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Sample records for charge transfer chemistry

  1. Charge-displacement analysis via natural orbitals for chemical valence: Charge transfer effects in coordination chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Rampino, Sergio; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    We recently devised a simple scheme for analyzing on quantitative grounds the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson donation and back-donation in symmetric coordination complexes. Our approach is based on a symmetry decomposition of the so called Charge-Displacement (CD) function quantifying the charge flow, upon formation of a metal (M)-substrate (S) bond, along the M-S interaction axis and provides clear-cut measures of donation and back-donation charges in correlation with experimental observables [G. Bistoni et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52, 11599 (2013)]. The symmetry constraints exclude of course from the analysis most systems of interest in coordination chemistry. In this paper, we show how to entirely overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the properties of the natural orbitals for chemical valence [M. Mitoraj and A. Michalak, J. Mol. Model. 13, 347 (2007)]. A general scheme for disentangling donation and back-donation in the CD function of both symmetric and non-symmetric systems is presented and illustrated through applications to M-ethyne (M = Au, Ni and W) coordination bonds, including an explicative study on substrate activation in a model reaction mechanism.

  2. Opposites Attract: Organic Charge Transfer Salts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wouw, Heidi L.; Chamorro, Juan; Quintero, Michael; Klausen, Rebekka S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students to organic electronic materials. The discovery of metallic conductivity in the charge transfer salt tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a landmark result in the history of organic electronics. The charge transfer

  3. Charge Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

  4. Opposites Attract: Organic Charge Transfer Salts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wouw, Heidi L.; Chamorro, Juan; Quintero, Michael; Klausen, Rebekka S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students to organic electronic materials. The discovery of metallic conductivity in the charge transfer salt tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a landmark result in the history of organic electronics. The charge transfer…

  5. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Two Polymorphs of the Tetrathiafulvalene-Chloranil Charge Transfer Salt: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixtrom, Alex; Buhler, Jessica; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Mechanochemical syntheses avoid or considerably reduce the use of reaction solvents, thus providing green chemistry synthetic alternatives that are both environmentally friendly and economically advantageous. The increased solid-state reactivity generated by mechanical energy imparted to the reactants by grinding or milling can offer alternative…

  6. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Two Polymorphs of the Tetrathiafulvalene-Chloranil Charge Transfer Salt: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixtrom, Alex; Buhler, Jessica; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Mechanochemical syntheses avoid or considerably reduce the use of reaction solvents, thus providing green chemistry synthetic alternatives that are both environmentally friendly and economically advantageous. The increased solid-state reactivity generated by mechanical energy imparted to the reactants by grinding or milling can offer alternative

  7. Computational chemistry and aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. M.; Jaffe, R. L.; Arnold, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the radiative heating phenomena encountered during a typical aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) trajectory was made to determine the potential impact of computational chemistry on AOTV design technology. Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation mechanisms were considered. This analysis showed that computational chemistry can be used to predict (1) radiative intensity factors and spectroscopic data; (2) the excitation rates of both atoms and molecules; (3) high-temperature reaction rate constants for metathesis and charge exchange reactions; (4) particle ionization and neutralization rates and cross sections; and (5) spectral line widths.

  8. Charge Transfer Reactions Induce Born-Oppenheimer Breakdown in Surface Chemistry: Applications of Double Resonance Spectroscopy in Molecule-Surface Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodtke, Alec M.

    2013-06-01

    Atomic and molecular interactions constitute a many-body quantum problem governed fundamentally only by the Coulomb forces between many electrons and nuclei. While simple to state, computers are simply not fast enough to solve this problem by brute force, except for the simplest examples. Combining the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation (BOA) with Density Functional Theory (DFT), however, allows theoretical simulations of extraordinarily complex chemical systems including molecular interactions at solid metal surfaces, the physical basis of surface chemistry. This lecture describes experiments demonstrating the limits of the BOA/DFT approximation as it relates to molecules interacting with solid metal surfaces. One of the most powerful experimental tools at our disposal is a form of double resonance spectroscopy, which allows us to define the quantum state of the molecule both before and after the collision with the surface, providing a complete picture of the resulting energy conversion processes. With such data, we are able to emphasize quantitative measurements that can be directly compared to first principles theories that go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. One important outcome of this work is the realization that Born-Oppenheimer breakdown can be induced by simple charge transfer reactions that are common in surface chemistry. J. D. White, J. Chen, D. Matsiev, D. J. Auerbach and A. M. Wodtke Nature {433}(7025), 503-505 (2005) Y. H. Huang, C. T. Rettner, D. J. Auerbach and A. M. Wodtke Science {290}(5489), 111-114 (2000) R. Cooper, I. Rahinov, Z. S. Li, D. Matsiev, D. J. Auerbach and A. M. Wodtke Chemical Science {1}(1), 55-61 (2010) J. Larue, T. Schäfer, D. Matsiev, L. Velarde, N. H. Nahler, D. J. Auerbach and A. M. Wodtke PCCP {13}(1), 97-99 (2011).

  9. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  10. Impact of nonadiabatic charge transfer on the rate of redox chemistry of carbon oxides on rutile TiO2 (110) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Yeohoon; Wang, Yanggang; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2015-03-06

    We present the results of a density functional theory (DFT) within the LDA+U approximation on large models of partially reduced TiO2 (110) rutile surface to investigate the nature of charge transfer and the role of non-adiabatic effects on three prototypical redox reactions: (i) O2 adsorption (ii) CO oxidation and (iii) CO2 reduction. Charge-constrained DFT (cDFT) is used to estimate kinetic parameters for a Marcus theory rate law that accounts for adiabatic coupling effects on reaction rates. We find that for O2 adsorption, the coupling between adiabatic states is strong, leading to fast charge transfer rates. The lowest energy structures at high coverage consist of two chemisorbed O2-, one adsorbed at a VO site and the other adsorbed at an adjacent Ti5C site. For CO oxidation, however, all reactions are kinetically hindered on the ground state due to the weak adiabatic coupling at the state crossing, such that one has to overcome two kinetically unfavorable charge transfer events to drive the process (non-adiabatically) on the thermal ground state. The process can be driven by photochemical means but would result in an adsorbed radical [OCOO-] intermediate species. Similarly, CO2 reduction also proceeds via a non-adiabatic charge transfer to form an adsorbed CO2- species followed by a second non-adiabatic charge transfer to produce CO. Our analysis provides important computational guidelines for modeling these types of processes. We thank Z. Dohnalek, M. Hendersen, G. Kimmel, H. Metieu, and N. Petrik for invaluable discussions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at PNNL and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  11. Contact charge-transfer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dharamsi, A.N.; Tulip, J.

    1981-07-01

    A mechanism for sustaining population inversions in contact charge-transfer complexes in which the ground electronic state is not bound is described. The mechanism relies on picosecond radiationless depletion of the lower laser state. This generates an inversion even when the ground-state potential curve, as plotted against the donor-acceptor distance, is not repulsive vertically below the excited state minimum. Contact charge-transfer lasers would offer high gain, high-energy density, and tunable sources of coherent radiation in the uv and visible. A method for pumping such a laser is examined and applied to the pyrrole-oxygen complex. A rate equation analysis is done and estimates for gain and energy density are presented.

  12. Charge transfer doping of silicon.

    PubMed

    Rietwyk, K J; Smets, Y; Bashouti, M; Christiansen, S H; Schenk, A; Tadich, A; Edmonds, M T; Ristein, J; Ley, L; Pakes, C I

    2014-04-18

    We demonstrate a novel doping mechanism of silicon, namely n-type transfer doping by adsorbed organic cobaltocene (CoCp2*) molecules. The amount of transferred charge as a function of coverage is monitored by following the ensuing band bending via surface sensitive core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. The concomitant loss of electrons in the CoCp2* adlayer is quantified by the relative intensities of chemically shifted Co2p components in core-level photoelectron spectroscopy which correspond to charged and neutral molecules. Using a previously developed model for transfer doping, the evolution in relative intensities of the two components as a function of coverage has been reproduced successfully. A single, molecule-specific parameter, the negative donor energy of -(0.500.15)??eV suffices to describe the self-limiting doping process with a maximum areal density of transferred electrons of 21013??cm-2 in agreement with the measured downward band bending. The advantage of this doping mechanism over conventional doping for nanostructures is addressed. PMID:24785050

  13. Charge Transfer Doping of Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietwyk, K. J.; Smets, Y.; Bashouti, M.; Christiansen, S. H.; Schenk, A.; Tadich, A.; Edmonds, M. T.; Ristein, J.; Ley, L.; Pakes, C. I.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel doping mechanism of silicon, namely n-type transfer doping by adsorbed organic cobaltocene (CoCp2*) molecules. The amount of transferred charge as a function of coverage is monitored by following the ensuing band bending via surface sensitive core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. The concomitant loss of electrons in the CoCp2* adlayer is quantified by the relative intensities of chemically shifted Co2p components in core-level photoelectron spectroscopy which correspond to charged and neutral molecules. Using a previously developed model for transfer doping, the evolution in relative intensities of the two components as a function of coverage has been reproduced successfully. A single, molecule-specific parameter, the negative donor energy of -(0.500.15) eV suffices to describe the self-limiting doping process with a maximum areal density of transferred electrons of 21013 cm-2 in agreement with the measured downward band bending. The advantage of this doping mechanism over conventional doping for nanostructures is addressed.

  14. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited.

    PubMed

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and CT-like character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals are compared with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set comprises an organic CT complex, two push-pull donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT. It is shown that such CT-like excitations do not have the characteristics of physical charge transfer, and improvements with LC functionals may not be obtained for the right reasons. The TDDFT triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the CT-like candidates, the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative with a non-hybrid functional to positive with a tuned LC functional. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is systematically too large with TDDFT, leading to better error compensation for the singlet energy with a non-hybrid functional. PMID:26575765

  15. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  16. Quadrupole ion trap study of ion-ion chemistry of multiple-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, W.J.; Goeringer, D.E.; McLuckey, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The gas phase ion chemistry of multiply-charged biological polymers, such as oligonucleotides and proteins is a new and growing field of research. Understanding the gas phase chemistry of these species is important both to obtaining information on ion mass, structure and reactivity and to determining the relationship between gas phase and condensed phase chemistry. Gas phase ion chemistry studies to date have principally emphasized unimolecular fragmentation following some form of activation and ion-molecule chemistry, primarily proton transfer and hydrogen/deuterium exchange. The experiments described here constitute an important first step in understanding the ion-ion chemistry associated with the reactions of multiply-charged ions with oppositely charged ions in the gas phase.

  17. Ultrafast Measurement Confirms Charge Generation through Cold Charge Transfer States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Younts, Robert; Yan, Liang; Danilov, Evgeny; Ade, Harald; You, Wei; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    The role of excess energy in generation and extraction of charges through charge transfer (CT) states in polymer solar cells is a subject of debate. There are reports suggesting increase of charge generation yield with excess energy based on ultrafast experiments. On the other hand time delayed collection field measurements shows that excess photon energy has no effect in photovoltaic efficiency. Here we resolved this discrepancy by studying the dynamics of CT excitons and polarons in blends of medium gap copolymers. We found that low-lying charge transfer (CT) excitons can generate charges over a long time period (nanosecond) and contribute photocurrent on the bulk heterojunction devices. By performing resonant CT excitation as well as above gap excitation transient absorption measurements we investigated that the charges are generated more efficiently through low-lying CT states in efficient devices independent of excitation energy. This work is supported by Office of Naval Research Grant N000141310526 P00002.

  18. Charge transfer mechanism in nonstationary granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioselevich, A. S.; Sivak, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a nonstationary array of conductors, connected by resistances that fluctuate with time. The charge transfer between a particular pair of conductors is supposed to be dominated by electrical breakdownsthe moments when the corresponding resistance is close to zero. An amount of charge, transferred during a particular breakdown, is controlled by the condition of minimum for the electrostatic energy of the system. We find the conductivity, relaxation rate, and fluctuations for such a system within the classical approximation, valid, if the typical transferred charge is large compared to e . We discuss possible realizations of the model for colloidal systems and arrays of polymer-linked grains.

  19. Variationally consistent approximation scheme for charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    The author has developed a technique for testing various charge-transfer approximation schemes for consistency with the requirements of the Kohn variational principle for the amplitude to guarantee that the amplitude is correct to second order in the scattering wave functions. Applied to Born-type approximations for charge transfer it allows the selection of particular groups of first-, second-, and higher-Born-type terms that obey the consistency requirement, and hence yield more reliable approximation to the amplitude.

  20. Apparent Charge Transfer at Semiconductor Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Carpinelli, Joseph M.; Stumpf, Roland R.; Weitering, Hanno H.

    1999-05-11

    We investigate the apparent charge transfer between adatoms in the GeXPb[l.XjGe(lll) interface both experimentally and theoretically. Scanning tunneling microscopy and surface core level measurements suggest significant charge transfer from the Ge adatoms to the Pb adatoms. However, first-principles calculations unambiguously find that the total electronic displacement is negligibly small, and that the results of published experiments can be explained as a result of bond rearrangement.

  1. Room Temperature Multiferroicity of Charge Transfer Crystals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Huashan; Gong, Maogang; Yuan, Guoliang; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Wuttig, Manfred; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-09-22

    Room temperature multiferroics has been a frontier research field by manipulating spin-driven ferroelectricity or charge-order-driven magnetism. Charge-transfer crystals based on electron donor and acceptor assembly, exhibiting simultaneous spin ordering, are drawing significant interests for the development of all-organic magnetoelectric multiferroics. Here, we report that a remarkable anisotropic magnetization and room temperature multiferroicity can be achieved through assembly of thiophene donor and fullerene acceptor. The crystal motif directs the dimensional and compositional control of charge-transfer networks that could switch magnetization under external stimuli, thereby opening up an attractive class of all-organic nanoferronics. PMID:26257033

  2. A monolithic SAW-charge transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolaou, N. A.; Lin, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves excited in a Si-SiO2-ZnO layered structure can produce a traveling electric field in the silicon substrate. Charges stored in the traveling potential wells can be transferred at high speed and density and with less complexity. The monolithic structure under investigation for the SAW-charge transfer device consists of a silicon substrate, a thin silicon dioxide insulating layer on top of which a ZnO piezoelectric film is deposited by sputtering. The surface acoustic waves are excited by interdigital transducers. The signal charge is injected into traveling potential wells that travel with the velocity of sound. Conditions for the transfer of the charges by the traveling wells are analyzed. A surface acoustic wave program was used to determine the optimum structure dimensions and transducer configuration which will produce the highest coupling in the excitation of the piezoelectric waves.

  3. Simulations of charge transfer in Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, N.; Stefanov, K.; Hall, D.; Jordan, D.; Holland, A.

    2014-12-01

    Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are a variant of traditional CCD technology well suited to applications that demand high speed operation in low light conditions. On-chip signal amplification allows the sensor to effectively suppress the noise introduced by readout electronics, permitting sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates. The devices have been the subject of many detailed studies concerning their operation, however there has not been a study into the transfer and multiplication process within the EMCCD gain register. Such an investigation has the potential to explain certain observed performance characteristics, as well as inform further optimisations to their operation. In this study, the results from simulation of charge transfer within an EMCCD gain register element are discussed with a specific focus on the implications for serial charge transfer efficiency (CTE). The effects of operating voltage and readout speed are explored in context with typical operating conditions. It is shown that during transfer, a small portion of signal charge may become trapped at the semiconductor-insulator interface that could act to degrade the serial CTE in certain operating conditions.

  4. Ultrafast charge transfer and atomic orbital polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Deppe, M.; Foehlisch, A.; Hennies, F.; Nagasono, M.; Beye, M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.; Wurth, W.

    2007-11-07

    The role of orbital polarization for ultrafast charge transfer between an atomic adsorbate and a substrate is explored. Core hole clock spectroscopy with linearly polarized x-ray radiation allows to selectively excite adsorbate resonance states with defined spatial orientation relative to the substrate surface. For c(4x2)S/Ru(0001) the charge transfer times between the sulfur 2s{sup -1}3p*{sup +1} antibonding resonance and the ruthenium substrate have been studied, with the 2s electron excited into the 3p{sub perpendicular}* state along the surface normal and the 3p{sub parallel}* state in the surface plane. The charge transfer times are determined as 0.18{+-}0.07 and 0.84{+-}0.23 fs, respectively. This variation is the direct consequence of the different adsorbate-substrate orbital overlap.

  5. Charge transfer complexes of certain aromatic polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordina, T. A.; Kotov, B. V.; Kolninov, O. V.; Pravednikov, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    By electron spectroscopy it was shown that aromatic polyimides containing electron-donor residues of diamines -C6H4-X-C6H-(X=NH, NCH3, NC6H5, O, S, and CH2) form charge transfer complexes with low-molecular-weight electron acceptors. Based on the data obtained, the hypothesis was advanced that the coloration of the polyimides per se is due to the formation of charge transfer complexes between the electron-acceptor imide fragments and the electron-donor residues of the diamines.

  6. Spacecraft Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    The 700 km x 5.8 Re orbit of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft provide a unique opportunity to investigate spacecraft charging in geostationary transfer orbits. We use records from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) plasma spectrometer to identify candidate surface charging events based on the "ion line" charging signature in the ion records. We summarize the energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment. We discuss the altitude, duration, and magnitude of events observed in the Van Allen Probes from the beginning of the mission to present time. In addition, we explore what information the dual satellites provide on the spatial and temporal variations in the charging environments.

  7. Charge transfer between carbon nanotubes on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Karolline A. S.; Barboza, Ana P. M.; Fernandes, Thales F. D.; Shadmi, Nitzan; Joselevich, Ernesto; Mazzoni, Mario S. C.; Neves, Bernardo R. A.

    2015-10-01

    The charge transfer between neighboring single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on a silicon oxide surface was investigated as a function of both the SWNT nature (metallic or semiconducting) and the anode/cathode distance using scanning probe techniques. Two main mechanisms were observed: a direct electron tunneling described by the typical Fowler-Nordheim model, and indirect electron transfer (hopping) mediated by functional groups on the supporting surface. Both mechanisms depend on the SWNT nature and on the anode/cathode separation: direct electron tunneling dominates the charge transfer process for metallic SWNTs, especially for large distances, while both mechanisms compete with each other for semiconducting SWNTs, prevailing one over the other depending on the anode/cathode separation. These mechanisms may significantly influence the design and operation of SWNT-based electronic devices.

  8. Charge transfer between carbon nanotubes on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Karolline A S; Barboza, Ana P M; Fernandes, Thales F D; Shadmi, Nitzan; Joselevich, Ernesto; Mazzoni, Mario S C; Neves, Bernardo R A

    2015-10-21

    The charge transfer between neighboring single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on a silicon oxide surface was investigated as a function of both the SWNT nature (metallic or semiconducting) and the anode/cathode distance using scanning probe techniques. Two main mechanisms were observed: a direct electron tunneling described by the typical Fowler-Nordheim model, and indirect electron transfer (hopping) mediated by functional groups on the supporting surface. Both mechanisms depend on the SWNT nature and on the anode/cathode separation: direct electron tunneling dominates the charge transfer process for metallic SWNTs, especially for large distances, while both mechanisms compete with each other for semiconducting SWNTs, prevailing one over the other depending on the anode/cathode separation. These mechanisms may significantly influence the design and operation of SWNT-based electronic devices. PMID:26381825

  9. Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert

    2003-11-01

    Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered variable charge soils (2). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH, ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid. Highly weathered soils usually undergo isoeletric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems. The coexistence and interactions of oppositely charged surfaces or particles confers a different pattern of physical and chemical behavior on the soil, relatively to a homogeneously charged system of temperate regions. In some variable charge soils (Oxisols and some Ultisols developed on ferromagnesian-rich parent materials) the surfaces of phyllosilicates are coated to a lesser or greater extent by amorphous or crystalline, oppositely charged nanoparticles of Fe and Al oxides. These coatings exhibit a high reactive surface area and help cementing larger particles with one another. As a result of these electrostatic interactions, stable microaggregates that are difficult to disperse are formed in variable charge soils. Most of highly weathered soils have reached the “advanced stage” of Jackson-Sherman weathering sequence that is characterized by the removal of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe(II), the presence of Fe and Al polymers, and very dilute soil solutions with an ionic strength (IS) of less than 1 mmol L-1. The inter-penetration or overlapping of the diffuse double layers on oppositely charged surfaces may occur in these dilute systems. These diffuse layer interactions may affect the magnitude of the effective charge, i.e., the counter-ion charge (4). In addition, salt adsorption, which is defined as the simultaneous adsorption in equivalent amounts of the cation and anion of an electrolyte with no net release of other ions into the soil solution, appears to be a common phenomenon in these soils. They act as cation- and anion-exchangers and as salt-sorbers. The magnitude of salt adsorption depends strongly on initial IS in the soil solution and the presence in appreciable amounts of oppositely charged surfaces. Among the authors that have made illustrious contributions towards a better understanding of these fascinating soil systems are S. Matson, R.K. Schofield, van Olphen, M.E. Sumner, G.W. Thomas, G.P. Gillman, G. Uehara, B.K.G. Theng, K. Wada, N.J. Barrow, J.W. Bowden, R.J. Hunter and G. Sposito. This entry is mainly based on publications by these authors.

  10. Charge transfer in tunnel-junction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. R.

    Numerical modeling was used to study charge transfer in tunnel junction arrays. The effects of various configurations of background charge were considered, with the ultimate goal of making predictions about the possibility of device design. First the uniform (no background charge) arrays were considered. In this case solitonantisoliton avalanches were observed. Though the time duration of any avalanche, and the total charge DeltaQ = ne transferred across the array during the avalanche, are always finite, in arrays with length N larger than certain critical value Lc and large width M >> f(N), the avalanche magnitude n may be exponentially large, resulting in particular in a giant increase of shot noise. Next a special distribution of background charge was found, such that the array's Coulomb blockade is completely suppressed and shot noise is reduced substantially at low applied voltages. In particular the Fano factor F can approach the minimum value Fmin = 1/N << 1 (where N is the array length). Finally, the effects of the fully random q = [-e/2; + e/2] background charge were studied. Density of states at zero energy was found to have a dramatically different dependence on the array size in 1D and 2D. Also, in 2D systems a soft Coulomb gap was observed, whit DoS value at low energy diminishing rapidly with the array size. The effects of background charge on shot noise were also studied. At zero temperature and low current in 2D systems a strong increase in shot noise was observed, while addition of moderately low (T < eVt/N) temperature suppresses the noise. Results are discussed in the context of their possible application to single-electron devices.

  11. Satellite pattern classification using charge transfer devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. E.; Husson, C.; Benz, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The potential uses of Charge Transfer Devices (CTDs) in pattern classification operations are explored. The needs for a hardware-based pattern classifier are established, and a matrix multiplication subsystem based upon a sum-of-products CTD is presented. Applications of the subsystem to the classification of multi-modal Gaussian distributions in general and to LANDSAT data processing in particular are discussed. Finally, the potential impact of this technology on satellite data processing methodologies is discussed.

  12. Pattern classification using Charge Transfer Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. E.; Reece, J. H.; Benz, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    The potential uses of Charge Transfer Devices (CTDs) in pattern classification operations are explored. The needs for a hardware-based pattern classifier are established, and a matrix multiplication subsystem based upon a sum of products CTD is presented. An evaluation process for sum of products devices (particularly analog-analog correlators) is developed, and the feasibility of employing a particular device in a pattern classifier is determined. Finally, the possible impact of future trends in technology is considered.

  13. Dynamical Treatment of Charge Transfer through Duplex Nucleic Acids Containing Modified Adenines

    PubMed Central

    Brancolini, Giorgia; Migliore, Agostino; Corni, Stefano; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Luque, F. Javier; Di Felice, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We address the issue of whether chemical alterations of nucleobases are an effective tool to modulate charge transfer through DNA molecules. Our investigation uses a multi-level computational approach based on classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry. We find yet another evidence that structural fluctuations are a key factor to determine the electronic structure of double-stranded DNA. We argue that the electronic structure and charge transfer ability of flexible polymers is the result of a complex intertwining of various structural, dynamical and chemical factors. Chemical intuition may be used to design molecular wires, but this is not the sole component in the complex charge transfer mechanism through DNA. PMID:24060008

  14. Molecular Control of Charge Transfer from Organic Semiconductors to ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef; Paoprasert, Peerasak; Franking, Ryan; Bindl, Dominic; Arnold, Michael; Hamers, Robert; Gopalan, Padma; Evans, Paul

    2010-03-01

    The transfer of charge at organic-inorganic semiconductor interfaces is relevant for a range of applications such as organic light emitting diodes and photovoltaics. We investigate exciton dissociation and charge transfer using a novel probe based on a modified pentacene phototransistor with ZnO nanoparticles at the gate dielectric interface. We observe a large threshold voltage shift (+33 V) upon illumination of samples with ZnO, and no comparably large shift in samples without ZnO. This large threshold voltage shift arises from photoinduced charge transfer at the pentacene-ZnO interface and charge trapping on the nanoparticles. We further find that modifying the ZnO surface with a layer of organic molecules using a carboxylic acid binding chemistry can tune the threshold voltage, and therefore the density of charge transferred to ZnO. The effect of absorbing incident photons with varying energy will also be discussed.

  15. Pattern classification using charge transfer devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using charge transfer devices in the classification of multispectral imagery was investigated by evaluating particular devices to determine their suitability in matrix multiplication subsystem of a pattern classifier and by designing a protype of such a system. Particular attention was given to analog-analog correlator devices which consist of two tapped delay lines, chip multipliers, and a summed output. The design for the classifier and a printed circuit layout for the analog boards were completed and the boards were fabricated. A test j:g for the board was built and checkout was begun.

  16. Students' Understanding of the Transfer of Charge between Conductors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guruswamy, Chitra; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates students' understanding of the transfer of charge between two charged conductors. Findings indicate that a considerable number of students from eighth grade to college in advanced physics courses were unable to predict the transfer of charge correctly from one conductor to another. Discusses implications for instruction. (JRH)

  17. Flavin Charge Transfer Transitions Assist DNA Photolyase Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourtis, Spiros S.; Prytkova, Tatiana; Beratan, David N.

    2007-12-01

    This contribution describes molecular dynamics, semi-empirical and ab-initio studies of the primary photo-induced electron transfer reaction in DNA photolyase. DNA photolyases are FADH--containing proteins that repair UV-damaged DNA by photo-induced electron transfer. A DNA photolyase recognizes and binds to cyclobutatne pyrimidine dimer lesions of DNA. The protein repairs a bound lesion by transferring an electron to the lesion from FADH-, upon photo-excitation of FADH- with 350-450 nm light. We compute the lowest singlet excited states of FADH- in DNA photolyase using INDO/S configuration interaction, time-dependent density-functional, and time-dependent Hartree-Fock methods. The calculations identify the lowest singlet excited state of FADH- that is populated after photo-excitation and that acts as the electron donor. For this donor state we compute conformationally-averaged tunneling matrix elements to empty electron-acceptor states of a thymine dimer bound to photolyase. The conformational averaging involves different FADH--thymine dimer confromations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of the solvated protein with a thymine dimer docked in its active site. The tunneling matrix element computations use INDO/S-level Green's function, energy splitting, and Generalized Mulliken-Hush methods. These calculations indicate that photo-excitation of FADH- causes a ???* charge-transfer transition that shifts electron density to the side of the flavin isoalloxazine ring that is adjacent to the docked thymine dimer. This shift in electron density enhances the FADH--to-dimer electronic coupling, thus inducing rapid electron transfer.

  18. Charge transfer in TATB and HMX under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Ma, Yu; Jiang, Daojian

    2012-11-01

    Charge transfer is usually accompanied by structural changes in materials under different conditions. However, the charge transfer in energetic materials that are subjected to extreme conditions has seldom been explored by researchers. In the work described here, the charge transfer in single molecules and unit cells of the explosives TATB and HMX under high temperatures and high pressures was investigated by performing static and dynamic calculations using three DFT methods, including the PWC functional of LDA, and the BLYP and PBE functionals of GGA. The results showed that negative charge is transferred from the nitro groups of molecular or crystalline TATB and HMX when they are heated. All DFT calculations for the compressed TATB unit cell indicate that, generally, negative charge transfer occurs to its nitro groups as the compression increases. PWC and PBE calculations for crystalline HMX show that negative charge is first transferred to the nitro groups but, as the compression increases, the negative charge is transferred from the nitro groups. However, the BLYP calculations indicated that there was gradual negative charge transfer to the nitro groups of HMX, similar to the case for TATB. The unrelaxed state of the uniformly compressed TATB causes negative charge to be transferred from its nitro groups, in contrast to what is seen in the relaxed state. Charge transfer in TATB is predicted to occur much more easily than in HMX. PMID:22707279

  19. Charge transfer processes: the role of optimized molecular orbitals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin; Domingo, Alex; Krah, Tim; Robert, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the molecular orbitals on charge transfer (CT) reactions is analyzed through wave function-based calculations. Characteristic CT processes in the organic radical 2,5-di-tert-butyl-6-oxophenalenoxyl linked with tetrathiafulvalene and the inorganic crystalline material LaMnO3 show that changes in the inner shells must be explicitly taken into account. Such electronic reorganization can lead to a reduction of the CT vertical transition energy up to 66%. A state-specific approach accessible through an adapted CASSCF (complete active space self-consistent field) methodology is capable of reaching good agreement with the experimental spectroscopy of CT processes. A partitioning of the relaxation energy in terms of valence- and inner-shells is offered and sheds light on their relative importance. This work paves the way to the intimate description of redox reactions using quantum chemistry methods. PMID:24781811

  20. Charge transfer reaction laser with preionization means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    A helium-nitrogen laser is described in which energy in the visible range is emitted as a result of charge transfer reaction between helium ions and nitrogen molecules. The helium and nitrogen are present in a gas mixture at several atmospheres pressure, with a nitrogen partial pressure on the order of a pair of main discharge electrodes, the gas mixture is preionized to prevent arcing when the discharge pulse is applied. The preionization is achieved by the application of a high voltage across a pair of secondary electrodes which are spaced apart in a direction perpendicular to the spacing direction of the main discharge electrodes and the longitudinal axis of the space in which the gas mixture is contained. Feedback, by means of a pair of appropriately spaced mirrors, is provided, to produce coherent energy pulses at a selected wavelength.

  1. Charge transfer-mediated singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Monahan, N; Zhu, X-Y

    2015-04-01

    Singlet fission, the splitting of a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons in molecular materials, is interesting not only as a model many-electron problem, but also as a process with potential applications in solar energy conversion. Here we discuss limitations of the conventional four-electron and molecular dimer model in describing singlet fission in crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene. We emphasize the need to consider electronic delocalization, which is responsible for the decisive role played by the Mott-Wannier exciton, also called the charge transfer (CT) exciton, in mediating singlet fission. At the strong electronic coupling limit, the initial excitation creates a quantum superposition of singlet, CT, and triplet-pair states, and we present experimental evidence for this interpretation. We also discuss the most recent attempts at translating this mechanistic understanding into design principles for CT state-mediated intramolecular singlet fission in oligomers and polymers. PMID:25648486

  2. Charge Transfer-Mediated Singlet Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, N.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2015-04-01

    Singlet fission, the splitting of a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons in molecular materials, is interesting not only as a model many-electron problem, but also as a process with potential applications in solar energy conversion. Here we discuss limitations of the conventional four-electron and molecular dimer model in describing singlet fission in crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene. We emphasize the need to consider electronic delocalization, which is responsible for the decisive role played by the Mott-Wannier exciton, also called the charge transfer (CT) exciton, in mediating singlet fission. At the strong electronic coupling limit, the initial excitation creates a quantum superposition of singlet, CT, and triplet-pair states, and we present experimental evidence for this interpretation. We also discuss the most recent attempts at translating this mechanistic understanding into design principles for CT state-mediated intramolecular singlet fission in oligomers and polymers.

  3. Photoinduced charge accumulation by metal ion-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Annabell G; Wenger, Oliver S

    2015-10-01

    An oligotriarylamine (OTA) unit, a Ru(bpy)3(2+) photosensitizer moiety (Ru), and an anthraquinone (AQ) entity were combined to a molecular dyad (Ru-OTA) and a molecular triad (AQ-Ru-OTA). Pulsed laser excitation at 532 nm led to the formation of charge-separated states of the type Ru(-)-OTA(+) and AQ(-)-Ru-OTA(+) with lifetimes of ≤10 ns and 2.4 μs, respectively, in de-aerated CH3CN at 25 °C. Upon addition of Sc(OTf)3, very long-lived photoproducts were observed. Under steady-state irradiation conditions using a flux of (6.74 ± 0.21) × 10(15) photons per second at 450 nm, the formation of twofold oxidized oligotriarylamine (OTA(2+)) was detected in aerated CH3CN containing 0.02 M Sc(3+), as demonstrated unambiguously by comparison with UV-Vis absorption spectra obtained in the course of chemical oxidation with Cu(2+). Photodriven charge accumulation on the OTA unit of Ru-OTA and AQ-Ru-OTA is possible due to the lowering of the O2 reduction potential caused by the interaction of superoxide with the strong Lewis acid Sc(3+). The presence of the anthraquinone unit in AQ-Ru-OTA accelerates the rate-determining reaction step for charge accumulation by a factor of 10 compared to the Ru-OTA dyad. This is attributed to the formation of Sc(3+)-stabilized anthraquinone radical anion intermediates in the triad. Possible mechanistic pathways leading to charge accumulation are discussed. Photodriven charge accumulation is of key importance for solar fuels because their production will have to rely on multi-electron chemistry rather than single-electron reaction steps. Our study is the first to demonstrate that metal ion-coupled electron transfer (MCET) can be exploited to accumulate charges on a given molecular unit using visible light as an energy input. The approach of using a combination of intra- and intermolecular electron transfer reactions which are enabled by MCET is conceptually novel, and the fundamental insights gained from our study are relevant in the greater context of solar energy conversion. PMID:26312416

  4. A sub-nanosecond CCD. [charge transfer efficiency and transfer time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Y. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 32-cell silicon n-channel PCCD was fabricated and tested for charge transfer efficiency versus transfer time. A charge transfer time of 550 picoseconds with a 0.9998 transfer efficiency was obtained when operated in the uni-phase mode. These conditions correspond to an operating rate of 900 MHz when operated as an analog data or digital device.

  5. Charge Transfer Nanocomposites: Advances in Organic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, David

    2004-11-01

    Optically/electronically active blends of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and conjugated polymers (MEH-PPV, PFO, PEDOT, P3OT, etc.), also known as charge transfer nanocomposites, exhibit a fascinating array of opto-electronic phenomena not found with the pure conducting polymers. Over the past two years, we have demonstrated that modifications to the conjugated polymer's transport properties and optical response can be interpreted directly from a simple band model with isolated gap states. These "donor-acceptor" states associated with the high aspect ratio nanotubes can be used to provide significant enhancements to the performance characteristics of organic devices. Specifically, enhanced electro-luminescence yields and resistance to photo-oxidation of the polymer has been observed for a variety of polymer systems. This resistance to photo-oxidation (and subsequent resistance to interfacial degradation) has also been observed in photovoltaic cells along with an increase in overall conversion efficiency for systems that form "shallow" trapping states with the SWNTs. While this is thought to be related to suppression of the triplet exciton in the polymer host, by the SWNT, the exact dynamics of the process remains unclear. Recent results examining photo-sensitive noise in electronic transport, injection dynamics, and exciton lifetimes coupled with the emergence of doped nanotubes suggest a much more complex model for the nature of the nanotube - electro-active polymer interface. Ultimately, a range of nanocomposite devices previously not considered viable in organics, may now be realized.

  6. Characterisation of a CMOS charge transfer device for TDI imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, J.; Holland, A.; Stefanov, K.; Mayer, F.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a prototype true charge transfer imaging sensor in CMOS is investigated. The finished device is destined for use in TDI applications, especially Earth-observation, and to this end radiation tolerance must be investigated. Before this, complete characterisation is required. This work starts by looking at charge transfer inefficiency and then investigates responsivity using mean-variance techniques.

  7. Charge-transfer transitions and optical spectra of chromites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    Specific features of charge-transfer states and charge-transfer transitions of the O2 p ? Cr3 d type in octahedral complexes (CrO6)9- have been considered in the cluster approximation. Reduced matrix elements of the electric-dipole moment operator on many-electron wave functions, which are the initial and final states for charge-transfer transitions, are calculated. The results are parameterized, and the relative intensities of different allowed charge-transfer transitions in the absence of mixing of different charge-transfer configurations with identical symmetry are calculated. This mixing is taken into account within the Tanabe-Sugano theory, and the true energies and intensities of many-electron charge-transfer transitions are obtained. The Coulomb interaction between 2 p electrons of O2- ligands and 3 d electrons of the central Cr3+ ion in (CrO6)9- cluster is considered. The influence of this interaction on the optical spectra is found to be insignificant. Simulation of the optical spectra of chromium oxides has shown the presence of a band of complex charge-transfer transitions composed of 33 lines with a total width of about 8 eV. The model spectrum is in adequate agreement with the experimental data, which indicates limited applicability of the widespread view that charge-transfer transition spectra have a simple structure.

  8. Ion momentum and energy transfer rates for charge exchange collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The rates of momentum and energy transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between ion and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting ion momentum and energy transfer.

  9. Study of charges transferability for use in force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, Glauciete S.; Garcia, Edgardo

    2006-03-01

    This Letter examines the topological neighborhood effects on atomic partial charges and their transferability. To determine neighborhood effects, we used Breneman and Wiberg's CHELPG charges calculated at B3LYP/6-31G* theory level and AM1 geometries for a test set of 324 molecules of insecticides, ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) and antiinflammatories. The Qcode atomic descriptor was applied to represent topological neighborhood. Calculated molecular dipole moments using averaged charges with various neighbor numbers indicate that partial charges have a strong dependence with the molecular topology. Five or more neighbors are demonstrated to be typically needed for accurate partial charges transferability.

  10. Contributions of charge-density research to medicinal chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Birger; Matta, Chrif F.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews efforts in accurate experimental charge-density studies with relevance to medicinal chemistry. Initially, classical charge-density studies that measure electron density distribution via least-squares refinement of aspherical-atom population parameters are summarized. Next, interaction density is discussed as an idealized situation resembling drugreceptor interactions. Scattering-factor databases play an increasing role in charge-density research, and they can be applied both to small-molecule and macromolecular structures in refinement and analysis; software development facilitates their use. Therefore combining both of these complementary branches of X-ray crystallography is recommended, and examples are given where such a combination already proved useful. On the side of the experiment, new pixel detectors are allowing rapid measurements, thereby enabling both high-throughput small-molecule studies and macromolecular structure determination to higher resolutions. Currently, the most ambitious studies compute intermolecular interaction energies of drugreceptor complexes, and it is recommended that future studies benefit from recent method developments. Selected new developments in theoretical charge-density studies are discussed with emphasis on its symbiotic relation to crystallography. PMID:25485126

  11. Transfer of Algebraic and Graphical Thinking between Mathematics and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2008-01-01

    Students in undergraduate chemistry courses find, as a rule, topics with a strong mathematical basis difficult to master. In this study we investigate whether such mathematically related problems are due to deficiencies in their mathematics foundation or due to the complexity introduced by transfer of mathematics to a new scientific domain. In the

  12. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

  13. A surface acoustic wave /SAW/ charge transfer imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolauo, N. A.; Lin, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An 80 MHz, 2-microsecond surface acoustic wave charge transfer device (SAW-CTD) has been fabricated in which surface acoustic waves are used to create traveling longitudinal electric fields in the silicon substrate and to replace the multiphase clocks of charge coupled devices. The traveling electric fields create potential wells which will carry along charges that may be stored in the wells; the charges may be injected into the wells by light. An optical application is proposed where the SAW-CTD structure is used in place of a conventional interline transfer design.

  14. CHARGE TRANSFER. Efficient hot-electron transfer by a plasmon-induced interfacial charge-transfer transition.

    PubMed

    Wu, K; Chen, J; McBride, J R; Lian, T

    2015-08-01

    Plasmon-induced hot-electron transfer from metal nanostructures is a potential new paradigm for solar energy conversion; however, the reported efficiencies of devices based on this concept are often low because of the loss of hot electrons via ultrafast electron-electron scattering. We propose a pathway, called the plasmon-induced interfacial charge-transfer transition (PICTT), that enables the decay of a plasmon by directly exciting an electron from the metal to a strongly coupled acceptor. We demonstrated this concept in cadmium selenide nanorods with gold tips, in which the gold plasmon was strongly damped by cadmium selenide through interfacial electron transfer. The quantum efficiency of the PICTT process was high (>24%), independent of excitation photon energy over a ~1-electron volt range, and dependent on the excitation polarization. PMID:26250682

  15. Frequency response of charge transfer in MOS inversion layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of charge transfer from a reservoir into an MOS inversion layer, which limits the frequency response of an MOS transistor or a charge-coupled device, is investigated. Using Berman and Kerr's model of space-charge capacitance in the semiconductor, a small-signal distributed model is developed for an MOS structure which transfers charge in an inversion channel due to a variation in the gate voltage. The dynamics of the charge transfer is characterized by a time constant which is determined by the length of the inversion channel and its mobility. Experimental data of gate capacitance vs frequency, taken from a test structure with a diffused source/drain well, are satisfactorily fitted by theoretical curves derived from the model. The channel mobility is precisely determined from the adjusted time constant. The influence of interface states on the capacitance-frequency relationship is also briefly discussed.

  16. A highly selective charge transfer fluoroionophore for Cu2+.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhen-Chang; Yang, Rui; He, Hui; Jiang, Yun-Bao

    2006-01-01

    A dual fluorescent charge transfer fluoroionophore (1) with its ionophore incorporated in the electron acceptor was developed and was found to show a highly selective fluorescent response to Cu2+ with a dramatic enhancement in its CT emission. PMID:16353108

  17. Charge transfer in ion collisions with circular Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, D.M.; Cavagnero, M.J.; Harmin, D.A. )

    1994-09-01

    Recent experimental measurements of charge transfer in ion collisions with circular-state Rydberg atoms (for which [ital m]=[ital l]=[ital n][minus]1) can be qualitatively reproduced using an elementary atomic model consisting of a classical electron in a circular orbit with an arbitrary axis of rotation defined by experiment. Contributions to capture are further separated into one-swap and three-swap charge transfers, revealing the relative importance of a Thomaslike mechanism for charge transfer at ion velocities of 1.00, 1.65, and 2.00 times the velocity of the target electron. The model is extended to estimate charge-transfer cross sections for ions incident on elliptic-state Rydberg atoms of specific eccentricity.

  18. Charge transfer in photoacids observed by stark spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Lisa N; Spry, D B; Boxer, Steven G; Fayer, M D

    2008-10-16

    The charge redistribution upon photoexcitation is investigated for a series of pyrene photoacids to better understand the driving force behind excited-state proton-transfer processes. The changes in electric dipole for the lowest two electronic transitions ( (1)L b and (1)L a) are measured by Stark spectroscopy, and the magnitudes of charge transfer of the protonated and deprotonated states are compared. For neutral photoacids studied here, the results show that the amount of charge transfer depends more upon the electronic state that is excited than the protonation state. Transitions from the ground state to the (1)L b state result in a much smaller change in electric dipole than transitions to the (1)L a state. Conversely, for the cationic (ammonium) photoacid studied, photoexcitation of a particular electronic state results in much smaller charge transfer for the protonated state than for the deprotonated state. PMID:18798602

  19. Femtochemistry of Intramolecular Charge and Proton Transfer Reactions in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Douhal, Abderrazzak; Sanz, Mikel; Carranza, Maria Angeles; Organero, Juan Angel; Tormo, Laura

    2005-03-17

    We report on the first observation of ultrafast intramolecular charge- and proton-transfer reactions in 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol (DAMF) in solution. Upon femtosecond excitation of a non-planar structure of DMAF in apolar medium, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) does not occur, and a slow (2 ps) proton motion takes place. However, in polar solvents, the ICT is very fast (100-200 fs) and the produced structure is stabilized that proton motion takes place in few or tens of ps.

  20. Reliable Prediction of Charge Transfer Excitations in Molecular Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronik, Leeor; Stein, Tamar; Baer, Roi

    2009-03-01

    We show how charge transfer excitations at molecular complexes can be calculated quantitatively using time-dependent density functional theory (DFT). Predictive power is obtained from range -separated hybrid functionals using non-empirical tuning of the range-splitting parameter. Excellent performance of this approach is obtained for a series of complexes composed of various aromatic donors and the tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) acceptor, paving the way to systematic non-empirical quantitative studies of charge-transfer excitations in real systems.

  1. Measurement techniques and applications of charge transfer to aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique of developing high-velocity low-intensity neutral gas beams for use in aerospace research problems is described. This technique involves ionization of gaseous species with a mass spectrometer and focusing the resulting primary ion beam into a collision chamber containing a static gas at a known pressure and temperature. Equations are given to show how charge-transfer cross sections are obtained from a total-current measurement technique. Important parameters are defined for the charge-transfer process.

  2. Multiferroicity of carbon-based charge-transfer magnets.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Gong, Maogang; Chen, Xiaomin; Shastry, Tejas A; Sakidja, Ridwan; Yuan, Guoliang; Hersam, Mark C; Wuttig, Manfred; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-01-27

    A new type of carbon charge-transfer magnet, consisting of a fullerene acceptor and single-walled carbon nanotube donor, is demonstrated, which exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism and magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. In addition, external stimuli (electric/magnetic/elastic field) and the concentration of a nanocarbon complex enable the tunabilities of the magnetization and ME coupling due to the control of the charge transfer. PMID:25389110

  3. Charge transfer induced activity of graphene for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Anli; Xia, Weijun; Zhang, Lipeng; Dou, Shuo; Xia, Zhenhai; Wang, Shuangyin

    2016-05-01

    Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), with its strong electron-accepting ability, was used to dope graphene as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The charge transfer process was observed from graphene to TCNE by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman characterizations. Our density functional theory calculations found that the charge transfer behavior led to an enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity for the ORR. PMID:27005703

  4. Charge transfer and X-ray emission from supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Michael W.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray line emission excited by charge transfer between neutral hydrogen and the hydrogenic or fully stripped ions of heavy elements has been computed for a grid of nonequilibrium ionization models for supernova remnants. The effects of charge transfer excitation on the X-ray spectra of supernova remnants are discussed. The charge transfer process depends very sensitively upon the abundance of neutral hydrogen behind the shock. Consequently, a careful treatment of the ionization of hydrogen was required. The model line fluxes are compared with those excited by conventional collisional processes involving electrons. Results are presented in the form of contour plots for both the flux excited by charge transfer and the ratio of the charge transfer flux to that associated solely with collisional processes involving electrons. Charge transfer never contributes more than 10 percent of the flux of the strongest electron collisionally excited lines, and its contribution is typically 0.001 to 10 to the -5th for a shock moving into a medium composed of neutral hydrogen.

  5. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-12-21

    The kinetic, electronic and spectroscopic properties of two‐dimensional oxide‐supported catalysts were investigated in order to understand the role of charge transfer in catalysis. Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanodiodes were fabricated and used as catalysts for hydrogen oxidation. During the reaction, the current through the diode, as well as its I‐V curve, were monitored, while gas chromatography was used to measure the reaction rate. The current and the turnover rate were found to have the same temperature dependence, indicating that hydrogen oxidation leads to the non‐adiabatic excitation of electrons in Pt. A fraction of these electrons have enough energy to ballistically transport through Pt and overcome the Schottky barrier at the interface with TiO{sub 2}. The yield for this phenomenon is on the order of 10{sup ‐4} electrons per product molecule formed, similar to what has been observed for CO oxidation and for the adsorption of many different molecules. The same Pt/TiO{sub 2} system was used to compare currents in hydrogen oxidation and deuterium oxidation. The current through the diode under deuterium oxidation was found to be greater than under hydrogen oxidation by a factor of three. Weighted by the difference in turnover frequencies for the two isotopes, this would imply a chemicurrent yield 5 times greater for D{sub 2} compared to H{sub 2}, contrary to what is expected given the higher mass of D{sub 2}. Reversible changes in the rectification factor of the diode are observed when switching between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These changes are a likely cause for the differences in current between the two isotopes. In the nanodiode experiments, surface chemistry leads to charge flow, suggesting the possibility of creating charge flow to tune surface chemistry. This was done first by exposing a Pt/Si diode to visible light while using it as a catalyst for H{sub 2} oxidation. Absorption of the light in the Si, combined with the band bending at the interface, gives rise to a steady‐state flow of hot holes to the surface. This leads to a decrease in turnover on the surface, an effect which is enhanced when a reverse bias is applied to the diode. Similar experiments were carried out for CO oxidation. On Pt/Si diodes, the reaction rate was found to increase when a forward bias was applied. When the diode was exposed to visible light and a reverse bias was applied, the rate was instead decreased. This implies that a flow of negative charges to the surface increases turnover, while positive charges decrease it. Charge flow in an oxide supported metal catalyst can be modified even without designing the catalyst as a solid state electronic device. This was done by doping stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiO{sub 2} films with F, and using the resulting oxides as supports for Pt films. In the case of stoichiometric TiO{sub 2}, F was found to act as an n‐type dopant, creating a population of filled electronic states just below the conduction band, and dramatically increasing the conductivity of the oxide film. The electrons in those states can transfer to surface O, activating it for reaction with CO, and leading to increased turnover for CO oxidation. This reinforces the hypothesis that CO oxidation is activated by a flow of negative charges to the surface. The same set of catalysts was used for methanol oxidation. The electronic properties of the TiO{sub 2} films again correlated with the turnover rates, but also with selectivity. With stoichiometric TiO{sub 2} as the support, F‐doping caused an increase in selectivity toward the formation of partial oxidation products, formaldehyde and methyl formate, versus the total oxidation product, CO{sub 2}. With non‐stoichiometric TiO{sub 2}, F‐doping had the reverse effect. Ambient Pressure X‐Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to investigate this F‐doping effect in reaction conditions. In O2 alone, and in CO oxidation conditions, the O1s spectrum showed a high binding energy peak that correlated in intensity with the activity of the different films: for stoichiometric films, the peak decreased in intensity with F‐doping, while for nonstoichiometric films, the opposite was observed. No such changes were visible in the C1s spectrum, confirming the role of O activation in the reaction. This thesis adds to the body of knowledge on the importance of charge transfer at the metal‐oxide interface in shaping the reactivity of heterogeneous catalysts, and provides examples of how this can be the basis for new methods to tune reactivity.

  6. Charge transfer during individual collisions in ice growing by riming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Eldo E.; Caranti, Giorgio M.

    1991-01-01

    The charging of a target by riming in the wind was studied in the temperature range of (-10, -18 C). For each temperature, charge transfers of both signs are observed and, according to the environmental conditions, one of them prevails. The charge is more positive as the liquid water concentration is increased at any particular temperature. It is found that even at the low impact velocities used (5 m/s) there is abundant evidence of fragmentation following the collision.

  7. X-ray absorption structural study of a reversible, photoexcited charge-transfer state

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.X.; Bowman, M.K.; Norris, J.R. Univ. of Chicago, IL ); Montano, P.A. )

    1993-05-19

    Electron-transfer reactions can be accompanied by significant nuclear movements. Nuclear motion appears to be especially vital to the reversible, photoinduced charge-transfer chemistry of cyclopentadienylnickel nitrosyl (C[sub 5]H[sub 5]NiNO). Although extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has recorded photoinduced changes in the ligation of myoglobins, similar X-ray studies of electron-transfer chemistry have not been reported. Here we examine reversible, photoinduced structural changes in C[sub 5]H[sub 5]NiNO by EXAFS and propose a mechanism for the electron-transfer chemistry. This work demonstrates that EXAFS can measure distance changes accompanying photoinduced electron transfer to provide new details of the geometry of photoexcited state and suggests that electron transfer occurs in the transient, optically excited states of C[sub 5]H[sub 5]NiNO and C[sub 5]H[sub 5]NiNO[sup CT] as dictated by NO movement that produces either C[sub 5]H[sub 5]NiNO[sup CT] or C[sub 5]H[sub 5]NiNO[sup GS]. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  8. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Low-charge ions charge transfer rate coeff. (Sterling+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, N. C.; Stancil, P. C.

    2011-10-01

    Final state-resolved charge transfer rate coefficients are tabulated for the first five ions of Ge, Se, Br, Kr, and Rb. Charge transfer recombination rate coefficients (from the perspective of the projectile ion Xq+) are given in Table 4, while those for charge transfer ionization are given in Table 5. Recombination coefficients are for collisions between the project and H+, while ionization coefficients are for collisions with neutral hydrogen. Rate coefficients are given for 20 temperatures spanning the range 102-106K. (2 data files).

  10. CCD charge collection efficiency and the photon transfer technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, J.; Klaasen, K.; Elliott, T.

    1985-01-01

    The charge-coupled device (CCD) has shown unprecendented performance as a photon detector in the areas of spectral response, charge transfer, and readout noise. Recent experience indicates, however, that the full potential for the CCD's charge collection efficiency (CCE) lies well beyond that which is realized in currently available devices. A definition of CCE performance is presented and a standard test tool (the photon transfer technique) for measuring and optimizing this important CCD parameter is introduced. CCE characteristics for different types of CCDs are compared; the primary limitations in achieving high CCE performance are discussed, and the prospects for future improvement are outlined.

  11. Charge transfer reactions in multiply charged ion-atom collisions. [in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.

    1975-01-01

    Charge-transfer reactions in collisions between highly charged ions and neutral atoms of hydrogen and/or helium may be rapid at thermal energies. If these reactions are rapid, they will suppress highly charged ions in H I regions and guarantee that the observed absorption features from such ions cannot originate in the interstellar gas. A discussion of such charge-transfer reactions is presented and compared with the available experimental data. The possible implications of these reactions for observations of the interstellar medium, H II regions, and planetary nebulae are outlined.

  12. Discrete electrostatic charge transfer by the electrophoresis of a charged droplet in a dielectric liquid.

    PubMed

    Im, Do Jin; Ahn, Myung Mo; Yoo, Byeong Sun; Moon, Dustin; Lee, Dong Woog; Kang, In Seok

    2012-08-14

    We have experimentally investigated the electrostatic charging of a water droplet on an electrified electrode surface to explain the detailed inductive charging processes and use them for the detection of droplet position in a lab-on-a-chip system. The periodic bouncing motion of a droplet between two planar electrodes has been examined by using a high-resolution electrometer and an image analysis method. We have found that this charging process consists of three steps. The first step is inductive charge accumulation on the opposite electrode by the charge of a droplet. This induction process occurs while the droplet approaches the electrode, and it produces an induction current signal at the electrometer. The second step is the discharging of the droplet by the accumulated induced charge at the moment of contact. For this second step, there is no charge-transfer detection at the electrometer. The third step is the charging of the neutralized droplet to a certain charged state while the droplet is in contact with the electrode. The charge transfer of the third step is detected as the pulse-type signal of an electrometer. The second and third steps occur simultaneously and rapidly. We have found that the induction current by the movement of a charged droplet can be accurately used to measure the charge of the droplet and can also be used to monitor the position of a droplet under actuation. The implications of the current findings for understanding and measuring the charging process are discussed. PMID:22846106

  13. Marcus wins nobel prize in chemistry for electron transfer theory

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Rudolf Marcus of Caltech leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry [open quotes]for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.[close quotes] Applications of Marcus' theory include such diverse phenomena as photosynthesis, electrically conducting polymers, chemiluminescence, and corrosion. Historical aspects of his career are given. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Coherent ultrafast charge transfer in an organic photovoltaic blend.

    PubMed

    Falke, Sarah Maria; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Amato, Michele; Sommer, Ephraim; De Sio, Antonietta; Rubio, Angel; Cerullo, Giulio; Molinari, Elisa; Lienau, Christoph

    2014-05-30

    Blends of conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives are prototype systems for organic photovoltaic devices. The primary charge-generation mechanism involves a light-induced ultrafast electron transfer from the light-absorbing and electron-donating polymer to the fullerene electron acceptor. Here, we elucidate the initial quantum dynamics of this process. Experimentally, we observed coherent vibrational motion of the fullerene moiety after impulsive optical excitation of the polymer donor. Comparison with first-principle theoretical simulations evidences coherent electron transfer between donor and acceptor and oscillations of the transferred charge with a 25-femtosecond period matching that of the observed vibrational modes. Our results show that coherent vibronic coupling between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is of key importance in triggering charge delocalization and transfer in a noncovalently bound reference system. PMID:24876491

  15. The study of surface acoustic wave charge transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Lin, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave-charge transfer device, consisting of an n-type silicon substrate, a thermally grown silicon dioxide layer, and a sputtered film of piezoelectric zinc oxide is proposed as a means of circumventing problems associated with charge-coupled device (CCD) applications in memory, signal processing, and imaging. The proposed device creates traveling longitudinal electric fields in the silicon and replaces the multiphase clocks in CCD's. The traveling electric fields create potential wells which carry along charges stored there. These charges may be injected into the wells by light or by using a p-n junction as in conventional CCD's.

  16. Orientation-dependent dissociative charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Prior, M.H.; Brauning, H.

    1997-07-02

    Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy and molecular fragment imaging techniques are combined to study dissociative electron capture from He by HeH{sup +} at 0.20-a.u. collision velocity. Groups of final HeH states which dissociate to ground or excited H and He atoms are separated. For each group, the experiment provides two-dimensional H fragment distributions with respect to the collision plane and for fixed transverse momentum transfer. These patterns show that the capture probability is highest for HeH{sup +} ions with their axis oriented normal to the scattering plane for two of the three groups populated.

  17. Charge transfer in helium-rich supernova plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.

    1994-01-01

    Charge transfer rate coefficients are estimated using Landau-Zener and modified Demkov approximations. The coefficients, augmented by those available from the literature, are used in statistical equilibrium equations describing the state of helium-rich supernova plasma. Such a plasma may describe both Type Ib and Type Ic supernova ejecta. The hypothesis that extensive mixing of metals with helium in Type Ic supernovae may provide a catalyst for rapid charge transfer that weakens the helium line emission by altering the excitation balance is tested. It is shown that charge transfer as a mechanism for suppressing helium line emission is ineffective unless the metal abundance is comparable to or larger than the helium abundance. This result supports an earlier conclusion that Type Ic supernovae must be helium poor relative to Type Ib events.

  18. Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver: DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Rekha T.; Rajkumar, Beulah J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver is investigated using DFT methods. Optimized geometry of pentacene after adsorption on silver indicates distortion in hexagonal structure of the ring close to the silver cluster and deviations in co-planarity of carbon atoms due to the variations in bond angles and dihedral angles. Theoretically simulated absorption spectrum has a symmetric surface plasmon resonance peak around 486nm corresponding to the transfer of charge from HOMO-2 to LUMO. Theoretical SERS confirms the process of adsorption, tilted orientation of pentacene on silver surface and the charge transfers reported. Localization of electron density arising from redistribution of electrostatic potential together with a reduced bandgap of pentacene after adsorption on silver suggests its utility in the design of electro active organic semiconducting devices.

  19. Identifying characteristics of charge transfer transitions in minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Stephanie M.; Rossman, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Criteria used to identify Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ intervalence charge transfer absorption bands in electronic spectra are reviewed and compared to the characteristics of unperturbed Fe2+ crystal field bands and those that are intensified by interaction with Fe3+. Band energy is the least definitive diagnostic criterion. Changes in band intensity with temperature are also of limited value. Large widths are the most reliable characteristic of charge transfer bands. New optical absorption spectra are presented for euclase, as well as 80 K spectra of rockbridgeite, babingtonite and lazulite. Comparison of optical spectra to magnetic susceptibility measurements for rockbridgeite and babingtonite provides support for recent theories regarding the effect of magnetic coupling on the variation of charge transfer intensity with temperature.

  20. Intramolecular Charge Transfer States in the Condensed Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. F.; Herbert, J. M.

    2009-06-01

    Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with long range corrected functionals can give accurate results for the energies of electronically excited states involving Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) in large molecules. If this is combined with a Molecular Mechanics (MM) representation of the surrounding solvent this technique can be used to interpret the results of condensed phase UV-Vis Spectroscopy. Often the MM region is represented by a set of point charges, however this means that the solvent cannot repolarize to adapt to the new charge distribution as a result of ICT and so the excitation energies to ICT states are overestimated. To solve this problem an algorithm that interfaces TDDFT with the polarizable force-field AMOEBA is presented; the effect of solvation on charge transfer in species such as 4,4'dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) is discussed. M.A. Rohrdanz, K.M. Martins, and J.M. Herbert, J. Chem. Phys. 130 034107 (2008).

  1. Multiple-charge transfer and trapping in DNA dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Sabine; Bulla, Ralf; Anders, Frithjof B.; Zwicknagl, Gertrud

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the charge transfer characteristics of one and two excess charges in a DNA base-pair dimer using a model Hamiltonian approach. The electron part comprises diagonal and off-diagonal Coulomb matrix elements such a correlated hopping and the bond-bond interaction, which were recently calculated by Starikov [E. B. Starikov, Philos. Mag. Lett. 83, 699 (2003)10.1080/0950083031000151374] for different DNA dimers. The electronic degrees of freedom are coupled to an ohmic or a superohmic bath serving as dissipative environment. We employ the numerical renormalization group method in the nuclear tunneling regime and compare the results to Marcus theory for the thermal activation regime. For realistic parameters, the rate that at least one charge is transferred from the donor to the acceptor in the subspace of two excess electrons significantly exceeds the rate in the single charge sector. Moreover, the dynamics is strongly influenced by the Coulomb matrix elements. We find sequential and pair transfer as well as a regime where both charges remain self-trapped. The transfer rate reaches its maximum when the difference of the on-site and intersite Coulomb matrix element is equal to the reorganization energy which is the case in a guanine/cytosine (GC)-dimer. Charge transfer is completely suppressed for two excess electrons in adenine/thymine (AT)-dimer in an ohmic bath and replaced by damped coherent electron-pair oscillations in a superohmic bath. A finite bond-bond interaction W alters the transfer rate: it increases as function of W when the effective Coulomb repulsion exceeds the reorganization energy (inverted regime) and decreases for smaller Coulomb repulsion.

  2. Charge localization and charge transfer in the Bebq2 monomer and dimer.

    PubMed

    Safonov, Andrei A; Bagaturyants, Alexander A

    2014-08-01

    The geometrical structure and electronic properties of bis(10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolinato)beryllium (Bebq2) molecule and its dimer both in the neutral and in the positively and negatively charged states were studied using quantum-chemical calculations. It is found that the excess charge in the charged systems is localized on one of the hydroxybenzoquinoline ligands. Structural changes in charged Bebq2 are pronounced in the charged ligand and nearly negligible in the neutral ligand. Charge transfer from the charged ligand to a neutral one can proceed either within a single Bebq2 monomer molecule or between the different monomers in the Bebq2 dimer. The corresponding hopping integrals were estimated as half the excitation energy from the ground to the first excited state of either the monomer or the dimer calculated at the avoided crossing point. PMID:25107360

  3. Charge-transfer in quasilinear push-pull polyene chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anne, Fréderic B.; Purpan, Florent D.; Jacquemin, Denis

    2013-08-01

    We used a TD-DFT approach relying on range-separated hybrids to evaluate the photon induced charge-transfer of substituted polyene oligomers of increasingly long chains. Several exchange-correlation functionals have been considered. Push, pull and push-pull systems containing up to 20 unit cells have been compared. A cooperative, but non additive, impact of the donor and acceptor groups is found. In long oligomers, the changes in the electronic density are mainly located on the central segment and not on the terminal electroactive groups, but the charge-transfer distance remains large, which contrasts with most push-pull compounds.

  4. Bioexcimers as Precursors of Charge Transfer and Reactivity in Photobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano-Andres, Luis; Merchan, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuan, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Rubio, Mercedes

    2007-11-29

    Accurate CASPT2//CASSCF calculations show that {pi}-stacked interactions in different biochromophores such as DNA nucleobases or porphyrin-quinone pairs yield excimer-like situations which behave as precursors of processes like charge transfer or photoreactivity. Examples are the transfer of charge between a reduced pheophytin and an accepting quinone molecule, process that trigger the sequence of electron transfer phenomena in photosynthetic photosystem II, the electron transfer between adjacent DNA nucleobases in a strand of oligonucleotides, and the photodimerization taking place in cytosine pairs leading to cyclobutanecytosine mutants. These processes take place through nonadiabatic photochemical mechanisms whose evolution is determined by the presence and accessibility of conical intersections and other surface crossings between different electronic states.

  5. Charge separation and energy transfer in carotenopyropheophorbide-quinone triads

    SciTech Connect

    Liddell, P.A.; Barrett, D.; Makings, L.R.; Pessiki, P.J.; Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.

    1986-08-20

    In natural photosynthesis membranes, chlorophyll molecules serve as the site of the initial photodriven charge separation. In addition, they play a role in subsequent electron-transfer steps, accept singlet excitation energy from carotenoid antenna molecules, and transfer triplet energy to carotenoid acceptors (thereby preventing sensitized singlet oxygen production and subsequent photodamage to the organism). The authors report herein the synthesis and study of chlorophyll-based carotenopyropheophorbide-quinone triad molecules which mimic all of these natural processes.

  6. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-12-17

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  7. Enhancing SERS by Means of Supramolecular Charge Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Eric; Flood, Amar; Morales, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed method of sensing small quantities of molecules of interest, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy would be further enhanced by means of intermolecular or supramolecular charge transfer. There is a very large potential market for sensors based on this method for rapid detection of chemical and biological hazards. In SERS, the Raman signals (vibrational spectra) of target molecules become enhanced by factors of the order of 108 when those molecules are in the vicinities of nanostructured substrate surfaces that have been engineered to have plasmon resonances that enhance local electric fields. SERS, as reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles and elsewhere, has remained a research tool and has not yet been developed into a practical technique for sensing of target molecules: this is because the short range (5 to 20 nm) of the field enhancement necessitates engineering of receptor molecules to attract target molecules to the nanostructured substrate surfaces and to enable reliable identification of the target molecules in the presence of interferants. Intermolecular charge-transfer complexes have been used in fluorescence-, photoluminescence-, and electrochemistry-based techniques for sensing target molecules, but, until now, have not been considered for use in SERS-based sensing. The basic idea of the proposed method is to engineer receptor molecules that would be attached to nanostructured SERS substrates and that would interact with the target molecules to form receptor-target supramolecular charge-transfer complexes wherein the charge transfer could be photoexcited.

  8. Introduction to charge transfer device discrete time processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodersen, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    This tutorial paper reviews some of the advantages and disadvantages of a discrete time representation of a signal. Also reviewed are some of the recent theoretical advances in digital signal processing which can be implemented by the use of charge transfer signal processing devices. In particular, the design and implementation of transversal filters and spectrum analyzers will be discussed.

  9. Primary cells utilize halogen-organic charge transfer complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, F.; Hermann, A. M.; Rembaum, A.

    1966-01-01

    Electrochemical cells with solid state components employ charge transfer complexes or donor-acceptor complexes in which the donor component is an organic compound and the acceptor component is a halogen. A minor proportion of graphite added to these composition helps reduce the resistivity.

  10. CORRELATING ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL MOTIONS IN CHARGE TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  11. Femtosecond direct observation of charge transfer between bases in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Chaozhi; Fiebig, Torsten; Schiemann, Olav; Barton, Jacqueline K.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2000-01-01

    Charge transfer in supramolecular assemblies of DNA is unique because of the notion that the ?-stacked bases within the duplex may mediate the transport, possibly leading to damage and/or repair. The phenomenon of transport through ?-stacked arrays over a long distance has an analogy to conduction in molecular electronics, but the mechanism still needs to be determined. To decipher the elementary steps and the mechanism, one has to directly measure the dynamics in real time and in suitably designed, structurally well characterized DNA assemblies. Here, we report our first observation of the femtosecond dynamics of charge transport processes occurring between bases within duplex DNA. By monitoring the population of an initially excited 2-aminopurine, an isomer of adenine, we can follow the charge transfer process and measure its rate. We then study the effect of different bases next to the donor (acceptor), the base sequence, and the distance dependence between the donor and acceptor. We find that the charge injection to a nearest neighbor base is crucial and the time scale is vastly different: 10 ps for guanine and up to 512 ps for inosine. Depending on the base sequence the transfer can be slowed down or inhibited, and the distance dependence is dramatic over the range of 14 ?. These observations provide the time scale, and the range and efficiency of the transfer. The results suggest the invalidity of an efficient wire-type behavior and indicate that long-range transport is a slow process of a different mechanism. PMID:11106376

  12. Infrared Spectroscopy of Charge Transfer Complexes of Purines and Pyrimidines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, Pravinsinh I.; Oza, A. T.

    2011-10-01

    The FTIR spectra of charge transfer complexes of purines and pyrimidines with organic acceptors such as TCNQ, TCNE, DDQ, chloranil and iodine are obtained and studied in the present work. Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine and uracil are the purines and pyrimidines which are found as constituent of DNA and RNA. Charge transfer induced hydrogen bonding is concluded on the basis of indirect transitions observed in the infrared range in these CTCs. Some CTCs show gaussian bands revealing delocalization of charge carriers. The CTCs show interband transition in three-dimensions rather than two-dimensions unlike CTCs of amino acids. There is no extended hydrogen bonded network spanning the whole crystal. This leads to indirect transition due to locally deformed lattice furnishing a phonon-assisted transition.

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy of Charge Transfer Complexes of Purines and Pyrimidines

    SciTech Connect

    Rathod, Pravinsinh I.; Oza, A. T.

    2011-10-20

    The FTIR spectra of charge transfer complexes of purines and pyrimidines with organic acceptors such as TCNQ, TCNE, DDQ, chloranil and iodine are obtained and studied in the present work. Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine and uracil are the purines and pyrimidines which are found as constituent of DNA and RNA. Charge transfer induced hydrogen bonding is concluded on the basis of indirect transitions observed in the infrared range in these CTCs. Some CTCs show gaussian bands revealing delocalization of charge carriers. The CTCs show interband transition in three-dimensions rather than two-dimensions unlike CTCs of amino acids. There is no extended hydrogen bonded network spanning the whole crystal. This leads to indirect transition due to locally deformed lattice furnishing a phonon-assisted transition.

  14. Electronic Structure and Charge Transfer in CoAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okochi, Makoto; Yagisawa, Kohei

    1982-04-01

    Self-consistent APW band calculation has been performed for the intermetallic compound CoAl having the CsCl-type structure. The resulting density of states, partial densities of states, and Fermi surface are found to be favorably compared with the experimental values of electronic specific heat, Pauli susceptibility, X-ray emission spectroscopy, and Knight shift. Charge transfer has been related with the electrostatic Ewald potential felt by an electron in the interstitial region between atoms. This treatment has an advantage that the atomic volume is not necessary to be determined. The amount of charge transfer from aluminum to cobalt has been estimated to be 0.283. It has been found that the region delineated by the position of the maximum potential is electrically neutralized by the nuclear charge and the surrouning electrons, and has a close connection with the atomic size in the compound. The relation between the neutralized region and the atomic volume is discussed.

  15. A Gating Charge Transfer Center in Voltage Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X.; Lee, A; Limapichat, W; Dougherty, D; MacKinnon, R

    2010-01-01

    Voltage sensors regulate the conformations of voltage-dependent ion channels and enzymes. Their nearly switchlike response as a function of membrane voltage comes from the movement of positively charged amino acids, arginine or lysine, across the membrane field. We used mutations with natural and unnatural amino acids, electrophysiological recordings, and x-ray crystallography to identify a charge transfer center in voltage sensors that facilitates this movement. This center consists of a rigid cyclic 'cap' and two negatively charged amino acids to interact with a positive charge. Specific mutations induce a preference for lysine relative to arginine. By placing lysine at specific locations, the voltage sensor can be stabilized in different conformations, which enables a dissection of voltage sensor movements and their relation to ion channel opening.

  16. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  17. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  18. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  19. Photoinduced charge and energy transfer in molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mélina; Albinsson, Bo

    2015-02-21

    Exploring charge and energy transport in donor-bridge-acceptor systems is an important research field which is essential for the fundamental knowledge necessary to develop future applications. These studies help creating valuable knowledge to respond to today's challenges to develop functionalized molecular systems for artificial photosynthesis, photovoltaics or molecular scale electronics. This tutorial review focuses on photo-induced charge/energy transfer in covalently linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems. Of utmost importance in such systems is to understand how to control signal transmission, i.e. how fast electrons or excitation energy could be transferred between the donor and acceptor and the role played by the bridge (the "molecular wire"). After a brief description of the electron and energy transfer theory, we aim to give a simple yet accurate picture of the complex role played by the bridge to sustain donor-acceptor electronic communication. Special emphasis is put on understanding bridge energetics and conformational dynamics effects on the distance dependence of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling and transfer rates. Several examples of donor-bridge-acceptor systems from the literature are described as a support to the discussion. Finally, porphyrin-based molecular wires are introduced, and the relationship between their electronic structure and photophysical properties is outlined. In strongly conjugated porphyrin systems, limitations of the existing electron transfer theory to interpret the distance dependence of the transfer rates are also discussed. PMID:25212903

  20. Charge-transfer crystallites as molecular electrical dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mndez, Henry; Heimel, Georg; Winkler, Stefanie; Frisch, Johannes; Opitz, Andreas; Sauer, Katrein; Wegner, Berthold; Oehzelt, Martin; Rthel, Christian; Duhm, Steffen; Tbbens, Daniel; Koch, Norbert; Salzmann, Ingo

    2015-10-01

    Ground-state integer charge transfer is commonly regarded as the basic mechanism of molecular electrical doping in both, conjugated polymers and oligomers. Here, we demonstrate that fundamentally different processes can occur in the two types of organic semiconductors instead. Using complementary experimental techniques supported by theory, we contrast a polythiophene, where molecular p-doping leads to integer charge transfer reportedly localized to one quaterthiophene backbone segment, to the quaterthiophene oligomer itself. Despite a comparable relative increase in conductivity, we observe only partial charge transfer for the latter. In contrast to the parent polymer, pronounced intermolecular frontier-orbital hybridization of oligomer and dopant in 1:1 mixed-stack co-crystallites leads to the emergence of empty electronic states within the energy gap of the surrounding quaterthiophene matrix. It is their Fermi-Dirac occupation that yields mobile charge carriers and, therefore, the co-crystallites--rather than individual acceptor molecules--should be regarded as the dopants in such systems.

  1. Charge-transfer crystallites as molecular electrical dopants

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Henry; Heimel, Georg; Winkler, Stefanie; Frisch, Johannes; Opitz, Andreas; Sauer, Katrein; Wegner, Berthold; Oehzelt, Martin; Röthel, Christian; Duhm, Steffen; Többens, Daniel; Koch, Norbert; Salzmann, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Ground-state integer charge transfer is commonly regarded as the basic mechanism of molecular electrical doping in both, conjugated polymers and oligomers. Here, we demonstrate that fundamentally different processes can occur in the two types of organic semiconductors instead. Using complementary experimental techniques supported by theory, we contrast a polythiophene, where molecular p-doping leads to integer charge transfer reportedly localized to one quaterthiophene backbone segment, to the quaterthiophene oligomer itself. Despite a comparable relative increase in conductivity, we observe only partial charge transfer for the latter. In contrast to the parent polymer, pronounced intermolecular frontier-orbital hybridization of oligomer and dopant in 1:1 mixed-stack co-crystallites leads to the emergence of empty electronic states within the energy gap of the surrounding quaterthiophene matrix. It is their Fermi–Dirac occupation that yields mobile charge carriers and, therefore, the co-crystallites—rather than individual acceptor molecules—should be regarded as the dopants in such systems. PMID:26440403

  2. Charge-transfer crystallites as molecular electrical dopants.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Henry; Heimel, Georg; Winkler, Stefanie; Frisch, Johannes; Opitz, Andreas; Sauer, Katrein; Wegner, Berthold; Oehzelt, Martin; Röthel, Christian; Duhm, Steffen; Többens, Daniel; Koch, Norbert; Salzmann, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Ground-state integer charge transfer is commonly regarded as the basic mechanism of molecular electrical doping in both, conjugated polymers and oligomers. Here, we demonstrate that fundamentally different processes can occur in the two types of organic semiconductors instead. Using complementary experimental techniques supported by theory, we contrast a polythiophene, where molecular p-doping leads to integer charge transfer reportedly localized to one quaterthiophene backbone segment, to the quaterthiophene oligomer itself. Despite a comparable relative increase in conductivity, we observe only partial charge transfer for the latter. In contrast to the parent polymer, pronounced intermolecular frontier-orbital hybridization of oligomer and dopant in 1:1 mixed-stack co-crystallites leads to the emergence of empty electronic states within the energy gap of the surrounding quaterthiophene matrix. It is their Fermi-Dirac occupation that yields mobile charge carriers and, therefore, the co-crystallites-rather than individual acceptor molecules-should be regarded as the dopants in such systems. PMID:26440403

  3. Semiempirical and ab initio Calculations of Charged Species Used in the Physical Organic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliom, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrates on the semiempirical methods MINDO/3, MNDO, and AMI available in the program AMPAC from the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange at Indiana University. Uses charged ions in the teaching of computational chemistry. Finds that semiempirical methods are accurate enough for the general use of the bench chemist. (MVL)

  4. What is the "best" atomic charge model to describe through-space charge-transfer excitations?

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Le Bahers, Tangui; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2012-04-28

    We investigate the efficiency of several partial atomic charge models (Mulliken, Hirshfeld, Bader, Natural, Merz-Kollman and ChelpG) for investigating the through-space charge-transfer in push-pull organic compounds with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory approaches. The results of these models are compared to benchmark values obtained by determining the difference of total densities between the ground and excited states. Both model push-pull oligomers and two classes of "real-life" organic dyes (indoline and diketopyrrolopyrrole) used as sensitisers in solar cell applications have been considered. Though the difference of dipole moments between the ground and excited states is reproduced by most approaches, no atomic charge model is fully satisfactory for reproducing the distance and amount of charge transferred that are provided by the density picture. Overall, the partitioning schemes fitting the electrostatic potential (e.g. Merz-Kollman) stand as the most consistent compromises in the framework of simulating through-space charge-transfer, whereas the other models tend to yield qualitatively inconsistent values. PMID:22426115

  5. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Multiply Charged Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The laser ablation/ion storage facility at the UNLV Physics Department has been dedicated to the study of atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. Our program focuses on the charge transfer (electron capture) of multiply charged ions and neutrals important in astrophysics. The electron transfer reactions with atoms and molecules is crucial to the ionization condition of neutral rich photoionized plasmas. With the successful deployment of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory by NASA high resolution VUV and X-ray emission spectra fiom various astrophysical objects have been collected. These spectra will be analyzed to determine the source of the emission and the chemical and physical environment of the source. The proper interpretation of these spectra will require complete knowledge of all the atomic processes in these plasmas. In a neutral rich environment, charge transfer can be the dominant process. The rate coefficients need to be known accurately. We have also extended our charge transfer measurements to KeV region with a pulsed ion beam. The inclusion of this facility into our current program provides flexibility in extending the measurement to higher energies (KeV) if needed. This flexibility enables us to address issues of immediate interest to the astrophysical community as new observations are made by high resolution space based observatories.

  6. Excited-state intramolecular charge transfer in 9-aminoacridine derivative.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Robson Valentim; Garcia Ferreira, Ana Paula; Gehlen, Marcelo Henrique

    2005-07-14

    A new fluorochromic dye was obtained from the reaction of 9-aminoacridine with ethyl-2-cyano-3-ethoxyacrylate. It displays complex fluorescence that is ascribed to normal emission from the acridine chromophore in addition to excited-state intramolecular charge transfer (ESICT) formed upon light excitation. The analysis of the fluorescence decays in different solvents reveals two short-lived components in the range of 80-450 ps and 0.7-3.2 ns, ascribed to the formation and decay of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, in addition to a third component of about 9.0 ns, which is related to the normal emission from the acridine singlet excited state, probably in an enol-imine tautomeric form. The ICT emission is readily quenched by water addition to polar solvents, and this effect is ascribed to changes in the keto-amine/enol-imine equilibrium of this fluorochromic dye. PMID:16833932

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of moclobemide by charge-transfer complexation.

    PubMed

    Adikwu, M U; Ofokansi, K C

    1997-11-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the assay for the moclobemide. The method is based on the molecular interaction between the drug and chloranilic acid, to form a charge-transfer complex in which the drug acts as n-donor and chloranilic acid as pi-acceptor. Chloranilic acid was found to form a charge-transfer complex in a 1:1 stoichiometry with a maximum absorption band at 526 nm. Conformity with Beer's law was evident over the concentration range 4-36 mg 100 ml-1. A complete, detailed investigation of the complex formed was made with respect to its composition, association constant, molar absorptivity and free energy change. The method has been applied successfully to the analysis of commercially available moclobemide tablets with good recovery and reproducibility. PMID:9589413

  8. Charge transfer magnetoexciton formation at vertically coupled quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is presented on the properties of charge transfer excitons at vertically coupled semiconductor quantum dots in the presence of electric and magnetic fields directed along the growth axis. Such excitons should have two interesting characteristics: an extremely long lifetime and a permanent dipole moment. We show that wave functions and the low-lying energies of charge transfer exciton can be found exactly for a special morphology of quantum dots that provides a parabolic confinement inside the layers. To take into account a difference between confinement potentials of an actual structure and of our exactly solvable model, we use the Galerkin method. The density of energy states is calculated for different InAs/GaAs quantum dots’ dimensions, the separation between layers, and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields. A possibility of a formation of a giant dipolar momentum under external electric field is predicted. PMID:23092373

  9. Charge-transfer complexes of phenylephrine with nitrobenzene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mossalamy, E. H.

    2004-04-01

    The molecular charge-transfer complexes of phenylephrine with picric acid and m-dinitrobenzene have been studied and investigated by IR, 1H NMR electronic spectra in organic solvents and buffer solutions, respectively. Simple and selective methods are proposed for the determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride in bulk form and in tablets. The two methods are based on the formation of charge-transfer complexes between drug base as a n-donor (D) and picric acid, m-dinitrobenzene as π-acceptor (A). The products exhibit absorption maxima at 497 and 560 nm in acetonitrile for picric acid and m-dinitrobenzene, respectively. The coloured product exhibits an absorption maximum at 650 nm in dioxane. The sensitive kinetic methods for the determination phynylephrine hydrochloride are described. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time at 20 min.

  10. Charge transfer magnetoexciton formation at vertically coupled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gutirrez, Willian; Marin, Jairo H; Mikhailov, Ilia D

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is presented on the properties of charge transfer excitons at vertically coupled semiconductor quantum dots in the presence of electric and magnetic fields directed along the growth axis. Such excitons should have two interesting characteristics: an extremely long lifetime and a permanent dipole moment. We show that wave functions and the low-lying energies of charge transfer exciton can be found exactly for a special morphology of quantum dots that provides a parabolic confinement inside the layers. To take into account a difference between confinement potentials of an actual structure and of our exactly solvable model, we use the Galerkin method. The density of energy states is calculated for different InAs/GaAs quantum dots' dimensions, the separation between layers, and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields. A possibility of a formation of a giant dipolar momentum under external electric field is predicted. PMID:23092373

  11. Charge transfer in energetic Li^2+ - H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancev, I.

    2008-07-01

    The total cross sections for charge transfer in Li^2+ - H collisions have been calculated, using the four-body first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1-4B) and four-body continuum distorted wave method (CDW-4B) in the energy range 10 - 5000 keV/amu. Present results call for additional experimental data at higher impact energies than presently available.

  12. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kočišek, J. E-mail: michal.farnik@jh-inst.cas.cz Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M. E-mail: michal.farnik@jh-inst.cas.cz; Slavíček, P. E-mail: michal.farnik@jh-inst.cas.cz

    2013-12-07

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ≈15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar{sup +} and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ∼28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar{sup +}* and water opens leading to new products Ar{sub n}H{sup +} and (H{sub 2}O){sub n}H{sup +}. On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H{sub 2}O){sub n}H{sub 2}{sup 2+} and (H{sub 2}O){sub n}{sup 2+} ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent.

  13. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters.

    PubMed

    Ko?iek, J; Lengyel, J; Frnk, M; Slav?ek, P

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H2O)n clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ?15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar(+) and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ~28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar(+)* and water opens leading to new products Ar(n)H(+) and (H2O)(n)H(+). On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H2O)(n)H2(2+) and (H2O)(n)(2+) ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent. PMID:24320381

  14. Surface Charge Transfer Doping of Monolayer Phosphorene via Molecular Adsorption.

    PubMed

    He, Yuanyuan; Xia, Feifei; Shao, Zhibin; Zhao, Jianwei; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-12-01

    Monolayer phosphorene has attracted much attention owing to its extraordinary electronic, optical, and structural properties. Rationally tuning the electrical transport characteristics of monolayer phosphorene is essential to its applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we study the electronic transport behaviors of monolayer phosphorene with surface charge transfer doping of electrophilic molecules, including 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), NO2, and MoO3, using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. F4TCNQ shows optimal performance in enhancing the p-type conductance of monolayer phosphorene. Static electronic properties indicate that the enhancement is originated from the charge transfer between adsorbed molecule and phosphorene layer. Dynamic transport behaviors demonstrate that additional channels for hole transport in host monolayer phosphorene were generated upon the adsorption of molecule. Our work unveils the great potential of surface charge transfer doping in tuning the electronic properties of monolayer phosphorene and is of significance to its application in high-performance devices. PMID:26545168

  15. Energy and charge transfer in nanoscale hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Basch, Thomas; Bottin, Anne; Li, Chen; Mllen, Klaus; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Prabhakaran, Prem; Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2015-06-01

    Hybrid materials composed of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots and ?-conjugated organic molecules and polymers have attracted continuous interest in recent years, because they may find applications in bio-sensing, photodetection, and photovoltaics. Fundamental processes occurring in these nanohybrids are light absorption and emission as well as energy and/or charge transfer between the components. For future applications it is mandatory to understand, control, and optimize the wide parameter space with respect to chemical assembly and the desired photophysical properties. Accordingly, different approaches to tackle this issue are described here. Simple organic dye molecules (Dye)/quantum dot (QD) conjugates are studied with stationary and time-resolved spectroscopy to address the dynamics of energy and ultra-fast charge transfer. Micellar as well as lamellar nanostructures derived from diblock copolymers are employed to fine-tune the energy transfer efficiency of QD donor/dye acceptor couples. Finally, the transport of charges through organic components coupled to the quantum dot surface is discussed with an emphasis on functional devices. PMID:25761127

  16. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočišek, J.; Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M.; Slavíček, P.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H2O)n clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ≈15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar+ and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ˜28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar+* and water opens leading to new products ArnH+ and (H2O)nH+. On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H2O)nH_2^{2+} and (H_{2 O})n^{2+} ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent.

  17. Ab initio treatment of ion-induced charge transfer dynamics of isolated 2-deoxy-D-ribose.

    PubMed

    Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine

    2014-08-21

    Modeling-induced radiation damage in biological systems, in particular, in DNA building blocks, is of major concern in cancer therapy studies. Ion-induced charge-transfer dynamics may indeed be involved in proton and hadrontherapy treatments. We have thus performed a theoretical approach of the charge-transfer dynamics in collision of C(4+) ions and protons with isolated 2-deoxy-D-ribose in a wide collision energy range by means of ab initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The comparison of both projectile ions has been performed with regard to previous theoretical and experimental results. The charge transfer appears markedly less efficient with the 2-deoxy-D-ribose target than that with pyrimidine nucleobases, which would induce an enhancement of the fragmentation process in agreement with experimental measurements. The mechanism has been analyzed with regard to inner orbital excitations, and qualitative tendencies have been pointed out for studies on DNA buiding block damage. PMID:24093626

  18. Charge-Transfer State Dynamics Following Hole and Electron Transfer in Organic Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Bakulin, Artem A; Dimitrov, Stoichko D; Rao, Akshay; Chow, Philip C Y; Nielsen, Christian B; Schroeder, Bob C; McCulloch, Iain; Bakker, Huib J; Durrant, James R; Friend, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    The formation of bound electron-hole pairs, also called charge-transfer (CT) states, in organic-based photovoltaic devices is one of the dominant loss mechanisms hindering performance. Whereas CT state dynamics following electron transfer from donor to acceptor have been widely studied, there is not much known about the dynamics of bound CT states produced by hole transfer from the acceptor to the donor. In this letter, we compare the dynamics of CT states formed in the different charge-transfer pathways in a range of model systems. We show that the nature and dynamics of the generated CT states are similar in the case of electron and hole transfer. However the yield of bound and free charges is observed to be strongly dependent on the HOMOD-HOMOA and LUMOD-LUMOA energy differences of the material system. We propose a qualitative model in which the effects of static disorder and sampling of states during the relaxation determine the probability of accessing CT states favorable for charge separation. PMID:26291233

  19. Theory of ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer: Contributions of direct charge transfer excitations to the absorbance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Luxia; Willig, Frank; May, Volkhard

    2007-04-07

    Absorption spectra related to heterogeneous electron transfer are analyzed with the focus on direct charge transfer transition from the surface attached molecule into the semiconductor band states. The computations are based on a model of reduced dimensionality with a single intramolecular vibrational coordinate but a complete account for the continuum of conduction band states. The applicability of this model to perylene on TiO{sub 2} has been demonstrated in a series of earlier papers. Here, based on a time-dependent formulation, the absorbance is calculated with the inclusion of charge transfer excitations. A broad parameter set inspired by the perylene TiO{sub 2} systems is considered. In particular, the description generalizes the Fano effect to heterogeneous electron transfer reactions. Preliminary simulations of measured spectra are presented for perylene-catechol attached to TiO{sub 2}.

  20. Charge Transfer Channels in Formation of Exciplex in Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Fei; Zhang, Xin-Ping

    2011-09-01

    The strong dependence of photoluminescence of charge transfer excited states or exciplex in a blend film of poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4- phenylenediamine) (PFB) on the excitation wavelengths and morphology is investigated. The experimental results reveal that electron transfer in the LUMOs from PFB to F8BT is more efficient than hole transfer in the HOMOs from PFB to F8BT for the formation of exciplex at the interfacial junctions between these two types of molecules in the blend film. Furthermore, energy transfer from the blue-emitting PFB to the green-emitting F8BT at the interfaces introduces an additional two-step channel and thus enhances the formation of an exciplex. This is important for understanding of charge generation and separation in organic bulk heterojunctions and for design of optoelectronic devices.

  1. Dissociative electron attachment and charge transfer in condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Andrew D.; Sanche, Lon

    2003-09-01

    Experiments using energy-selected beams of electrons incident from vacuum upon thin vapour deposited solids show that, as in the gas-phase, scattering cross sections at low energies are dominated by the formation of temporary negative ions (or resonances) and that molecular damage may be effected via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Recent results also show that charge transfer between anionic states of target molecules and their environment is often crucial in determining cross sections for electron driven processes. Here, we review recent work from our laboratory, in which charge transfer is observed. For rare gas solids, electron exchange between the electron-exciton complex and either a metal substrate or co-adsorbed molecule enhances the desorption of metastable atoms and/or molecular dissociation. We discuss how transient electron capture by surface electron states of a substrate and subsequent electron transfer to a molecular adsorbate enhances the effective cross sections for DEA. We also consider the case of DEA to CF 2Cl 2 condensed on water and ammonia ices, where electron exchange between pre-solvated electron states of ice and transient molecular anions can also increase DEA cross sections. Electron transfer from molecular resonances into pre-solvated electron states of ice is also discussed.

  2. Ultrafast photo-induced charge transfer unveiled by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bixner, Oliver; Luke, Vladimr; Man?al, Tom; Hauer, Jrgen; Milota, Franz; Fischer, Michael; Pugliesi, Igor; Bradler, Maximilian; Schmid, Walther; Riedle, Eberhard; Kauffmann, Harald F; Christensson, Niklas

    2012-05-28

    The interaction of exciton and charge transfer (CT) states plays a central role in photo-induced CT processes in chemistry, biology, and physics. In this work, we use a combination of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES), pump-probe measurements, and quantum chemistry to investigate the ultrafast CT dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer in different oxidation states. It is found that in the anionic form, the combination of strong CT-exciton interaction and electronic asymmetry induced by a counter-ion enables CT between the two macrocycles of the complex on a 30 fs timescale. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra, and we monitor how the excited state charge density ultimately localizes on the macrocycle closest to the counter-ion within 100 fs. A comparison with the dynamics in the radical species further elucidates how CT states modulate the electronic structure and tune fs-reaction dynamics. Our experiments demonstrate the unique capability of 2D-ES in combination with other methods to decipher ultrafast CT dynamics. PMID:22667567

  3. Quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Li; Yan, Zou

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits. We first consider a hybrid system where a quantum dot (QD) is tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor Majorana-hosted nanowire (MNW) via using gated control as a switch, the information encoded in the superposition state of electron empty and occupied state can be transferred to each other through choosing the proper interaction time to make measurements. Then we consider another system including a double QDs and a pair of parallel MNWs, it is shown that the entanglement information transfer can be realized between the two kinds of systems. We also realize long distance quantum information transfer between two quantum dots separated by an MNW, by making use of the nonlocal fermionic level formed with the pared Majorana feimions (MFs) emerging at the two ends of the MNW. Furthermore, we analyze the teleportationlike electron transfer phenomenon predicted by Tewari et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 027001 (2008)] in our considered system. Interestingly, we find that this phenomenon exactly corresponds to the case that the information encoded in one QD just returns back to its original place during the dynamical evolution of the combined system from the perspective of quantum state transfer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304031).

  4. Understanding colloidal charge renormalization from surface chemistry: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisler, T.; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, M.; Sticher, H.; Schurtenberger, P.; D'Aguanno, B.; Klein, R.

    1994-12-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stern capacitance) are determined from fits of a Stern layer model to the titration data. We find strong evidence that the dissociation of protons is the only specific adsorption process. Effective particle charges are determined by fits of integral equation calculations of the polydisperse static structure factor to the static light scattering data. A generalization of the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model including the dissociation of the acidic surface groups and the autodissociation of water is used to predict effective particle charges from the surface chemical parameters determined by the titration experiments. We find that the light scattering data are best described by a model where a small fraction of the ionizable surface sites are sulfate groups which are completely dissociated at moderate pH. These effective charges are comparable to the predictions by a basic cell model where charge regulation is absent.

  5. Binuclear TiOMn charge-transfer chromophore in mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiuni; Weare, Walter W; Frei, Heinz

    2009-12-01

    An all-inorganic heterobinuclear chromophore consisting of Ti(IV) oxo-bridged to a Mn(II) center has been assembled on the surface of silica pores of MCM-41 material. The key step of covalent attachment on the pore surface is the reaction of a Mn(II) precursor featuring weakly held CH3CN ligands with the OH group of a previously anchored titanol site. The optical diffuse reflectance spectrum reveals a Ti(IV)OMn(II) --> Ti(III)OMn(III) metal-to-metal charge-transfer (MMCT) absorption extending from the UV throughout to visible into the red spectral region. FT-IR, FT-Raman and optical spectroscopy confirm that the material is free of Mn oxide clusters, while EPR and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra indicate that the donor center is predominantly in oxidation state +2. In situ FT-IR spectroscopy allowed detection of visible light-induced redox chemistry of the MMCT unit using O2 (18O2) and methanol as acceptor and donor probe molecules, respectively. Formate and water were observed as primary products, with methyl formate emerging as a secondary condensation product. The observed photochemistry demonstrates that excitation of the Ti(IV)OMn(II) --> Ti(III)OMn(III) results in complete transfer of an electron from donor to acceptor center, with the charge separation sufficiently long lived for initiation of redox chemistry to occur. With donor and acceptor redox potentials appropriate for driving multi-electron catalysts for water oxidation, proton or CO2 reduction, the TiOMn(II) unit is an attractive candidate as a charge-transfer chromophore in a solar fuel generating system. PMID:19904439

  6. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ramana, C V; Becker, U; Shutthanandan, V; Julien, C M

    2008-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia.The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400 degrees C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant increase in size associated with a decrease in density with further annealing. PMID:18534025

  7. Photochemistry and charge transfer chemistry of the platinum group elements

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.

    1992-12-01

    During the past 3 years, progress was made in elucidating the excited state structures of Pt(diimine)(dithiolate) complexes, while more recent efforts focused on the photochemistry of these complexes and electronic structure of other dithiolate systems. A carbonyl-Ir-maleonitrile dithiolate complex is also studied.

  8. Nanocontact electrification: patterned surface charges affecting adhesion, transfer, and printing.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jesse J; Barry, Chad R; Knuesel, Robert J; Wang, Xinyu; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2011-06-01

    Contact electrification creates an invisible mark, overlooked and often undetected by conventional surface spectroscopic measurements. It impacts our daily lives macroscopically during electrostatic discharge and is equally relevant on the nanoscale in areas such as soft lithography, transfer, and printing. This report describes a new conceptual approach to studying and utilizing contact electrification beyond prior surface force apparatus and point-contact implementations. Instead of a single point contact, our process studies nanocontact electrification that occurs between multiple nanocontacts of different sizes and shapes that can be formed using flexible materials, in particular, surface-functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and other common dielectrics (PMMA, SU-8, PS, PAA, and SiO(2)). Upon the formation of conformal contacts and forced delamination, contacted regions become charged, which is directly observed using Kelvin probe force microscopy revealing images of charge with sub-100-nm lateral resolution. The experiments reveal chemically driven interfacial proton exchange as the dominant charging mechanism for the materials that have been investigated so far. The recorded levels of uncompensated charges approach the theoretical limit that is set by the dielectric breakdown strength of the air gap that forms as the surfaces are delaminated. The macroscopic presence of the charges is recorded using force-distance curve measurements involving a balance and a micromanipulator to control the distance between the delaminated objects. Coulomb attraction between the delaminated surfaces reaches 150 N/m(2). At such a magnitude, the force finds many applications. We demonstrate the utility of printed charges in the fields of (i) nanoxerography and (ii) nanotransfer printing whereby the smallest objects are ?10 nm in diameter and the largest objects are in the millimeter to centimeter range. The printed charges are also shown to affect the electronic properties of contacted surfaces. For example, in the case of a silicon-on-insulator field effect transistors are in contact with PDMS and subsequent delamination leads to threshold voltage shifts that exceed 500 mV. PMID:21526803

  9. Relationship between surface chemistry, biofilm structure, and electron transfer in Shewanella anodes.

    PubMed

    Artyushkova, Kateryna; Cornejo, Jose A; Ista, Linnea K; Babanova, Sofia; Santoro, Carlo; Atanassov, Plamen; Schuler, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how anode surface properties affect growth, development, and activity of electrogenic biofilms has great potential to improve the performance of bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells. The aim of this paper was to determine how anodes with specific exposed functional groups (-N(CH3)3 (+), -COOH, -OH, and -CH3), created using ω-substituted alkanethiolates self-assembled monolayers attached to gold, affect the surface properties and functional performance of electrogenic Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilms. A combination of spectroscopic, microscopic, and electrochemical techniques was used to evaluate how electrode surface chemistry influences morphological, chemical, and functional properties of S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms, in an effort to develop improved electrode materials and structures. Positively charged, highly functionalized, hydrophilic surfaces were beneficial for growth of uniform biofilms with the smallest cluster sizes and intercluster diffusion distances, and yielding the most efficient electron transfer. The authors derived these parameters based on 3D morphological features of biofilms that were directly linked to functional properties of the biofilm during growth and that, during polarization, were directly connected to the efficiency of electron transfer to the anode. Our results indicate that substratum chemistry affects not only primary attachment, but subsequent biofilm development and bacterial physiology. PMID:25743616

  10. A new technique for the study of charge transfer in multiply charged ion-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shinpaugh, J.L.; Meyer, F.W.; Datz, S.

    1994-12-31

    While large cross sections (>10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2}) have been predicted for resonant charge transfer in ion-ion collisions, no experimental data exist for multiply charged systems. A novel technique is being developed at the ORNL ECR facility to allow study of symmetric charge exchange in multiply charged ion-ion collisions using a single ion source. Specific intra-beam charge transfer collisions occurring in a well-defined interaction region labeled by negative high voltage are identified and analyzed by electrostatic analysis in combination with ion time-of-flight coincidence detection of the collision products. Center-of-mass collision energies from 400 to 1000 eV are obtained by varying source and labeling-cell voltages. In addition, by the introduction of a target gas into the high-voltage cell, this labeling-voltage method allows measurement of electron-capture and -loss cross sections for ion-atom collisions. Consequently, higher collision energies can be investigated without the requirement of placing the ECR source on a high-voltage platform.

  11. 33 CFR 127.1301 - Persons in charge of transfers for the facility: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons in charge of transfers... Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations 127.1301 Persons in charge of transfers for the facility... charge of transfers for the facility regulated under this subpart, unless that person (1) Has at...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1301 - Persons in charge of transfers for the facility: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons in charge of transfers... Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations 127.1301 Persons in charge of transfers for the facility... charge of transfers for the facility regulated under this subpart, unless that person (1) Has at...

  13. 33 CFR 127.1301 - Persons in charge of transfers for the facility: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons in charge of transfers... Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations 127.1301 Persons in charge of transfers for the facility... charge of transfers for the facility regulated under this subpart, unless that person (1) Has at...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1301 - Persons in charge of transfers for the facility: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons in charge of transfers... Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations 127.1301 Persons in charge of transfers for the facility... charge of transfers for the facility regulated under this subpart, unless that person (1) Has at...

  15. An Electronic Structure Approach to Charge Transfer and Transport in Molecular Building Blocks for Organic Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Heidi Phillips

    A fundamental understanding of charge separation in organic materials is necessary for the rational design of optoelectronic devices suited for renewable energy applications and requires a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental methods. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)DFT are cost effective ab-initio approaches for calculating fundamental properties of large molecular systems, however conventional DFT methods have been known to fail in accurately characterizing frontier orbital gaps and charge transfer states in molecular systems. In this dissertation, these shortcomings are addressed by implementing an optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functional approach within DFT and TDDFT. The first part of this thesis presents the way in which RSH-DFT addresses the shortcomings in conventional DFT. Environmentally-corrected RSH-DFT frontier orbital energies are shown to correspond to thin film measurements for a set of organic semiconducting molecules. Likewise, the improved RSH-TDDFT description of charge transfer excitations is benchmarked using a model ethene dimer and silsesquioxane molecules. In the second part of this thesis, RSH-DFT is applied to chromophore-functionalized silsesquioxanes, which are currently investigated as candidates for building blocks in optoelectronic applications. RSH-DFT provides insight into the nature of absorptive and emissive states in silsesquioxanes. While absorption primarily involves transitions localized on one chromophore, charge transfer between chromophores and between chromophore and silsesquioxane cage have been identified. The RSH-DFT approach, including a protocol accounting for complex environmental effects on charge transfer energies, was tested and validated against experimental measurements. The third part of this thesis addresses quantum transport through nano-scale junctions. The ability to quantify a molecular junction via spectroscopic methods is crucial to their technological design and development. Time dependent perturbation theory, employed by non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, is utilized to study the effect of quantum coherences on electron transport and the effect of symmetry breaking on the electronic spectra of model molecular junctions. The fourth part of this thesis presents the design of a physical chemistry course based on a pedagogical approach called Writing-to-Teach. The nature of inaccuracies expressed in student-generated explanations of quantum chemistry topics, and the ability of a peer review process to engage these inaccuracies, is explored within this context.

  16. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    SciTech Connect

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.

    2013-07-28

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D{sub 6h} Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D{sub 2} eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} (N{sup +}-Phenyl, N-Phenyl{sup +}). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an oscillation of the spin density – charge migration – between the N atom and the phenyl ring with a period of 4 fs. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, this oscillation persists in a damped form, followed by an effective charge transfer after 30 fs.

  17. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.

    2013-07-01

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D6h Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D2 eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D1, D2 (N+-Phenyl, N-Phenyl+). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an oscillation of the spin density - charge migration - between the N atom and the phenyl ring with a period of 4 fs. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, this oscillation persists in a damped form, followed by an effective charge transfer after 30 fs.

  18. Super-iron Nanoparticles with Facile Cathodic Charge Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    M Farmand; D Jiang; B Wang; S Ghosh; D Ramaker; S Licht

    2011-12-31

    Super-irons contain the + 6 valence state of iron. One advantage of this is that it provides a multiple electron opportunity to store additional battery charge. A decrease of particle size from the micrometer to the nanometer domain provides a higher surface area to volume ratio, and opportunity to facilitate charge transfer, and improve the power, voltage and depth of discharge of cathodes made from such salts. However, super-iron salts are fragile, readily reduced to the ferric state, with both heat and contact with water, and little is known of the resultant passivating and non-passivating ferric oxide products. A pathway to decrease the super-iron particle size to the nano-domain is introduced, which overcomes this fragility, and retains the battery capacity advantage of their Fe(VI) valence state. Time and power controlled mechanosynthesis, through less aggressive, dry ball milling, leads to facile charge transfer of super-iron nanoparticles. Ex-situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is used to explore the oxidation state and structure of these iron oxides during discharge and shows the significant change in stability of the ferrate structure to lower oxidation state when the particle size is in the nano-domain.

  19. Charge transfer efficiency in proton damaged CCD`s

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, T.; Murowinski, R.; Deen, M.J.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have performed detailed measurements of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) in a thinned, backside-illuminated imaging charge-coupled device (CCD). The device had been damaged in three separate sections by proton radiation typical of that which a CCD would receive in space-borne experiments, nuclear imaging, or particle detection. They examined CTE as a function of signal level, temperature, and radiation dose. The dominant factor affecting the CTE in radiation-damaged CCD`s is seen to be trapping by bulk states. They present a simple physical model for trapping as a function of transfer rate, trap concentration, and temperature. They have made calculations using this model and arrived at predictions which closely match the measured results. The CTE was also observed to have a nonlinear dependence on signal level. Using two-dimensional device simulations to examine the distribution of the charge packets in the CCD channel over a range of signal levels, they were able to explain the observed variation.

  20. Metastable charge-transfer state of californium(iii) compounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guokui; Cary, Samantha K; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-06-28

    Among a series of anomalous physical and chemical properties of Cf(iii) compounds revealed by recent investigations, the present work addresses the characteristics of the optical spectra of An(HDPA)3H2O (An = Am, Cm, and Cf), especially the broadband photoluminescence from Cf(HDPA)3H2O induced by ligand-to-metal charge transfer (CT). As a result of strong ion-ligand interactions and the relative ease of reducing Cf(iii) to Cf(ii), a CT transition occurs at low energy (<3 eV) via the formation of a metastable Cf(ii) state. It is shown that the systematic trend in CT transitions of the lanthanide series is not paralleled by actinide elements lighter than Cf(iii), and californium represents a turning point in the periodicity of the actinide series. Analyses and modeling of the temperature-dependent luminescence dynamics indicate that the metastable Cf(ii) charge-transfer state undergoes radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Broadening of the CT transition arises from strong vibronic coupling and hole-charge interactions in the valence band. The non-radiative relaxation of the metastable CT state results from a competition between phonon-relaxation and thermal tunneling that populates the excited states of Cf(iii). PMID:26032575

  1. Spin-dependent charge transfer state design rules in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wendi; Congreve, Daniel N.; Hontz, Eric; Bahlke, Matthias E.; McMahon, David P.; Reineke, Sebastian; Wu, Tony C.; Bulovi?, Vladimir; van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A.

    2015-03-01

    Charge transfer states play a crucial role in organic photovoltaics, mediating both photocurrent generation and recombination losses. In this work, we examine recombination losses as a function of the electron-hole spacing in fluorescent charge transfer states, including direct monitoring of both singlet and triplet charge transfer state dynamics. Here we demonstrate that large donor-acceptor separations minimize back transfer from the charge transfer state to a low-lying triplet exciton drain or the ground state by utilizing external pressure to modulate molecular spacing. The triplet drain quenches triplet charge transfer states that would otherwise be spin protected against recombination, and switches the most efficient origin of the photocurrent from triplet to singlet charge transfer states. Future organic solar cell designs should focus on raising the energy of triplet excitons to better utilize triplet charge transfer mediated photocurrent generation or increasing the donor-acceptor spacing to minimize recombination losses.

  2. Spin-dependent charge transfer state design rules in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wendi; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Bahlke, Matthias E; McMahon, David P; Reineke, Sebastian; Wu, Tony C; Bulovi?, Vladimir; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Charge transfer states play a crucial role in organic photovoltaics, mediating both photocurrent generation and recombination losses. In this work, we examine recombination losses as a function of the electron-hole spacing in fluorescent charge transfer states, including direct monitoring of both singlet and triplet charge transfer state dynamics. Here we demonstrate that large donor-acceptor separations minimize back transfer from the charge transfer state to a low-lying triplet exciton 'drain' or the ground state by utilizing external pressure to modulate molecular spacing. The triplet drain quenches triplet charge transfer states that would otherwise be spin protected against recombination, and switches the most efficient origin of the photocurrent from triplet to singlet charge transfer states. Future organic solar cell designs should focus on raising the energy of triplet excitons to better utilize triplet charge transfer mediated photocurrent generation or increasing the donor-acceptor spacing to minimize recombination losses. PMID:25762410

  3. Enhancement of IR and VCD intensities due to charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Nicu, Valentin Paul; Autschbach, Jochen; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2009-03-14

    Donor-acceptor interactions such as the one between the Cl(-) base and the N-H sigma* acceptor orbitals encountered in the complexation of Cl(-) counterions to the [Co(en)(3)](3+) transition metal complex, have been shown to cause huge enhancement (between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude) of the VCD intensities of N-H stretching modes. This effect has been fully analyzed, and could be attributed to increased charge flow from the Cl(-) donors when the N-H bonds become stretched. The transfer of charge counteracts the movement of negative electronic charge that happens along with the motion of the H nuclei, effectively reversing the electronic part of the electric dipole transition moment (EDTM) in the direction of the charge flow (z, say), and of the magnetic transition dipole moment (MDTM) in the perpendicular direction. The consequences for the IR and VCD intensity follow: IR intensity is strongly increased if the EDTM is polarized in the z direction, e.g. in A(2) modes, but not so much if it is polarized in the xy plane (E modes), the VCD is strongly enhanced if the EDTM and MTDM are polarized in the xy plane (in E modes), but less so when they are polarized in the z direction (in A(2) modes). The explanation holds generally for complexation phenomena of this sort, including the donor-acceptor part of hydrogen bonding interactions, e.g. with solvent molecules. PMID:19240930

  4. Charge transfer in proton-hydrogen collisions under Debye plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Arka; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ghoshal, Arijit; Ratnavelu, K.

    2015-02-15

    The effect of plasma environment on the 1s → nlm charge transfer, for arbitrary n, l, and m, in proton-hydrogen collisions has been investigated within the framework of a distorted wave approximation. The effect of external plasma has been incorporated using Debye screening model of the interacting charge particles. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function, it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in closed form. A detailed study has been made to investigate the effect of external plasma environment on the differential and total cross sections for electron capture into different angular momentum states for the incident energy in the range of 20–1000 keV. For the unscreened case, our results are in close agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  5. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-07

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  6. Diamagnetism and charge transfer in graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Resing, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities at 300 K of the acceptor-type intercalation compounds of graphite with Br2 and ICl are calculated; the results are compared with published experimental measurements in graphs; and the charge-transfer parameter f is inferred using a rigid-band model (Loughin et al., 1978; Weinberger et al., 1978; Mattix et al., 1983). Assuming a screening length of 200 pm, the values determined are f = 0.3 for C(8N)Br2 and f = 0.09 for C(13N)ICl.

  7. Local charge transfer doping in suspended graphene nanojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worne, Jeffrey H.; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Galande, Charudatta; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Natelson, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We report electronic transport measurements in nanoscale graphene transistors with gold and platinum electrodes whose channel lengths are shorter than 100 nm and compare them with transistors with channel lengths from 1 ?m to 50 ?m. We find a large positive gate voltage shift in charge neutrality point (NP) for transistors made with platinum electrodes but negligible shift for devices made with gold electrodes. This is consistent with the transfer of electrons from graphene into the platinum electrodes. As the channel length increases, the disparity between the measured NP using gold and platinum electrodes disappears.

  8. Negative thermal expansion induced by intermetallic charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Masaki; Oka, Kengo; Nabetani, Koichiro

    2015-06-01

    Suppression of thermal expansion is of great importance for industry. Negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials which shrink on heating and expand on cooling are therefore attracting keen attention. Here we provide a brief overview of NTE induced by intermetallic charge transfer in A-site ordered double perovskites SaCu3Fe4O12 and LaCu3Fe4-xMnxO12, as well as in Bi or Ni substituted BiNiO3. The last compound shows a colossal dilatometric linear thermal expansion coefficient exceeding -70 10-6 K-1 near room temperature, in the temperature range which can be controlled by substitution.

  9. Minimal model for charge transfer excitons at the dielectric interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical description of the charge transfer (CT) exciton across the donor-acceptor interface without the use of a completely localized hole (or electron) is a challenge in the field of organic solar cells. We calculate the total wave function of the CT exciton by solving an effective two-particle Schrödinger equation for the inhomogeneous dielectric interface. We formulate the magnitude of the CT and construct a minimal model of the CT exciton under the breakdown of inversion symmetry. We demonstrate that both a light hole mass and a hole localization along the normal to the dielectric interface are crucial to yield the CT exciton.

  10. Energy transfer and charge separation kinetics in photosystem I

    PubMed Central

    Holzwarth, Alfred R.; Schatz, Gnther; Brock, Helmuth; Bittersmann, Edith

    1993-01-01

    The energy transfer and charge separation kinetics of a photosystem I (PS I) core particle of an antenna size of 100 chlorophyll/P700 has been studied by combined fluorescence and transient absorption kinetics with picosecond resolution. This is the first combined picosecond study of transient absorption and fluorescence carried out on a PS I particle and the results are consistent with each other. The data were analyzed by both global lifetime and global target analysis procedures. In fluorescence major lifetime components were found to be 12 and 36 ps. The shorter-lived one shows a negative amplitude at long wavelengths and is attributed to an energy transfer process between pigments in the main antenna Chl pool and a small long-wavelength Chl pool emitting around 720 nm whereas the longer-lived component is assigned to the overall charge separation lifetime. The lifetimes resolved in transient absorption are 7-8 ps, 33 ps, and [unk]1 ns. The shortest-lived one is assigned to energy transfer between the same pigment pools as observed also in fluorescence kinetics, the middle component of 33 ps to the overall charge separation, and the long-lived component to the lifetime of the oxidized primary donor P700+. The transient absorption data indicate an even faster, but kinetically unresolved energy transfer component in the main Chl pool with a lifetime <3 ps. Several kinetic models were tested on both the fluorescence and the picosecond absorption data by global target analysis procedures. A model where the long-wave pigments are spatially and kinetically connected with the reaction center P700 is favored over a model where P700 is connected more closely with the main Chl pool. Our data show that the charge separation kinetics in these PS I particles is essentially trap limited. The relevance of our data with respect to other time-resolved studies on PS I core particles is discussed, in particular with respect to the nature and function of the long-wave pigments. From the transient absorption data we do not see any evidence for the occurrence of a reduced Chl primary electron acceptor, but we also can not exclude that possibility, provided that reoxidation of that acceptor should occur within a time <40 ps. PMID:19431900

  11. Vibrational Kondo effect in pure organic charge-transfer assemblies.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Torrente, I; Franke, K J; Pascual, J I

    2008-11-21

    A Kondo resonance has been observed using a scanning tunneling microscope on a single molecular layer of a purely organic charge-transfer salt grown on a metal surface. Analysis of the Kondo anomaly reveals that the electron acceptor of the film possesses a spin-1/2 ground state due to the localization of an unpaired electron in the conjugated lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. Because of the pi character of this molecular state the unpaired electron is strongly coupled to molecular vibrations, leading to the split of the Kondo resonance in vibrational sidebands. PMID:19113448

  12. Photoinduced charge-transfer materials for nonlinear optical applications

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.

    2006-10-24

    A method using polyelectrolyte self-assembly for preparing multi-layered organic molecular materials having individual layers which exhibit ultrafast electron and/or energy transfer in a controlled direction occurring over the entire structure. Using a high molecular weight, water-soluble, anionic form of poly-phenylene vinylene, self-assembled films can be formed which show high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (QE). The highest emission QE is achieved using poly(propylene-imine) (PPI) dendrimers as cationic binders. Self-quenching of the luminescence is observed as the solid polymer film thickness is increased and can be reversed by inserting additional spacer layers of transparent polyelectrolytes between each active conjugated layer, such that the QE grows with thickness. A red shift of the luminescence is also observed as additional PPV layers are added. This effect persists as self-quenching is eliminated. Charge transfer superlattices can be formed by additionally incorporating C.sub.60 acceptor layers.

  13. Charge transfer between acenes and PbS nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, D M N M; Hatton, R A; Lutz, T; Curry, R J; Silva, S R P

    2009-05-13

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunctions have potential as the basis for future photovoltaic devices. Herein, we report the results of investigations exploring the possibility of using pentacene and tetracene as photoelectron donors in conjunction with PbS nanocrystals (PbS-NCs). Photoinduced charge transfer was probed using external quantum efficiency measurements on acene:PbS-NC hybrid photovoltaic devices in conjunction with photoluminescence studies of the corresponding bilayer films. It is shown that photoelectron transfer from pentacene to the PbS-NCs is inefficient as compared to that between tetracene and PbS-NCs. The latter case can be rationalized in terms of the energy level alignment at the heterojunction assuming a common vacuum level. However, in the case of pentacene:PbS-NC junctions an interfacial energy level shift must be considered in order to explain the observations. PMID:19420636

  14. Charge transfer between acenes and PbS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Hatton, R. A.; Lutz, T.; Curry, R. J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2009-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunctions have potential as the basis for future photovoltaic devices. Herein, we report the results of investigations exploring the possibility of using pentacene and tetracene as photoelectron donors in conjunction with PbS nanocrystals (PbS-NCs). Photoinduced charge transfer was probed using external quantum efficiency measurements on acene:PbS-NC hybrid photovoltaic devices in conjunction with photoluminescence studies of the corresponding bilayer films. It is shown that photoelectron transfer from pentacene to the PbS-NCs is inefficient as compared to that between tetracene and PbS-NCs. The latter case can be rationalized in terms of the energy level alignment at the heterojunction assuming a common vacuum level. However, in the case of pentacene:PbS-NC junctions an interfacial energy level shift must be considered in order to explain the observations.

  15. Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer Processes in Molecular Aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Endicott

    2009-10-20

    This project involved the experimental probing of the electronic excited states generated by photoinduced (center-to-center) electron and energy transfer processes in several classes of transition metal donor/acceptor (D/A) complexes. Some of the general properties inferred from these studies should be useful in the design of new systems for energy conversion applications. Pursuit of the project goals has involved the determination of electron transfer efficiencies and the detailed study of variations in the electronic spectra of D/A complexes. This has resulted in the study of some very fundamental issues of photoinduced charge transfer and the identification of some of the constraints on its efficiency. The experimental studies of the competition between the degradative non-radiative unimolecular relaxation of transition metal excited states and their transfer of charge from these excited states to external acceptors have involved a range of techniques such as transient decay kinetics, photoacoustic calorimetry and transient or stationary state spectroscopy. The substrates synthesized for these studies were selected to provide model systems, or series of model systems to probe the validity of models of electronic excited states and their reactivity. The work during the last few years has focused largely, but not exclusively, on the use of emission spectral band shapes to probe the properties of charge transfer (CT) excited states. Bandshape variations are one of the very few approaches for systematically probing electronic excited states and good band shape resolution is necessary in order to gain information about the structural variations that correlate with excited state reactivity. Differences in molecular structure correlate with differences in chemical reactivity, and the variations in emission bandshapes are well known to relate to variations in the molecular structural differences between the excited and ground electronic states. However, it is has been rarely noticed that configurational mixing of the lowest energy excited state with other electronic states leads to unique distortions of the lowest energy excited state which result in modifications in the vibronic structure and bandshape of the emission. We have used the emission sideband shapes to evaluate patterns of ground state-excited state and excited state-excited state configurational mixing in some simple series of complexes.

  16. Charge transfer and charge localization in extended radical cations: Investigation of model molecules for peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinkauf, Rainer; Lehrer, Florian

    1998-12-01

    Molecules consisting of a flexible tail and an aromatic chromophore are used as model systems to understand the situation of a single chromophore in a small peptide. Their S0-S1 resonant multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra show, that in neutral molecules the tail-chromophore interaction is weak and electronic excitation is localized at the chromophore. For molecules, where the ionization energy of the tail is considerable higher than that of the chromophore, by high resolution REMPI photoelectron spectroscopy we find the charge to be localized on the aromatic chromophore. This scheme also in suitable peptides allows local ionization at the aromatic chromophore. An estimate for various charge positions in peptide chains, however, shows, that for most of the amino acids electron hole positions in the nitrogen and oxygen "lone pair" orbitals of the peptide bond are nearly degenerate. REMPI photoelectron spectra of phenylethylamine, which as a model system contains such two degenerate charge positions, show small energetic shift of the ionization energy but strong geometry changes upon electron removal. This result is interpreted as direct ionization into a mixed charge delocalized state. Consequences for the charge transfer mechanism in peptides are discussed.

  17. Mutation induction by charged particles of defined linear energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Chen, D J; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J

    1988-07-01

    The mutagenic potential of charged particles of defined linear energy transfer (LET) was assessed using the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (HGPRT) in primary human fibroblasts. Exponentially growing cultures of early passaged fibroblasts were grown as monolayers on thin mylar sheets and were irradiated with accelerated protons, deuterons or helium-3 ions. The mutation rates were compared with those generated by 137Cs gamma-rays. LET values for charged particles accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, using the track segment mode, ranged from 10 to 150 keV/micron. After irradiation, cells were trypsinized, subcultured and assayed for both cytotoxicity and 6-thioguanine resistance. For gamma-rays, and for the charged particles of lower LET, the dose-response curves for cell survival were characterized by a marked initial shoulder, but approximated to an exponential function of dose for higher LETs. Mutation frequencies, likewise, showed a direct correlation to LET over the dose range examined. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for mutagenesis, based on the initial slopes of the dose-response curves, ranged from 1.30 for 10 keV/micron protons to 9.40 for 150 keV/micron helium-3 ions. Results of the present studies indicate that high-LET radiations, apart from being efficient inducers of cell lethality, are even more efficient in mutation induction as compared to low-LET ionizing radiation. These data are consistent with results previously obtained with both rodent and human fibroblast cell lines. PMID:3383341

  18. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Agents: Quantum Chemistry and MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Jikun; Feng, Xinxin; Zhu, Wei; Oskolkov, Nikita; Zhou, Tianhui; Kim, Boo Kyung; Baig, Noman; McMahon, Michael T; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents offer an alternative to Gd(3+) -based contrast agents for MRI. They are characterized by containing protons that can rapidly exchange with water and it is advantageous to have these protons resonate in a spectral window that is far removed from water. Herein, we report the first results of DFT calculations of the (1) H nuclear magnetic shieldings in 41?CEST agents, finding that the experimental shifts can be well predicted (R(2) =0.882). We tested a subset of compounds with the best MRI properties for toxicity and for activity as uncouplers, then obtained mice kidney CEST MRI images for three of the most promising leads finding 16 (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) to be one of the most promising CEST MRI contrast agents to date. Overall, the results are of interest since they show that (1) H?NMR shifts for CEST agents-charged species-can be well predicted, and that several leads have low toxicity and yield good in vivo MR images. PMID:26616530

  19. Role of solvent dielectric properties on charge transfer from PbS nanocrystals to molecules.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, A C; Lee, Jin-Kyun; Imoto, Hiroaki; Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J; Chujo, Yoshiki; Hanrath, Tobias; Ober, Christopher K; Wise, F W

    2010-01-01

    Transfer of photoexcited charge from PbS nanocrystals to ligand molecules is investigated in different solvents. We find that the charge transfer rate increases dramatically with solvent dielectric constant. This trend is accounted for by a modified Marcus theory that incorporates only static dielectric effects. The choice of solvent allows significant control of the charge transfer process. As an important example, we find that PbS nanocrystals dispersed in water exhibit charge transfer rates 1000 times higher than the same nanocrystals in organic solvent. Rapid charge extraction will be important to efficient nanocrystal-based photovoltaic and photodetector devices. PMID:19968265

  20. Electronegativity, charge transfer, crystal field strength, and the point charge model revisited.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Peter A; Ning, Lixin

    2013-02-21

    Although the optical spectra of LnCl(6)(3-) systems are complex, only two crystal field parameters, B(40) and B(60), are required to model the J-multiplet crystal field splittings in octahedral symmetry. It is found that these parameters exhibit R(-5) and R(-7) dependence, respectively, upon the ionic radius Ln(3+)(VI), but not upon the Ln-Cl distance. More generally, the crystal field strengths of LnX(6) systems (X = Br, Cl, F, O) exhibit linear relationships with ligand electronegativity, charge transfer energy, and fractional ionic character of the Ln-X bond. PMID:23373426

  1. Is dipole moment a valid descriptor of excited state's charge-transfer character?

    PubMed

    Petelenz, Piotr; Pac, Barbara

    2013-11-20

    In the ongoing discussion on excited states of the pentacene crystal, dipole moment values have been recently invoked to gauge the CT admixture to excited states of Frenkel parentage in a model cluster. In the present paper, a simple dimer model is used to show that, in general, the dipole moment is not a valid measure of the CT contribution. This finding eliminates some apparent disagreement between the computational results published by different research groups. The implications of our results and other related aspects of cluster-type quantum chemistry calculations are discussed in the context of the standing literature dispute concerning the mechanism of singlet fission in the pentacene crystal, notably the role of charge transfer contributions vs the involvement of an excimer-like doubly excited intermediate (D state). PMID:24138489

  2. Transfer-Student Performance in Upper-Division Chemistry Courses: Implications for Curricular Reform and Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Using a statewide database of student records, the grades of students enrolled in organic chemistry and biochemistry at a large state university were analyzed to determine if there was a difference in performance between community college transfers and "native" students. Although only small differences were found for the organic chemistry

  3. DFT charge transfer of hybrid molecular ferrocene/Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calborean, Adrian; Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Graur, Florin

    2015-05-01

    The electrochemical behavior and electronic properties of redox-active ferrocenes grafted onto semiconductor Si(100) substrate were investigated theoretically by first-principles calculations. Organic molecules were attached via the formation of Si-C covalent bonds through two different linkers: vinyl (direct grafting), and N3(CH2)11 (indirect grafting). Redox energies and the electronic properties relating to different spacers in hybrid ferrocene Fc/Si and ferrocenium Fc+/Si structures were theoretically extracted and compared with experimental cyclic voltametry data. Electronic charge transfers are discussed through the alignment positions of the frontier orbitals of the molecule with respect to the Si substrate gap. Periodic boundary conditions were used to investigate the Si(100) as a slab surface and hybrid Fc/Si structures. The resulting projected density of states (PDOS) were compared with molecular results and discussed in the light of experimental data.

  4. Experimental study of low-energy charge transfer in nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.

    1979-01-01

    Total charge transfer cross sections were obtained for the N2(+)-N2 system with relative translational ion energies between 9 and 441 eV. Data were obtained to examine the dependence of total cross section on ion energy. The effect of ion excitation on the cross sections was studied by varying the electron ionization energy in the mass spectrometer ion source over an electron energy range between 14.5 and 32.1 eV. The dependence of total cross section on the neutralization chamber gas pressure was examined by obtaining data at pressure values from 9.9 to 0.000199 torr. Cross section values obtained were compared with experimental and theoretical results of other investigations.

  5. HST WFC3/UVIS: charge transfer efficiency monitoring and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia M.; Sosey, Megan L.; Anderson, Jay; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Bourque, Matthew; Bajaj, Varun; Khandrika, Harish G.; Martlin, Catherine; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Sabbi, Elena; WFC3 Team

    2016-01-01

    The harsh low-earth orbit environment is known to damage CCD devices and the HST WFC3/UVIS camera is no exception. One consequence of the radiation damage is charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) loss over time. We summarize the level of the CTE losses, the effect on science data, and the pre- and post-observation mitigation options available. Among them is the pixel-based CTE correction, which has been incorporated into the HST automatic data processing pipeline. The pipeline now provides both standard and CTE-corrected data products; observers with older data can re-retrieve their images via the the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to obtain the new products.

  6. Switching effect in organic charge transfer complex crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Y.; Koda, T.; Tokura, Y.; Koshihara, S.; Iwasawa, N.

    1989-11-01

    In the past, the current-voltage characteristics of some organic substances have shown a current switching effect. In particular the switching effect in Cu-TCNQ(7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) thin films has been frequently referred to as a prototype to a molecular electronic device. Here, the observation is reported of a reproducible current switching effect in various mixed-stack organic charge transfer crystals whose ionicities are close to the neutral-ionic phase boundary. This effect appears to be related to the intrinsic nonlinear conductivity which has recently been reported in these crystals. This switching has a reasonably large delay time and the results indicate that this is a bulk property of the crystals. The possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed.

  7. Charge Transfer in C6+ Collisions with H and He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. G.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    Charge transfer cross sections are calculated for C6+ + H and C6+ + He collisions using a time-dependent close-coupling method in Cartesian coordinates. Capture cross sections into the 1 s , 2 l(l = 0 - 1) , 3 l(l = 0 - 2) , and 4 l(l = 0 - 3) subshells of C5+ are found for projectile energies ranging from 5.0 keV/amu to 15.0 keV/amu. Comparisons are made with previous calculations and recent experiments. The atomic collision data will be used to better understand the interaction of solar wind ions with interplanetary atoms. Work supported in part by grants from NSF, NASA, and DOE.

  8. Photoinduced Charge Transfer from Titania to Surface Doping Site

    PubMed Central

    Inerbaev, Talgat; Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Kilin, Dmitri S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate a theoretical model in which Ru is substituting for Ti at the (100) surface of anatase TiO2. Charge transfer from the photo-excited TiO2 substrate to the catalytic site triggers the photo-catalytic event (such as water oxidation or reduction half-reaction). We perform ab-initio computational modeling of the charge transfer dynamics on the interface of TiO2 nanorod and catalytic site. A slab of TiO2 represents a fragment of TiO2 nanorod in the anatase phase. Titanium to ruthenium replacement is performed in a way to match the symmetry of TiO2 substrate. One molecular layer of adsorbed water is taken into consideration to mimic the experimental conditions. It is found that these adsorbed water molecules saturate dangling surface bonds and drastically affect the electronic properties of systems investigated. The modeling is performed by reduced density matrix method in the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals. A nano-catalyst modeled through replacement defect contributes energy levels near the bottom of the conduction band of TiO2 nano-structure. An exciton in the nano-rod is dissipating due to interaction with lattice vibrations, treated through non-adiabatic coupling. The electron relaxes to conduction band edge and then to the Ru cite with faster rate than hole relaxes to the Ru cite. These results are of the importance for an optimal design of nano-materials for photo-catalytic water splitting and solar energy harvesting. PMID:23795229

  9. Carbon atomic wires: charge transfer induced electron conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larade, Brian; Taylor, Jeremy; Mehrez, Hatem; Guo, Hong

    2001-03-01

    We report a first principles theoretical analysis of quantum transport properties of carbon atomic wires. Our theory is based on density functional theory within the LDA approximation, with standard norm conserving pseudopotentials defining the atomic core, and a localized orbital basis set to model the valence states. The charge density for the open atomic wire system is calculated using the non-equilibrium Green's functions. This theory is implemented in our molecular electronics modeling package McDCAL. For carbon atomic chains with different lengths in contact with metallic electrodes, we calculated linear DC conductance as a function of the chain-electrode distance and the current-voltage characteristics. Our results show that charge transfer from the electrodes to the atomic wire plays a most important role in aligning the Fermi level of the electrodes to the LUMO state of the atomic wire, inducing a substantial conductance variation due to this effect. Our results also show that the eigenstates of the carbon chain and band structure of the electrodes are of particular importance to the transport properties. We will compare our results to those obtained previously.

  10. Correcting for the Temperature Dependence of ACIS Charge Transfer Inefficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson-Brown, Jennifer; Grant, C.; Allen, G.; Plucinsky, P.; Edgar, R.

    2010-02-01

    The spectral resolution of the ACIS CCDs is substantially improved by a charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) correction algorithm included in acis_process_events. However, the behavior of the charge traps that cause CTI is temperature dependent: warmer-than-nominal focal plane temperatures reduce the effectiveness of the correction algorithm. As the insulation on the exterior of the SIM and the ACIS radiator shade have aged, the surfaces around the ACIS focal plane and radiator have become warmer, leading to FP temperatures which are sometimes a few degrees warmer than desired, particularly for observations done at spacecraft pitch angles greater than 140 degrees. The ACIS team successfully reduced average focal plane temperatures by shutting off the detector housing heater in April 2008 and a heater on the SIM was turned off in August 2009 providing additional margin, but many warm observations exist in the archive, and observations done at "tail-Sun" attitudes still often have warm focal plane temperatures. Here we review the temperature dependence of ACIS performance and present a temperature-dependent CTI correction algorithm, which we have implemented as contributed software designed to work with current CALDB products and CIAO tools. We show examples using this software to CTI-correct warm ACIS observations.

  11. Metal-Organic Coordination Number Determined Charge Transfer Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Chu, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Chun-I.; Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Kai-Jheng; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Hoffmann, Germar; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-03-01

    By the appropriate choice of head groups and molecular ligands, various metal-organic coordination geometries can be engineered. Such metal-organic structures provide different chemical environments for molecules and give us templates to study the charge redistribution within the metal-organic interface. We created various metal-organic bonding environment by growing self-assembly nanostructures of Fe-PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride) chains and networks on a Au(111) surface. Bonding environment dependent frontier molecular orbital energies are acquired by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By comparing the frontier energies with the molecular coordination environments, we conclude that the specific coordination affects the magnitude of charge transfer onto each PTCDA in the Fe-PTCDA hybridization system. H.-H. Yang, Y.-H. Chu, C.-I Lu, T.-H. Yang, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Kaun, G. Hoffmann, and M.-T. Lin, ACS Nano 7, 2814 (2013).

  12. Power dissipation in frame-transfer charge-coupled devices

    SciTech Connect

    Graeve, T.; Dereniak, E.L. )

    1993-05-01

    The power dissipation for large-area high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays is analyzed. The four mechanisms responsible for power dissipation in a CCD are carrier lift and friction within the CCD channel, load currents through the on-chip output amplifiers, capacitive charge and discharge currents through the epitaxial layer or substrate, and currents flowing through the polysilicon clock register electrodes. These processes are easily calculated for small or slow device. For large high-speed devices, on the other hand, the conventional analytical techniques are inadequate. The large device area leads to high resistive-capacitive constants in the parallel clock registers, causing clock pulses to degrade in shape as they travel along a clock electrode. A distributed system analysis based on lumped circuit parameters for each pixel is necessary to calculate the current and thus the power dissipated at each point on the surface of the CCD. A computer simulation of a standard frame-transfer CCD was performed using SPICE software. The results of the simulation indicate a much lower power dissipation than previously assumed and also point out various problems with conventional device architectures for large-area high-speed CCDs.

  13. Nanoparticle-Mediated Intervalence Charge Transfer: Core-Size Effects.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Kang, Xiongwu; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-01-01

    Two types of platinum nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with ethynylferrocene were prepared. The subnanometer-sized NPs (Pt10 eFc) showed semiconductor-like characteristics with a bandgap of about 1.0?eV, and the other was metal-like with a core size of about 2?nm (Pt314 eFc) and no significant bandgap. IR spectroscopic measurements showed a clear red-shift of the C?C and ferrocenyl ring =C-H vibrational energies with increasing particle core size owing to enhanced intraparticle charge delocalization between the particle-bound ferrocenyl moieties. Electrochemical measurements showed two pairs of voltammetric peaks owing to intervalence charge transfer between the ferrocenyl groups on the nanoparticle surface, which was apparently weaker with Pt10 eFc than with Pt314 eFc. Significantly, the former might be markedly enhanced with UV photoirradiation owing to enhanced nanoparticle electronic conductivity, whereas no apparent effects were observed with the latter. PMID:26644066

  14. Doping graphene films via chemically mediated charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Ryousuke; Bando, Masashi; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2011-12-01

    Transparent conductive films (TCFs) are critical components of a myriad of technologies including flat panel displays, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Graphene-based TCFs have attracted a lot of attention because of their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and low cost. Carrier doping of graphene would potentially improve the properties of graphene-based TCFs for practical industrial applications. However, controlling the carrier type and concentration of dopants in graphene films is challenging, especially for the synthesis of p-type films. In this article, a new method for doping graphene using the conjugated organic molecule, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), is described. Notably, TCNQ is well known as a powerful electron accepter and is expected to favor electron transfer from graphene into TCNQ molecules, thereby leading to p-type doping of graphene films. Small amounts of TCNQ drastically improved the resistivity without degradation of optical transparency. Our carrier doping method based on charge transfer has a huge potential for graphene-based TCFs.

  15. Doping graphene films via chemically mediated charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryousuke; Bando, Masashi; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive films (TCFs) are critical components of a myriad of technologies including flat panel displays, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Graphene-based TCFs have attracted a lot of attention because of their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and low cost. Carrier doping of graphene would potentially improve the properties of graphene-based TCFs for practical industrial applications. However, controlling the carrier type and concentration of dopants in graphene films is challenging, especially for the synthesis of p-type films. In this article, a new method for doping graphene using the conjugated organic molecule, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), is described. Notably, TCNQ is well known as a powerful electron accepter and is expected to favor electron transfer from graphene into TCNQ molecules, thereby leading to p-type doping of graphene films. Small amounts of TCNQ drastically improved the resistivity without degradation of optical transparency. Our carrier doping method based on charge transfer has a huge potential for graphene-based TCFs. PMID:21711624

  16. Charge transfer efficiency improvement of 4T pixel for high speed CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiangliang; Liu, Weihui; Yang, Hongjiao; Tang, Lizhen; Yang, Jia

    2015-03-01

    The charge transfer efficiency improvement method is proposed by optimizing the electrical potential distribution along the transfer path from the PPD to the FD. In this work, we present a non-uniform doped transfer transistor channel, with the adjustments to the overlap length between the CPIA layer and the transfer gate, and the overlap length between the SEN layer and transfer gate. Theory analysis and TCAD simulation results show that the density of the residual charge reduces from 1e11 /cm3 to 1e9 /cm3, and the transfer time reduces from 500 ns to 143 ns, and the charge transfer efficiency is about 77 e-/ns. This optimizing design effectively improves the charge transfer efficiency of 4T pixel and the performance of 4T high speed CMOS image sensor.

  17. Ab initio study of charge-transfer dynamics in collisions of C{sup 2+} ions with hydrogen chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsalyi, E.; Vibok, A.; Bene, E.; Halasz, G. J.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M. C.

    2011-05-15

    Ab initio quantum chemistry molecular calculations followed by a semiclassical dynamical treatment in the keV collision energy range have been developed for the study of the charge-transfer process in collisions of C{sup 2+} ions with hydrogen chloride. The mechanism has been investigated in detail in connection with avoided crossings between states involved in the reaction. A simple mechanism driven by a strong nonadiabatic coupling matrix element has been pointed out for this process. A comparative analysis with the halogen fluoride target corresponding to a similar electronic configuration shows a quite different charge-transfer mechanism leading to a very different behavior of the cross sections. Such behavior may be correlated to specific nonadiabatic interactions observed in these collision systems.

  18. Ultracold, radiative charge transfer in hybrid Yb ion-Rb atom traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Lamb, H. D. L.; Lane, I. C.; McCann, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    Ultracold hybrid ion-atom traps offer the possibility of microscopic manipulation of quantum coherences in the gas using the ion as a probe. However, inelastic processes, particularly charge transfer can be a significant process of ion loss and has been measured experimentally for the Y{{b}+} ion immersed in a Rb vapour. We use first-principles quantum chemistry codes to obtain the potential energy curves and dipole moments for the lowest-lying energy states of this complex. Calculations for the radiative decay processes cross sections and rate coefficients are presented for the total decay processes; Y{{b}+}(6s{{ }2}S)+Rb(5s{{ }2}S)\\to Yb(6{{s}2}{{ }1}S)+R{{b}+}(4{{p}6}{{ }1}S)+h? and Y{{b}+}(6s{{ }2}S)+Rb(5s{{ }2}S)\\to YbR{{b}+}({{X}1}{{? }+})+h? . Comparing the semi-classical Langevin approximation with the quantum approach, we find it provides a very good estimate of the background at higher energies. The results demonstrate that radiative decay mechanisms are important over the energy and temperature region considered. In fact, the Langevin process of ion-atom collisions dominates cold ion-atom collisions. For spin-dependent processes [1] the anisotropic magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the second-order spin-orbit coupling can play important roles, inducing coupling between the spin and the orbital motion. They measured the spin-relaxing collision rate to be approximately five orders of magnitude higher than the charge-exchange collision rate [1]. Regarding the measured radiative charge transfer collision rate, we find that our calculation is in very good agreement with experiment and with previous calculations. Nonetheless, we find no broad resonances features that might underly a strong isotope effect. In conclusion, we find, in agreement with previous theory that the isotope anomaly observed in experiment remains an open question.

  19. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Silicon and Iron Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1996-01-01

    Charge transfer at electron-volt energies between multiply charged atomic ions and neutral atoms and molecules is of considerable importance in astrophysics, plasma physics, and in particular, fusion plasmas. In the year covered by this report, several major tasks were completed. These include: (1) the re-calibration of the ion gauge to measure the absolute particle densities of H2, He, N2, and CO for our current measurements; (2) the analysis of data for charge transfer reactions of N(exp 2 plus) ion and He, H2, N2, and CO; (3) measurement and data analysis of the charge transfer reaction of (Fe(exp 2 plus) ion and H2; (4) charge transfer measurement of Fe(exp 2 plus) ion and H2; and (5) redesign and modification of the ion detection and data acquisition system for the low energy beam facility (reflection time of flight mass spectrometer) dedicated to the study of state select charge transfer.

  20. An enhanced glucose biosensor using charge transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ro; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takao, Hidekuni; Ishida, Makoto

    2008-12-01

    An enhanced glucose biosensor based on a charge transfer technique glucose sensor (CTTGS) is described and demonstrated experimentally. In the proposed CTTGS, which is accumulation method (d-gluconate+H(+)) ion perception system, the quality of output signal with "signal integration cycles" is high. With the proposed CTTGS it is possible to amplify the sensing signals without an external amplifier by using an accumulation cycle. It can be supposed that measurements of small (d-gluconate+H(+)) ion fluctuation are difficult by ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) because the theoretical maximum sensitivity is only 59 mV/pH and the small output signals are buried in the 1/f noise component of the metal-insulator-semi-conductor field-effect transistor (MISFET). Therefore, the CTTGS has many advantages, such as high sensitivity, high accuracy, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and has been successfully demonstrated using a charge transfer technique. The CTTGS exhibited excellent performance for glucose with a large span (1445 mV) and good reproducibility. Moreover, the CTTGS has good sensitivity in this range of 7.22mV/mM, a lower detection limit of about 0.01 mM/L and an upper detection limit of about 200 mM/L compared with amperometric glucose analysis which has been studied recently. Under optimum conditions, the proposed CTTGS exceeds the performance of the widely used ISFET glucose sensor. The sensitivity of the CTTGS (7.22 mV/mM) was seven times higher than that of the ISFET (1 mV/mM). Furthermore, the sensitivity obtained for human glucose levels was 29.06 mV/mM with a non-linear error of +/-0.27%; the linearity is y=0.0294x+1.8612 and R(2)=0.9999, which is acceptable for clinical application. Real sample analysis is investigated in blood glucose level by our developed CTTGS ISFET system. PMID:18640027

  1. Ultrafast charge carrier relaxation and charge transfer processes in CdS/CdTe thin films.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Bill; Dharmadasa, Ruvini; Dharmadasa, I M; Druffel, Thad; Liu, Jinjun

    2015-07-14

    Ultrafast transient absorption pump-probe spectroscopy (TAPPS) has been employed to investigate charge carrier relaxation in cadmium sulfide/cadmium telluride (CdS/CdTe) nanoparticle (NP)-based thin films and electron transfer (ET) processes between CdTe and CdS. Effects of post-growth annealing treatments to ET processes have been investigated by carrying out TAPPS experiments on three CdS/CdTe samples: as deposited, heat treated, and CdCl2 treated. Clear evidence of ET process in the treated thin films has been observed by comparing transient absorption (TA) spectra of CdS/CdTe thin films to those of CdS and CdTe. Quantitative comparison between ultrafast kinetics at different probe wavelengths unravels the ET processes and enables determination of its rate constants. Implication of the photoinduced dynamics to photovoltaic devices is discussed. PMID:26033446

  2. Conditions for Directional Charge Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dots Functionalized by Ru(II) Polypyridine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kilina, Svetlana; Cui, Peng; Fischer, Sean A; Tretiak, Sergei

    2014-10-16

    Thermodynamic conditions governing the charge transfer direction in CdSe quantum dots (QD) functionalized by either Ru(II)-trisbipyridine or black dye are studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). Compared to the energy offsets of the isolated QD and the dye, QD-dye interactions strongly stabilize dye orbitals with respect to the QD states, while the surface chemistry of the QD has a minor effect on the energy offsets. In all considered QD/dye composites, the dyes always introduce unoccupied states close to the edge of the conduction band and control the electron transfer. Negatively charged ligands and less polar solvents significantly destabilize the dye's occupied orbitals shifting them toward the very edge of the valence band, thus, providing favorite conditions for the hole transfer. Overall, variations in the dye's ligands and solvent polarity can progressively adjust the electronic structure of QD/dye composites to modify conditions for the directed charge transfer. PMID:26278611

  3. Nematic and spin-charge orders driven by hole-doping a charge-transfer insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mark H.; Wu, Si; Lawler, Michael; Paramekanti, Arun; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2014-09-01

    Recent experimental discoveries have brought a diverse set of broken symmetry states to the center stage of research on cuprate superconductors. Here, we focus on a thematic understanding of the diverse phenomenology by exploring a strong-coupling mechanism of symmetry breaking driven by frustration of antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. We achieve this through a variational study of a three-band model of the CuO2 plane with Kondo type exchange couplings between doped oxygen holes and classical copper spins. Two main findings from this strong-coupling multi-band perspective are (1) that the symmetry hierarchy of spin stripe, charge stripe, intra-unit-cell nematic order and isotropic phases are all accessible microscopically within the model, (2) many symmetry-breaking patterns compete with energy differences within a few meV per Cu atom to produce a rich phase diagram. These results indicate that the diverse phenomenology of broken-symmetry states in hole-doped AFM charge-transfer insulators may indeed arise from hole-doped frustration of antiferromagnetism.

  4. Influence of surface chemistry and charge on mineral-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Swadling, Jacob B; Suter, James L; Greenwell, H Christopher; Coveney, Peter V

    2013-02-01

    We present the results of large-scale molecular simulations, run over several tens of nanoseconds, of 25-mer sequences of single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) in bulk water and at the surface of three hydrated positively charged MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) minerals. The three LDHs differ in surface charge density, through varying the number of isomorphic Al substitutions. Over the course of the simulations, RNA adsorbs tightly to the LDH surface through electrostatic interactions between the charged RNA phosphate groups and the alumina charge sites present in the LDH sheet. The RNA strands arrange parallel to the surface with the base groups aligning normal to the surface and exposed to the bulk aqueous region. This templating effect makes LDH a candidate for amplifying the population of a known RNA sequence from a small number of RNAs. The structure and interactions of RNA at a positively charged, hydroxylated LDH surface were compared with those of RNA at a positively charged calcium montmorillonite surface, allowing us to establish the comparative effect of complexation and water structure at hydroxide and silicate surfaces. The systems were studied by computing radial distribution functions, atom density plots, and radii of gyration, as well as visualization. An observation pertinent to the role of these minerals in prebiotic chemistry is that, for a given charge density on the mineral surface, different genetic sequences of RNA adopt different configurations. PMID:23302032

  5. Charge remote fragmentation in electron capture and electron transfer dissociations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojuan; Lin, Cheng; Han, Liang; Costello, Catherine E.; OConnor, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary fragmentations of three synthetic peptides (human ?A crystallin peptide 1-11, the deamidated form of human ?B2 crystallin peptide 4-14, and amyloid ? peptide 25-35) were studied in both electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mode. In ECD, in addition to c and z ion formations, charge remote fragmentations (CRF) of z ions were abundant, resulting in internal fragment formation or partial/entire side chain losses from amino acids, sometimes several residues away from the backbone cleavage site, and to some extent multiple side chain losses. The internal fragments were observed in peptides with basic residues located in the middle of the sequences, which was different from most tryptic peptides with basic residues located at the C-terminus. These secondary cleavages were initiated by hydrogen abstraction at the ?-, ?-, or ?-position of the amino acid side chain. In comparison, ETD generates fewer CRF fragments than ECD. This secondary cleavage study will facilitate ECD/ETD spectra interpretation, and help de novo sequencing and database searching. PMID:20171118

  6. Thermoelectric Properties of Organic Charge-Transfer Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahara, H.; Maesato, M.; Asahi, R.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.

    2009-07-01

    We measured the thermoelectric (TE) properties of compressed pellets of various organic charge-transfer (CT) complexes, such as (TTF)(TCNQ), (BO)(TCNQ) and (ET)2(HCNAL), where TTF, TCNQ, BO, ET, and HCNAL represent tetrathiafulvalene, tetracyanoquinodimethane, bis(ethylenedioxy)-tetrathiafulvalene, bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, and 2,5-dicyano- 3,6-dihydroxy- p-benzoquinone, respectively. The metallic (TTF)(TCNQ) and semiconducting (BO)(TCNQ) complexes showed Seebeck coefficients ( S) of -18 ?V/K and -30 ?V/K at 300 K, respectively. On the contrary, the Mott insulator (ET)2(HCNAL) was found to show a rather high absolute S (-116 ?V/K at 300 K), the magnitude of which is comparable to those of the conventional inorganic TE materials. With increasing temperature (170 K to 300 K), the electrical conductivity was increased about two orders of magnitude while the S value was nearly constant. These results suggest that S values could be determined mainly by spin entropy (configurations) of carriers in the Mott insulator (ET)2(HCNAL). The magnitude of the observed S value was compared with that derived from a theoretical model (generalized Heikes formula).

  7. Quantum ferroelectricity in charge-transfer complex crystals

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Minami, Nao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Quantum phase transition achieved by fine tuning the continuous phase transition down to zero kelvin is a challenge for solid state science. Critical phenomena distinct from the effects of thermal fluctuations can materialize when the electronic, structural or magnetic long-range order is perturbed by quantum fluctuations between degenerate ground states. Here we have developed chemically pure tetrahalo-p-benzoquinones of n iodine and 4–n bromine substituents (QBr4–nIn, n=0–4) to search for ferroelectric charge-transfer complexes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Among them, TTF–QBr2I2 exhibits a ferroelectric neutral–ionic phase transition, which is continuously controlled over a wide temperature range from near-zero kelvin to room temperature under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum critical behaviour is accompanied by a much larger permittivity than those of other neutral–ionic transition compounds, such as well-known ferroelectric complex of TTF–QCl4 and quantum antiferroelectric of dimethyl–TTF–QBr4. By contrast, TTF–QBr3I complex, another member of this compound family, shows complete suppression of the ferroelectric spin-Peierls-type phase transition. PMID:26076656

  8. Ammonium transporters achieve charge transfer by fragmenting their substrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihao; Orabi, Esam A; Baday, Sefer; Bernèche, Simon; Lamoureux, Guillaume

    2012-06-27

    Proteins of the Amt/MEP family facilitate ammonium transport across the membranes of plants, fungi, and bacteria and are essential for growth in nitrogen-poor environments. Some are known to facilitate the diffusion of the neutral NH(3), while others, notably in plants, transport the positively charged NH(4)(+). On the basis of the structural data for AmtB from Escherichia coli , we illustrate the mechanism by which proteins from the Amt family can sustain electrogenic transport. Free energy calculations show that NH(4)(+) is stable in the AmtB pore, reaching a binding site from which it can spontaneously transfer a proton to a pore-lining histidine residue (His168). The substrate diffuses down the pore in the form of NH(3), while the excess proton is cotransported through a highly conserved hydrogen-bonded His168-His318 pair. This constitutes a novel permeation mechanism that confers to the histidine dyad an essential mechanistic role that was so far unknown. PMID:22631217

  9. Charge-transfer at silver/phthalocyanines interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgoi, Mihaela; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2006-05-01

    Valence band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) were employed to determine the occupied and unoccupied density of states upon silver deposition onto layers of two phthalocyanines (H 2Pc and CuPc). The two different Pc molecules give rise to very distinct behaviour already during the initial stage of silver deposition. While in the CuPc case no shift occurs in the energy levels, the H 2Pc highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are shifting simultaneously by 0.3 eV, i.e., the HOMO shifts away from the Fermi level while LUMO shifts towards the Fermi level. As the silver quantity increases the HOMO levels of both Pcs are shifting towards the Fermi level. When the Fermi level is resolved in the VB spectra, the characteristic features of H 2Pc and CuPc are smeared out to some extent. Shifts in HOMO and LUMO energy positions as well as changes in line shapes are discussed in terms of charge-transfer and chemical reactions at the interfaces.

  10. Charge-transfer complexes of 4-methylpiperidine with ?- and ?-acceptors.

    PubMed

    AlQaradawi, Siham Y; Mostafa, Adel; Bazzi, Hassan S

    2015-01-25

    The solid charge-transfer (CT) molecular complexes formed in the reaction of the electron donor 4-methylpiperidine (4MP) with the ?-electron acceptor iodine and ?-acceptors 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and 2,4,4,6-tetrabromo-2,5-cyclohexadienone (TBCHD) have been investigated spectrophotometrically in chloroform at 25 C. These were characterized through electronic and infrared spectra as well as elemental and thermal analysis. The obtained results showed that the formed solid CT-complexes have the formulas [(4MP) I](+)I(-)3, [(4MP)(DDQ)2] and [(4MP)(TBCHD)] and with TCNQ the adduct [TCMPQDM] is obtained through N-substitution reaction in full agreement with the known reaction stoichiometries in solution as well as the elemental measurements. The formation constant KCT, molar extinction coefficient ?CT, free energy change ?G(0), CT energy ECT and the ionization potential Ip have been calculated for the CT-complexes [(4MP) I](+)I(-)3, [(4MP)(DDQ)2] and [(4MP)(TBCHD)]. PMID:25123938

  11. Quantum ferroelectricity in charge-transfer complex crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Minami, Nao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    Quantum phase transition achieved by fine tuning the continuous phase transition down to zero kelvin is a challenge for solid state science. Critical phenomena distinct from the effects of thermal fluctuations can materialize when the electronic, structural or magnetic long-range order is perturbed by quantum fluctuations between degenerate ground states. Here we have developed chemically pure tetrahalo-p-benzoquinones of n iodine and 4-n bromine substituents (QBr4-nIn, n=0-4) to search for ferroelectric charge-transfer complexes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Among them, TTF-QBr2I2 exhibits a ferroelectric neutral-ionic phase transition, which is continuously controlled over a wide temperature range from near-zero kelvin to room temperature under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum critical behaviour is accompanied by a much larger permittivity than those of other neutral-ionic transition compounds, such as well-known ferroelectric complex of TTF-QCl4 and quantum antiferroelectric of dimethyl-TTF-QBr4. By contrast, TTF-QBr3I complex, another member of this compound family, shows complete suppression of the ferroelectric spin-Peierls-type phase transition.

  12. Quantum ferroelectricity in charge-transfer complex crystals.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Minami, Nao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Quantum phase transition achieved by fine tuning the continuous phase transition down to zero kelvin is a challenge for solid state science. Critical phenomena distinct from the effects of thermal fluctuations can materialize when the electronic, structural or magnetic long-range order is perturbed by quantum fluctuations between degenerate ground states. Here we have developed chemically pure tetrahalo-p-benzoquinones of n iodine and 4-n bromine substituents (QBr4-nIn, n=0-4) to search for ferroelectric charge-transfer complexes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Among them, TTF-QBr2I2 exhibits a ferroelectric neutral-ionic phase transition, which is continuously controlled over a wide temperature range from near-zero kelvin to room temperature under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum critical behaviour is accompanied by a much larger permittivity than those of other neutral-ionic transition compounds, such as well-known ferroelectric complex of TTF-QCl4 and quantum antiferroelectric of dimethyl-TTF-QBr4. By contrast, TTF-QBr3I complex, another member of this compound family, shows complete suppression of the ferroelectric spin-Peierls-type phase transition. PMID:26076656

  13. Density Functional Theory studies of Epitaxial Charge Transfer Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Ganesh, P.; Kelly, Simon; Sumpter, Bobby J.; Schlueter, John A.; Maksymovich, Petro

    2013-03-01

    Some of the fulvalene-based charge transfer salts (CTS) become superconducting in bulk. The basic physics and ways to control it has been explored by changing the intermolecular spacing using both chemical substitution and pressure, but the fixed stoichiometry limit the occupation of the filled states to what is naturally available. Recent experiments suggest growth of 2D epitaxial layers of CTS allowing stoichiometric and geometric control of the electronic structure, thereby leading to engineered superconducting interfaces. In a combined experiment and theory study, we provide new insight to understand the interplay between structure, stoichiometry and electronic-structure of epitaxially grown (ET)2SF5CH2CF2SO3 salt on Ag(111) surface. Density functional theory studies show that the cohesive energy of the 2D salts are very high, in spite of strong bonding to the underlying Ag surface via Ag-S metallic bonds, and provide a rationale for off-stoichiometric growth with different electronic structures as seen in our experiments, such as 3:1 and a 1:1 cation:anion stoichiometry, necessary for a monolayer coverage and different from the bulk 2:1 stoichiometry. We also explore the role of van der Waals interactions for structural stability. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, sponsored at ORNL by the Division of User Facilities, U.S. DOE.

  14. Dynamic Peptide Library for the Discovery of Charge Transfer Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Berdugo, Cristina; Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Javid, Nadeem; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F; Ulijn, Rein V

    2015-11-25

    Coupling of peptide self-assembly to dynamic sequence exchange provides a useful approach for the discovery of self-assembling materials. In here, we demonstrate the discovery and optimization of aqueous, gel-phase nanostructures based on dynamically exchanging peptide sequences that self-select to maximize charge transfer of n-type semiconducting naphthalenediimide (NDI)-dipeptide bioconjugates with various ?-electron-rich donors (dialkoxy/hydroxy/amino-naphthalene or pyrene derivatives). These gel-phase peptide libraries are characterized by spectroscopy (UV-vis and fluorescence), microscopy (TEM), HPLC, and oscillatory rheology and it is found that, of the various peptide sequences explored (tyrosine Y-NDI with tyrosine Y, phenylalanine F, leucine L, valine V, alanine A or glycine G-NH2), the optimum sequence is tyrosine-phenylalanine in each case; however, both its absolute and relative yield amplification is dictated by the properties of the donor component, indicating cooperativity of peptide sequence and donor/acceptor pairs in assembly. The methodology provides an in situ discovery tool for nanostructures that enable dynamic interfacing of supramolecular electronics with aqueous (biological) systems. PMID:26540455

  15. Charge transfer vibronic transitions in uranyl tetrachloride compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guokui; Deifel, Nicholas P.; Cahill, Christopher L.; Zhurov, Vladimir V.; Pinkerton, A. Alan

    2012-01-01

    The electronic and vibronic interactions of uranyl (UO₂)2+ in three tetrachloride crystals have been investigated with spectroscopic experiments and theoretical modeling. Analysis and simulation of the absorption and photoluminescence spectra have resulted in a quantitative understanding of the charge transfer vibronic transitions of uranyl in the crystals. The spectra obtained at liquid helium temperature consist of extremely narrow zero-phonon lines (ZPL) and vibronic bands. The observed ZPLs are assigned to the first group of the excited states formed by electronic excitation from the 3σ ground state into the fδ,Φ orbitals of uranyl. The Huang–Rhys theory of vibronic coupling is modified successfully for simulating both the absorption and luminescence spectra. It is shown that only vibronic coupling to the axially symmetric stretching mode is Franck–Condon allowed, whereas other modes are involved through coupling with the symmetric stretching mode. The energies of electronic transitions, vibration frequencies of various local modes, and changes in the O=U=O bond length of uranyl in different electronic states and in different coordination geometries are evaluated in empirical simulations of the optical spectra. Multiple uranyl sites derived from the resolution of a superlattice at low temperature are resolved by crystallographic characterization and time- and energy-resolved spectroscopic studies. The present empirical simulation provides insights into fundamental understanding of uranyl electronic interactions and is useful for quantitative characterization of uranyl coordination.

  16. Charge transfer vibronic transitions in uranyl tetrachloride compounds;

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G. K.; Deifel, N. P.; Cahill, C. L.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic and vibronic interactions of uranyl (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+} in three tetrachloride crystals have been investigated with spectroscopic experiments and theoretical modeling. Analysis and simulation of the absorption and photoluminescence spectra have resulted in a quantitative understanding of the charge transfer vibronic transitions of uranyl in the crystals. The spectra obtained at liquid helium temperature consist of extremely narrow zero-phonon lines (ZPL) and vibronic bands. The observed ZPLs are assigned to the first group of the excited states formed by electronic excitation from the 3{sigma} ground state into the f{sub {delta}{phi}}, orbitals of uranyl. The Huang-Rhys theory of vibronic coupling is modified successfully for simulating both the absorption and luminescence spectra. It is shown that only vibronic coupling to the axially symmetric stretching mode is Franck-Condon allowed, whereas other modes are involved through coupling with the symmetric stretching mode. The energies of electronic transitions, vibration frequencies of various local modes, and changes in the O=U=O bond length of uranyl in different electronic states and in different coordination geometries are evaluated in empirical simulations of the optical spectra. Multiple uranyl sites derived from the resolution of a superlattice at low temperature are resolved by crystallographic characterization and time- and energy-resolved spectroscopic studies. The present empirical simulation provides insights into fundamental understanding of uranyl electronic interactions and is useful for quantitative characterization of uranyl coordination.

  17. Pseudoparticle approach for charge-transferring molecule-surface collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, Johannes; Bronold, Franz Xaver; Fehske, Holger

    2012-09-01

    Based on a semiempirical generalized Anderson-Newns model, we construct a pseudoparticle description for electron emission due to deexcitation of metastable molecules at surfaces. The pseudoparticle approach allows us to treat resonant charge-transfer and Auger processes on an equal footing, as it is necessary when both channels are open. This is, for instance, the case when a metastable N2(3Σu+) molecule hits a diamond surface. Using nonequilibrium Green functions and physically motivated approximations to the self-energies of the Dyson equations, we derive a system of rate equations for the probabilities with which the metastable N2(3Σu+) molecule, the molecular ground state N2(1Σg+), and the negative ion N2-(2Πg) can be found in the course of the scattering event. From the rate equations, we also obtain the spectrum of the emitted electron and the secondary electron emission coefficient. Our numerical results indicate the resonant tunneling process undermining the source of the Auger channel, which therefore contributes only a few percent to the secondary electron emission.

  18. Bonding and charge transfer in nitrogen-donor uranyl complexes: insights from NEXAFS spectra.

    PubMed

    Pemmaraju, C D; Copping, Roy; Wang, Shuao; Janousch, Markus; Teat, Simon J; Tyliszcak, Tolek; Canning, Andrew; Shuh, David K; Prendergast, David

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of three newly synthesized nitrogen-donor uranyl complexes [(UO2)(H2bbp)Cl2], [(UO)2(Hbbp)(Py)Cl], and [(UO2)(bbp)(Py)2] using a combination of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy experiments and simulations. The complexes studied feature derivatives of the tunable tridentate N-donor ligand 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazyl)pyridine (bbp) and exhibit discrete chemical differences in uranyl coordination. The sensitivity of the N K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum to local bonding and charge transfer is exploited to systematically investigate the evolution of structural as well as electronic properties across the three complexes. A thorough interpretation of the measured experimental spectra is achieved via ab initio NEXAFS simulations based on the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach and enables the assignment of spectral features to electronic transitions on specific absorbing sites. We find that ligand-uranyl bonding leads to a signature blue shift in the N K-edge absorption onset, resulting from charge displacement toward the uranyl, while changes in the equatorial coordination shell of the uranyl lead to more subtle modulations in the spectral features. Theoretical simulations show that the flexible local chemistry at the nonbinding imidazole-N sites of the bbp ligand is also reflected in the NEXAFS spectra and highlights potential synthesis strategies to improve selectivity. In particular, we find that interactions of the bbp ligand with solvent molecules can lead to changes in ligand-uranyl binding geometry while also modulating the K-edge absorption. Our results suggest that NEXAFS spectroscopy combined with first-principles interpretation can offer insights into the coordination chemistry of analogous functionalized conjugated ligands. PMID:25330350

  19. Impact of Charge-Transfer Device Technology on Computer Systems. Computer Science & Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnar, Robert B. J.

    This document assesses the status of charge-transfer device technology as displayed by foreign research and manufacturing facilities for a period up to September 1975. Capabilities and accomplishments of charge-transfer device research facilities in Japan, Canada, Great Britain, The Netherlands, The Federal Republic of Germany, and the United

  20. Wire transfer of charge packets using a CCD-BBD structure for charge-domain signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1991-01-01

    A structure for the virtual transfer of charge packets across metal wires is described theoretically and is experimentally verified. The structure is a hybrid of charge-coupled device (CCD) and bucket-brigade device (BBD) elements and permits the topological crossing of charge-domain signals in low power signal processing circuits. A test vehicle consisting of 8-, 32-, and 96-stage delay lines of various geometries implemented in a double-poly, double-metal foundry process is used to characterize the wire-transfer operation. Transfer efficiency ranging between 0.998 and 0.999 is obtained for surface n-channel devices with clock cycle times in the range from 40 ns to 0.3 ms. Transfer efficiency as high as 0.9999 is obtained for buried n-channel devices. Good agreement is found between experiment and simulation.

  1. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  2. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... charge of the transfer or the cleaning under Subpart C of 33 CFR part 155; (3) When cargo regulated under this part is due for transfer, the person in charge of the transfer has received special training in... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures 153.957 Persons in charge...

  3. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... charge of the transfer or the cleaning under Subpart C of 33 CFR part 155; (3) When cargo regulated under this part is due for transfer, the person in charge of the transfer has received special training in... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures 153.957 Persons in charge...

  4. Charge Transfer Process During Collision of Riming Graupel Pellet with Small Ice Crystals within a Thundercloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Saswati; De, Utpal K.; Goswami, K.; Jones, Linwood

    1999-01-01

    A charge transfer process during the collision of a riming graupel pellet and an ice-crystal at low temperature is proposed. During riming, the surface structure of graupel deviates from perfect crystalline structure. A concept of quasi-solid layer (QSL) formation on the surface is introduced. This QSL contains defects formed during riming. In absence of impurities, positively charged X-defect abundance is considered in the outer layer. These defects are assumed to be the charge carriers during the charge transfer process. Some part of the QSL is stripped off by the colliding ice crystals, which thereby gain some positive charge, leaving the graupel pellet negatively charged. With the proposed model, fC to pC of charge transfer is observed per collision. A transition temperature between -10 C to -15 C is also noted beyond which the QSL concept does not hold. This transition temperature is dependent on the bulk liquid water content of the cloud.

  5. Model-independent determination of the degree of charge transfer in molecular and metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Joo, Bora; Kim, Eung-Gun

    2015-10-18

    Quantifying charge transfer is a challenging task because it requires that the calculated degree of charge transfer be both consistent with chemical intuition and independent of charge analysis methods. Based on DFT results of molecular and transition metal complexes in organic electronics, we show that both requirements can be fulfilled by choosing a small active space of electrons for the analysis. Our findings hold for inter- and intramolecular processes whether in the ground state or during excitation. PMID:26324400

  6. Charge-transfer excitons at organic semiconductor surfaces and interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X-Y; Yang, Q; Muntwiler, M

    2009-11-17

    When a material of low dielectric constant is excited electronically from the absorption of a photon, the Coulomb attraction between the excited electron and the hole gives rise to an atomic H-like quasi-particle called an exciton. The bound electron-hole pair also forms across a material interface, such as the donor/acceptor interface in an organic heterojunction solar cell; the result is a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. On the basis of typical dielectric constants of organic semiconductors and the sizes of conjugated molecules, one can estimate that the binding energy of a CT exciton across a donor/acceptor interface is 1 order of magnitude greater than k(B)T at room temperature (k(B) is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature). How can the electron-hole pair escape this Coulomb trap in a successful photovoltaic device? To answer this question, we use a crystalline pentacene thin film as a model system and the ubiquitous image band on the surface as the electron acceptor. We observe, in time-resolved two-photon photoemission, a series of CT excitons with binding energies < or = 0.5 eV below the image band minimum. These CT excitons are essential solutions to the atomic H-like Schrodinger equation with cylindrical symmetry. They are characterized by principal and angular momentum quantum numbers. The binding energy of the lowest lying CT exciton with 1s character is more than 1 order of magnitude higher than k(B)T at room temperature. The CT(1s) exciton is essentially the so-called exciplex and has a very low probability of dissociation. We conclude that hot CT exciton states must be involved in charge separation in organic heterojunction solar cells because (1) in comparison to CT(1s), hot CT excitons are more weakly bound by the Coulomb potential and more easily dissociated, (2) density-of-states of these hot excitons increase with energy in the Coulomb potential, and (3) electronic coupling from a donor exciton to a hot CT exciton across the D/A interface can be higher than that to CT(1s) as expected from energy resonance arguments. We suggest a design principle in organic heterojunction solar cells: there must be strong electronic coupling between molecular excitons in the donor and hot CT excitons across the D/A interface. PMID:19378979

  7. Role of the charge transfer state in organic donor-acceptor solar cells.

    PubMed

    Deibel, Carsten; Strobel, Thomas; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Charge transfer complexes are interfacial charge pairs residing at the donor-acceptor heterointerface in organic solar cell. Experimental evidence shows that it is crucial for the photovoltaic performance, as both photocurrent and open circuit voltage directly depend on it. For charge photogeneration, charge transfer complexes represent the intermediate but essential step between exciton dissotiation and charge extraction. Recombination of free charges to the ground state is via the bound charge transfer state before being lost to the ground state. In terms of the open circuit voltage, its maximum achievable value is determined by the energy of the charge transfer state. An important question is whether or not maximum photocurrent and maximum open circuit voltage can be achieved simultaneously. The impact of increasing the CT energy-in order to raise the open circuit voltage, but lowering the kinetic excess energy of the CT complexes at the same time-on the charge photogeneration will accordingly be discussed. Clearly, the fundamental understanding of the processes involving the charge transfer state is essential for an optimisation of the performance of organic solar cells. PMID:20803527

  8. Charge transfer processes in proton-helium collisions: The validity of the first Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Yu V.; Galstyan, A.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Houamer, S.; Bulychev, A. A.; Schffler, M. S.; Kim, H.-K.; Titze, J. N.; Jahnke, T.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Schmidt-Bcking, H.; Drner, R.

    2015-04-01

    The validity of the Born series expansion for the charge transfer reactions is studied in the case of a proton-helium collision. Three different channels are considered, namely the charge transfer, transfer excitation and transfer ionization. The differential cross sections and the contributions from different charge transfer mechanisms within various Born approximations are compared with experimental data. The role of the electron-electron correlations in the initial helium state is discussed in detail. It is shown that the first Born approximation is valid in the case of reactions under consideration, provided very small scattering angles are involved and the proton energy is >500 keV. It is also shown that the electron-electron correlations in the initial helium state are important only in transfer excitation and transfer ionization reactions.

  9. Charge separation and energy transfer in a caroteno-C60 dyad: photoinduced electron transfer from the carotenoid excited states.

    PubMed

    Berera, Rudi; Moore, Gary F; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Kodis, Gerdenis; Liddell, Paul A; Gervaldo, Miguel; van Grondelle, Rienk; Kennis, John T M; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2006-12-01

    We have designed and synthesized a molecular dyad comprising a carotenoid pigment linked to a fullerene derivative (C-C(60)) in which the carotenoid acts both as an antenna for the fullerene and as an electron transfer partner. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was carried out on the dyad in order to investigate energy transfer and charge separation pathways and efficiencies upon excitation of the carotenoid moiety. When the dyad is dissolved in hexane energy transfer from the carotenoid S(2) state to the fullerene takes place on an ultrafast (sub 100 fs) timescale and no intramolecular electron transfer was detected. When the dyad is dissolved in toluene, the excited carotenoid decays from its excited states both by transferring energy to the fullerene and by forming a charge-separated C.+ -C(60).- . The charge-separated state is also formed from the excited fullerene following energy transfer from the carotenoid. These pathways lead to charge separation on the subpicosecond time scale (possibly from the S(2) state and the vibrationally excited S(1) state of the carotenoid), on the ps time scale (5.5 ps) from the relaxed S(1) state of the carotenoid, and from the excited state of C(60) in 23.5 ps. The charge-separated state lives for 1.3 ns and recombines to populate both the low-lying carotenoid triplet state and the dyad ground state. PMID:17136280

  10. Coherence in charge and energy transfer in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander J.; Peskin, Uri; Galperin, Michael

    2013-11-01

    We consider the effects of dephasing on field-induced coherent charge and energy transport in molecular junctions. Within generic models we show that dephasing controls the relative intensities of energy and charge fluxes, and that the dependence of the energy flux on the dephasing rate is nonmonotonic. We further demonstrate the possibility for laser-controlled charge-energy separation in multiterminal molecular junctions, a prerequisite for engineering low-heating stable nanoscale devices.

  11. The role of polarization and charge transfer in the solvation of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, A. van der; Merz, K.M. Jr.

    1999-10-06

    The authors demonstrate that charge transfer from the protein to the first solvation layer is a significant contributor to the total solvation interaction energy between water and major cold shock protein A (CspA). Interestingly, polarization and electrostatic interactions are predicted to be less important in protein-water interactions than charge transfer. Charge transfer is most prominent for charge residues, but also occurs between water molecules and the hydrophilic side chains and the carbonyl and amide groups of the main chain. The route of charge transfer is via hydrogen bonds between protein and solvent. These results are consistent with recent NMR and X-ray observations, which show that hydrogen bonding interactions have a significant covalent character as opposed to the traditional purely electrostatic view.

  12. Investigation of charge transfer kinetics of Li-Intercalation in LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heubner, C.; Schneider, M.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies point out contradictions between classical Butler-Volmer kinetics and the charge transfer kinetics of lithium intercalation in host materials. In this work the charge transfer kinetics of lithium intercalation in LiFePO4 are investigated using current controlled electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with varying amplitudes. The results point out a significant impact of ohmic and diffusion contributions to the total overpotential which is normally extracted from constant current charging - discharging experiments to determine Tafel-plots, exchange currents and charge transfer coefficients. By the accurate separation of the activation overpotential from the total overpotential the authors are able to show that the charge transfer kinetics of lithium intercalation in LiFePO4 perfectly obey the Butler-Volmer equation.

  13. Conducting molecular nanostructures assembled from charge-transfer complexes grafted onto silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stires, John C., IV; Kasibhatla, Bala S. T.; Siegel, Dustin S.; Kwong, Jinny C.; Caballero, Jonathan B.; Labonte, Andre P.; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Datta, Supriyo; Kubiak, Clifford P.

    2003-12-01

    Heterodimeric electon-donor/electron-acceptor charge-transfer complexes chemisorbed onto Au(111) by attachment of the electron-donor to the surface have been characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and Kelvin probe experiments. Conductance measurements exhibit nearly Ohmic I(V) responses at low bias. The electrical properties of the charge-transfer complex are vastly different than those of the electron-donor alone which exhibits insulating behavior at low bias. In an extension of this work, strategies are being developed for attachment of charge-transfer complexes to semiconducting or insulating surfaces. Fabrication of nanoscale molecular electronic devices is being investigated by attaching one component of a charge-transfer complex to a silicon surface by chemically directed self-assembly. The single component-functionalized surface is then used as a substrate on which the second component of the charge-transfer complex is deposited by the atomic force microscopy method, dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). Derivatives of hexamethylbenze (electron-donor) with terminal olefins attached to crystalline silicon surfaces via hydrosilylation form monolayer-functionalized silicon surfaces that are expected to have insulating properties. Well-defined features can be "drawn" onto the donor-functionalized surfaces by DPN using tetracyanoethylene (electron-acceptor) as the "ink." The resulting charge-transfer complex nanostructures have conducting properties suitable for device function and are flanked by an insulating monolayer, thus creating "wires" made from charge-transfer complexes.

  14. Effect of Interlayer Coupling on Ultrafast Charge Transfer from Semiconducting Molecules to Mono- and Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ti; Liu, Qingfeng; Caraiani, Claudiu; Zhang, Yupeng; Wu, Judy; Chan, Wai-Lun

    2015-07-01

    Graphene is used as flexible electrodes in various optoelectronic devices. In these applications, ultrafast charge transfer from semiconducting light absorbers to graphene can impact the overall device performance. Here, we propose a mechanism in which the charge-transfer rate can be controlled by varying the number of graphene layers and their stacking. Using an organic semiconducting molecule as a light absorber, the charge-transfer rate to graphene is measured by using time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Compared to graphite, the charge transfer to monolayer graphene is about 2 times slower. Surprisingly, the charge transfer to A -B -stacked bilayer graphene is slower than that to both monolayer graphene and graphite. This anomalous behavior disappears when the two graphene layers are randomly stacked. The observation is explained by a charge-transfer model that accounts for the band-structure difference in mono- and bilayer graphene, which predicts that the charge-transfer rate depends nonintuitively on both the layer number and stacking of graphene.

  15. Interfacial charge transfer dynamics in small molecule-modified TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varaganti, Shankar; Mghangha, Edwin; Hasan, Jameel A.; Ramakrishna, Guda

    2010-08-01

    Direct molecule-semiconductor interfacial charge transfer interactions have received considerable research attention for their applications in various fields. In this study, the dynamics of molecule-TiO2 interfacial charge transfer complexes is monitored with femtosecond fluorescence upconversion and transient absorption. Small molecules (catechol, dopamine, benzhydroxamic acid, acetyl acetonate and salicylate)-modified TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and the complexation is followed with optical absorption measurements. Although little visible luminescence is observed from these molecule- TiO2 nanoparticles, ultrafast emission in broad range of wavelengths is detected with fluorescence upconversion which is ascribed to the interfacial charge transfer emission. The charge transfer emission arose out of the radiative recombination of the electrons in the conduction band of TiO2 with holes in the molecule. Femtosecond fluorescence anisotropy measurements have shown that the interfacial charge-transfer excitation is mostly a localized one for catechol, dopamine and benzhydroxamate modified TiO2 nanoparticles. However, the possibility of delocalized charge-transfer excitations is observed for salicylate and acetyl acetonate-TiO2 nanoparticles. The decay of the charge transfer emission is ascribed to the relaxation of the localized states to delocalized states in the TiO2 conduction band. Transient absorption measurements have shown long-lived charge separation in the case of surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles. Further measurements on the influence of charge-transfer excitations on the interfacial electron transfer in surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles are being carried out.

  16. Molecular orbital (SCF-X-α-SW) theory of Fe2+-Mn3+, Fe3+-Mn2+, and Fe3+-Mn3+ charge transfer and magnetic exchange in oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-metal charge-transfer and magnetic exchange interactions have important effects on the optical spectra, crystal chemistry, and physics of minerals. Previous molecular orbital calculations have provided insight on the nature of Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ charge-transfer transitions in oxides and silicates. In this work, spin-unrestricted molecular orbital calculations on (FeMnO10) clusters are used to study the nature of magnetic exchange and electron delocalization (charge transfer) associated with Fe3+-Mn2+, Fe3+-Mn3+, and Fe2+-Mn3+ interactions in oxides and silicates. 

  17. A bifurcated molecular pentad capable of sequential electronic energy transfer and intramolecular charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Anthony; Stachelek, Patrycja; Sutter, Alexandra; Ziessel, Raymond

    2015-10-21

    An extended molecular array, comprising three distinct types of chromophores and two additional redox-active subunits, that harvests photons over most of the visible spectral range has been synthesized and characterised. The array exhibits a rich variety of electrochemical waves when examined by cyclic voltammetry but assignment can be made on the basis of control compounds and molecular orbital calculations. Stepwise electronic energy transfer occurs along the molecular axis, corresponding to a gradient of excitation energies, to populate the lowest-energy excited state of the ultimate acceptor. The latter species, which absorbs and emits in the far-red region, enters into light-induced charge transfer with a terminal amine group. The array is relatively stable under illumination with white light but degrades slowly via a series of well-defined steps, the first of which is autocatalytic. One of the main attributes of this system is the capability to harvest an unusually high fraction of sunlight while providing protection against exposure to UV light. PMID:26381219

  18. The coordination and atom transfer chemistry of titanium porphyrin complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, J.A.

    1993-11-05

    Preparation, characterization, and reactivity of ({eta}{sup 2}- alkyne)(meso-tetratolylpoprphrinato)titanium(II) complexes are described, along with inetermetal oxygen atom transfer reactions involving Ti(IV) and Ti(III) porphyrin complexes. The {eta}{sup 2}- alkyne complexes are prepared by reaction of (TTP)TiCl{sub 2} with LiAlH{sub 4} in presence of alkyne. Structure of (OEP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-Ph-C{triple_bond}C-Ph) (OEP=octaethylporphryin) was determined by XRD. The compounds undergo simple substitution to displace the alkyne and produce doubly substituted complexes. Structure of (TTP)Ti(4-picoline){sub 2} was also determined by XRD. Reaction of (TTP)Ti{double_bond}O with (OEP)Ti-Cl yields intermetal O/Cl exchange, which is a one-electron redox process mediated by O atom transfer. Also a zero-electron redox process mediated by atom transfer is observed when (TTP)TiCl{sub 2} is reacted with (OEP)Ti{double_bond}O.

  19. Planarized Intramolecular Charge Transfer: A Concept for Fluorophores with both Large Stokes Shifts and High Fluorescence Quantum Yields.

    PubMed

    Haberhauer, Gebhard; Gleiter, Rolf; Burkhart, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Fluorophores were successfully used in several areas of chemistry and biochemistry. For many purposes, however, it is necessary that the fluorescence compound features a high fluorescence quantum yield as well as a large Stokes shift. The latter is, for example, achieved by the use of a twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) compound, which shows a twisted geometry in the excited state. However, the higher the twisting is, the lower becomes in general the fluorescence quantum yield as the resulting emission from the twisted state is forbidden. In order to escape this dilemma, we propose the model of planarized intramolecular charge-transfer (PLICT) states. These compounds are completely twisted in the ground states and planar in the excited states. By means of quantum chemical calculations (time-dependent (TD)-B3LYP and CC2) and experimental studies, we could demonstrate that 1-aminoindole and its derivatives form photoinduced PLICT states. They show both very large Stokes shifts (ν˜ =9000-13 500 cm(-1) , i.e., λ=100-150 nm) and high fluorescence quantum yields. These characteristics and their easy availability starting from the corresponding indoles, make them very attractive for the use as optical switches in various fields of chemistry as well as biological probes. PMID:26670768

  20. Direct observation of ion transfer in contact charging between a metal and a polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizes, H. A.; Conwell, E. M.; Salamida, D. P.

    1990-04-01

    Triboelectric charging between metals and insulators is usually thought to involve electron transfer. Doping some polymers with a small amount of salt can significantly change their charging properties, even reversing the sign to which they charge upon contact with a given metal. We show by means of secondary-ion mass spectrometry that ions of the salt are transferred across the interface in contacts between a doped polymer and a metal. Specifically, we observe a transfer of bromine ions when polystyrene doped with a small amount of the salt cetylpyridinium bromide is contacted to an indium surface.

  1. An electron energy-loss study of picene and chrysene based charge transfer salts

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Eric; Mahns, Benjamin; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin

    2015-05-14

    The electronic excitation spectra of charge transfer compounds built from the hydrocarbons picene and chrysene, and the strong electron acceptors F{sub 4}TCNQ (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) and TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethan) have been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The corresponding charge transfer compounds have been prepared by co-evaporation of the pristine constituents. We demonstrate that all investigated combinations support charge transfer, which results in new electronic excitation features at low energy. This might represent a way to synthesize low band gap organic semiconductors.

  2. Crystallography and Ellipsometry of Organic Charge Transfer Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wan-Jin

    Five crystal structures were determined. In the orange 1:1 complex between methyl-2-(2,4 -dinitroanilino)propanoate (MAP) and 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) (space group P2_1, NR = 1783 unique reflections, reliability factor R = 4.1%, NP = 346 parameters), the MAP and MNA molecules stack above each other along (010) at van der Waals separations; there is a hydrogen bond between MAP and MNA. MNA, whose monoclinic structure MNA(M) is known (space group Ia), has a new triclinic polymorph, MNA(T) (P1, NR = 715, R = 6.5%, NP = 196): this structure is almost superimposable to MNA(M); three significant reflections are the difference between the structures. In the 1:1 complex between DPA and MNA (P2 _1, NR = 463, R = 13.9%, NP = 116) the DPA and MNA molecules do not overlap well, but are H-bonded. In bis-(N-methylene-2,5-bis-(2-thienyl)pyrrole) (P1, = 1583, R = 7.8%, NP = 145), half the molecule is unique; the two thiophenes have large dihedral angles with the middle pyrrole. Bis-(dimethylthienotetratellurafulvalene) (BDMT -TTeF) forms a black insulating 1:1 complex with buckminsterfullerene, C_{60}, and CS _2; (C2/c, NR = 1552, NP = 166, R = 9.8%). The C_{60} is disordered; BDMT-TTeF is bent. The complex index of refraction of MAP:MNA (ellipsometry, lambda = 632.8 nm) has principal values n_1-ik_1 = 1.5310-0.01959i; n_2-ik _2 = 1.7090-0.06752i; n_3 -ik_3 = 1.9561-0.02465i; {bf n_3}-i {bf k_3} is almost parallel to the c axis, and n1-i {bf k_1 } is along a. Disordered Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer films of C_{60} have (ellipsometry) n = 1.80(6) and a thickness of 19.0(1.2) A per "monolayer", i.e. about 2 C_{60} molecules per "monolayer". From published crystal structures of 179 TCNQ, 71 TTF + TMTTF, and 89 BEDT-TTF complexes and salts (electrical insulators, semiconductors, metals, or superconductors), one needs to know the degree of charge transfer rho, to understand their electrical conductivity. Eighty -two "reference" structures, with known rho , yield linear least-squares equations for rho as a function of molecular length, bond length ratio and bond length difference (coefficient of determination R^2 > 90%). These equations can then predict rho from bond length data for other structures.

  3. Decoupling Charge Transfer and Transport at Polymeric Hole Transport Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Sin, Dong Hun; Ko, Hyomin; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kim, Min; Bae, Geun Yeol; Cho, Kilwon

    2016-03-16

    Tailoring charge extraction interfaces in perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) critically determines the photovoltaic performance of PeSCs. Here, we investigated the decoupling of two major determinants of the efficient charge extraction, the charge transport and interfacial charge transfer properties at hole transport layers (HTLs). A simple physical tuning of a representative polymeric HTL, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), provided a wide range of charge conductivities from 10(-4) to 10(3) S cm(-1) without significant modulations in their energy levels, thereby enabling the decoupling of charge transport and transfer properties at HTLs. The transient photovoltaic response measurement revealed that the facilitation of hole transport through the highly conductive HTL promoted the elongation of charge carrier lifetimes within the PeSCs up to 3 times, leading to enhanced photocurrent extraction and finally 25% higher power conversion efficiency. PMID:26887635

  4. Synergizing Noncovalent Bonding Interactions in the Self-Assembly of Organic Charge-Transfer Ferroelectrics and Metal-Organic Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dennis

    Contemporary supramolecular chemistry---chemistry beyond the molecule---seeks to leverage noncovalent bonding interactions to generate emergent properties and complexity. These aims extend beyond the solution phase and into the solid state, where crystalline organic materials have attracted much attention for their ability to imitate the physical properties of inorganic crystals. This Thesis outlines my efforts to understand the properties of the solid-state materials that are self-assembled with noncovalent bonding motifs which I have helped to realize. In the first five Chapters, I chronicle the development of the lock-arm supramolecular ordering (LASO) paradigm, which is a general molecular design strategy for amplifying the crystallization of charge transfer complexes that revolves around the synergistic action of hydrogen bonding and charge transfer interactions. In an effort to expand upon the LASO paradigm, I identify a two-point halogen-bonding motif which appears to operate orthogonally from the hydrogen bonding and charge transfer interactions. Since some of these single crystalline materials are ferroelectric at room temperature, I discuss the implications of these experimental observations and reconcile them with the centrosymmetric space groups assigned after X-ray crystallographic refinements. I conclude in the final two Chapters by recording my endeavors to control the assembly of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with noncovalent bonding interactions between [2]catenane-bearing struts. First of all, I describe the formation of syndiotactic pi-stacked 2D MOF layers before highlighting a two-component MOF that assembles with a magic number ratio of components that is independent of the molar proportions present in the crystallization medium.

  5. Fostering Analogical Transfer: The Multiple Components Approach to Algebra Word Problem Solving in a Chemistry Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2012-01-01

    Holyoak and Koh (1987) and Holyoak (1984) propose four critical tasks for analogical transfer to occur in problem solving. A study was conducted to test this hypothesis by comparing a multiple components (MC) approach against worked examples (WE) in helping students to solve algebra word problems in chemistry classes. The MC approach incorporated

  6. 41 CFR 102-36.285 - May we charge for personal property transferred to another federal agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... corporation. (b) You may charge for direct costs you incurred incident to the transfer, such as packing... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May we charge for... Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.285 May we charge for personal property transferred...

  7. 41 CFR 102-36.285 - May we charge for personal property transferred to another federal agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... corporation. (b) You may charge for direct costs you incurred incident to the transfer, such as packing... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May we charge for... Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.285 May we charge for personal property transferred...

  8. 41 CFR 102-36.285 - May we charge for personal property transferred to another federal agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... corporation. (b) You may charge for direct costs you incurred incident to the transfer, such as packing... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May we charge for... Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.285 May we charge for personal property transferred...

  9. 29 CFR 102.33 - Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region... 102.33 Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same... transfer of any charge and any proceeding which may have been instituted with respect thereto from...

  10. 29 CFR 102.33 - Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region... 102.33 Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same... transfer of any charge and any proceeding which may have been instituted with respect thereto from...

  11. 29 CFR 102.33 - Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region... 102.33 Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same... transfer of any charge and any proceeding which may have been instituted with respect thereto from...

  12. 41 CFR 102-36.285 - May we charge for personal property transferred to another federal agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corporation. (b) You may charge for direct costs you incurred incident to the transfer, such as packing... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May we charge for... Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.285 May we charge for personal property transferred...

  13. 29 CFR 102.33 - Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region... 102.33 Transfer of charge and proceeding from region to region; consolidation of proceedings in same... transfer of any charge and any proceeding which may have been instituted with respect thereto from...

  14. Site energies and charge transfer rates near pentacene grain boundaries from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Tokita, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Charge transfer rates near pentacene grain boundaries are derived by calculating the site energies and transfer integrals of 37 pentacene molecules using first-principles calculations. The site energies decrease considerably near the grain boundaries, and electron traps of up to 300 meV and hole barriers of up to 400 meV are generated. The charge transfer rates across the grain boundaries are found to be reduced by three to five orders of magnitude with a grain boundary gap of 4 because of the reduction in the transfer integrals. The electron traps and hole barriers also reduce the electron and hole transfer rates by factors of up to 10 and 50, respectively. It is essential to take the site energies into consideration to determine charge transport near the grain boundaries. We show that the complex site energy distributions near the grain boundaries can be represented by an equivalent site energy difference, which is a constant for any charge transfer pass. When equivalent site energy differences are obtained for various grain boundary structures by first-principles calculations, the effects of the grain boundaries on the charge transfer rates are introduced exactly into charge transport simulations, such as the kinetic Monte Carlo method.

  15. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  16. Topological Effects of Charge Transfer in Telomere G-Quadruplex Mechanism on Telomerase Activation and Inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-02-01

    We explore the charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of the charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4 (CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 0.3 eV energy gap. Charges transfer favorably in the CTG4, but are trapped in the nonconsecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  17. Integer versus Fractional Charge Transfer at Metal(/Insulator)/Organic Interfaces: Cu(/NaCl)/TCNE

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Semilocal and hybrid density functional theory was used to study the charge transfer and the energy-level alignment at a representative interface between an extended metal substrate and an organic adsorbate layer. Upon suppressing electronic coupling between the adsorbate and the substrate by inserting thin, insulating layers of NaCl, the hybrid functional localizes charge. The laterally inhomogeneous charge distribution resulting from this spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry is reflected in observables such as the molecular geometry, the valence and core density of states, and the evolution of the work function with molecular coverage, which we discuss for different growth modes. We found that the amount of charge transfer is determined, to a significant extent, by the ratio of the lateral spacing of the molecules and their distance to the metal. Therefore, charge transfer does not only depend on the electronic structure of the individual components but, just as importantly, on the interface geometry. PMID:25905769

  18. Intrinsic charge trapping in organic and polymeric semiconductors: a physical chemistry perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Barbara, Paul F.; Kaake, Loren

    2010-02-04

    We aim to understand the origins of intrinsic charge carrier traps in organic and polymeric semiconductor materials from a physical chemistry perspective. In crystalline organic semiconductors, we point out some of the inadequacies in the description of intrinsic charge traps using language and concepts developed for inorganic semiconductors. In ?-conjugated polymeric semiconductors, we suggest the presence of a two-tier electronic energy landscape, a bimodal majority landscape due to two dominant structural motifs and a minority electronic energy landscape from intrinsic charged defects. The bimodal majority electronic energy landscape results from a combination of amorphous domains and microcrystalline or liquid-crystalline domains. The minority tier of the electronic density of states is comprised of deep Coulomb traps embedded in the majority electronic energy landscape. This minority electronic energy landscape may dominate transport properties at low charge carrier densities, such as those expected for organic photovoltaic devices, while the bimodal majority electronic energy landscape becomes significant at high carrier densities, that is, in organic field effect transistors.

  19. Influence of doping on semiconductor nanocrystals mediated charge transfer and photocatalytic organic reaction.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suresh; Guria, Amit K; Pradhan, Narayan

    2013-07-11

    Doped and undoped ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals having different recombination pathways are explored to study the charge transfer reaction between the nanocrystals and the 4-nitrophenol/sodium borohydride redox couple. PMID:23595574

  20. Charge transfer polarisation wave and carrier pairing in the high T(sub c) copper oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakraverty, B. K.

    1990-01-01

    The High T(sub c) oxides are highly polarizable materials and are charge transfer insulators. The charge transfer polarization wave formalism is developed in these oxides. The dispersion relationships due to long range dipole-dipole interaction of a charge transfer dipole lattice are obtained in 3-D and 2-D. These are high frequency bosons and their coupling with carriers is weak and antiadiabatic in nature. As a result, the mass renormalization of the carriers is negligible in complete contrast to conventional electron-phonon interaction, that give polarons and bipolarons. Both bound and superconducting pairing is discussed for a model Hamiltonian valid in the antiadiabatic regime, both in 3-D and 2-D. The stability of the charge transfer dipole lattice has interesting consequences that are discussed.

  1. Product distributions for some thermal energy charge transfer reactions of rare gas ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anicich, V. G.; Laudenslager, J. B.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Futrell, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance methods were used to measure the product distributions for thermal-energy charge-transfer reactions of He(+), Ne(+), and Ar(+) ions with N2, O2, CO, NO, CO2, and N2O. Except for the He(+)-N2 reaction, no molecular ions were formed by thermal-energy charge transfer from He(+) and Ne(+) with these target molecules. The propensity for dissociative ionization channels in these highly exothermic charge-transfer reactions at thermal energies contrasts with the propensity for formation of parent molecular ions observed in photoionization experiments and in high-energy charge-transfer processes. This difference is explained in terms of more stringent requirements for energy resonance and favorable Franck-Condon factors at thermal ion velocities.

  2. Formation of H/sup -/ by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Morgan, T.J.

    1983-12-05

    Progress since the last symposium on the study of H/sup -/ formation by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors is reported. High yields are obtained at low energies, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  3. The role of charge-transfer states in energy transfer and dissipation within natural and artificial bacteriochlorophyll-proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wahadoszamen, Md.; Margalit, Iris; Ara, Anjue Mane; van Grondelle, Rienk; Noy, Dror

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how specific protein environments affect the mechanisms of non-radiative energy dissipation within densely assembled chlorophylls in photosynthetic protein complexes is of great interest to the construction of bioinspired solar energy conversion devices. Mixing of charge-transfer and excitonic states in excitonically interacting chlorophylls was implicated in shortening excited states lifetimes but its relevance to active control of energy dissipation in natural systems is under considerable debate. Here we show that the degree of fluorescence quenching in two similar pairs of excitonically interacting bacteriochlorophyll derivatives is directly associated with increasing charge transfer character in the excited state, and that the protein environment may control non-radiative dissipation by affecting the mixing of charge transfer and excitonic states. The capability of local protein environments to determine the fate of excited states, and thereby to confer different functionalities to excitonically coupled dimers substantiates the dimer as the basic functional element of photosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25342121

  4. Mechanism of back electron transfer in an intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer reaction: solvent as a charge mediator.

    PubMed

    Narra, Sudhakar; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2014-10-01

    Back electron transfer (BET) is one of the important processes that govern the decay of generated ion pairs in intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Unfortunately, a detailed mechanism of BET reactions remains largely unknown in spite of their importance for the development of molecular photovoltaic structures. Here, we examine the BET reaction of pyrene (Py) and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) in acetonitrile (ACN) by using time-resolved near- and mid-IR spectroscopy. The Py dimer radical cation (Py2(+)) and DCB radical anion (DCB(-)) generated after photoexcitation of Py show asynchronous decay kinetics. To account for this observation, we propose a reaction mechanism that involves electron transfer from DCB(-) to the solvent and charge recombination between the resulting ACN dimer anion and Py2(+). The unique role of ACN as a charge mediator revealed herein could have implications for strategies that retard charge recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25044892

  5. The role of charge-transfer states in energy transfer and dissipation within natural and artificial bacteriochlorophyll proteins.

    PubMed

    Wahadoszamen, Md; Margalit, Iris; Ara, Anjue Mane; van Grondelle, Rienk; Noy, Dror

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how specific protein environments affect the mechanisms of non-radiative energy dissipation within densely assembled chlorophylls in photosynthetic protein complexes is of great interest to the construction of bioinspired solar energy conversion devices. Mixing of charge-transfer and excitonic states in excitonically interacting chlorophylls was implicated in shortening excited states' lifetimes, but its relevance to active control of energy dissipation in natural systems is under considerable debate. Here we show that the degree of fluorescence quenching in two similar pairs of excitonically interacting bacteriochlorophyll derivatives is directly associated with increasing charge-transfer character in the excited state, and that the protein environment may control non-radiative dissipation by affecting the mixing of charge-transfer and excitonic states. The capability of local protein environments to determine the fate of excited states, and thereby to confer different functionalities to excitonically coupled dimers substantiates the dimer as the basic functional element of photosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25342121

  6. Quantum Plasmonics: Optical Monitoring of DNA-Mediated Charge Transfer in Plasmon Rulers.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sarah; Reinhard, Bjrn M

    2016-03-01

    Plasmon coupling between DNA-tethered gold nanoparticles is investigated by correlated single-particle spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy for interparticle separations between 0.5 and 41 nm. Spectral characterization reveals a weakening of the plasmon coupling due to DNA-mediated charge transfer for separations up to 2.8 nm. Electromagnetic simulations indicate a coherent charge transfer across the DNA. PMID:26789736

  7. Modeling Charge Transfer in Fullerene Collisions via Real-Time Electron Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jakowski, Jacek; Irle, Stephan; Morokuma, Keiji; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    An approach for performing real-time dynamics of electron transfer in a prototype redox reaction that occurs in reactive collisions between neutral and ionic fullerenes is discussed. The quantum dynamical simulations show that the electron transfer occurs within 60 fs directly preceding the collision of the fullerenes, followed by structural changes and relaxation of electron charge. The consequences of real-time electron dynamics are fully elucidated for the far from equilibrium processes of collisions between neutral and multiply charged fullerenes.

  8. Extended Holstein small polaron model for charge transfer in dry DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Fu, Liang; Wang, Ke-Lin

    2006-01-20

    In this paper, the charge transfer problem in dry DNA was investigated by employing an extended Holstein small polaron model with external potential traps being involved in consideration. The ground state energy and the probability amplitude of polaron in various DNA chains with different external trap potentials were obtained by variational method with the trial function being taken in coherent state form. The stability of transfered charges in various circumstances was discussed accordingly. PMID:16225982

  9. Charge Transfer Interaction and Hydrogen Bonding between Vitamine K1 and Dihydrovitamine K1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahira, Yukio; Matsuki, Kazunori; Fukutome, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    We studied visible and infrared spectra, in particular their temperature dependence, of Vitamine K1 oil dissolving dihydrovitamine K1. Vitamine K1 and dihydrovitamine K1 were found to form charge transfer complexes and hydrogen bonds in the mixture. A co-crystal of Dihydrovitamine K1 and Vitamine K1 with charge transfer interaction and hydrogen bonding was shown to grow in a narrow temperature range near -20C.

  10. Estimitation of Charge-Transfer Resistivity of Pt Cathode on YSZ Electrolyte Using Patterned Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Virkar, Anil V.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    2005-04-01

    YSZ Electrolyte discs with patterned LSM electrodes having different three phase boundary (TPB) lengths but the same electrode-electrolyte interface area, were prepared using photomicrolithography. Impedance spectra for half-cells were obtained under oxygen partial pressures, ranging from 10-3 to 1 atm and temperatures from 650 to 800oC. Area specific charge transfer resistance was found to vary inversely. While the charge transfer resistance is inversely proportional to consistent with the charge transfer reaction occurring mainly at the TPB, at 800oC some transport through LSM also appears to occur. The estimated value of charge transfer resistivity corresponding to the charge transfer reaction occurring at TPB, in air at 800oC is in good agreement with that estimated from actual fuel cell tests using quantitative stereological analysis of LSM-YSZ composite electrodes and were found to decrease with increasing and with increasing temperature. The activation energy for the overall charge transfer reaction was estimated to be ~1.5 eV.

  11. Potential curves for Na2/+/ and resonance charge transfer cross sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottcher, C.; Allison, A. C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1971-01-01

    A mode potential method, applied earlier to the positively charged diatomic lithium molecule Li2(+), is used to calculate the six lowest potential energy curves of Na2(+). Charge transfer cross sections are calculated for Li(+) on Li and for Na(+) on Na and found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  12. Temperature dependence conductivity in organic charge transfer complexes: A theoretical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yadunath

    2013-06-01

    We propose a theoretical view of temperature dependent conductivity in organic charge transfer complexes and radical ion salts with symmetric and asymmetric donor molecules over a wide range of temperature. This phenomenon can be understand on the basis on the current carriers, 3-D effects, scattering by defects and impurities, formation of charge density waves (CDW) and soliton propagation etc.

  13. Charge transfer from delocalized excited states in a bulk heterojunction material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaake, Loren G.; Moses, Daniel; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-02-01

    Charge generation in an organic photovoltaic blend was investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. In films of pure electron donating material, subpicosecond spectral oscillations were observed and assigned to torsional modes associated with excited state relaxation and localization. These modes are systematically suppressed in the presence of fullerene, indicating that a significant fraction of charge transfer occurs prior to excited state localization.

  14. Electronic reorganization triggered by electron transfer: the intervalence charge transfer of a Fe?/Fe? bimetallic complex.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Alex; Angeli, Celestino; de Graaf, Coen; Robert, Vincent

    2015-04-30

    The key role of the molecular orbitals in describing electron transfer processes is put in evidence for the intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) of a synthetic nonheme binuclear mixed-valence Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) compound. The electronic reorganization induced by the IVCT can be quantified by controlling the adaptation of the molecular orbitals to the charge transfer process. We evaluate the transition energy and its polarization effects on the molecular orbitals by means of ab initio calculations. The resulting energetic profile of the IVCT shows strong similarities to the Marcus' model, suggesting a response behaviour of the ensemble of electrons analogue to that of the solvent. We quantify the extent of the electronic reorganization induced by the IVCT process to be 11.74 eV, a very large effect that induces the crossing of states reducing the total energy of the transfer to 0.89 eV. PMID:25739890

  15. Time delay and integration detectors using charge transfer devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, D. H.; White, M. H.; Turly, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    An imaging system comprises a multi-channel matrix array of CCD devices wherein a number of sensor cells (pixels) in each channel are subdivided and operated in discrete intercoupled groups of subarrays with a readout CCD shift register terminating each end of the channels. Clock voltages, applied to the subarrays, selectively cause charge signal flow in each subarray in either direction independent of the other subarrays. By selective application of four phase clock voltages, either one, two or all three of the sections subarray sections cause charge signal flow in one direction, while the remainder cause charge signal flow in the opposite direction. This creates a form of selective electronic exposure control which provides an effective variable time delay and integration of three, six or nine sensor cells or integration stages. The device is constructed on a semiconductor sustrate with a buried channel and is adapted for front surface imaging through transparent doped tin oxide gates.

  16. Incorporation of charge transfer into the explicit polarization fragment method by grand canonical density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Isegawa, Miho; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular fragmentation algorithms provide a powerful approach to extending electronic structure methods to very large systems. Here we present a method for including charge transfer between molecular fragments in the explicit polarization (X-Pol) fragment method for calculating potential energy surfaces. In the conventional X-Pol method, the total charge of each fragment is preserved, and charge transfer between fragments is not allowed. The description of charge transfer is made possible by treating each fragment as an open system with respect to the number of electrons. To achieve this, we applied Mermin's finite temperature method to the X-Pol wave function. In the application of this method to X-Pol, the fragments are open systems that partially equilibrate their number of electrons through a quasithermodynamics electron reservoir. The number of electrons in a given fragment can take a fractional value, and the electrons of each fragment obey the Fermi–Dirac distribution. The equilibrium state for the electrons is determined by electronegativity equalization with conservation of the total number of electrons. The amount of charge transfer is controlled by re-interpreting the temperature parameter in the Fermi–Dirac distribution function as a coupling strength parameter. We determined this coupling parameter so as to reproduce the charge transfer energy obtained by block localized energy decomposition analysis. We apply the new method to ten systems, and we show that it can yield reasonable approximations to potential energy profiles, to charge transfer stabilization energies, and to the direction and amount of charge transferred. PMID:21895159

  17. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Qualifications and certification. (a) No person may serve, and the operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG may not use the services of any person, as a person in charge of shoreside transfer operations... transfer operations: Qualifications and certification. 127.301 Section 127.301 Navigation and...

  18. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Qualifications and certification. (a) No person may serve, and the operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG may not use the services of any person, as a person in charge of shoreside transfer operations... transfer operations: Qualifications and certification. 127.301 Section 127.301 Navigation and...

  19. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Qualifications and certification. (a) No person may serve, and the operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG may not use the services of any person, as a person in charge of shoreside transfer operations... transfer operations: Qualifications and certification. 127.301 Section 127.301 Navigation and...

  20. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Qualifications and certification. (a) No person may serve, and the operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG may not use the services of any person, as a person in charge of shoreside transfer operations... transfer operations: Qualifications and certification. 127.301 Section 127.301 Navigation and...

  1. Neutralization of mass-selected cluster ions by charge transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, M.; Kowalski, J.; Zu Putlitz, G.; Stehlin, T.; Trger, F.

    1985-06-01

    Mass-separated beams of clusters with a single, well-defined number of atoms or molecules are indispensable for studies of cluster properties. This paper presents a technique with the potential to generate such a beam which contains neutral clusters of one size only. For this purpose mass-selected cluster ions have been neutralized by charge transfer reactions in metal and sulphur vapors. Relative charge exchange cross sections were measured for different cluster sizes. They reveal pronounced variations of the electronic structure of these particles. Thus, the study of charge transfer processes is introduced as a method to probe the positions of electronic energy levels in neutral clusters.

  2. Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Andrea; Grace, Iain; Brooke, Carly; Wang, Kun; Lambert, Colin J; Xu, Bingqian; Nichols, Richard J; Higgins, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference. PMID:26510687

  3. Charge transfer and band gap of ferrocene intercalated into TiSe 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. N.; Yarmoshenko, Yu. M.; Bazylewski, P.; Yablonskikh, M. V.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Wilks, R.; Moewes, A.; Tsurin, V. A.; Fedorenko, V. V.; Suvorova, O. N.; Ketkov, S. Yu.; Neumann, M.; Chang, G. S.

    2010-09-01

    We have investigated the charge transfer characteristics and electronic structure of ferrocene-intercalated TiSe 2. The spectroscopic results revealed that an intercalation of metallocene molecules leads to changes in the ionic valence of Fe atom in ferrocene molecule and the band gap, which is in accordance with electrical resistivity measurements showing metallic conductivity. Our analysis of 57Fe Mssbauer and Fe 2 p XAS spectra suggested that the suppression of charge-density-wave state in TiSe 2 and an appearance of metallic conductivity are attributed to charge transfer of electrons from ferrocene intercalant to the dichalcogenide host material.

  4. An abnormally slow proton transfer reaction in a simple HBO derivative due to ultrafast intramolecular-charge transfer events.

    PubMed

    Alarcos, Noem; Gutierrez, Mario; Liras, Marta; Snchez, Flix; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2015-07-01

    We report on the steady-state, picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved studies of a charge and proton transfer dye 6-amino-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (6A-HBO) and its methylated derivative 6-amino-2-(2'-methoxyphenyl)benzoxazole (6A-MBO), in different solvents. With femtosecond resolution and comparison with the photobehaviour of 6A-MBO, we demonstrate for 6A-HBO in solution, the photoproduction of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process at S1 taking place in ?140 fs or shorter, followed by solvent relaxation in the charge transferred species. The generated structure (syn-enol charge transfer conformer) experiences an excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) reaction to produce a keto-type tautomer. This subsequent proton motion occurs in 1.2 ps (n-heptane), 14 ps (DCM) and 35 ps (MeOH). In MeOH, it is assisted by the solvent molecules and occurs through tunneling for which we got a large kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of about 13. For the 6A-DBO (deuterated sample in CD3OD) the global proton-transfer reaction takes place in 200 ps, showing a remarkable slow KIE regime. The slow ESIPT reaction in DCM (14 ps), not through tunnelling as it is not sensitive to OH/OD exchange, has however to overcome an energy barrier using intramolecular as well as solvent coordinates. The rich ESIPT dynamics of 6A-HBO in the used solutions is governed by an ICT reaction, triggered by the amino group, and it is solvent dependent. Thus, the charge injection to a 6A-HBO molecular frame makes the ICT species more stable, and the phenol group less acidic, slowing down the subsequent ESIPT reaction. Our findings bring new insights into the coupling between ICT and ESIPT reactions on the potential-energy surfaces of several barriers. PMID:25870162

  5. Sensing organic molecules by charge transfer through aptamer-target complexes: theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Schill, Maria; Koslowski, Thorsten

    2013-01-17

    Aptamers, i.e., short sequences of RNA and single-stranded DNA, are capable of specificilly binding objects ranging from small molecules over proteins to entire cells. Here, we focus on the structure, stability, dynamics, and electronic properties of oligonucleotides that interact with aromatic or heterocyclic targets. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations indicate that aromatic rings such as dyes, metabolites, or alkaloides form stable adducts with their oligonucleotide host molecules at least on the simulation time scale. From molecular dynamics snapshots, the energy parameters relevant to Marcus' theory of charge transfer are computed using a modified Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian, permitting an estimate of the charge transfer rates. In many cases, aptamer binding seriously influences the charge transfer kinetics and the charge carrier mobility within the complex, with conductivities up to the nanoampere range for a single complex. We discuss the conductivity properties with reference to potential applications as biosensors. PMID:23227783

  6. Controllable Quantum State Transfer Between a Josephson Charge Qubit and an Electronic Spin Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Run-Ying; Wang, Hong-Ling; Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to implement controllable quantum state transfer between a superconducting charge qubit and an electronic spin ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers. By an electro-mechanical resonator acting as a quantum data bus, an effective interaction between the charge qubit and the spin ensemble can be achieved in the dispersive regime, by which state transfers are switchable due to the adjustable electrical coupling. With the accessible experimental parameters, we further numerically analyze the feasibility and robustness. The present scheme could provide a potential approach for transferring quantum states controllably with the hybrid system.

  7. Single and double charge transfer of He(2+) ions with molecules at near-thermal energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosh, R. E.; Johnsen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Rate coefficients were measured for charge-transfer reactions of He(2+) ions with H2, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and H2O. The experiments were carried out using a selected-ion drift-tube mass spectrometer. Total rate coefficients are found to be very large and are generally close to the limiting Langevin capture rate coefficients or the corresponding ADO-model (Su and Bowers, 1973) coefficients. The product-ion spectra indicate that both single and double charge transfer and possibly transfer ionization occur in these reactions.

  8. Controllable Quantum State Transfer Between a Josephson Charge Qubit and an Electronic Spin Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Run-Ying; Wang, Hong-Ling; Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2015-05-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to implement controllable quantum state transfer between a superconducting charge qubit and an electronic spin ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers. By an electro-mechanical resonator acting as a quantum data bus, an effective interaction between the charge qubit and the spin ensemble can be achieved in the dispersive regime, by which state transfers are switchable due to the adjustable electrical coupling. With the accessible experimental parameters, we further numerically analyze the feasibility and robustness. The present scheme could provide a potential approach for transferring quantum states controllably with the hybrid system.

  9. On the relation between local and charge-transfer exciton binding energies in organic photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gier, Hilde D.; Broer, Ria; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2015-09-01

    In organic photovoltaic devices two types of excitons can be generated for which different binding energies can be defined: the binding energy of the local exciton generated immediately after light absorption on the polymer and the binding energy of the charge-transfer exciton generated through the electron transfer from polymer to PCBM. Lowering these two binding energies is expected to improve the efficiency of the devices. Using (time-dependent) density functional theory, we studied whether a relation exists between the two different binding energies. For a series of related co-monomers, we found that the local exciton binding energy on a monomer is not directly related to that of the chargetransfer exciton on a monomer-PCBM complex because the variation in exciton binding energy depends mainly on the variation in electron affinity, which does not affect in a direct way the charge-transfer exciton binding energy. Furthermore, for the studied co-monomers and their corresponding trimers, we provide detailed information on the amount of charge transfer upon excitation and on the charge transfer excitation length. This detailed study of the excitation process reveals that the thiophene unit that links the donor and acceptor fragments of the co-monomer actively participates in the charge transfer process.

  10. The effects of charge transfer on the aqueous solvation of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2012-07-28

    Ab initio-based charge partitioning of ionic systems results in ions with non-integer charges. This charge-transfer (CT) effect alters both short- and long-range interactions. Until recently, the effects of CT have been mostly neglected in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The method presented in this paper for including charge transfer between ions and water is consistent with ab initio charge partitioning and does not add significant time to the simulation. The ions of sodium, potassium, and chloride are parameterized to reproduce dimer properties and aqueous structures. The average charges of the ions from MD simulations (0.900, 0.919, and -0.775 for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -}, respectively) are consistent with quantum calculations. The hydration free energies calculated for these ions are in agreement with experimental estimates, which shows that the interactions are described accurately. The ions also have diffusion constants in good agreement with experiment. Inclusion of CT results in interesting properties for the waters in the first solvation shell of the ions. For all ions studied, the first shell waters acquire a partial negative charge, due to the difference between water-water and water-ion charge-transfer amounts. CT also reduces asymmetry in the solvation shell of the chloride anion, which could have important consequences for the behavior of chloride near the air-water interface.

  11. Modelling electrified interfaces in quantum chemistry: constant charge vs. constant potential.

    PubMed

    Benedikt, Udo; Schneider, Wolfgang B; Auer, Alexander A

    2013-02-28

    The proper description of electrified metal/solution interfaces, as they occur in electrochemical systems, is a key component for simulating the unique features of electrocatalytic reactions using electronic structure calculations. While in standard solid state (plane wave, periodic boundary conditions) density functional theory (DFT) calculations several models for describing electrochemical environments exist, for cluster models in a quantum chemistry approach (atomic orbital basis, finite system) this is not straightforward. In this work, two different approaches for the theoretical description of electrified interfaces of nanoparticles, the constant charge and the constant potential model, are discussed. Different schemes for describing electrochemical reactions including solvation models are tested for a consistent description of the electrochemical potential and the local chemical behavior for finite structures. The different schemes and models are investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on a hemispherical cuboctahedral platinum nanoparticle. PMID:23329171

  12. Energy and Charge Transfer in Dinuclear Ru-based Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiman, Valeria

    2014-03-01

    In this work, the excited state dynamics of a series of dinuclear compounds combining Ru based cromophores with M =Ru(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Cr(III) are explored. Ru- ?-NC-M dimers are good candidates to investigate the competition between electron and energy transfer in arrays of chromophores. The presence of a ?-NC bridge affords a strong coupling between the moieties without providing acceptor states that might act as electron traps. Polypyridyl Ru based compounds play an important role on light-harvesting antennas for energy conversion. With proper knowledge of the excited state dynamics, multinuclear arrays of chromophores can be developed. Our studies focus on (i) energy/electron transfer from the Ru(II) to a 2nd M center through the cyanide bridge, and (ii) geometry changes due to the exchange of one of the Ru(II) polypiridyl ligands . Broadband ultrafast spectroscopy shows excited state dynamics in the psec time regime. These dynamics depend strongly on the nature of the acceptor and the orientation of the ligand involved in the photoinduced transition. Hence, the competition between energy and electron transfer across the bridge is modulated by the selective choice of the secondary M center. We conclude that transition metals from the 3rd row are good candidates for longer arrays since their lack of low-lying MC states precludes thermal deactivation. This work is based upon work supported by NSF (CHE-1058638) and CONICET.

  13. Impact of plasma induced liquid chemistry and charge on bacteria loaded aerosol droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, David; McDowell, David; Mariotti, Davide; Mahony, Charles; Diver, Declan; Potts, Hugh; Bennet, Euan; Maguire, Paul

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of living organisms, such as bacteria, into atmospheric pressure microplasmas offers a unique opportunity to study the local chemical and electrical effects on cell structure and viability. Individual bacteria, each encapsulated in an aerosol droplet, were successfully transmitted through a non-thermal equilibrium RF coaxial plasma, using a custom-design concentric double gas shroud interface and via adjustment of transit times and plasma parameters, we can control cell viability. Plasma electrical characteristics (ne ~ 1013 cm-3), droplet velocity profiles and aspects of plasma-induced droplet chemistry were determined in order to establish the nature of the bacteria in droplet environment. Plasma-exposed viable E coli cells were subsequently cultured and the growth rate curves (lag and exponential phase gradient) used to explore the effect of radical chemistry and electron bombardment on cell stress. The extent and nature of membrane disruption in viable and non-viable cells were investigated through genomic and protein/membrane lipid content estimation. We will also compare our results with simulations of the effect of bacterial presence on plasma induced droplet charging and evaporation. Funding from EPSRC acknowledged (Grants EP/K006088/1 and EP/K006142/1).

  14. Ultrafast Charge- and Energy-Transfer Dynamics in Conjugated Polymer: Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystal Blends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocrystalpolymer systems are promising candidates for photovoltaic applications, but the processes controlling charge generation are poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the energy- and charge-transfer processes occurring in a model system based on blends of cadmium selenide nanocrystals (CdSe-NC) with poly[2-methoxy-5-(3?,7?-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) using a combination of time-resolved absorption and luminescence measurements. The use of different capping ligands (n-butylamine, oleic acid) as well as thermal annealing allows tuning of the polymernanocrystal interaction. We demonstrate that energy transfer from MDMO-PPV to CdSe-NCs is the dominant exciton quenching mechanism in nonannealed blends and occurs on ultrafast time scales (<1 ps). Upon thermal annealing electron transfer becomes competitive with energy transfer, with a transfer rate of 800 fs independent of the choice of the ligand. Interestingly, we find hole transfer to be much less efficient than electron transfer and to extend over several nanoseconds. Our results emphasize the importance of tuning the organicnanocrystal interaction to achieve efficient charge separation and highlight the unfavorable hole-transfer dynamics in these blends. PMID:24490650

  15. Ultrafast holography and transient absorption spectroscopy in charge-transfer polymers

    SciTech Connect

    McBranch, D.W.; Maniloff, E.S.; Vacar, D.; Heeger, A.J.

    1997-10-01

    Charge-transfer polymers are a new class of nonlinear optical materials which can be used for generating femtosecond holographic gratings. Using semiconducting polymers sensitized with varying concentrations of C{sub 60}, holographic gratings were recorded by individual ultrafast laser pulses; the diffraction efficiency and time decay of the gratings were measured using non-degenerate four-wave mixing. Using a figure of merit for dynamic data processing, the temporal diffraction efficiency, this new class of materials exhibits between two and 12 orders of magnitude higher response than previous reports. The charge transfer range at polymer/C{sub 60} interfaces was further studied using transient absorption spectroscopy. The fact that charge-transfer occurs in the picosecond-time scale in bilayer structures (thickness 200 {angstrom}) implies that diffusion of localized excitations to the interface is not the dominant mechanism; the charge transfer range is a significant fraction of the film thickness. From analysis of the excited state decay curves, we estimate the charge transfer range to be 80 {angstrom} and interpret that range as resulting from quantum delocalization of the photoexcitations.

  16. Modulating the rate of charge transport in a metal-organic framework thin film using host:guest chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hod, Idan; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-01-28

    Herein we demonstrate the use of host-guest chemistry to modulate rates of charge transport in metal-organic framework (MOF) films. The kinetics of site-to-site of charge hopping and, in turn, the overall redox conductivity, of a ferrocene-modified MOF can be altered by up to 30-fold by coupling electron exchange to the oxidation-state-dependent formation of inclusion complexes between cyclodextrin and channel-tethered metallocenes. PMID:26666952

  17. Catalysis effects of water molecules and of charge on intramolecular proton transfer of uracil.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejie; Ai, Hongqi

    2009-08-27

    In this work, the three most stable uracil isomers (U1, U2, and U3) and their neutral, positive, and negative charged multihydrates are chosen as research objects to investigate the tautomeric process between the most stable uracil, U1, and its two minor stable isomers, U2 and U3. By the study, deeper insight can be obtained regarding point mutations induced by uracil deformation. Toward the target, the activation energies of the intramolecular proton transfer (tautomeric process) as well as the catalysis effects of water molecules and of charges attached are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations by means of the B3LYP exchange and correlation functions. Results reveal that water molecules hold a stronger catalysis effect on the proton transfer in these negative charged uracil hydrates than in the neutral counterparts. The optimal number of water molecules needed to catalyze the proton transfer is determined as two in the neutral hydrated systems, whereas it is three in the negative charged systems. Positive charge attachment, however, hinders the intramolecualr proton transfer of uracil, and the charge and the proton of uracil will transfer to the water clusters if water molecules are attached. Then the positive charged hydrates look more like U1a/b+[(H2O)n+H+] species in structure. Analysis reveals that it is the acceptance process of the last proton to determine the impossibility of proton transfer and result in the failure of tautomeric processes from cat-U1a-nw to cat-U2-nw and from cat-U1b-nw to cat-U3-nw. Detailed structural parameters and energy changes are discussed for the above different processes. PMID:19645458

  18. Electrostatic sensors applied to the measurement of electric charge transfer in gas solids pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, S. R.; Denham, J. C.; Armour-Chelu, D. I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a number of electric charge sensors. The sensors have been developed specifically to investigate triboelectric charge transfer which takes place between particles and the pipeline wall, when powdered materials are conveyed through a pipeline using air. A number of industrial applications exist for such gas solids pipelines, including pneumatic conveyors, vacuum cleaners and dust extraction systems. The build-up of electric charge on pipelines and powdered materials can lead to electrostatic discharge and so is of interest from a safety viewpoint. The charging of powders can also adversely affect their mechanical handling characteristics and so is of interest to handling equipment engineers. The paper presents the design of the sensors, the design of the electric charge test rig and electric charge measurement test results.

  19. Spectrophotometric study of the charge transfer complex between 2-amino-4-picoline with chloranilic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghanmi, Reem M.; Al-Attas, Amirah S.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.

    2013-02-01

    Charge transfer complex formation between 2-amino-4-picoline (2A4P) as the electron donor with chloranilic acid (CLA) as the electron acceptor has been studied spectrophotometrically in different polar solvents included acetone (AcN), ethanol (EtOH) and acetonitrile (AN). The molecular composition of the formed complex was recognized utilizing Job's, photometric and conductometric titration methods to be 1:1. The formation constants and molecular extinction coefficients were estimated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation; they recorded high values confirming high stability of the formed complex. Moreover, the results showed that the complex is more stable in acetone with lower electric permittivity compared with ethanol or acetonitrile of higher ones. The values of some spectroscopic physical parameters like oscillator strength f, transition dipole moment ?, resonance energy RN, charge transfer energy ECT, dissociation energy W, ionization potential IP and standard free energy ?Go were determined and evaluated. The solid complex was isolated and its molecular composition was determined by elemental analysis to be 1:1. Furthermore, the solid complex was characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR measurements. They confirmed the presence of proton transfer beside charge transfer in the obtained complex. Molecular orbital calculations utilizing GAMESS computations were carried out to predict infrared spectra. They also confirmed the presence of proton transfer beside charge transfer in the formed complex.

  20. Chemical Control of Charge Trapping and Charge Transfer Processes at the Organic-Inorganic Interface within Quantum Dot-Organic Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Emily A.

    2015-11-06

    Within the research program funded through the Early Career Research Award we designed complexes of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and organic molecules in which the interfacial chemistry controls the electronic structure and dynamics of the excitonic state of the QD. The program included two main projects; (1) investigation of the mechanisms by which organic surfactants control the quantum confinement of excitonic charge carriers; and (2) development of models for electron transfer between QDs and adsorbed molecules as a function of interfacial chemistry. This project was extremely successful in that our achievements in those two areas addressed the great majority of questions we outlined in the original proposal and answered questions I did not think to ask in that original proposal. Our work led to the discovery of “exciton delocalizing ligands”, which change the electronic structure of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals by altering, with small synthetic modifications to their surfaces, their most defining characteristic – the quantum confinement of their excited states. It also led to detailed, quantitative descriptions of how the surface chemistry of a QD dictates, thermodynamically and kinetically, the probability of exchange of electrons between the QD and a small molecule. We used two of the three major techniques in the proposal (transient photoluminescence and transient absorption). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence was also proposed, but was too technically difficult with these systems to be useful. Instead, NMR spectroscopy emerged as a major analytical tool in our studies. With the fundamental advancements we made with this project, we believe that we can design QDs to be the next great class of visible-light photocatalysts.

  1. Chemically intuitive indices for charge-transfer excitation based on SAC-CI and TD-DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2013-11-01

    A recently proposed charge-transfer (CT) index and some related quantities aimed to the description of CT excitations in push-pull donor-acceptor model systems were computed in vacuum and in ethanol by the direct symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method including solvent effects by means of the nonequilibrium state-specific approach. The effects of both solvation and electron correlations on these quantities were found to be significant. The present results are also in line with previous time-dependent (TD) density functional theory calculations and they demonstrate that SAC-CI provides a description of the excitation character close to that of TD-PBE0. Indeed, CT indices evaluated by the SAC-CI and TD-PBE0 would be useful in the field of materials chemistry, for the design and development of novel molecular materials. PMID:24037799

  2. DNA in a Dissipative Environment: A Charge Transfer Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, Sohrab; Fathizadeh, Samira; Akhshani, Afshin

    2015-08-01

    Conductivity properties of DNA molecule is investigated in a simple, chemically specific approach, that is intimately related to the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. In the SSH model, the non-diagonal matrix element dependent on intersite displacements is considered and there is a coupling between the charge and lattice deformation along DNA helix. In order to study the evolution of the electrical current flowing through DNA in the presence of external electrical field, the electrical current is directly extracted from the dynamical equations. Ranges of electrical field and hopping constant value are estimated using MLE approach. The model is studied by means of I-V characteristic diagrams and the environmental effects is conducted through a phonon bath using different lengths of DNA. The NDR and quasi-Ohmic regions are observed.

  3. Charge transfer and electronic doping in nitrogen-doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Joucken, Frdric; Tison, Yann; Le Fvre, Patrick; Tejeda, Antonio; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Conrad, Edward; Repain, Vincent; Chacon, Cyril; Bellec, Amandine; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Ghijsen, Jacques; Sporken, Robert; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, Franois; Lagoute, Jrme

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the modification of the graphene's electronic structure upon doping is crucial for enlarging its potential applications. We present a study of nitrogen-doped graphene samples on SiC(000) combining angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The comparison between tunneling and angle-resolved photoelectron spectra reveals the spatial inhomogeneity of the Dirac energy shift and that a phonon correction has to be applied to the tunneling measurements. XPS data demonstrate the dependence of the N 1s binding energy of graphitic nitrogen on the nitrogen concentration. The measure of the Dirac energy for different nitrogen concentrations reveals that the ratio usually computed between the excess charge brought by the dopants and the dopants' concentration depends on the latter. This is supported by a tight-binding model considering different values for the potentials on the nitrogen site and on its first neighbors. PMID:26411651

  4. Charge transfer and electronic doping in nitrogen-doped graphene

    PubMed Central

    Joucken, Frédéric; Tison, Yann; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Tejeda, Antonio; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Conrad, Edward; Repain, Vincent; Chacon, Cyril; Bellec, Amandine; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Ghijsen, Jacques; Sporken, Robert; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, François; Lagoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the modification of the graphene’s electronic structure upon doping is crucial for enlarging its potential applications. We present a study of nitrogen-doped graphene samples on SiC(000) combining angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The comparison between tunneling and angle-resolved photoelectron spectra reveals the spatial inhomogeneity of the Dirac energy shift and that a phonon correction has to be applied to the tunneling measurements. XPS data demonstrate the dependence of the N 1s binding energy of graphitic nitrogen on the nitrogen concentration. The measure of the Dirac energy for different nitrogen concentrations reveals that the ratio usually computed between the excess charge brought by the dopants and the dopants’ concentration depends on the latter. This is supported by a tight-binding model considering different values for the potentials on the nitrogen site and on its first neighbors. PMID:26411651

  5. Horizontal versus vertical charge and energy transfer in hybrid assemblies of semiconductor nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, Gilad; Guliamov, Rahamim

    2012-01-01

    Summary We studied the photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence from self-assembled bilayers of donor and acceptor nanoparticles (NPs) adsorbed on a quartz substrate through organic linkers. Charge and energy transfer processes within the assemblies were investigated as a function of the length of the dithiolated linker (DT) between the donors and acceptors. We found an unusual linker-length-dependency in the emission of the donors. This dependency may be explained by charge and energy transfer processes in the vertical direction (from the donors to the acceptors) that depend strongly on charge transfer processes occurring in the horizontal plane (within the monolayer of the acceptor), namely, parallel to the substrate. PMID:23019559

  6. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Silicon and Iron Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The laser ablation/ion storage facility at the UNLV Physics Department is dedicated to the study of atomic processes in low temperature plasmas. Our current program is directed to the study of charge transfer of multiply charged ions and neutrals that are of importance to astrophysics at energies less than 1 eV (about 10(exp 4) K). Specifically, we measure the charge transfer rate coefficient of ions such as N(2+), Si(3+), Si(3+), with helium and Fe(2+) with molecular and atomic hydrogen. All these ions are found in a variety of astrophysical plasmas. Their electron transfer reactions with neutral atoms can affect the ionization equilibrium of the plasma.

  7. Charge transfer and momentum exchange in exospheric D-H(+) and H-D(+) collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms that control the escape of deuterium from planetary exospheres include the acceleration of D(+) in the polar wind, and the production of suprathermal D atoms through nonthermal collisions. In this paper we examine the effects of neutral-ion interactions involving deuterium and hydrogen on the velocity distribution of neutral D. A two-center scattering approximation is used as the basis for calculations of the differential cross sections for charge transfer and elastic scatter in collision of H with D(+) and of D with H(+) for ionosphere-exosphere collision energies below 10 e V. These data are used to derive temperature dependent rate coefficients for the charge transfer branches of these interactions, and to determine the effects of ion-neutral temperature differences on the rate of generation of suprathermal D through charge transfer and elastic scatter.

  8. Solvent effect on the thermodynamic and spectrophotometric properties of chargetransfer complexesII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankar P.; Bhowmik, Benoy B.

    The thermodynamic and spectrophotometric properties of the hexamethylbenzeneiodine chargetransfer complex in different donor solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene ( o-, m-, p-) and mesitylene are found to depend on the solvent. The results show that the oscillator strengths of the chargetransfer bands of the hexamethylbenzeneiodine complex in these donor solvents increase with the heats of formation but these values of oscillator strengths are found comparatively high in comparison with the results observed earlier in inert solvents. The chargetransfer interaction of donor solvents with iodine is responsible for changing both thermodynamic as well as spectrophotometric properties of the hexamethylbenzeneiodine complex. An attempt is made to calculate the thermodynamic and spectrophotometric properties of these complexes free from other interaction.

  9. Charge transfer in strongly correlated systems: An exact diagonalization approach to model Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Schppach, Andreas; Gnandt, David; Koslowski, Thorsten

    2014-04-07

    We study charge transfer in bridged di- and triruthenium complexes from a theoretical and computational point of view. Ab initio computations are interpreted from the perspective of a simple empirical Hamiltonian, a chemically specific Mott-Hubbard model of the complexes' ? electron systems. This Hamiltonian is coupled to classical harmonic oscillators mimicking a polarizable dielectric environment. The model can be solved without further approximations in a valence bond picture using the method of exact diagonalization and permits the computation of charge transfer reaction rates in the framework of Marcus' theory. In comparison to the exact solution, the Hartree-Fock mean field theory overestimates both the activation barrier and the magnitude of charge-transfer excitations significantly. For triruthenium complexes, we are able to directly access the interruthenium antiferromagnetic coupling strengths.

  10. Fermi level pinning and the charge transfer contribution to the energy of adsorption at semiconducting surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, Stanisław; Kempisty, Paweł; Strak, Paweł; Sakowski, Konrad

    2014-01-28

    It is shown that charge transfer, the process analogous to formation of semiconductor p-n junction, contributes significantly to adsorption energy at semiconductor surfaces. For the processes without the charge transfer, such as molecular adsorption of closed shell systems, the adsorption energy is determined by the bonding only. In the case involving charge transfer, such as open shell systems like metal atoms or the dissociating molecules, the energy attains different value for the Fermi level differently pinned. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulation of species adsorption at different surfaces, such as SiC(0001) or GaN(0001) confirms these predictions: the molecular adsorption is independent on the coverage, while the dissociative process adsorption energy varies by several electronvolts.

  11. Attosecond timing the ultrafast charge-transfer process in atomic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.

    2011-04-15

    By solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we have demonstrated that the ultrafast charge-transfer process in ion-atom collisions can be mapped out with attosecond extreme uv (xuv) pulses. During the dynamic-charge transfer from the target atom to the projectile ion, the electron coherently populates the two sites of both nuclei, which can be viewed as a 'short-lived' molecular state. A probing attosecond xuv pulse can instantly unleash the delocalized electron from such a ''transient molecule,'' so that the resulting photoelectron may exhibit a ''double-slit'' interference. On the contrary, either reduced or no photoelectron interference will occur if the attosecond xuv pulse strikes well before or after the collision. Therefore, by monitoring the photoelectron interference visibility, one can precisely time the ultrafast charge-transfer process in atomic collisions with time-delayed attosecond xuv pulses.

  12. Topologically protected charge transfer along the edge of a chiral p -wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnezdilov, N. V.; van Heck, B.; Diez, M.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Majorana fermions propagating along the edge of a topological superconductor with px+i py pairing deliver a shot noise power of 1/2 ×e2/h per eV of voltage bias. We calculate the full counting statistics of the transferred charge and find that it becomes trinomial in the low-temperature limit, distinct from the binomial statistics of charge-e transfer in a single-mode nanowire or charge-2 e transfer through a normal-superconductor interface. All even-order correlators of current fluctuations have a universal quantized value, insensitive to disorder and decoherence. These electrical signatures are experimentally accessible, because they persist for temperatures and voltages large compared to the Thouless energy.

  13. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  14. Ensemble density functional theory, the atom-in-molecule problem, and reactive charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Susan; Valone, Steven

    2008-03-01

    A major challenge in large-scale simulations of complex biomolecular and materials systems is the ability to accurately describe reactive dynamics. We have previously described a new multiscale formalism, based on density functional theory and the embedded-atom method, that enables the rigorous encoding of quantum mechanical excitation effects such as charge polarization and charge transfer within a classical potential. Here we describe a new formulation of a key element of the theory: the deconstruction of molecular densities into subsystem atom-in-molecule components via ensemble constrained-search density functional theory. The method is implemented via the self-consistent solution of coupled sets of Kohn-Sham equations in conjunction with chemical potential equalization across subsystems. This leads to a natural interpretation of dynamical charge transfer and charge polarization in terms of an electronic entropy, thus extending the seminal work of Gross, Oliveira, and Kohn (1988).

  15. Charge transfer and mobility enhancement at CdO/SnTe heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, Junichi; Yu, Kin Man; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2014-09-29

    We report a study of the effects of charge transfer on electrical properties of CdO/SnTe heterostructures. A series of structures with variable SnTe thicknesses were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Because of an extreme type III band offset with the valence band edge of SnTe located at 1.5 eV above the conduction band edge of CdO, a large charge transfer is expected at the interface of the CdO/SnTe heterostructure. The electrical properties of the heterostructures are analyzed using a multilayer charge transport model. The analysis indicates a large 4-fold enhancement of the CdO electron mobility at the interface with SnTe. The mobility enhancement is attributed to reduction of the charge center scattering through neutralization of the donor-like defects responsible for the Fermi level pinning at the CdO/SnTe interface.

  16. Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Andrea; Grace, Iain; Brooke, Carly; Wang, Kun; Lambert, Colin J.; Xu, Bingqian; Nichols, Richard J.; Higgins, Simon J.

    2015-11-01

    The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference.The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of 1c; experimental details of conductance measurements, formation of charge transfer complexes of 1c and 2 in solution; further details of theoretical methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04420k

  17. Computing intramolecular charge and energy transfer rates using optimal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xunmo; Bittner, Eric R.

    2015-06-01

    In our recent work [X. Yang and E. R. Bittner, J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 5196 (2014)], we showed how to construct a reduced set of nuclear motions that capture the coupling between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom over the course of an electronic transition. We construct these modes, referred to as "Lanczos modes," by applying a search algorithm to find linear combinations of vibrational normal modes that optimize the electronic/nuclear coupling operator. Here, we analyze the irreducible representations of the dominant contributions of these modes and find that for the cases considered here, these belong to totally symmetric irreducible representations of the donor and acceptor moieties. Upon investigating the molecular geometry changes following the transition, we propose that the electronic transition process can be broken into two steps, in the agreement of Born-Oppenheimer approximation: a fast excitation transfer occurs, facilitated by the "primary Lanczos mode," followed by slow nuclear relaxation on the final electronic diabatic surface.

  18. Interstellar Chemistry Gets More Complex With New Charged-Molecule Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    Astronomers using data from the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have found the largest negatively-charged molecule yet seen in space. The discovery of the third negatively-charged molecule, called an anion, in less than a year and the size of the latest anion will force a drastic revision of theoretical models of interstellar chemistry, the astronomers say. Molecule formation Formation Process of Large, Negatively-Charged Molecule in Interstellar Space CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and detailed information "This discovery continues to add to the diversity and complexity that is already seen in the chemistry of interstellar space," said Anthony J. Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "It also adds to the number of paths available for making the complex organic molecules and other large molecular species that may be precursors to life in the giant clouds from which stars and planets are formed," he added. Two teams of scientists found negatively-charged octatetraynyl, a chain of eight carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom, in the envelope of gas around an old, evolved star and in a cold, dark cloud of molecular gas. In both cases, the molecule had an extra electron, giving it a negative charge. About 130 neutral and about a dozen positively-charged molecules have been discovered in space, but the first negatively-charged molecule was not discovered until late last year. The largest previously-discovered negative ion found in space has six carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom. "Until recently, many theoretical models of how chemical reactions evolve in interstellar space have largely neglected the presence of anions. This can no longer be the case, and this means that there are many more ways to build large organic molecules in cosmic environments than have been explored," said Jan M. Hollis of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Ultraviolet light from stars can knock an electron off a molecule, creating a positively-charged ion. Astronomers had thought that molecules would not be able to retain an extra electron, and thus a negative charge, in interstellar space for a significant time. "That obviously is not the case," said Mike McCarthy of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Anions are surprisingly abundant in these regions." Remijan and his colleagues found the octatetraynyl anions in the envelope of the evolved giant star IRC +10 216, about 550 light-years from Earth in the constellation Leo. They found radio waves emitted at specific frequencies characteristic of the charged molecule by searching archival data from the GBT, the largest fully-steerable radio telescope in the world. Another team from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) found the same characteristic emission when they observed a cold cloud of molecular gas called TMC-1 in the constellation Taurus. These observations also were done with the GBT. In both cases, preceding laboratory experiments by the CfA team showed which radio frequencies actually are emitted by the molecule, and thus told the astronomers what to look for. "It is essential that likely interstellar molecule candidates are first studied in laboratory experiments so that the radio frequencies they can emit are known in advance of an astronomical observation," said Frank Lovas of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Both teams announced their results in the July 20 edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "With three negatively-charged molecules now found in a short period of time, and in very different environments, it appears that many more probably exist. We believe that we can discover more new species using very sensitive and advanced radio telescopes such as the GBT, once they have been characterized in the laboratory," said Sandra Bruenken of the CfA. "Further detailed studies of anions, including astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical calculations, will allow us to use them to reveal new information about the physical and chemical processes going on in interstellar space," said Martin Cordiner, of Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland. "The GBT continues to take a leading role in discovering, identifying and mapping the distribution of the largest molecules ever found in astronomical environments and will continue to do so for the next several decades," said Phil Jewell of NRAO. In addition to Hollis, Lovas, Cordiner and Jewell, Remijan worked with Tom Millar of Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and Andrew Markwick-Kemper of the University of Manchester in the UK. Bruenken worked with McCarthy, Harshal Gupta, Carl Gottlieb, and Patrick Thaddeus, all of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.

  19. Current quantization due to single-electron transfer in Si-wire charge-coupled devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Akira; Zimmerman, Neil M.; Ono, Yukinori; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2004-02-01

    We observe a quantized current due to single-electron transfer in a small charge-coupled device, which consists of a narrow Si-wire channel with fine gates; the gate is used to form a tunable barrier potential. By modulating two barrier potentials under the fine gates with phase-shifted pulse voltages, quantized numbers of electrons are injected into and extracted from the charge island sandwiched by the two barriers. Current plateaus due to single-electron transfer are clearly observed at 20 K with frequencies up to 100 MHz and a current level of 16 pA.

  20. Carbon-Atom Wires: Charge-Transfer Doping, Voltage Drop, and the Effect of Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, N. D.; Avouris, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations on electrical conduction through carbon atomic wires. The changes in charge distribution induced by a large bias exhibit the primary involvement of the wire's ? states. A significant fraction \\(~40%\\) of the voltage drops across the atomic wire itself. At zero bias, there is a large transfer of charge from the electrodes to the wire, effectively providing doping without introducing scattering centers. This transfer leads, however, to potential barriers at the wire-electrode junctions. Bending the wire reduces its conductance.

  1. Electronic memory switching in a new charge transfer-complex thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. Z.; Xue, Z. Q.; Ouyang, M.; Zhang, H. X.; Huang, C. H.

    1995-11-01

    Charge transfer-complex thin films of 1,4-bis(2,2-dicyanovinyl)benzene(BDCB) with silver, sandwiched between two silver elctrodes, show current-controlled bistable electronic switching and memory behavior. The switching from a high to low impedance is believed to be associated with chemical phase change similar to that for charge transfer-complex thin films of TCNQ with either copper or silver. The films are analyzed by infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction.

  2. Ion-atom charge-transfer reactions and a hot intercloud medium. [in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the ionization equilibrium of carbon in a hot intercloud medium (ICM), taking into account various charge-transfer reactions. Attention is given to problems related to observations of carbon along the lines of sight to several unreddened stars. It is pointed out that the observed underabundance of C III and overabundance of C I can be consistent with the presence of a hot, partially ionized ICM, provided that two of the charge-transfer reactions considered are rapid at thermal energies.

  3. Ultrafast charge transfer and solvation of DNA minor groove binder: Hoechst 33258 in restricted environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2006-12-01

    Picosecond resolved photophysical studies on a DNA minor groove binder, H33258 in bulk buffer and various restricted media including DNA reveal excited state charge transfer as an important mode of excited state relaxation. The charge transfer is found to be essentially associated with intramolecular twisting of the probe, being absent in SDS micellar environment and in DNA where twisting is hindered. Solvation and rotational dynamics of the probe in various restricted media including DNA are explored. A significantly longer component (8.5 ns) in DNA-solvation dynamics, which is well known to be associated with ?-relaxation of the DNA, is identified.

  4. Delocalization and dielectric screening of charge transfer states in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, B.; Cheyns, D.; Verreet, B.; Schaller, R. D.; Rand, B. P.; Giebink, N. C.

    2014-02-01

    Charge transfer (CT) states at a donor-acceptor heterojunction have a key role in the charge photogeneration process of organic solar cells, however, the mechanism by which these states dissociate efficiently into free carriers remains unclear. Here we explore the nature of these states in small molecule-fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaics with varying fullerene fraction and find that the CT energy scales with dielectric constant at high fullerene loading but that there is a threshold C60 crystallite size of ~4 nm below which the spatial extent of these states is reduced. Electroabsorption measurements indicate an increase in CT polarizability when C60 crystallite size exceeds this threshold, and that this change is correlated with increased charge separation yield supported by CT photoluminescence transients. These results support a model of charge separation via delocalized CT states independent of excess heterojunction offset driving energy and indicate that local fullerene crystallinity is critical to the charge separation process.

  5. Note: Charge transfer in a hydrated peptide group is determined mainly by its intrinsic hydrogen-bond energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, Noemi G.; Krimm, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    Charge transfer in a hydrogen-bonded N-methylacetamide(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} system is obtained from ωB97X-D/6-31++G** and CHelpG atomic charge calculations of individual peptide-water interactions as well as that of the entire complex. In the latter, the electron transfer to water is 0.19 e, influenced primarily by the hydrogen bonds to the C=O group. The values of such charge transfer are paralleled by the corresponding intrinsic hydrogen-bond energies. These results support the desirability of incorporating charge transfer in molecular mechanics energy functions.

  6. Crossover from superexchange to hopping as the mechanism for photoinduced charge transfer in DNA hairpin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Frederick D; Zhu, Huihe; Daublain, Pierre; Fiebig, Torsten; Raytchev, Milen; Wang, Qiang; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2006-01-25

    The mechanism and dynamics of photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination have been investigated in synthetic DNA hairpins possessing donor and acceptor stilbenes separated by one to seven A:T base pairs. The application of femtosecond broadband pump-probe spectroscopy, nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, and picosecond fluorescence decay measurements permits detailed analysis of the formation and decay of the stilbene acceptor singlet state and of the charge-separated intermediates. When the donor and acceptor are separated by a single A:T base pair, charge separation occurs via a single-step superexchange mechanism. However, when the donor and acceptor are separated by two or more A:T base pairs, charge separation occurs via a multistep process consisting of hole injection, hole transport, and hole trapping. In such cases, hole arrival at the electron donor is slower than hole injection into the bridging A-tract. Rate constants for charge separation (hole arrival) and charge recombination are dependent upon the donor-acceptor distance; however, the rate constant for hole injection is independent of the donor-acceptor distance. The observation of crossover from a superexchange to a hopping mechanism provides a "missing link" in the analysis of DNA electron transfer and requires reevaluation of the existing literature for photoinduced electron transfer in DNA. PMID:16417368

  7. Structural dynamics of a noncovalent charge transfer complex from femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Creelman, Mark; Mathies, Richard A

    2012-09-01

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy is used to examine the structural dynamics of photoinduced charge transfer within a noncovalent electron acceptor/donor complex of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA, electron acceptor) and hexamethylbenzene (HMB, electron donor) in ethylacetate and acetonitrile. The evolution of the vibrational spectrum reveals the ultrafast structural changes that occur during the charge separation (Franck-Condon excited state complex → contact ion pair) and the subsequent charge recombination (contact ion pair → ground state complex). The Franck-Condon excited state is shown to have significant charge-separated character because its vibrational spectrum is similar to that of the ion pair. The charge separation rate (2.5 ps in ethylacetate and ∼0.5 ps in acetonitrile) is comparable to solvation dynamics and is unaffected by the perdeuteration of HMB, supporting the dominant role of solvent rearrangement in charge separation. On the other hand, the charge recombination slows by a factor of ∼1.4 when using perdeuterated HMB, indicating that methyl hydrogen motions of HMB mediate the charge recombination process. Resonance Raman enhancement of the HMB vibrations in the complex reveals that the ring stretches of HMB, and especially the C-CH(3) deformations are the primary acceptor modes promoting charge recombination. PMID:22439588

  8. Camptothecins guanine interactions: mechanism of charge transfer reaction upon photoactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkeste, K.; Guiot, E.; Tfibel, F.; Pernot, P.; Mrola, F.; Georges, P.; Fontaine-Aupart, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    The potent activity exhibited by the antitumoral camptothecin (CPT) and its analog irinotecan (CPT-11) is known to be related to a close contact between the drug and the nucleic acid base guanine. This specificity of interaction between these two chromophores was examined by following changes in the photophysical properties of the drug using steady-state as well as time-resolved absorption and fluorescence methods. The observed effects on absorption, fluorescence emission and singlet excited state lifetimes give evidence for the occurrence of a stacking complex formation restricted to the quinoline part of CPT or CPT-11 and the guanine base but also with the adenine base. The triplet excited state properties of the drugs have been also characterized in absence and in presence of guanosine monophosphate and reveal the occurrence of an electron transfer from the guanine base to the drug. Support for this conclusion was obtained from the studies of a set of biological targets of various oxido-reduction potentials, adenosine monophosphate, cytidine, cytosine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine. This finding gives an interpretation of the CPT-induced guanine photolesions previously reported in the literature. These data taken together are discussed in connection with the drug activity. The stacking complex CPT/guanine is necessary but not sufficient to explain the role of the chirality and of the lactone structure in the function of the drug. A stereospecific interaction with the enzyme topoisomerase I seems necessary to stabilize the stacking complex. The first experiments using time-resolved fluorescence by two-photon excitation confirms that CPT does not bind to the isolated enzyme.

  9. Investigations of Isoprene Oxidation Chemistry using Proton-Transfer Reaction Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, F.; Pratt, K. A.; McAvey, K.; Rindelaub, J. D.; Mielke, L. H.; Prentice, B. M.; Hilger, R. T.; McLuckey, S. A.; Oglesbee, R. A.; Shepson, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    Isoprene, emitted primarily from forest ecosystems, comprises approximately one-third of all non-methane volatile organic compound emissions globally. However, uncertainties remain in our understanding of the atmospheric oxidation chemistry of isoprene, particularly with respect low-NOx conditions and the fate of oxidation products. Smog chamber studies allow oxidation products to be studied in detail in a controlled setting. The proton-transfer reaction linear ion trap mass spectrometer (PTR-LIT-MS) was developed to allow the differentiation and quantification of isomeric/isobaric compounds via MS/MS analysis. The PTR-LIT is used herein to examine changes in isoprene oxidation products with high temporal resolution during the photochemical reaction of isoprene and OH. In addition, using synthesized standards, the PTR-LIT is utilized to examine the OH-oxidation chemistry of first generation oxidation products, such as the primary isoprene nitrates. These measurements provide insights into the fates of isoprene oxidation products in the atmosphere.

  10. Probing Electronic, Structural, and Charge Transfer Properties of Organic Semiconductor/Inorganic Oxide Interfaces Using Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef Wade

    Interfaces between organic semiconductors and inorganic oxides provide the functionality for devices including field-effect transistors (FETs) and organic photovoltaics. Organic FETs are sensitive to the physical structure and electronic properties of the few molecular layers of material at the interface between the semiconducting channel and the gate dielectric, and provide quantitative information such as the field-effect mobility of charge carriers and the concentration of trapped charge. In this thesis, FET interfaces between organic small-molecule semiconductors and SiO2, and donor/acceptor interfaces between organic small-molecules and the wide bandgap semiconductor ZnO are studied using electrical measurements of field-effect transistor devices. Monolayer-scale films of dihexyl sexithiophene are shown to have higher hole mobility than other monolayer organic semiconductors, and the origin of the high mobility is discussed. Studies of the crystal structure of the monolayer using X-ray structural probes and atomic force microscopy reveal the crystal structure is different in the monolayer regime compared to thicker films and bulk crystals. Progress and remaining challenges are discussed for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of the dynamic changes in the local crystal structure in organic monolayers due to charge carriers generated during the application of electric fields from the gate electrode in working FETs. Studies were conducted of light sensitive organic/inorganic interfaces that are modified with organic molecules grafted to the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. These interfaces are models for donor/acceptor interfaces in photovoltaics. The process of exciton dissociation at the donor/acceptor interface was sensitive to the insulating or semiconducting molecules grafted to the ZnO, and the photoinduced charge transfer process is measured by the threshold voltage shift of FETs during illumination. Charge transfer between light sensitive donor molecules based on rhenium bipyridine complexes and ZnO thin films was measured using FETs, revealing the role of positive trapped charge in persistent photoconductivity in donor sensitized ZnO. The carboxylic acid attachment chemistry, used to anchor the donor molecules, is demonstrated to enhance the conductivity of ZnO thin films. The mechanism for the enhanced conductivity is linked to the passivation of defects on the surface of the ZnO.

  11. Ionization and charge-transfer: basic data for track structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Toburen, L H

    1998-12-01

    It is widely accepted that an understanding of the detailed structure of charged particle tracks is essential for interpreting the mechanistic consequences of energy deposition by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. The spatial relationship of events along the path of a charged particle, including excitation, ionization, and charge-transfer, govern subsequent chemical, biochemical, and biological reactions that can lead to adverse biologic effects. The determination of spatial patterns of ionization and excitation relies on a broad range of cross-section data relating the interactions of charged particles to the molecular constituents of the absorbing medium. It is important that these data be absolute in magnitude, comprehensive in scope, and reliable if accurate assessment of track structure parameters is to be achieved. Great strides have been made in the development of this database, understanding the underlying theory, and developing analytic models, particularly for interactions involving electrons and protons with atoms and molecules. The database is less comprehensive for interactions involving heavier charged particles, especially those that carry bound electrons, and for interactions in condensed phase media. Although there has been considerable progress in understanding the physical mechanisms for interactions involving fast heavy ions and atomic targets during the past few years, we still lack sufficient understanding to confidently predict cross-sections for these ions with biologically relevant material. In addition, little is known of the interaction cross-sections for heavy charged particles as they near the end of their track, i.e., for low velocity ions where collision theory is less well developed and where the particle's net charge fluctuates owing to electron capture and loss processes. This presentation focuses on the current status of ionization and charge-transfer data. Compilations, reviews, Internet sources, theoretical models, and recent data applicable to track structure calculations are discussed. PMID:10052672

  12. Charge-transfer energy in closed-shell ion-atom interactions. [for H and Li ions in He

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Rizzatti, M.; Mason, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of charge-transfer energy in the interactions between closed-shell ions and atoms is investigated. Ab initio calculations on H(plus)-He and Li(plus)-He are used as a guide for the construction of approximate methods for the estimation of the charge-transfer energy for more complicated systems. For many alkali ion-rate gas systems the charge-transfer energy is comparable to the induction energy in the region of the potential minimum, although for doubly charged alkaline-earth ions in rare gases the induction energy always dominates. Surprisingly, an empirical combination of repulsion energy plus asymptotic induction energy plus asymptotic dispersion energy seems to give a fair representation of the total interaction, especially if the repulsion energy is parameterized, despite the omission of any explicit charge-transfer contribution. More refined interaction models should consider the charge-transfer energy contribution.

  13. Charge transfer in a sharply nonuniform electric field mediated by swirling liquid flow with minimal hydraulic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorny, V. S.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Chernyshev, A. S.; Kolodyazhny, D. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    A scheme of a fuel nozzle with "needle-plane" electrode system, the location of which enables one to minimize the imparted hydraulic resistance, is proposed. We consider the processes of charge transfer in a sharply inhomogeneous electric field in order to estimate the amount of charge coming out of the channel. For this purpose, we used the OpenFOAM software package, modified to account for the electrohydrodynamic effects. By using the k-ω SST turbulence model within an axial-symmetrical RANS problem, the vortex liquid flow and charge transfer are calculated. The impact of vorticity degree on the processes of charge transfer is studied. It is found that the charge flowing out of the calculation domain is about 80% of the injected charge. The vorticity degree in the above range of values has little effect on the process of charge transfer.

  14. [Time-resolved optical studies of charge relaxation and charge transfer at electrode interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Key components were identified in a quantitative model of carrier relaxation in semiconductor electrodes: nonlinear aspects of nonradiative and radiative recombination, effect of space charge field on carrier dynamics, self-absorption effects in direct gas semiconductors, and influence of surface state population kinetics on charge carrier recombination. For CdSe, the first three are operative (no direct proof of the last one). A realistic kinetic model for carrier recombination in the bulk of CdSe was used which includes important nonlinear effects, both radiative and nonradiative. The change in interfacial recombination velocity with the chemical nature of the sinterface was studied (n-CdSe/silane interfaces). Temperature effect (278 to 328 K) on fluorescence decay of n-CdSe in contact with 0.5 M KOH was found to be weak. An analytical solution was obtained for time-resolved fluoresence from electrodes under potential bias, and is being tested. Fluorescence work on a different material, CdS, indicate different recombination kinetics; this material was used to directly pump an optical transition of a surface state.

  15. [Time-resolved optical studies of charge relaxation and charge transfer at electrode interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Key components were identified in a quantitative model of carrier relaxation in semiconductor electrodes: nonlinear aspects of nonradiative and radiative recombination, effect of space charge field on carrier dynamics, self-absorption effects in direct gas semiconductors, and influence of surface state population kinetics on charge carrier recombination. For CdSe, the first three are operative (no direct proof of the last one). A realistic kinetic model for carrier recombination in the bulk of CdSe was used which includes important nonlinear effects, both radiative and nonradiative. The change in interfacial recombination velocity with the chemical nature of the sinterface was studied (n-CdSe/silane interfaces). Temperature effect (278 to 328 K) on fluorescence decay of n-CdSe in contact with 0.5 M KOH was found to be weak. An analytical solution was obtained for time-resolved fluoresence from electrodes under potential bias, and is being tested. Fluorescence work on a different material, CdS, indicate different recombination kinetics; this material was used to directly pump an optical transition of a surface state.

  16. Doping single-walled carbon nanotubes through molecular charge-transfer: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Manna, Arun K; Pati, Swapan K

    2010-07-01

    We study the effect of the molecular charge transfer on the electronic structure of metallic (5,5) and semiconducting (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) induced by surface adsorption of various organic donor-acceptor molecules of different affinities using ab initio density functional theory. Our results, obtained from first-principles spin-polarized calculations show that the adsorption of molecules with different affinities reflects the difference in interaction strength that measure the overall energy of adsorption. Moderate values of the binding energy of these surface adsorbed molecular charge-transfer complexes suggest that the nature of interaction is in the physisorption regime, and mainly governs by Coulombic forces. We also find that the large band gap of semiconducting (8,0) SWNT can be tuned through the surface adsorption of selective organic molecules which gives rise to mid-gap localized molecular levels near the Fermi energy with tuning of band gap region. Interestingly, we find that the metallic (5,5) SWNT and semiconducting (8,0) SWNT turn into semiconducting and metallic nanotubes respectively in presence of selective surface adsorbed molecules, corroborating recent experimental findings. We also suggest that these charge transfer effect can be probed through optical conductivity measurement, as the low-frequency profiles are affected by charge transfer. PMID:20648348

  17. Quantum-Classical Path Integral Simulation of Ferrocene-Ferrocenium Charge Transfer in Liquid Hexane.

    PubMed

    Walters, Peter L; Makri, Nancy

    2015-12-17

    We employ the quantum-classical path integral methodology to simulate the outer sphere charge-transfer process of the ferrocene-ferrocenium pair in liquid hexane with unprecedented accuracy. Comparison of the simulation results to those obtained by mapping the solvent on an effective harmonic bath demonstrates the accuracy of linear response theory in this system. PMID:26673195

  18. Charge transfer polarisation wave in high Tc oxides and superconductive pairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakraverty, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    A general formalism of quantized charge transfer polarization waves was developed. The nature of possible superconductive pairing between oxygen holes is discussed. Unlike optical phonons, these polarization fields will give rise to dielectric bipolarons or bipolaron bubbles. In the weak coupling limit, a new class of superconductivity is to be expected.

  19. 33 CFR 127.1301 - Persons in charge of transfers for the facility: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons in charge of transfers for the facility: Qualifications and certification. 127.1301 Section 127.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  20. Laboratory Measurements of Charge Transfer on Atomic Hydrogen at Thermal Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havener, C. C.; Vane, C. R.; Krause, H. F.; Stancil, P. C.; Mroczkowski, T.; Savin, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our ongoing program to measure velocity dependent charge transfer (CT) cross sections for selected ions on atomic hydrogen using the ion-aloin merged-beams apparatus at Oak Ridge Natioiial Laboralory. Our focus is on those ions for which CT plays an important role in determining the ionization structure, line emis sion, and thermal structure of observed cosmic photoionized plasmas.

  1. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification. 127.301 Section 127.301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  2. Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer reactions in supramolecular arrays: From charge separation and storage to molecular switches

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Photoinduced charge separation reactions form the basis for energy storage processes in both natural and artificial photosynthesis. Moreover, rapid reversible photoinduced electron transfer reactions are a class of photophysical phenomena that can be exploited to develop schemes for optical switching. Examples from each of these fields are discussed.

  3. Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer reactions in supramolecular arrays: From charge separation and storage to molecular switches

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    Photoinduced charge separation reactions form the basis for energy storage processes in both natural and artificial photosynthesis. Moreover, rapid reversible photoinduced electron transfer reactions are a class of photophysical phenomena that can be exploited to develop schemes for optical switching. Examples from each of these fields are discussed.

  4. Charge Transfer Pathways in Three Isomers of Naphthalene-Bridged Organic Mixed Valence Compounds.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hauke C; Spulber, Mariana; Neuburger, Markus; Palivan, Cornelia G; Meuwly, Markus; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-01-15

    Naphthalene was substituted at different positions with two identical triarylamine moieties to result in species which are mixed-valence compounds in their one-electron oxidized forms. They were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, optical absorption, EPR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations. When the two redox-active triarylamine moieties are connected to the 2- and 6-positions of the naphthalene bridge, their electronic communication is significantly stronger than when they are linked to the 1- and 5-positions, and this can be understood on the basis of a simple through-bond charge transfer pathway model. However, this model fails to explain why electronic communication between triarylamine moieties in the 1,5- and 1,8-isomers is similarly strong, indicating that through-space charge transfer pathways play an important role in the latter. In particular, charge transfer in the 1,8-isomer is likely to occur between the triarylamino C atoms in ?-position to the naphthalene linker because the respective atoms are only about 3 apart from each other, and because they carry significant spin density in the one-electron oxidized forms of triarylamines. This particular through-space charge transfer pathway might be generally important in molecular structures based on the 1,8-disubstituted naphthalene pillaring motif. PMID:26711318

  5. Molecular orbital (SCF-Xα-SW) theory of metal-metal charge transfer processes in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Electronic transitions between the Fe-Fe bonding and Fe-Fe antibonding orbitals results in the optically-induced intervalence charge transfer bands observed in the electronic spectra of mixed valence minerals. Such transitions are predicted to be polarized along the metal-metal bond direction, in agreement with experimental observations.

  6. The synthesis of organic charge transfer hetero-microtubules by crack welding.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Chung, J; Hyon, J; Kwon, T; Seo, C; Nam, J; Kang, Y

    2014-09-14

    The strain-induced cracks in organic microtubules composed of an organic charge transfer (CT) complex of 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB) and naphthalene were selectively welded via the formation of secondary CT complexes; this process, in turn, led to the formation of organic hetero-microtubules consisting of multiple segments of two organic CT complexes. PMID:25054622

  7. 46 CFR 35.35-35 - Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 156.120 and 156.150. ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL. 35.35-35 Section 35.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS...

  8. 46 CFR 35.35-35 - Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 156.120 and 156.150. ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL. 35.35-35 Section 35.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS...

  9. 46 CFR 35.35-35 - Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 156.120 and 156.150. ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL. 35.35-35 Section 35.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS...

  10. 46 CFR 35.35-35 - Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 156.120 and 156.150. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL. 35.35-35 Section 35.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS...

  11. 46 CFR 35.35-35 - Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 156.120 and 156.150. ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL. 35.35-35 Section 35.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS...

  12. Doping single-walled carbon nanotubes through molecular charge-transfer: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Arun K.; Pati, Swapan K.

    2010-07-01

    We study the effect of the molecular charge transfer on the electronic structure of metallic (5,5) and semiconducting (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) induced by surface adsorption of various organic donor-acceptor molecules of different affinities using ab initio density functional theory. Our results, obtained from first-principles spin-polarized calculations show that the adsorption of molecules with different affinities reflects the difference in interaction strength that measure the overall energy of adsorption. Moderate values of the binding energy of these surface adsorbed molecular charge-transfer complexes suggest that the nature of interaction is in the physisorption regime, and mainly governs by Coulombic forces. We also find that the large band gap of semiconducting (8,0) SWNT can be tuned through the surface adsorption of selective organic molecules which gives rise to mid-gap localized molecular levels near the Fermi energy with tuning of band gap region. Interestingly, we find that the metallic (5,5) SWNT and semiconducting (8,0) SWNT turn into semiconducting and metallic nanotubes respectively in presence of selective surface adsorbed molecules, corroborating recent experimental findings. We also suggest that these charge transfer effect can be probed through optical conductivity measurement, as the low-frequency profiles are affected by charge transfer.

  13. Double electron transfer in slow, highly charged ion-molecule collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krok, F.; Tawara, H.; Tolstikhina, I. Yu; Sakaue, H. A.; Yamada, I.; Hosaka, K.; Kimura, M.; Matsumoto, A.; Nakamura, N.; Ohtani, S.; Sakurai, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshino, M.

    1997-01-01

    During collisions between slow highly charged ions and neutral atoms or molecules, a lot of electrons can be transferred into multiply excited levels of the highly charged ions, and finally the product ions are stabilized by ejection of electrons (autoionization decay) or photons (radiative decay). The ratios of the radiative decay to the autoionization decay after double-electron transfer processes in slow Iq+ (q = 8 23) + CO collisions have been measured by using the coincidence method. It was found that these ratios increase (from 2% up to about 10%) as the charge of the projectile ions increases. A model which explains such a feature is proposed. Based upon the model we have calculated the theoretical rediative/autoionization decay ratios, using the Cowan code, and compared them with the measured results.

  14. Interaction and charge transfer between isolated thylakoids and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Herlina Arianita; Sun, Gengzhi; Zheng, Lianxi; Lim, Sierin

    2015-02-01

    Charge separation in photosynthetic light reactions has gained much interest in an attempt to fabricate biological photovoltaic devices through integration of photosynthetic material and conducting electrodes. Direct interaction between thylakoids, as representatives of photosynthetic materials, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is expected to increase charge transfer. Thylakoids are isolated from spinach leaf chloroplasts and pristine MWCNTs are dispersed in Triton X-100 (TX-100) as a surfactant to retain their electronic properties through non-covalent interactions. The Raman and UV-Vis spectra suggest close interactions between the thylakoids and the MWCNTs. Stable thylakoids including the embedded protein subunits and light harvesting antennas can be detected from the non-shifted 680 nm absorbance peak. The 50% fluorescence quenching in the MWCNTs-thylakoids preparation as compared to thylakoids alone using single wavelength excitation suggests charge transfer between the thylakoids and the MWCNTs. PMID:25531101

  15. Competitive interfacial charge transfer to graphene from the electrode contacts and surface adsorbates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouchi, Ryo; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2015-02-01

    Charge transfer (CT) at metal-graphene contacts induces a potential variation from the contact edges that extend to 1 ?m. Potential variations with a similar length should be observed around charge-transferring surface adsorbates. Thus, it is expected that a competition exists between these two CT sources when one source is within 1 ?m from the other. In this letter, weakly coupled Ni contacts and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethan molecules are employed as the CT sources to investigate their possible competition. The CT from the molecules adsorbed only in the channel region change the charge density of the graphene in the under-contact regions. The extent of the CT effect in the under-contact region is as long as 4 ?m. The considerably long CT is ascribed to the high effective dielectric constant of the graphene under the contacts, resulting from a thin interfacial NiOx layer containing carbon impurities acquired from the graphene.

  16. Photoexcitation of electronic instabilities in one-dimensional charge-transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincn, Julin; Al-Hassanieh, K. A.; Feiguin, Adrian E.; Dagotto, Elbio

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the real-time dynamics of photoexcited electronic instabilities in a charge-transfer system model, using the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. The model of choice was the quarter-filled one-dimensional extended Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian interacting with classical few-cycle electromagnetic radiation. The results show that only one electronic instability drives the main features of the photogenerated time-dependent behavior. Indeed, the photoresponse of the system shows a large enhancement of the 4kF (bond and charge) instability whereas the 2kF state remains largely unaffected. This conclusion holds regardless of the nature of the optical excitations and whether the system is perturbed resonantly or not. Our results suggest potential applications of charge-transfer systems with slow phononic dynamics as optoelectronic switching devices.

  17. Stark-effect spectroscopy of the heme charge-transfer bands of deoxymyoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, S.; Woodruff, W.H.; Moore, L.J.; Boxer, S.G.

    1999-04-22

    The authors report the Stark spectra of the Soret, Q, and charge-transfer bands of deoxymyoglobin. The data show that band III has charge-transfer character but that the magnitude of the charge displacement is significantly smaller than expected or than what is observed for band I or even the Soret or Q bands. The data also show that symmetry breaking of iron-protoporphyrin IX in myoglobin produces a larger difference dipole moment in the Soret transition when compared to the dimethyl ester of protoporphyrin IX. The results lend further credence to the hypothesis that the electrostatic environment of the heme pocket in myoglobin is important in modifying the properties of the heme transitions, and they provide a basis for quantitative analysis of the static and time-dependent band shifts observed in response to environmental electrostatic perturbations and ligand binding dynamics.

  18. On charge transfer in the adsorbed molecules-graphene monolayer-SiC substrate system

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, S. Yu.

    2011-05-15

    A step-by-step consideration of charge transfer in the molecule-single-layer graphene-SiC substrate system is presented. At the first step, a simple model of the density of states of a single graphene monolayer adsorbed on silicon carbide (the graphene-SiC system) is suggested, which allows the calculation of the corresponding occupation numbers of graphene atoms. It is shown that the graphene monolayer accumulates a negative charge. At the second step, the graphene-SiC system is considered as a substrate that adsorbs molecules with a high electron affinity. The charge of these molecules as a function of their surface concentration is calculated. It is shown that, in the case of a monolayer coating, the negative surface charge density of molecules in the molecule-graphene monolayer-SiC substrate system is considerably higher than the surface charge density transferring from the SiC substrate to the graphene layer. This suggests that it is possible to neutralize the excess charge in the graphene layer via adsorption of proper particles on the layer.

  19. Final Technical Report for the Energy Frontier Research Center Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (EFRC:CST)

    SciTech Connect

    Vanden Bout, David A.

    2015-09-14

    Our EFRC was founded with the vision of creating a broadly collaborative and synergistic program that would lead to major breakthroughs in the molecular-level understanding of the critical interfacial charge separation and charge transfer (CST) processes that underpin the function of candidate materials for organic photovoltaic (OPV) and electrical-energy-storage (EES) applications. Research in these energy contexts shares an imposing challenge: How can we understand charge separation and transfer mechanisms in the presence of immense materials complexity that spans multiple length scales? To address this challenge, our 50-member Center undertook a total of 28 coordinated research projects aimed at unraveling the CST mechanisms that occur at interfaces in these nanostructured materials. This rigorous multi-year study of CST interfaces has greatly illuminated our understanding of early-timescale processes (e.g., exciton generation and dissociation dynamics at OPV heterojunctions; control of Li+-ion charging kinetics by surface chemistry) occurring in the immediate vicinity of interfaces. Program outcomes included: training of 72 graduate student and postdoctoral energy researchers at 5 institutions and spanning 7 academic disciplines in science and engineering; publication of 94 peer-reviewed journal articles; and dissemination of research outcomes via 340 conference, poster and other presentations. Major scientific outcomes included: implementation of a hierarchical strategy for understanding the electronic communication mechanisms and ultimate fate of charge carriers in bulk heterojunction OPV materials; systematic investigation of ion-coupled electron transfer processes in model Li-ion battery electrode/electrolyte systems; and the development and implementation of 14 unique technologies and instrumentation capabilities to aid in probing sub-ensemble charge separation and transfer mechanisms.

  20. Charge transfer to the ionosphere and to the ground during thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, S. A.; Pasko, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Global Electric Circuit (GEC) is a circuit that is formed between the Earth's surface, which is a good conductor, and the ionosphere, weakly - ionized plasma at region starting at approximately 80 km altitude [e.g., Rycroft et al., Space Sci. Rev., 137, 83-105, 2008]. It is accepted that thunderstorms are the main generators in the global electric circuit (GEC) [e.g., Williams, Atmospheric Research, 91, 140, 2009; Mareev, Physics Uspekhi, 53, 504, 2010]. For the quantification of the contribution of the thunderstorms in the GEC an efficiency term has been introduced, which is defined as the ratio of the total charge transferred to the ionosphere to the net charge neutralized during the lightning [Mareev et al., GRL, 35, L15810, 2008]. In the current work, we examine the current that is driven to the ionosphere and to the ground before, during and after single negative cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) flashes. A numerical model has been developed, that calculates the quasi-electrostatic fields and the charge that is induced in the atmosphere before the flashes, due to the slow accumulation of the charge in the thundercloud, and after the flashes by taking into account the Maxwellian relaxation of the charges in conducting atmosphere. From these results, the induced charges that are transferred to the ionosphere and to the ground are derived. Using a more realistic profile for modeling the conductivity inside the thundercloud we demonstrate the significance of considering the pre-lightning slow charge accumulation stage, we show that the efficiency depends mainly on the altitudes of the charges inside the thundercloud and their spatial separation, and we show also that the amount of charge that is transferred to the ground is negligible compared to the amount of charge that is transferred to the ionosphere. Finally, we show that typical efficiencies for the pre-lightning phase range between 23-60%, for the negative CG case range between 11-50% and for the IC case range between 20-60% and we compare our results with those published recently by Mareev et al. [GRL, 35, L15810, 2008].

  1. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Günter; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Málek, Jiři; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott–Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ has a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2. PMID:26884151

  2. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Günter; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Málek, Jiři; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-02-01

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott-Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ has a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2.

  3. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Gnter; Strocov, Vladimir N; Mlek, Ji?i; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott-Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy ? between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and ? determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where ? has a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of ?, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2. PMID:26884151

  4. Charge and Heat Transfer Mechanism in Directly Coupled CdSe-Metal Nanohybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Anju K.; Girijavallabhan, C. P.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2015-10-01

    The charge and heat energy transfer dynamics of directly coupled mixtures of CdSe quantum dots with metal nanoparticles have been studied using thermal lens and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, respectively. The PL of such nanohybrids is found to be quenched dramatically at a particular threshold. Fluorescence decay curves of the Au-CdSe nanohybrids and Ag-CdSe nanohybrids show distinct decay channels with the fastest one associated with transfer of electrons from the CdSe portion to the metal portion. A study on the influence of this charge transfer on the thermal diffusivity with respect to the emission wavelength of quantum dots has been carried out, which could lead to the design of modern photocatalysts and solar cells constructed from nanoscale metal-semiconductor hybrids.

  5. Charge-transfer dynamics in multilayered PbS and PbSe quantum dot architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, F.; Ma, X.; Haughn, C. R.; Doty, M. F.; Cloutier, S. G.

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate control of the charge transfer process in PbS and PbSe quantum dot assemblies. We first demonstrate efficient charge transfer from donor quantum dots to acceptor quantum dots in a multi-layer PbSe cascade structure. Then, we assemble type-I and type-II heterostructures using both PbS and PbSe quantum dots via careful control of the band alignment. In type-I structures, photo-generated carriers are transferred and localized in the smaller bandgap (acceptor) quantum dots, resulting in a significant luminescence enhancement. In contrast, a significant luminescence quenching and shorter emission lifetime confirms an efficient separation of photo-generated carriers in the type-II architecture.

  6. Broadband Tunable Microlasers Based on Controlled Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Process in Organic Supramolecular Microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haiyun; Wei, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Chunhuan; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Wavelength tunable micro/nanolasers are indispensable components for various photonic devices. Here, we report broadband tunable microlasers built by incorporating a highly polarized organic intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) compound with a supramolecular host. The spatial confinement of the ICT dye generates an optimized energy level system that favors controlled population distribution between the locally excited (LE) state and the twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) state, which is beneficial for significantly broadening the tailorable gain region. As a result, we realized a wide tuning of lasing wavelength in the organic supramolecular microcrystals based on temperature-controlled population transfer from the LE to TICT state. The results will provide a useful enlightenment for the rational design of miniaturized lasers with desired performances. PMID:26756966

  7. Ground and excited state intramolecular proton transfer controlled intramolecular charge separation and recombination: A new type of charge and proton transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Daobo; Bian, Zuqiang; Yu, Anchi; Chen, Zhuqi; Liu, Zhiwei; Huang, Chunhui

    2008-06-01

    A novel ?-diketone 1-(4-(9-carbazol)phenyl)-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione (CDBM) has been synthesized. When excited at 380 nm, this molecule shows single fluorescence. However, when excited at 338 nm, it shows dual fluorescence. A Al 3+ complex Al(CDBM) 3 has been synthesized to investigate the dual fluorescence of CDBM. It is found that this complex shows single fluorescence under all excitation. This result indicated that the dual fluorescence of CDBM may relate to the intramolecular proton transfer reaction. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies of CDBM, N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole (CBN) and Al(CDBM) 3, a "ground and excited state intramolecular proton transfer controlled intramolecular charge separation and recombination" mechanism is proposed to explain the unusual excitation-dependent dual fluorescence of CDBM.

  8. Excitation transfer, charge transfer and hydrogen abstraction reaction, kinetic studies of modification of DNA components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N. Y.

    1996-02-01

    Laser induced acetone-sensitized excitation of DNA components offered, for the first time, T-T absorption spectra and direct measurement of triplet states kinetics of cytosine, cytidine, and dCMP, adenine, adenosine and dAMP and guanosine. Mechanisms and kinetics of electron transfer reactions between triplet acetone and purine bases and triplet thymine and electrophilic modifiers have been elucidated. Rapid electron transfer from hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives to oxidizing OH adducts of pyrimidines have been performed. Fast reduction and repair of oxidizing damage of pyrimidines have been achieved using pulse radiolysis techniques.

  9. Monovalent counterion distributions at highly charged water interfaces: Proton-transfer and Poisson-Boltzmann theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, W.; Vaknin, D.; Travesset, A.

    2010-07-13

    Surface sensitive synchrotron-x-ray scattering studies reveal the distributions of monovalent ions next to highly charged interfaces. A lipid phosphate (dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate) was spread as a monolayer at the air-water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L{sub 3} Cs{sup +} resonance, we provide spatial counterion distributions (Cs{sup +}) next to the negatively charged interface over a wide range of ionic concentrations. We argue that at low salt concentrations and for pure water the enhanced concentration of hydroniums H{sub 3}O{sup +} at the interface leads to proton transfer back to the phosphate group by a high contact potential, whereas high salt concentrations lower the contact potential resulting in proton release and increased surface charge density. The experimental ionic distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized-surface-charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory without fitting parameters or additional assumptions.

  10. Lead methylammonium triiodide perovskite-based solar cells: an interfacial charge-transfer investigation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Hua; Cao, Kun; Cui, Jin; Lu, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xianwei; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-11-01

    This work reports on an investigation into interfacial charge transfer in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells by using anatase TiO2 nanocuboids enclosed by active {100} and {001} facets. The devices show 6.0 and 8.0% power conversion efficiency with and without hole-transport material. Transient photovoltage/photocurrent decay and charge extraction, as well as impedance spectroscopy measurements, reveal that carbon materials are effective counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells. The photogenerated charges are observed to be stored in mesoporous TiO2 film under illumination and in the CH3NH3PbI3 layer in the dark. The use of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as a hole-transport material accelerates interfacial charge recombination between the photogenerated electrons and holes. PMID:25213607

  11. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor Integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  12. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  13. Iodine-polyphenylacetylene charge-transfer complex: an ab initio quantum-chemical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreocci, M. V.; Bossa, M.; Furlani, A.; Polzonetti, G.; Russo, M. V.

    1991-07-01

    The ab initio MO-LCAO-HF method has been used to calculate the electronic structure of the iodine-polyphenylacetylene charge-transfer complex (PPA?I 2). Two models have been considered for the PPA molecule: a simple one containing two phenyl groups and a more realistic one containing six phenyl groups. The calculations give automatically the charge separation between I 5 and the polymer, and show that the total charge separation can be less than 1 e at short distances. The computed charges at the energy minimum have been succesfully introduced into the curve fitting of the I-3d 5/2 core level spectrum of PPA?I 2 films, giving good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  14. Impact of a single base pair substitution on the charge transfer rate along short DNA hairpins.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Nicolas; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A

    2013-09-10

    Numerical studies of hole migration along short DNA hairpins were performed with a particular emphasis on the variations of the rate and quantum yield of the charge separation process with the location of a single guanine:cytosine (G:C) base pair. Our calculations show that the hole arrival rate increases as the position of the guanine:cytosine base pair shifts from the beginning to the end of the sequence. Although these results are in agreement with recent experimental findings, the mechanism governing the charge migration along these sequences is revisited here. Instead of the phenomenological two-step hopping mechanism via the guanine base, the charge propagation occurs through a delocalization of the hole density along the base pair stack. Furthermore, the variations of the charge transfer with the position of the guanine base are explained by the impact of the base pair substitutions on the delocalized conduction channels. PMID:23980166

  15. Extraordinary Mechanism of the Diels-Alder Reaction: Investigation of Stereochemistry, Charge Transfer, Charge Polarization, and Biradicaloid Formation.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Thomas; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2016-02-25

    The Diels-Alder reaction between 1,3-butadiene and ethene is investigated from far-out in the entrance channel to the very last step in the exit channel thus passing two bifurcation points and extending the range of the reaction valley studied with URVA (Unified Reaction Valley Approach) by 300% compared to previous studies. For the first time, the pre- and postchemical steps of the reaction are analyzed at the same level of theory as the actual chemical processes utilizing the path curvature and its decomposition into internal coordinate or curvilinear coordinate components. A first smaller charge transfer to the dienophile facilitates the rotation of gauche butadiene into its cis form. The actual chemical processes are initiated by a second larger charge transfer to the dienophile that facilitates pyramidalization of the reacting carbon centers, bond equalization, and biradicaloid formation of the reactants. The transition state is aromatically stabilized and moved by five path units into the entrance channel in line with the Hammond-Leffler postulate. The pseudorotation of the boat form into the halfchair of cyclohexene is analyzed. Predictions are made for the Diels-Alder reaction based on a 11-phase mechanism obtained by the URVA analysis. PMID:26785172

  16. Anomalous charge and negative-charge-transfer insulating state in cuprate chain compound KCuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, D.; Rivero, P.; Meyers, D.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Middey, S.; Whitaker, M. J.; Barraza-Lopez, S.; Freeland, J. W.; Greenblatt, M.; Chakhalian, J.

    2015-11-01

    Using a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that insulating KCuO2 contains Cu in an unusually high formal 3+ valence state, and the ligand-to-metal (O-to-Cu) charge-transfer energy is intriguingly negative (Δ ˜-1.5 eV) and has a dominant (˜60 % ) ligand-hole character in the ground state akin to the high Tc cuprate Zhang-Rice state. Unlike most other formal Cu3 + compounds, the Cu 2 p XAS spectra of KCuO2 exhibit pronounced 3 d8 (Cu3 +) multiplet structures, which account for ˜40 % of its ground state wave function. Ab initio calculations elucidate the origin of the band gap in KCuO2 as arising primarily from strong intracluster Cu 3 d -O 2 p hybridizations (tpd); the value of the band gap decreases with a reduced value of tpd. Further, unlike conventional negative-charge-transfer insulators, the band gap in KCuO2 persists even for vanishing values of Coulomb repulsion U , underscoring the importance of single-particle band-structure effects connected to the one-dimensional nature of the compound.

  17. Surfactant-enhanced singlet energy transfer from the charge-transfer excited state of tris(2,2-bipyridine) ruthenium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Krishnagopal; Demas, J. N.

    1981-12-01

    Very efficient (45-75%) sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) enhanced singlet enengy transfer has been demonstrated from the spin-orbit charge-transfer excited state of [Ru(bpy) 3] 2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) to the xxx violet, oxazine 1, and rhodamine 101 at concentrations of 10 -5 M, Energy transfer occurs in xxx.

  18. 41 CFR 102-36.290 - How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement? 102-36.290 Section 102-36.290 Public... Personal Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.290 How much do we charge for excess...

  19. 41 CFR 102-36.290 - How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement? 102-36.290 Section 102-36.290 Public... Personal Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.290 How much do we charge for excess...

  20. 41 CFR 102-36.290 - How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement? 102-36.290 Section 102-36.290 Public... Personal Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.290 How much do we charge for excess...

  1. 41 CFR 102-36.290 - How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much do we charge for excess personal property on a transfer with reimbursement? 102-36.290 Section 102-36.290 Public... Personal Property Transfers with Reimbursement 102-36.290 How much do we charge for excess...

  2. Charge Transfer and Triplet States in High Efficiency OPV Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    The advantage of using polymers and molecules in electronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LED), field-effect transistors (FET) and, more recently, solar cells (SC) is justified by the unique combination of high device performance and processing of the semiconductors used. Power conversion efficiency of nanostructured polymer SC is in the range of 10% on lab scale, making them ready for up-scaling. Efficient charge carrier generation and recombination in SC are strongly related to dissociation of the primary singlet excitons. The dissociation (or charge transfer) process should be very efficient in photovoltaics. The mechanisms governing charge carrier generation, recombination and transport in SC based on the so-called bulk-heterojunctions, i.e. blends of two or more semiconductors with different electron affinities, appear to be very complex, as they imply the presence of the intermediate excited states, neutral and charged ones. Charge transfer states, or polaron pairs, are the intermediate states between free electrons/holes and strongly bound excitons. Interestingly, the mostly efficient OLEDs to date are based on the so-called triplet emitters, which utilize the triplet-triplet annihilation process. In SC, recent investigations indicated that on illumination of the device active layer, not only mobile charges but also triplet states were formed. With respect to triplets, it is unclear how these excited states are generated, via inter-system crossing or via back transfer of the electron from acceptor to donor. Triplet formation may be considered as charge carrier loss channel; however, the fusion of two triplets may lead to a formation of singlet excitons instead. In such case, a generation of charges by utilizing of the so far unused photons will be possible. The fundamental understanding of the processes involving the charge transfer and triplet states and their relation to nanoscale morphology and/or energetics of blends is essential for the optimization of the performance of molecular photovoltaic devices. I will present the state of the art in this field and discuss the mechanisms of polaron pair generation and recombination in the novel low band gap polymer-fullerene blends as well as in high-efficiency SC. This work was financially supported by the German Research Council (DFG) within the SPP1355 Project ``Elementary processes in organic photovoltaics'' under contract DY18/6.

  3. Charge Transfer Dynamics in Complexes of Light-Absorbing CdS Nanorods and Redox Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilker, Molly Bea

    The use of photoexcited electrons and holes in semiconductor nanocrystals as reduction and oxidation reagents is an intriguing way of harvesting photon energy to drive chemical reactions. This dissertation describes research efforts to understand the photoexcited charge transfer kinetics in complexes of colloidal CdS nanorods coupled with either a water oxidation or reduction catalyst. The first project focuses on the charge transfer interactions between photoexcited CdS nanorods and a mononuclear water oxidation catalyst derived from the [Ru(bpy)(tpy)Cl]+ parent structure. The second project details the electron transfer kinetics in complexes of CdS nanorods coupled with [FeFe]-hydrogenase, which catalyzes H+ reduction. These complexes photochemically produce H2 with quantum yields of up to 20%. Kinetics of electron transfer from CdS nanorods to hydrogenase play a critical role in the overall photochemical reactivity, as the quantum efficiency of electron transfer defines the upper limit on the quantum yield of H 2 generation. Insights from these time-resolved spectroscopic studies are used to discuss the intricate kinetic pathways involved in photochemical H2 generation and the mechanism for electron transfer from photoexcited nanorods to hydrogenase in photocatalytic complexes.

  4. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.

    2016-03-01

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.

  5. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid.

    PubMed

    Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2016-03-14

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm(-1) oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology. PMID:26979698

  6. Communication: Modeling of concentration dependent water diffusivity in ionic solutions: Role of intermolecular charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yi; Berkowitz, Max L.; Kanai, Yosuke

    2015-12-01

    The translational diffusivity of water in solutions of alkali halide salts depends on the identity of ions, exhibiting dramatically different behavior even in solutions of similar salts of NaCl and KCl. The water diffusion coefficient decreases as the salt concentration increases in NaCl. Yet, in KCl solution, it slightly increases and remains above bulk value as salt concentration increases. Previous classical molecular dynamics simulations have failed to describe this important behavior even when polarizable models were used. Here, we show that inclusion of dynamical charge transfer among water molecules produces results in a quantitative agreement with experiments. Our results indicate that the concentration-dependent diffusivity reflects the importance of many-body effects among the water molecules in aqueous ionic solutions. Comparison with quantum mechanical calculations shows that a heterogeneous and extended distribution of charges on water molecules around the ions due to ion-water and also water-water charge transfer plays a very important role in controlling water diffusivity. Explicit inclusion of the charge transfer allows us to model accurately the difference in the concentration-dependent water diffusivity between Na+ and K+ ions in simulations, and it is likely to impact modeling of a wide range of systems for medical and technological applications.

  7. Phosphopeptide Anion Characterization via Sequential Charge Inversion and Electron Transfer Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Emory, Joshua F.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Sequential ion/ion reactions have been used to characterize phosphopeptides present in relatively simple peptide mixtures, including one generated from the tryptic digestion of ?-casein. The phosphopeptides in these mixtures gave rise to either low or no signals via positive ion electrospray ionization. Strong signals, however, were generated in the negative ion mode. An initial ion/ion reaction that employed multiply-protonated amino-terminated dendrimers converted phosphopeptide anions to the doubly protonated species. The doubly charged cations were then subjected to ion/ion electron transfer to induce dissociation. Electron transfer dissociation of doubly positive charged phosphopeptides yields characteristic c- and z-type fragment ions by dissociation of the N-C? bond along the peptide backbone while preserving the labile post-translational modifications. These results illustrate the ability to alter ion charge after ion formation and prior to structural interrogation. Phosphopeptides provide an example where it can be difficult to form strong doubly charged cation signals directly when they are present in mixtures, which, as a result, precludes the use of electron transfer dissociation as a structural probe. The sequential ion/ion reaction process described here, therefore, can provide a new capability for structural interrogation in phosphoproteomics. PMID:16737238

  8. Site-specific probing of charge transfer dynamics in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Arion, Tiberiu; Roth, Friedrich; Hussain, Zahid; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-03-23

    We report the site-specific probing of charge-transfer dynamics in a prototype system for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) by picosecond time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A layered system consisting of approximately two monolayers of C{sub 60} deposited on top of a thin film of Copper-Phthalocyanine (CuPC) is excited by an optical pump pulse and the induced electronic dynamics are probed with 590?eV X-ray pulses. Charge transfer from the electron donor (CuPC) to the acceptor (C{sub 60}) and subsequent charge carrier dynamics are monitored by recording the time-dependent C 1s core level photoemission spectrum of the system. The arrival of electrons in the C{sub 60} layer is readily observed as a completely reversible, transient shift of the C{sub 60} associated C 1s core level, while the C 1s level of the CuPC remains unchanged. The capability to probe charge transfer and recombination dynamics in OPV assemblies directly in the time domain and from the perspective of well-defined domains is expected to open additional pathways to better understand and optimize the performance of this emerging technology.

  9. Charge and energy transferred from a plasma jet to liquid and dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussard, M. Dang Van Sung; Foucher, E.; Rousseau, A.

    2015-10-01

    A key parameter in using plasma jets for biomedical applications is the transferred energy to the living tissues. The objective of this paper is to understand which parameters control the energy transfer from the plasma jet to a liquid or a dielectric surface. The plasma jet is flown with helium and ignited by a 600 Hz ac high voltage (up to 15 kV). Capacitors are connected to two measurement electrodes placed in the plasma source region, and under the sample. Charge and energy transferred are estimated by plotting Lissajous cycles; the number of bullets and the charge probability density function are also calculated. It is shown that the applied voltage and the gap (distance between the end of the tube and the sample) have a dramatic influence on the energy deposition on the sample as well as on the charge probability density function. Surprisingly, both gap distance and voltage have very little influence on the number of bullets reaching the sample per cycle. It is also shown that the conductivity of the liquid sample has almost no influence on the energy deposition and charge probability density function.

  10. Substituent and Solvent Effects on Excited State Charge Transfer Behavior of Highly Fluorescent Dyes Containing Thiophenylimidazole-Based Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Javier; Bu, Xiu R.; Mintz, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    The excited state charge transfer for a series of highly fluorescent dyes containing thiophenylimidazole moiety was investigated. These systems follow the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model. Dual fluorescence was observed for each substituted dye. X-ray structures analysis reveals a twisted ground state geometry for the donor substituted aryl on the 4 and 5 position at the imidazole ring. The excited state charge transfer was modeled by a linear solvation energy relationship using Taft's pi and Dimroth's E(sub T)(30) as solvent parameters. There is linear relation between the energy of the fluorescence transition and solvent polarity. The degree of stabilization of the excited state charge transfer was found to be consistent with the intramolecular molecular charge transfer. Excited dipole moment was studied by utilizing the solvatochromic shift method.

  11. Metal-organic charge transfer can produce biradical states and is mediated by conical intersections

    PubMed Central

    Tishchenko, Oksana; Li, Ruifang; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper illustrates key features of charge transfer between calcium atoms and prototype conjugated hydrocarbons (ethylene, benzene, and coronene) as elucidated by electronic structure calculations. One- and two-electron charge transfer is controlled by two sequential conical intersections. The two lowest electronic states that undergo a conical intersection have closed-shell and open-shell dominant configurations correlating with the 4s2 and 4s13d1 states of Ca, respectively. Unlike the neutral-ionic state crossing in, for example, hydrogen halides or alkali halides, the path from separated reactants to the conical intersection region is uphill and the charge-transferred state is a biradical. The lowest-energy adiabatic singlet state shows at least two minima along a single approach path of Ca to the ? system: (i) a van der Waals complex with a doubly occupied highest molecular orbital, denoted , and a small negative charge on Ca and (ii) an open-shell singlet (biradical) at intermediate approach (Ca?C distance ?2.52.7?) with molecular orbital structure ?1?2, where ?2 is an orbital showing significant charge transfer form Ca to the ?-system, leading to a one-electron multicentered bond. A third minimum (iii) at shorter distances along the same path corresponding to a closed-shell state with molecular orbital structure has also been found; however, it does not necessarily represent the ground state at a given Ca?C distance in all three systems. The topography of the lowest adiabatic singlet potential energy surface is due to the one- and two-electron bonding patterns in Ca-? complexes. PMID:21037111

  12. Intramolecular charge transfer in the gas phase: fragmentation of protonated sulfonamides in mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Tu, Ya-Ping; Jiang, Kezhi; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2010-06-18

    The fragmentation of protonated molecules (MH(+)) in mass spectrometry usually results in even-electron product ions, but the MH(+) ions of sulfonamides are different as they often produce dominant radical cations of the constituent amines. For a series of benzenesulfonamides of anilines that bear various substituents, we found that the sulfonamides are preferentially protonated at the nitrogen, which is different from the carboxylic amides. Upon N-protonation, the S-N bond dissociates spontaneously to produce an intermediate [sulfonyl cation/aniline] complex. Within the ion-neutral complex, charge transfer between the two partners occurs in the gas phase to give rise to the ionized anilines. A substantial energy barrier was found to govern the reaction, which is consistent with the outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. This energy barrier prevents the charge transfer when a strong electron-withdrawing substituent is attached to the aniline moiety. In contrast, when the aniline bears an electron-donating group, charge transfer is still more favorable than the dissociation of the intermediate ion-neutral complex, in spite of the existence of the energy barrier, and therefore dominates. A correlation was observed between the intensities of the ionized anilines and the ionization energies of these anilines. PMID:20481449

  13. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in supramolecular networks of charge-transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Tayi, Alok S; Shveyd, Alexander K; Sue, Andrew C-H; Szarko, Jodi M; Rolczynski, Brian S; Cao, Dennis; Kennedy, T Jackson; Sarjeant, Amy A; Stern, Charlotte L; Paxton, Walter F; Wu, Wei; Dey, Sanjeev K; Fahrenbach, Albert C; Guest, Jeffrey R; Mohseni, Hooman; Chen, Lin X; Wang, Kang L; Stoddart, J Fraser; Stupp, Samuel I

    2012-08-23

    Materials exhibiting a spontaneous electrical polarization that can be switched easily between antiparallel orientations are of potential value for sensors, photonics and energy-efficient memories. In this context, organic ferroelectrics are of particular interest because they promise to be lightweight, inexpensive and easily processed into devices. A recently identified family of organic ferroelectric structures is based on intermolecular charge transfer, where donor and acceptor molecules co-crystallize in an alternating fashion known as a mixed stack: in the crystalline lattice, a collective transfer of electrons from donor to acceptor molecules results in the formation of dipoles that can be realigned by an external field as molecules switch partners in the mixed stack. Although mixed stacks have been investigated extensively, only three systems are known to show ferroelectric switching, all below 71 kelvin. Here we describe supramolecular charge-transfer networks that undergo ferroelectric polarization switching with a ferroelectric Curie temperature above room temperature. These polar and switchable systems utilize a structural synergy between a hydrogen-bonded network and charge-transfer complexation of donor and acceptor molecules in a mixed stack. This supramolecular motif could help guide the development of other functional organic systems that can switch polarization under the influence of electric fields at ambient temperatures. PMID:22914165

  14. Charge transfer from first principles: self-consistent GW applied to donor-acceptor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalla, Viktor; Caruso, Fabio; Rubio, Angel; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Charge transfer in donor-acceptor systems (DAS) is determined by the relative alignment between the frontier orbitals of the donor and the acceptor. Semi-local approximations to density functional theory (DFT) may give a qualitatively wrong level alignment in DAS, leading to unphysical fractional electron transfer in weakly bound donor-acceptor pairs. GW calculations based on first-order perturbation theory (G0W0) correct the level alignment, but leave unaffected the electron density. We demonstrate that self-consistent GW (sc GW) provides an ideal framework for the description of charge transfer in DAS. Moreover, sc GW seamlessly accounts for many-body correlations and van der Waals interactions. As in G0W0 , the sc GW level alignment is in agreement with experimental reference data. However in sc GW , also the electron density is treated at the GW level and, therefore, it is consistent with the level alignment between donor and acceptor leading to a qualitatively correct description of charge-transfer properties.

  15. Unexpectedly similar charge transfer rates through benzo-annulated bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Randall H; Vura-Weis, Josh; Scott, Amy M; Borkar, Sachin; Sen, Ayusman; Ratner, Mark A; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2008-06-18

    A 4-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl electron donor and 10-cyanoanthracen-9-yl electron acceptor are attached via alkyne linkages to the bridgehead carbon atoms of bicyclo[2.2.2]octane and all three benzo-annulated bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes. The sigma-system of bicyclo[2.2.2]octane provides a scaffold having nearly constant bridge geometry on which to append multiple, weakly interacting benzo pi-bridges, so that the effect of incrementally increasing numbers of pi-bridges on electron transfer rates can be studied. Surprisingly, photoinduced charge transfer rates measured by transient absorption spectroscopy in toluene show no benefit from increasing the number of bridge pi-systems, suggesting dominant transport through the sigma-system. Even more surprisingly, the significant changes in hybridization undergone by the sigma-system as a result of benzo-annulation also appear to have no effect on the charge transfer rates. Natural Bond Orbital analysis is applied to both sigma- and pi-communication pathways. The transient absorption spectra obtained in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) show small differences between the benzo-annulated molecules that are attributed to changes in solvation. All charge transfer rates increase significantly upon cooling the MTHF solutions to their glassy state. This behavior is rationalized using combined molecular dynamics/electronic structure trajectories. PMID:18500799

  16. Nonadiabatic dynamics of charge transfer and singlet fission at the pentacene/C60 interface.

    PubMed

    Akimov, Alexey V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-01-29

    Charge carrier multiplication in organic heterojunction systems, a process known as singlet fission (SF), holds promise for development of solar cells with enhanced photon-to-electron yields, and therefore it is of substantial fundamental interest. The efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on this principle is determined by complex dynamics involving key electronic states coupled to particular nuclear motions. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies are dedicated to this topic, generating multiple opinions on the nature of such states and motions, their properties, and mechanisms of the competing processes, including electron-phonon relaxation, SF, and charge separation. Using nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, we identify the key steps and mechanisms involved in the SF and subsequent charge separation, and build a comprehensive kinetic scheme that is consistent with the existing experimental and theoretical results. The ensuing model provides time scales that are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. We demonstrate that SF competes with the traditional photoinduced electron transfer between pentacene and C60. Efficient SF relies on the presence of intermediate dark states within the pentacene subsystem. Having multiexciton and charge transfer character, these states play critical roles in the dynamics, and should be considered explicitly when explaining the entire process from the photoexcitation to the final charge separation. PMID:24397723

  17. Mass transfer within electrostatic precipitators: in-flight adsorption of mercury by charged suspended particulates.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2006-06-01

    Electrostatic precipitation is the dominant method of particulate control used for coal combustion, and varying degrees of mercury capture and transformation have been reported across ESPs. Nevertheless, the fate of gas-phase mercury within an ESP remains poorly understood. The present analysis focuses on the gas-particle mass transfer that occurs within a charged aerosol in an ESP. As a necessary step in gas-phase mercury adsorption or transformation, gas-particle mass transfer-particularly in configurations other than fixed beds-has received far less attention than studies of adsorption kinetics. Our previous analysis showed that only a small fraction of gas-phase mercury entering an ESP is likelyto be adsorbed by collected particulate matter on the plate electrodes. The present simplified analysis provides insight into gas-particle mass transfer within an ESP under two limiting conditions: laminar and turbulent fluid flows. The analysis reveals that during the process of particulate collection, gas-particle mass transfer can be quite high, easily exceeding the mass transfer to ESP plate electrodes in most cases. Decreasing particle size, increasing particle mass loading, and increasing temperature all result in increased gas-particle mass transfer. The analysis predicts significantly greater gas-particle mass transfer in the laminar limitthan in the turbulent limit; however, the differences become negligible under conditions where other factors, such as total mass of suspended particulates, are the controlling mass transfer parameters. Results are compared to selected pilot- and full-scale sorbent injection data. PMID:16786702

  18. Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Iris; Tassi, M; Thanos, S

    2014-04-28

    Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations. PMID:24784248

  19. Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Theophilou, Iris; Tassi, M.; Thanos, S.

    2014-04-28

    Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations.

  20. Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Iris; Tassi, M.; Thanos, S.

    2014-04-01

    Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations.

  1. Charge transfer tuning by chemical substitution and uniaxial pressure in the organic complex tetramethoxypyrene-tetracyanoquinodimethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff, Milan; Ackermann, Kai; Huth, Michael; Jeschke, Harald O.; Tomic, Milan; Valent, Roser; Wolfram, Benedikt; Brring, Martin; Bolte, Michael; Chercka, Dennis; Baumgarten, Martin; Mllen, Klaus

    In the search for novel organic charge transfer salts with variable charge transfer degree we study the effects of two modifications to the recently synthesized donor-acceptor Tetramethoxypyrene (TMP)-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). One is of chemical nature by substituting the acceptor TCNQ molecules by F4TCNQ molecules. The second consists in simulating the application of uniaxial pressure along the stacking axis of the system. In order to test the chemical substitution, we have grown single crystals of TMP-F4TCNQ and analyzed its electronic structure via electronic transport measurements, ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations and UV/VIS/IR absorption spectroscopy. This system shows an almost ideal geometrical overlap of nearly planar molecules alternately stacked (mixed stack) and this arrangement is echoed by a semiconductor-like transport behavior with an increased conductivity along the stacking direction. This is in contrast to TMP-TCNQ which shows a less pronounced anisotropy and a smaller conductivity response. Our bandstructure calculations confirm the one-dimensional behavior of TMP-F4TCNQ with pro- nounced dispersion only along the stacking axis. Infrared measurements illustrating the CN vibration frequency shift in F4TCNQ suggest however no improvement on the degree of charge transfer in TMP-F4TCNQ with respect to TMP-TCNQ. In both complexes about 0.1 is transferred from TMP to the acceptor. Concerning the pressure effect, our DFT calculations on designed TMP-TCNQ and TMP-F4TCNQ structures under different pressure conditions show that application of uniaxial pressure along the stacking axis of TMP-TCNQ may be the route to follow in order to obtain a much more pronounced charge transfer.

  2. Charge transfer tuning by chemical substitution and uniaxial pressure in the organic complex tetramethoxypyrene-tetracyanoquinodimethane.

    PubMed

    Rudloff, Milan; Ackermann, Kai; Huth, Michael; Jeschke, Harald O; Tomic, Milan; Valent, Roser; Wolfram, Benedikt; Brring, Martin; Bolte, Michael; Chercka, Dennis; Baumgarten, Martin; Mllen, Klaus

    2015-02-14

    In the search for novel organic charge transfer salts with variable degrees of charge transfer we have studied the effects of two modifications of the recently synthesized donor-acceptor system [tetramethoxypyrene (TMP)]-[tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ)]. One is of chemical nature by substituting the acceptor TCNQ molecules by F4TCNQ molecules. The second consists in simulating the application of uniaxial pressure along the stacking axis of the system. In order to test the chemical substitution, we have grown single crystals of the TMP-F4TCNQ complex and analyzed its electronic structure via electronic transport measurements, ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations and UV/VIS/IR absorption spectroscopy. This system shows an almost ideal geometrical overlap of nearly planar molecules stacked alternately (mixed stack) and this arrangement is echoed by a semiconductor-like transport behavior with an increased conductivity along the stacking direction. This is in contrast to TMP-TCNQ which shows a less pronounced anisotropy and a smaller conductivity response. Our band structure calculations confirm the one-dimensional behavior of TMP-F4TCNQ with pronounced dispersion only along the stacking axis. Infrared measurements illustrating the C?N vibration frequency shift in F4TCNQ suggest however no improvement in the degree of charge transfer in TMP-F4TCNQ with respect to TMP-TCNQ. In both complexes about 0.1e is transferred from TMP to the acceptor. Concerning the pressure effect, our DFT calculations on the designed TMP-TCNQ and TMP-F4TCNQ structures under different pressure conditions show that application of uniaxial pressure along the stacking axis of TMP-TCNQ may be the route to follow in order to obtain a much more pronounced charge transfer. PMID:25563213

  3. Transferability of multipole charge-density parameters: application to very high resolution oligopeptide and protein structures.

    PubMed

    Jelsch, C; Pichon-Pesme, V; Lecomte, C; Aubry, A

    1998-11-01

    Crystallography at sub-atomic resolution permits the observation and measurement of the non-spherical character of the electron density (parameterized as multipoles) and of the atomic charges. This fine description of the electron density can be extended to structures of lower resolution by applying the notion of transferability of the charge and multipole parameters. A database of such parameters has been built from charge-density analysis of several peptide crystals. The aim of this study is to assess for which X-ray structures the application of transferability is physically meaningful. The charge-density multipole parameters have been transferred and the X-ray structure of a 310 helix octapeptide Ac-Aib2-L-Lys(Bz)-Aib2-L-Lys(Bz)-Aib2-NHMe refined subsequently, for which diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 0.82 A at a cryogenic temperature of 100 K. The multipoles transfer resulted in a significant improvement of the crystallographic residual factors wR and wR free. The accumulation of electrons in the covalent bonds and oxygen lone pairs is clearly visible in the deformation electron-density maps at its expected value. The refinement of the charges for nine different atom types led to an additional improvement of the R factor and the refined charges are in good agreement with those of the AMBER molecular modelling dictionary. The use of scattering factors calculated from average results of charge-density work gives a negligible shift of the atomic coordinates in the octapeptide but induces a significant change in the temperature factors (DeltaB approximately 0.4 A2). Under the spherical atom approximation, the temperature factors are biased as they partly model the deformation electron density. The transfer of the multipoles thus improves the physical meaning of the thermal-displacement parameters. The contribution to the diffraction of the different components of the electron density has also been analyzed. This analysis indicates that the electron-density peaks are well defined in the dynamic deformation maps when the thermal motion of the atoms is moderate (B typically lower than 4 A2). In this case, a non-truncated Fourier synthesis of the deformation density requires that the diffraction data are available to a resolution better than 0.9 A. PMID:10089507

  4. State-To Dynamics of Photoionization and Charge Transfer Reactions Involving Hydrogen Bromide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jinchun

    The selection rules for electric-dipole-allowed photoionization of diatomic molecule are derived. From a single rotational level of neutral molecules, the final rotational levels of the ions can be accessed only when their angular momentum, parity, spin, and other quantum numbers satisfy certain relations concerning photoelectron partial waves. Furthermore, under irreducible tensor treatment photoionization probability is simply expressed by three factors: the geometrical coefficient C^ {k}_{p} the rotational linestrength S^{k}_{p } and the square of the tensor moment < {bf T}^{k} _{p}>. This method makes photoionization and electron impact induced transitions as easy to interpret as the well known multiphoton transition. The photoionization HBr^*(nu,J) + hnu to HBr ^+(^2Pi_{i},nu ^+,J^+) + e^- has been studied experimentally. The HBr^*(nu,J) is prepared in three 5ppi Rydberg states: f ^3Delta_2, g ^3Sigma^-_0 ^+ and F ^1Delta _2 via 2-photon excitation, and the product HBr^+(^2Pi_{i} ,nu^+,J^+ ) is probed in a quantum state specific manner using laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Distributions of the HBr^+ product show very strong parity propensities for the type of transition (+/- )-(mp), and also rotational propensities: Delta J = +/-1.5, +/-0.5 for the type of transition (+/-)-( mp) and Delta J = +/-2.5, +/-1.5, +/-0.5 for (+/-)-( +/-). These results are able to be described by using selection rules and irreducible moment presentation. The charge-transfer reaction DBr^+( ^2Pi_{i},nu^+,J ^+) + HBr to HBr ^+(^2Pi_{i^{ '}},nu^{'+ },J^{'+}) + DBr is studied under thermal conditions in a flowing gas mixture of HBr and DBr. The DBr^+(^2Pi _{i},nu^+,J^+) reagent is prepared by using (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and the HBr^+(^2 Pi_{i^{'+} },nu^{'+},J^ {'+}) product is detected using LIF. From the measurements of the molecular density and the populations of both HBr^+ and DBr^+, the absolute rate constants k(i,nu^+to i^', nu^{'+}) are determined for this charge-transfer process. The rate constants for near-resonant charge-transfer are much faster than those for off-resonant charge-transfer. The rotational distribution of the HBr^+ product fits a temperature well in each case. For near-resonant charge-transfer the rotational temperature is slightly hotter than thermal whereas for non-resonant charge-transfer the rotational temperature is much hotter than thermal.

  5. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer process of betaine pyridinium: A theoretical spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Aurlie; Alose, Stphane; Pawlowska, Zuzanna; Sliwa, Michel; Maurel, Franois; Abe, Jiro

    2011-10-01

    Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and taking into account bulk solvent effects, we investigate the absorption and emission spectra of a betaine pyridinium molecule, the 2-(1-pyridinio) benzimidazolate (SBPa). This molecule exhibits strong photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). We have identified two different electronic states involved, respectively, in the strong bathochromic ICT absorption band (S 2) and in the moderate emission band (S 1). The ICT process is analyzed in terms of charge distribution and dipole moment evolutions upon photoexcitation. These results are compared with steady-state spectroscopic measurements.

  6. Polaron hopping in some biomolecular solids and their charge transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Solanki, G K; Amin, Anand; Padhiyar, Ashvin; Ray, A K; Oza, A T

    2008-12-01

    The solid state spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of biomolecules such as fatty acids, tripalmitin, lysozyme. folic acid, beta-carotene, cytochrome c, valinomycin and gramicidin has been carried out. The absorption coefficient is related with electronic conductivity. A half-power beta density is found common among these macromolecular solids, indicating photon-induced polaron hopping or hopping of a charge carrier between two branches of a polariton. Band gap vs full width at half-maximum of the mid-IR peak also reveals a linear relation. PMID:19239130

  7. Fermi level density of states modulation without charge transfer in nickelate superlattices.

    PubMed

    Han, Myung Joon; van Veenendaal, Michel

    2014-04-01

    By using first-principles density functional theory calculations for (LaNiO3)m/(SrTiO3)n superlattices, we report a systematic electronic response to the interface geometry. It is found that the density of states at the Fermi level of metallic nickelate layers is significantly reduced without charge transfer in the vicinity of the interface to the insulating SrTiO3. This type of electronic state redistribution is clearly distinctive from other interface phenomena such as charge and orbital reconstruction. Our result sheds new light on the understanding of the nickelates and other transition-metal oxide heterostructures. PMID:24637347

  8. Molecular control of photoexcited charge transfer and recombination at a quaterthiophene/zinc oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Weiwei; Ohmura, Satoshi; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro

    2012-05-01

    Nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study photoexcited charge transfer (CT) and charge recombination (CR) at an interface between a conjugated oligomer donor, quaterthiophene (QT), and an inorganic acceptor (ZnO). Simulations reveal a detrimental effect of static disorder in QT conformation on the efficiency of hybrid QT/ZnO solar cells due to increased CR. On the contrary, dynamic disorder (i.e., fluctuation of carbon-hydrogen bonds in QT) is essential for high efficiency by assisting CT. The separate controllability of CT and CR at the molecular level has impacts on molecular design for efficient solar cells and explains recent experimental observations.

  9. Reversible Tuning of Interfacial and Intramolecular Charge Transfer in Individual MnPc Molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Zhunzhun; Zhang, Jia Lin; Wright, Christopher A; Yuan, Kaidi; Gu, Chengding; Tadich, Anton; Qi, Dongchen; Li, He Xing; Lai, Min; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin; Hu, Wenping; Li, Zhenyu; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The reversible selective hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of individual manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecules has been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM), synchrotron-based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements, and supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown conclusively that interfacial and intramolecular charge transfer arises during the hydrogenation process. The electronic energetics upon hydrogenation is identified, enabling a greater understanding of interfacial and intramolecular charge transportation in the field of single-molecule electronics. PMID:26528623

  10. Control over the charge transfer in dye-nanoparticle decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Veluthandath, Aneesh V.; Nanda, B. R. K.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Bisht, Prem B.

    2016-01-01

    Charge transfer interaction between silver decorated graphene and three differently charged dyes, cationic (rhodamine 6G), neutral (rhodamine B) and anionic (fluorescein 27) has been studied. The ground state association constants have been evaluated and changes in the fluorescence intensity and lifetimes have been obtained in two solvents. Strength of complex-formation has been found to be higher with the cationic molecule in water. In a higher viscosity solvent, the ground state complex formation is restricted. Local field of localized surface plasmons of nanoparticles adsorbed on the graphene sheets leads to enhanced absorption and fluorescence of fluorescein 27.

  11. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2000-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  12. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2001-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  13. Photochemical charge separation in zeolites: Electron transfer dynamics, nanocrystals and zeolitic membranes. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    2001-09-30

    Aluminosilicate zeolites provide an excellent host for photochemical charge separation. Because of the constraints provided by the zeolite, the back electron transfer from the reduced acceptor to the oxidized sensitizer is slowed down. This provides the opportunity to separate the charge and use it in a subsequent reaction for water oxidation and reduction. Zeolite-based ruthenium oxide catalysts have been found to be efficient for the water splitting process. This project has demonstrated the usefulness of zeolite hosts for photolytic splitting of water.

  14. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. R.; Stancil, P. C.; Havener, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  15. Ultrafast processes of photoinduced charge and energy transfer in nanostructural fullerene-metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Chekalin, S. V.

    2006-11-15

    The primary stages of photoinduced processes in tin-doped C{sub 60} fullerene films have been studied using a femtosecond pump-probe technique with 150-fs laser excitation pulses ({lambda} = 400 nm) and differential transmission and reflection probing in the 1100-1700 nm range. The relaxation dynamics strongly depends both on the metal-to-fullerene ratio in the film and on the mutual distribution (packing) of components in the nanocomposite material. The observed response signal dynamics is related to features in the charge carrier generation, energy transfer between fullerene molecules, and charge transport between metal and fullerene.

  16. Mixed regular stack charge-transfer crystals: Fundamental microscopic parameters from optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painelli, A.; Girlando, A.

    1987-08-01

    Diagrammatic valence bond calculations are applied to the study of the charge-transfer (CT) excitation spectrum and of the electron-molecular vibration (emv) coupling in mixed regular stack CT crystals. The intersite electrostatic interactions are treated by both mean-field and unscreened point-charge potential approaches, obtaining quite similar results. The evaluation of microscopic parameters through optical spectra is critically discussed, and a new method is proposed to estimate the parameters relevant to the long-range Coulomb interaction from the analysis of the emv perturbation on the Raman spectra.

  17. Zero-point-of-charge prediction from crystal chemistry and solvation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    1994-07-01

    The pristine point of zero charge (pH PPZC) is a property of each solid in water that is widely used in the interpretation of adsorption processes and dissolution rates. Considerable effort has gone into attempting to calculate the pH PPZC values of oxides and silicates based on crystal chemistry and electrostatic models of the interaction between protons and OH surface groups. However, substantial discrepancies remain between calculated and measured values of the pH PPZC even for simple oxides such as quartz. This implies that the widespread use of real and fictive components (e.g., Si IVO 2 and Al 2IVO 3) to interpret the surface characteristics of silicates is unwarranted. In the present paper, I show that by adding electrostatic solvation theory to crystal chemical and electrostatic models, the differences between pH PPZC values of crystalline solids can be accurately quantified. The new model sums free energy contributions associated with proton solvation, electrostatic repulsion of protons by cations underlying the surface, and electrostatic attraction of protons by oxygen anions near the surface. It results in a theoretical dependence of the pH PPZC on the dielectric constant of the kth solid ( ?k) and the ratio of the Pauling electrostatic bond strength to the cation-hydroxyl bond length ( s/r M-OH), according to the equation pH PPZC = - 0.5( ?? r/2.303RT)( 1/? k) - B( s/r M-OH) + log K H +?, in which ?? r, B, and KH+? are constants. This relationship describes the pH PPZC values of oxides and silicates to better than 0.5 and enables prediction of surface protonation reactions from the properties of the underlying crystal structure alone. These results suggest that the bonding of protons at the crystal-water interface is more analogous to the bonding in the bulk crystal structure than to the bonding in analogous aqueous complexes emphasized in other studies.

  18. Helical aromatic oligoamide foldamers as organizational scaffolds for photoinduced charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Wolffs, Martin; Delsuc, Nicolas; Veldman, Dirk; Nguyn, Vn Anh; Williams, Ren M; Meskers, Stefan C J; Janssen, Ren A J; Huc, Ivan; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2009-04-01

    Here we report the synthesis and characterization of four quinoline-derived foldamers with increasing oligomeric length; dimer O2P, tetramer O4P, pentamer O5P, and nonamer O9P functionalized with on one end an oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (OPV) and on the other end a perylene bisimide (PB) chromophore. (1)H NMR confirms the formation of the expected folded structures in both toluene and chloroform solution. The structural predictability and rigidity of the oligomeric series enabled us to investigate the effect of a helical bridge and chromophore position on the photoinduced processes in the electron OPV-PB donor-acceptor pair in chloroform and toluene. The helical properties of the bridge ensured that the chromophore separation distance through space is different from the separation distance through the bridge. For all foldamer-solvent combinations studied, excitation of either OPV or PB results in nearly quantitative quenching of the fluorescence indicating a fast charge separation reaction between the OPV and PB. Femtosecond photoinduced absorption measurements confirmed the fast formation of a charge-separated state. The recombination reaction involves a combination of direct decay to the ground state and the formation of an intermediate triplet state, with their balance depending on the foldamer-solvent combination. Molecular orbital calculations rationalize the fast photoinduced charge separation, by revealing that the bridging foldamer mediates the charge transfer from donor to acceptor via the superexchange mechanism. Remarkably low attenuation factors (beta(CS) approximately 10(-2) A(-1)) were obtained using either through space or through bridge separation distance. However, in these calculations only three of the four foldamers show the expected linear behavior between the logarithm of the charge separation rate constant and the distance between the chromophores. The combined results show when a helical bridge is separating the charge transfer couple, hampering the usefulness of a uniform description of the charge-separation phenomena. PMID:19334777

  19. Four-body charge transfer processes in proton-helium collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, U.; Harris, A. L.; Peacher, J. L.; Madison, D. H.

    2012-02-01

    Recent advancements in experimental techniques now allow for the study of fully differential cross sections (FDCS) for four-body collisions. The simplest four-body problem is a charged particle collision with a helium atom, in which both atomic electrons change state. This type of collision can result in many different outcomes, such as double excitation, excitation ionization, double ionization, transfer excitation, transfer ionization and double charge transfer. In this paper, we compare absolute experimental proton-helium FDCS for transfer excitation with the fully quantum mechanical 4BTTE (four-body transfer with target excitation) model. This model was previously used to study TTE for proton energies between 25 and 75 keV and reasonable agreement was found with the experimental data for large scattering angles, but not small angles. Since this is a first-order model, which contains contributions from all higher order terms, one would expect improved agreement with increasing energy and the purpose of this work was to look at higher energies. We found that the agreement with the magnitude of the experimental data became worse with increasing energy while the agreement with the shape of the data was reasonably good. Consequently, we conclude that the model contains the physical effects that determine the shape but not the magnitude of the cross section.

  20. Charge collection mapping of the back-transfer process in Er-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Fraboni, B.; Pizzini, S.

    2000-06-01

    Charge collection analyses have been carried out on Er-doped silicon to investigate the excitation and de-excitation mechanisms of the Er3+ ion related to the ?=1.54 ?m luminescence. Carrier recombination and trapping at the defective states induced in the material by the presence of Er play a significant role in the excitation of the Er3+ ion and in its nonradiative decay by the energy back-transfer process. We have obtained a two-dimensional map of the lattice sites where the back-transfer process occurs, and provided experimental proof of the cooperation of two different defects in the excitation and de-excitation processes.

  1. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band induces electron tunnelling in azurin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Chiara; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-03-01

    Optical excitation of azurin blue copper protein immobilized on indium-tin oxide, in resonance with its ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band, resulted in a light-induced current tunnelling within the protein milieu. The related electron transport rate is estimated to be about 105 s-1. A model based on resonant tunnelling through an azurin excited molecular state is proposed. The capability of controlling electron transfer processes through light pulses opens interesting perspectives for implementation of azurin in bio-nano-opto-electronic devices.

  2. Charge-transfer complexes of pyrimidine Schiff bases with aromatic nitro compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Yousry M.; El Ansary, A. L.; Sherif, O. E.; Hassib, H. B.

    2011-08-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) complexes of pyrimidine Schiff bases, derived from condensation of 2-aminopyrimidine and substituted benzaldehydes, with some aromatic polynitro compounds were prepared and investigated using IR, UV, visible and 1H NMR spectroscopy. For all solid complexes, the main interaction between the donor and acceptor molecules takes place through the ?-?* interaction. Strong and some weak acidic acceptors, in addition interact through proton transfer from the acceptor molecule to the basic centre of the electron donor. Also, an n-?* transition was detected in some complexes.

  3. Charge-transfer complexes of pyrimidine Schiff bases with aromatic nitro compounds.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yousry M; el-Ansary, A L; Sherif, O E; Hassib, H B

    2011-08-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) complexes of pyrimidine Schiff bases, derived from condensation of 2-aminopyrimidine and substituted benzaldehydes, with some aromatic polynitro compounds were prepared and investigated using IR, UV, visible and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. For all solid complexes, the main interaction between the donor and acceptor molecules takes place through the ?-?* interaction. Strong and some weak acidic acceptors, in addition interact through proton transfer from the acceptor molecule to the basic centre of the electron donor. Also, an n-?* transition was detected in some complexes. PMID:21531169

  4. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band induces electron tunnelling in azurin

    SciTech Connect

    Baldacchini, Chiara; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2014-03-03

    Optical excitation of azurin blue copper protein immobilized on indium-tin oxide, in resonance with its ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band, resulted in a light-induced current tunnelling within the protein milieu. The related electron transport rate is estimated to be about 10{sup 5}?s{sup ?1}. A model based on resonant tunnelling through an azurin excited molecular state is proposed. The capability of controlling electron transfer processes through light pulses opens interesting perspectives for implementation of azurin in bio-nano-opto-electronic devices.

  5. Transverse Schottky and beam transfer function measurements in space charge affected coasting ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paret, Stefan; Kornilov, Vladimir; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Weiland, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions (BTFs) of coasting ion beams were measured in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 in order to study the impact of space charge on the transverse beam dynamics. The particle number in the beam was varied to investigate the intensity dependence of the space-charge effect. No cooling was applied to the beams throughout the experiment. The expected deformation of the Schottky spectra and BTFs is observed. An analytic model with linear space charge is employed to describe the deformed Schottky and BTF signals. In this model, the incoherent space-charge force and the coherent forces due to impedances are treated separately. Using the model, the space-charge induced tune shift is evaluated both from the position and the form of the signals. The data are well described by the model, only in the high-intensity BTFs deviations are observed. The stability diagrams are shifted according to the space-charge parameter obtained from the BTFs. In addition, the tune shift is estimated by virtue of measured beam profiles and particle numbers. The estimated tune shift is of the same order of magnitude but smaller than the measured one. Possible explanations for deviations between the measurements, the model, and the estimation are discussed.

  6. Ultrafast structural pathway of charge transfer in n,n,n',n'-tetramethylethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinxin; Zhang, Yao; Gao, Yan; Jnsson, Hannes; Weber, Peter M

    2015-03-26

    We have explored the ultrafast molecular structural dynamics associated with charge transfer in N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine using Rydberg fingerprint spectroscopy in conjunction with self-interaction corrected density functional theory. Excitation at 239 nm prepares the molecule in the Franck-Condon region of the 3s state with the charge localized on one of the two amine groups. As seen from the time-dependent Rydberg electron binding energies, the pathway of the rapidly ensuing dynamics leads through several structurally distinct conformers with various degrees of charge localization before reaching the fully charge-delocalized structure on a picosecond time scale. At several steps along the reaction path, the transient structures are identified through a comparison of the spectroscopically observed binding energies with computed values. The molecular structure is seen to evolve dynamically from an initially folded conformer to the stretched form that supports charge delocalization before an equilibrium sets in with forward and backward time constants of 1.19 (0.14) and 2.61 (0.31) ps, respectively. A coherent wavepacket motion in the charge-localized state with a period of 270 (17) fs and damping of 430 (260) fs is observed and tentatively assigned to the nitrogen umbrella motion. The damping time constant indicates the rate of the energy flow into other vibrations that are not activated by the optical excitation. PMID:25714009

  7. Multiple-receptor wireless power transfer for magnetic sensors charging on Mars via magnetic resonant coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Zhang, Zhen; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei; Ching, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a new idea for magnetic sensors charging on Mars, which aims to effectively transmit energy from Mars Rover to distributed magnetic sensors. The key is to utilize wireless power transfer (WPT) to enable multiple receptors extracting energy from the source via magnetic resonant coupling. Namely, the energy transmitter is located on the Mars Rover, whereas the energy receptor is installed in the magnetic sensor. In order to effectively transfer the power, a resonator is installed between the transmitter and the receptors. Based on the proposed idea, the system topology, operation principle, and simulation results are developed. By performing finite element magnetic field analysis, the output power and efficiency of the proposed WPT system are evaluated. It confirms that the Mars Rover carrying with the energy transmitter is capable of loitering around the resonator, while the magnetic sensors on the receptors can be simultaneously charged according to energy-on-demand.

  8. Charge-transfer dynamics in azobenzene alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers on gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahl, Cornelius; Schmidt, Roland; Brete, Daniel; Paarmann, Stephanie; Weinelt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the charge-transfer dynamics in azobenzene-functionalized alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers. We compare the core-hole-clock technique, i.e., resonant vs. non-resonant contributions in the azobenzene autoionization of the Cls-π* core exciton, with the lifetime of a molecular resonance determined by two-photon photoemission spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses. Both techniques yield comparable charge-transfer times of 80 ± 20 fs for a linker consisting of three CH2 groups and one oxygen unit. Thus the quenching of the excitation is about one order of magnitude faster than the time required for the trans to cis isomerization of the azobenzene photoswitch in solution.

  9. Specific features of the charge and mass transfer in a silver-intercalated hafnium diselenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshchev, V. G.; Selezneva, N. V.; Baranov, N. V.

    2013-07-01

    The specific features of the charge transfer in intercalated samples of Ag x HfSe2 have been studied for the first time by alternating current (ac) impedance spectroscopy. It has been found that relaxation processes in an ac field are accelerated with increasing silver content in the samples. The complex conductivity ( Y) shows a frequency dispersion described by power law Y ? s , which is characteristic of the hopping conductivity mechanism. The Ag x HfSe2 compounds demonstrate shorter relaxation times as compared to those observed in hafnium diselenide intercalated with copper atoms, and this fact indicates that the charge carrier mobility in the silver-intercalated compounds is higher. The possibility of silver ion transfer in Ag x HfSe2 is confirmed by the measurements performed by the method of electrochemical cell emf.

  10. Hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer complexes of TTFs containing nucleobase or imidazole moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Y.; Murata, T.; Miyazaki, E.; Maki, S.; Fukui, K.; Umemoto, Y.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.; Nakasuji, K.

    2004-04-01

    Novel electron-donor molecules based on tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and imidazole skeleton with hydrogen-bonded (H-bonded) functionality 1 5 and 7 10 have been designed and synthesized. The cyclic voltammograms for TTF-based donors 1 5 exhibit two-stage one-electron reversible waves, while oligo(imidazole)s 7 10 show irreversible one. The room-temperature conductivities of their tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) complexes for 1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 9 exhibit 0.11, 0.07, 2.3, 0.38, 0.16 and 0.10 Scm-1, respectively, revealing high electrical conductivity than those of known charge-transfer (CT) complexes derived from organic donors with amino or hydroxyl groups and organic acceptor molecules. Key words. TTF, nucleobase, imidazole, hydrogen-bonding, charge-transfer complex, conductivity.

  11. Resonant charge transfer in symmetric alkali-ion--alkali-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Men, F.K.; Kimura, M.; Olson, R.E.

    1986-06-01

    Resonant charge transfer in alkali-ion--alkali-atom collisions is investigated by using the molecular-orbital expansion method incorporating the use of electron translation factors. Molecular wave functions and eigenenergies are obtained by the pseudopotential method. Molecular properties, R/sub e/, D/sub e/, and ..omega../sub e/, obtained in the present calculation are in good accord with other recent theoretical results, as well as spectroscopic measurements. Three-state close-coupling calculations reproduce the positions of the maxima and minima in the oscillatory structure seen experimentally in the resonant-charge-transfer cross sections for the Li/sub 2/ /sup +/ and Cs/sub 2/ /sup +/ systems. The magnitude of the total cross sections and their velocity dependence are in agreement with experimental measurements.

  12. Symmetry-Breaking Charge Transfer of Visible Light Absorbing Systems: Zinc Dipyrrins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc dipyrrin complexes with two identical dipyrrin ligands absorb strongly at 450550 nm and exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields in nonpolar solvents (e.g., 0.160.66 in cyclohexane) and weak to nonexistent emission in polar solvents (i.e., <103, in acetonitrile). The low quantum efficiencies in polar solvents are attributed to the formation of a nonemissive symmetry-breaking charge transfer (SBCT) state, which is not formed in nonpolar solvents. Analysis using ultrafast spectroscopy shows that in polar solvents the singlet excited state relaxes to the SBCT state in 1.05.5 ps and then decays via recombination to the triplet or ground states in 0.93.3 ns. In the weakly polar solvent toluene, the equilibrium between a localized excited state and the charge transfer state is established in 1122 ps. PMID:25270268

  13. Quantum confinement effects on charge-transfer between PbS quantum dots and 4-mercaptopyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Xiaoqi; Pan Yi; Lombardi, John R.; Wang Xin

    2011-01-14

    We obtain the surface enhanced Raman spectra of 4-mercaptopyridine on lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots as a function of nanoparticle size and excitation wavelength. The nanoparticle radii are selected to be less than the exciton Bohr radius of PbS, enabling the observation of quantum confinement effects on the spectrum. We utilize the variation of nontotally symmetric modes of both b{sub 1} and b{sub 2} symmetry as compared to the totally symmetric a{sub 1} modes to measure the degree of charge-transfer between the molecule and quantum dot. We find both size dependent and wavelength dependent resonances in the range of these measurements, and attribute them to charge-transfer resonances which are responsible for the Raman enhancement.

  14. Resonant charge transfer in slow Li+-Li(2s) collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tie-Cheng; Liu, Chun-Hua; Qu, Yi-Zhi; Liu, Ling; Wu, Yong; Wang, Jian-Guo; P. Liebermann, H.; J. Buenker, R.

    2015-10-01

    The resonant charge transfer process for Li+-Li(2s) collision is investigated by the quantum-mechanical molecular orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) method and the two-center atomic-orbital close-coupling (AOCC) method in an energy range of 1.0 eV/u-104 eV/u. Accurate molecular structure data and charge transfer cross sections are given. Both the all-electron model (AEM) and one-electron model (OEM) are used in the QMOCC calculations, and the discrepancies between the two models are analyzed. The OEM calculation can also give a reliable prediction of the cross sections for energies below 1 keV/u. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11179041, 11474032, and 11474033) and the NSAF (Grant No. U1330117).

  15. Charge transfer to solvent dynamics in iodide aqueous solution studied at ionization threshold.

    PubMed

    Kothe, Alexander; Wilke, Martin; Moguilevski, Alexandre; Engel, Nicholas; Winter, Bernd; Kiyan, Igor Yu; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-01-21

    We explore the early-time electronic relaxation in NaI aqueous solution exposed to a short UV laser pulse. Rather than initiating the charge transfer reaction by resonant photoexcitation of iodide, in the present time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy study the charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) states are populated via electronic excitation above the vacuum level. By analyzing the temporal evolution of electron yields from ionization of two transient species, assigned to CTTS and its first excited state, we determine both their ultrafast population and relaxation dynamics. Comparison with resonant-excitation studies shows that the highly excited initial states exhibit similar relaxation characteristics as found for resonant excitation. Implications for structure and dynamical response of the hydration cage are discussed. PMID:25474360

  16. Cross sections for charge transfer between mercury ions and other metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vroom, D. A.; Rutherford, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for charge transfer between several ions and metals of interest to the NASA electro propulsion program have been measured. Specifically, the ions considered were Hg(+), Xe(+) and Cs(+) and the metals Mo, Fe, Al, Ti, Ta, and C. Measurements were made in the energy regime from 1 to 5,000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 10 to the minus 15 power sq cm for most processes over the total energy range. Exceptions are Hg(+) in collision with Ti and Ta. The results obtained for each reaction are given in both graphical and numerical form in the text. For quick reference, the data at several ion velocities are condensed into one table given in the summary.

  17. Measurement of the charge transfer efficiency of electrons clocked on superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Sabouret, G.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-06-19

    Electrons floating on the surface of liquid helium are possible qubits for quantum information processing. Varying electric potentials do not modify spin states, which allows their transport on helium using a charge-coupled device (CCD)-like array of underlying gates. This scheme depends on an efficient intergate electron transfer and on the absence of electron traps. We will present a measurement of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of electrons clocked back and forth above a short CCD-like structure. The CTE obtained at low clocking frequencies is 0.999 with an electron density of about 4 electrons/{mu}m{sup 2}. We find no evidence for deep electron trapping.

  18. Short-Range Charge Transfer Between Oxide Based Superconductor-Ferromagnetic Metal Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Te-Yu; Kourkoutis, L. F.; Chakhalian, J.; Muller, D.; Freeland, J. W.

    2014-03-01

    Unlike the conventional superconductor (S) and ferromagnetic metal (F) interface, the understanding of the proximity effect between oxide-based S and F is still unclear. One particular question relates to the charge transfer length scale between S and F layers, which resulted from the lack of an appropriate experimental tool. In this talk, we show that by combining the cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (XSTM/S) along with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), the charge transfer length scale at the interfaces between YBa Cu O -?(YBCO) and La3Ca3MnO (LCMO) was revealed to have upper limit of 1 nm.

  19. Combining intra- and intermolecular charge-transfer: a new strategy towards molecular ferromagnets and multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Maiolo, Francesco; Sissa, Cristina; Painelli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric materials are currently a hot research topic, with mixed stack charge transfer crystals playing a prominent role with their large, electronic-in-origin polarization and the possibility to tune the transition temperature down to the quantum limit and/or to drive the ferroelectric transition via an optical stimulus. By contrast, and in spite of an impressive research effort, organic ferromagnets are rare and characterized by very low transition temperatures. Coexisting magnetic and electric orders in multiferroics offer the possibility to control magnetic (electric) properties by an applied electric (magnetic) field with impressive technological potential. Only few examples of multiferroics are known today, based on inorganics materials. Here we demonstrate that, by decorating mixed stack charge transfer crystals with organic radicals, a new family of robust molecular ferromagnets can be designed, stable up to ambient temperature, and with a clear tendency towards multiferroic behaviour.

  20. Combining intra- and intermolecular charge-transfer: a new strategy towards molecular ferromagnets and multiferroics

    PubMed Central

    Di Maiolo, Francesco; Sissa, Cristina; Painelli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric materials are currently a hot research topic, with mixed stack charge transfer crystals playing a prominent role with their large, electronic-in-origin polarization and the possibility to tune the transition temperature down to the quantum limit and/or to drive the ferroelectric transition via an optical stimulus. By contrast, and in spite of an impressive research effort, organic ferromagnets are rare and characterized by very low transition temperatures. Coexisting magnetic and electric orders in multiferroics offer the possibility to control magnetic (electric) properties by an applied electric (magnetic) field with impressive technological potential. Only few examples of multiferroics are known today, based on inorganics materials. Here we demonstrate that, by decorating mixed stack charge transfer crystals with organic radicals, a new family of robust molecular ferromagnets can be designed, stable up to ambient temperature, and with a clear tendency towards multiferroic behaviour. PMID:26790963

  1. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A.; Ryabchenko, S.

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  2. Charge-transfer complexes of Cu(II)/HD analogue in sol gel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkley, J. F.; Kirkey, M. L.; Marques, A. D. S.; Lin, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    An optically transparent xerogel encapsulating Cu(II) acetate is fabricated to detect mustard gas (HD) analogues via a charge-transfer mechanism. A fast response (color change from sky blue to canary yellow) is observed for the chlorinated sulfide, and is accompanied by an absorption band at 370-420 nm. MO calculations revealed that the chlorinated HD analogue displays a charge-transfer transition extended from sulfur to chlorine atom. A 1:1 complex of Cu(II)/HD analogue is preferred. For a colorimetric sol-gel detector prepared at pH 3, the detection limit of HD analogue is calibrated at 0.03 ?l per 1.5 ml sensor volume.

  3. Primary Side Power Flow Control of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Charging

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M; Onar, Omer C; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2015-01-01

    Various noncontacting methods of plug-in electric vehicle charging are either under development or now deployed as aftermarket options in the light-duty automotive market. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is now the accepted term for wireless charging and is used synonymously for inductive power transfer and magnetic resonance coupling. WPT technology is in its infancy; standardization is lacking, especially on interoperability, center frequency selection, magnetic fringe field suppression, and the methods employed for power flow regulation. This paper proposes a new analysis concept for power flow in WPT in which the primary provides frequency selection and the tuned secondary, with its resemblance to a power transmission network having a reactive power voltage control, is analyzed as a transmission network. Analysis is supported with experimental data taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory s WPT apparatus. This paper also provides an experimental evidence for frequency selection, fringe field assessment, and the need for low-latency communications in the feedback path.

  4. Resonant and nonresonant hyper-Rayleigh scattering of charge-transfer chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.; Woodford, J. N.; Zhang, C.; Dalton, L. R.

    2001-04-01

    The first molecular hyperpolarizabilities (?) of a series of charge-transfer nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores are measured with the hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) technique using two excitation wavelengths at 1064 and 1907 nm. The 1907 nm wavelength is the longest excitation wavelength used for the HRS experiment. For some of these chromophores, ? values in excess of 100010-30 esu at 1907 nm are obtained, and due to two-photon enhancement, even greater ? values are found with the 1064 nm excitation. Chromophores with such large hyperpolarizability are expected to have potential applications in practical electro-optical devices. The dispersion of ? is analyzed using a two-vibronic-state model developed previously in our laboratory. The study shows that it is necessary to consider the vibronic structure of the chromophore in the excited state in order to account for the behavior of the first molecular hyperpolarizability of the charge-transfer NLO chromophores.

  5. Combining intra- and intermolecular charge-transfer: a new strategy towards molecular ferromagnets and multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Di Maiolo, Francesco; Sissa, Cristina; Painelli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric materials are currently a hot research topic, with mixed stack charge transfer crystals playing a prominent role with their large, electronic-in-origin polarization and the possibility to tune the transition temperature down to the quantum limit and/or to drive the ferroelectric transition via an optical stimulus. By contrast, and in spite of an impressive research effort, organic ferromagnets are rare and characterized by very low transition temperatures. Coexisting magnetic and electric orders in multiferroics offer the possibility to control magnetic (electric) properties by an applied electric (magnetic) field with impressive technological potential. Only few examples of multiferroics are known today, based on inorganics materials. Here we demonstrate that, by decorating mixed stack charge transfer crystals with organic radicals, a new family of robust molecular ferromagnets can be designed, stable up to ambient temperature, and with a clear tendency towards multiferroic behaviour. PMID:26790963

  6. Intermediate vibronic coupling in charge transfer states: comprehensive calculation of electronic excitations in sexithiophene crystal.

    PubMed

    Stradomska, Anna; Kulig, Waldemar; Slawik, Micha?; Petelenz, Piotr

    2011-06-14

    A comprehensive theory of linear vibronic coupling in a coupled manifold of Frenkel and charge-transfer states in an infinite molecular crystal is presented and applied for sexithiophene. The approach, valid in the intermediate-coupling regime, includes up to three-particle terms of the Philpott expansion, with the vibronic wavefunctions represented in the Lang-Firsov basis. As a stringent test, the scheme is used to reproduce the complete set of available sexithiophene absorption and electroabsorption spectra within a unified theoretical framework. The input is based primarily on independent calculations and to some extent on independent experiments, with explicit fitting contained within the limits set by the estimated inherent errors of a priori parameter estimates. Reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental spectra is achieved. The results resolve some existing interpretational ambiguities and expose some peculiarities of electric field effect on vibronic eigenstates of Frenkel parentage, highlighting the role of charge-transfer interactions. PMID:21682523

  7. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of the charge transfer complexes of 2- and 3-aminopyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Adel; Bazzi, Hassan S.

    2009-09-01

    The interactions of the electron donors 2-aminopyridine (2APY) and 3-aminopyridine (3APY) with the π-acceptors tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (picryl chloride, PC), and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil) were studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform at room temperature. The electronic and infrared spectra of the formed molecular charge transfer (CT) complexes were recorded. Photometric titration showed that the stoichiometries of the reactions were fixed and depended on the nature of both the donor and the acceptor. The molecular structures of the CT-complexes were, however, independent of the position of the amino group on the pyridine ring and were formulated as [(APY)(TCNE)], [(APY)(DDQ)], [(APY)(PC)], and [(APY) (chloranil)]. The formation constants ( KCT), charge transfer energy ( ECT) and molar extinction coefficients ( ɛCT) of the formed CT-complexes were obtained.

  8. The Effects of Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) on Galaxy Shape Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Jason; Leauthaud, Alexie; Stoughton, Chris; Massey, Richard; Dawson, Kyle; Kolbe, William; Roe, Natalie

    2010-04-01

    We examine the effects of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) during CCD readout on the demanding galaxy shape measurements required by studies of weak gravitational lensing. We simulate a CCD readout with CTI such as that caused by charged particle radiation damage in space-based detectors. We verify our simulations on real data from fully depleted p-channel CCDs that have been deliberately irradiated in a laboratory. We show that only charge traps with time constants of the same order as the time between row transfers during readout affect galaxy shape measurements. We simulate deep astronomical images and the process of CCD readout, characterizing the effects of CTI on various galaxy populations. Our code and methods are general and can be applied to any CCDs, once the density and characteristic release times of their charge trap species are known. We baseline our study around p-channel CCDs that have been shown to have charge transfer efficiency up to an order of magnitude better than several models of n-channel CCDs designed for space applications. We predict that for galaxies furthest from the readout registers, bias in the measurement of galaxy shapes, Δe, will increase at a rate of (2.65 ± 0.02) × 10-4 yr-1 at L2 for accumulated radiation exposure averaged over the solar cycle. If uncorrected, this will consume the entire shape measurement error budget of a dark energy mission surveying the entire extragalactic sky within about 4 yr of accumulated radiation damage. However, software mitigation techniques demonstrated elsewhere can reduce this by a factor of ~10, bringing the effect well below mission requirements. This conclusion is valid only for the p-channel CCDs we have modeled; CCDs with higher CTI will fare worse and may not meet the requirements of future dark energy missions. We also discuss additional ways in which hardware could be designed to further minimize the impact of CTI.

  9. Controlling the charge transfer in phenylene-bridged borylene-amine pi-conjugated systems.

    PubMed

    Pro?, Agnieszka; Zhou, Gang; Norouzi-Arasi, Hassan; Baumgarten, Martin; Mllen, Klaus

    2009-08-20

    Novel boron-nitrogen-containing pi-conjugated compounds 3,3'- and 4,4'-((2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)borylene)bis(N,N-diarylbenzenamine) (1-2), m- and p-phenylene bridged to the boron center, respectively, have been synthesized and characterized. Optical studies by means of UV-vis absorption and emission measurements as well as DFT calculations reveal a different charge transfer behavior between the para series and the meta series at ground and excited states. PMID:19719198

  10. Imidazole as a parent π-conjugated backbone in charge-transfer chromophores.

    PubMed

    Kulhánek, Jiří; Bureš, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Research activities in the field of imidazole-derived push-pull systems featuring intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) are reviewed. Design, synthetic pathways, linear and nonlinear optical properties, electrochemistry, structure-property relationships, and the prospective application of such D-π-A organic materials are described. This review focuses on Y-shaped imidazoles, bi- and diimidazoles, benzimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), imidazole-4,5-dicarbonitriles, and imidazole-derived chromophores chemically bound to a polymer chain. PMID:22423270

  11. Prominent Charge-Transfer State at α-Sexithiophene/C60 Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yousuke; Yonezawa, Kouhei; Kamioka, Hayato; Yasuda, Takeshi; Han, Liyuan; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2013-06-01

    We performed femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy in α-sexithiophene (6T)/C60 bilayer and mixed films. We observed sharp and intense photoinduced absorption (PIA) at 1.2 eV and ascribed it to the charge-transfer (CT) state. The spectral features are interpreted in terms of homogenous molecular stacking at 6T/C60 interface and quantum confinement effect in 6T.

  12. Strongly Dichroic Organic Films via Controlled Assembly of Modular Aromatic Charge-Transfer Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    B, Ariana Gray; Tran, Cheryl; Sechrist, Riley; Reczek, Joseph J

    2015-10-01

    The formation of highly anisotropic organic thin films based on the designed self-assembly of mixed-stack liquid crystals is reported. A series of alkoxyanthracene donors is combined in a modular fashion with a naphthalenediimide acceptor to generate new charge-transfer columnar liquid crystals. Materials characterization and molecular modeling provides insight into structure-function relationships in these organic materials that lead to the striking bulk dichroic properties of certain molecular assemblies. PMID:26375256

  13. Charge-Transfer Excitations Steer the Davydov Splitting and Mediate Singlet Exciton Fission in Pentacene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beljonne, D.; Yamagata, H.; Brédas, J. L.; Spano, F. C.; Olivier, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations are combined to a model Frenkel-Holstein Hamiltonian to assess the nature of the lowest electronic excitations in the pentacene crystal. We show that an admixture of charge-transfer excitations into the lowest singlet excited states form the origin of the Davydov splitting and mediate instantaneous singlet exciton fission by direct optical excitation of coherently coupled single and double exciton states, in agreement with recent experiments.

  14. Imidazole as a parent ?-conjugated backbone in charge-transfer chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Kulhnek, Ji?

    2012-01-01

    Summary Research activities in the field of imidazole-derived pushpull systems featuring intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) are reviewed. Design, synthetic pathways, linear and nonlinear optical properties, electrochemistry, structureproperty relationships, and the prospective application of such D-?-A organic materials are described. This review focuses on Y-shaped imidazoles, bi- and diimidazoles, benzimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), imidazole-4,5-dicarbonitriles, and imidazole-derived chromophores chemically bound to a polymer chain. PMID:22423270

  15. On the crystal phases of /DEPE/ /TCNQ/4. [organic charge transfer salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, L. B.; Hermann, A. M.; Williams, R.; Somoano, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction studies of two semiconducting crystal phases in the organic charge transfer salt (DEPE)(TCNQ) sub 4 has revealed almost identical electrical properties to those of metallic crystals. It is hypothesized that the similarity arises from the nature of the measurements themselves, i.e., electrode geometry. The possibility that a separate metallic phase for (DEPE)(TCNQ) sub 4 exists, is not, however, ruled out.

  16. Charge transfer mobility of naphthodithiophenediimide derivative: Normal-mode and bond length relaxation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yujuan; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-02-01

    In this letter, the charge transfer mobility of naphthalenediimide (NDTI) derivative is investigated. By employing the normal-mode analysis and bond length relaxation analysis, the influences of chemical elements on reorganization energies and intermolecular electronic couplings are investigated in NDTI derivative. The results show that the introduction of atom O would decrease reorganization energy in hole-hopping process and increase electronic coupling. This analysis encourages the molecular and material design in organic semiconductors.

  17. Direct observation of charge transfer in solid electrolyte for electrochemical metallization memory.

    PubMed

    Cho, Deok-Yong; Valov, Ilia; van den Hurk, Jan; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Waser, Rainer

    2012-08-28

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy study on an electrochemical metallization cell of GeS(x) :Ag shows clear experimental evidence of chemical ionization of the active metal atoms (Ag) and consequent transfer of charge to the electrolyte (GeS(x) ). The valence electron density and its change upon the Ag intercalation are depicted schematically as transparent waves on the Ge-S bond structure in amorphous GeS(x) . PMID:22786689

  18. Ink-jet printing of organic metal electrodes using charge-transfer compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Abe, Y.; Yamada, T.; Tokura, Y.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.; Akutagawa, T.; Nakamura, T.

    2006-10-01

    In this work the authors fabricated patterned thin films made of highly conductive organic charge-transfer complexes using the ink-jet printing technique. The overprinted films of BO9(C14-TCNQ)4 exhibit low sheet resistivity and are available for carrier injection and interconnection of organic field-effect transistors (FETs). The performance of pentacene thin film FETs, where the top contact and bottom contact are ink-jet-printed organic electrodes, demonstrates the potential of organic/organic heterointerfaces.

  19. First-principles description of charge transfer in donor-acceptor compounds from self-consistent many-body perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Atalla, Viktor; Ren, Xinguo; Rubio, Angel; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    We investigate charge transfer in prototypical molecular donor-acceptor compounds using hybrid density functional theory (DFT) and the GW approximation at the perturbative level (G0W0) and at full self-consistency (sc-GW). For the systems considered here, no charge transfer should be expected at large intermolecular separation according to photoemission experiments and accurate quantum-chemistry calculations. The capability of hybrid exchange-correlation functionals of reproducing this feature depends critically on the fraction of exact exchange ?, as for small values of ? spurious fractional charge transfer is observed between the donor and the acceptor. G0W0 based on hybrid DFT yields the correct alignment of the frontier orbitals for all values of ?. However, G0W0 has no capacity to alter the ground-state properties of the system because of its perturbative nature. The electron density in donor-acceptor compounds thus remains incorrect for small ? values. In sc-GW, where the Green's function is obtained from the iterative solution of the Dyson equation, the electron density is updated and reflects the correct description of the level alignment at the GW level, demonstrating the importance of self-consistent many-body approaches for the description of ground- and excited-state properties in donor-acceptor systems.

  20. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  1. Resonant hot charge-transfer excitations in fullerene-porphyrin complexes: Many-body Bethe-Salpeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchemin, Ivan; Blase, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    We study the neutral singlet excitations of the zinc-tetraphenylporphyrin and C70-fullerene donor-acceptor complex within the many-body Green's-function GW and Bethe-Salpeter approaches. The lowest transition is a charge-transfer excitation between the donor and the acceptor with an energy in excellent agreement with recent constrained density functional theory calculations. Beyond the lowest charge-transfer state, which can be determined with simple electrostatic models that we validate, the Bethe-Salpeter approach provides the full excitation spectrum. We evidence the existence of hot electron-hole states which are resonant in energy with the lowest donor intramolecular excitation and show a hybrid intramolecular and charge-transfer character, favoring the transition towards charge separation. Such findings, and the ability to describe accurately both low-lying and excited charge-transfer states, are important steps in the process of discriminating cold versus hot exciton dissociation processes.

  2. Double-charge-transfer cross sections in inelastic collisions of bare ions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Purkait, M.; Sounda, S.; Dhara, A.; Mandal, C. R.

    2006-10-15

    Double-charge-transfer cross sections into singly and doubly excited states for collisions of {alpha} particles with helium atoms have been studied in the energy range of 50 to 500 keV/amu. We have also studied the double electron capture cross sections into ground states for collisions of {sup 7}Li{sup 3+} and {sup 10}B{sup 5+} with helium atoms. In our study we have applied the four-body boundary corrected continuum intermediate state approximation. The intermediate continuum states of each electron and static correlations of the electrons have been taken into account in this formalism. Present calculated results for total charge transfer cross sections for the reaction {alpha}+He and Li{sup 3+}+He compare favorably well with the existing experimental and other theoretical predictions. Due to the nonavailability of any theoretical and experimental finding for the reaction B{sup 5+}+He, the energy variation of capture cross sections into the ground state of B{sup 5+} ion has been shown within the same energy range. However, charge transfer cross sections into singly and doubly excited states of He are compared with the available theoretical observations only due to nonavailability of any experimental result. In this case as well, agreement is very encouraging.

  3. Structure and Electronic Spectra of Purine-Methyl Viologen Charge Transfer Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jalilov, Almaz S.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Singh, Arunoday; Simeon, Tomekia; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Schatz, George C.; Lewis, Frederick D.

    2014-01-01

    The structure and properties of the electron donor-acceptor complexes formed between methyl viologen (MV) and purine nucleosides and nucleotides in water and the solid state have been investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. Solution studies were performed using UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations were performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Energy decomposition analysis indicates that dispersion and induction (charge-transfer) interactions dominate the total binding energy, whereas electrostatic interactions are largely repulsive. The appearance of charge transfer bands in the absorption spectra of the complexes are well described by time-dependent (TD) DFT and are further explained in terms of the redox properties of purine monomers and solvation effects. Crystal structures are reported for complexes of methyl viologen with the purines 2?-deoxyguanosine 3?-monophosphate GMP (DAD?DAD? type) and 7-deazaguanosine zG (DAD?ADAD? type). Comparison of the structures determined in the solid state and by theoretical methods in solution provides valuable insights into the nature of charge-transfer interactions involving purine bases as electron donors. PMID:24294996

  4. Charge transfer and adsorption-desorption kinetics in carbon nanotube and graphene gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sang-Zi; Chen, Gugang; Harutyunyan, Avetik; Cole, Milton; Sofo, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    Detection of molecules in the gas phase by carbon nanotube and graphene has great application potentials due to the high sensitivity and surface-to-volume ratio. In chemiresistor, the conductance of the materials has been proposed to change as a result of charge transfer from the adsorbed molecules. Due to self-interaction errors, calculations using LDA or GGA density functionals have an innate disadvantage in dealing with charge transfer situations. A model which takes into consideration the dielectric interaction between the graphene surface and the molecule is employed to estimate the distance where charge transfer becomes favorable. Adsorption-desorption kinetics is studied with a modified Langmuir model, including sites from which the molecules do not desorb within the experimental time. Assuming a constant mobility, the model reproduces existing experimental conductance data. Its parameters provide information about the microscopic process during the detection and varying them allows optimization of aspects of sensor performance, including sensitivity, detection limit and response time. This work is supported by Honda Research Institute USA, Inc.

  5. Development of highly accurate approximate scheme for computing the charge transfer integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershin, Anton; Szalay, Pter G.

    2015-08-01

    The charge transfer integral is a key parameter required by various theoretical models to describe charge transport properties, e.g., in organic semiconductors. The accuracy of this important property depends on several factors, which include the level of electronic structure theory and internal simplifications of the applied formalism. The goal of this paper is to identify the performance of various approximate approaches of the latter category, while using the high level equation-of-motion coupled cluster theory for the electronic structure. The calculations have been performed on the ethylene dimer as one of the simplest model systems. By studying different spatial perturbations, it was shown that while both energy split in dimer and fragment charge difference methods are equivalent with the exact formulation for symmetrical displacements, they are less efficient when describing transfer integral along the asymmetric alteration coordinate. Since the "exact" scheme was found computationally expensive, we examine the possibility to obtain the asymmetric fluctuation of the transfer integral by a Taylor expansion along the coordinate space. By exploring the efficiency of this novel approach, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme represents an attractive alternative to the "exact" calculations due to a substantial reduction of computational costs, when a considerably large region of the potential energy surface is of interest. Moreover, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme, irrespective of the dimer symmetry, is very accurate for the entire range of geometry fluctuations that cover the space the molecule accesses at room temperature.

  6. NIR and MIR charge transfer plasmons in wire-bridged antennas (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Wen, Fangfang; Gottheim, Samuel; King, Nicholas S.; Zhang, Yu; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate optical properties of wire-bridged plasmonic nanoantennas. Here we found two spectral features: a dipolar plasmon in the visible and a Charge Transfer Plasmon (CTP) in the infrared. The CTP depends sensitively on the conductance of the junction wire, offering a controllable way for tuning the plasmon resonance to the desired wavelength regime via junction geometries. Here we use single-particle dark field spectroscopy from UV, visible to IR to identify plasmonic modes in different spectrum regimes. The simulations using Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method are in good agreement with experiment: Increasing the junction wire width and concurrently the junction conductance blue shifts resonance positions, and simultaneously modifies scattering strengths, the linewidth of CTP and dipolar plasmon. We notice that CTP in a much longer wavelength regime and preserving a narrow line width, an important implication for designing IR plasmons with a high quality factor for enhanced spectroscopy and sensing applications. We also extend the CTP to the IR regime by increasing the wire length to create IR plasmon while keeping the line width of the resonance. Our work offers a way for studying the charge transfer properties in plasmonic nanostructures. Not only it adds another degree in understanding the charge transfer properties in plasmonic nanostructures but also offers an optical platform for studying molecules transport at optical frequencies and related applications.

  7. Charge transfer in covalently-linked porphyrin-donor complexes from picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Loppnow, G.R.; Melamed, D.; Hamilton, A.D.; Spiro, T.G. )

    1993-09-02

    Octaalkyl free base porphyrins have been synthesized with covalently attached electron donors at a single meso position. Singlet-state lifetimes were determined from fluorescence quenching in three solvents and were found to be [le]1.5 ps for the N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TMPD) appended complex, 1.3 ns for the phenyl-TMPD-appended complex, and [ge]5 ns for the phenyl-appended, N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) appended, and DMA-TMPD-appended porphyrin complexes in o-difluorobenzene. Single photon counting measurements and fluorescence quantum yield quenching studies of the phenyl-appended control and phenyl-TMPD charge-transfer complex gave 14 [+-] 3 and 2 [+-] 0.3 ns excited-state lifetimes, respectively. Fluorescence quantum yields of the TMPD and phenyl-TMPD porphyrins were higher in solvents with lower dielectric constants. Picosecond absorption spectroscopy was performed on molecules exhibiting fluorescence quenching to characterize the charge-transfer state and to determine the recombination kinetics. Conclusive evidence of charge transfer was obtained by observing the donor cation absorption at 606 nm for the TMPD and phenyl-TMPD porphyrins. 49 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Semilocal and hybrid density embedding calculations of ground-state charge-transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Laricchia, S; Fabiano, E; Della Sala, F

    2013-03-28

    We apply the frozen density embedding method, using a full relaxation of embedded densities through a freeze-and-thaw procedure, to study the electronic structure of several benchmark ground-state charge-transfer complexes, in order to assess the merits and limitations of the approach for this class of systems. The calculations are performed using both semilocal and hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) functionals. The results show that embedding calculations using semilocal XC functionals yield rather large deviations with respect to the corresponding supermolecular calculations. Due to a large error cancellation effect, however, they can often provide a relatively good description of the electronic structure of charge-transfer complexes, in contrast to supermolecular calculations performed at the same level of theory. On the contrary, when hybrid XC functionals are employed, both embedding and supermolecular calculations agree very well with each other and with the reference benchmark results. In conclusion, for the study of ground-state charge-transfer complexes via embedding calculations hybrid XC functionals are the method of choice due to their higher reliability and superior performance. PMID:23556714

  9. Charge Transfer-Induced Molecular Hole Doping into Thin Film of Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deok Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Boukhvalov, Danil W; Lee, Joong Kee; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2015-08-26

    Despite the highly porous nature with significantly large surface area, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be hardly used in electronic and optoelectronic devices due to their extremely poor electrical conductivity. Therefore, the study of MOF thin films that require electron transport or conductivity in combination with the everlasting porosity is highly desirable. In the present work, thin films of Co3(NDC)3DMF4 MOFs with improved electronic conductivity are synthesized using layer-by-layer and doctor blade coating techniques followed by iodine doping. The as-prepared and doped films are characterized using FE-SEM, EDX, UV/visible spectroscopy, XPS, current-voltage measurement, photoluminescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and incident photon to current efficiency measurements. In addition, the electronic and semiconductor properties of the MOF films are characterized using Hall Effect measurement, which reveals that, in contrast to the insulator behavior of the as-prepared MOFs, the iodine doped MOFs behave as a p-type semiconductor. This is caused by charge transfer-induced hole doping into the frameworks. The observed charge transfer-induced hole doping phenomenon is also confirmed by calculating the densities of states of the as-prepared and iodine doped MOFs based on density functional theory. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates an efficient interfacial charge transfer between TiO2 and iodine doped MOFs, which can be applied to harvest solar radiations. PMID:26226050

  10. Ab initio calculation of H+He{sup +} charge-transfer cross sections for plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.; Vaeck, N.; Lauvergnat, D.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2010-07-15

    The charge-transfer in low-energy (0.25 to 150 eV/amu) H(nl)+He{sup +}(1s) collisions is investigated using a quasimolecular approach for the n=2,3 as well as the first two n=4 singlet states. The diabatic potential energy curves of the HeH{sup +} molecular ion are obtained from the adiabatic potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements using a two-by-two diabatization method, and a time-dependent wave-packet approach is used to calculate the state-to-state cross sections. We find a strong dependence of the charge-transfer cross section on the principal and orbital quantum numbers n and l of the initial or final state. We estimate the effect of the nonadiabatic rotational couplings, which is found to be important even at energies below 1 eV/amu. However, the effect is small on the total cross sections at energies below 10 eV/amu. We observe that to calculate charge-transfer cross sections in an n manifold, it is only necessary to include states with n{sup '{<=}}n, and we discuss the limitations of our approach as the number of states increases.

  11. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting System-A Study of Interfacial Charge Transfer with Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingyan; Zhang, Xiaofan; Xiao, Xin; Shen, Yan

    2016-01-27

    Fast charge transfer kinetics at the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface is critical for efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting system. Thus, far, a measurement of kinetics constants for such processes is limited. In this study, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is employed to investigate the charge transfer kinetics at the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the feedback mode in order to simulate the oxygen evolution process in PEC system. The popular photocatalysts BiVO4 and Mo doped BiVO4 (labeled as Mo:BiVO4) are selected as photoanodes and the common redox couple [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-) as molecular probe. SECM characterization can directly reveal the surface catalytic reaction kinetics constant of 9.30 × 10(7) mol(-1) cm(3) s(-1) for the BiVO4. Furthermore, we find that after excitation, the ratio of rate constant for photogenerated hole to electron via Mo:BiVO4 reacting with mediator at the electrode/electrolyte interface is about 30 times larger than that of BiVO4. This suggests that introduction of Mo(6+) ion into BiVO4 can possibly facilitate solar to oxygen evolution (hole involved process) and suppress the interfacial back reaction (electron involved process) at photoanode/electrolyte interface. Therefore, the SECM measurement allows us to make a comprehensive analysis of interfacial charge transfer kinetics in PEC system. PMID:26720831

  12. Charge-transfer interactions between TCNQ and silver clusters Ag20 and Ag13.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Hanyu; Liu, Xianhu; Yuan, Chengqian; Jia, Meiye; Luo, Zhixun; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and two typical silver clusters Ag13 and Ag20 are studied by first-principles DFT calculations. Charge transfer (CT) from silver clusters to TCNQ molecules initiates the Ag-N bond formation at selective sites resulting in the formation of different isomers of Ag13-TCNQ and Ag20-TCNQ complexes. We show here a comprehensive spectroscopic analysis for the two CT complexes on the basis of Raman and infrared activities. Furthermore, frontier molecular orbital (FMO) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the complexes provides a vivid illustration of electron cloud overlap and interactions. The behavior of TCNQ adsorbed on the tetrahedral Ag20 cluster was even found in good agreement with the experimental measurement of TCNQ molecules on a single-crystal Ag(111) surface. This study not only endeavors to clarify the charge-transfer interactions of TCNQ with silver, but also presents a finding of enhanced charge transfer between Ag13 and TCNQ indicating potential for candidate building blocks of granular materials. PMID:26888771

  13. A study of different modes of charge transfer to ground in upward lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Helin; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Thottappillil, Rajeev; Pichler, Hannes; Mair, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We examined simultaneous measurements of currents and close electric field changes, as well as high-speed video images, associated with pulses superimposed on the initial continuous current (ICC pulses) and M-components following return strokes in upward flashes initiated from the Gaisberg Tower in Austria. For tower-initiated lightning, upward leaders often create multiple branches below the cloud base that can facilitate initiation of transients at relatively low heights along the grounded channel carrying ICC of some tens to hundreds of amperes. In this situation, a conducting channel is present, which is necessary for the M-component mode of charge transfer to ground, but the excitation wave (leader), after entering the channel, cannot form a long-front downward M-wave, because of the relatively short distance between the entry (junction) point and the strike-object top. Clearly, two parallel channels, one previously existing and the other newly formed (or rejuvenated) are involved in the charge transfer, and there is a common channel section between the junction point and the strike object. We use the term "mixed mode of charge transfer to ground", to indicate that in the case of low junction point the "classical" M-component mode is not possible, even though a conducting channel to ground (an attribute of the M-component mode) is present. The mixed mode scenario is also applicable to impulsive processes during continuing currents following return strokes in upward lightning.

  14. Lock-arm supramolecular ordering: a molecular construction set for cocrystallizing organic charge transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Anthea K; Sue, Andrew C-H; Shveyd, Alexander K; Cao, Dennis; Tayi, Alok; Narayanan, Ashwin; Rolczynski, Brian S; Szarko, Jodi M; Bozdemir, Ozgur A; Wakabayashi, Rie; Lehrman, Jessica A; Kahr, Bart; Chen, Lin X; Nassar, Majed S; Stupp, Samuel I; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-12-10

    Organic charge transfer cocrystals are inexpensive, modular, and solution-processable materials that are able, in some instances, to exhibit properties such as optical nonlinearity, (semi)conductivity, ferroelectricity, and magnetism. Although the properties of these cocrystals have been investigated for decades, the principal challenge that researchers face currently is to devise an efficient approach which allows for the growth of high-quality crystalline materials, in anticipation of a host of different technological applications. The research reported here introduces an innovative design, termed LASO-lock-arm supramolecular ordering-in the form of a modular approach for the development of responsive organic cocrystals. The strategy relies on the use of aromatic electronic donor and acceptor building blocks, carrying complementary rigid and flexible arms, capable of forming hydrogen bonds to amplify the cocrystallization processes. The cooperativity of charge transfer and hydrogen-bonding interactions between the building blocks leads to binary cocrystals that have alternating donors and acceptors extending in one and two dimensions sustained by an intricate network of hydrogen bonds. A variety of air-stable, mechanically robust, centimeter-long, organic charge transfer cocrystals have been grown by liquid-liquid diffusion under ambient conditions inside 72 h. These cocrystals are of considerable interest because of their remarkable size and stability and the promise they hold when it comes to fabricating the next generation of innovative electronic and photonic devices. PMID:25369425

  15. Nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer molecular systems with C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajzar, Francois; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Merritt, Charles D.; Kafafi, Zakya H.

    1997-11-01

    Second order nonlinear optical properties of C60 based multilayered charge transfer structures with TPP, TPD and TPN molecules, acting as electron donors, are studied by the transverse optical second harmonic generation. The studied structures are of ABABAB...and ABCABC...type, where layer A is made from electron accepting molecules, layer B from electron donating and layer C from neutral molecules. The typical thickness of individual layers is about 2 nm. A significant increase of SHG is observed in ABCABC...type structures, where an effective charge transfer is expected with creation of a noncentrosymmetry in the perpendicular direction tot eh layers. The largest (chi) (2) susceptibility is obtained with multilayers containing rubrene. The SHG generation experiments performed on thin films with different thicknesses show that the nonlinear optical response comes from the bulk material and not form the interfaces. A quadratic dependence of SHG intensity on input power is also observed, showing that the charge transfer takes place at the ground state.

  16. Charge constrained density functional molecular dynamics for simulation of condensed phase electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhofer, Harald; Blumberger, Jochen

    2009-08-01

    We present a plane-wave basis set implementation of charge constrained density functional molecular dynamics (CDFT-MD) for simulation of electron transfer reactions in condensed phase systems. Following the earlier work of Wu and Van Voorhis [Phys. Rev. A 72, 024502 (2005)], the density functional is minimized under the constraint that the charge difference between donor and acceptor is equal to a given value. The classical ion dynamics is propagated on the Born-Oppenheimer surface of the charge constrained state. We investigate the dependence of the constrained energy and of the energy gap on the definition of the charge and present expressions for the constraint forces. The method is applied to the Ru2+-Ru3+ electron self-exchange reaction in aqueous solution. Sampling the vertical energy gap along CDFT-MD trajectories and correcting for finite size effects, a reorganization free energy of 1.6 eV is obtained. This is 0.1-0.2 eV lower than a previous estimate based on a continuum model for solvation. The smaller value for the reorganization free energy can be explained by the fact that the Ru-O distances of the divalent and trivalent Ru hexahydrates are predicted to be more similar in the electron transfer complex than for the separated aqua ions.

  17. Tuning the entanglement between orbital reconstruction and charge transfer at a film surface

    PubMed Central

    Cui, B.; Song, C.; Li, F.; Wang, G. Y.; Mao, H. J.; Peng, J. J.; Zeng, F.; Pan, F.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between orbital, charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom is at the core of correlated oxides. This is extensively studied at the interface of heterostructures constituted of two-layer or multilayer oxide films. Here, we demonstrate the interactions between orbital reconstruction and charge transfer in the surface regime of ultrathin (La,Sr)MnO3, which is a model system of correlated oxides. The interactions are manipulated in a quantitative manner by surface symmetry-breaking and epitaxial strain, both tensile and compressive. The established charge transfer, accompanied by the formation of oxygen vacancies, provides a conceptually novel vision for the long-term problem of manganitesthe severe surface/interface magnetization and conductivity deterioration. The oxygen vacancies are then purposefully tuned by cooling oxygen pressure, markedly improving the performances of differently strained films. Our findings offer a broad opportunity to tailor and benefit from the entanglements between orbit, charge, spin, and lattice at the surface of oxide films. PMID:24569650

  18. Raman Spectroscopy of Charge Transfer Interactions Between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and [FeFe] Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, J. L. Svedruzic, D.; McDonald, T. J.; Kim, Y. H.; King, P. W.; Heben, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report a Raman spectroscopy study of charge transfer interactions in complexes formed by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and [FeFe] hydrogenase I (CaHydI) from Clostridium acetobutylicum. The choice of Raman excitation wavelength and sample preparation conditions allows differences to be observed for complexes involving metallic (m) and semiconducting (s) species. Adsorbed CaHydI can reversibly inject electronic charge into the LUMOs of s-SWNTs, while charge can be injected and removed from m-SWNTs at lower potentials just above the Fermi energy. Time-dependent enzymatic assays demonstrated that the reduced and oxidized forms of CaHydI are deactivated by oxygen, but at rates that varied by an order of magnitude. The time evolution of the oxidative decay of the CaHydI activity reveals different time constants when complexed with m-SWNTs and s-SWNTs. The correlation of enzymatic assays with time-dependent Raman spectroscopy provides a novel method by which the charge transfer interactions may be investigated in the various SWNT-CaHydI complexes. Surprisingly, an oxidized form of CaHydI is apparently more resistant to oxygen deactivation when complexed to m-SWNTs rather than s-SWNTs.

  19. Tuning the entanglement between orbital reconstruction and charge transfer at a film surface.

    PubMed

    Cui, B; Song, C; Li, F; Wang, G Y; Mao, H J; Peng, J J; Zeng, F; Pan, F

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between orbital, charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom is at the core of correlated oxides. This is extensively studied at the interface of heterostructures constituted of two-layer or multilayer oxide films. Here, we demonstrate the interactions between orbital reconstruction and charge transfer in the surface regime of ultrathin (La,Sr)MnO3, which is a model system of correlated oxides. The interactions are manipulated in a quantitative manner by surface symmetry-breaking and epitaxial strain, both tensile and compressive. The established charge transfer, accompanied by the formation of oxygen vacancies, provides a conceptually novel vision for the long-term problem of manganites--the severe surface/interface magnetization and conductivity deterioration. The oxygen vacancies are then purposefully tuned by cooling oxygen pressure, markedly improving the performances of differently strained films. Our findings offer a broad opportunity to tailor and benefit from the entanglements between orbit, charge, spin, and lattice at the surface of oxide films. PMID:24569650

  20. UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Dominik Benjamin; Kufner, Corinna Lucia; Schlueter, Alexander; Carell, Thomas; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2016-01-13

    Absorption of UV-radiation in nucleotides initiates a number of photophysical and photochemical processes, which may finally cause DNA damage. One major decay channel of photoexcited DNA leads to reactive charge transfer states. This study shows that these states trigger self-repair of DNA photolesions. The experiments were performed by UV spectroscopy and HPLC on different single and double stranded oligonucleotides containing a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesion. In a first experiment we show that photoexcitation of adenine adjacent to a CPD has no influence on this lesion. However, excitation of a guanine (G) adenine (A) sequence leads to reformation of the intact thymine (T) bases. The involvement of two bases for the repair points to a long-living charge transfer state between G and A to be responsible for the repair. The negatively charged A radical anion donates an electron to the CPD, inducing ring splitting and repair. In contrast, a TA sequence, having an inverted charge distribution (T radical anion, A radical cation), is not able to repair the CPD lesion. The investigations show that the presence of an adjacent radical ion is not sufficient for repair. More likely it is the driving power represented by the oxidation potential of the radical ion, which controls the repair. Thus, repair capacities are strongly sequence-dependent, creating DNA regions with different tendencies of self-repair. This self-healing activity represents the simplest sequence-dependent DNA repair system. PMID:26651219

  1. Inhomogeneous charge transfer within monolayer zinc phthalocyanine absorbed on TiO{sub 2}(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Shun; Ahmadi, Sareh; Adibi, Pooya Tabib Zadeh; Chow, Winnie; Goethelid, Mats; Sun, Chenghua; Pietzsch, Annette

    2012-04-21

    The d-orbital contribution from the transition metal centers of phthalocyanine brings difficulties to understand the role of the organic ligands and their molecular frontier orbitals when it adsorbs on oxide surfaces. Here we use zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/TiO{sub 2}(110) as a model system where the zinc d-orbitals are located deep below the organic orbitals leaving room for a detailed study of the interaction between the organic ligand and the substrate. A charge depletion from the highest occupied molecular orbital is observed, and a consequent shift of N1s and C1s to higher binding energy in photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). A detailed comparison of peak shifts in PES and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy illustrates a slightly uneven charge distribution within the molecular plane and an inhomogeneous charge transfer screening between the center and periphery of the organic ligand: faster in the periphery and slower at the center, which is different from other metal phthalocyanine, e.g., FePc/TiO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that the metal center can substantially influence the electronic properties of the organic ligand at the interface by introducing an additional charge transfer channel to the inner molecular part.

  2. Problems of rate chemistry in the flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1984-01-01

    The dissociating and ionizing nonequilibrium flows behind a normal shock wave are calculated for the density and vehicle regimes appropriate for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles; the departure of vibrational and electron temperatures from the gas temperature as well as viscous transport phenomena are accounted for. From the thermodynamic properties so determined, radiative power emission is calculated using an existing code. The resulting radiation characteristics are compared with the available experimental data. Chemical parameters are varied to investigate their effect on the radiation characteristics. It is concluded that the current knowledge of rate chemistry leads to a factor-of-4 uncertainty in nonequilibrium radiation intensities. The chemical parameters that must be studied to improve the accuracy are identified.

  3. Dependence of radiative stabilization on the projectile charge state after double-electron-transfer processes in slow, highly charged ion-molecule collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krok, Franciszek; Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Yamada, Ichihiro; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Kimura, Masahiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Ohtani, Shunsuke; Tawara, Hiroyuki

    1997-12-01

    We have measured the radiative stabilization probabilities after double-electron-transfer processes in slow (1.5q keV) Iq++CO collisions in the charge-state regime 8<=q<=26 by using the charge-selected-projectile-recoil-ion-coincidence method. It was found that the radiative stabilization probabilities Prad, defined as Prad=TDC/(TDC+ADC) (TDC is true double capture, and ADC autoionizing double capture), increases from about 1% at the lowest charge up to about 10% at the highest charge as the charge state of the projectile increases. A model is proposed which can explain such a feature, by incorporating a slight modification of the initial population of the transferred levels in the projectile predicted in the extended classical over-barrier model. Based upon the present model, theoretical radiative and autoionization decay rates have been calculated, using the Cowan code. Fairly good agreement between the measured and calculated results has been obtained.

  4. Ligand Binding to Distinct Sites on Nanocrystals Affecting Energy and Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Slyker, Lydia W; Nichols, Valerie M; Pau, George Shu Heng; Bardeen, Christopher J; Tang, Ming L

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid optoelectronic devices are attractive because they offer the promise of low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication. Despite this, energy transfer between organic and inorganic interfaces is not well understood. Device engineering on this class of solution-processed materials generally focuses on replacing the long insulating ligands with short ones. Here, we show that energy and charge transfer between an inorganic nanocrystal (NC) donor and organic molecular acceptor is acutely sensitive to the chemical moiety linking the two species. Our results reveal that the CdS NCs have distinct binding sites for different chemical species because only resonance energy transfer (RET) is observed for the carboxylic-acid-functionalized ligand, while both RET and charge transfer are observed for the amine-functionalized ligand. We observe that the equilibrium constant for this static quenching term increases with decreasing particle size. This finding offers a new approach in the design of hybrid thin films for devices and NC probes based on RET used for imaging, sensing, signal transduction, and photon management. PMID:26263338

  5. Dynamic structural effects and ultrafast biomolecular kinetics in photoinduced charge transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hupp, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    During the first budget significant progress was made in three areas: (1) assessment of dynamic structural effects accompanying charge transfer, (2) electrochemical assessment of site-to-site electronic coupling in simple inorganic systems, and (3) direct observation of intramolecular electron transfer kinetics in mixed-valence systems. In area 1 the most significant finding was that Franck-Condon parameters for electron transfer (i.e. normal coordinate displacements, vibrational frequencies, and single-mode vibrational reorganizational energy components) could be obtained for weakly interacting (ion-paired) redox systems (J.Phys.Chem., 1991, 95, 10535). Studies in area 3 have yielded results in both the ultrafast (femtosecond/picosecond) time regime (J.Phys.Chem. 1991, 95, 5712) and the intermediate (microsecond/millisecond) time regime (J.Am.Chem. Soc., submitted).

  6. Mechanism of charge transfer in the molecular DPQ complex studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Borovkov, V.V.; Evstigneeva, R.P.; Struganova, I.A. ); Kamalov, V.F.; Toleutaev, B.N. )

    1991-08-22

    Recent results of the X-ray analysis and femtosecond spectroscopy of photosynthetic bacteria reaction centers have contributed very much to the understanding of the primary events in photosynthesis. The pathways of charge separation in the dimethylaniline-mesoporphyrin II-naphthoquinone triad DPQ and its Zn complex were established. The rate constants of electron transfer from P and ZnP to Q were measured to be k = 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} s{sup {minus}1} and k > 5 {times} 10{sup 10} s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, from the results of picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy. The transformation of the DPQ and DZnPQ triads to the reduced form by NaBH{sub 4} treatment results in blocking of the electron-transfer channel from both P and ZnP to Q. The role of structural and conformational changes of triads in the electron-transfer process is discussed.

  7. Transient negative photoconductance in a charge transfer double quantum well under optical intersubband excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rfenacht, M.; Tsujino, S.; Sakaki, H.

    1998-06-01

    Recently, it was shown that an electron-hole radiative recombination is induced by a mid-infrared light exciting an intersubband transition in a charge transfer double quantum well (CTDQW). This recombination was attributed to an upstream transfer of electrons from an electron-rich well to a hole-rich well. In this study, we investigated the electrical response of a CTDQW under intersubband optical excitation, and found that a positive photocurrent, opposite in sign and proportional to the applied electric field, accompanies the intersubband-transition-induced luminescence (ITIL) signal. A negative photocurrent component was also observed and attributed to heating processes. This work brings a further evidence of the ITIL process and shows that an important proportion of the carriers are consumed by the transfer of electrons.

  8. Enhanced charge transport in polymer thin-film transistors prepared by contact film transfer method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingshuo; Miyanishi, Shoji; Tajima, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2009-11-01

    The charge-carrier transport in the structures formed at the surface of various conjugated polymer films is investigated by constructing organic thin-film transistors using a novel and simple contact film transfer method. Thin-film transistors prepared by this transfer process have higher field-effect mobility values compared with conventional spin-coated devices for all the studied polymers. In contrast to previous reports, the hole mobility in regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s does not depend on the length of the alkyl chain when the contact film transfer method is used. These results suggest that the thiophene rings adopt a highly ordered edge-on orientation and strong interchain pi-pi interactions spontaneously form at the polymer/air interface during the spin coating. PMID:20356140

  9. Studies of Photosynthetic Energy and Charge Transfer by Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of energy transfer in complex condensed-phase systems. Its experimental implementation is challenging but can be greatly simplified by implementing a pump-probe geometry, where the two phase-stable collinear pump pulses are created with an acousto-optic pulse-shaper. This approach also allows the use of a continuum probe pulse, expanding the available frequency range of the detection axis and allowing studies of energy transfer and electronic coupling over a broad range of frequencies. We discuss several benefits of 2D electronic spectroscopy and present 2D data on the D1-D2 reaction center complex of Photosystem II from spinach. We discuss the ability of 2D spectroscopy to distinguish between current models of energy and charge transfer in this system.

  10. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-17

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer. PMID:26416162

  11. Investigation of ground state charge transfer complex between paracetamol and p-chloranil through DFT and UV-visible studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Madhulata; Srivastava, Nitin; Saha, Satyen

    2012-08-01

    The present report deals with the theoretical investigation on ground state structure and charge transfer (CT) transitions in paracetamol (PA)/p-chloranil (CA) complex using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) method. It is found that Cdbnd O bond length of p-chloranil increases on complexation with paracetamol along with considerable amount of charge transfer from PA to CA. TD-DFT calculations have been performed to analyse the observed UV-visible spectrum of PA-CA charge transferred complex. Interestingly, in addition to expected CT transition, a weak symmetry relieved π-π* transition in the chloranil is also observed.

  12. Probing and Exploiting the Interplay between Nuclear and Electronic Motion in Charge Transfer Processes.

    PubMed

    Delor, Milan; Sazanovich, Igor V; Towrie, Michael; Weinstein, Julia A

    2015-04-21

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation refers to the assumption that the nuclear and electronic wave functions describing a molecular system evolve and can be determined independently. It is now well-known that this approximation often breaks down and that nuclear-electronic (vibronic) coupling contributes greatly to the ultrafast photophysics and photochemistry observed in many systems ranging from simple molecules to biological organisms. In order to probe vibronic coupling in a time-dependent manner, one must use spectroscopic tools capable of correlating the motions of electrons and nuclei on an ultrafast time scale. Recent developments in nonlinear multidimensional electronic and vibrational spectroscopies allow monitoring both electronic and structural factors with unprecedented time and spatial resolution. In this Account, we present recent studies from our group that make use of different variants of frequency-domain transient two-dimensional infrared (T-2DIR) spectroscopy, a pulse sequence combining electronic and vibrational excitations in the form of a UV-visible pump, a narrowband (12 cm(-1)) IR pump, and a broadband (400 cm(-1)) IR probe. In the first example, T-2DIR is used to directly compare vibrational dynamics in the ground and relaxed electronic excited states of Re(Cl)(CO)3(4,4'-diethylester-2,2'-bipyridine) and Ru(4,4'-diethylester-2,2'-bipyridine)2(NCS)2, prototypical charge transfer complexes used in photocatalytic CO2 reduction and electron injection in dye-sensitized solar cells. The experiments show that intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) and vibrational energy transfer (VET) are up to an order of magnitude faster in the triplet charge transfer excited state than in the ground state. These results show the influence of electronic arrangement on vibrational coupling patterns, with direct implications for vibronic coupling mechanisms in charge transfer excited states. In the second example, we show unambiguously that electronic and vibrational movement are coupled in a donor-bridge-acceptor complex based on a Pt(II) trans-acetylide design motif. Time-resolved IR (TRIR) spectroscopy reveals that the rate of electron transfer (ET) is highly dependent on the amount of excess energy localized on the bridge following electronic excitation. Using an adaptation of T-2DIR, we are able to selectively perturb bridge-localized vibrational modes during charge separation, resulting in the donor-acceptor charge separation pathway being completely switched off, with all excess energy redirected toward the formation of a long-lived intraligand triplet state. A series of control experiments reveal that this effect is mode specific: it is only when the high-frequency bridging C?C stretching mode is pumped that radical changes in photoproduct yields are observed. These experiments therefore suggest that one may perturb electronic movement by stimulating structural motion along the reaction coordinate using IR light. These studies add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that controlling the pathways and efficiency of charge transfer may be achieved through synthetic and perturbative approaches aiming to modulate vibronic coupling. Achieving such control would represent a breakthrough for charge transfer-based applications such as solar energy conversion and molecular electronics. PMID:25789559

  13. Communication: CDFT-CI couplings can be unreliable when there is fractional charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Mavros, Michael G; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-12-21

    Constrained density functional theory with configuration interaction (CDFT-CI) is a useful, low-cost tool for the computational prediction of electronic couplings between pseudo-diabatic constrained electronic states. Such couplings are of paramount importance in electron transfer theory and transition state theory, among other areas of chemistry. Unfortunately, CDFT-CI occasionally fails significantly, predicting a coupling that does not decay exponentially with distance and/or overestimating the expected coupling by an order of magnitude or more. In this communication, we show that the eigenvalues of the difference density matrix between the two constrained states can be used as an a priori metric to determine when CDFT-CI are likely to be reliable: when the eigenvalues are near 0 or 1, transfer of a whole electron is occurring, and CDFT-CI can be trusted. We demonstrate the utility of this metric with several illustrative examples. PMID:26696039

  14. Communication: CDFT-CI couplings can be unreliable when there is fractional charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-12-01

    Constrained density functional theory with configuration interaction (CDFT-CI) is a useful, low-cost tool for the computational prediction of electronic couplings between pseudo-diabatic constrained electronic states. Such couplings are of paramount importance in electron transfer theory and transition state theory, among other areas of chemistry. Unfortunately, CDFT-CI occasionally fails significantly, predicting a coupling that does not decay exponentially with distance and/or overestimating the expected coupling by an order of magnitude or more. In this communication, we show that the eigenvalues of the difference density matrix between the two constrained states can be used as an a priori metric to determine when CDFT-CI are likely to be reliable: when the eigenvalues are near 0 or ±1, transfer of a whole electron is occurring, and CDFT-CI can be trusted. We demonstrate the utility of this metric with several illustrative examples.

  15. Molecular orbital (SCF-Xα-SW) theory of metal-metal charge transfer processes in minerals - II. Application to Fe2+ --> Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    A molecular orbital description, based on Xα-Scattered wave calculations on a (FeTiO10)14− cluster, is given for Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in minerals. The calculated energy for the lowest Fe2+ → Ti4+ metal-metal charge transfer transition is 18040 cm−1 in reasonable agreement with energies observed in the optical spectra of Fe-Ti oxides and silicates. As in the case of Fe2+ → Fe3+ charge transfer in mixed-valence iron oxides and silicates, Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer is associated with Fe-Ti bonding across shared polyhedral edges. Such bonding results from the overlap of the Fe(t 2g ) and Ti(t 2g ) 3d orbitals.

  16. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    SciTech Connect

    Haverkate, Lucas A.; Mulder, Fokko M.; Zbiri, Mohamed Johnson, Mark R.; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S.

    2014-01-07

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10{sup ?2} electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

  17. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Haverkate, Lucas A; Zbiri, Mohamed; Johnson, Mark R; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S; Mulder, Fokko M; Kearley, Gordon J

    2014-01-01

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10(-2) electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems. PMID:24410238

  18. Synthesis of Stable Interfaces on SnO2 Surfaces for Charge-Transfer Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Michelle C.

    The commercial market for solar harvesting devices as an alternative energy source requires them to be both low-cost and efficient to replace or reduce the dependence on fossil fuel burning. Over the last few decades there has been promising efforts towards improving solar devices by using abundant and non-toxic metal oxide nanomaterials. One particular metal oxide of interest has been SnO2 due to its high electron mobility, wide-band gap, and aqueous stability. However SnO2 based solar cells have yet to reach efficiency values of other metal oxides, like TiO2. The advancement of SnO2 based devices is dependent on many factors, including improved methods of surface functionalization that can yield stable interfaces. This work explores the use of a versatile functionalization method through the use of the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The CuAAC reaction is capable of producing electrochemically, photochemically, and electrocatalytically active surfaces on a variety of SnO2 materials. The resulting charge-transfer characteristics were investigated as well as an emphasis on understanding the stability of the resulting molecular linkage. We determined the CuAAC reaction is able to proceed through both azide-modified and alkyne-modified surfaces. The resulting charge-transfer properties showed that the molecular tether was capable of supporting charge separation at the interface. We also investigated the enhancement of electron injection upon the introduction of an ultra-thin ZrO2 coating on SnO2. Several complexes were used to fully understand the charge-transfer capabilities, including model systems of ferrocene and a ruthenium coordination complex, a ruthenium mononuclear water oxidation catalyst, and a commercial ruthenium based dye.

  19. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  20. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model

  1. Atomic-Scale Perspective of Ultrafast Charge Transfer at a Dye-Semiconductor Interface.

    PubMed

    Siefermann, Katrin R; Pemmaraju, Chaitanya D; Neppl, Stefan; Shavorskiy, Andrey; Cordones, Amy A; Vura-Weis, Josh; Slaughter, Daniel S; Sturm, Felix P; Weise, Fabian; Bluhm, Hendrik; Strader, Matthew L; Cho, Hana; Lin, Ming-Fu; Bacellar, Camila; Khurmi, Champak; Guo, Jinghua; Coslovich, Giacomo; Robinson, Joseph S; Kaindl, Robert A; Schoenlein, Robert W; Belkacem, Ali; Neumark, Daniel M; Leone, Stephen R; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Krupin, Oleg; Turner, Joshua J; Schlotter, William F; Holmes, Michael R; Messerschmidt, Marc; Minitti, Michael P; Gul, Sheraz; Zhang, Jin Z; Huse, Nils; Prendergast, David; Gessner, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    Understanding interfacial charge-transfer processes on the atomic level is crucial to support the rational design of energy-challenge relevant systems such as solar cells, batteries, and photocatalysts. A femtosecond time-resolved core-level photoelectron spectroscopy study is performed that probes the electronic structure of the interface between ruthenium-based N3 dye molecules and ZnO nanocrystals within the first picosecond after photoexcitation and from the unique perspective of the Ru reporter atom at the center of the dye. A transient chemical shift of the Ru 3d inner-shell photolines by (2.3 0.2) eV to higher binding energies is observed 500 fs after photoexcitation of the dye. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of ab initio calculations using constrained density functional theory. Strong indications for the formation of an interfacial charge-transfer state are presented, providing direct insight into a transient electronic configuration that may limit the efficiency of photoinduced free charge-carrier generation. PMID:26277975

  2. Theoretical Investigation of Charge Transfer between N6+ and atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Stancil, P C; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Rai, S. N.; Buenker, R. J.; Schultz, David Robert; Hui, Yawei; Draganic, Ilija N; Havener, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    Charge transfer due to collisions of ground-state N{sup 6+}(1s{sup 2} S) with atomic hydrogen has been investigated theoretically using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) method, in which the adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic couplings were obtained using the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration-interaction (MRDCI) approach. Total, n-, l-, and S-resolved cross sections have been obtained for energies between 10 meV/u and 10 keV/u. The QMOCC results were compared to available experimental and theoretical data as well as to merged-beams measurements and atomic-orbital close-coupling and classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. The accuracy of the QMOCC charge-transfer cross sections was found to be sensitive to the accuracy of the adiabatic potentials and couplings. Consequently, we developed a method to optimize the atomic basis sets used in the MRDCI calculations for highly charged ions. Since cross sections, especially those that are state selective, are necessary input for x-ray emission simulation of heliospheric and Martian exospheric spectra arising from solar wind ion-neutral gas collisions, a recommended set of state-selective cross sections, based on our evaluation of the calculations and measurements, is provided.

  3. Theoretical investigation of charge transfer between N{sup 6+} and atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Stancil, P. C.; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Rai, S. N.; Buenker, R. J.; Schultz, D. R.; Hui, Y.; Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C.

    2011-08-15

    Charge transfer due to collisions of ground-state N{sup 6+}(1s {sup 2} S) with atomic hydrogen has been investigated theoretically using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) method, in which the adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic couplings were obtained using the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration-interaction (MRDCI) approach. Total, n-, l-, and S-resolved cross sections have been obtained for energies between 10 meV/u and 10 keV/u. The QMOCC results were compared to available experimental and theoretical data as well as to merged-beams measurements and atomic-orbital close-coupling and classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. The accuracy of the QMOCC charge-transfer cross sections was found to be sensitive to the accuracy of the adiabatic potentials and couplings. Consequently, we developed a method to optimize the atomic basis sets used in the MRDCI calculations for highly charged ions. Since cross sections, especially those that are state selective, are necessary input for x-ray emission simulation of heliospheric and Martian exospheric spectra arising from solar wind ion-neutral gas collisions, a recommended set of state-selective cross sections, based on our evaluation of the calculations and measurements, is provided.

  4. Trifluoromethylmetallate anions as components of molecular charge transfer salts and superconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, J. A.

    1998-10-14

    Whereas polymeric and common inorganic anions frequently deprive the synthetic chemist of a chance to modify a charge transfer salt's structure through anion alterations, discrete organometallic anions provide a vast opportunity to probe the structure/property correlations of a material through rational synthetic methods. We have recently undertaken a research effort aimed at the crystallization of conducting charge transfer salts which possess modifiable, organometallic anions as the charge compensating entities. This research has been richly rewarded with the discovery of a new family of bis(ethylenedithio) tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET) based molecular superconductors. Herein is presented a summary of over twenty {kappa}(ET){sub 2}M(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(1,1,2-trihaloethane) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) superconducting salts. Three new related salts are also reported: (ET){sub 2} [trans-Ag(CF{sub 3}),(CN){sub 2}], {kappa}{sub L}(BEDT-TSF){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(TCE), and {kappa}{sub L}(ET){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl(TCE).

  5. Jahn-Teller effects in transition-metal compounds with small charge-transfer energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizokawa, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    We have studied Jahn-Teller effects in Cs2Au2Br6, ACu3Co4O12(A=Ca or Y), and IrTe2 in which the ligand p-to-transition-metal d charge-transfer energy is small or negative. The Au+/Au3+ charge disproportionation of Cs2Au2Br6 manifests in Au 4f photoemission spectra. In Cs2Au2Br6 with negative ? and intermediate U, the charge disproportionation can be described using effective d orbitals constructed from the Au 5d and Br 4p orbitals and is stabilized by the Jahn-Teller distortion of the Au3+ site with low-spin d8 configuration. In ACu3Co4O12, ?s for Cu3+ and Co4+ are negative and Us are very large. The Zhang-Rice picture is valid to describe the electronic state, and the valence change from Cu2+/Co4+ to Cu3+/Co3+ can be viewed as the O 2p hole transfer from Co to Cu or d9 + d6L ? d9L + d6. In IrTe2, both ? and U are small and the Ir 5d and Te 5p electrons are itinerant to form the multi-band Fermi surfaces. The ideas of band Jahn-Teller transition and Peierls transition are useful to describe the structural instabilities.

  6. Inverse Charge Transfer in the Quadruple Perovskite CaCu3Fe4O12.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ikuya; Murakami, Makoto; Hayashi, Naoaki; Mori, Shigeo

    2016-02-15

    Structural and spectroscopic analyses revealed that the quadruple perovskite CaCu3Fe4O12 undergoes an "inverse" electron charge transfer in which valence electrons move from B-site Fe to A'-site Cu ions (?3Cu(?2.4+) + 4Fe(?3.65+) ? ?3Cu(?2.2+) + 4Fe(?3.8+)) simultaneously with a charge disproportionation transition (4Fe(?3.8+) ? ?2.4Fe(3+) + ?1.6Fe(5+)), on cooling below 210 K. The direction of the charge transfer for CaCu3Fe4O12 is opposite to those reported for other perovskite oxides such as BiNiO3 and ACu3Fe4O12 (A = Sr(2+) or the large trivalent rare-earth metal ions), in which the electrons move from A/A'-site to B-site ions. This finding sheds a light on a new aspect in intermetallic phenomena for complex transition metal compounds. PMID:26815133

  7. Charge-transfer-based gas sensing using atomic-layer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byungjin; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Choi, Minseok; Yoon, Jongwon; Kim, Ah Ra; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Sung-Gyu; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Kim, Chang Su; Song, Myungkwan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Nam, Kee-Seok; Lee, Sangchul; Yoo, Tae Jin; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ko, Heung Cho; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) atomic layers have a strong potential to be used as 2D electronic sensor components. However, intrinsic synthesis challenges have made this task difficult. In addition, the detection mechanisms for gas molecules are not fully understood. Here, we report a high-performance gas sensor constructed using atomic-layered MoS2 synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). A highly sensitive and selective gas sensor based on the CVD-synthesised MoS2 was developed. In situ photoluminescence characterisation revealed the charge transfer mechanism between the gas molecules and MoS2, which was validated by theoretical calculations. First-principles density functional theory calculations indicated that NO2 and NH3 molecules have negative adsorption energies (i.e., the adsorption processes are exothermic). Thus, NO2 and NH3 molecules are likely to adsorb onto the surface of the MoS2. The in situ PL characterisation of the changes in the peaks corresponding to charged trions and neutral excitons via gas adsorption processes was used to elucidate the mechanisms of charge transfer between the MoS2 and the gas molecules. PMID:25623472

  8. Charge-transfer-based Gas Sensing Using Atomic-layer MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byungjin; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Choi, Minseok; Yoon, Jongwon; Kim, Ah Ra; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Sung-Gyu; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Kim, Chang Su; Song, Myungkwan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Nam, Kee-Seok; Lee, Sangchul; Yoo, Tae Jin; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ko, Heung Cho; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) atomic layers have a strong potential to be used as 2D electronic sensor components. However, intrinsic synthesis challenges have made this task difficult. In addition, the detection mechanisms for gas molecules are not fully understood. Here, we report a high-performance gas sensor constructed using atomic-layered MoS2 synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). A highly sensitive and selective gas sensor based on the CVD-synthesised MoS2 was developed. In situ photoluminescence characterisation revealed the charge transfer mechanism between the gas molecules and MoS2, which was validated by theoretical calculations. First-principles density functional theory calculations indicated that NO2 and NH3 molecules have negative adsorption energies (i.e., the adsorption processes are exothermic). Thus, NO2 and NH3 molecules are likely to adsorb onto the surface of the MoS2. The in situ PL characterisation of the changes in the peaks corresponding to charged trions and neutral excitons via gas adsorption processes was used to elucidate the mechanisms of charge transfer between the MoS2 and the gas molecules. PMID:25623472

  9. Charge-transfer-based Gas Sensing Using Atomic-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byungjin; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Choi, Minseok; Yoon, Jongwon; Kim, Ah Ra; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Sung-Gyu; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Kim, Chang Su; Song, Myungkwan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Nam, Kee-Seok; Lee, Sangchul; Yoo, Tae Jin; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ko, Heung Cho; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) atomic layers have a strong potential to be used as 2D electronic sensor components. However, intrinsic synthesis challenges have made this task difficult. In addition, the detection mechanisms for gas molecules are not fully understood. Here, we report a high-performance gas sensor constructed using atomic-layered MoS2 synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). A highly sensitive and selective gas sensor based on the CVD-synthesised MoS2 was developed. In situ photoluminescence characterisation revealed the charge transfer mechanism between the gas molecules and MoS2, which was validated by theoretical calculations. First-principles density functional theory calculations indicated that NO2 and NH3 molecules have negative adsorption energies (i.e., the adsorption processes are exothermic). Thus, NO2 and NH3 molecules are likely to adsorb onto the surface of the MoS2. The in situ PL characterisation of the changes in the peaks corresponding to charged trions and neutral excitons via gas adsorption processes was used to elucidate the mechanisms of charge transfer between the MoS2 and the gas molecules.

  10. Complex and charge transfer between TiO2 and pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Poluektov, Oleg G; Saponjic, Zoran V; Rajh, Tijana

    2006-12-21

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) forms a tridentate complex with coordinatively unsaturated titanium atoms on the surface of approximately 4.5 nm TiO2 particles; an association constant of K = 550 M-1 per Ti(IV)surf has been determined. Low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance was employed in identification of localized charges and consequently produced radicals and in determination of charge-transfer processes. The photoexcitation of the PQQ-TiO2 complex results in the transfer of conduction band electrons from TiO2 to bound PQQ and the formation of the semiquinone radical. Attaching dopamine (DA) as an electron donor and PQQ as an electron acceptor on the surface of TiO2 results in spatial separation of photogenerated charges; the holes localize on dopamine and electrons on PQQ, with higher yields than for each component separately. In this triad-type assembly (PQQ-TiO2/DA) the PQQ that is bound to the particles acts as a sink for electrons allowing their almost complete scavenging even at temperature as low as 4 K. PMID:17165986

  11. Ionic Charge Transfer Complex Induced Visible Light Harvesting and Photocharge Generation in Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tsz-Wai; Thachoth Chandran, Hrisheekesh; Chan, Chiu-Yee; Lo, Ming-Fai; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-09-16

    Organometal trihalide perovskite has recently emerged as a new class of promising material for high efficiency solar cells applications. While excess ions in perovskites are recently getting a great deal of attention, there is so far no clear understanding on both their formation and relating ions interaction to the photocharge generation in perovskite. Herein, we showed that tremendous ions indeed form during the initial stage of perovskite formation when the organic methylammonium halide (MAXa, Xa=Br and I) meets the inorganic PbXb2 (Xb=Cl, Br, I). The strong charge exchanges between the Pb2+ cations and Xa- anions result in formation of ionic charge transfer complexes (iCTC). MAXa parties induce empty valence electronic states within the forbidden bandgap of PbXb2. The strong surface dipole provide sufficient driving force for sub-bandgap electron transition with energy identical to the optical bandgap of forming perovskites. Evidences from XPS/UPS and photoluminescence studies showed that the light absorption, exciton dissociation, and photocharge generation of the perovskites are closely related to the strong ionic charge transfer interactions between Pb2+ and Xa- ions in the perovskite lattices. Our results shed light on mechanisms of light harvesting and subsequent free carrier generation in perovskites. PMID:26305717

  12. First principles investigation of water adsorption and charge transfer on III-V(110) semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kristen S.; Lenhart, Joseph L.; Andzelm, Jan W.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Baril, Neil F.; Henry, Nathan C.; Tidrow, Meimei Z.

    2014-04-01

    We report a DFT/GGA study of water adsorption and charge transfer at the relaxed (110) surfaces of several III-V binary semiconductors: GaAs, GaSb, and InAs. Our calculations are the first to show that adsorption of dissociated water changes the (110) surface structure. The characteristic III-V bond rotation through an angle of 30 is reversed. The buckled III-V bond at the semiconductor/water interface rotates into the surface through a new angle, which we calculate to be approximately 11 on all three binaries. Only dissociation of water - as opposed to chemisorption or physisorption - leads to this pseudo-unrelaxed configuration. We calculate geometries and reaction energies for several different adsorption mechanisms and find that molecular adsorption is the most favorable. We are able to reproduce binding configurations and energies for known adsorption sites on GaAs(110), but we also show new calculations for water on GaSb(110) and InAs(110). Lastly, we calculate the shift in electronic work function and induced surface dipole moment due to adsorbed water. We show that shifts in work function maximize at 1 ML of water, consistent with previous experimental works. Analysis of the partial charges and electron density reveals that adsorption of water polarizes the (110) surface, leading to local charge transfer across the semiconductor/water interface.

  13. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Shanlin

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an electrochemical cell. For example, we are able to use this technique to track electroluminescence of single Au NPs, and the electrodeposition of individual Ag NPs in-situ. These metallic NPs are useful to enhance light harvesting in organic photovoltaic systems. The scattering at the surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO) working electrode was measured during a potential sweep. Utilizing Mie scattering theory and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the scattering data were used to calculate current-potential curves depicting the electrodeposition of individual Ag NPs. The oxidation of individual presynthesized and electrodeposited Ag NPs was also investigated using fluorescence and DFS microscopies. Our work has produced 1 US provisional patent, 15 published manuscripts, 1 submitted and two additional in-writing manuscripts. 5 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral student, 1 visiting professor, and two undergraduate students have received research training in the area of electrochemistry and optical spectroscopy under support of this award.

  14. Solvent effects on charge-transfer intensities and heats of formation of chloranil complexes with aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Benoy B.; Bhattacharyya, Amar

    The spectrophotometric and thermodynamic properties of the charge-transfer complexes of chloranil with aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylenes ( o-, m- and p-) and mesitylene have been studied in n-heptane solvent to make a correlation between the charge-transfer intensities and the heats of formation of the complexes. The results disagree with M ULLIKEN's predictionthe charge-transfer intensities decrease with increase of heats of formation. An attempt has been made to calculate the thermodynamic as well as spectrophotometric properties of these complexes free from the influence of chloranilsolvent interaction and the results thus obtained show a good correlation between the charge-transfer intensities and the heats of formation of the complexes.

  15. Temperature dependence of the electric field modulation of electron-transfer rates. Charge recombination in photosynthetic reaction centers

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, S.; Boxer, S.G. )

    1993-06-10

    The rates of electron-transfer reactions can be systematically varied by application of external electric fields. The electric field effect on the charge recombination rate constant of the state P[sup +]Q[sub A][sup [minus

  16. Photoexcitation and charge-transfer-to-solvent relaxation dynamics of the I(-)(CH3CN) complex.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chun C; Timerghazin, Qadir K; Peslherbe, Gilles H

    2013-08-15

    Photoexcitation of iodide-acetonitrile clusters, I(-)(CH3CN)n, to the charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) state and subsequent cluster relaxation could result in the possible formation of cluster analogues of the bulk solvated electron. In this work, the relaxation process of the CTTS excited iodide-acetonitrile binary complex, [I(-)(CH3CN)]*, is investigated using rigorous ab initio quantum chemistry calculations and direct-dynamics simulations to gain insight into the role and motion of iodine and acetonitrile in the relaxation of CTTS excited I(-)(CH3CN)n. Computed potential energy curves and profiles of the excited electron vertical detachment energy for [I(-)(CH3CN)]* along the iodine-acetonitrile distance coordinate reveal for the first time significant dispersion effects between iodine and the excited electron, which can have a significant stabilizing effect on the latter. Results of direct-dynamics simulations demonstrate that [I(-)(CH3CN)]* undergoes dissociation to iodine and acetonitrile fragments, resulting in decreased stability of the excited electron. The present work provides strong evidence of solvent translational motion and iodine ejection as key aspects of the early time relaxation of CTTS excited I(-)(CH3CN)n that can also have a substantial impact on the subsequent electron solvation processes and further demonstrates that intricate details of the relaxation process of CTTS excited iodide-polar solvent molecule clusters make it heavily solvent-dependent. PMID:23819756

  17. Assessing Carbon-Based Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Universal Description of Charge-Transfer Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyue; Wang, Y. Morris; Yakobson, Boris I.; Wood, Brandon C.

    2014-07-01

    Many key performance characteristics of carbon-based lithium-ion battery anodes are largely determined by the strength of binding between lithium (Li) and sp2 carbon (C), which can vary significantly with subtle changes in substrate structure, chemistry, and morphology. Here, we use density functional theory calculations to investigate the interactions of Li with a wide variety of sp2 C substrates, including pristine, defective, and strained graphene, planar C clusters, nanotubes, C edges, and multilayer stacks. In almost all cases, we find a universal linear relation between the Li-C binding energy and the work required to fill previously unoccupied electronic states within the substrate. This suggests that Li capacity is predominantly determined by two key factorsnamely, intrinsic quantum capacitance limitations and the absolute placement of the Fermi level. This simple descriptor allows for straightforward prediction of the Li-C binding energy and related battery characteristics in candidate C materials based solely on the substrate electronic structure. It further suggests specific guidelines for designing more effective C-based anodes. The method should be broadly applicable to charge-transfer adsorption on planar substrates, and provides a phenomenological connection to established principles in supercapacitor and catalyst design.

  18. Ultrafast Charge Transfer of a Valence Double Hole in Glycine Driven Exclusively by Nuclear Motion.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol; Santra, Robin

    2015-10-01

    We explore theoretically the ultrafast transfer of a double electron hole between the functional groups of glycine after K-shell ionization and subsequent Auger decay. Although a large energy gap of about 15 eV initially exists between the two electronic states involved and coherent electronic dynamics play no role in the hole transfer, we find that the double hole is transferred within 3 to 4 fs between both functional ends of the glycine molecule driven solely by specific nuclear displacements and non-Born-Oppenheimer effects. The nuclear displacements along specific vibrational modes are of the order of 15% of a typical chemical bond between carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms and about 30% for bonds involving hydrogen atoms. The time required for the hole transfer corresponds to less than half a vibrational period of the involved nuclear modes. This finding challenges the common wisdom that nuclear dynamics of the molecular skeleton are unimportant for charge transfer processes at the few-femtosecond time scale and shows that they can even play a prominent role. It also indicates that in x-ray imaging experiments, in which ionization is unavoidable, valence electron redistribution caused by nuclear dynamics might be much faster than previously anticipated. Thus, non-Born-Oppenheimer effects may affect the apparent electron densities extracted from such measurements. PMID:26551809

  19. Ultrafast Charge Transfer of a Valence Double Hole in Glycine Driven Exclusively by Nuclear Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol; Santra, Robin

    2015-10-01

    We explore theoretically the ultrafast transfer of a double electron hole between the functional groups of glycine after K -shell ionization and subsequent Auger decay. Although a large energy gap of about 15 eV initially exists between the two electronic states involved and coherent electronic dynamics play no role in the hole transfer, we find that the double hole is transferred within 3 to 4 fs between both functional ends of the glycine molecule driven solely by specific nuclear displacements and non-Born-Oppenheimer effects. The nuclear displacements along specific vibrational modes are of the order of 15% of a typical chemical bond between carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms and about 30% for bonds involving hydrogen atoms. The time required for the hole transfer corresponds to less than half a vibrational period of the involved nuclear modes. This finding challenges the common wisdom that nuclear dynamics of the molecular skeleton are unimportant for charge transfer processes at the few-femtosecond time scale and shows that they can even play a prominent role. It also indicates that in x-ray imaging experiments, in which ionization is unavoidable, valence electron redistribution caused by nuclear dynamics might be much faster than previously anticipated. Thus, non-Born-Oppenheimer effects may affect the apparent electron densities extracted from such measurements.

  20. Ambipolar Charge Photogeneration and Transfer at GaAs/P3HT Heterointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Panahandeh-Fard, Majid; Yin, Jun; Kurniawan, Michael; Wang, Zilong; Leung, Gle; Sum, Tze Chien; Soci, Cesare

    2014-04-01

    Recent work on hybrid photovoltaic systems based on conjugated polymers and III-V compound semiconductors with relatively high power conversion efficiency revived fundamental questions regarding the nature of charge separation and transfer at the interface between organic and inorganic semiconductors with different degrees of delocalization. In this work, we studied photoinduced charge generation and interfacial transfer dynamics in a prototypical photovoltaic n-type GaAs (111)B and poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) bilayer system. Ultrafast spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations indicate the coexistence of electron and hole transfer at the GaAs/P3HT interface, leading to the generation of long-lived species and photoinduced absorption upon creation of hybrid interfacial states. This opens up new avenues for the use of low-dimensional III-V compounds (e.g., nanowires or quantum dots) in hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaics, where advanced bandgap and density of states engineering may also be exploited as design parameters. PMID:26274462