intensity until it reaches a saturation point. We report on the demonstration of self-amplified spontaneous emission gain, exponential growth, and saturation at visible (530 nanometers) and ultraviolet (385 nanometers) wavelengths. Good agreement between theory and simulation indicates that scaling to much shorter wavelengths may be possible. These results confirm the physics behind the self-amplified spontaneous emission process and forward the development of an operational x-ray free-electron laser.

  14. Can Like Charges Attract Each Other?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Electroscopes are sensitive instruments useful for investigations of static electricity. They are devices that are used for detecting whether an object is charged or uncharged. They also determine the type of charge. Their operation is based on the principle of like sign charge repulsion.

  15. Electrostatics with Computer-Interfaced Charge Sensors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Computer interfaced electrostatic charge sensors allow both qualitative and quantitative measurements of electrostatic charge but are quite sensitive to charges accumulating on modern synthetic materials. They need to be used with care so that students can correctly interpret their measurements. This paper describes the operation of the sensors,…

  16. Can Like Charges Attract Each Other?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, Nuri

    2012-10-01

    Electroscopes are sensitive instruments useful for investigations of static electricity. They are devices that are used for detecting whether an object is charged or uncharged. They also determine the type of charge. Their operation is based on the principle of like sign charge repulsion.

  17. Electrostatics with Computer-Interfaced Charge Sensors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Computer interfaced electrostatic charge sensors allow both qualitative and quantitative measurements of electrostatic charge but are quite sensitive to charges accumulating on modern synthetic materials. They need to be used with care so that students can correctly interpret their measurements. This paper describes the operation of the sensors,

  18. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  19. High-Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Williams H.

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency power amplifier that operates in the S band (frequencies of the order of a few gigahertz) utilizes transistors operating under class-D bias and excitation conditions. Class-D operation has been utilized at lower frequencies, but, until now, has not been exploited in the S band. Nominally, in class D operation, a transistor is switched rapidly between "on" and "off" states so that at any given instant, it sustains either high current or high voltage, but not both at the same time. In the ideal case of zero "on" resistance, infinite "off" resistance, zero inductance and capacitance, and perfect switching, the output signal would be a perfect square wave. Relative to the traditional classes A, B, and C of amplifier operation, class D offers the potential to achieve greater power efficiency. In addition, relative to class-A amplifiers, class-D amplifiers are less likely to go into oscillation. In order to design this amplifier, it was necessary to derive mathematical models of microwave power transistors for incorporation into a larger mathematical model for computational simulation of the operation of a class-D microwave amplifier. The design incorporates state-of-the-art switching techniques applicable only in the microwave frequency range. Another major novel feature is a transmission-line power splitter/combiner designed with the help of phasing techniques to enable an approximation of a square-wave signal (which is inherently a wideband signal) to propagate through what would, if designed in a more traditional manner, behave as a more severely band-limited device (see figure). The amplifier includes an input, a driver, and a final stage. Each stage contains a pair of GaAs-based field-effect transistors biased in class D. The input signal can range from -10 to +10 dBm into a 50-ohm load. The table summarizes the performances of the three stages

  20. Development of a Broadband NbTiN Traveling Wave Parametric Amplifier for MKID Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstiegel, C.; Gao, J.; Vissers, M. R.; Sandberg, M.; Chaudhuri, S.; Sanders, A.; Vale, L. R.; Irwin, K. D.; Pappas, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    The sensitivity of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) using dissipation readout is limited by the noise temperature of the cryogenic amplifier, usually a HEMT with 5 K. A lower noise amplifier is required to improve NEP and reach the photon noise limit at millimeter wavelengths. Eom et al. have proposed a kinetic inductance traveling wave (KIT) parametric amplifier (also called the dispersion-engineered travelling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier) that utilizes the nonlinearity with very low dissipation of NbTiN. This amplifier has the promise to achieve quantum limited noise, broad bandwidth, and high dynamic range, all of which are required for ideal MKID dissipation readout. We have designed a KIT amplifier which consists of a 2.2 m long coplanar waveguide transmission line fabricated in a double spiral format, with periodic loadings and impedance transformers at the input/output ports on a 2 by 2 cm Si chip. The design was fabricated with 20 nm NbTiN films. The device has shown over 10 dB of gain from 4 to 11 GHz. We have found the maximum gain is limited by abrupt breakdown at defects in the transmission line in the devices. By cascading two devices, more than 20 dB of gain was achieved from 4.5 to 12.5 GHz, with a peak of 27 dB.

  1. Capillary Array Waveguide Amplified Fluorescence Detector for mHealth

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) analytical technologies are potentially useful for carrying out modern medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. Effective mHealth devices for underserved populations need to be simple, low cost, and portable. Although cell phone cameras have been used for biodetection, their sensitivity is a limiting factor because currently it is too low to be effective for many mHealth applications, which depend on detection of weak fluorescent signals. To improve the sensitivity of portable phones, a capillary tube array was developed to amplify fluorescence signals using their waveguide properties. An array configured with 36 capillary tubes was demonstrated to have a ~100X increase in sensitivity, lowering the limit of detection (LOD) of mobile phones from 1000 nM to 10 nM for fluorescein. To confirm that the amplification was due to waveguide behavior, we coated the external surfaces of the capillaries with silver. The silver coating interfered with the waveguide behavior and diminished the fluorescence signal, thereby proving that the waveguide behavior was the main mechanism for enhancing optical sensitivity. The optical configuration described here is novel in several ways. First, the use of capillaries waveguide properties to improve detection of weak florescence signal is new. Second we describe here a three dimensional illumination system, while conventional angular laser waveguide illumination is spot (or line), which is functionally one-dimensional illumination, can illuminate only a single capillary or a single column (when a line generator is used) of capillaries and thus inherently limits the multiplexing capability of detection. The planar illumination demonstrated in this work enables illumination of a two dimensional capillary array (e.g. x columns and y rows of capillaries). In addition, the waveguide light propagation via the capillary wall provides a third dimension for illumination along the axis of the capillaries. Such an array can potentially be used for sensitive analysis of multiple fluorescent detection assays simultaneously. The simple phone based capillary array approach presented in this paper is capable of amplifying weak fluorescent signals thereby improving the sensitivity of optical detectors based on mobile phones. This may allow sensitive biological assays to be measured with low sensitivity detectors and may make mHealth practical for many diagnostics applications, especially in resource-poor and global health settings. PMID:24039345

  2. Improved Grid-Array Millimeter-Wave Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, James J.; Rutledge, David B.; Smith, R. Peter; Weikle, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Improved grid-array amplifiers operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths developed for use in communications and radar. Feedback suppressed by making input polarizations orthogonal to output polarizations. Amplifier made to oscillate by introducing some feedback. Several grid-array amplifiers concatenated to form high-gain beam-amplifying unit.

  3. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  4. Injection- Seeded Optoplasmonic Amplifier in the Visible

    PubMed Central

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Junhwan; Chang, Te-Wei; Bahl, Gaurav; Lu, Meng; Liu, Gang Logan; Eden, J. Gary

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid optoplasmonic amplifier, injection-seeded by an internally-generated Raman signal and operating in the visible (563–675 nm), is proposed and evidence for amplification is presented. Comprising a gain medium tethered to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator with a protein, and a plasmonic surface, the optical system described here selectively amplifies a single (or a few) Raman line(s) produced within the WGM resonator and is well-suited for routing narrowband optical power on-a-chip. Over the past five decades, optical oscillators and amplifiers have typically been based on the buildup of the field from the spontaneous emission background. Doing so limits the temporal coherence of the output, lengthens the time required for the optical field intensity to reach saturation, and often is responsible for complex, multiline spectra. In addition to the spectral control afforded by injection-locking, the effective Q of the amplifier can be specified by the bandwidth of the injected Raman signal. This characteristic contrasts with previous WGM-based lasers and amplifiers for which the Q is determined solely by the WGM resonator. PMID:25156810

  5. Injection- Seeded Optoplasmonic Amplifier in the Visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Junhwan; Chang, Te-Wei; Bahl, Gaurav; Lu, Meng; Liu, Gang Logan; Eden, J. Gary

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid optoplasmonic amplifier, injection-seeded by an internally-generated Raman signal and operating in the visible (563-675 nm), is proposed and evidence for amplification is presented. Comprising a gain medium tethered to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator with a protein, and a plasmonic surface, the optical system described here selectively amplifies a single (or a few) Raman line(s) produced within the WGM resonator and is well-suited for routing narrowband optical power on-a-chip. Over the past five decades, optical oscillators and amplifiers have typically been based on the buildup of the field from the spontaneous emission background. Doing so limits the temporal coherence of the output, lengthens the time required for the optical field intensity to reach saturation, and often is responsible for complex, multiline spectra. In addition to the spectral control afforded by injection-locking, the effective Q of the amplifier can be specified by the bandwidth of the injected Raman signal. This characteristic contrasts with previous WGM-based lasers and amplifiers for which the Q is determined solely by the WGM resonator.

  6. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  7. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  8. Backside Charging of Ccds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Venkatraman

    1997-10-01

    Backside illuminated thinned CCDs have the highest response in the UV and blue spectral region. Their use in detectors is limited due to the instability of the CCD. A low temperature oxide nearly 30 A thick is grown on the acid thinned backside to tie up dangling bonds. The oxide carries fixed positive charges that attract and trap photogenerated electrons. A permanent and stable backside charging procedure is necessary to create a negative bias that will drive electrons to the frontside collection wells. We have shown chemisorption charging to be a novel method to permanently charge CCDs. The catalytic nature of certain metals are exploited to chemisorb oxygen as negative atomic species at the metal/oxide interface. Charging is shown to occur by depositing a thin film 10 A of platinum on the backside. No tunneling occurs because of the thick oxide. The Passivated Platinum Film (PPtF) which utilizes a hafnium oxide antireflection coating to passivate the platinum is an effective process, but it is sensitive to the environment and discharges quickly upon hydrogen exposure. A silver catalytic coating is shown to be far superior to other charging techniques. Silver irreversibly chemisorbs oxygen and hydrogen is not dissociatively adsorbed except at temperatures <100oK. High quantum efficiencies have been recorded for the UV-blue ranges. A slight drop is seen at cold temperatures due to interaction of water with oxygen to form hydroxyl ions. No change in QE is seen upon exposure to hydrogen or during outgassing. Silver is also one of the most transparent metals and easily deposited by evaporation. We therefore have developed a charging process which is nearly ideal for CCD imaging.

  9. Grains charges in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bel, N.; Lafon, J. P.; Viala, Y. P.

    1989-01-01

    The charge of cosmic grains could play an important role in many astrophysical phenomena. It probably has an influence on the coagulation of grains and more generally on grain-grain collisions, and on interaction between charged particles and grains which could lead to the formation of large grains or large molecules. The electrostatic charge of grains depends mainly on the nature of constitutive material of the grain and on the physical properties of its environment: it results from a delicate balance between the plasma particle collection and the photoelectron emission, both of them depending on each other. The charge of the grain is obtained in two steps: (1) using the numerical model the characteristics of the environment of the grain are computed; (2) the charge of a grain which is embedded in this environment is determined. The profile of the equilibrium charge of some typical grains through different types of interstellar clouds is obtained as a function of the depth of the cloud. It is shown that the grain charge can reach high values not only in hot diffuse clouds, but also in clouds with higher densities. The results are very sensitive to the mean UV interstellar radiation field. Three parameters appear to be essential but with different levels of sensitivity of the charge: the gas density, the temperature, and the total thickness of the cloud.

  10. Solar charging

    SciTech Connect

    Heckeroth, S.; McLees, C.

    1996-11-01

    Concern about the depletion of non-renewable energy resources and the life threatening pollution and climatic changes caused by their use has led to a renewed interest in passive solar design. However, transportation consumes four times the energy used in housing and causes about 10 times the air pollution because of its total reliance on petroleum. This paper will suggest direct solar charging opportunities that can be integrated into the built environment. Major advances in electric vehicle (EV) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies will soon make solar charging a viable option for transportation. More efficient motors, high-power controllers, quick chargers and new developments in battery technology will soon make electric vehicles have performance comparable to gas vehicles. The rise in efficiency, the decreasing cost and the integration of photovoltaic panels as roofing will make workplace and home solar charging an economic alternative to the gas pump.

  11. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.; Vorobiov, S.

    2012-12-01

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  12. Ultrashort pulse amplification in cryogenically cooled amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Backus, Sterling J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret Mary

    2004-10-12

    A laser amplifier system amplifies pulses in a single "stage" from .about.10.sup.-9 joules to more than 10.sup.-3 joules, with average power of 1-10 watts, and beam quality M.sup.2 <2. The laser medium is cooled substantially below room temperature, as a means to improve the optical and thermal characteristics of the medium. This is done with the medium inside a sealed, evacuated or purged cell to avoid moisture or other materials condensing on the surface. A "seed" pulse from a separate laser is passed through the laser medium, one or more times, in any of a variety of configurations including single-pass, multiple-pass, and regenerative amplifier configurations.

  13. Single mode terahertz quantum cascade amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Y. Wallis, R.; Shah, Y. D.; Jessop, D. S.; Degl'Innocenti, R.; Klimont, A.; Kamboj, V.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2014-10-06

    A terahertz (THz) optical amplifier based on a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure has been demonstrated. By depositing an antireflective coating on the QCL facet, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress the lasing action, creating a THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier. Terahertz radiation amplification has been obtained, by coupling a separate multi-mode THz QCL of the same active region design to the QC amplifier. A bare cavity gain is achieved and shows excellent agreement with the lasing spectrum from the original QCL without the antireflective coating. Furthermore, a maximum optical gain of ∼30 dB with single-mode radiation output is demonstrated.

  14. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  15. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P. W., Tran, V., Chau, R.

    2012-04-30

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments/applications. The circuit has a bandwidth > 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ≤1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. High pass filters suppress internal ringing of operational amplifiers. Results of bench tests are shown.

  16. Front-end electronics for CsI based charged particle array for the study of reaction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhingan, Akhil; Sugathan, P.; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kapoor, K.; Saneesh, N.; Banerjee, T.; Singh, Hardev; Kumar, A.; Behera, B. R.; Nayak, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics and performance of a new detector system based on CsI(TI) scintillators, and its front-end electronics are presented. The detector system has been developed for the detection of light charged particles to investigate fusion-fission dynamics, and will also serve as ancillary detector for an array of neutron detectors. CsI scintillators are read by photo-diodes. The main feature of the array is its compact and simple high density front-end electronics which includes custom developed low noise charge sensitive preamplifiers (with very low power consumption for operation inside vacuum), NIM differential drivers, and commercially available Mesytec amplifiers with two different time constants for particle identification using a ballistic deficit technique.

  17. Design of an Auto-zeroed, Differential, Organic Thin-film Field-effect Transistor Amplifier for Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binkley, David M.; Verma, Nikhil; Crawford, Robert L.; Brandon, Erik; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    Organic strain gauge and other sensors require high-gain, precision dc amplification to process their low-level output signals. Ideally, amplifiers would be fabricated using organic thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFT's) adjacent to the sensors. However, OTFT amplifiers exhibit low gain and high input-referred dc offsets that must be effectively managed. This paper presents a four-stage, cascaded differential OTFT amplifier utilizing switched capacitor auto-zeroing. Each stage provides a nominal voltage gain of four through a differential pair driving low-impedance active loads, which provide common-mode output voltage control. p-type pentacence OTFT's are used for the amplifier devices and auto-zero switches. Simulations indicate the amplifier provides a nominal voltage gain of 280 V/V and effectively amplifies a 1-mV dc signal in the presence of 500-mV amplifier input-referred dc offset voltages. Future work could include the addition of digital gain calibration and offset correction of residual offsets associated with charge injection imbalance in the differential circuits.

  18. AIDA: A 16-channel amplifier ASIC to read out the advanced implantation detector array for experiments in nuclear decay spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, D.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Lazarus, I. H.; Page, R. D.; Thomas, S.

    2011-07-01

    We have designed a read-out ASIC for nuclear decay spectroscopy as part of the AIDA project - the Advanced Implantation Detector Array. AIDA will be installed in experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in GSI, Darmstadt. The AIDA ASIC will measure the signals when unstable nuclei are implanted into the detector, followed by the much smaller signals when the nuclei subsequently decay. Implant energies can be as high as 20 GeV; decay products need to be measured down to 25 keV within just a few microseconds of the initial implants. The ASIC uses two amplifiers per detector channel, one covering the 20 GeV dynamic range, the other selectable over a 20 MeV or 1 GeV range. The amplifiers are linked together by bypass transistors which are normally switched off. The arrival of a large signal causes saturation of the low-energy amplifier and a fluctuation of the input voltage, which activates the link to the high-energy amplifier. The bypass transistors switch on and the input charge is integrated by the high-energy amplifier. The signal is shaped and stored by a peak-hold, then read out on a multiplexed output. Control logic resets the amplifiers and bypass circuit, allowing the low-energy amplifier to measure the subsequent decay signal. We present simulations and test results, demonstrating the AIDA ASIC operation over a wide range of input signals. (authors)

  19. Transverse intensity transformation by laser amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Igor A.; King, Gary; Collett, Oliver J. P.; Strauss, Hencharl J.

    2015-03-01

    Lasers beams with a specific intensity profile such as super-Gaussian, Airy or Dougnut-like are desirable in many applications such as laser materials processing, medicine and communications. We propose a new technique for laser beam shaping by amplifying a beam in an end-pumped bulk amplifier that is pumped with a beam that has a modified intensity profile. Advantages of this method are that it is relatively easy to implement, has the ability to reshape multimode beams and is naturally suited to high power/energy beams. Both three and four level gain materials can be used as amplifier media. However, a big advantage of using three level materials is their ability to attenuate of the seed beam, which enhances the contrast of the shaping. We first developed a numerical method to obtain the required pump intensity for an arbitrary beam transformation. This method was subsequently experimentally verified using a three level system. The output of a 2.07 μm seed laser was amplified in a Ho:YLF bulk amplifier which was being pumped by a 1.89 μm Tm:YLF laser which had roughly a TEM10 Hermit Gaussian intensity profile. The seed beam was amplified from 0.3 W to 0.55 W at the full pump power of 35 W. More importantly, the beam profile in one transverse direction was significantly shaped from Gaussian to roughly flat-top, as the model predicted. The concept has therefore been shown to be viable and can be used to optimise the beam profile for a wide range of applications.

  20. Transportable setup for amplifier phase fidelity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröbs, M.; Bogan, C.; Barke, S.; Kühn, G.; Reiche, J.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2015-05-01

    One possible laser source for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) consists of an Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier originally developed for inter-satellite communication, seeded by the laser used for the technology demonstrator mission LISA Pathfinder. LISA needs to transmit clock information between its three spacecraft to correct for phase noise between the clocks on the individual spacecraft. For this purpose phase modulation sidebands at GHz frequencies will be imprinted on the laser beams between spacecraft. Differential phase noise between the carrier and a sideband introduced within the optical chain must be very low. We report on a transportable setup to measure the phase fidelity of optical amplifiers.

  1. Master-Oscillator/Power-Amplifier Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Unger, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Master-oscillator/power-amplifier (MOPA) laser system operates in continuous-wave mode or in amplitude-modulation (e.g., pulse) mode by modulation of oscillator current. Power amplifier is laser-diode-pumped neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser; oscillator is laser diode. Offers relatively high efficiency and power. Because drive current to oscillator modulated, external electro-optical modulator not needed. Potential uses include free-space optical communications, coded laser ranging, and generation of high-power, mode-locked pulses.

  2. Enhanced photovoltaic performance utilizing effective charge transfers and light scattering effects by the combination of mesoporous, hollow 3D-ZnO along with 1D-ZnO in CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Barpuzary, Dipankar; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2014-05-28

    A combination of 3-dimensional (3D) hollow mesoporous ZnO microspheres (ZnO HMSP) and vertically grown one-dimensional ZnO nanowires (1D ZnO NWs) on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate has been investigated as a photoanode for a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QSSC). A comparative study of the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell with devices fabricated with pristine ZnO HMSPs and ZnO NWs was carried out. The proposed photovoltaic device exhibits an enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) upto ∼74% and ∼35%, as compared to the 1D ZnO NW and ZnO HMSP based solar cells. The maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) for the solar cell was observed to be ∼40%, whereas for the devices fabricated with bare ZnO HMSP and ZnO NW the IPCE were only ∼32% and ∼19%, respectively. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the solar cell is attributed to the high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, efficient light-scattering effects and facilitated diffusion of the electrolyte for better functioning of the redox couple (S(2-)/Sn(2-)) in the hybrid photoanode. Moreover, a faster electron transport through 1D ZnO NWs provides better charge collection from the photoactive layer, which leads to an increase in the short circuit current density of the device. The present study highlights the design and development of a new hybrid photoanode for solar harvesting. PMID:24730023

  3. READOUT ASIC FOR 3D POSITION-SENSITIVE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; VERNON, E.; ACKLEY, K.; DRAGONE, A.; FRIED, J.; OCONNOR, P.; HE, Z.; HERMAN, C.; ZHANG, F.

    2007-10-27

    We describe an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position-sensitive detectors. It was optimized for pixelated CZT sensors, and it measures, corresponding to an ionizing event, the energy and timing of signals from 121 anodes and one cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping, along with peak- and timing-detection. The cathode's timing can be measured in three different ways: the first is based on multiple thresholds on the charge amplifier's voltage output; the second uses the threshold crossing of a fast-shaped signal; and the third measures the peak amplitude and timing from a bipolar shaper. With its power of 2 mW per channel the ASIC measures, on a CZT sensor Connected and biased, charges up to 100 fC with an electronic resolution better than 200 e{sup -} rms. Our preliminary spectral measurements applying a simple cathode/mode ratio correction demonstrated a single-pixel resolution of 4.8 keV (0.72 %) at 662 keV, with the electronics and leakage current contributing in total with 2.1 keV.

  4. Reflected-wave maser. [low noise amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A number of traveling-wave, slow-wave maser structures, containing active maser material but absent the typical ferrite isolators, are immersed in a nonuniform magnetic field. The microwave signal to be amplified is inserted at a circulator which directs the signal to a slow-wave structure. The signal travels through the slow-wave structure, being amplified according to the distance traveled. The end of the slow-wave structure farthest from the circulator is arranged to be a point of maximum reflection of the signal traveling through the slow-wave structure. As a consequence, the signal to be amplified traverses the slow-wave structure again, in the opposite direction (towards the circulator) experiencing amplification equivalent to that achieved by a conventional traveling-wave maser having twice the length. The circulator directs the amplified signal to following like stages of amplification. Isolators are used in between stages to prevent signals from traveling in the wrong direction, between the stages. Reduced signal loss is experienced at each stage. The high gain produced by each slow-wave structure is reduced to a moderate value by use of a nonuniform magnetic field which also broadens the line width of the maser material. The resulting bandwidth can be exceptionally wide. Cascaded stages provide high gain, exceptionally wide bandwith and very low noise temperature.

  5. High Power Amplifier Harmonic Output Level Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.; Khan, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for the measurement of the harmonic output power of high power klystron amplifiers, involving coherent hemispherical radiation pattern measurements of the radiated klystron output. Results are discussed for the operation in saturated and unsaturated conditions, and with a waveguide harmonic filter included.

  6. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  7. A wideband RF amplifier for satellite tuners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueqing, Hu; Zheng, Gong; Yin, Shi; Foster, Dai Fa

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the design and measured performance of a wideband amplifier for a direct conversion satellite tuner. It is composed of a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA) and a two-stage RF variable gain amplifier (VGA) with linear gain in dB and temperature compensation schemes. To meet the system linearity requirement, an improved distortion compensation technique and a bypass mode are applied on the LNA to deal with the large input signal. Wideband matching is achieved by resistive feedback and an off-chip LC-ladder matching network. A large gain control range (over 80 dB) is achieved by the VGA with process voltage and temperature compensation and dB linearization. In total, the amplifier consumes up to 26 mA current from a 3.3 V power supply. It is fabricated in a 0.35-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupies a silicon area of 0.25 mm2.

  8. Research on fluidics, valves, and proportional amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Research and development being conducted at the Systems and Controls Laboratory is reviewed. Static characteristics (supply, input, transfer, output, and noise characteristics) of laminar proportional amplifiers were investigated. Other topics discussed include velocity profiles for laminar fluidic jets, speed control systems employing a jet pipe valve, and power amplification with a vortex valve.

  9. NON-BLOCKING STABILIZED FEED BACK AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Fairstein, E.

    1960-03-01

    A plural stuge nonblocking degenerative feed-back amplifier was designed particularly suitable for counting circuits because of the stability and linearity in operation, characterized by the fact that the inltial stage employs a cathode coupled input circuit fed from a cathode follower and the final stage has a tline constant greater than those of the other stages.

  10. Design and testing of ubitron amplifier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershing, Dean

    1993-10-01

    The components for a single-stage/single-pass Ku band ubitron amplifier were designed, constructed, and tested. Notable features of this device include a high quality electron beam and circularly polarized microwave and wiggler fields. Stable operation of the assembled amplifier was achieved during initial testing using a modified SLAC klystron electron gun. In addition, amplifier and oscillator operation was measured using an unusual rippled beam parameter regime. The ubitron was only operated in the small signal regime; no large signal measurements (e.g. saturation) were attempted. In this regime, peak gains of 19 dB were measured with greater than 25% bandwidth. The general performance characteristics are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions, although there are discrepancies between the measured and theoretical gain vs. frequency profiles. More work is needed to determine whether this is a deficiency in the model or if operational characteristics are not adequately well known, e.g. details of the wiggler field profile. An investigation of ubitron amplifier performance limits, including performance enhancement through system parameter tapering, should be possible with operation at the design voltage using the advanced electron gun.

  11. Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C

    2014-04-01

    A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.

  12. Modeling of an optically side-pumped alkali vapor amplifier with consideration of amplified spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zining; Wang, Hongyan; Lu, Qisheng; Hua, Weihong; Xu, Xiaojun

    2011-11-01

    Diode pumped alkali vapor amplifier (DPAA) is a potential candidate in high power laser field. In this paper, we set up a model for the diode double-side-pumped alkali vapor amplifier. For the three-dimensional volumetric gain medium, both the longitudinal and transverse amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) effects are considered and coupled into the rate equations. An iterative numerical approach is proposed to solve the model. Some important influencing factors are simulated and discussed. The results show that in the case of saturated amplification, the ASE effect can be well suppressed rather than a limitation in power scaling of a DPAA. PMID:22109192

  13. AKT signaling in ERBB2-amplified breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carmona, F Javier; Montemurro, Filippo; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Rossi, Valentina; Verma, Chandra; Baselga, José; Scaltriti, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is the focus of several targeted therapeutic agents for a variety of malignancies. In ERBB2-amplified breast cancer, the hyperactivation of this signaling cascade is associated with resistance to ERBB2-targeted therapy. This can occur through gain-of-function alterations or compensatory mechanisms that enter into play upon pharmacological pressure. The strong rationale in combining anti-ERBB2 agents with PI3K/AKT inhibitors, together with the identification of genomic alterations conferring sensitivity to targeted inhibition, are guiding the design of clinical studies aimed at preventing the emergence of drug resistance and achieving more durable response. In the present review, we describe the involvement of this pathway in breast cancer pathogenesis, with an emphasis on AKT kinases, and provide insight into currently available targeted agents for the treatment of ERBB2-amplified breast cancer. Finally, we provide preliminary data on a novel AKT3 mutation detected in the context of resistance to anti-ERBB2 therapy as an example of genomics-based approaches towards uncovering novel actionable targets in this setting. PMID:26645663

  14. Is there a role for amplifiers in sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Gualla, Filippo; Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio

    2008-05-21

    The amplifier hypothesis states that selection could favour the evolution of traits in signallers that improve the ability of receivers to extract honest information from other signals or cues. We provide a formal definition of amplifiers based on the receiver's mechanisms of signal perception and we present a game-theoretical model in which males advertise their quality and females use sequential-sampling tactics to choose among prospective mates. The main effect of an amplifier on the female mating strategy is to increase her mating threshold, making the female more selective as the effectiveness of the amplifier increases. The effects of the amplifier on male advertising strategy depends both on the context and on the types of the amplifier involved. We consider two different contexts for the evolution of amplifiers (when the effect of amplifiers is on signals and when it is on cues) and two types of amplifiers (the 'neutral amplifier', when it improves quality assessment without altering male attractiveness, and the 'attractive amplifier', when it improves both quality assessment and male attractiveness). The game-theoretical model provides two main results. First, neutral and attractive amplifiers represent, respectively, a conditional and an unconditional signalling strategy. In fact, at the equilibrium, neutral amplifiers are displayed only by males whose advertising level lays above the female acceptance threshold, whereas attractive amplifiers are displayed by all signalling males, independent of their quality. Second, amplifiers of signals increase the differences in advertising levels between amplifying and not-amplifying males, but they decrease the differences within each group, so that the system converges towards an 'all-or-nothing' signalling strategy. By applying concepts from information theory, we show that the increase in information transfer at the perception level due to the amplifier of signals is contrasted by a decrease in information transfer at the emitter level due to the increased stereotypy of male advertising strategy. PMID:18371984

  15. Novel non-chemically amplified (n-CARs) negative resists for EUVL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikram; Satyanarayana, V. S. V.; Sharma, Satinder K.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2014-03-01

    We report the lithography performance of novel non chemical amplified (n-CARS) negative photoresist materials which are accomplished by homopolymers and copolymers that are prepared from monomers containing sulfonium groups. The latter have long been found to be sensitive to UV radiation and undergo polarity change on exposure. For this reason, these groups were chosen as radiation sensitive groups in non- CARs that are discussed herein. Novel n-CAR negative resists were synthesized and characterized for EUVL applications, as they are directly sensitive to radiation without utilizing the concept of chemical amplification. The n-CARs achieved 20 and 16 nm L/2S, L/S patterns to meet the ITRS requirements. We will also discuss the sensitivity and LER of these negative n-CARS to e-beam irradiation which will provide a basis for EUVL down to the 16 nm node and below. These new negative tone resist provide a viable path forward for designing non- chemically amplified resists that can obtain higher resolutions than current chemically amplified resists at competitive sensitivities.

  16. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, F D; Mahé, A; Denis, A; Berroir, J-M; Glattli, D C; Plaçais, B; Fève, G

    2011-01-01

    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies. PMID:21280842

  17. Low phase noise oscillator using two parallel connected amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1987-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator is provided by connecting two amplifier circuits in parallel where each amplifier circuit provides the other amplifier circuit with the conditions necessary for oscillation. The inherent noise present in both amplifier circuits causes the quiescent current, and in turn, the generated frequency, to change. The changes in quiescent current cause the transconductance and the load impedance of each amplifier circuit to vary, and this in turn results in opposing changes in the input susceptance of each amplifier circuit. Because the changes in input susceptance oppose each other, the changes in quiescent current also oppose each other. The net result is that frequency stability is enhanced.

  18. Characterization and optimization of the magnetron directional amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, Michael Craig

    Many applications of microwave wireless power transmission (WPT) are dependent upon a high-powered electronically-steerable phased array composed of many radiating modules. The phase output from the high-gain amplifier in each module must be accurately controlled if the beam is to be properly steered. A highly reliable, rugged, and inexpensive design is essential for making WPT applications practical. A conventional microwave oven magnetron may be combined with a ferrite circulator and other external circuitry to create such a system. By converting it into a two-port amplifier, the magnetron is capable of delivering at least 30 dB of power gain while remaining phase-locked to the input signal over a wide frequency range. The use of the magnetron in this manner is referred to as a MDA (Magnetron Directional Amplifier). The MDA may be integrated with an inexpensive slotted waveguide array (SWA) antenna to form the Electronically-Steerable Phased Array Module (ESPAM). The ESPAM provides a building block approach to creating phased arrays for WPT. The size and shape of the phased array may be tailored to satisfy a diverse range of applications. This study provided an in depth examination into the capabilities of the MDA/ESPAM. The basic behavior of the MDA was already understood, as well as its potential applicability to WPT. The primary objective of this effort was to quantify how well the MDA could perform in this capacity. Subordinate tasks included characterizing the MDA behavior in terms of its system inputs, optimizing its performance, performing sensitivity analyses, and identifying operating limitations. A secondary portion of this study examined the suitability of the ESPAM in satisfying system requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS). Supporting tasks included an analysis of SPS requirements, modeling of the SWA antenna, and the demonstration of a simplified phased array constructed of ESPAM elements. The MDA/ESPAM is well suited for use as an amplifier or an element in a WPT phased array, providing over 75% efficiency and a fractional bandwidth exceeding 1.7% at 2.45 GHz. The results of this effort provide the WPT design engineer with tools to predict the MDA's optimum performance and limitations.

  19. Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier with GaAs JFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Nagata, Hirohisa; Hibi, Yasunori; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masahide

    2009-12-01

    A SONY n-type GaAs junction field effect transistor (JFET) can operate at deep cryogenic temperatures without exhibiting kink phenomena or hysteresis in its I-V characteristics. Further the GaAs JFET has small gate leakage currents(<4.6×10-19A) and a minute input capacitance (0.037 pF). Moreover, even though the gate terminal of a JFET is surrounded by high-impedance materials, the noise level does not increase and a low noise level of ˜500 nV/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz with low power dissipation (<1 μW) was achieved. We are currently developing operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) and digital modules for cryogenically cooled high-sensitivity photodetection systems. The GaAs Op-Amp with an open loop gain of 2000 at a power dissipation of 6.5 μW has been developed.

  20. Correlation-enhanced Metrology with Mechanical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Hil Fung Harry; Chang, Laura; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Chakram, Srivatsan; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2015-05-01

    Quantum correlations between the two arms of a mechanical parametric amplifier can be used to realize sensing beyond the standard quantum limit. We use nondegenerate mechanical parametric oscillators made of silicon nitride membrane resonators to demonstrate mechanical amplitude squeezing. This is the acoustic equivalent of intensity difference squeezing observed in optical parametric oscillators. We use the strong correlations between the nondegenerate modes to realize sub-thermal force sensitivities through noise cancellation and signal enhancement schemes. Our classical realization of enhanced metrology in a platform amenable to quantum optomechanics and nonclassical state preparation paves the way for quantum nonlinear sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO and an NSF INSPIRE award.