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Sample records for charge transfer collisions

  1. Ion momentum and energy transfer rates for charge exchange collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The rates of momentum and energy transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between ion and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting ion momentum and energy transfer.

  2. Transfer ionization in collisions with a fast highly charged ion.

    PubMed

    Voitkiv, A B

    2013-07-26

    Transfer ionization in fast collisions between a bare ion and an atom, in which one of the atomic electrons is captured by the ion whereas another one is emitted, crucially depends on dynamic electron-electron correlations. We show that in collisions with a highly charged ion a strong field of the ion has a very profound effect on the correlated channels of transfer ionization. In particular, this field weakens (strongly suppresses) electron emission into the direction opposite (perpendicular) to the motion of the ion. Instead, electron emission is redirected into those parts of the momentum space which are very weakly populated in fast collisions with low charged ions. PMID:23931364

  3. Charge transfer during individual collisions in ice growing by riming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Eldo E.; Caranti, Giorgio M.

    1991-01-01

    The charging of a target by riming in the wind was studied in the temperature range of (-10, -18 C). For each temperature, charge transfers of both signs are observed and, according to the environmental conditions, one of them prevails. The charge is more positive as the liquid water concentration is increased at any particular temperature. It is found that even at the low impact velocities used (5 m/s) there is abundant evidence of fragmentation following the collision.

  4. Charge transfer in energetic Li^2+ - H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancev, I.

    2008-07-01

    The total cross sections for charge transfer in Li^2+ - H collisions have been calculated, using the four-body first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1-4B) and four-body continuum distorted wave method (CDW-4B) in the energy range 10 - 5000 keV/amu. Present results call for additional experimental data at higher impact energies than presently available.

  5. Charge Transfer in C6+ Collisions with H and He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. G.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    Charge transfer cross sections are calculated for C6+ + H and C6+ + He collisions using a time-dependent close-coupling method in Cartesian coordinates. Capture cross sections into the 1 s , 2 l(l = 0 - 1) , 3 l(l = 0 - 2) , and 4 l(l = 0 - 3) subshells of C5+ are found for projectile energies ranging from 5.0 keV/amu to 15.0 keV/amu. Comparisons are made with previous calculations and recent experiments. The atomic collision data will be used to better understand the interaction of solar wind ions with interplanetary atoms. Work supported in part by grants from NSF, NASA, and DOE.

  6. Charge transfer in proton-hydrogen collisions under Debye plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Arka; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ghoshal, Arijit; Ratnavelu, K.

    2015-02-15

    The effect of plasma environment on the 1s → nlm charge transfer, for arbitrary n, l, and m, in proton-hydrogen collisions has been investigated within the framework of a distorted wave approximation. The effect of external plasma has been incorporated using Debye screening model of the interacting charge particles. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function, it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in closed form. A detailed study has been made to investigate the effect of external plasma environment on the differential and total cross sections for electron capture into different angular momentum states for the incident energy in the range of 20–1000 keV. For the unscreened case, our results are in close agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  7. Charge transfer in proton-hydrogen collisions under Debye plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Arka; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ghoshal, Arijit; Ratnavelu, K.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of plasma environment on the 1s → nlm charge transfer, for arbitrary n, l, and m, in proton-hydrogen collisions has been investigated within the framework of a distorted wave approximation. The effect of external plasma has been incorporated using Debye screening model of the interacting charge particles. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function, it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in closed form. A detailed study has been made to investigate the effect of external plasma environment on the differential and total cross sections for electron capture into different angular momentum states for the incident energy in the range of 20-1000 keV. For the unscreened case, our results are in close agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  8. Charge transfer reactions in multiply charged ion-atom collisions. [in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.

    1975-01-01

    Charge-transfer reactions in collisions between highly charged ions and neutral atoms of hydrogen and/or helium may be rapid at thermal energies. If these reactions are rapid, they will suppress highly charged ions in H I regions and guarantee that the observed absorption features from such ions cannot originate in the interstellar gas. A discussion of such charge-transfer reactions is presented and compared with the available experimental data. The possible implications of these reactions for observations of the interstellar medium, H II regions, and planetary nebulae are outlined.

  9. Modeling Charge Transfer in Fullerene Collisions via Real-Time Electron Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jakowski, Jacek; Irle, Stephan; Sumpter, Bobby G; Morokuma, Keiji

    2012-06-01

    An approach for performing real-time dynamics of electron transfer in a prototype redox reaction that occurs in reactive collisions between neutral and ionic fullerenes is discussed. The quantum dynamical simulations show that the electron transfer occurs within 60 fs directly preceding the collision of the fullerenes, followed by structural changes and relaxation of electron charge. The consequences of real-time electron dynamics are fully elucidated for the far from equilibrium processes of collisions between neutral and multiply charged fullerenes. PMID:26285634

  10. Charge transfer in collisions of C{sup 2+} carbon ions with CO and OH targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bene, E.; Martinez, P.; Halsaz, G. J.; Vibok, A.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M. C.

    2009-07-15

    The charge transfer in collisions of C{sup 2+} ions with the CO molecule and the OH radical has been studied theoretically by means of ab initio quantum chemistry molecular methods followed by a semiclassical dynamical treatment in the keV collision energy range. The comparison of the cross sections calculated for these two collision systems exhibits interesting features with regard to the anisotropy of these processes and the influence of the vibration of the molecular target.

  11. Charge Transfer Process During Collision of Riming Graupel Pellet with Small Ice Crystals within a Thundercloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Saswati; De, Utpal K.; Goswami, K.; Jones, Linwood

    1999-01-01

    A charge transfer process during the collision of a riming graupel pellet and an ice-crystal at low temperature is proposed. During riming, the surface structure of graupel deviates from perfect crystalline structure. A concept of quasi-solid layer (QSL) formation on the surface is introduced. This QSL contains defects formed during riming. In absence of impurities, positively charged X-defect abundance is considered in the outer layer. These defects are assumed to be the charge carriers during the charge transfer process. Some part of the QSL is stripped off by the colliding ice crystals, which thereby gain some positive charge, leaving the graupel pellet negatively charged. With the proposed model, fC to pC of charge transfer is observed per collision. A transition temperature between -10 C to -15 C is also noted beyond which the QSL concept does not hold. This transition temperature is dependent on the bulk liquid water content of the cloud.

  12. Charge transfer and momentum exchange in exospheric D-H(+) and H-D(+) collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms that control the escape of deuterium from planetary exospheres include the acceleration of D(+) in the polar wind, and the production of suprathermal D atoms through nonthermal collisions. In this paper we examine the effects of neutral-ion interactions involving deuterium and hydrogen on the velocity distribution of neutral D. A two-center scattering approximation is used as the basis for calculations of the differential cross sections for charge transfer and elastic scatter in collision of H with D(+) and of D with H(+) for ionosphere-exosphere collision energies below 10 e V. These data are used to derive temperature dependent rate coefficients for the charge transfer branches of these interactions, and to determine the effects of ion-neutral temperature differences on the rate of generation of suprathermal D through charge transfer and elastic scatter.

  13. Attosecond timing the ultrafast charge-transfer process in atomic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.

    2011-04-15

    By solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we have demonstrated that the ultrafast charge-transfer process in ion-atom collisions can be mapped out with attosecond extreme uv (xuv) pulses. During the dynamic-charge transfer from the target atom to the projectile ion, the electron coherently populates the two sites of both nuclei, which can be viewed as a 'short-lived' molecular state. A probing attosecond xuv pulse can instantly unleash the delocalized electron from such a ''transient molecule,'' so that the resulting photoelectron may exhibit a ''double-slit'' interference. On the contrary, either reduced or no photoelectron interference will occur if the attosecond xuv pulse strikes well before or after the collision. Therefore, by monitoring the photoelectron interference visibility, one can precisely time the ultrafast charge-transfer process in atomic collisions with time-delayed attosecond xuv pulses.

  14. Charge-transfer-induced evaporation in collisions of Li2+31 clusters with Cs atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchignac, C.; Cahuzac, Ph.; Concina, B.; Leygnier, J.; Ruiz, L. F.; Zarour, B.; Hervieux, P. A.; Hanssen, J.; Politis, M. F.; Martín, F.

    2003-12-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of dissociative charge transfer in collisions of slow Li2+31 clusters with Cs atoms. We provide a direct quantitative comparison between theory and experiment and show that good agreement is only found when the experimental time-of-flight and initial cluster temperature are taken into account in the theoretical modeling. This model explains evaporation as resulting from a collisional energy deposit due to cluster electronic excitation during charge transfer. We discuss in detail the basic mechanisms that are responsible for the charge-transfer reaction and different approximations to evaluate the energy deposit.

  15. Charge transfer in Li2+ + He2+ and Li2+ + Li3+ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuning, H.; Trassl, R.; Theiß, A.; Diehl, A.; Salzborn, E.; Keim, M.; Achenbach, A.; Lüdde, H. J.; Kirchner, T.

    2005-07-01

    True one-electron collision systems provide an ideal testing ground for theory. Absolute cross sections for charge transfer in the collision systems Li2+ + He2+ and Li2+ + Li3+ have been measured for centre-of-mass energies between 52 and 148 keV and 6 and 63 keV, respectively. The data are compared with calculations using the two-centre basis generator method. A fair agreement between the experimental data and the calculations is found.

  16. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A.; Ryabchenko, S.

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  17. Kinetic-energy transfer in highly-charged-ion collisions with carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, R. E.; Arista, N. R.

    2015-11-01

    We present an accurate theoretical model for the charge dependence of kinetic energy transferred in collisions between slow highly charged ions (HCIs) and the atoms in a carbon solid. The model is in excellent agreement with experimental kinetic-energy-loss data for carbon nanomembrane and thin carbon foil targets. This study fills a notable gap in the literature of charged-particle energy loss in the regime of low incident velocity (vp≲2.188 ×106 m/s) where charge states greatly exceed the equilibrium values.

  18. Charge Transfer and Dissociation in Collisions of Metal Clusters with Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchignac, C.; Cahuzac, Ph.; Concina, B.; Leygnier, J.; Ruiz, L. F.; Zarour, B.; Hervieux, P. A.; Hanssen, J.; Politis, M. F.; Martín, F.

    2002-10-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of charge transfer and dissociation in collisions of slow Li2+31 clusters with Cs atoms. We provide a direct quantitative comparison between theory and experiment and show that good agreement is found only when the exact experimental time of flight and initial cluster temperature are taken into account in the theoretical modeling. We demonstrate the validity of the simple physical image that consists in explaining evaporation as resulting from a collisional energy deposit due to cluster electronic excitation during charge transfer.

  19. Numerical study of charge transfer in H+ + He+ and He2+ + Li2+ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, T.; Pindzola, M. S.; Lee, T.-G.; Schultz, D. R.

    2007-09-01

    The lattice time-dependent Schrödinger equation (LTDSE) and atomic orbital close coupling (AOCC) methods are applied to calculate the charge transfer cross sections for H+ + He+ and He2+ + Li2+ collisions in the velocity range of 0.5-4.0 atomic units. The comparison of the results is made with those of other theoretical methods and with measurements. This analysis is used to provide a test of the accuracy of LTDSE and AOCC, and to help establish a consensus of theoretical results in comparison with the measurements for these ion-ion collisions.

  20. Charge transfer cross sections for Hg + , Xe + , and Cs + in collision with various metals and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, J. A.; Vroom, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Cross sections for charge transfer between Hg+, Xe+, and Cs+ and the atomic species Fe, Mo, Al, Ti, Ta, and C have been measured in the ion energy range from 1 to 5000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 2×10-15 cm2 for most processes over the total energy range. The one exception is Hg+ in collision with Ti. The reactants are all open shell atomic species and in most cases where the charge transfer process is exothermic, several resonant pathways exist leading to the products. Some discussion of possible reaction paths is given. The techniques used to form neutral beams of the various species studied is included.

  1. Nonadiabatic couplings and charge transfer study in H + CS+ collision using time-dependent quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajwant; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments have reported the high stability of HCS+ ion and inhibit to decompose over the range of collision energies. In this study, the various energy transfer channels of atomic H collision with CS+ molecular ion has been performed by ab initio computations at the multireference configuration interaction/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. The ground and several low-lying excited electronic state potential energy surfaces in three different molecular orientations, namely, two collinear configurations with, (1) H approaching the S atom (γ = 0°), (2) H approaching the C atom (γ = 180°) and one perpendicular configuration, (3) H approaching the centre of mass of CS (γ = 90°) with the diatom fixed at the equilibrium bond length, have been obtained. Nonadiabatic effects with Landau-Zener coupling leading to avoided crossings are observed between the ground- and the first-excited states in γ = 90° orientation, and also between the first- and second-excited states in γ = 180° orientation. Quantum dynamics have been performed to study the charge transfer using time-dependent wave packet method on the diabatic potential energy surfaces. The probability of charge transfer is found to be highest with 42% in γ = 180°. The high charge transfer probability result in the formation of H+ + CS channel which ascertains the high stability of HCS+ ion.

  2. Charge transfer in energetic Li2+-H and He+-He+ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančev, I.

    2009-02-01

    The total cross sections for charge transfer in Li2+-H and He+-He+ collisions have been calculated, using the four body first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1-4B) and four body continuum distorted wave method (CDW-4B) in the energy range 10-5000 keV/amu. The role of dynamic electron correlations is examined as a function of the impact energy. The present results call for additional experimental data at higher impact energies than presently available.

  3. Ionosphere-exosphere coupling through charge exchange and momentum transfer in hydrogen-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The implications of a traditional assumption of exospheric physics, that collisions of hydrogen atoms and protons preferentially result in charge exchange with negligible momentum transfer are examined. Initially adopted as a necessary convenience to accommodate limited computer resources in exosphere model calculations, this approximation results in a direct transformation of the proton velocity distribution into a hot component of neutral hydrogen. With expanding computational facilities, the need for the approximation has passed. As the first step toward its replacement with a realistic, quantum mechanical model of the H - H(+) collision process, differential and cumulative cross sections were calculated for quantum elastic scattering of indistinguishable nuclei for a fine grid of encounter energies and scattering angles. These data are used to study the nature of ionosphere-exosphere coupling through H - H(+) collisions, and to demonstrate that the distribution of velocities of scattered H produced in the traditional exospheric charge exchange approximation, as well as that arising from an alternative, fluid dynamic approach, leads to unacceptable abundances of coronal atoms in long-term, highly elliptic trajectories.

  4. Vibrationally resolved charge transfer for proton collisions with CO and H collisions with CO{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C. Y.; Stancil, P. C.; Li, Y.; Gu, J. P.; Liebermann, H. P.; Buenker, R. J.; Kimura, M.

    2007-07-15

    Electron capture by protons following collisions with carbon monoxide, and the reverse process, is studied with a quantal molecular-orbital coupled-channel method utilizing the infinite order sudden approximation for collision energies between 0.5 and 1000 eV/u. The potential surfaces and couplings, computed with the multireference single- and double-excitation method for a range of H{sup +}-CO orientation angles and C-O separations, are adopted in the scattering calculations. Results including vibrationally resolved and orientation-angle-dependent cross sections are presented for a range of CO and CO{sup +} vibrational levels. Comparison with experiment is made where possible and the relevance of the reaction in astrophysics and atmospheric physics is discussed.

  5. Charge Transfer in Collisions of Lithium Ions with Beryllium through Oxygen Ions at Energies Below 32 keV/amu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S.; Shirai, T.; Shimakura, N.

    The charge transfer cross sections of Li+ (1s2) ions in collisions with B5+ , C6+, N5+ (1s2), and O6+ (1s2) ions, and of Li2+ (1s) ions with Be+ (1s22s) ions are calculated in the collision energy range of 0.02-32 keV/amu by using a semi-classical close-coupling method with molecular-state expansion.

  6. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe2+ + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2016-07-01

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe2+ and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 + in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe2+ + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe+ and N2 + product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å2 to about 40 Å2 with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe2+ - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies.

  7. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe(2+) + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Hause, Michael L; Prince, Benjamin D; Bemish, Raymond J

    2016-07-28

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe(2+) and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 (+) in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe(2+) + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe(+) and N2 (+) product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å(2) to about 40 Å(2) with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe(2+) - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies. PMID:27475363

  8. Ab initio study of charge-transfer dynamics in collisions of C{sup 2+} ions with hydrogen chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsalyi, E.; Vibok, A.; Bene, E.; Halasz, G. J.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M. C.

    2011-05-15

    Ab initio quantum chemistry molecular calculations followed by a semiclassical dynamical treatment in the keV collision energy range have been developed for the study of the charge-transfer process in collisions of C{sup 2+} ions with hydrogen chloride. The mechanism has been investigated in detail in connection with avoided crossings between states involved in the reaction. A simple mechanism driven by a strong nonadiabatic coupling matrix element has been pointed out for this process. A comparative analysis with the halogen fluoride target corresponding to a similar electronic configuration shows a quite different charge-transfer mechanism leading to a very different behavior of the cross sections. Such behavior may be correlated to specific nonadiabatic interactions observed in these collision systems.

  9. Tuning Charge Transfer in Ion-Surface Collisions at Hyperthermal Energies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yunxi; Giapis, Konstantinos P

    2016-05-18

    Charge exchange in ion-surface collisions may be influenced by surface adsorbates to alter the charge state of the scattered projectiles. We show here that the positive-ion yield, observed during ion scattering on metal surfaces at low incident energies, is greatly enhanced by adsorbing electronegative species onto the surface. Specifically, when beams of N(+) and O(+) ions are scattered off of clean Au surfaces at hyperthermal energies, no positive ions are observed exiting. Partial adsorption of F atoms on the Au surface, however, leads to the appearance of positively charged primary ions scattering off of Au, a direct result of the increase in the Au work function. The inelastic energy losses for positive-ion exits are slightly larger than the corresponding ionization energies of the respective N and O atoms, which suggest that the detected positive ions are formed by surface reionization during the hard collision event. PMID:26879471

  10. Dynamics of H/sup +/ + Kr and H/sup +/ + Xe elastic and charge-transfer collisions: State-selected differential cross sections at low collision energies

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.; Dueren, R.; Friedrich, B.; Niedner, G.; Noll, M.; Toennies, J.P.

    1987-08-01

    Elastic and charge-transfer scattering of protons by Kr and Xe targets has been investigated in a crossed-beam experiment at collision energies E/sub c.m./ = 30.6 and 51.7 eV. The charge-transfer collisions led to the formation of Kr/sup +/( /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/, /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1) and Xe/sup +/( /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/, /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1,n = 2) products respectively. Interference patterns in the state-selected relative differential cross sections were clearly resolved and have been ascribed to primary and secondary rainbows and/or Stueckelberg-type oscillations. The H/sup +/+Xe collisions have also been investigated theoretically by the exact close-coupling method. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been found. A novel method for determining the absolute H-atom detection efficiency is suggested.

  11. Charge transfer in slow collisions between hydrogen atoms and metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrim, B.; Thumm, U.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed a new two-center close-coupling approach [1] for slow ion (atom)-surface collision in which the continuum of metal conduction-band states is discretized by using Weyl wave packets [2] to represent the motion of the active electron in the metal subspace. Results for the time evolution of the atomic and metallic population amplitudes for a hydrogen atom in colliding at perpendicular incidence with an model aluminum surface are shown and discussed. For the n=2 hydrogenic manifold, we have obtained converged atomic populations amplitudes by including all projectile levels up to the n=5 manifold and 480 Weyl wave packets in the close-coupling expansion. We will discuss the electron dynamics in particular in view of possible dephasing effects (in distance and time) and recurrence effects that may arrise due to our continuum discretization in term of a finite number of localized Weyl packets. [1] B. Bahrim and U. Thumm, Surf. Sci. 451, 1 (2000), and to appear in Phys. Rev. A. [2] B.H. Bransden and M.R.C. McDowell, "Charge Exchange and the Theory of Ion-Atom Collisions" Clarendon Press (Oxford 1992). Supported by NSF and by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE

  12. Numerical study of charge transfer processes in collisions of Be^4+ and He^2+ with atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tatsuya; Pindzola, Michael S.; Lee, Teck-Gee

    2005-05-01

    We have calculated state-selective charge-transfer cross sections in collisions of Be^(4+ with H(1s) and of He^2+ with H(1s). We have used the lattice time-dependent Schr"odinger equation (LTDSE) approach, the atomic orbital coupled channel (AOCC) method, and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. The calculations are performed with impact energy ranging between 1keV/u and 1MeV/u. With a well chosen basis-function set, we have found that AOCC gives good agreement with LTDSE. Also, with regard to Wigner's n-3 law, we have found that CTMC gives good extrapolations to the cross sections calculated by LTDSE and AOCC toward high n levels such as for those greater than 6. Thus, in our presentation, we will propose theoretical values of the total charge-transfer cross sections for these collision systems based on a combination of the most reliable results of the various method. This research used resources of the Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, and also of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  13. Absolute Charge Transfer and Fragmentation Cross Sections in He{sup 2+}-C{sub 60} Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rentenier, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Ruiz, L. F.; Diaz-Tendero, S.; Alcami, M.; Martin, F.; Zarour, B.; Hanssen, J.; Hervieux, P.-A.; Politis, M. F.

    2008-05-09

    We have determined absolute charge transfer and fragmentation cross sections in He{sup 2+}+C{sub 60} collisions in the impact-energy range 0.1-250 keV by using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We have found that the cross sections for the formation of He{sup +} and He{sup 0} are comparable in magnitude, which cannot be explained by the sole contribution of pure single and double electron capture but also by contribution of transfer-ionization processes that are important even at low impact energies. The results show that multifragmentation is important only at impact energies larger than 40 keV; at lower energies, sequential C{sub 2} evaporation is the dominant process.

  14. A model for charge transfer in ultracold Rydberg ground-state atomic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markson, Samuel; Sadeghpour, H. R.

    2016-06-01

    In excited molecules, the interaction between the covalent Rydberg and ion-pair channels forms a unique class of excited states, in which the infinite manifold of vibrational levels are the equivalent of atomic Rydberg states with a heavy electron mass. Production of the ion-pair states usually requires excitation through one or several interacting Rydberg states; these interacting channels lead to loss of flux, diminishing the rate of ion-pair production. Here, we develop an analytical, asymptotic charge-transfer model for the interaction between ultracold Rydberg molecular states, and employ this method to demonstrate the utility of off-resonant field control over the ion-pair formation, with near unity efficiency.

  15. Charge transfer and ionization in collisions of Si{sup 3+} with H from low to high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. G.; He, B.; Ning, Y.; Liu, C. L.; Yan, J.; Stancil, P. C.; Schultz, D. R.

    2006-11-15

    Charge transfer processes due to collisions of ground state Si{sup 3+}(3s {sup 1}S) ions with atomic hydrogen are investigated using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) and classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) methods. The MOCC calculations utilize ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements obtained from Herrero et al. [J. Phys. B 29, 5583 (1996)] which were calculated with a full configuration-interaction method. Total and state-selective single-electron capture cross sections are obtained for collision energies from 0.01 eV/u to 1 MeV/u. Total and state-selective rate coefficients are also presented for temperatures from 2x10{sup 3} K to 10{sup 7} K. Comparison with existing data reveals that the total CTMC cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental measurements at the higher considered energies and that previous Landau-Zener calculations underestimate the total rate coefficients by a factor of up to two. The CTMC calculations of target ionization are presented for high energies.

  16. K+ charge transfer in H2 at low keV collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcón, F. B.; Martinez, H.; Fuentes, B. E.; Yousif, F. B.

    2013-08-01

    Absolute electron capture cross sections for the K+-H2 pair, employing beam collision spectroscopy for 0.4-4 keV energy were measured. The capture cross section increased with the increase in collision energy. The results below 2 keV overlap with previously measured data of other investigators and extend down in energy to 400 eV, where no previous data have been reported. Experimental data were compared with calculations employing the Olson model, which were found to agree in behavior as well as with an absolute value above 100 keV.

  17. L X-ray emission from fast highly charged Cu ions in collisions with gaseous targets: Saturation effect in excitation and transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Misra, D.; Kadhane, U.; Kelkar, A. H.; Dhal, B. B.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2006-11-01

    We have measured L X-ray production cross sections for highly charged 156 MeV Be-like Cu ions in collisions with gaseous targets of H 2, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe. In the present collision systems, measured projectile L X-ray intensity is contributed by the excitation as well as electron transfer processes. The projectile L X-ray production cross sections are found to increase initially and then saturate with increasing target atomic number. The charge state dependence of projectile L X-ray production cross sections have been measured with Kr target.

  18. Investigation of the Direct Charge Transfer in Low Energy D2+ + H Collisions using Merged-Beams Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, S. L.; Guillen, C. I.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Havener, C. C.

    2011-10-01

    The hydrogen - hydrogen (deuterium) molecular ion is the most fundamental ion-molecule two-electron system. Charge transfer (CT) for H2+ on H, which is one of the possible reaction paths for the (H-H2)+ system, is of special interest because of its contribution to H2 formation in the early universe, its exoergicity, and rich collision dynamics. Due to technical difficulty in making an atomic H target, the direct experimental investigations of CT for H2+ on H are sparse and generally limited to higher collision energies. The measurements of the absolute cross section of different CT paths for H2+ on H over a large range of collision energy are needed to benchmark theoretical calculations, especially the ones at low energies. The rate coefficient of CT at low energy is not known but may be comparable to other reaction rate coefficients in cold plasmas with H, H+, H2+, and H3+ as constituents. For instance, CT for H2+ on H and the following H3+ formation reaction H2+ + H2 → H + H3+ are clearly rate interdependent although it was always assumed that every ionization of H2 will lead to the formation of H3+. CT proceeds through dynamically coupled electronic, vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. One can depict three paths, electronic CT, CT with nuclear substitution, and CT with dissociation. Electronic CT and CT with nuclear substitution in the H2+ on H collisions are not distinguishable by any quantum theory. Here we use the isotopic system (D2+ - H) to measure without ambiguity the electronic CT cross section by observing the H+ products. Using the ion-atom merged-beam apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the absolute direct CT cross sections for D2+ + H from keV/u to meV/u collision energies have been measured. The molecular ions are extracted from an Electron-Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source with a vibrational state distribution which is most likely determined by Frank-Condon transitions between ground state D2 and D2+. A ground-state H beam

  19. Energy and charge transfer in O/sup +//sub 2/ on O/sub 2/ collisions: Effects of a ''vibrational rainbow''

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee K.B. Jr.; Hozack, R.S.

    1985-12-01

    The efficient conversion of up to eight vibrational quanta into translational energy is found to occur during O/sup +//sub 2/ --O/sub 2/ collisions. The high efficiency and low deflection angle which are observed in the experiment reported are explained by the occurrence of multiple crossings of the O/sup +//sub 2/ --O/sub 2/ system interaction potentials, specifically the attractive and repulsive symmetry potentials. The energy and charge transfer model evolved from the experimental data proposes that energy transfer in symmetric molecule--ion collisions takes place at very large intermolecular separations. It differs in an important way from previous concepts which suggest that impulsive momentum transfer at relatively short distances is necessary to the exchange of vibrational energy. To explain the data, a distortion of the electron cloud surrounding the colliding systems is conceived to produce charge-transfer oscillations whose frequencies at the crossing points are multiples of molecular vibration frequencies. Such resonances are similar to the more familiar rainbows often observed in molecular collisions. The ease with which energy has been found to be transferred between modes of motion in charged systems affects the thermal, optical, and other properties of plasmas.

  20. Four-body charge transfer processes in collisions of bare projectile ions with helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Mandal, C. R.; Purkait, M.

    2015-02-01

    Single-electron capture by a bare ion from a helium atom at intermediate and high energies in the framework of four-body distorted wave (DW-4B) approximation in both prior and post form has been considered. In the entrance channel, the initial bound state wave function is distorted by the incoming projectile ion, and the corresponding distortion is related to the Coulomb continuum states of the active electron and the residual target ion in the field of the projectile ion respectively. Continuum states of the active electron and the projectile ion in the field of the residual target ion are also included in the exit channel. It may be mentioned that the effect of dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The total single-electron capture cross sections are obtained by summing over all contributions up to n = 3 shells and sub-shells respectively. In addition, the differential cross sections for alpha particle-helium collision are calculated at impact energies of 60, 150, 300, 450, and 630 keV amu-1, respectively. The cross sections exhibit a monotonically decreasing angular dependence, with clear peak structures around 0.1 to 0.2 mrad being found at low impact energies. The current theoretical results, both in prior and post forms of the transition amplitude for symmetric and asymmetric collision, are compared with the available theoretical and experimental results. Current computed results have been found to be satisfactory in comparison with other theoretical and experimental findings.

  1. Charge transfer in H/+/-H and H/+/-D collisions within the energy range 0.1-150 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. H.; Cogan, J. D.; Ziegler, D. L.; Nitz, D. E.; Rundel, R. D.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Absolute charge-transfer cross sections for collisions of protons with hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been measured within the energy range 0.1 to 150 eV using the merging-beams technique. The results are in excellent agreement with a fully quantum-mechanical treatment of this reaction. Earlier measurements which extended down to about 10 eV lie somewhat above the present values.

  2. Lattice, Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation Approach for Charge Transfer in Collisions of Be4+ with Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, Tatsuya; Pindzola, Michael S; Lee, Teck G; Schultz, David Robert

    2006-01-01

    A test of the lattice, time-dependent Schrodinger equation (LTDSE) method for treating inelastic ion-atom collisions is performed by treating state-selective charge transfer in 10-1000 keV/u Be4+ + H collisions. This system possessesa greater charge asymmetry of the colliding nuclei than has been treated in previous applications of the method. Consequently, its ability to represent well the dynamical evolution of the electronic wavefunction within the combination of a shallow and a deep potential well with a single coordinate- and momentumspace discretization is tested. New results are also computed using other, standard approaches, the atomic-orbital close-coupling and classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods, to provide comparisons with the LTDSE results owing to their well-established regimes of applicability and behaviours.

  3. Numerical study of charge transfer in ion-ion collisions using the lattice time-dependent Schr"odinger equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, T.; Pindzola, M. S.; Lee, T.-G.; Schultz, D. R.

    2006-05-01

    Br"auning, et.al. (J. Phys. B, 38, p2311) recently measured cross sections of charge transfer in collisions of He^2+ with Li^2+. At the same time, they also performed calculations of the cross sections of this collision system and of collisions of H^+ with He^+ using the basis generator method (BGM). For the former system, BGM seems to overestimate the cross sections compared to their experiment, while for the latter system, BGM provides excellent agreement with past experiments. Since both are ion-ion collision with asymmetrical nuclear charges involving one electron, BGM agreeing one system but the other points to a situation requiring further study. Motivated by this question, we have performed atomic orbital coupled channel (AOCC) calculations for both systems. When we use our most complete basis set for the calculations, we obtain results close to BGM on both systems. However, results from AOCC do not readily converge with regard to the size of the basis sets and therefore results were not conclusive. We also have performed the lattice time-dependent Schr"odinger equation (LTDSE) calculations. Preliminary results for both systems by LTDSE are close to BGM. In this presentation, we compare BGM, AOCC and LTDSE with the experiment. This research used resources of NCCS at ORNL and NERSC, and was supported by DOE OFES.

  4. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H{sub 2}CO{sup +} with C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianbo; Van Devener, Brian; Anderson, Scott L.

    2005-11-22

    The effects of collision energy (E{sub col}) and six different H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass E{sub col} range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H{sub 2}{sup +} transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by E{sub col} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +} vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state 'unmixing' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion.

  5. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Kozue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d64p (3d54s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6-9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels.

  6. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen-atom collisions with neutral atoms: Theory, comparisons, and application to Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, Paul S.

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical method is presented for the estimation of cross sections and rates for excitation and charge-transfer processes in low-energy hydrogen-atom collisions with neutral atoms, based on an asymptotic two-electron model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system. The calculation of potentials and nonadiabatic radial couplings using the method is demonstrated. The potentials are used together with the multichannel Landau-Zener model to calculate cross sections and rate coefficients. The main feature of the method is that it employs asymptotically exact atomic wave functions, which can be determined from known atomic parameters. The method is applied to Li+H , Na+H , and Mg+H collisions, and the results compare well with existing detailed full-quantum calculations. The method is applied to the astrophysically important problem of Ca+H collisions, and rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20 000 K.

  7. Charge-exchange collisions in the low-velocity regime between multiply charged ions and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.R. )

    1993-06-05

    Close-coupling calculations using a full quantum mechanical molecular-orbital model have been carried out for low-energy charge-exchange collisions with multiply charged ions. Trajectory effects at eV/amu energies are exemplified by the isotope-dependence of the charge-exchange cross sections and the polarization-induced enhancement of the capture probability in O[sup 5+]--H(D) collisions. An unfavorable comparison with experimental differential cross sections for Ar[sup 6+]--He collisions leads to a discussion of transfer-excitation caused by configuration mixing in the Ar[sup 5+] capture states.

  8. Charge-transfer processes in collisions of He{sup 2+} ions with H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} molecules below 4 keV/u

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Toshio; Miyamoto, Yoshiharu; Kimura, Mineo; Tawara, Hiroyuki

    2006-02-15

    Single- and double-charge-transfer cross sections of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions in collisions with N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} molecules have been measured in the energy range of 0.20 to 2.7 keV/u. In addition, the same type of measurements for H{sub 2} molecules has been also carried out again for energies in the range from 0.13 to 0.40 keV/u. For all molecules except for CO{sub 2}, the present single-charge-transfer cross sections are found to be generally larger than, or at least comparable to, double-charge-transfer cross sections in the energy region studied. This is a marked difference in comparison to experimental results reported earlier where a sharp increase for double charge transfer was observed below 0.3 keV/u. The double-charge-transfer cross sections are found to be apparently larger than single-charge-transfer cross sections only for CO{sub 2} molecules at energies below 0.8 keV/u. A theoretical analysis based on a close-coupling method within a molecular representation has also been carried out for H{sub 2} and CO targets to provide some insights.

  9. Theoretical investigation of charge transfer in collisions of C/sup 6 +/ and N/sup 7 +/ ions with H and H/sub 2/ targets at low to intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, M.

    1986-06-01

    Recent measurements by Meyer et al. (Phys. Rev. A 32, 3310 (1985)) have revealed that the charge-transfer cross section for N/sup 7 +/+H collisions is much larger than that for N/sup 7 +/+H/sub 2/ collisions below 3 keV/amu, whereas the opposite trend is seen in the measured charge-transfer cross sections for C/sup 6 +/ on H and H/sub 2/ targets. These anomalous experimental findings have been investigated for the first time theoretically, using the traveling-molecular-orbital expansion approach, in the energy range from 0.14 to 9 keV/amu. Our qualitative argument based on adiabatic potentials and corresponding couplings as well as a five-state close-coupling calculation provides support for experimental findings.

  10. Charge transferred in brush discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talarek, M.; Kacprzyk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatic discharges from surfaces of plastic materials can be a source of ignition, when appear in explosive atmospheres. Incendivity of electrostatic discharges can be estimated using the transferred charge test. In the case of brush discharges not all the energy stored at the tested sample is released and the effective surface charge density (or surface potential) crater is observed after the discharge. Simplified model, enabling calculation of a charge transferred during electrostatic brush discharge, was presented. Comparison of the results obtained from the simplified model and from direct measurements of transferred charge are presented in the paper.

  11. Resonance charge transfer, transport cross sections, and collision integrals for N(+)(3P)-N(4S0) and O(+)(4S0)-O(3P) interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    N2(+) and O2(+) potential energy curves have been constructed by combining measured data with the results from electronic structure calculations. These potential curves have been employed to determine accurate charge exchange cross sections, transport cross sections, and collision integrals for ground state N(+)-N and O(+)-O interactions. The cross sections have been calculated from a semiclassical approximation to the scattering using a computer code that fits a spline curve through the discrete potential data and incorporates the proper long-range behavior of the interactions forces. The collision integrals are tabulated for a broad range of temperatures 250-100,000 K and are intended to reduce the uncertainty in the values of the transport properties of nonequilibrium air, particularly at high temperatures.

  12. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  13. Measurement techniques and applications of charge transfer to aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique of developing high-velocity low-intensity neutral gas beams for use in aerospace research problems is described. This technique involves ionization of gaseous species with a mass spectrometer and focusing the resulting primary ion beam into a collision chamber containing a static gas at a known pressure and temperature. Equations are given to show how charge-transfer cross sections are obtained from a total-current measurement technique. Important parameters are defined for the charge-transfer process.

  14. Resonant-transfer-and-excitation for highly charged ions (16 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 23) in collisions with helium

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.; Bernstein, E.M.; Oglesby, C.S.; Graham, W.G.; Clark, M.; McFarland, R.H.; Morgan, T.J.; Stockli, M.P.; Berkner, K.H.; Johnson, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Significant new evidence is presented for resonant-transfer-and-excitation (RTE) in ion-atom collisions. This process occurs when a target electron is captured simultaneously with the excitation of the projectile followed by deexcitation via photon emission. RTE, which is analogous to dielectronic recombination (DR), proceeds via the inverse of an Auger transition, and is expected to be resonant for projectile velocities corresponding to the energy of the ejected electron in the Auger process. RTE was investigated by measuring cross sections for projectile K x-ray emission coincident with single electron capture for 15 to 200 MeV /sub 16/S/sup 13 +/, 100 to 360 MeV /sub 20/Ca/sup 16 +/ /sup 17 +/ /sup 18 +/ and 180 to 460 MeV /sub 23/V/sup 19 +/ /sup 20 +/ /sup 21 +/ ions colliding with helium. Strong resonant behavior, in agreement with theoretical calculations of RTE, was observed in the coincidence cross sections.

  15. An ab initio and experimental study of vibrational effects in low energy O++C2H2 charge-transfer collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Kaori; Matsushita, Toshio; Morokuma, Keiji; Levandier, Dale J.; Chiu, Yu-hui; Dressler, Rainer A.; Murad, Edmond; Midey, Anthony; Williams, Skip; Viggiano, Albert A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies are performed to elucidate the low energy charge-transfer dynamics of the reaction, O+(4S)+C2H2(X 1Σg+)→O+C2H2+. In particular, the role of the low-frequency acetylene bending modes (612 and 730 cm-1) in promoting charge transfer was examined. High-temperature guided-ion beam measurements are carried out over the energy range from near-thermal to 3 eV at 310 and 610 K. The charge-transfer cross sections are found to decrease up to 0.5 eV, to have a constant value at intermediate energies between 0.5 and 1.5 eV, and then to dramatically increase above a threshold of a spin-allowed process determined to be at 1.7 eV. A bending vibrational enhancement of ˜8 is observed at intermediate energies. Thermal energy rate co-efficients are measured in a variable temperature-selected ion flow drift tube apparatus from 193 to 500 K. At each temperature, a negative energy dependence is observed. In order to elucidate the reaction mechanism in detail, high level ab initio calculations using Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field and Multi-Reference Single- and Double-excitation Configuration Interaction methods have been performed. The results indicate that the charge transfer reaction occurs at an early stage via nonadiabatic transition between quartet and doublet states. There is a weak van der Waals minimum at the entrance channel between O+(4S) and C2H2 with the relative energy of -1.51 kcal/mol. The minimum of the quartet/doublet crossing seam (Q/D MSX), where the spin-forbidden nonadiabatic transition is most likely to take place, lies very near this minimum at RCO=4.06 Å, RCC=1.20 Å, and ∠CCH=166.6° with a relative energy of -1.48 kcal/mol. After the nonadiabatic transition, the system propagates on the doublet surface to reach the exothermic O(1D)+C2H2+(X˜2Πu) products. No energy barrier exists on the reaction pathway, strongly suggesting that the reaction should occur at low energy with a negative energy dependence

  16. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  17. Femtosecond laser field induced modifications of electron-transfer processes in Ne{sup +}-He collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhenzhong; Chen Deying; Fan Rongwei; Xia Yuanqin

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate the presence of femtosecond laser induced charge transfer in Ne{sup +}-He collisions. Electron transfer in ion-atom collisions is considerably modified when the collision is embedded in a strong laser field with the laser intensity of {approx}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The observed anisotropy of the He{sup +} angular distribution confirms the prediction of early work that the capture probability varies significantly with the laser polarization angle.

  18. Overview on collision processes of highly charged ions with atoms present status and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Janev, R.K.

    1983-05-01

    This paper provides a brief discussion on the present status of the collision physics of highly charged ions with atoms. The emphasis is on the main achievements in understanding and describing the most important collision processes, and as charge transfer, ionization and Auger-type processes, and even more on those open problems which, due either to their scientific or practical importance, represent challenges to current research in this field. The paper concentrates on general ideas and problems whose development and solutions have advanced or will advance our basic understanding of the collision dynamics of multiply charged ions with atoms.

  19. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from March 16, 1991 through March 15, 1992. This work involves the experimental investigation of fundamental atomic processes in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron correlation effects. Processes involving combinations of excitation, ionization, and charge transfer are investigated utilizing coincidence techniques in which projectiles charge-changing events are associated with x-ray emission, target recoil ions, or electron emission. New results have been obtained for studies involving (1) resonant recombination of atomic ions, (2) double ionization of helium, and (3) continuum electron emission. Experiments were conducted using accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, and the Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary. Brief summaries of work completed and work in progress are given in this report.

  20. Differential Cross Sections for Charge Transfer in Collisions between Protons and the Ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, and C5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Coupled-state differential cross sections are being determined for electron transfer in collisions between keV-energy protons and the hydrogenic ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, and C5+. Integrated cross sections for these five collisional systems using a two-center, coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach have been recently reported. Differential cross sections were previously considered for He+ targets only; those calculations used smaller two-center Sturmian bases, as well as triple-center, atomic-state bases. In the eikonal approach taken in that and earlier papers, the differential cross sections were obtained by integrating the transition amplitude from the scattering calculation over impact parameter after multiplying by a suitable energy phase and a Bessel function. A simpler approach, also taken, was just to multiply the square of the transition amplitude at the classical scattering angle corresponding to the impact parameter by the Rutherford scattering cross section, an approach probably valid at large scattering angles and small impact parameters.

  1. Contact charge-transfer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dharamsi, A.N.; Tulip, J.

    1981-07-01

    A mechanism for sustaining population inversions in contact charge-transfer complexes in which the ground electronic state is not bound is described. The mechanism relies on picosecond radiationless depletion of the lower laser state. This generates an inversion even when the ground-state potential curve, as plotted against the donor-acceptor distance, is not repulsive vertically below the excited state minimum. Contact charge-transfer lasers would offer high gain, high-energy density, and tunable sources of coherent radiation in the uv and visible. A method for pumping such a laser is examined and applied to the pyrrole-oxygen complex. A rate equation analysis is done and estimates for gain and energy density are presented.

  2. Charge Transfer Calculations and Database for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. G.; Stancil, P. C.; Rakovic, M.; Schultz, D. R.; Zygelman, B.

    2002-01-01

    A variety of theoretical approaches, having different but overlapping energy ranges of applicability, are applied to investigate charge transfer processes for collisions of atomic ions with atoms and molecules. The methods include quantal molecular-orbital close-coupling, classical trajectory Monte Carlo, and continuum distorted wave methods. Recent collision systems studied include S(+4) + H, S(+4) + He, N(+7) + He, H2O, CO, and CO2, O(+q)(q = 1 - 8) + H, H2, and S(+q)(q = 1 - 16) + H2. The database effort is concentrating on astrophysically important reactions of atomic ions X(+q)(X=H-Zn, q=1-4, and selected higher charges) with H, He, various metal atoms, H2, and other selected molecular targets. Existing data, much of it produced by us, has been compiled and critically evaluated. Data for many reactions missing in the literature are estimated using the multichannel Landau-Zener approximation. Fits to cross sections and rate coefficients using standard functions are provided as well as tabulations of the raw data. The database is available on the World Wide Web at cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/astro/ps/data.

  3. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  4. Argand diagram representation of orbiting resonance in proton-transfer collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutrus, C. K.; Suck Salk, S. H.

    1991-05-01

    Dynamic resonance in atom-diatomic molecule collisions has been relatively well studied compared to orbiting resonance. We discuss orbiting resonance on reactive scattering involving proton (charge) transfer. Resonance structure is predicted to exist at forward-scattering angles in both the state-to-state angular distribution and the Argand diagram for the proton-transfer collision system of He+H+2-->HeH++H. The present study demonstrates the possibility of orbiting resonance particularly in proton (charge) -transfer reaction involving atom-diatomic molecule systems.

  5. Long-range charge transfer in biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhova, T. Yu; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the charge transfer in biopolymers, namely, DNA and peptides, are presented. Conditions that ensure the efficient long-range charge transport (by several tens of nanometres) are considered. The known theoretical models of charge transfer mechanisms are discussed and the scopes of their application are analyzed. Attention is focused on the charge transport by the polaron mechanism. The bibliography includes 262 references.

  6. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  8. Neutral Collisions and Charge Exchange in Titan's Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, I.; Johnson, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Results from new hybrid simulations for Titan are presented. These simulations take into account the elastic collisions between ions and neutral gas as well as the charge exchange reactions for protons and oxygen ions. We used SRIM [1] cross sections for hydrogen and oxygen ions in nitrogen gas to calculate cross sections for the five ions species used in the HYB-Titan hybrid model [2, see also 3] (H+, H2+, O+, CH4+, and N2+). The N2 density profile used was from INMS measurements over a dozen flybys. In addition, we are studying the effect the charge transfer (CT) reactions for H+ and O+ leading to simple CT, dissociative CT and CT with ionization. All reaction cross sections are energy dependent. Neutral particles are not created, but the total ENA energy is recorded as well as the resulting reaction rates. The results show that both of neutral collisions and CT processes have a significant role in the development and shape of Titan's ionotail and wake structure. Results will be described in detail as well as the implications of the ion-neutral collisions for the heating of Titan's neutral corona and atmospheric escape [4]. References [1] Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM), Monte Carlo software by James F. Ziegler (online at http://www.srim.org/ ) [2] Sillanpää, I., Hybrid Modelling of Titan's Interaction with the Magnetosphere of Saturn, Ph.D. dissertation, Finnish Meteorological Contributions, 68, Yliopistopaino, Helsinki, 2008. (online at http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-697-660-3) [3] Sillanpää, I., D. Young, F. Crary, M. Thomsen, D. Reisenfeld, J-E.Wahlund, C. Bertucci, E. Kallio, R. Jarvinen, and P. Janhunen, Cassini Plasma Spectro:meter and Hybrid Model Study on Titan's Interaction: Effect of Oxygen Ions, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JA016443, 2011. [4] Johnson, R.E., O.J. Tucker, M. Michael, E.C. Sittler, H.T. Smith, D.T. Young, and J.H. Waite, Mass Loss Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere, Chap. 15 in "Titan from Cassini-Huygens" (eds

  9. Relative charge transfer cross section from Rb (4d)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. H.; Camp, H. A.; Trachy, M. L.; Fléchard, X.; Gearba, M. A.; Nguyen, H.; Brédy, R.; Lundeen, S. R.; Depaola, B. D.

    2005-08-01

    Relative charge transfer cross section measurements for the excited state Rb(4d) with 7keV Na+ is reported. The specific channels reported are Na++Rb(4d5/2)→Na(nl)+Rb+ , where the dominant transfer cross sections channels were nl=3d and 4s . Using a combination of a magneto-optical trap and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (MOTRIMS methodology), the cross sections were measured relative to the previously studied Na++Rb(5s,5p) systems at the same collision energy.

  10. Relative charge transfer cross section from Rb(4d)

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.H.; Camp, H.A.; Trachy, M.L.; De Paola, B.D.; Flechard, X.; Gearba, M.A.; Nguyen, H.; Bredy, R.; Lundeen, S.R.

    2005-08-15

    Relative charge transfer cross section measurements for the excited state Rb(4d) with 7 keV Na{sup +} is reported. The specific channels reported are Na{sup +}+Rb(4d{sub 5/2}){yields}Na(nl)+Rb{sup +}, where the dominant transfer cross sections channels were nl=3d and 4s. Using a combination of a magneto-optical trap and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (MOTRIMS methodology), the cross sections were measured relative to the previously studied Na{sup +}+Rb(5s,5p) systems at the same collision energy.

  11. Ultrafast Measurement Confirms Charge Generation through Cold Charge Transfer States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Younts, Robert; Yan, Liang; Danilov, Evgeny; Ade, Harald; You, Wei; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    The role of excess energy in generation and extraction of charges through charge transfer (CT) states in polymer solar cells is a subject of debate. There are reports suggesting increase of charge generation yield with excess energy based on ultrafast experiments. On the other hand time delayed collection field measurements shows that excess photon energy has no effect in photovoltaic efficiency. Here we resolved this discrepancy by studying the dynamics of CT excitons and polarons in blends of medium gap copolymers. We found that low-lying charge transfer (CT) excitons can generate charges over a long time period (nanosecond) and contribute photocurrent on the bulk heterojunction devices. By performing resonant CT excitation as well as above gap excitation transient absorption measurements we investigated that the charges are generated more efficiently through low-lying CT states in efficient devices independent of excitation energy. This work is supported by Office of Naval Research Grant N000141310526 P00002.

  12. Production of charge in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Scott; McCormack, William Patrick; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that scenarios in which balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  13. Opposites Attract: Organic Charge Transfer Salts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wouw, Heidi L.; Chamorro, Juan; Quintero, Michael; Klausen, Rebekka S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students to organic electronic materials. The discovery of metallic conductivity in the charge transfer salt tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a landmark result in the history of organic electronics. The charge transfer…

  14. Room Temperature Multiferroicity of Charge Transfer Crystals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Huashan; Gong, Maogang; Yuan, Guoliang; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Wuttig, Manfred; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-09-22

    Room temperature multiferroics has been a frontier research field by manipulating spin-driven ferroelectricity or charge-order-driven magnetism. Charge-transfer crystals based on electron donor and acceptor assembly, exhibiting simultaneous spin ordering, are drawing significant interests for the development of all-organic magnetoelectric multiferroics. Here, we report that a remarkable anisotropic magnetization and room temperature multiferroicity can be achieved through assembly of thiophene donor and fullerene acceptor. The crystal motif directs the dimensional and compositional control of charge-transfer networks that could switch magnetization under external stimuli, thereby opening up an attractive class of all-organic nanoferronics. PMID:26257033

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics and charge identified directed flow in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürsoy, Umut; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Strong magnetic fields produced in any non-central heavy ion collision are expected to affect the dynamics of the hot QCD matter produced in this collision. The magnetic field is time-dependent and the medium is expanding, which leads to the induction of charged currents due to the combination of Faraday and Hall effects. We study the imprint the magnetic fields produced in non-central heavy ion collisions leave on the azimuthal distributions and correlations of the produced charged hadrons by employing an analytic solution to hydrodynamics combined with the electromagnetic effects in a perturbative fashion. We use the Cooper-Frye freeze-out procedure on an isothermal freeze-out surface to obtain the azimuthal hadron distributions. We find that the charged currents induced by the present of the electromagnetic fields result in a charge-dependent directed flow v1 that is odd in rapidity and odd under charge exchange. It can be detected by measuring correlations between the directed flow of charged hadrons at different rapidities, < v1±(y1)v1±(y2) > .

  16. Charge-transfer magnetoelectrics of polymeric multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Jasion, Daniel; Chen, Xiaomin; Wuttig, Manfred; Ren, Shenqiang

    2014-04-22

    The renaissance of multiferroics has yielded a deeper understanding of magneto-electric coupling of inorganic single-phase multiferroics and composites. Here, we report charge-transfer polymeric multiferroics, which exhibit external field-controlled magnetic, ferroelectric, and microwave response, as well as magneto-dielectric coupling. The charge-transfer-controlled ferroic properties result from the magnetic field-tunable triplet exciton which has been validated by the dynamic polaron-bipolaron transition model. In addition, the temperature-dependent dielectric discontinuity and electric-field-dependent polarization confirms room temperature ferroelectricity of crystalline charge-transfer polymeric multiferroics due to the triplet exciton, which allows the tunability of polarization by the photoexcitation. PMID:24654686

  17. Ultrafast charge transfer and atomic orbital polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Deppe, M.; Foehlisch, A.; Hennies, F.; Nagasono, M.; Beye, M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.; Wurth, W.

    2007-11-07

    The role of orbital polarization for ultrafast charge transfer between an atomic adsorbate and a substrate is explored. Core hole clock spectroscopy with linearly polarized x-ray radiation allows to selectively excite adsorbate resonance states with defined spatial orientation relative to the substrate surface. For c(4x2)S/Ru(0001) the charge transfer times between the sulfur 2s{sup -1}3p*{sup +1} antibonding resonance and the ruthenium substrate have been studied, with the 2s electron excited into the 3p{sub perpendicular}* state along the surface normal and the 3p{sub parallel}* state in the surface plane. The charge transfer times are determined as 0.18{+-}0.07 and 0.84{+-}0.23 fs, respectively. This variation is the direct consequence of the different adsorbate-substrate orbital overlap.

  18. Spacecraft Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    The 700 km x 5.8 Re orbit of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft provide a unique opportunity to investigate spacecraft charging in geostationary transfer orbits. We use records from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) plasma spectrometer to identify candidate surface charging events based on the "ion line" charging signature in the ion records. We summarize the energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment. We discuss the altitude, duration, and magnitude of events observed in the Van Allen Probes from the beginning of the mission to present time. In addition, we explore what information the dual satellites provide on the spatial and temporal variations in the charging environments.

  19. Orientation-dependent dissociative charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Prior, M.H.; Braeuning, H.

    1998-01-01

    Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy and molecular fragment imaging techniques are combined to study dissociative electron capture from He by HeH{sup +} at 0.20-a.u. collision velocity. Groups of final HeH states which dissociate to ground or excited H and He atoms are separated. For each group, the experiment provides two-dimensional H fragment distributions with respect to the collision plane and for fixed transverse momentum transfer. These patterns show that the capture probability is highest for HeH{sup +} ions with their axis oriented normal to the scattering plane for two of the three groups populated. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Biological charge transfer via flickering resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Chaoren; Balaeff, Alexander; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2014-07-15

    Biological electron-transfer (ET) reactions are typically described in the framework of coherent two-state electron tunneling or multistep hopping. However, these ET reactions may involve multiple redox cofactors in van der Waals contact with each other and with vibronic broadenings on the same scale as the energy gaps among the species. In this regime, fluctuations of the molecular structures and of the medium can produce transient energy level matching among multiple electronic states. This transient degeneracy, or flickering electronic resonance among states, is found to support coherent (ballistic) charge transfer. Importantly, ET rates arising from a flickering resonance (FR) mechanism will decay exponentially with distance because the probability of energy matching multiple states is multiplicative. The distance dependence of FR transport thus mimics the exponential decay that is usually associated with electron tunneling, although FR transport involves real carrier population on the bridge and is not a tunneling phenomenon. Likely candidates for FR transport are macromolecules with ET groups in van der Waals contact: DNA, bacterial nanowires, multiheme proteins, strongly coupled porphyrin arrays, and proteins with closely packed redox-active residues. The theory developed here is used to analyze DNA charge-transfer kinetics, and we find that charge-transfer distances up to three to four bases may be accounted for with this mechanism. Thus, the observed rapid (exponential) distance dependence of DNA ET rates over distances of ≲ 15 Å does not necessarily prove a tunneling mechanism. PMID:24965367

  1. Radiative charge transfer in He{sup +}+ H{sub 2} collisions in the milli- to nano-electron-volt range: A theoretical study within state-to-state and optical potential approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Mrugala, Felicja; Kraemer, Wolfgang P.

    2013-03-14

    The paper presents a theoretical study of the low-energy dynamics of the radiative charge transfer (RCT) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields}He({sup 1}S)+H{sub 2}{sup +}(X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +})+h{nu} extending our previous studies on radiative association of HeH{sub 2}{sup +} [F. Mrugala, V. Spirko, and W. P. Kraemer, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 10547 (2003); F. Mrugala and W. P. Kraemer, ibid. 122, 224321 (2005)]. The calculations account for the vibrational and rotational motions of the H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}{sup +} diatomics and for the atom-diatom complex formation in the reactant and the product channels of the RCT reaction. Continuum states of He{sup +}+ H{sub 2}(v= 0, j= 0) in the collision energy range {approx}10{sup -7}-18.6 meV and all quasi-bound states of the He{sup +}- H{sub 2}(para;v= 0) complex formed in this range are taken into account. Close-coupling calculations are performed to determine rates of radiative transitions from these states to the continuum and quasi-bound states of the He +H{sub 2}{sup +} system in the energy range extending up to {approx}0.16 eV above the opening of the HeH{sup +}+ H arrangement channel. From the detailed state-to-state calculated characteristics global functions of the RCT reaction, such as cross-section {sigma}(E), emission intensity I({nu}, T), and rate constant k(T) are derived, and are presented together with their counterparts for the radiative association (RA) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S) +H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields} HeH{sub 2}{sup +}(X{sup 2}A{sup Prime })+h{nu}. The rate constant k{sup RCT} is approximately 20 times larger than k{sup RA} at the considered temperatures, 0.1 {mu}K-50 K. Formation of rotational Feshbach resonances in the reactant channel plays an important role in both reactions. Transitions mediated by these resonances contribute more than 70% to the respective rates. An extension of the one-dimensional optical potential model is

  2. Ab initio molecular treatment for charge transfer by P{sup 3+} ions on hydrogen and helium

    SciTech Connect

    Moussa, A.; Zaidi, A.; Lahmar, S.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M.-C.

    2010-02-15

    A theoretical treatment of charge-transfer processes induced by collision of phosphorus P{sup 3+}(3s{sup 2}){sup 1}S ions on atomic hydrogen and helium has been carried out using ab initio potential-energy curves and couplings at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory. The cross sections calculated by means of semiclassical collision methods show the existence of a significant charge transfer in the 0.1-700-keV laboratory energy range. Radial and rotational coupling interactions were analyzed for both collision systems.

  3. Charge transfer and association of protons colliding with potassium from very low to intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C. H.; Qu, Y. Z.; Wang, J. G.; Li, Y.; Buenker, R. J.

    2010-01-15

    The nonradiative charge-transfer process for H{sup +}+K(4s) collision is investigated using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method for collision energies from 1 eV to 10 keV. The radiative-decay and radiative charge transfer cross sections are calculated using the optical potential approach and the fully quantal method, respectively, for the energy range of 10{sup -5}-10 eV. The radiative-association cross sections are obtained by subtracting the radiative charge-transfer part from total radiative-decay cross sections. The relevant molecular data are calculated from the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction approach. The nonradiative charge transfer is the dominant mechanism at energies above 2 eV, whereas the radiative charge transfer becomes primary in the low-energy region of E<1.5 eV. The present radiative-decay cross sections disagree with the calculations of Watanabe et al. [Phys. Rev. A 66, 044701 (2002)]. The total charge-transfer rate coefficient is obtained in the temperature range of 1-20000 K.

  4. Effect of collisions on dust particle charging via particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision

    SciTech Connect

    Rovagnati, B.; Davoudabadi, M.; Lapenta, G.; Mashayek, F.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of collisions on the charging and shielding of a single dust particle immersed in an infinite plasma is studied. A Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) algorithm is implemented in the particle-in-cell DEMOCRITUS code to account for the collisional phenomena which are typical of dusty plasmas in plasma processing, namely, electron-neutral elastic scattering, ion-neutral elastic scattering, and ion-neutral charge exchange. Both small and large dust particle radii, as compared to the characteristic Debye lengths, are considered. The trends of the steady-state dust particle potential at increasing collisionality are presented and discussed. The ions and electron energy distributions at various locations and at increasing collisionality in the case of large particle radius are shown and compared to their local Maxwellians. The ion-neutral charge-exchange collision is found to be by far the most important collisional phenomenon. For small particle radius, collisional effects are found to be important also at low level of collisionality, as more ions are collected by the dust particle due to the destruction of trapped ion orbits. For large particle radius, the major collisional effect is observed to take place in proximity of the presheath. Finally, the species energy distribution functions are found to approach their local Maxwellians at increasing collisionality.

  5. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions. Progress report, March 16, 1991--March 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from March 16, 1991 through March 15, 1992. This work involves the experimental investigation of fundamental atomic processes in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron correlation effects. Processes involving combinations of excitation, ionization, and charge transfer are investigated utilizing coincidence techniques in which projectiles charge-changing events are associated with x-ray emission, target recoil ions, or electron emission. New results have been obtained for studies involving (1) resonant recombination of atomic ions, (2) double ionization of helium, and (3) continuum electron emission. Experiments were conducted using accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, and the Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary. Brief summaries of work completed and work in progress are given in this report.

  6. Electron impact collision strengths for excitation of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, D.H. . Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics)

    1990-08-20

    The principle task given us by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform under Subcontract 6181405 was to develop a method and corresponding computer programs to make very rapid, yet accurate, fully relativistic and quasirelativistic calculations of cross sections or collision strengths for electron impact excitation of highly charged ions with any value for the nuclear charge number Z. Also while this major code development was being done we were asked to calculate cross sections of interest using our previous rapid, more approximate codes, which used hydrogenic basis functions and screening constants with both the electron-electron Coulomb interaction and relativistic interactions included by perturbation theory. We were also asked to determine the branching ratio for ionization to various final states in complex cases, where two or more states corresponding to the final configuration of the ion were possible.

  7. Production of heavy isotopes in transfer reactions by collisions of {sup 238}U+{sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming; Li Junqing

    2009-12-15

    The dynamics of transfer reactions in collisions of two very heavy nuclei {sup 238}U+{sup 238}U is studied within the dinuclear system (DNS) model. Collisions of two actinide nuclei form a superheavy composite system during a very short time, in which a large number of charge and mass transfers may take place. Such reactions have been investigated experimentally as an alternative way for the production of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The role of collision orientation in the production cross sections of heavy nuclides is analyzed systematically. Calculations show that the cross sections decrease drastically as the charged numbers of the heavy fragments increase. The transfer mechanism is favorable to synthesizing heavy neutron-rich isotopes, such as nuclei around the subclosure at N=162 from No (Z=102) to Db (Z=105)

  8. Pattern classification using charge transfer devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using charge transfer devices in the classification of multispectral imagery was investigated by evaluating particular devices to determine their suitability in matrix multiplication subsystem of a pattern classifier and by designing a protype of such a system. Particular attention was given to analog-analog correlator devices which consist of two tapped delay lines, chip multipliers, and a summed output. The design for the classifier and a printed circuit layout for the analog boards were completed and the boards were fabricated. A test j:g for the board was built and checkout was begun.

  9. Coronene-based charge-transfer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Isomura, Kazuhide; Kumagai, Yoshihide; Maesato, Mitsuhiko; Kishida, Hideo; Mizuno, Motohiro; Saito, Gunzi

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in the arena of charge-transfer complexes composed of the D 6h-symmetric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene, are highlighted with emphasis on the structural and physical properties of these complexes. Because of the dual electron-donating and -accepting abilities of coronene, this group involves structurally-defined four cation salts and three anion salts. The Jahn–Teller distortions and in-plane motion of coronene molecules in the solids, both of which are closely associated with the high symmetry of coronene molecules, and syntheses of clathrate-type complexes are also presented.

  10. Coronene-based charge-transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Isomura, Kazuhide; Kumagai, Yoshihide; Maesato, Mitsuhiko; Kishida, Hideo; Mizuno, Motohiro; Saito, Gunzi

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in the arena of charge-transfer complexes composed of the D 6h-symmetric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene, are highlighted with emphasis on the structural and physical properties of these complexes. Because of the dual electron-donating and -accepting abilities of coronene, this group involves structurally-defined four cation salts and three anion salts. The Jahn-Teller distortions and in-plane motion of coronene molecules in the solids, both of which are closely associated with the high symmetry of coronene molecules, and syntheses of clathrate-type complexes are also presented. PMID:27294380

  11. Nucleic Acid Charge Transfer: Black, White and Gray

    PubMed Central

    Venkatramani, Ravindra; Keinan, Shahar; Balaeff, Alexander; Beratan, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies of charge transport in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) indicate that structure and dynamics modulate the charge transfer rates, and that different members of a structural ensemble support different charge transport mechanisms. Here, we review the influences of nucleobase geometry, electronic structure, solvent environment, and thermal conformational fluctuations on the charge transfer mechanism. We describe an emerging framework for understanding the diversity of charge transport mechanisms seen in nucleic acids. PMID:21528017

  12. Theory of transfer reactions in peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rapisarda, A. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, Corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania, Italy ); Baldo, M. ); Broglia, R.A. The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark ); Winther, A. )

    1990-03-01

    The total absorption from the elastic channel due to transfer and inelastic processes in peripheral heavy-ion collisions at low bombarding energies is calculated in a microscopic coupled-channel approach. It is demonstrated for the first time that considering the depopulation of the entrance channel as an incoherent depopulation due to transfer processes is a good approximation. Using the corresponding absorptive potential within the framework of the Born approximation to calculate the transfer to individual channels, the results of full coupled-channels calculations are accurately reproduced.

  13. Systematics of Charged Particle Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions with the PHOBOS Detector at Rhic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions as a function of energy, centrality, rapidity and azimuthal angle has been measured with the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. These results contribute to our understanding of the initial state of heavy ion collisions and provide a means to compare basic features of particle production in nuclear collisions with more elementary systems.

  14. Multiple scattering and charged-particle - hydrogen-atom collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.; Thomas, B. K.

    1979-01-01

    Glauber-approximation scattering amplitudes for charged-particle - hydrogen-atom elastic and inelastic collisions are derived directly in terms of the known particle-electron and particle-proton Coulomb scattering amplitudes and the known hydrogen-atom form factors. It is shown that the particle-hydrogen amplitude contains no single-scattering term. The double-scattering term is obtained as a two-dimensional integral in momentum space. It is demonstrated how the result can be used as the starting point for an alternative and relatively simple derivation, in closed form, of the Glauber particle-hydrogen scattering amplitude for transitions from the ground state to an arbitrary (nlm) state.

  15. Charge exchange collisions of slow C6 + with atomic and molecular H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bidhan C.; Guevara, Nicolais L.; Sabin, John R.; Deumens, Erik; Öhrn, Yngve

    2016-04-01

    Charge exchange in collisions of C6+ ions with H and H2 is investigated theoretically at projectile energies 0.1 < E < 10 keV/amu, using electron nuclear dynamics (END) - a semi-classical approximation which not only includes electron translation factors for avoiding spurious couplings but also employs full dynamical trajectories to treat nuclear motions. Both the total and partial cross sections are reported for the collision of C6+ ions with atomic and molecular hydrogen. A comparison with other theoretical and experimental results shows, in general good agreement except at very low energy, considered here. For H2, the one- and two-electron charge exchange cross sections are calculated and compared with other theoretical and experimental results. Small but non-negligible isotope effects are found at the lowest energy studied in the charge transfer of C6+ with H. In low energy region, it is observed that H2 has larger isotope effects than H atom due to the polarizability effect which is larger than the mass effect.

  16. Charge transfer reaction laser with preionization means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A helium-nitrogen laser is described in which energy in the visible range is emitted as a result of charge transfer reaction between helium ions and nitrogen molecules. The helium and nitrogen are present in a gas mixture at several atmospheres pressure, with a nitrogen partial pressure on the order of a pair of main discharge electrodes, the gas mixture is preionized to prevent arcing when the discharge pulse is applied. The preionization is achieved by the application of a high voltage across a pair of secondary electrodes which are spaced apart in a direction perpendicular to the spacing direction of the main discharge electrodes and the longitudinal axis of the space in which the gas mixture is contained. Feedback, by means of a pair of appropriately spaced mirrors, is provided, to produce coherent energy pulses at a selected wavelength.

  17. Charge transfer-mediated singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Monahan, N; Zhu, X-Y

    2015-04-01

    Singlet fission, the splitting of a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons in molecular materials, is interesting not only as a model many-electron problem, but also as a process with potential applications in solar energy conversion. Here we discuss limitations of the conventional four-electron and molecular dimer model in describing singlet fission in crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene. We emphasize the need to consider electronic delocalization, which is responsible for the decisive role played by the Mott-Wannier exciton, also called the charge transfer (CT) exciton, in mediating singlet fission. At the strong electronic coupling limit, the initial excitation creates a quantum superposition of singlet, CT, and triplet-pair states, and we present experimental evidence for this interpretation. We also discuss the most recent attempts at translating this mechanistic understanding into design principles for CT state-mediated intramolecular singlet fission in oligomers and polymers. PMID:25648486

  18. Charge Transfer-Mediated Singlet Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, N.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2015-04-01

    Singlet fission, the splitting of a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons in molecular materials, is interesting not only as a model many-electron problem, but also as a process with potential applications in solar energy conversion. Here we discuss limitations of the conventional four-electron and molecular dimer model in describing singlet fission in crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene. We emphasize the need to consider electronic delocalization, which is responsible for the decisive role played by the Mott-Wannier exciton, also called the charge transfer (CT) exciton, in mediating singlet fission. At the strong electronic coupling limit, the initial excitation creates a quantum superposition of singlet, CT, and triplet-pair states, and we present experimental evidence for this interpretation. We also discuss the most recent attempts at translating this mechanistic understanding into design principles for CT state-mediated intramolecular singlet fission in oligomers and polymers.

  19. Energy and charge transfer for Na+ ions scattered from a Ag(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Marston, J. B.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2015-05-01

    We present energy- and charge-resolved measurements of low and hyperthermal energy Na+ ions scattered from a Ag(001) surface. With the primary ion beam oriented along the [110] crystal direction, distinct peaks in the energy distributions of the scattered beam flux that correspond to single or multiple collisions with target atoms are observed. A classical trajectory simulation reveals that these collisions can occur either at the surface or within the [110] channels, depending on incident beam energy. Within the simulation we probe the role of finite temperature and thermally displaced atoms on specific scattering events and show that contributions to the scattered distributions from single and double collisions dominate within the [110] channels. We also report velocity dependent measurements of the neutral/ion ratio of the scattered beam flux. A deviation between the data and simulated charge transfer results is observed for Na trajectories which penetrate the surface.

  20. Solid-to-Liquid Charge Transfer for Generating Droplets with Tunable Charge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yajuan; Huang, Xu; Soh, Siowling

    2016-08-16

    Charged liquid droplets are typically generated by a high-voltage power supply. Herein, a previously unreported method is used for charging liquid droplets: by transferring charge from an insulating solid surface charged by contact electrification to the droplets. Charging the solid surface by contact electrification involves bringing it into contact with another solid surface for generating static charge. Subsequently, water droplets that flow across the surface are found to be charged-thus, the charge is readily transferred from solid to liquid. The charge of the droplets can be tuned continuously from positive to negative by varying the way the solid surface is charged. The amount of charge generated is sufficient for manipulating, coalescing, and sorting the water droplets by solid surfaces charged by contact electrification. This method of generating charged droplets is general, simple, inexpensive, and does not need any additional equipment or power supply. PMID:27417888

  1. Charge-exchange collision dynamics and ion engine grid geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Bradford

    The development of a new three-dimensional model for determining the absolute energy distribution of ions at points corresponding to spacecraft surfaces to the side of an ion engine is presented. The ions resulting from elastic collisions, both charge-exchange (CEX) and direct, between energetic primary ions and thermal neutral xenon atoms are accounted for. Highly resolved energy distributions of CEX ions are found by integration over contributions from all points in space within the main beam formed by the primary ions.The sputtering rate due to impingement of these ions on a surface is calculated. The CEX ions that obtain significant energy (10 eV or more) in the collision are responsible for the majority of the sputtering, though this can depend on the specific material being sputtered. In the case of a molybdenum surface located 60 cm to the side of a 30 cm diameter grid, nearly 90% of the sputtering is due to the 5% of ions with the highest collision exit energies. Previous models that do not model collision energetics cannot predict this. The present results agree with other models and predict that the majority of the ion density is due to collisions where little to no energy is transferred.The sputtering model is combined with a grid-structure model in an optimization procedure where the sputtering rate at specified locations is minimized by adjustment of parameters defining the physical shape of the engine grids. Constraints are imposed that require that the deflection of the grid under a specified load does not exceed a maximum value, in order to ensure survivability of the grids during launch. To faciliate faster execution of the calculations, simplifications based on the predicted behavior of the CEX ions are implemented. For diametrically opposed sputtering locations, a rounded barrel-vault shape reduces the expected sputtering rate by up to 30% in comparison to an NSTAR-shaped grid.

  2. Charge-transfer excitons in DNA.

    PubMed

    Conwell, E M; McLaughlin, P M; Bloch, S M

    2008-02-21

    There have been a number of theoretical treatments of excitons in DNA, most neglecting both the intrachain and interchain wavefunction overlaps of the electron and hole, treating them as Frenkel excitons. Recently, the importance of the intrachain and interchain coupling has been highlighted. Experiments have shown that in (dA)n oligomers and in duplex (dA)n.(dT)n, to be abbreviated (A/T), where A is adenine and T is thymine, the exciton wavefunction is delocalized over several bases. In duplexes it is possible to have charge-transfer (CT) excitons. Theoretical calculations have suggested that CT excitons in DNA may have lower energy than single chain excitons. In all the calculations of excitons in DNA, the polarization of the surrounding water has been neglected. Calculations have shown, however, that polarization of the water by an excess electron or a hole in DNA lowers its energy by approximately 1/2 eV, causing it to become a polaron. It is therefore to be expected that polarization charge induced in the surrounding water has a significant effect on the properties of the exciton. In what follows, we present calculations of some properties CT excitons would have in an A/T duplex taking into account the wavefunction overlaps, the effect of the surrounding water, which results in the electron and hole becoming polarons, and the ions in the water. As expected, the CT exciton has lowest energy when the electron and hole polarons are directly opposite each other. By appropriate choice of the dielectric constant, we can obtain a CT exciton delocalized over the number of sites found in photoinduced absorption experiments. The absorption threshold that we then calculate for CT exciton creation in A/T is in reasonable agreement with the lowest singlet absorption deduced from available data. PMID:18232682

  3. Database for inelastic collisions of sodium atoms with electrons, protons, and multiply charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Igenbergs, K.; Schweinzer, J.; Bray, I.; Bridi, D.; Aumayr, F.

    2008-11-15

    The available experimental and theoretical cross section data for inelastic collision processes of ground (3s) and excited (3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, and 4f) state Na atoms with electrons, protons, and multiply charged ions have been collected and critically assessed. In addition to existing data, electron-impact cross sections, for both excitation and ionization, have been calculated using the convergent close-coupling approach. In the case of proton-impact cross section, the database was enlarged by new atomic-orbital close-coupling calculations. Both electron-impact and proton-impact processes include excitation from the ground state and between excited states (n = 3-5). For electron-impact, ionization from all states is also considered. In the case of proton-impact electron loss, cross sections (the sum of ionization and single-electron charge transfer) are given. Well-established analytical formulae used to fit cross sections, published by Wutte et al. and Schweinzer et al. for collisions with lithium atoms, were adapted to sodium. The 'recommended cross sections' for the processes considered have been critically evaluated and fitted using the adapted analytical formulae. For each inelastic process the fit parameters determined are tabulated. We also present the assessed data in graphical form. The criteria for comprehensively evaluating the accuracy of the experimental data, theoretical calculations, and procedures used in determining the recommended cross sections are discussed.

  4. Delayed thermal fluorescence in some charge-transfer crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozankiewicz, B.; Prochorow, J.

    1984-03-01

    Time-resolved spectra of long-lived emission of tetrachlorophthalic-hexamethylbenzene charge-transfer crystal were measured at different temperatures. The results give a clear evidence for the existence of E-type delayed fluorescence that results from thermal activation of trapped charge-transfer triplet excitone.

  5. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. < Nch>/< Npart/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  6. Probing Ion Transfer across Liquid-Liquid Interfaces by Monitoring Collisions of Single Femtoliter Oil Droplets on Ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Kummer, Sina; Kragl, Udo; Strauss, Steven H; Bard, Allen J

    2016-08-01

    We describe a method of observing collisions of single femtoliter (fL) oil (i.e., toluene) droplets that are dispersed in water on an ultramicroelectrode (UME) to probe the ion transfer across the oil/water interface. The oil-in-water emulsion was stabilized by an ionic liquid, in which the oil droplet trapped a highly hydrophobic redox probe, rubrene. The ionic liquid also functions as the supporting electrolyte in toluene. When the potential of the UME was biased such that rubrene oxidation would be possible when a droplet collided with the electrode, no current spikes were observed. This implies that the rubrene radical cation is not hydrophilic enough to transfer into the aqueous phase. We show that current spikes are observed when tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate or tetrahexylammonium hexafluorophosphate are introduced into the toluene phase and when tetrabutylammonium perchlorate is introduced into the water phase, implying that the ion transfer facilitates electron transfer in the droplet collisions. The current (i)-time (t) behavior was evaluated quantitatively, which indicated the ion transfer is fast and reversible. Furthermore, the size of these emulsion droplets can also be calculated from the electrochemical collision. We further investigated the potential dependence on the electrochemical collision response in the presence of tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in toluene to obtain the formal ion transfer potential of tetrabutylammonium across the toluene/water interface, which was determined to be 0.754 V in the inner potential scale. The results yield new physical insights into the charge balance mechanism in emulsion droplet collisions and indicate that the electrochemical collision technique can be used to probe formal ion transfer potentials between water and solvents with very low (ε < 5) dielectric constants. PMID:27387789

  7. Directed Flow of Charged Kaons in Au+Au Collisions from the BES Program at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Yadav; STAR Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We report the measurement of the directed flow (v1) for charged kaons in Au+Au collisions at =7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV as a function of rapidity and compare these results for pions, protons and antiprotons. These new kaon results may help to constrain the medium properties and collision dynamics including the in-medium kaon potential and baryon number transport in these collisions.

  8. Single charge exchange in collision of fast protons with hydrogen molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim; Sattarpour, Seyedeh Hedyeh

    2015-11-01

    Single charge transfer process in collision of energetic protons with molecular hydrogens is theoretically studied using a first-order two-effective-center Born approximation. The correct boundary conditions are incorporated in the formalism and the Hartree-Fock molecular wave function for molecular targets and the residual ions are used to calculate the transition amplitude. The interference patterns in the capture differential cross-sections (DCSs) for a given fixed orientation of the molecule, due to the scattering from the two-atomic centers in the molecular targets, are examined. The dependence of the DCSs upon the angle between the molecular axis and the direction of the incident velocity is theoretically investigated. Both average differential and integral cross-sections are calculated. The obtained results are compared with the available experimental data.

  9. Calculation of total cross sections for charge exchange in molecular collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, J.

    1979-01-01

    Areas of investigation summarized include nitrogen ion-nitrogen molecule collisions; molecular collisions with surfaces; molecular identification from analysis of cracking patterns of selected gases; computer modelling of a quadrupole mass spectrometer; study of space charge in a quadrupole; transmission of the 127 deg cylindrical electrostatic analyzer; and mass spectrometer data deconvolution.

  10. An instrument for charge measurement due to a single collision between two spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L.; Bao, N.; Jiang, Y.; Han, K.; Zhou, J.

    2016-01-01

    It universally exists in moving particular systems that particles can be electrified, in which the particles are chemically identical, just as toner particles, coal dust, and pharmaceutical powders. However, owing to the limit of experimental instruments, so far, there are yet no experiments to illustrate whether a particle can be electrified due to a single collision between two spherical particles, and there are also no experiments to measure the charge carried by a single particle due to a single collision between two particles. So we have developed an instrument for charge measurement due to a single collision between two spheres. The instrument consists of two-sphere collision device, collision charge measurement apparatus, and particles' trajectory tracking system. By using this instrument, we can investigate the collision contact electrification due to a single collision between two spheres and simultaneously record the moving trajectories of spheres after the collision to calculate the rebound angles to identify the contribution of the triboelectrification due to the rubbing between the contact surfaces and the collision contact electrification due to the normal pressure between the contact surfaces.

  11. An instrument for charge measurement due to a single collision between two spherical particles.

    PubMed

    Xie, L; Bao, N; Jiang, Y; Han, K; Zhou, J

    2016-01-01

    It universally exists in moving particular systems that particles can be electrified, in which the particles are chemically identical, just as toner particles, coal dust, and pharmaceutical powders. However, owing to the limit of experimental instruments, so far, there are yet no experiments to illustrate whether a particle can be electrified due to a single collision between two spherical particles, and there are also no experiments to measure the charge carried by a single particle due to a single collision between two particles. So we have developed an instrument for charge measurement due to a single collision between two spheres. The instrument consists of two-sphere collision device, collision charge measurement apparatus, and particles' trajectory tracking system. By using this instrument, we can investigate the collision contact electrification due to a single collision between two spheres and simultaneously record the moving trajectories of spheres after the collision to calculate the rebound angles to identify the contribution of the triboelectrification due to the rubbing between the contact surfaces and the collision contact electrification due to the normal pressure between the contact surfaces. PMID:26827339

  12. Real-time collision avoidance manipulator transfer movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, N.; Dwyer, T. A. W., III

    1987-01-01

    Collision free robot manipulator maneuvers for transferring a payload from one location to another in the presence of obstacles are discussed. Such maneuvers are executed by means of two algorithms running in parallel. The first algorithm performs an on-line, one step ahead acceleration optimization, with an adaptive N-step ahead precaution measure to prevent overshooting the specified forbidden joint coordinates. The second algorithm, an on-line planning algorithm, at the same time, selects the current target state and the current forbidden joint coordinates for the first algorithm. Since the task is a point to point transfer movement, the problem is dealt in robot joint space directly and the kinematic problem can be bypassed completely. A simulation example using a 2 degree-of-freedom planner robot is given.

  13. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: charge transfer reaction of N2(+)(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2; N+ = 0-9) + Ar.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Xu, Hong; Ng, C Y

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N(2)(+)(v(+), N(+)) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+), v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N(2)(+) PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔE(lab) = ± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E(cm)'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) for the N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+); v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E(cm) range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E(cm)-dependencies of σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E(cm) = 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar(+) from N(2)(+)(X; v(+) = 0, N(+)) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v(+) = 0), confirming the narrow ΔE(cm) spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions

  14. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields

  15. Charge Transfer and Catalysis at the Metal Support Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Lawrence Robert

    2012-07-31

    Kinetic, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of model Pt–support systems are used to demonstrate the relationship between charge transfer and catalytic activity and selectivity. The results show that charge flow controls the activity and selectivity of supported metal catalysts. This dissertation builds on extensive existing knowledge of metal–support interactions in heterogeneous catalysis. The results show the prominent role of charge transfer at catalytic interfaces to determine catalytic activity and selectivity. Further, this research demonstrates the possibility of selectively driving catalytic chemistry by controlling charge flow and presents solid-state devices and doped supports as novel methods for obtaining electronic control over catalytic reaction kinetics.

  16. Charge transfer and emergent phenomena of oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanghui

    Charge transfer is a common phenomenon at oxide interfaces. We use first-principles calculations to show that via heterostructuring of transition metal oxides, the electronegativity difference between two dissimilar transition metal ions can lead to high level of charge transfer and induce substantial redistribution of electrons and ions. Notable examples include i) enhancing correlation effects and inducing a metal-insulator transition; ii) tailoring magnetic structures and inducing interfacial ferromagnetism; iii) engineering orbital splitting and inducing a non-cuprate single-orbital Fermi surface. Utilizing charge transfer to induce emergent electronic/magnetic/orbital properties at oxide interfaces is a robust approach. Combining charge transfer with quantum confinement and expitaxial strain provides an appealing prospect of engineering electronic structure of artificial oxide heterostructures. This research was supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1120296.

  17. Femtochemistry of Intramolecular Charge and Proton Transfer Reactions in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Douhal, Abderrazzak; Sanz, Mikel; Carranza, Maria Angeles; Organero, Juan Angel; Tormo, Laura

    2005-03-17

    We report on the first observation of ultrafast intramolecular charge- and proton-transfer reactions in 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol (DAMF) in solution. Upon femtosecond excitation of a non-planar structure of DMAF in apolar medium, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) does not occur, and a slow (2 ps) proton motion takes place. However, in polar solvents, the ICT is very fast (100-200 fs) and the produced structure is stabilized that proton motion takes place in few or tens of ps.

  18. Screen charge transfer by grounded tip on ferroelectric surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Buhlmann, S.; Hong, S.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, S.-H.; No, K.; Materials Science Division; Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology; Samsung Advanced Inst. of Technology; Inostek Inc.

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated polarization reversal and charge transfer effects by a grounded tip on 50 nm thick ferroelectric thin films using piezoelectric force microscopy and Kelvin force microscopy. We observed the polarization reversal in the center of written domains, and also identified another mechanism, which is the transfer of screen charges toward the grounded tip. In order to overcome these phenomena, we successfully applied a modified read/write scheme featuring a bias voltage.

  19. Charge-transfer gap and superexchange interaction in insulating cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Y.; Tohyama, T.; Maekawa, S. )

    1991-03-04

    A cluster-model analysis is made on the material dependence of the optical charge-transfer gap and antiferromagnetic superexchange interaction of a variety of insulating cuprates. It is shown that the electronic structure of cuprates typically of the charge-transfer type is characterized by the unique energy-level separation that reflects the three dimensionality of the crystal via the long-range Madelung potential; such characteristics are absent in the Mott-Hubbard regime.

  20. Charge transfer induced activity of graphene for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Anli; Xia, Weijun; Zhang, Lipeng; Dou, Shuo; Xia, Zhenhai; Wang, Shuangyin

    2016-05-01

    Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), with its strong electron-accepting ability, was used to dope graphene as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The charge transfer process was observed from graphene to TCNE by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman characterizations. Our density functional theory calculations found that the charge transfer behavior led to an enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity for the ORR.

  1. Single-collision studies of energy transfer and chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, J.J.

    1993-12-01

    The research focus in this group is state-to-state dynamics of reaction and energy transfer in collisions of free radicals such as H, OH, and CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2}, alkanes, alcohols and other hydrogen-containing molecules. The motivation for the work is the desire to provide a detailed understanding of the chemical dynamics of prototype reactions that are important in the production and utilization of energy sources, most importantly in combustion. The work is primarily experimental, but with an important and growing theoretical/computational component. The focus of this research program is now on reactions in which at least one of the reactants and one of the products is polyatomic. The objective is to determine how the high dimensionality of the reactants and products differentiates such reactions from atom + diatom reactions of the same kinematics and energetics. The experiments use highly time-resolved laser spectroscopic methods to prepare reactant states and analyze the states of the products on a single-collision time scale. The primary spectroscopic tool for product state analysis is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. CARS is used because of its generality and because the extraction of quantum state populations from CARS spectra is straightforward. The combination of the generality and easy analysis of CARS makes possible absolute cross section measurements (both state-to-state and total), a particularly valuable capability for characterizing reactive and inelastic collisions. Reactant free radicals are produced by laser photolysis of appropriate precursors. For reactant vibrational excitation stimulated Raman techniques are being developed and implemented.

  2. Mass and charge transfer in the heavy ion reactions 208Ni and 208Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapotta, K.; Bass, R.; Hartmann, V.; Noll, H.; Renfordt, R. E.; Stelzer, K.

    1985-04-01

    Target-like reaction products corresponding to the transfer of one or several nucleons have been measured as a function of the total kinetic energy loss in the reactions 208Ni (1215 MeV) and 208Ni (1107 MeV) with a focusing time-of-flight spectrometer which provided a unique mass and charge separation and good energy resolution. The analysis of the experimental data covered the range from elastic scattering to deep-inelastic collisions. In the quasielastic region, neutron transfer dominates. The transfer probabilities as a function of the distance of closest approach can be described by a semiclassical theory of tunneling. Quasielastic transfer from the Ni targets to the 208Pb projectile is strongly inhibited by the reaction Q values. For the intermediate and deep-inelastic collisions, the mean values and variances of the mass and charge distributions as a function of the dissipated energy, as well as the correlations between neutron and proton transport, are discussed in a statistical diffusion theory. The important influence of the static potential energy surface on nucleon transport in the deep-inelastic region is demonstrated. Deviations from the simple diffusion model, observed at small to medium energy losses, are discussed.

  3. Charge exchange and ionization in hydrogen atom-fully stripped ion collisions in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wang, J. G.; He, B.; Qiu, Y. B.; Janev, R. K.

    2007-05-15

    The processes of charge exchange and ionization in collisions of ground state hydrogen atom with fully stripped ions in a weakly coupled plasma are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method in the collision energy range 10-900 keV/amu. The interparticle interactions are described by the Debye-Hueckel model with inclusion of dynamical effects associated with the projectile velocity. The microcanonical distribution of initial state electronic coordinates and momenta has been determined by inclusion of plasma screening effects. The cross section dependencies on plasma parameters and ion charge and velocity are investigated. It is shown that plasma effects on charge exchange and ionization cross sections are significant and particularly pronounced at low collision velocities. The results of systematic cross section calculations for different values of Debye screening length (in the range 1-50a{sub 0}) and ion charges (in the range 1-14) are presented.

  4. Charged Particle Multiplicity and Open Heavy Flavor Physics in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yujiao

    In this thesis, two independent measurements are presented: the measurements of centrality dependence and pseudo-rapidity dependence of charged particle multiplicities, and the measurements of centrality dependence of open heavy flavor suppression. These measurements are carried out with the Pb+Pb collisions data at the LHC energy sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector. For the charged particle measurements, charged particles are reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklet" and full tracking) from the pixel detector only. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dNch /deta and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudo-rapidity interval |eta| <0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle yield per colliding nucleon pair with the number of participants is consistent with the lower sNN results measured at RHIC. The shape of the dNch/deta distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement. For the open heavy flavor suppression measurements, muons identified by the muon spectrometer are classified as heavy flavor decays and background contributions by using a fitting procedure with templates from Monte Carlo samples. Results are presented for the per-event muon yield as a function of muon transverse momentum, p T, over the range of 4 < pT < 14 GeV. Over that momentum range single muon production results largely from heavy quark decays. The centrality dependence of the muon yields is characterized by the "central to peripheral" ratio, RCP. Using this measure, muon production from heavy quark decays is found to be suppressed by a centrality-dependent factor that increases smoothly from peripheral to central collisions. Muon production is suppressed by approximately a factor of two in central collisions relative to

  5. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  6. Resonance charge exchange between excited states in slow proton-hydrogen collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.; Kato, Daiji

    2010-09-15

    The theory of resonance charge exchange in slow collisions of a proton with a hydrogen atom in the excited state is developed. It extends the Firsov-Demkov theory of resonance charge exchange to the case of degenerate initial and final states. The theory is illustrated by semiclassical and quantum calculations of charge exchange cross sections between states with n=2 in parabolic and spherical coordinates. The results are compared with existing close-coupling calculations.

  7. Charge Transfer Dynamics from Photoexcited Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiming; Yang, Ye; Wu, Kaifeng; Lian, Tianquan

    2016-05-01

    Understanding photoinduced charge transfer from nanomaterials is essential to the many applications of these materials. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding charge transfer from quantum dots (QDs), an ideal model system for investigating fundamental charge transfer properties of low-dimensional quantum-confined nanomaterials. We first discuss charge transfer from QDs to weakly coupled acceptors within the framework of Marcus nonadiabatic electron transfer (ET) theory, focusing on the dependence of ET rates on reorganization energy, electronic coupling, and driving force. Because of the strong electron-hole interaction, we show that ET from QDs should be described by the Auger-assisted ET model, which is significantly different from ET between molecules or from bulk semiconductor electrodes. For strongly quantum-confined QDs on semiconductor surfaces, the coupling can fall within the strong coupling limit, in which case the donor-acceptor interaction and ET properties can be described by the Newns-Anderson model of chemisorption. We also briefly discuss recent progress in controlling charge transfer properties in quantum-confined nanoheterostructures through wavefunction engineering and multiple exciton dissociation. Finally, we identify a few key areas for further research.

  8. Charge Transfer Dynamics from Photoexcited Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiming; Yang, Ye; Wu, Kaifeng; Lian, Tianquan

    2016-05-27

    Understanding photoinduced charge transfer from nanomaterials is essential to the many applications of these materials. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding charge transfer from quantum dots (QDs), an ideal model system for investigating fundamental charge transfer properties of low-dimensional quantum-confined nanomaterials. We first discuss charge transfer from QDs to weakly coupled acceptors within the framework of Marcus nonadiabatic electron transfer (ET) theory, focusing on the dependence of ET rates on reorganization energy, electronic coupling, and driving force. Because of the strong electron-hole interaction, we show that ET from QDs should be described by the Auger-assisted ET model, which is significantly different from ET between molecules or from bulk semiconductor electrodes. For strongly quantum-confined QDs on semiconductor surfaces, the coupling can fall within the strong coupling limit, in which case the donor-acceptor interaction and ET properties can be described by the Newns-Anderson model of chemisorption. We also briefly discuss recent progress in controlling charge transfer properties in quantum-confined nanoheterostructures through wavefunction engineering and multiple exciton dissociation. Finally, we identify a few key areas for further research. PMID:27215815

  9. State-selective charge transfer in ion-ion interactions at intermediate and high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, R.; Purkait, M.; Mandal, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    The total and state-selective cross sections for charge transfer in H++He+, He2++Li2+, He2++He+ and Li3++Li2+ collisions were calculated using the boundary corrected continuum intermediate state approximation with an energy range of 30-2000 keV amu-1. In this model, distortion in the final channel related to the Coulomb continuum states of the projectile ion and the electron in the field of the residual target is included. The sub-shell distribution of total charge transfer cross section has been reported in tabular form. Comparison of the results is made with those of other recent theoretical investigations and experimental findings. The present results are found to be in very good agreement with the available experimental findings.

  10. Cross sections for charge transfer between mercury ions and other metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vroom, D. A.; Rutherford, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for charge transfer between several ions and metals of interest to the NASA electro propulsion program have been measured. Specifically, the ions considered were Hg(+), Xe(+) and Cs(+) and the metals Mo, Fe, Al, Ti, Ta, and C. Measurements were made in the energy regime from 1 to 5,000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 10 to the minus 15 power sq cm for most processes over the total energy range. Exceptions are Hg(+) in collision with Ti and Ta. The results obtained for each reaction are given in both graphical and numerical form in the text. For quick reference, the data at several ion velocities are condensed into one table given in the summary.

  11. Low-energy charge transfer between C5+ and atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, Ilija N; Havener, Charles C; Seely, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Charge transfer with carbon ions has been identified as important in both magnetic fusion plasma devices and, more recently, in solar wind interactions with comets, planets, or neutrals in the heliosphere. A merged-beams technique is used to measure the absolute total charge-transfer cross section for C{sup 5+} and atomic H over four orders of magnitude in collision energy, from 12,000 to 0.64 eV/u. The present measurements are compared with previous measurements using an atomic hydrogen target and benchmark available classical trajectory Monte Carlo and molecular-orbital close-coupling calculations. An observed increasing cross section below 10 eV/u is attributed to trajectory effects due to the ion-induced dipole attraction between reactants.

  12. Low Energy Charge Transfer between C5+ and Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, Ilija N; Seely, D. G.; Havener, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    Charge transfer (CT) with carbon ions has been identified for a long time as important in both magnetic fusion plasma devices and more recently in solar wind interactions with comets, planets, or neutrals in the heliosphere. A merged-beams technique is used to measure the absolute total charge transfer cross section for C5+ and atomic H over four orders of magnitude in collision energy, from 12,000 eV/u to 0.64 eV/u. The present measurements are compared with previous measurements using an atomic hydrogen target and benchmark available classical trajectory Monte-Carlo and molecular-orbital close-coupling calculations. An increasing cross section below 10 eV/u is attributed to trajectory effects due to the ion-induced dipole attraction between reactants.

  13. Coherent ultrafast charge transfer in an organic photovoltaic blend.

    PubMed

    Falke, Sarah Maria; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Amato, Michele; Sommer, Ephraim; De Sio, Antonietta; Rubio, Angel; Cerullo, Giulio; Molinari, Elisa; Lienau, Christoph

    2014-05-30

    Blends of conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives are prototype systems for organic photovoltaic devices. The primary charge-generation mechanism involves a light-induced ultrafast electron transfer from the light-absorbing and electron-donating polymer to the fullerene electron acceptor. Here, we elucidate the initial quantum dynamics of this process. Experimentally, we observed coherent vibrational motion of the fullerene moiety after impulsive optical excitation of the polymer donor. Comparison with first-principle theoretical simulations evidences coherent electron transfer between donor and acceptor and oscillations of the transferred charge with a 25-femtosecond period matching that of the observed vibrational modes. Our results show that coherent vibronic coupling between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is of key importance in triggering charge delocalization and transfer in a noncovalently bound reference system. PMID:24876491

  14. Theoretical investigation of electron transfer and detachment processes in low energy H- + Li and Li- + H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Lin, X. H.; Yan, B.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    The charge exchange and collisional detachment processes in H- + Li and Li- + H collisions have been studied by using the quantal molecular orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) method in the energy ranges of about 0.12-1000 eV u-1 and 0.1 meV-1000 eV, respectively, and the inelastic collision cross sections and rate coefficients have been computed and presented. It is found that the electron transfer process in the H- + Li and Li- + H collisions is due to the Demkov coupling between the 12Σ+ and 22Σ+ states at internuclear distances of about 15a0. The collisional electron detachment in the considered collision system is due to the excitation of the remaining six states, which are all unstable against autodetachment. These states are populated through a series of Landau-Zener couplings of the 22Σ+ state with upper 2Σ+ states and by the rotational 2Σ+-2Π couplings at small internuclear distances. The cross sections for electron transfer in H- + Li and Li- + H collisions in the energy range of 10-1000 eV u-1 attain values in the range of 10-16-10-15 cm2 (reaching their maximum values of about 5 × 10-15 cm2 at 500-600 eV u-1), while the values of the corresponding electron detachment cross sections in this energy range attain generally smaller values.

  15. Electronic excitation and charge transfer processes in collisions of H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} ions with carbon monoxide at typical solar-wind velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Werbowy, S.; Pranszke, B.

    2014-01-10

    Luminescence in the 200-580 nm spectral region was observed in the collisions of H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} with CO in the 50-1000 eV projectile energy range. Using computer simulations, we have identified emission of the following products in the observed spectra: the CO{sup +}(A-X) comet-tail system, CO{sup +}(B-X) first negative system, CO{sup +}(B-A) Baldet-Johnson system, and CO(b-a) third positive system. Also, an emission from atomic hydrogen (H{sub β} line at 486nm) has been observed. From the analysis of the experimental spectra, we have determined the absolute emission cross-sections for the formation of the observed products. Computer simulations gave the excited-product population distributions over vibrational and rotational energy levels. The vibrational level distribution from the CO{sup +}(A-X) comet-tail system is compared with the data for CO excited by 100 eV electrons and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) photons. We have used these data to analyze the excitation conditions in the comet Humason (1961e). From the vibrational population distributions observed in the comet, we found that this distribution can be reproduced if electrons produce 25%, protons 70%, and XUV photons produce 5% of the emitting molecules. We find that the ratio of the CO{sup +}(B-X) emission to the sum of two main emissions (CO{sup +}(A-X)+CO{sup +}(B-X)) is velocity dependent and does not depend on the projectile ion type. For small velocities (below 100 km s{sup –1}) the ratio is about 5%, while for higher velocities it increases to 30%. For these data, we have found an empirical formula that satisfactorily describes the experimental data: R = R {sub max}(1 – v {sub th}/v), (where R {sub max} = 33%, v {sub th} = 87 km s{sup –1}). This could be used to infer the velocity of ions producing the observed emission of CO{sup +} products.

  16. Radiative charge-transfer lifetime of the excited state of (NaCa){sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Oleg P.; Cote, R.; Michels, H.; Smith, W.W.

    2003-04-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom-ion trap under high-vacuum conditions. We study the collisional cooling of laser precooled Ca{sup +} ions by ultracold Na atoms. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited singlet A {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state of the (NaCa){sup +} molecular system. We calculate the rate coefficient for radiative charge transfer using a semiclassical approach. The dipole radial matrix elements between the ground and the excited states, and the potential curves were calculated using complete active space self-consistent field and Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G (3df). The semiclassical charge-transfer rate coefficient was averaged over a thermal Maxwellian distribution. In addition, we also present elastic collision cross sections and the spin-exchange cross section. The rate coefficient for charge transfer was found to be 2.3x10{sup -16} cm{sup 3}/sec, while those for the elastic and spin-exchange cross sections were found to be several orders of magnitude higher (1.1x10{sup -8} cm{sup 3}/sec and 2.3x10{sup -9} cm{sup 3}/sec, respectively). This confirms our assumption that the milli-Kelvin regime of collisional cooling of calcium ions by sodium atoms is favorable with the respect to low loss of calcium ions due to the charge transfer.

  17. Imaging charge and energy transfer in molecules using free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Artem

    2014-05-01

    Charge and energy transfer reactions drive numerous important processes in physics, chemistry and biology, with applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to artificial photosynthesis and molecular electronics. Experimentally, the central goal in studies of transfer phenomena is to trace the spatial localization of charge at a given time. Because of their element and site sensitivity, ultrafast X-rays provide a promising tool to address this goal. In this talk I will discuss several experiments where free-electron lasers were employed to study charge and energy transfer dynamics in fragmenting molecules. In a first example, we used intense, 70 femtosecond 1.5 keV pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) to study distance dependence of electron transfer in laser-dissociated methyl iodide molecules. Inducing well-localized positive charge on the heavy iodine atom, we observe signature of electron transition from the separated methyl group up to the distances of 35 atomic units. In a complementary experiment, we studied charge exchange between two partners in a dissociating molecular iodine employing a pump-probe arrangement with two identical 90 eV pulses from the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). In both cases, the effective spatial range of the electron transfer can be reasonably described by a classical over-the-barrier model developed for ion-atom collisions. Finally, I will discuss a time-resolved measurement on non-local relaxation mechanism based on a long-range energy transfer, the so-called interatomic Coulombic decay. This work was supported by Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, US Department of Energy and by the Kansas NSF ``First Award'' program.

  18. Rotational And Rovibrational Energy Transfer In Electron Collisions With Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuemmel, Helmar T.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Air flows around a hypervelocity reentry vehicle undergo dissociation, rovibrational excitation and ionization. More specifically the air, initially 80% N2 and 20% O2, in the shock layer consists of species such as N, O, N2, O2, NO, N+, O+, N+, O+, NO+ and 2 free electrons. It was pointed out in multi temperature models'' that the temperature of the rotational energy modes and the gas-kinetic translational temperature are quickly equilibrated by a few collisions and rise rapidly to high temperatures as 50000K before falling off to equilibrium value of 10000K. Contrary, the electronic and vibrational temperatures state energy distributions remain low (less than 15000K) because of the slow equilibration. Electron vibrational energy transfer is thought to play a crucial role in such a ionizing flow regime since chemical reaction rates and dissociation depend strongly on the vibrational temperatures. Modeling of these flowfields in principle require the rovibrational excitation and de-excitation cross section data for average electron energies from threshold up to several eV (leV=11605.4 K). In this lecture we focus on theoretical description of rotational effects i.e. energy transfer of electrons to molecules such that the molecular rotational (vojo goes to voj) or vibrational and rotational (v(sub 0)j(sub 0) goes to vj) states are changed. Excitation and de-excitation of electronic states was discussed in a previous talk at this conference.

  19. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in collisions between protons and the ions N6+ and O7+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Coupled-state cross sections are being determined for electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in collisions between keV-energy protons and the hydrogenic ions N6+ and O7+, extending early and more recent work on the less highly charged target ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, and C5+. As in the more recent work, a basis of 60 Sturmians on each center is being used, and in a second calculation, a basis of 280 Sturmians on the target nucleus and a single 1 s function on the proton is being used. The extent to which high-energy scaling rules with target nuclear charge Z are valid is being examined further for transfer to the ground state, total transfer, and ionization, as well as for excitation and individual-state processes at intermediate energies near where the cross sections peak.

  20. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Christof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p_T from 0.25 to 5GeV/c is studied as a function of collision centrality over a range from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p_T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  1. Determination of characteristic constants for some basic processes in plasma—diffusion, Penning ionization, asymmetric charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Ekov, R. P.; Sabotinov, N. V.

    2008-05-01

    The diffusion coefficients of ten chemical element atoms in the binary system with helium and neon are calculated on the basis of 12-6 Lennard-Jones and rigid sphere inter-atomic interaction approximations. Cross-sections and rate constants for thermal energy charge transfer and Penning collisions are calculated for all Tl+ and I+ excited states possibly populated via these reactions. For the case of the charge transfer process the theoretical results are compared with the experimentally obtained ones. Since the characteristic constants considered depend on the gas temperature, the gas temperature distribution is also calculated by solving the heat conduction equation for the gas discharges studied.

  2. Nanohydration of uracil: emergence of three-dimensional structures and proton-induced charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine; Calvo, Florent

    2015-04-21

    Stepwise hydration of uracil has been theoretically revisited using different methods ranging from classical force fields to quantum chemical approaches. Hydration initially begins within the uracil plane but proceeds at four molecules into three-dimensional configurations or even water clusters next to the nucleobase. The relative stability between the various structures is significantly affected by zero-point energy and finite temperature (entropy) effects and also gives rise to markedly different responses to an excitation by an impinging high-energy proton. In particular, charge transfer to the molecular complex is dramatically altered in collisions toward the coating cluster but barely modified for peripheral hydration patterns. PMID:25793649

  3. Collision phenomena involving highly-charged ions in astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.

    2001-01-01

    A description of the role of highly charged ions in various astronomical objects; includes the use of critical quantities such as cross sections for excitation, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR); and lifetimes, branching ratios, and A-values.

  4. What Controls the Rate of Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Charge Separation Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaic Blends.

    PubMed

    Jakowetz, Andreas C; Böhm, Marcus L; Zhang, Jiangbin; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Bakulin, Artem A; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2016-09-14

    In solar energy harvesting devices based on molecular semiconductors, such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and artificial photosynthetic systems, Frenkel excitons must be dissociated via charge transfer at heterojunctions to yield free charges. What controls the rate and efficiency of charge transfer and charge separation is an important question, as it determines the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these systems. In bulk heterojunctions between polymer donor and fullerene acceptors, which provide a model system to understand the fundamental dynamics of electron transfer in molecular systems, it has been established that the first step of photoinduced electron transfer can be fast, of order 100 fs. But here we report the first study which correlates differences in the electron transfer rate with electronic structure and morphology, achieved with sub-20 fs time resolution pump-probe spectroscopy. We vary both the fullerene substitution and donor/fullerene ratio which allow us to control both aggregate size and the energetic driving force for charge transfer. We observe a range of electron transfer times from polymer to fullerene, from 240 fs to as short as 37 fs. Using ultrafast electro-optical pump-push-photocurrent spectroscopy, we find the yield of free versus bound charges to be weakly dependent on the energetic driving force, but to be very strongly dependent on fullerene aggregate size and packing. Our results point toward the importance of state accessibility and charge delocalization and suggest that energetic offsets between donor and acceptor levels are not an important criterion for efficient charge generation. This provides design rules for next-generation materials to minimize losses related to driving energy and boost PCE. PMID:27538341

  5. Ga Nanoparticle/Graphene Platforms: Plasmonic and Charge Transfer Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Congwen; Kim, Tong-Ho; Yang, Yang; Losurdo, Maria; Brown, April S.

    2013-03-01

    Metal nanoparticle (NP) - graphene multifunctional platforms are of great interest for numerous applications, such as sensing and catalysis, and for fundamental studies on charge transfer and light-matter interactions. To understand platform-photon interactions, it is important to articulate the coupling of photon-based excitations, such as the interaction between plasmons in each of the material components, as well as their charge-based interactions dependent upon the energy alignment at the metal/graphene interface. Herein, we use liquid metal Ga nanoparticles, which can be deposited at 300K on graphene, to explore the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy modulation induced by the NPs,. The localized charge transfer between Ga NPs and graphene are investigated, and enhancement of the graphene Raman modes is correlated with metal coverage the transfer of electrons from Ga to graphene creating local regions of enhanced electron concentration which modify the electron-phonon interaction in graphene.

  6. Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver: DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    N, Rekha T.; Rajkumar, Beulah J. M.

    2015-06-24

    Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver is investigated using DFT methods. Optimized geometry of pentacene after adsorption on silver indicates distortion in hexagonal structure of the ring close to the silver cluster and deviations in co-planarity of carbon atoms due to the variations in bond angles and dihedral angles. Theoretically simulated absorption spectrum has a symmetric surface plasmon resonance peak around 486nm corresponding to the transfer of charge from HOMO-2 to LUMO. Theoretical SERS confirms the process of adsorption, tilted orientation of pentacene on silver surface and the charge transfers reported. Localization of electron density arising from redistribution of electrostatic potential together with a reduced bandgap of pentacene after adsorption on silver suggests its utility in the design of electro active organic semiconducting devices.

  7. Dynamic salt effect on intramolecular charge-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianjun; Ma Rong; Lu Yan; Stell, George

    2005-12-08

    The dynamic salt effect in charge-transfer reactions is investigated theoretically in this paper. Free-energy surfaces are derived based on a nonequilibrium free-energy functional. Reaction coordinates are clearly defined. The solution of the reaction-diffusion equation leads to a rate constant depending on the time correlation function of the reaction coordinates. The time correlation function of the ion-atmosphere coordinate is derived from the solution of the Debye-Falkenhagen equation. It is shown that the dynamic salt effect plays an important role in controlling the rate of charge-transfer reactions in the narrow-window limit but is balanced by the energetics and the dynamics of the polar-solvent coordinate. The simplest version of the theory is compared with an experiment, and the agreement is fairly good. The theory can also be extended to charge-transfer in the class of electrolytes that has come to be called 'ionic fluids'.

  8. Direct experimental characterization of photoemission charge-transfer satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, Conan; Rumaiz, Abdul; Woicik, Joseph

    Energy-loss satellites in photoelectron spectroscopy often arise due to different charge-transfer states in condensed matter systems. The specific characterization of these satellites, however, has been controversial, and different theoretical approaches may lead to contradictory characterizations. Here we demonstrate the ability of high energy resonant photoelectron spectroscopy to provide direct experimental evidence of the nature of charge transfer satellites. Analysis of the Ti 1 s core line in SrTiO3 reveals two satellites, located approximately 5 eV and 13 eV lower kinetic energy than the main line. High energy resonant photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that these two peaks originate from ligand 2 p t2 g to metal 3 d t2 g and ligand 2 p eg to metal 3 d eg charge-transfer excitations.

  9. Charge transfer in helium-rich supernova plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.

    1994-01-01

    Charge transfer rate coefficients are estimated using Landau-Zener and modified Demkov approximations. The coefficients, augmented by those available from the literature, are used in statistical equilibrium equations describing the state of helium-rich supernova plasma. Such a plasma may describe both Type Ib and Type Ic supernova ejecta. The hypothesis that extensive mixing of metals with helium in Type Ic supernovae may provide a catalyst for rapid charge transfer that weakens the helium line emission by altering the excitation balance is tested. It is shown that charge transfer as a mechanism for suppressing helium line emission is ineffective unless the metal abundance is comparable to or larger than the helium abundance. This result supports an earlier conclusion that Type Ic supernovae must be helium poor relative to Type Ib events.

  10. Multiple-charge transfer and trapping in DNA dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Sabine; Bulla, Ralf; Anders, Frithjof B.; Zwicknagl, Gertrud

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the charge transfer characteristics of one and two excess charges in a DNA base-pair dimer using a model Hamiltonian approach. The electron part comprises diagonal and off-diagonal Coulomb matrix elements such a correlated hopping and the bond-bond interaction, which were recently calculated by Starikov [E. B. Starikov, Philos. Mag. Lett. 83, 699 (2003)10.1080/0950083031000151374] for different DNA dimers. The electronic degrees of freedom are coupled to an ohmic or a superohmic bath serving as dissipative environment. We employ the numerical renormalization group method in the nuclear tunneling regime and compare the results to Marcus theory for the thermal activation regime. For realistic parameters, the rate that at least one charge is transferred from the donor to the acceptor in the subspace of two excess electrons significantly exceeds the rate in the single charge sector. Moreover, the dynamics is strongly influenced by the Coulomb matrix elements. We find sequential and pair transfer as well as a regime where both charges remain self-trapped. The transfer rate reaches its maximum when the difference of the on-site and intersite Coulomb matrix element is equal to the reorganization energy which is the case in a guanine/cytosine (GC)-dimer. Charge transfer is completely suppressed for two excess electrons in adenine/thymine (AT)-dimer in an ohmic bath and replaced by damped coherent electron-pair oscillations in a superohmic bath. A finite bond-bond interaction W alters the transfer rate: it increases as function of W when the effective Coulomb repulsion exceeds the reorganization energy (inverted regime) and decreases for smaller Coulomb repulsion.

  11. Localized charged-neutral fluctuations in 158A GeV Pb+Pb collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnihotri, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A. L. S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T. C.; Baba, P. V. K. S.

    2001-07-01

    Localized fluctuations in the multiplicity of charged particles and photons produced in central 158A GeV/c Pb+Pb collisions are studied. The charged versus neutral correlations in common {eta}-{phi} phase space regions of varying azimuthal size are analyzed by two different methods. The analysis provides a model-independent demonstration of nonstatistical fluctuations in both charged particle and photon multiplicities in limited azimuthal regions. However, no correlated charge-neutral fluctuations are observed, contrary to expectations for the production of a disoriented chiral condensate. The result is not explained by the widely used VENUS model.

  12. Dielectric spectroscopy on organic charge-transfer salts.

    PubMed

    Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A

    2015-09-23

    This topical review provides an overview of the dielectric properties of a variety of organic charge-transfer salts, based on both, data reported in literature and our own experimental results. Moreover, we discuss in detail the different processes that can contribute to the dielectric response of these materials. We concentrate on the family of the 1D (TMTTF)2 X systems and the 2D BEDT-TTF-based charge-transfer salts, which in recent years have attracted considerable interest due to their often intriguing dielectric properties. We will mainly focus on the occurrence of electronic ferroelectricity in these systems, which also includes examples of multiferroicity. PMID:26325011

  13. Bioexcimers as Precursors of Charge Transfer and Reactivity in Photobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano-Andres, Luis; Merchan, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuan, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Rubio, Mercedes

    2007-11-29

    Accurate CASPT2//CASSCF calculations show that {pi}-stacked interactions in different biochromophores such as DNA nucleobases or porphyrin-quinone pairs yield excimer-like situations which behave as precursors of processes like charge transfer or photoreactivity. Examples are the transfer of charge between a reduced pheophytin and an accepting quinone molecule, process that trigger the sequence of electron transfer phenomena in photosynthetic photosystem II, the electron transfer between adjacent DNA nucleobases in a strand of oligonucleotides, and the photodimerization taking place in cytosine pairs leading to cyclobutanecytosine mutants. These processes take place through nonadiabatic photochemical mechanisms whose evolution is determined by the presence and accessibility of conical intersections and other surface crossings between different electronic states.

  14. Bioexcimers as Precursors of Charge Transfer and Reactivity in Photobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Merchán, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel; Olaso-González, Gloria; Rubio, Mercedes

    2007-11-01

    Accurate CASPT2//CASSCF calculations show that π-stacked interactions in different biochromophores such as DNA nucleobases or porphyrin-quinone pairs yield excimer-like situations which behave as precursors of processes like charge transfer or photoreactivity. Examples are the transfer of charge between a reduced pheophytin and an accepting quinone molecule, process that trigger the sequence of electron transfer phenomena in photosynthetic photosystem II, the electron transfer between adjacent DNA nucleobases in a strand of oligonucleotides, and the photodimerization taking place in cytosine pairs leading to cyclobutanecytosine mutants. These processes take place through nonadiabatic photochemical mechanisms whose evolution is determined by the presence and accessibility of conical intersections and other surface crossings between different electronic states.

  15. Energy and charge state dependences of transfer ionization to single capture ratio for fast multiply charged ions on helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Ridvan

    The charge state and energy dependences of Transfer Ionization (TI) and Single Capture (SC) processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with He from intermediate to high velocities are investigated using coincident recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The collision chamber is commissioned on the 15-degree port of a switching magnet, which allows the delivery of a beam with very little impurity. The target was provided from a supersonic He jet with a two-stage collimation. The two-stage, geometrically cooled, supersonic He jet has significantly reduced background contribution to the spectrum compared to a single stage He jet. In the case of a differentially pumped gas cell complex calculations based on assumptions for the correction due to the collisions with the contaminant beam led to corrections, which were up to 50%. The new setup allows one to make a direct separation of contaminant processes in the experimental data using the longitudinal momentum spectra. Furthermore, this correction is much smaller (about 8.8%) yielding better overall precision. The collision systems reported here are 1 MeV/u O(4--8)+ , 0.5--2.5 MeV/u F(4--9)+, 2.0 MeV/u Ti 15,17,18+, 1.6--1.75 MeV/u Cu18,20+ and 0.25--0.5 MeV/u I(15--25)+ ions interacting with helium. We have determined the sTIsSC ratio for high velocity highly charged ions on He at velocities in the range of 6 to 10 au and observed that the ratio is monotonically decreasing with velocity. Furthermore, we see a ratio that follows a q2 dependence up to approximately q = 9. Above q = 9 the experimental values exceed the q2 dependence prediction due to antiscreening. C. D. Lin and H. C. Tseng have performed coupled channel calculations for the energy dependence of TI and SC for F9+ + He and find values slightly higher than our measured values, but with approximately the same energy dependence. The new data, Si, Ti and Cu, go up only to q = 20 and show a smooth monotonically increasing TI/SC ratio. The TI/SC ratio for I (15

  16. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.; FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  17. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-18

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  18. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.; FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-18

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  19. Bose—Einstein correlations of charged kaons in p + p collisions with the STAR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatkulov, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of charged kaon Bose-Einstein Correlations (BEC) measured in proton- proton collisions at √s =200 and 510 GeV with the STAR detector at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The one-dimensional correlation functions are studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. The femtoscopic radii, R, and the correlation strength, λ, are extracted. The dependence of the source radii and the correlation strengths on the particle multiplicity are investigated.

  20. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandens in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S/sup 6-16+/ on He and Ar at 6 to 20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl/sup 16 +/ + Ar collisions at 20, 10, and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed.

  1. Two components in charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylinkin, A. A.; Chernyavskaya, N. S.; Rostovtsev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions are considered in terms of a recently introduced Two Component parameterization combining exponential ("soft") and power-law ("hard") functional forms. The charged hadron densities calculated separately for them are plotted versus number of participating nucleons, Npart. The obtained dependences are discussed and the possible link between the two component parameterization introduced by the authors and the two component model historically used for the case of heavy-ion collisions is established. Next, the variations of the parameters of the introduced approach with the center of mass energy and centrality are studied using the available data from RHIC and LHC experiments. The spectra shapes are found to show universal dependences on Npart for all investigated collision energies.

  2. Charge-transfer complexation between naphthalene diimides and aromatic solvents.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Chidambar; Periyasamy, Ganga; Balasubramanian, S; George, Subi J

    2014-07-28

    Naphthalene diimides (NDIs) form emissive ground-state charge-transfer (CT) complexes with various electron rich aromatic solvents like benzene, o-xylene and mesitylene. TD-DFT calculation of the complexes suggests CT interaction and accounts for the observed ground-state changes. PMID:24931833

  3. Enhancing SERS by Means of Supramolecular Charge Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Eric; Flood, Amar; Morales, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed method of sensing small quantities of molecules of interest, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy would be further enhanced by means of intermolecular or supramolecular charge transfer. There is a very large potential market for sensors based on this method for rapid detection of chemical and biological hazards. In SERS, the Raman signals (vibrational spectra) of target molecules become enhanced by factors of the order of 108 when those molecules are in the vicinities of nanostructured substrate surfaces that have been engineered to have plasmon resonances that enhance local electric fields. SERS, as reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles and elsewhere, has remained a research tool and has not yet been developed into a practical technique for sensing of target molecules: this is because the short range (5 to 20 nm) of the field enhancement necessitates engineering of receptor molecules to attract target molecules to the nanostructured substrate surfaces and to enable reliable identification of the target molecules in the presence of interferants. Intermolecular charge-transfer complexes have been used in fluorescence-, photoluminescence-, and electrochemistry-based techniques for sensing target molecules, but, until now, have not been considered for use in SERS-based sensing. The basic idea of the proposed method is to engineer receptor molecules that would be attached to nanostructured SERS substrates and that would interact with the target molecules to form receptor-target supramolecular charge-transfer complexes wherein the charge transfer could be photoexcited.

  4. Primary cells utilize halogen-organic charge transfer complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, F.; Hermann, A. M.; Rembaum, A.

    1966-01-01

    Electrochemical cells with solid state components employ charge transfer complexes or donor-acceptor complexes in which the donor component is an organic compound and the acceptor component is a halogen. A minor proportion of graphite added to these composition helps reduce the resistivity.

  5. Multifunctional Charge-Transfer Single Crystals through Supramolecular Assembly.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Luo, Zhipu; Wilson, Andrew J; Chen, Ke; Gao, Wenxiu; Yuan, Guoliang; Chopra, Harsh Deep; Chen, Xing; Willets, Katherine A; Dauter, Zbigniew; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-07-01

    Centimeter-sized segregated stacking TTF-C60 single crystals are crystallized by a mass-transport approach combined with solvent-vapor evaporation for the first time. The intermolecular charge-transfer interaction in the long-range ordered superstructure enables the crystals to demonstrate external stimuli-controlled multifunctionalities and angle/electrical-potential-dependent luminescence. PMID:27146726

  6. CORRELATING ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL MOTIONS IN CHARGE TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  7. Layered charge transfer complex cathodes or solid electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect

    Louzos, D.V.

    1981-05-12

    Layered charge transfer complex cathodes for use in solid electrolyte cells are described wherein one layer of the cathode contains an electronic conductor which is isolated from the cell's solid electrolyte by a second layer of the cathode that does not contain an electronic conductor.

  8. Transverse momentum dependence of inclusive primary charged-particle production in p-Pb collisions at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.

    2014-09-01

    The transverse momentum ($p_{\\mathrm T}$) distribution of primary charged particles is measured at midrapidity in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the range $0.15collision scaling of particle production in pp collisions, leading to a nuclear modification factor consistent with unity for $p_{\\mathrm T}$ larger than 2 GeV/$c$, with a weak indication of a Cronin-like enhancement for $p_{\\rm T}$ around 4 GeV/$c$. The measurement is compared to theoretical calculations and to data in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV.

  9. Causal diffusion and the survival of charge fluctuations in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Mohamed Abdel; Gavin, Sean

    2004-09-01

    Diffusion may obliterate fluctuation signals of the QCD phase transition in nuclear collisions at SPS and RHIC energies. We propose a hyperbolic diffusion equation to study the dissipation of net charge fluctuations. This equation is needed in a relativistic context, because the classic parabolic diffusion equation violates causality. We find that causality substantially limits the extent to which diffusion can dissipate these fluctuations.

  10. Infrared Spectroscopy of Charge Transfer Complexes of Purines and Pyrimidines

    SciTech Connect

    Rathod, Pravinsinh I.; Oza, A. T.

    2011-10-20

    The FTIR spectra of charge transfer complexes of purines and pyrimidines with organic acceptors such as TCNQ, TCNE, DDQ, chloranil and iodine are obtained and studied in the present work. Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine and uracil are the purines and pyrimidines which are found as constituent of DNA and RNA. Charge transfer induced hydrogen bonding is concluded on the basis of indirect transitions observed in the infrared range in these CTCs. Some CTCs show gaussian bands revealing delocalization of charge carriers. The CTCs show interband transition in three-dimensions rather than two-dimensions unlike CTCs of amino acids. There is no extended hydrogen bonded network spanning the whole crystal. This leads to indirect transition due to locally deformed lattice furnishing a phonon-assisted transition.

  11. Observation of vibrationally resolved charge transfer in H + +H2 at ECM=20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedner, G.; Noll, M.; Toennies, J. P.; Schlier, Ch.

    1987-09-01

    The doubly differential cross sections for both the scattered protons and H atoms have been measured at ELAB=30 eV (ECM=20 eV) from θLAB=0° to 12° (θCM=0° to 18°) for the reactions H++H2(v=0)→H++H2(vf) and →H+H+2(vf) . The energy resolution is sufficient to resolve final vibrational states in both channels. The comparison of both the angular and energy loss distributions for the two product channels provides the first clear experimental evidence of a two-step charge transfer mechanism: Vibrational excitation on the lower H++H2 surface is followed by charge transfer in the outgoing collision for only those H2 molecules which are excited vibrationally high enough (vf≥4) to overcome the endoergic barrier (ΔE=1.83 eV). The final vibrational distributions of H+2 appear to be very similar to those of H2 for vf≥4 indicating that for the angular range observed the charge transfer probability is the same for all vibrational states with vf≥4. The comparison with classical trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations points to some disagreement which probably can be attributed to the potential surface used.

  12. Resonant charge transfer in H^- ions scattering off Si(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreshkov, Boyan; Thumm, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    We present numerical calculations on the one-electron charge exchange between an unreconstructed Si(100) surface and H^- ions that are incident at kinetic energies of 1 keV. The ground state electronic structure of the surface is derived within a self-consistent screened pseudopotential Thomas-Fermi method. Si crystal wave functions and energies of the electron states that this potential holds are calculated by solving one-particle Schr"odinger equations. Resonant charge transfer ion-surface couplings are derived, and Newns-Anderson model is solved within a self-energy method. The neutralization probability of the anion after the collision is calculated and compared with available experimental data of [1]. [1] M. Maazouz et al. Surf. Sci. 398, 49 (1998). Supported by NSF and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of BES, Office of Energy, US DOE.

  13. A tetrastable naphthalenediimide: anion induced charge transfer, single and double electron transfer for combinational logic gates.

    PubMed

    Ajayakumar, M R; Hundal, Geeta; Mukhopadhyay, Pritam

    2013-09-11

    Herein we demonstrate the formation of the first tetrastable naphthalenediimide (NDI, 1a) molecule having multiple distinctly readable outputs. Differential response of 1a to fluoride anions induces intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), single/double electron transfer (SET/DET) leading to a set of combinational logic gates for the first time with a NDI moiety. PMID:23752683

  14. An optical model description of momentum transfer in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, J. W.; Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. The imaginary component of the complex momentum transfer, which comes from the absorptive part of the optical potential, is identified as the longitudinal momentum downshift of the projectile. Predictions of fragment momentum distribution observables are made and compared with experimental data. Use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is discussed.

  15. A Gating Charge Transfer Center in Voltage Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X.; Lee, A; Limapichat, W; Dougherty, D; MacKinnon, R

    2010-01-01

    Voltage sensors regulate the conformations of voltage-dependent ion channels and enzymes. Their nearly switchlike response as a function of membrane voltage comes from the movement of positively charged amino acids, arginine or lysine, across the membrane field. We used mutations with natural and unnatural amino acids, electrophysiological recordings, and x-ray crystallography to identify a charge transfer center in voltage sensors that facilitates this movement. This center consists of a rigid cyclic 'cap' and two negatively charged amino acids to interact with a positive charge. Specific mutations induce a preference for lysine relative to arginine. By placing lysine at specific locations, the voltage sensor can be stabilized in different conformations, which enables a dissection of voltage sensor movements and their relation to ion channel opening.

  16. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  17. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  18. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  19. A Gating Charge Transfer Center in Voltage Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiao; Lee, Alice; Limapichat, Walrati; Dougherty, Dennis A.; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Voltage sensors regulate the conformations of voltage-dependent ion channels and enzymes. Their nearly switch-like response as a function of membrane voltage comes from the movement of positively charged amino acids, arginine or lysine, across the membrane field. We used mutations with natural and unnatural amino acids, electrophysiological recordings and X-ray crystallography to identify a charge transfer center in voltage sensors that facilitates this movement. This center consists of a rigid cyclic ‘cap’ and two negatively charged amino acids to interact with a positive charge. Specific mutations induce a preference for lysine relative to arginine. By placing lysine at specific locations the voltage sensor can be stabilized in different conformations, thus enabling a dissection of voltage sensor movements and their relationship to ion channel opening. PMID:20360102

  20. Projectile charge state effects on electron emission in transfer ionization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. T.; Zhu, X. L.; Feng, W. T.; Guo, D. L.; Gao, Y.; Qian, D. B.; Li, B.; Yan, S. C.; Xu, S.; Zhang, P.; Ma, X.

    2015-07-01

    Electron emissions in transfer ionization processes were studied for 75 keV u-1 He2+, and 80 keV u-1 Ne8+on He collisions, using the well-developed reaction microscope techniques. Momentum distributions in the scattering plane, doubly differential distributions as a function of longitudinal momentum and emission angles of the ejected electrons were obtained. An apparent enhancement of electrons distributed around the projectile in the scattering plane was found for the Ne8+ incident case. Furthermore, we report the ratio of doubly differential distributions at the emission angle of 0° between these two transfer ionization processes, in which an abrupt rise is found at and above the electron capture to the continuum peak. This rise qualitatively agrees with the prediction within the framework of Dettmann’s theory. We conclude that this kind of enhancement was caused by the charge state effect of the projectile.

  1. Photoinduced charge and energy transfer in molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mélina; Albinsson, Bo

    2015-02-21

    Exploring charge and energy transport in donor-bridge-acceptor systems is an important research field which is essential for the fundamental knowledge necessary to develop future applications. These studies help creating valuable knowledge to respond to today's challenges to develop functionalized molecular systems for artificial photosynthesis, photovoltaics or molecular scale electronics. This tutorial review focuses on photo-induced charge/energy transfer in covalently linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems. Of utmost importance in such systems is to understand how to control signal transmission, i.e. how fast electrons or excitation energy could be transferred between the donor and acceptor and the role played by the bridge (the "molecular wire"). After a brief description of the electron and energy transfer theory, we aim to give a simple yet accurate picture of the complex role played by the bridge to sustain donor-acceptor electronic communication. Special emphasis is put on understanding bridge energetics and conformational dynamics effects on the distance dependence of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling and transfer rates. Several examples of donor-bridge-acceptor systems from the literature are described as a support to the discussion. Finally, porphyrin-based molecular wires are introduced, and the relationship between their electronic structure and photophysical properties is outlined. In strongly conjugated porphyrin systems, limitations of the existing electron transfer theory to interpret the distance dependence of the transfer rates are also discussed. PMID:25212903

  2. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Zito, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Primavera, F.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Demiyanov, A.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kodolova, O.; Korotkikh, V.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Vardanyan, I.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Ramos, J. P. Fernández; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Yzquierdo, A. Pérez-Calero; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Musella, P.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Kao, K. Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Albayrak, E. A.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; De La Barca Sanchez, M. Calderon; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Negrete, M. Olmedo; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2015-05-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at , in the range and pseudorapidity in the proton-nucleon center-of-mass frame. For , the charged-particle production is asymmetric about , with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs.

  3. An electrostatic charge measurement of blowing snow particles focusing on collision frequency to the snow surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2010-12-01

    Blowing snow particles are known to have an electrostatic charge. This charge may be a contributing factor in the formation of snow drifts and snow cornices and changing of the trajectory of blowing snow particles. These formations and phenomena can cause natural disaster such as an avalanche and a visibility deterioration, and obstruct transportation during winter season. Therefore, charging phenomenon of the blowing snow particles is an important issue in terms of not only precise understanding of the particle motion but disaster prevention. The primary factor of charge accumulation to the blowing snow particles is thought to be due to “saltation” of them. The “saltation” is one of movement forms of blowing snow: when the snow particles are transported by the wind, they repeat frictional collisions with the snow surface. In previous studies, charge-to-mass ratios measured in the field were approximately -50 to -10 μC/kg, and in the wind tunnel were approximately -0.8 to -0.1 μC/kg. While there were qualitatively consistent in sign, negative, there were huge gaps quantitatively between them. One reason of those gaps is speculated to be due to differences in fetch. In other words, the difference of the collision frequency of snow particles to the snow surface has caused the gaps. But it is merely a suggestion and that has not been confirmed. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the charge of blowing snow particles focusing on the collision frequency and clarify the relationship between them. Experiments were carried out in the cryogenic wind tunnel of Snow and Ice Research Center (NIED, JAPAN). A Faraday cage and an electrometer were used to measure the charge of snow particles. These experiments were conducted over the hard snow surface condition to prevent the erosion of the snow surface and the generation of new snow particles from the surface. The collision frequency of particle was controlled by changing the wind velocity (4.5 to 7 m/s) under

  4. Charge-transfer crystallites as molecular electrical dopants

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Henry; Heimel, Georg; Winkler, Stefanie; Frisch, Johannes; Opitz, Andreas; Sauer, Katrein; Wegner, Berthold; Oehzelt, Martin; Röthel, Christian; Duhm, Steffen; Többens, Daniel; Koch, Norbert; Salzmann, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Ground-state integer charge transfer is commonly regarded as the basic mechanism of molecular electrical doping in both, conjugated polymers and oligomers. Here, we demonstrate that fundamentally different processes can occur in the two types of organic semiconductors instead. Using complementary experimental techniques supported by theory, we contrast a polythiophene, where molecular p-doping leads to integer charge transfer reportedly localized to one quaterthiophene backbone segment, to the quaterthiophene oligomer itself. Despite a comparable relative increase in conductivity, we observe only partial charge transfer for the latter. In contrast to the parent polymer, pronounced intermolecular frontier-orbital hybridization of oligomer and dopant in 1:1 mixed-stack co-crystallites leads to the emergence of empty electronic states within the energy gap of the surrounding quaterthiophene matrix. It is their Fermi–Dirac occupation that yields mobile charge carriers and, therefore, the co-crystallites—rather than individual acceptor molecules—should be regarded as the dopants in such systems. PMID:26440403

  5. Charge-transfer crystallites as molecular electrical dopants.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Henry; Heimel, Georg; Winkler, Stefanie; Frisch, Johannes; Opitz, Andreas; Sauer, Katrein; Wegner, Berthold; Oehzelt, Martin; Röthel, Christian; Duhm, Steffen; Többens, Daniel; Koch, Norbert; Salzmann, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Ground-state integer charge transfer is commonly regarded as the basic mechanism of molecular electrical doping in both, conjugated polymers and oligomers. Here, we demonstrate that fundamentally different processes can occur in the two types of organic semiconductors instead. Using complementary experimental techniques supported by theory, we contrast a polythiophene, where molecular p-doping leads to integer charge transfer reportedly localized to one quaterthiophene backbone segment, to the quaterthiophene oligomer itself. Despite a comparable relative increase in conductivity, we observe only partial charge transfer for the latter. In contrast to the parent polymer, pronounced intermolecular frontier-orbital hybridization of oligomer and dopant in 1:1 mixed-stack co-crystallites leads to the emergence of empty electronic states within the energy gap of the surrounding quaterthiophene matrix. It is their Fermi-Dirac occupation that yields mobile charge carriers and, therefore, the co-crystallites-rather than individual acceptor molecules-should be regarded as the dopants in such systems. PMID:26440403

  6. Charge transfer through a cytochrome multiheme chain: theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Burggraf, Fabian; Koslowski, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    We study sequential charge transfer within a chain of four heme cofactors located in the c-type cytochrome subunit of the photoreaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis from a theoretical perspective. Molecular dynamics simulations of the thermodynamic integration type are used to compute two key energies of Marcus' theory of charge transfer, the driving force ∆G and the reorganization energy λ. Due to the small exposure of the cofactors to the solvent and to charged amino acids, the outer sphere contribution to the reorganization energy almost vanishes. Interheme effective electronic couplings are estimated using ab initio wave functions and a well-parameterized semiempirical scheme for long-range interactions. From the resulting charge transfer rates, we conclude that at most the two heme molecules closest to the membrane participate in a fast recharging of the photoreaction center, whereas the remaining hemes are likely to have a different function, such as intermediate electron storage. Finally, we suggest means to verify or falsify this hypothesis. PMID:24055674

  7. Energy dependence of the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. A.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, K.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deppman, A.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; D Erasmo, G.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goerlich, L.; Gomez, R.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Differential cross sections of charged particles in inelastic pp collisions as a function of p T have been measured at at the LHC. The p T spectra are compared to NLO-pQCD calculations. Though the differential cross section for an individual cannot be described by NLO-pQCD, the relative increase of cross section with is in agreement with NLO-pQCD. Based on these measurements and observations, procedures are discussed to construct pp reference spectra at up to p T=50 GeV/ c as required for the calculation of the nuclear modification factor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions.

  8. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Multiply Charged Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The laser ablation/ion storage facility at the UNLV Physics Department has been dedicated to the study of atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. Our program focuses on the charge transfer (electron capture) of multiply charged ions and neutrals important in astrophysics. The electron transfer reactions with atoms and molecules is crucial to the ionization condition of neutral rich photoionized plasmas. With the successful deployment of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory by NASA high resolution VUV and X-ray emission spectra fiom various astrophysical objects have been collected. These spectra will be analyzed to determine the source of the emission and the chemical and physical environment of the source. The proper interpretation of these spectra will require complete knowledge of all the atomic processes in these plasmas. In a neutral rich environment, charge transfer can be the dominant process. The rate coefficients need to be known accurately. We have also extended our charge transfer measurements to KeV region with a pulsed ion beam. The inclusion of this facility into our current program provides flexibility in extending the measurement to higher energies (KeV) if needed. This flexibility enables us to address issues of immediate interest to the astrophysical community as new observations are made by high resolution space based observatories.

  9. Modelling charge transfer reactions with the frozen density embedding formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Pavanello, Michele; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2011-12-21

    The frozen density embedding (FDE) subsystem formulation of density-functional theory is a useful tool for studying charge transfer reactions. In this work charge-localized, diabatic states are generated directly with FDE and used to calculate electronic couplings of hole transfer reactions in two {pi}-stacked nucleobase dimers of B-DNA: 5{sup '}-GG-3{sup '} and 5{sup '}-GT-3{sup '}. The calculations rely on two assumptions: the two-state model, and a small differential overlap between donor and acceptor subsystem densities. The resulting electronic couplings agree well with benchmark values for those exchange-correlation functionals that contain a high percentage of exact exchange. Instead, when semilocal GGA functionals are used the electronic couplings are grossly overestimated.

  10. Charge transfer and interface properties in inorganic superstructures and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyagina, I. S.; Petrov, A. A.; Pervov, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    The processes of charge transfer and electronic reconstruction at interfaces of inorganic superstructures and composites have not yet been adequately investigated. This review integrates and analyzes the results of theoretical and experimental studies of structural and electronic effects at interfaces of metal oxide or chalcogenide superstructures and composites. Charge transfer and, hence, change in interface properties compared to the properties of substructures are shown to be determined by the preparation method of composites and chemical nature of the superstructures, incommensurability of structural parameters and valence states of the constituent metals. The changes are maximal for nanoheterostructures, and the degree of change is related to electronic conductivity of substructures. The macroscopic properties of the composite materials depend on the amount of interfaces in their bulk. The bibliography includes 66 references.

  11. Charge transfer transitions within the octahedral uranate group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleijenberg, K. C.

    1980-07-01

    In this paper the excitation spectra of the luminescence of the octahedral uranate group (UO6-6) are presented for various uranium-doped compounds. The excitation bands have been assigned using the results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the spectroscopic properties of uranium hexafluoride which is isoelectronic with the octahedral uranate group. Charge transfer transitions from orbitals having mainly oxygen 2p character to orbitals having mainly uranium 5f charcter have been observed in the region 2.24-˜4 eV. Charge transfer transitions to orbitals having mainly uranium 6d character have been observed at 4.4 eV and at 5.4 eV.

  12. Negative ion-uranium hexafluoride charge transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Newton, T. W.

    1980-10-01

    The flowing afterglow technique has been used to study the process of charge transfer from selected negative ions (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, SF6-) to UF6. The sole ionic product in all cases was observed to be UF6-. Data analysis was complicated by an unexpected coupling of chemical and diffusive ion loss processes when UF6- product ions were present. The rate coefficients for the charge transfer processes are (k in 10-9 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) F-, 1.3; Cl-, 1.1; Br-, 0.93; I-, 0.77; and SF6-, 0.69. The rate constants agree quite well with the classical Langevin predictions.

  13. Integrated Charge Transfer in Organic Ferroelectrics for Flexible Multisensing Materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-09-01

    The ultimate or end point of functional materials development is the realization of strong coupling between all energy regimes (optical, electronic, magnetic, and elastic), enabling the same material to be utilized for multifunctionalities. However, the integration of multifunctionalities in soft materials with the existence of various coupling is still in its early stage. Here, the coupling between ferroelectricity and charge transfer by combining bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene-C60 charge-transfer crystals with ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride polymer matrix is reported, which enables external stimuli-controlled polarization, optoelectronic and magnetic field sensing properties. Such flexible composite films also display a superior strain-dependent capacitance and resistance change with a giant piezoresistance coefficient of 7.89 × 10(-6) Pa(-1) . This mutual coupled material with the realization of enhanced couplings across these energy domains opens up the potential for multisensing applications. PMID:27378088

  14. Charge transfer magnetoexciton formation at vertically coupled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Willian; Marin, Jairo H; Mikhailov, Ilia D

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is presented on the properties of charge transfer excitons at vertically coupled semiconductor quantum dots in the presence of electric and magnetic fields directed along the growth axis. Such excitons should have two interesting characteristics: an extremely long lifetime and a permanent dipole moment. We show that wave functions and the low-lying energies of charge transfer exciton can be found exactly for a special morphology of quantum dots that provides a parabolic confinement inside the layers. To take into account a difference between confinement potentials of an actual structure and of our exactly solvable model, we use the Galerkin method. The density of energy states is calculated for different InAs/GaAs quantum dots' dimensions, the separation between layers, and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields. A possibility of a formation of a giant dipolar momentum under external electric field is predicted. PMID:23092373

  15. Charge-transfer complexes of phenylephrine with nitrobenzene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mossalamy, E. H.

    2004-04-01

    The molecular charge-transfer complexes of phenylephrine with picric acid and m-dinitrobenzene have been studied and investigated by IR, 1H NMR electronic spectra in organic solvents and buffer solutions, respectively. Simple and selective methods are proposed for the determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride in bulk form and in tablets. The two methods are based on the formation of charge-transfer complexes between drug base as a n-donor (D) and picric acid, m-dinitrobenzene as π-acceptor (A). The products exhibit absorption maxima at 497 and 560 nm in acetonitrile for picric acid and m-dinitrobenzene, respectively. The coloured product exhibits an absorption maximum at 650 nm in dioxane. The sensitive kinetic methods for the determination phynylephrine hydrochloride are described. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time at 20 min.

  16. Charge transfer magnetoexciton formation at vertically coupled quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is presented on the properties of charge transfer excitons at vertically coupled semiconductor quantum dots in the presence of electric and magnetic fields directed along the growth axis. Such excitons should have two interesting characteristics: an extremely long lifetime and a permanent dipole moment. We show that wave functions and the low-lying energies of charge transfer exciton can be found exactly for a special morphology of quantum dots that provides a parabolic confinement inside the layers. To take into account a difference between confinement potentials of an actual structure and of our exactly solvable model, we use the Galerkin method. The density of energy states is calculated for different InAs/GaAs quantum dots’ dimensions, the separation between layers, and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields. A possibility of a formation of a giant dipolar momentum under external electric field is predicted. PMID:23092373

  17. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Gerrit; PHOBOS Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p T from 0.25 to 5 GeV/C is studied as a function of collision centrality. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  18. A model for energy transfer in collisions of atoms with highly excited molecules.

    PubMed

    Houston, Paul L; Conte, Riccardo; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-05-21

    A model for energy transfer in the collision between an atom and a highly excited target molecule has been developed on the basis of classical mechanics and turning point analysis. The predictions of the model have been tested against the results of trajectory calculations for collisions of five different target molecules with argon or helium under a variety of temperatures, collision energies, and initial rotational levels. The model predicts selected moments of the joint probability distribution, P(Jf,ΔE) with an R(2) ≈ 0.90. The calculation is efficient, in most cases taking less than one CPU-hour. The model provides several insights into the energy transfer process. The joint probability distribution is strongly dependent on rotational energy transfer and conservation laws and less dependent on vibrational energy transfer. There are two mechanisms for rotational excitation, one due to motion normal to the intermolecular potential and one due to motion tangential to it and perpendicular to the line of centers. Energy transfer is found to depend strongly on the intermolecular potential and only weakly on the intramolecular potential. Highly efficient collisions are a natural consequence of the energy transfer and arise due to collisions at "sweet spots" in the space of impact parameter and molecular orientation. PMID:25907301

  19. Charge transfer and atomic-level pressure in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2014-02-03

    This paper presents a systematic study on the charge transfer and ionicity in various metallic-glass forming systems, as well as its relationship with other atomic-level structure indicators, using the Bader analysis method and molecular dynamics simulation. It is shown that in a binary or multicomponent system, the chemical effects (when more than one elements present) appear to play a more important role in setting the absolute level of the atomic-level pressure, compared to the topological fluctuation.

  20. Charge-transfer-state photoluminescence in asymmetric coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, T. B.; Vodjdani, N.; Vinter, B.; Weisbuch, C.; Mourou, G. A.

    1989-07-01

    We have performed continuous and time-resolved photoluminescence experiments on novel double-quantum-well structures in Schottky diodes. We have directly observed the buildup of a charge-transfer (CT) state in which the electrons and holes are in separate wells because of the fact that they tunnel in opposite directions. We have studied the effect of an electric field on the CT state formation, and have observed a strong, linear Stark shift of the CT luminescence.

  1. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  2. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems.

    PubMed

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-27

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified. PMID:26980308

  3. Charge Transfer Excitons at van der Waals Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Monahan, Nicholas R; Gong, Zizhou; Zhu, Haiming; Williams, Kristopher W; Nelson, Cory A

    2015-07-01

    The van der Waals interfaces of molecular donor/acceptor or graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are central to concepts and emerging technologies of light-electricity interconversion. Examples include, among others, solar cells, photodetectors, and light emitting diodes. A salient feature in both types of van der Waals interfaces is the poorly screened Coulomb potential that can give rise to bound electron-hole pairs across the interface, i.e., charge transfer (CT) or interlayer excitons. Here we address common features of CT excitons at both types of interfaces. We emphasize the competition between localization and delocalization in ensuring efficient charge separation. At the molecular donor/acceptor interface, electronic delocalization in real space can dictate charge carrier separation. In contrast, at the 2D semiconductor heterojunction, delocalization in momentum space due to strong exciton binding may assist in parallel momentum conservation in CT exciton formation. PMID:26001297

  4. Charge Transfer Models of Zinc and Magnesium in Water.

    PubMed

    Soniat, Marielle; Hartman, Lisa; Rick, Steven W

    2015-04-14

    Quantum mechanical studies point to the importance of polarization and charge transfer (CT) in zinc binding. A new CT force field is used to study these effects in ion-water dimers and in aqueous solution. Quantum mechanics calculations are carried out to determine amounts of CT. Models for zinc and magnesium are parametrized to reproduce solvation structure, hydration free energy, and CT properties. The new models are subjected to energy decomposition, in which the effects of polarization and CT are investigated. The importance of these multibody interactions in the liquid is also considered. We find that, for divalent cations, polarization and charge transfer both strongly affect binding to water. Though polarization increases the internal (self) energy of water and ions, this is more than compensated for by a stronger ion-water interaction energy. The direction of the charge transfer from the water to the cation weakens the ion-water interaction; this increase in energy is counteracted by a decrease in the system energy due to electron delocalization. PMID:26574375

  5. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kočišek, J. E-mail: michal.farnik@jh-inst.cas.cz Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M. E-mail: michal.farnik@jh-inst.cas.cz; Slavíček, P. E-mail: michal.farnik@jh-inst.cas.cz

    2013-12-07

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ≈15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar{sup +} and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ∼28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar{sup +}* and water opens leading to new products Ar{sub n}H{sup +} and (H{sub 2}O){sub n}H{sup +}. On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H{sub 2}O){sub n}H{sub 2}{sup 2+} and (H{sub 2}O){sub n}{sup 2+} ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent.

  6. Molecular (Feshbach) treatment of charge exchange Li/sup 3 +/+He collisions. I. Energies and couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1986-05-15

    We point out a fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of charge exchange X/sup n/++H(1s) and X/sup n/++He(1s/sup 2/) collisions, which is that the latter process involves molecular states that are formally autoionizing. Then standard ab initio methods do not, in general, yield the relevant wave functions that are needed in the collision treatment, irrespective of whether quasimolecular autoionization be significant or not during the collision. We implement a particularly simple and useful form of the Feshbach formalism to calculate the energies of those two electron systems, and a method to evaluate the corresponding dynamical couplings is presented for the first time. Our implementation of this formalism together with the new computational techniques involved are presented in detail.

  7. Theory of ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer: Contributions of direct charge transfer excitations to the absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luxia; Willig, Frank; May, Volkhard

    2007-04-01

    Absorption spectra related to heterogeneous electron transfer are analyzed with the focus on direct charge transfer transition from the surface attached molecule into the semiconductor band states. The computations are based on a model of reduced dimensionality with a single intramolecular vibrational coordinate but a complete account for the continuum of conduction band states. The applicability of this model to perylene on TiO2 has been demonstrated in a series of earlier papers. Here, based on a time-dependent formulation, the absorbance is calculated with the inclusion of charge transfer excitations. A broad parameter set inspired by the perylene TiO2 systems is considered. In particular, the description generalizes the Fano effect to heterogeneous electron transfer reactions. Preliminary simulations of measured spectra are presented for perylene-catechol attached to TiO2.

  8. Quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Li; Yan, Zou

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits. We first consider a hybrid system where a quantum dot (QD) is tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor Majorana-hosted nanowire (MNW) via using gated control as a switch, the information encoded in the superposition state of electron empty and occupied state can be transferred to each other through choosing the proper interaction time to make measurements. Then we consider another system including a double QDs and a pair of parallel MNWs, it is shown that the entanglement information transfer can be realized between the two kinds of systems. We also realize long distance quantum information transfer between two quantum dots separated by an MNW, by making use of the nonlocal fermionic level formed with the pared Majorana feimions (MFs) emerging at the two ends of the MNW. Furthermore, we analyze the teleportationlike electron transfer phenomenon predicted by Tewari et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 027001 (2008)] in our considered system. Interestingly, we find that this phenomenon exactly corresponds to the case that the information encoded in one QD just returns back to its original place during the dynamical evolution of the combined system from the perspective of quantum state transfer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304031).

  9. Information transfer in pilots' use of a collision avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Scott, Barry C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1987-01-01

    A flight simulator study of pilots' use of the Traffic-alert and Collision Avoidance System is described. Three levels of information on the location of other air traffic were presented to different groups of airline pilots. The amount of informtion on the location of other traffic had little effect on pilots' performance of the maneuvers commanded by the collision avoidance system. Measured crew responses were similar with no presentation of traffic location, with limited information, and with continuous traffic information. No learning effects were observed, and differences in flight experience did not contribute to the performance difference found.

  10. Fragmentation of amino acids induced by collisions with low-energy highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarski, D. G.; Maclot, S.; Domaracka, A.; Adoui, L.; Alcamí, M.; Rousseau, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Huber, B. A.; Martín, F.

    2014-04-01

    Fragmentation of amino acids NH2-(CH2)n-COOH (n=1 glycine; n=2 β-alanine and n=3 γ-aminobutyric acid GABA) following collisions with slow highly charged ions has been studied in the gas phase by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. In the experiments, a multi-coincidence detection method was used to deduce the charge state of the molecules before fragmentation. Quantum chemistry calculations have been carried out in the basis of the density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics. The combination of both methodologies is essential to unambiguously unravel the different fragmentation pathways.

  11. Nanocontact electrification: patterned surface charges affecting adhesion, transfer, and printing.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jesse J; Barry, Chad R; Knuesel, Robert J; Wang, Xinyu; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2011-06-01

    Contact electrification creates an invisible mark, overlooked and often undetected by conventional surface spectroscopic measurements. It impacts our daily lives macroscopically during electrostatic discharge and is equally relevant on the nanoscale in areas such as soft lithography, transfer, and printing. This report describes a new conceptual approach to studying and utilizing contact electrification beyond prior surface force apparatus and point-contact implementations. Instead of a single point contact, our process studies nanocontact electrification that occurs between multiple nanocontacts of different sizes and shapes that can be formed using flexible materials, in particular, surface-functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and other common dielectrics (PMMA, SU-8, PS, PAA, and SiO(2)). Upon the formation of conformal contacts and forced delamination, contacted regions become charged, which is directly observed using Kelvin probe force microscopy revealing images of charge with sub-100-nm lateral resolution. The experiments reveal chemically driven interfacial proton exchange as the dominant charging mechanism for the materials that have been investigated so far. The recorded levels of uncompensated charges approach the theoretical limit that is set by the dielectric breakdown strength of the air gap that forms as the surfaces are delaminated. The macroscopic presence of the charges is recorded using force-distance curve measurements involving a balance and a micromanipulator to control the distance between the delaminated objects. Coulomb attraction between the delaminated surfaces reaches 150 N/m(2). At such a magnitude, the force finds many applications. We demonstrate the utility of printed charges in the fields of (i) nanoxerography and (ii) nanotransfer printing whereby the smallest objects are ∼10 nm in diameter and the largest objects are in the millimeter to centimeter range. The printed charges are also shown to affect the electronic

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan; Reygers, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    This review summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(\\bar{p}) collisions between \\sqrt{s} = 23.6 {\\;GeV} and \\sqrt{s} = 1.8\\;TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of \\sqrt{s}. Feynman scaling, KNO scaling as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions is discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(\\bar{p}) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(\\bar{p}) collisions at the LHC energies of \\sqrt{s} = 7\\;TeV, 10\\;TeV and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  13. The target effect in transfer ionization in proton-helium and neon collisions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, W. T.; Ma, X.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhang, R. T.; Guo, D. L.; Li, B.; Yan, S. Y.; Xu, S.; Zhang, P. J.

    2014-04-01

    The velocity distribution of emitted electrons in the transfer ionization (TI) in p-He and p-Ne collisions had been measured at projectile velocity Vp=2 a.u. The characteristics of electrons emission in the scattering plane is significant different from that observed in the TI of He2+-He collision (L. Schmidt et al 2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 012703-1). The mechanism leading to the ejection of electrons has still not been completely understood.

  14. Scaling of charged particle production in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2005-09-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles over a wide pseudorapidity range of |η|≤5.4 and integrated charged particle multiplicities in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are presented as a function of collision centrality. The longitudinal features of d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are found to be very similar to those seen in p+A collisions at lower energies. The total multiplicity of charged particles is found to scale with the total number of participants according to NdAuch=1/2Nppch, and the energy dependence of the density of charged particles produced in the fragmentation region exhibits extended longitudinal scaling.

  15. Charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200\\, {\\rm GeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Krzysztof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first PHOBOS results on charged particle multiplicity fluctuations measured for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy within a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr| < 3. The dependence on collision geometry is removed in the analysis by using the normalized difference between the number of particles in separate eegr bins. We compare our data to HIJING model predictions.

  16. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.

    2013-07-01

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D6h Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D2 eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D1, D2 (N+-Phenyl, N-Phenyl+). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an

  17. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection.

    PubMed

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J; Robb, Michael A

    2013-07-28

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D6h Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D2 eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D1, D2 (N(+)-Phenyl, N-Phenyl(+)). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an

  18. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    SciTech Connect

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.

    2013-07-28

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D{sub 6h} Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D{sub 2} eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} (N{sup +}-Phenyl, N-Phenyl{sup +}). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled

  19. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Lee, J. W.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV. The spectra were measured for transverse momenta pT from 0.25 to 4.5 GeV/c in a pseudorapidity range of 0.2<η<1.4. The evolution of the spectra is studied as a function of collision centrality, from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. The results are compared to data from proton-antiproton collisions and Au+Au collisions at lower RHIC energies. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing semi-peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at high pT exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  20. Charge transfer efficiency in proton damaged CCD`s

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, T. |; Murowinski, R.; Deen, M.J.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have performed detailed measurements of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) in a thinned, backside-illuminated imaging charge-coupled device (CCD). The device had been damaged in three separate sections by proton radiation typical of that which a CCD would receive in space-borne experiments, nuclear imaging, or particle detection. They examined CTE as a function of signal level, temperature, and radiation dose. The dominant factor affecting the CTE in radiation-damaged CCD`s is seen to be trapping by bulk states. They present a simple physical model for trapping as a function of transfer rate, trap concentration, and temperature. They have made calculations using this model and arrived at predictions which closely match the measured results. The CTE was also observed to have a nonlinear dependence on signal level. Using two-dimensional device simulations to examine the distribution of the charge packets in the CCD channel over a range of signal levels, they were able to explain the observed variation.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of the He(2+)-He system - Differential cross sections for direct, single-, and double-charge-transfer scattering at keV energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, R. S.; Dutta, C. M.; Lane, N. F.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.; Kimura, M.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for direct scattering, single-charge transfer, and double-charge transfer in collisions of 1.5-, 2.0-, 6.0-, and 10.0-keV (He-3)2+ with an He-4 target are reported. The measurements cover laboratory scattering angles below 1.5 deg with an angular resolution of about 0.03 deg. A quantum-mechanical molecular-state representation is employed in the calculations; in the case of single-charge transfer a two-state close-coupling calculation is carried out taking into account electron-translation effects. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental results for direct scattering and double-charge transfer. The present calculation identifies the origins of oscillatory structures observed in the differential cross sections.

  2. On the maximum charge state and proton transfer reactivity of peptide and protein ions formed by electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Schnier, P D; Gross, D S; Williams, E R

    1995-11-01

    A relatively simple model for calculation of the energetics of gas-phase proton transfer reactions and the maximum charge state of multiply protonated ions formed by electrospray ionization is presented. This model is based on estimates of the intrinsic proton transfer reactivity of sites of protonation and point charge Coulomb interactions. From this model, apparent gas-phase basicities (GB(app)) of multiply protonated ions are calculated. Comparison of this value to the gas-phase basicity of the solvent from which an ion is formed enables a maximum charge state to be calculated. For 13 commonly electrosprayed proteins, our calculated maximum charge states are within an average of 6% of the experimental values reported in the literature. This indicates that the maximum charge state for proteins is determined by their gas-phase reactivity. Similar results are observed for peptides with many basic residues. For peptides with few basic residues, we find that the maximum charge state is better correlated to the charge state in solution. For low charge state ions, we find that the most basic sites Arg, Lys, and His are preferentially protonated. A significant fraction of the less basic residues Pro, Trp, and Gln are protonated in high charge state ions. The calculated GB(app) of individual protonation sites varies dramatically in the high charge state ions. From these values, we calculate a reduced cross section for proton transfer reactivity that is significantly lower than the Langevin collision frequency when the GB(app) of the ion is approximately equal to the GB of the neutral base. PMID:24214055

  3. Highly Twisted Triarylamines for Photoinduced Intramoleculer ChargeTransfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chudomel, J. M.; Yang, B. Q.; Barnes, M. D.; Achermann, M.; Mague, J. T.; Lahti, P. M.

    2011-08-04

    9-(N,N-Dianisylamino)anthracene (9DAAA), 9-(N,N-dianisylamino)dinaphth([1,2-a:2'-1'-j]-anthracene (9DAAH), and 9,10-bis(N,N-dianisylamino)anthracene (910BAA) were synthesized as highly twisted triarylamines with potential for photoexcited internal charge transfer. Crystallography of 9DAAA shows its dianisylamino group to be twisted nearly perpendicular to its anthracene unit, similar to a report for 910BAA. The solution fluorescence spectra show strong bathochromic shifts for each of the three molecular systems with strongly decreased quantum efficiency in higher polarity solvents. Solution-phase (ensemble) time-resolved photoluminescence measurements show up to 4-fold decreases in fluorescence lifetime in acetonitrile compared to hexane. The combined results are consistent with photoinduced, transient intramolecular charge-transfer from the bis-anisylamine unit to the polycyclic aromatic unit. Computational modeling is in accord with intramolecular transfer of electron density from the bis-anisylamino unit to the anthracene, based on in comparisons of HOMO and LUMO.

  4. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, P. F.; Hahn, T.; Salvan, G.; Knupfer, M.; Zhu, F.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin.Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of

  5. Picturing electron capture to the continuum in the transfer ionization of intermediate-energy He2+ collisions with argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. T.; Ma, X.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhu, X. L.; Akula, Susmitha; Madison, D. H.; Li, B.; Qian, D. B.; Feng, W. T.; Guo, D. L.; Liu, H. P.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P. J.; Xu, S.; Chen, X. M.

    2013-01-01

    Electron emission occurring in transfer ionization for He2+ collisions with argon has been investigated using cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The double differential cross sections for electron capture to the continuum of the projectile (cusp-shaped electrons) are presented for collision energies from 17.5 to 75 keV/u. For an energy of 30 keV/u, we find a maximum in the experimental ratio of the cusp-shaped electron yield to the total electron yield. This result is explained in terms of the velocity matching between the projectile ion and the electron initially bound to the target. One of the important issues for double electron transitions is the role of electron-electron correlation. If this correlation is weak, then the transfer-ionization process can be viewed as two separate sequential processes. If this correlation is strong, then the transfer-ionization process would happen simultaneously and not sequentially. Our experimental and theoretical results indicate that correlation is weak and that the first step is target ionization followed by charge capture.

  6. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Siles, P F; Hahn, T; Salvan, G; Knupfer, M; Zhu, F; Zahn, D R T; Schmidt, O G

    2016-04-28

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin. PMID:27049842

  7. Charge transfer reaction of multi-charged oxygen ions with O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzscheiter, H. M.; Church, D. A.

    1981-10-01

    The reaction rates for charge transfer from O2 to doubly and triply charged oxygen atoms are measured in a demonstration of the measurement capabilities of a system at ultrahigh vacuum with low-energy magnetically confined ions. Ions were produced by electron impact ionization of gas within a Penning-type ion trap, with selective removal of unwanted ionization states by radio-frequency resonant excitation. Ion number mass-to-charge ratio spectra obtained at partial pressures of O2 from 9.9 x 10 to the -9th to 1.5 x 10 to the -7th torr yield rate constants of 1.0 x 10 to the -9th cu cm/sec and 2.5 x 10 to the -9th cu cm/sec for the O(2+) and O(3+) reactions, respectively. Measurements made at a 30% increase of the effective axial well depth of the trap demonstrate that the rate constant is essentially energy independent in the energy range studies, implying that the O(2+) cross section for charge transfer has an inverse velocity dependence of the Langevin type, despite a reaction rate lower than the Langevin valve.

  8. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-07

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  9. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  10. Intramolecular charge transfer in donor-acceptor molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Slama-Schwok, A.; Blanchard-Desce, M.; Lehn, J.M. )

    1990-05-17

    The photophysical properties of donor-acceptor molecules, push-pull polyenes and carotenoids, have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The compounds bear various acceptor and donor groups, linked together by chains of different length and structure. The position of the absorption and fluorescence maxima and their variation in solvents of increasing polarity are in agreement with long-distance intramolecular charge-transfer processes, the linker acting as a molecular wire. The effects of the linker length and structure and of the nature of acceptor and donor are presented.

  11. Endoergic and resonant charge transfer excitation in He-Cu discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezei, P.; Rózsa, K.; Jánossy, M.; Apai, P.

    1987-09-01

    The intensity of Cu-II lines with upper level energies near and above those of the He ion was measured as a function of He pressure in a Cu hollow cathode tube. In this tube at low pressures the negative glow could expand above the cathode. The maximum intensity of the Cu-II 493.1 nm line was found in the low voltage, high pressure hollow cathode discharge region in accordance with a resonant charge transfer excitation process. Enhancement of the intensity of the Cu-II 436.5 nm and 417.9 nm lines was observed in the cathode glow at low pressures. Excitation of these lines is attributed to endoergic charge transfer collisions between He ions accelerated by the 2 kV tube voltage and ground state Cu atoms. The cross-section for this reaction exciting the 436.5 nm line was estimated to be of the order of 10-17 cm2.

  12. Photoinduced charge-transfer materials for nonlinear optical applications

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.

    2006-10-24

    A method using polyelectrolyte self-assembly for preparing multi-layered organic molecular materials having individual layers which exhibit ultrafast electron and/or energy transfer in a controlled direction occurring over the entire structure. Using a high molecular weight, water-soluble, anionic form of poly-phenylene vinylene, self-assembled films can be formed which show high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (QE). The highest emission QE is achieved using poly(propylene-imine) (PPI) dendrimers as cationic binders. Self-quenching of the luminescence is observed as the solid polymer film thickness is increased and can be reversed by inserting additional spacer layers of transparent polyelectrolytes between each active conjugated layer, such that the QE grows with thickness. A red shift of the luminescence is also observed as additional PPV layers are added. This effect persists as self-quenching is eliminated. Charge transfer superlattices can be formed by additionally incorporating C.sub.60 acceptor layers.

  13. Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer Processes in Molecular Aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Endicott

    2009-10-20

    This project involved the experimental probing of the electronic excited states generated by photoinduced (center-to-center) electron and energy transfer processes in several classes of transition metal donor/acceptor (D/A) complexes. Some of the general properties inferred from these studies should be useful in the design of new systems for energy conversion applications. Pursuit of the project goals has involved the determination of electron transfer efficiencies and the detailed study of variations in the electronic spectra of D/A complexes. This has resulted in the study of some very fundamental issues of photoinduced charge transfer and the identification of some of the constraints on its efficiency. The experimental studies of the competition between the degradative non-radiative unimolecular relaxation of transition metal excited states and their transfer of charge from these excited states to external acceptors have involved a range of techniques such as transient decay kinetics, photoacoustic calorimetry and transient or stationary state spectroscopy. The substrates synthesized for these studies were selected to provide model systems, or series of model systems to probe the validity of models of electronic excited states and their reactivity. The work during the last few years has focused largely, but not exclusively, on the use of emission spectral band shapes to probe the properties of charge transfer (CT) excited states. Bandshape variations are one of the very few approaches for systematically probing electronic excited states and good band shape resolution is necessary in order to gain information about the structural variations that correlate with excited state reactivity. Differences in molecular structure correlate with differences in chemical reactivity, and the variations in emission bandshapes are well known to relate to variations in the molecular structural differences between the excited and ground electronic states. However, it is has been

  14. Beam energy dependence of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sumit; Nayak, Tapan K.; Datta, Kaustuv

    2016-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN probe matter at extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. Most of the global properties of the collisions can be extracted from the measurements of charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity (η ) distributions. We have shown that the available experimental data on beam energy and centrality dependence of η distributions in heavy-ion (Au +Au or Pb +Pb ) collisions from √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV are reasonably well described by the AMPT model, which is used for further exploration. The nature of the η distributions has been described by a double Gaussian function using a set of fit parameters, which exhibit a regular pattern as a function of beam energy. By extrapolating the parameters to a higher energy of √{sNN}=5.02 TeV, we have obtained the charged-particle multiplicity densities, η distributions, and energy densities for various centralities. Incidentally, these results match well with some of the recently published data by the ALICE Collaboration.

  15. Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricardo, Bernard; Lee, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions.

  16. Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies. PMID:25126911

  17. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Separation along the Magnetic Field in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au +Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  18. Thiolate versus Selenolate: Structure, Stability, and Charge Transfer Properties.

    PubMed

    Ossowski, Jakub; Wächter, Tobias; Silies, Laura; Kind, Martin; Noworolska, Agnieszka; Blobner, Florian; Gnatek, Dominika; Rysz, Jakub; Bolte, Michael; Feulner, Peter; Terfort, Andreas; Cyganik, Piotr; Zharnikov, Michael

    2015-04-28

    Selenolate is considered as an alternative to thiolate to serve as a headgroup mediating the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on coinage metal substrates. There are, however, ongoing vivid discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of these anchor groups, regarding, in particular, the energetics of the headgroup-substrate interface and their efficiency in terms of charge transport/transfer. Here we introduce a well-defined model system of 6-cyanonaphthalene-2-thiolate and -selenolate SAMs on Au(111) to resolve these controversies. The exact structural arrangements in both types of SAMs are somewhat different, suggesting a better SAM-building ability in the case of selenolates. At the same time, both types of SAMs have similar packing densities and molecular orientations. This permitted reliable competitive exchange and ion-beam-induced desorption experiments which provided unequivocal evidence for a stronger bonding of selenolates to the substrate as compared to the thiolates. Regardless of this difference, the dynamic charge transfer properties of the thiolate- and selenolate-based adsorbates were found to be nearly identical, as determined by the core-hole-clock approach, which is explained by a redistribution of electron density along the molecular framework, compensating the difference in the substrate-headgroup bond strength. PMID:25857927

  19. Charge transfer interactions in oligomer coated gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmai, M. Boazbou; Kumar, Pandian Senthil

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoclusters were synthesized by a bottom-up synergistic approach of in-situ oligomerization of the monomer, N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and simultaneous weak reduction of Au-NVP complexes in the absence of any other external energy sources, thereby making these tiny gold clusters as the most elemental building blocks to construct further novel nano/microstructures with application potentials. It is well-known that metal clusters with less than 2 nm size do not show the usual surface plasmon band, because of the presence of a band-gap at the fermi level. Nevertheless, our present oligomer coated gold clusters show a discrete intense band at around 630 nm, which could very well be attributed to the charge transfer between the oligomer chain and the surface Au atoms. Such kind of sacrificial plasmon induced charge transfer interaction, observed for the very first time to the best of our knowledge, were also strongly corroborated through the enhancement / shifting of specific vibrational / rotational peaks as observed from the FTIR and Raman measurements as a function of the metal oxidation states, thus representing a new prototype for an efficient solar energy conversion probe.

  20. Dynamical Theory of Charge Transfer Between Complex Atoms and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Basudev; Marston, Brad

    2000-03-01

    An existing dynamical quantum many-body theory of charge transfer(A. V. Onufriev and J. B. Marston, Phys. Rev. B 53), 13340 (1996); J. Merino and J. B. Marston, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6982 (1998). describes atoms with simple s-orbitals, such as alkalis and alkaline-earths, interacting with metal surfaces. The many-body equations of motion (EOM) are developed systematically as an expansion in the number of surface particle-hole excitations. Here we generalize this theory to describe atoms with richer orbital structures, such as atomic oxygen. In the simplest version of the model, only the single-particle p_z-orbitals of the atom, the ones oriented perpendicular to the surface, participate directly in resonant charge transfer as they have the largest overlap with the metallic wavefunctions. However, as the several-electron Russell-Saunders eigenstates, labeled by total angular momenta quantum numbers J, L, and S, are built out of products of single-particle orbitals, non-trivial matrix elements must be incorporated into the many-body EOM's. Comparison to recent experimental results(A. C. Lavery, C. E. Sosolik, and B. H. Cooper, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 157), 42 (1999); A. C. Lavery et al. to appear in Phys. Rev. B. on the scattering of low-energy oxygen ions off Cu(001) surfaces is made.

  1. Identified charged hadron production in Pb-Pb collisions with event shape engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangaro, Marco Antonio; ALICE Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Event Shape Engineering technique allows the selection of different event shapes for a definite centrality and colliding system. The event selection is based on the azimuthal distribution of produced particles, using the so-called flow vector. For such shape selected events, the elliptic flow coefficient (v2) is significantly different with respect to the unbiased events. Moreover, recent Monte-Carlo studies show a strong correlation between the (final state) event shape selection and the (initial state) eccentricity of the collision. This opens the opportunity to characterize events according to the initial geometry. An approach to select the eccentricity of the event with the Event Shape Engineering is presented. Then the effect of this selection on identified particle spectra, mean transverse momentum and v2 of charged particles in heavy-ion collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 2.76 TeV center-of-mass energy is discussed.

  2. Fluctuations of conserved charges in relativistic heavy ion collisions: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Masayuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2016-09-01

    Bulk fluctuations of conserved charges measured by event-by-event analysis in relativistic heavy ion collisions are observables which are believed to carry significant amount of information on the hot medium created by the collisions. Active studies have been done recently experimentally, theoretically, and on the lattice. In particular, non-Gaussianity of the fluctuations has acquired much attention recently. In this review, we give a pedagogical introduction to these issues, and survey recent developments in this field of research. Starting from the definition of cumulants, basic concepts in fluctuation physics, such as thermal fluctuations in statistical mechanics and time evolution of fluctuations in diffusive systems, are described. Phenomena which are expected to occur in finite temperature and/or density QCD matter and their measurement by event-by-event analyses are also elucidated.

  3. SELF-CONSISTENT LANGEVIN SIMULATION OF COULOMB COLLISIONS IN CHARGED-PARTICLE BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    J. QIANG; R. RYNE; S. HABIB

    2000-05-01

    In many plasma physics and charged-particle beam dynamics problems, Coulomb collisions are modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. In order to incorporate these collisions, we present a three-dimensional parallel Langevin simulation method using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach implemented on high-performance parallel computers. We perform, for the first time, a fully self-consistent simulation, in which the friction and diffusion coefficients are computed from first principles. We employ a two-dimensional domain decomposition approach within a message passing programming paradigm along with dynamic load balancing. Object oriented programming is used to encapsulate details of the communication syntax as well as to enhance reusability and extensibility. Performance tests on the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E-900 have demonstrated good scalability. Work is in progress to apply our technique to intrabeam scattering in accelerators.

  4. Asymptotic form of the charge exchange cross section in the three body rearrangement collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1975-01-01

    A three body general rearrangement collision is considered where the initial and final bound states are described by the hydrogen-like wave functions. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of quantum number, the reduced mass, and the nuclear charge of the final state. It is shown that for the low lying levels, the reciprocal of n cubed scaling law at all incident energies is only approximately satisfied. The case of the symmetric collisions is considered and it is shown that for high n and high incident energy, E, the cross section behaves as the reciprocal of E cubed. Zeros and minima in the differential cross sections in the limit of high n for protons on atomic hydrogen and positrons on atomic hydrogen are given.

  5. Collision induced dissociation of doubly-charged ions: Coulomb explosion vs. neutral loss in [Ca(urea)]{sup 2+} gas phase unimolecular reactivity via chemical dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Spezia, Riccardo; Salpin, Jean-Yves; Cimas, Alvaro; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Song, Kihyung; Hase, William L.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we report different theoretical approaches to study the gas-phase unimolecular dissociation of the doubly-charged cation [Ca(urea)]{sup 2+}, in order to rationalize recent experimental findings. Quantum mechanical plus molecular mechanical (QM/MM) direct chemical dynamics simulations were used to investigate collision induced dissociation (CID) and rotational-vibrational energy transfer for Ar{sup +} [Ca(urea)]{sup 2+} collisions. For the picosecond time-domain of the simulations, both neutral loss and Coulomb explosion reactions were found and the differences in their mechanisms elucidated. The loss of neutral urea subsequent to collision with Ar occurs via a shattering mechanism, while the formation of two singly-charged cations follows statistical (or almost statistical) dynamics. Vibrational-rotational energy transfer efficiencies obtained for trajectories that do not dissociate during the trajectory integration were used in conjunction with RRKM rate constants to approximate dissociation pathways assuming complete intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and statistical dynamics. This statistical limit predicts, as expected, that at long time the most stable species on the potential energy surface (PES) dominate. These results, coupled with experimental CID from which both neutral loss and Coulomb explosion products were obtained, show that the gas phase dissociation of this ion occurs by multiple mechanisms leading to different products and that reactivity on the complicated PES is dynamically complex. (authors)

  6. Mutation induction by charged particles of defined linear energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Chen, D J; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J

    1988-07-01

    The mutagenic potential of charged particles of defined linear energy transfer (LET) was assessed using the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (HGPRT) in primary human fibroblasts. Exponentially growing cultures of early passaged fibroblasts were grown as monolayers on thin mylar sheets and were irradiated with accelerated protons, deuterons or helium-3 ions. The mutation rates were compared with those generated by 137Cs gamma-rays. LET values for charged particles accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, using the track segment mode, ranged from 10 to 150 keV/micron. After irradiation, cells were trypsinized, subcultured and assayed for both cytotoxicity and 6-thioguanine resistance. For gamma-rays, and for the charged particles of lower LET, the dose-response curves for cell survival were characterized by a marked initial shoulder, but approximated to an exponential function of dose for higher LETs. Mutation frequencies, likewise, showed a direct correlation to LET over the dose range examined. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for mutagenesis, based on the initial slopes of the dose-response curves, ranged from 1.30 for 10 keV/micron protons to 9.40 for 150 keV/micron helium-3 ions. Results of the present studies indicate that high-LET radiations, apart from being efficient inducers of cell lethality, are even more efficient in mutation induction as compared to low-LET ionizing radiation. These data are consistent with results previously obtained with both rodent and human fibroblast cell lines. PMID:3383341

  7. Transverse energy distribution, charged particle multiplicities and spectra in /sup 16/O-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sunier, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The HELIOS (High Energy Lepton and Ion Spectrometer) experiment, installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, proposes to examine in details the physical properties of a state of high energy created in nuclei by ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is generally believed that, at high densities or temperatures, a phase transition to a plasma of quark and gluons will occur. The dynamic of the expansion of such a plasma and its subsequent condensation into a hadron gas should markedly affect the composition and momentum distribution of the emerging particles and photons. The HELIOS experimental setup therefore combines 4..pi.. calorimetric coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two particle correlations, low and high mass lepton pairs and photons. The emphasis is placed on transverse energy flow (E/sub T/) measurements with good energy resolution, and the ability to trigger the acquisition of data in a variety of E/sub T/ ranges, thereby selecting the impact parameter or the violence of the collisions. This short note presents HELIOS results, for the most part still preliminary, on /sup 16/O-nucleus collisions at the incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The E/sub T/ distributions from Al, Ag and W targets are discussed and compared to the associated charged particle multiplicities from W. Charged particle and (converted) photon spectra measured with the external magnetic spectrometer are compared for /sup 16/O + W and p + W collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Measurement of charged jet suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at = 2 .76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A. Ahmad; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bairathi, V.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Boehmer, F. V.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Roman, V. Canoa; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Díaz, A. Casanova; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Cortese, P.; Maldonado, I. Cortés; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dorheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Majumdar, A. K. Dutta; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Téllez, A. Fernández; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.

    2014-03-01

    A measurement of the transverse momentum spectra of jets in Pb-Pb collisions at = 2 .76TeV is reported. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti- k T jet algorithm with jet resolution parameters R of 0 .2 and 0 .3 in pseudo-rapidity | η| < 0 .5. The transverse momentum p T of charged particles is measured down to 0 .15 GeV/ c which gives access to the low p T fragments of the jet. Jets found in heavy-ion collisions are corrected event-by-event for average background density and on an inclusive basis (via unfolding) for residual background fluctuations and detector effects. A strong suppression of jet production in central events with respect to peripheral events is observed. The suppression is found to be similar to the suppression of charged hadrons, which suggests that substantial energy is radiated at angles larger than the jet resolution parameter R = 0 .3 considered in the analysis. The fragmentation bias introduced by selecting jets with a high p T leading particle, which rejects jets with a soft fragmentation pattern, has a similar effect on the jet yield for central and peripheral events. The ratio of jet spectra with R = 0 .2 and R = 0 .3 is found to be similar in Pb-Pb and simulated PYTHIA pp events, indicating no strong broadening of the radial jet structure in the reconstructed jets with R < 0 .3. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Charge transfer and negative curvature energy in magnesium boride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2016-07-01

    Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the energetics and charge transfer effects in MgBx nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) sheets. The behavior of adsorbed Mg on 2D boron sheets is found to depend on the amount of electron transfer between the two subsystems. The amount is determined by both the density of adsorbed Mg as well as the atomic-scale structure of the boron subsystem. The degree of transfer can lead to repulsive or attractive Mg-Mg interactions. In both cases, model MgBx nanotubes built from 2D MgBx sheets can display negative curvature energy: a relatively unusual situation in nanosystems where the energy cost to curve the parent 2D sheet into a small-diameter nanotube is negative. Namely, the small-diameter nanotube is energetically preferred over the corresponding flat sheet. We also discuss how these findings may manifest themselves in experimentally synthesized MgBx nanotubes.

  10. Determination of Energy-Transfer Distributions in Ionizing Ion-Molecule Collisions.

    PubMed

    Maclot, S; Delaunay, R; Piekarski, D G; Domaracka, A; Huber, B A; Adoui, L; Martín, F; Alcamí, M; Avaldi, L; Bolognesi, P; Díaz-Tendero, S; Rousseau, P

    2016-08-12

    The ionization and fragmentation of the nucleoside thymidine in the gas phase has been investigated by combining ion collision with state-selected photoionization experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. The comparison between the mass spectra measured in both types of experiments allows us to accurately determine the distribution of the energy deposited in the ionized molecule as a result of the collision. The relation of two experimental techniques and theory shows a strong correlation between the excited states of the ionized molecule with the computed dissociation pathways, as well as with charge localization or delocalization. PMID:27563959

  11. Determination of Energy-Transfer Distributions in Ionizing Ion-Molecule Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Piekarski, D. G.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.; Adoui, L.; Martín, F.; Alcamí, M.; Avaldi, L.; Bolognesi, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Rousseau, P.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization and fragmentation of the nucleoside thymidine in the gas phase has been investigated by combining ion collision with state-selected photoionization experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. The comparison between the mass spectra measured in both types of experiments allows us to accurately determine the distribution of the energy deposited in the ionized molecule as a result of the collision. The relation of two experimental techniques and theory shows a strong correlation between the excited states of the ionized molecule with the computed dissociation pathways, as well as with charge localization or delocalization.

  12. Energy losses of fast heavy multiply charged structural ions in collisions with complex atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, V. I.; Sidorov, D. B.

    2007-07-01

    A nonperturbatve theory of energy losses of fast heavy multiply charged structural ions in collisions with neutral complex atoms is elaborated with allowance for simultaneous excitations of ionic and atomic electron shells. Formulas for the effective deceleration that are similar to the well-known Bethe-Bloch formulas are derived. By way of example, the energy lost by partially stripped U q+ ions (10 ≤ q ≤ 70) colliding with argon atoms and also the energy lost by Au, Pb, and Bi ions colliding with various targets are calculated. The results of calculation are compared with experimental data.

  13. Electrical conduction in organic charge transfer complexes under pressure: A theoretical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yadunath

    2016-05-01

    We propose a theoretical view of temperature dependent electrical conductivity in organic charge transfer complexes and radical ion salts. Understanding of the basic conduction mechanism under high pressure in these systems is our aim. The mechanism is discussed mainly on the basis of molecular orbital overlap theory, role of charge transfer forces and charge density waves etc.

  14. Vibrationally resolved charge transfer of O{sup 3+} with molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.G.; Stancil, P.C.; Turner, A.R.; Cooper, D.L.

    2004-06-01

    Charge transfer due to collisions of ground state O{sup 3+}(2s{sup 2}2p {sup 2}P{sup o}) ions with molecular hydrogen are investigated using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital (QMO) coupled-channel method. The QMO calculations utilize ab initio adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements obtained with the spin-coupled valence-bond approach for a representative range of orientation angles and diatom internuclear separations. Vibrationally resolved cross sections for nondissociative single electron capture are obtained for energies between 0.1 eV/u and 10 keV/u for H{sub 2} in its ground vibrational level using the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA). Two further approximations are considered in which the electronic radial couplings are assumed to be independent of the diatom stretching. In the first case, vibrational motion is taken into account by multiplying the electronic radial couplings by Franck-Condon (FC) ionization factors while in the second, vibrational motion is completely neglected. We refer to these two approaches as the vibrational sudden approximation (VSA) and the electronic approximation (EA), respectively. In the latter, the resulting cross sections for electronic transitions are multiplied by FC factors to obtain relative vibrationally resolved cross sections which are independent of the collision energy (the centroid approximation). Comparison with existing experimental data for total and electronic state-selective cross sections shows best agreement with IOSA and VSA, but discrepancies for EA. The triplet-singlet electronic cross section ratio reveals a departure at low collision energies from the statistical value.

  15. Charged Higgs searches in ATLAS 13 TeV center of mass pp collision data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Justin; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    This talk will summarize the search for a charged Higgs that decays to a hadronically decaying tau lepton and its associated neutrino. At high tan β, a Charged Higgs will decay primarily to a t b or τν final state. In such scenarios, the Charged Higgs will be produced in association with a top quark. The final state in this search consists of a hadronically decaying top, at least one b-quark initiated jet, a hadronically decaying tau lepton, and large missing transverse energy from the associated tau neutrinos. The results of Run 1 charged higgs searches at ATLAS will be briefly summarized, including H+ --> c s , t b , W+ Z , and τν . The proton-proton center-of-mass energy increase from Run 1 leads to an increase of the theoretical cross sections by a factor of 4-10, depending on the mass of the charged Higgs. Due to this increase, the run 2 sensitivity is expected to exceed the Run 1 sensitivity with only 3.2 fb-1 of 13 TeV collisions data. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics.

  16. Nonadiabatic dynamics of charge transfer in diatomic anion clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Eunseog; Shin, Seokmin

    2007-12-28

    We have studied the photodissociation and recombination dynamics of the diatomic anions X{sub 2}{sup -} and XY{sup -} designed to mimic I{sub 2}{sup -} and ICl{sup -}, respectively, by using a one-electron model in size-selected N{sub 2}O clusters. The one-electron model is composed of two nuclei and an extra electron moving in a two-dimensional plane including the two nuclei. The main purpose of this study is to explain the salient features of various dynamical processes of molecular ions in clusters using a simple theoretical model. For heteronuclear diatomic anions, a mass disparity and asymmetric electron affinity between the X and Y atoms lead to different phenomena from the homonuclear case. The XY{sup -} anion shows efficient recombination for a smaller cluster size due to the effect of collision-mediated energy transfer and an inherent potential wall on excited state at asymptotic region, while the recombination for the X{sub 2}{sup -} anion is due to rearrangement of solvent configuration and faster nonadiabatic transitions. The results of the present study illustrate the microscopic details of the electronically nonadiabatic processes which control the photodissociation dynamics of molecular ions in clusters.

  17. Dual Fluorescence in GFP Chromophore Analogues: Chemical Modulation of Charge Transfer and Proton Transfer Bands.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Mandal, Mrinal; Das, Ananya; Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Datta, Ayan; Mandal, Prasun K

    2016-04-14

    Dual fluorescence of GFP chromophore analogues has been observed for the first time. OHIM (o-hydroxy imidazolidinone) shows only a charge transfer (CT) band, CHBDI (p-cyclicamino o-hydroxy benzimidazolidinone) shows a comparable intensity CT and PT (proton transfer) band, and MHBDI (p-methoxy o-hydroxy benzimidazolidinone) shows a higher intensity PT band. It could be shown that the differential optical behavior is not due to conformational variation in the solid or solution phase. Rather, control of the excited state electronic energy level and excited state acidity constant by functional group modification could be shown to be responsible for the differential optical behavior. Chemical modification-induced electronic control over the relative intensity of the charge transfer and proton transfer bands could thus be evidenced. Support from single-crystal X-ray structure, NMR, femtosecond to nanosecond fluorescence decay analysis, and TDDFT-based calculation provided important information and thus helped us understand the photophysics better. PMID:26998908

  18. Elastic, charge transfer, and related transport cross sections for proton impact of atomic hydrogen for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. R.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu; Stancil, P. C.; Zaman, T.

    2016-04-01

    Updating and extending previous work (Krstić and Schultz 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3458 and other references) comprehensive calculations were performed for elastic scattering and charge transfer in proton—atomic hydrogen collisions. The results, obtained for 1301 collision energies in the center-of-mass energy range of 10‑4–104 eV, are provided for integral and differential cross sections relevant to transport modeling in astrophysical and other plasma environments, and are made available through a website. Use of the data is demonstrated through a Monte Carlo transport simulation of solar wind proton propagation through atomic hydrogen gas representing a simple model of the solar wind interaction with heliospheric neutrals.

  19. Projectile charge dependence of ionization and dissociation of CO in fast collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthi, Vidhya; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Carnes, K. D.

    1997-02-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study how changes in the interaction strength (defined as q/vb) of a fast ion-molecule colision affect the ionization and dissociation of the molecular target, in this case CO. The coincidence time-of-flight technique was used for collisions at fixed velocity (energy of 1 MeV/amu). The interaction strength was changed by varying the charge of the projectile ion. The cross sections for single and multiple ionization of CO increase rapidly for small q, approximately as q2n (where n is the number of ionized electrons), and more slowly for larger values of q. A rather simple theoretical model based on the independent electron approximation and perturbation theory is in good agreement with the data [1]. The dissociation patterns of the transient COQ+ molecular ions also exhibit a dependence on the projectile charge which is qualitatively explained by the same model.

  20. Measurement of the W boson production charge asymmetry in p pbar collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Bo-Young; /Rochester U.

    2008-05-01

    We present a measurement of the W boson production charge asymmetry using the W {yields} e{nu} decay channel. We use data collected the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data were collected up to February 2006 (Run II) and represent an integrated luminosity of 1 fb{sup -1}. The experimental measurement of W production charge asymmetry is compared to higher order QCD predictions generated using MRST2006 and CTEQ6 parton distribution functions (PDF). The asymmetry provides new input on the momentum fraction dependence of the u and d quark parton distribution functions (PDF) within the proton over the fraction of proton's momentum range from 0.002 < x < 0.8 corresponding to -3.0 < y{sub W} < 3.0 at Q{sup 2} {approx} M{sub W}{sup 2}.

  1. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, T.G.; Alston, S.G.

    1995-08-01

    The research program of Winter and Alston addresses the fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom, ion-ion, and ion-molecule collisions. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-core interaction can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. Winter has focussed on intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He{sup +} collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), in which many electron states are strongly coupled during the collision and a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. Alston has concentrated on higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies), or asymmetric collision systems, for which the coupling of the projectile is weaker with, however, many more target states being coupled together so that high-order perturbation theory is essential. Several calculations by Winter and Alston are described, as set forth in the original proposal.

  2. Charge transfer processes: the role of optimized molecular orbitals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin; Domingo, Alex; Krah, Tim; Robert, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the molecular orbitals on charge transfer (CT) reactions is analyzed through wave function-based calculations. Characteristic CT processes in the organic radical 2,5-di-tert-butyl-6-oxophenalenoxyl linked with tetrathiafulvalene and the inorganic crystalline material LaMnO3 show that changes in the inner shells must be explicitly taken into account. Such electronic reorganization can lead to a reduction of the CT vertical transition energy up to 66%. A state-specific approach accessible through an adapted CASSCF (complete active space self-consistent field) methodology is capable of reaching good agreement with the experimental spectroscopy of CT processes. A partitioning of the relaxation energy in terms of valence- and inner-shells is offered and sheds light on their relative importance. This work paves the way to the intimate description of redox reactions using quantum chemistry methods. PMID:24781811

  3. HST WFC3/UVIS: charge transfer efficiency monitoring and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia M.; Sosey, Megan L.; Anderson, Jay; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Bourque, Matthew; Bajaj, Varun; Khandrika, Harish G.; Martlin, Catherine; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Sabbi, Elena; WFC3 Team

    2016-01-01

    The harsh low-earth orbit environment is known to damage CCD devices and the HST WFC3/UVIS camera is no exception. One consequence of the radiation damage is charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) loss over time. We summarize the level of the CTE losses, the effect on science data, and the pre- and post-observation mitigation options available. Among them is the pixel-based CTE correction, which has been incorporated into the HST automatic data processing pipeline. The pipeline now provides both standard and CTE-corrected data products; observers with older data can re-retrieve their images via the the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to obtain the new products.

  4. Magnetic ordering in fullerene charge-transfer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tohru; Yamabe, Tokio; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi

    1997-07-01

    We have determined the ground states of the charge-transfer (CT) complexes in which the energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of donors and the lowest unoccupied MO (LUMO) of acceptors are closely located, and examined some fullerene complexes consisting of C60, C70, tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE), and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethyl-Δ2,2'-bi(imidazolidine) (TMBI). The observed magnetic properties of TDAE-C60, TMBI-C60, and TDAE-C70 can be accounted for by employing realistic parameters. The effective Hamiltonian including up to the fourth-order perturbation has also been derived in the fourfold degenerate model space. The effective Hamiltonian can plausibly reproduce the magnetic phase diagram obtained by the variational treatment of TDAE-C60. It has been shown that the third and the fourth processes contribute to the stabilization of the antiferromagnetic state.

  5. Experimental study of low-energy charge transfer in nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.

    1979-01-01

    Total charge transfer cross sections were obtained for the N2(+)-N2 system with relative translational ion energies between 9 and 441 eV. Data were obtained to examine the dependence of total cross section on ion energy. The effect of ion excitation on the cross sections was studied by varying the electron ionization energy in the mass spectrometer ion source over an electron energy range between 14.5 and 32.1 eV. The dependence of total cross section on the neutralization chamber gas pressure was examined by obtaining data at pressure values from 9.9 to 0.000199 torr. Cross section values obtained were compared with experimental and theoretical results of other investigations.

  6. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.

    2015-12-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given pTmin threshold starting at pTmin=0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV . The particles and the jets are measured in the pseudorapidity ranges |η | <2.4 and 1.9, respectively. The data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and to other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  7. Fluctuations in charged particle multiplicities in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Basu, Sumit; Choudhury, Subikash; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2016-08-01

    Multiplicity distributions of charged particles and their event-by-event fluctuations have been compiled for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the available experimental data at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and also by the use of an event generator. Multiplicity fluctuations are sensitive to QCD phase transition and to the presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In addition, multiplicity fluctuations provide baselines for other event-by-event measurements. Multiplicity fluctuation expressed in terms of the scaled variance of the multiplicity distribution is an intensive quantity, but is sensitive to the volume fluctuation of the system. The importance of the choice of narrow centrality bins and the corrections of the centrality bin-width effect for controlling volume fluctuations have been discussed. It is observed that the mean and width of the multiplicity distributions monotonically increase as functions of increasing centrality at all collision energies, whereas the multiplicity fluctuations show minimal variations with centrality. The beam-energy dependence shows that the multiplicity fluctuations have a slow rise at lower collision energies and remain constant at higher energies.

  8. Photoinduced Charge Transfer from Titania to Surface Doping Site

    PubMed Central

    Inerbaev, Talgat; Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Kilin, Dmitri S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate a theoretical model in which Ru is substituting for Ti at the (100) surface of anatase TiO2. Charge transfer from the photo-excited TiO2 substrate to the catalytic site triggers the photo-catalytic event (such as water oxidation or reduction half-reaction). We perform ab-initio computational modeling of the charge transfer dynamics on the interface of TiO2 nanorod and catalytic site. A slab of TiO2 represents a fragment of TiO2 nanorod in the anatase phase. Titanium to ruthenium replacement is performed in a way to match the symmetry of TiO2 substrate. One molecular layer of adsorbed water is taken into consideration to mimic the experimental conditions. It is found that these adsorbed water molecules saturate dangling surface bonds and drastically affect the electronic properties of systems investigated. The modeling is performed by reduced density matrix method in the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals. A nano-catalyst modeled through replacement defect contributes energy levels near the bottom of the conduction band of TiO2 nano-structure. An exciton in the nano-rod is dissipating due to interaction with lattice vibrations, treated through non-adiabatic coupling. The electron relaxes to conduction band edge and then to the Ru cite with faster rate than hole relaxes to the Ru cite. These results are of the importance for an optimal design of nano-materials for photo-catalytic water splitting and solar energy harvesting. PMID:23795229

  9. Photoinduced Charge Transfer from Titania to Surface Doping Site.

    PubMed

    Inerbaev, Talgat; Hoefelmeyer, James D; Kilin, Dmitri S

    2013-05-16

    We evaluate a theoretical model in which Ru is substituting for Ti at the (100) surface of anatase TiO2. Charge transfer from the photo-excited TiO2 substrate to the catalytic site triggers the photo-catalytic event (such as water oxidation or reduction half-reaction). We perform ab-initio computational modeling of the charge transfer dynamics on the interface of TiO2 nanorod and catalytic site. A slab of TiO2 represents a fragment of TiO2 nanorod in the anatase phase. Titanium to ruthenium replacement is performed in a way to match the symmetry of TiO2 substrate. One molecular layer of adsorbed water is taken into consideration to mimic the experimental conditions. It is found that these adsorbed water molecules saturate dangling surface bonds and drastically affect the electronic properties of systems investigated. The modeling is performed by reduced density matrix method in the basis of Kohn-Sham orbitals. A nano-catalyst modeled through replacement defect contributes energy levels near the bottom of the conduction band of TiO2 nano-structure. An exciton in the nano-rod is dissipating due to interaction with lattice vibrations, treated through non-adiabatic coupling. The electron relaxes to conduction band edge and then to the Ru cite with faster rate than hole relaxes to the Ru cite. These results are of the importance for an optimal design of nano-materials for photo-catalytic water splitting and solar energy harvesting. PMID:23795229

  10. Metal-Organic Coordination Number Determined Charge Transfer Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Chu, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Chun-I.; Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Kai-Jheng; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Hoffmann, Germar; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-03-01

    By the appropriate choice of head groups and molecular ligands, various metal-organic coordination geometries can be engineered. Such metal-organic structures provide different chemical environments for molecules and give us templates to study the charge redistribution within the metal-organic interface. We created various metal-organic bonding environment by growing self-assembly nanostructures of Fe-PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride) chains and networks on a Au(111) surface. Bonding environment dependent frontier molecular orbital energies are acquired by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By comparing the frontier energies with the molecular coordination environments, we conclude that the specific coordination affects the magnitude of charge transfer onto each PTCDA in the Fe-PTCDA hybridization system. H.-H. Yang, Y.-H. Chu, C.-I Lu, T.-H. Yang, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Kaun, G. Hoffmann, and M.-T. Lin, ACS Nano 7, 2814 (2013).

  11. Azimuthal Single-Spin Asymmetries of Charged Pions in Jets in p↑ p Collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Kevin; STAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The transversity distribution h1(x), which describes the transverse spin structure of quarks inside of transversely polarized protons, is only accessible through channels that couple h1(x) to another chiral odd distribution, such as the Collins fragmentation function (ΔD(z,kT)). Significant Collins asymmetries of charged pions have been observed in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data. These SIDIS asymmetries combined with e+e- process asymmetries from Belle have allowed for the extraction of h1(x) and ΔD(z ,kT). Uncertainties on h1(x) remain large due to the limited statistics and kinematic reach of the available data. In transversely polarized hadronic collisions, Collins asymmetries may be isolated and extracted by measuring the spin dependent azimuthal distributions of charged pions in jets. This presentation will show the first significant midrapditiy (| η | < 1) Collins asymmetries measured in √{ s} = 200 and 500 GeV p↑ p collisions. These results access higher momentum scales than the existing SIDIS data and will allow for a comprehensive study of evolution and factorization of the Collins channel.

  12. First Observation of Collins Asymmetries for Charged Pions in Jets in p↑ p Collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Kevin; STAR Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The transversity distribution (h1 x), which describes the transverse polarization of quarks in transversely polarized protons, is only accessible through channels that couple h1 x to another chiral odd distribution, such as the Collins fragmentation function (ΔN D z ,kT). Significant Collins asymmetries of charged pions have been observed in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data. These SIDIS asymmetries combined with e+e- process asymmetries from Belle and BaBar have allowed for the extraction of h1 x and ΔN D z ,kT . Uncertainties on h1 x remain large due to the limited statistics and kinematic reach of the available data. In transversely polarized hadronic collisions, Collins asymmetries may be isolated and extracted by measuring the spin dependent azimuthal distributions of charged pions in jets. This presentation will show the first observation of midrapditiy (| η | < 1) Collins asymmetries measured in √{ s} = 200 and 500 GeV p↑ p collisions. These results access higher momentum scales than the existing SIDIS data and will allow for a comprehensive study of evolution and factorization of the Collins channel.

  13. Doping graphene films via chemically mediated charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryousuke; Bando, Masashi; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive films (TCFs) are critical components of a myriad of technologies including flat panel displays, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Graphene-based TCFs have attracted a lot of attention because of their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and low cost. Carrier doping of graphene would potentially improve the properties of graphene-based TCFs for practical industrial applications. However, controlling the carrier type and concentration of dopants in graphene films is challenging, especially for the synthesis of p-type films. In this article, a new method for doping graphene using the conjugated organic molecule, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), is described. Notably, TCNQ is well known as a powerful electron accepter and is expected to favor electron transfer from graphene into TCNQ molecules, thereby leading to p-type doping of graphene films. Small amounts of TCNQ drastically improved the resistivity without degradation of optical transparency. Our carrier doping method based on charge transfer has a huge potential for graphene-based TCFs. PMID:21711624

  14. Charge Transfer Characteristics and Initiation Mechanisms of Long Delayed Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Cummer, S. A.; Lyons, W. A.; Nelson, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    Simultaneous measurements of high altitude optical emissions and the magnetic field produced by sprite-associated lightning discharges enable a close examination of the link between low altitude lightning process and high altitude sprite process. In this work, we report results of the coordinated analysis of high speed (1000--10000 frames per second) sprite video and wideband (0.1 Hz to 30 kHz) magnetic field measurements made simultaneously at the Yucca Ridge Field Station and Duke University during the June through August 2005 campaign period. During the observation period, the high speed camera detected 83 sprite events in 67 TLE sequences, which are caused by the same number of +CGs. 46% of these sprite events are delayed more than 10 ms after the lightning return stroke. With the estimated lightning source current moment waveform, we computed the continuing current amplitude and total charge transfer characteristics of the long delayed sprites (>10 ms delay). Our calculation shows the total charge moment change of the long delayed sprites can vary from several hundred C km to more than ten thousand C km. All the long delayed sprites are related with intense continuing current bigger than 2 kA. This continuing current provides about 50% to 90% of the total charge transfer. However, a bigger continuing current does not necessarily mean a shorter time delay. This indicates that other processes also involved in the sprite initiation for long delayed sprites. In our observations, the sferic burst, a high frequency noise caused by intra-cloud activity, is always accompanied by a slow intensification in the lightning source current before the time of sprite initiation. Thus we used the lightning source current as an input and employed a 2-D FDTD model to numerically simulate the electric field at different altitudes and compare it with the breakdown field. Including the effect of the electron mobility dependence on electric field, the simulation results showed that

  15. Signatures of the electron saddle swaps mechanism in the photon spectra following charge-exchange collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otranto, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    During the last few years, several experimental and theoretical studies have focused on state selective charge exchange processes between charged ions and alkali metals. These data are of particular importance for the tokamak nuclear fusion reactor program, since diagnostics on the plasma usually rely on charge-exchange spectroscopy. In this sense, alkali metals, have been proposed as potential alternatives to excited hydrogen/deuterium for which laboratory experiments are not feasible at present. In this talk, we present our recent work involving ion collisions with alkali metals. Oscillatory structures in the angular differential charge-exchange cross sections obtained using the MOTRIMS technique are correctly described by classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. These oscillations are found to originate from the number of swaps the electron undergoes around the projectile-target potential saddle before capture takes place and are very prominent at impact energies below 10 keV/amu. Moreover, cross sections of higher order of differentiability also indicate that the swaps leave distinctive signatures in the (n,l)-state selective cross sections and in the photon line emission cross sections. Oscillatory structures for the x-ray hardness ratio parameter are also predicted. In collaboration with Ronnie Hoekstra, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen and Ronald Olson, Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology.

  16. Hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly and charge separation in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Matter with chiral fermions is microscopically described by theory with quantum anomaly and macroscopically described (at low energy) by anomalous hydrodynamics. For such systems in the presence of external magnetic field and chirality imbalance, a charge current is generated along the magnetic field direction - a phenomenon known as the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). The quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides an (approximate) example, for which the CME predicts a charge separation perpendicular to the collisional reaction plane. Charge correlation measurements designed for the search of such signal have been done at RHIC and the LHC for which the interpretations, however, remain unclear due to contamination by background effects that are collective flow driven, theoretically poorly constrained, and experimentally hard to separate. Using anomalous (and viscous) hydrodynamic simulations, we make a first attempt at quantifying contributions to observed charge correlations from both CME and background effects in one and same framework. The implications for the search of CME are discussed.

  17. Charge transfer inefficiency in the pre- and post-irradiated Swept Charge Device CCD236

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; Gow, J. P. D.; Pool, P.; Holland, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the mapping of spectral response of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 pre and post irradiation with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons cm-2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector which will be used in India's Chandrayaan-2 Large Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) and China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). To enable the suppression of surface dark current, clocking is performed continuously resulting in a linear readout. As such the flat field illumination used to measure any change in spectral response over a conventional Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) is not possible. An alternative masking technique has been used to expose pinpoint regions of the device to Mn-Kα and Mn-Kβ X-rays, enabling a local map of spectral response to be built up over the device. This novel approach allows for an estimation of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) of the device to be made by allowing the creation of a CTI scatter plot similar to that typically observed in conventional CCDs.

  18. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-12-21

    The kinetic, electronic and spectroscopic properties of two-dimensional oxide-supported catalysts were investigated in order to understand the role of charge transfer in catalysis. Pt/TiO2 nanodiodes were fabricated and used as catalysts for hydrogen oxidation. During the reaction, the current through the diode, as well as its I-V curve, were monitored, while gas chromatography was used to measure the reaction rate. The current and the turnover rate were found to have the same temperature dependence, indicating that hydrogen oxidation leads to the non-adiabatic excitation of electrons in Pt. A fraction of these electrons have enough energy to ballistically transport through Pt and overcome the Schottky barrier at the interface with TiO2. The yield for this phenomenon is on the order of 10-4 electrons per product molecule formed, similar to what has been observed for CO oxidation and for the adsorption of many different molecules. The same Pt/TiO2 system was used to compare currents in hydrogen oxidation and deuterium oxidation. The current through the diode under deuterium oxidation was found to be greater than under hydrogen oxidation by a factor of three. Weighted by the difference in turnover frequencies for the two isotopes, this would imply a chemicurrent yield 5 times greater for D2 compared to H2, contrary to what is expected given the higher mass of D2. Reversible changes in the rectification factor of the diode are observed when switching between D2 and H2. These changes are a likely cause for the differences in current between the two isotopes. In the nanodiode experiments, surface chemistry leads to charge flow, suggesting the possibility of creating charge flow to tune surface chemistry. This was done first by exposing a Pt/Si diode to visible light while using it as a catalyst for H2 oxidation. Absorption of the light in the Si, combined with

  19. Pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Kamel, M.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in pp collisions at √{ s} = 13 TeV is measured using a data sample obtained with the CMS detector, operated at zero magnetic field, at the CERN LHC. The yield of primary charged long-lived hadrons produced in inelastic pp collisions is determined in the central region of the CMS pixel detector (| η | < 2) using both hit pairs and reconstructed tracks. For central pseudorapidities (| η | < 0.5), the charged-hadron multiplicity density is dNch / dη | | η | < 0.5 = 5.49 ± 0.01(stat) ± 0.17(syst), a value obtained by combining the two methods. The result is compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators and to similar measurements made at lower collision energies.

  20. Charged-Particle Pseudorapidity Density Distributions from Au+Au Collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2001-09-01

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/dη has been measured for Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV at RHIC, using the PHOBOS apparatus. The total number of charged particles produced for the 3% most-central Au+Au collisions for \\|η\\|<=5.4 is found to be 4200+/-470. The evolution of dNch/dη with centrality is discussed, and compared to model calculations and to data from proton-induced collisions. The data show an enhancement in charged-particle production at midrapidity, while in the fragmentation regions, the results are consistent with expectations from pp and pA scattering.

  1. A measurement of charged particle ratios at high transverse momentum in an ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, Matthew Allen

    Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions taking place at RHIC are thought to create conditions favorable for the creation of a quark gluon plasma (QGP). It is the main goal of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to create and provide a definitive characterization of the quark-gluon plasma believed to be created in high energy heavy ion collisions. A determination of the initial conditions leading to the formation of a QGP is an important part of understanding its properties. Information about the evolution of the system formed during a heavy ion collision can be obtained by investigating charged particle ratios. The charged pion and kaon particle ratios as well as the anti-proton-to-proton ratio have been measured at high transverse momentum using a RICH detector, Comparisons have been made to previous measurements made with smaller collision systems and are found to be consistent with expectations derived from these smaller systems. The transverse momentum dependence of the charged particle ratios is consistent with being constant over the range measured, 0.75 < p⊥[GeV/c] < 2.5 and can be described within a thermodynamical model of the collision and is an indication that chemical equilibrium was achieved over the course of the collision.

  2. Detection of Orbital Debris Collision Risks for the Automated Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peret, L.; Legendre, P.; Delavault, S.; Martin, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general collision risk assessment method, which has been applied through numerical simulations to the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) case. During ATV ascent towards the International Space Station, close approaches between the ATV and objects of the USSTRACOM catalog will be monitored through collision rosk assessment. Usually, collision risk assessment relies on an exclusion volume or a probability threshold method. Probability methods are more effective than exclusion volumes but require accurate covariance data. In this work, we propose to use a criterion defined by an adaptive exclusion area. This criterion does not require any probability calculation but is more effective than exclusion volume methods as demonstrated by our numerical experiments. The results of these studies, when confirmed and finalized, will be used for the ATV operations.

  3. Overview of Processes Involved in Spin Transfer Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Buttimore, N. H.

    2008-04-30

    An outline is provided of methods for polarizing antiprotons that include the possible use of channelling in a bent crystal and also the technique of scattering off leptons or protons at a suitably small angle. In the method of channelling it is suggested that the angular dependence of the analysing power of the incident particle is cubic in the angle for single scattering in the crystal when this takes place within the region of electromagnetic hadronic interference as is most likely for channelled particles. Polarization transfer in the scattering of antiprotons off leptons or protons is discussed in addition where emphasis is laid on the angular integrals over spin observables appropriate for spin filtering.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Silicon and Iron Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1996-01-01

    Charge transfer at electron-volt energies between multiply charged atomic ions and neutral atoms and molecules is of considerable importance in astrophysics, plasma physics, and in particular, fusion plasmas. In the year covered by this report, several major tasks were completed. These include: (1) the re-calibration of the ion gauge to measure the absolute particle densities of H2, He, N2, and CO for our current measurements; (2) the analysis of data for charge transfer reactions of N(exp 2 plus) ion and He, H2, N2, and CO; (3) measurement and data analysis of the charge transfer reaction of (Fe(exp 2 plus) ion and H2; (4) charge transfer measurement of Fe(exp 2 plus) ion and H2; and (5) redesign and modification of the ion detection and data acquisition system for the low energy beam facility (reflection time of flight mass spectrometer) dedicated to the study of state select charge transfer.

  5. Antihydrogen (\\overline{H}) and muonic antihydrogen (\\overline{H}_{\\mu }) formation in low energy three-charge-particle collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, D.

    2013-11-01

    A few-body formalism is applied for computation of two different three-charge-particle systems. The first system is a collision of a slow antiproton, \\overline{p}, with a positronium atom: Ps=(e+e-)—a bound state of an electron and a positron. The second problem is a collision of \\overline{p} with a muonic muonium atom, i.e. true muonium—a bound state of two muons one positive and one negative: Psμ = (μ+μ-). The total cross section of the following two reactions: \\overlinep+(e^+e^-) \\rightarrow \\overline{H} + e^- and \\overlinep+(\\mu ^+\\mu ^-) \\rightarrow \\overline{H}_{\\mu } + \\mu ^-, where \\overline{H}=(\\overlinepe^+) is antihydrogen and \\overline{H}_{\\mu }=(\\overlinep\\mu ^+) is a muonic antihydrogen atom, i.e. a bound state of \\overline{p} and μ+, are computed in the framework of a set of coupled two-component Faddeev-Hahn-type (FH-type) equations. Unlike the original Faddeev approach the FH-type equations are formulated in terms of only two but relevant components: Ψ1 and Ψ2, of the system's three-body wave function Ψ, where Ψ = Ψ1 + Ψ2. In order to solve the FH-type equations Ψ1 is expanded in terms of the input channel target eigenfunctions, i.e. in this work in terms of, for example, the (μ+μ-) atom eigenfunctions. At the same time Ψ2 is expanded in terms of the output channel two-body wave functions, that is in terms of \\overline{H}_{\\mu } atom eigenfunctions. Additionally, a convenient total angular momentum projection is performed. Results for better known low energy μ- transfer reactions from one hydrogen isotope to another hydrogen isotope in the cycle of muon catalyzed fusion (μCF) are also computed and presented.

  6. Solvation-Driven Charge Transfer and Localization in Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus In any physicochemical process in liquids, the dynamical response of the solvent to the solutes out of equilibrium plays a crucial role in the rates and products: the solvent molecules react to the changes in volume and electron density of the solutes to minimize the free energy of the solution, thus modulating the activation barriers and stabilizing (or destabilizing) intermediate states. In charge transfer (CT) processes in polar solvents, the response of the solvent always assists the formation of charge separation states by stabilizing the energy of the localized charges. A deep understanding of the solvation mechanisms and time scales is therefore essential for a correct description of any photochemical process in dense phase and for designing molecular devices based on photosensitizers with CT excited states. In the last two decades, with the advent of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopies, microscopic models describing the relevant case of polar solvation (where both the solvent and the solute molecules have a permanent electric dipole and the mutual interaction is mainly dipole–dipole) have dramatically progressed. Regardless of the details of each model, they all assume that the effect of the electrostatic fields of the solvent molecules on the internal electronic dynamics of the solute are perturbative and that the solvent–solute coupling is mainly an electrostatic interaction between the constant permanent dipoles of the solute and the solvent molecules. This well-established picture has proven to quantitatively rationalize spectroscopic effects of environmental and electric dynamics (time-resolved Stokes shifts, inhomogeneous broadening, etc.). However, recent computational and experimental studies, including ours, have shown that further improvement is required. Indeed, in the last years we investigated several molecular complexes exhibiting photoexcited CT states, and we found that the current description of the formation and

  7. High-energy collision-activated and electron-transfer dissociation of gas-phase complexes of tryptophan with Na+, K+, and Ca2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Sha, Yuki; Matsuo, Sou; Toyoda, Michisato; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2014-10-01

    The structure and reactivity of gas-phase complexes of tryptophan (Trp) with Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were examined by high-energy collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) using alkali metal targets. In the CAD spectra of M+Trp (M = Na and K), neutral Trp loss was the primary dissociation pathway, and the product ion of collision-induced intracomplex electron transfer from the indole π ring of Trp to the alkali metal ion was observed, indicating a charge-solvated structure in which Trp is non-zwitterionic. The NH3 loss observed in the CAD spectrum of Ca2+Trp2 is ascribed to a CZ (mixed charge-solvated/zwitterionic)-type structure, in which one Trp is non-zwitterionic and the other Trp adopts a zwitterionic structure with an NH3+ moiety. The H atom and NH3 losses observed in the ETD spectrum of Ca2+Trp2 indicate the formation of a hypervalent radical in the complex, R-NH3, via electron transfer from the alkali metal target to the NH3+ group of the CZ-type structure. Ca2+ attachment to Trp cluster induces the zwitterionic structure of Trp in the gas phase, and an electron transfer to the zwitterionic Trp forms the hypervalent radical as a reaction intermediate.

  8. Unfolding of event-by-event net-charge distributions in heavy-ion collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, P.; Mishra, D. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohanty, B.

    2013-05-01

    We discuss a method to obtain the true event-by-event net-charge multiplicity distributions from a corresponding measured distribution which is subjected to detector effects such as finite particle counting efficiency. The approach is based on the Bayes method for the unfolding of distributions. We are able to faithfully unfold back the measured distributions to match their corresponding true distributions obtained for a widely varying underlying particle production mechanism, beam energy and collision centrality. Particularly the mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis and their products and ratios of net-charge distributions from the event generators are shown to be successfully unfolded from the measured distributions constructed to mimic a real experimental distribution. We demonstrate the necessity to account for detector effects before associating the higher moments of net-charge distributions with physical quantities or phenomena. The advantage of this approach is that one need not construct new observables to cancel out detector effects which lose their ability to be connected to physical quantities calculable in standard theories.

  9. Nematic and spin-charge orders driven by hole-doping a charge-transfer insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mark H.; Wu, Si; Lawler, Michael; Paramekanti, Arun; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2014-09-01

    Recent experimental discoveries have brought a diverse set of broken symmetry states to the center stage of research on cuprate superconductors. Here, we focus on a thematic understanding of the diverse phenomenology by exploring a strong-coupling mechanism of symmetry breaking driven by frustration of antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. We achieve this through a variational study of a three-band model of the CuO2 plane with Kondo type exchange couplings between doped oxygen holes and classical copper spins. Two main findings from this strong-coupling multi-band perspective are (1) that the symmetry hierarchy of spin stripe, charge stripe, intra-unit-cell nematic order and isotropic phases are all accessible microscopically within the model, (2) many symmetry-breaking patterns compete with energy differences within a few meV per Cu atom to produce a rich phase diagram. These results indicate that the diverse phenomenology of broken-symmetry states in hole-doped AFM charge-transfer insulators may indeed arise from hole-doped frustration of antiferromagnetism.

  10. Study of the production of charged pions, kaons, and protons in pPb collisions at 5.02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Van der Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Selvaggi, M.; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Martins Junior, M. Correa; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Lagana, C.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Montoya, C. A. Carrillo; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Gomez, J. P.; Moreno, B. Gomez; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Heine, K.; Höing, R. S.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Marchesini, I.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Saxena, P.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Mehdiabadi, S. Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; de Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Kanishchev, F. K.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Mazza, G.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. E.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Grigelionis, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de La Cruz, I. Heredia; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Linares, E. Casimiro; Pineda, A. Morelos; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; Da Cruz E Silva, C. Beirão; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Nguyen, F.; Antunes, J. Rodrigues; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Korotkikh, V.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Vardanyan, I.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcarez Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Llatas, M. Chamizo; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Lopez, O. Gonzalez; Lopez, S. Goy; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pelayo, J. Puerta; Quinario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzales Caballero, I.; Iglesias, L. Lloret; Gomez, J. Piedra; Cifuentes, J. A. Brochero; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Campderros, J. Duarte; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Sanchez, F. J. Munoz; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Cortabitarte, R. Vilar; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bendavid, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Perez, J. A. Coarasa; Colafranceschi, S.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y.-J.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Cortezon, E. Palencia; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Stoye, M.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; del Arbol, P. Martinez Ruiz; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Taroni, S.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Bryer, A. Guneratne; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; De La Barca Sanchez, M. Calderon; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Felcini, M.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Takasugi, E.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Jandir, P.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Campagnari, C.; D'Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Kcira, D.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Lopez, E. Luiggi; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Outschoorn, V. I. Martinez; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Ratnikova, N.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Lacroix, F.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Haupt, J.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Suarez, R. Gonzalez; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Wan, Z.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2014-06-01

    Spectra of identified charged hadrons are measured in pPb collisions with the CMS detector at the LHC at . Charged pions, kaons, and protons in the transverse-momentum range -1.7 and laboratory rapidity are identified via their energy loss in the silicon tracker. The average increases with particle mass and the charged multiplicity of the event. The increase of the average with charged multiplicity is greater for heavier hadrons. Comparisons to Monte Carlo event generators reveal that Epos Lhc, which incorporates additional hydrodynamic evolution of the created system, is able to reproduce most of the data features, unlike Hijing and Ampt. The spectra and integrated yields are also compared to those measured in pp and PbPb collisions at various energies. The average transverse momentum and particle ratio measurements indicate that particle production at LHC energies is strongly correlated with event particle multiplicity.

  11. Ultrafast charge transfer processes in ordered molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Eric James Crane

    1998-11-01

    optical microscopy (NSOM) are used in conjunction with bulk absorption and fluorescence measurements to correlate the morphological and photophysical properties of titanyl phthalocyanine/perylene phenethylimide (TiOPc/PPEI) bilayer systems. Steady-state fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime measurements are used as a measure of interfacial charge-transfer quenching efficiencies.

  12. Quantum ferroelectricity in charge-transfer complex crystals

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Minami, Nao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Quantum phase transition achieved by fine tuning the continuous phase transition down to zero kelvin is a challenge for solid state science. Critical phenomena distinct from the effects of thermal fluctuations can materialize when the electronic, structural or magnetic long-range order is perturbed by quantum fluctuations between degenerate ground states. Here we have developed chemically pure tetrahalo-p-benzoquinones of n iodine and 4–n bromine substituents (QBr4–nIn, n=0–4) to search for ferroelectric charge-transfer complexes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Among them, TTF–QBr2I2 exhibits a ferroelectric neutral–ionic phase transition, which is continuously controlled over a wide temperature range from near-zero kelvin to room temperature under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum critical behaviour is accompanied by a much larger permittivity than those of other neutral–ionic transition compounds, such as well-known ferroelectric complex of TTF–QCl4 and quantum antiferroelectric of dimethyl–TTF–QBr4. By contrast, TTF–QBr3I complex, another member of this compound family, shows complete suppression of the ferroelectric spin-Peierls-type phase transition. PMID:26076656

  13. Dynamic Peptide Library for the Discovery of Charge Transfer Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Berdugo, Cristina; Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Javid, Nadeem; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F; Ulijn, Rein V

    2015-11-25

    Coupling of peptide self-assembly to dynamic sequence exchange provides a useful approach for the discovery of self-assembling materials. In here, we demonstrate the discovery and optimization of aqueous, gel-phase nanostructures based on dynamically exchanging peptide sequences that self-select to maximize charge transfer of n-type semiconducting naphthalenediimide (NDI)-dipeptide bioconjugates with various π-electron-rich donors (dialkoxy/hydroxy/amino-naphthalene or pyrene derivatives). These gel-phase peptide libraries are characterized by spectroscopy (UV-vis and fluorescence), microscopy (TEM), HPLC, and oscillatory rheology and it is found that, of the various peptide sequences explored (tyrosine Y-NDI with tyrosine Y, phenylalanine F, leucine L, valine V, alanine A or glycine G-NH2), the optimum sequence is tyrosine-phenylalanine in each case; however, both its absolute and relative yield amplification is dictated by the properties of the donor component, indicating cooperativity of peptide sequence and donor/acceptor pairs in assembly. The methodology provides an in situ discovery tool for nanostructures that enable dynamic interfacing of supramolecular electronics with aqueous (biological) systems. PMID:26540455

  14. Quantum ferroelectricity in charge-transfer complex crystals.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Minami, Nao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Quantum phase transition achieved by fine tuning the continuous phase transition down to zero kelvin is a challenge for solid state science. Critical phenomena distinct from the effects of thermal fluctuations can materialize when the electronic, structural or magnetic long-range order is perturbed by quantum fluctuations between degenerate ground states. Here we have developed chemically pure tetrahalo-p-benzoquinones of n iodine and 4-n bromine substituents (QBr4-nIn, n=0-4) to search for ferroelectric charge-transfer complexes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Among them, TTF-QBr2I2 exhibits a ferroelectric neutral-ionic phase transition, which is continuously controlled over a wide temperature range from near-zero kelvin to room temperature under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum critical behaviour is accompanied by a much larger permittivity than those of other neutral-ionic transition compounds, such as well-known ferroelectric complex of TTF-QCl4 and quantum antiferroelectric of dimethyl-TTF-QBr4. By contrast, TTF-QBr3I complex, another member of this compound family, shows complete suppression of the ferroelectric spin-Peierls-type phase transition. PMID:26076656

  15. Charge transfer vibronic transitions in uranyl tetrachloride compounds;

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G. K.; Deifel, N. P.; Cahill, C. L.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic and vibronic interactions of uranyl (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+} in three tetrachloride crystals have been investigated with spectroscopic experiments and theoretical modeling. Analysis and simulation of the absorption and photoluminescence spectra have resulted in a quantitative understanding of the charge transfer vibronic transitions of uranyl in the crystals. The spectra obtained at liquid helium temperature consist of extremely narrow zero-phonon lines (ZPL) and vibronic bands. The observed ZPLs are assigned to the first group of the excited states formed by electronic excitation from the 3{sigma} ground state into the f{sub {delta}{phi}}, orbitals of uranyl. The Huang-Rhys theory of vibronic coupling is modified successfully for simulating both the absorption and luminescence spectra. It is shown that only vibronic coupling to the axially symmetric stretching mode is Franck-Condon allowed, whereas other modes are involved through coupling with the symmetric stretching mode. The energies of electronic transitions, vibration frequencies of various local modes, and changes in the O=U=O bond length of uranyl in different electronic states and in different coordination geometries are evaluated in empirical simulations of the optical spectra. Multiple uranyl sites derived from the resolution of a superlattice at low temperature are resolved by crystallographic characterization and time- and energy-resolved spectroscopic studies. The present empirical simulation provides insights into fundamental understanding of uranyl electronic interactions and is useful for quantitative characterization of uranyl coordination.

  16. Charge transfer vibronic transitions in uranyl tetrachloride compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guokui; Deifel, Nicholas P.; Cahill, Christopher L.; Zhurov, Vladimir V.; Pinkerton, A. Alan

    2012-01-01

    The electronic and vibronic interactions of uranyl (UO₂)2+ in three tetrachloride crystals have been investigated with spectroscopic experiments and theoretical modeling. Analysis and simulation of the absorption and photoluminescence spectra have resulted in a quantitative understanding of the charge transfer vibronic transitions of uranyl in the crystals. The spectra obtained at liquid helium temperature consist of extremely narrow zero-phonon lines (ZPL) and vibronic bands. The observed ZPLs are assigned to the first group of the excited states formed by electronic excitation from the 3σ ground state into the fδ,Φ orbitals of uranyl. The Huang–Rhys theory of vibronic coupling is modified successfully for simulating both the absorption and luminescence spectra. It is shown that only vibronic coupling to the axially symmetric stretching mode is Franck–Condon allowed, whereas other modes are involved through coupling with the symmetric stretching mode. The energies of electronic transitions, vibration frequencies of various local modes, and changes in the O=U=O bond length of uranyl in different electronic states and in different coordination geometries are evaluated in empirical simulations of the optical spectra. Multiple uranyl sites derived from the resolution of a superlattice at low temperature are resolved by crystallographic characterization and time- and energy-resolved spectroscopic studies. The present empirical simulation provides insights into fundamental understanding of uranyl electronic interactions and is useful for quantitative characterization of uranyl coordination.

  17. Charge transfer and in-cloud structure of large-charge-moment positive lightning strokes in a mesoscale convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gaopeng; Cummer, Steven A.; Li, Jingbo; Han, Feng; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    2009-08-01

    Lightning observations in the very high frequency band and measurements of ultra low frequency magnetic fields are analyzed to investigate the charge transfer and in-cloud structure of eight positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) strokes in a mesoscale convective system. Although no high altitude images were recorded, these strokes contained large charge moment changes (1500-3200 C·km) capable of producing nighttime sprites. Even though the convective region of the storm was where the flashes originated and where the CG strokes could occur, the charge transferred to ground was mainly from the stratiform region. The post-stroke long continuing currents were connected to highly branched negative leader extension into the stratiform region. While the storm dissipated, the altitude of negative leader propagation in the stratiform area dropped gradually from 8 to 5 km, indicating that in some and perhaps all of these strokes, it was the upper positive charge in the stratiform region that was transferred.

  18. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai; Liang, Linagbo

    2016-05-10

    Here, the success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherentmore » charge oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the

  19. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Chen; Damien, West; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Prof. Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    The success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherent charge oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application

  20. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in d+Au and p+p collisions at {\\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = \\rm {200 \\;GeV} }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, Rachid; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles are presented for d+Au and p+p collisions at {\\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = \\rm {200\\;GeV} } over a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr|les 5.4. The results for d+Au collisions are presented for minimum-bias events and as a function of collision centrality. The measurements for p+p collisions are shown for minimum-bias events. The ratio of the charged particle multiplicity in d+Au and p+A collisions relative to that for inelastic p+p collisions is found to depend only on langNpartrang, and it is remarkably independent of collision energy and system mass. The deuteron and gold fragmentation regions in d+Au collisions are in good agreement with proton nucleus data at lower energies.

  1. Scaling for state-selective charge exchange due to collisions of multicharged ions with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, A.; Illescas, Clara; Miraglia, J. E.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we evaluate state-resolved charge exchange cross sections for Be{}4+, {{{B}}}5+, {{{C}}}6+, {{{N}}}7+, and {{{O}}}8+ projectiles colliding with atomic hydrogen employing two different methods: the classical trajectory Monte Carlo and the eikonal impulse approximations. These cross sections are used to extend previously derived scaling laws for n-, nl-, and nlm-distributions to highly excited final levels with 4≤slant n≤slant 9, covering energies in the range 50-2000 {{keV}}/ amu. Present total and partial capture cross sections are in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data for these collision systems. Besides, the proposed scaling rules are also verified by other theories, becoming a useful instrument for plasma research.

  2. Scaling for state-selective charge exchange due to collisions of multicharged ions with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, A.; Illescas, Clara; Miraglia, J. E.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In this article we evaluate state-resolved charge exchange cross sections for Be{}4+, {{{B}}}5+, {{{C}}}6+, {{{N}}}7+, and {{{O}}}8+ projectiles colliding with atomic hydrogen employing two different methods: the classical trajectory Monte Carlo and the eikonal impulse approximations. These cross sections are used to extend previously derived scaling laws for n-, nl-, and nlm-distributions to highly excited final levels with 4≤slant n≤slant 9, covering energies in the range 50-2000 {{keV}}/ amu. Present total and partial capture cross sections are in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data for these collision systems. Besides, the proposed scaling rules are also verified by other theories, becoming a useful instrument for plasma research.

  3. Mechanism of Charge Transfer from Plasmonic Nanostructures to Chemically Attached Materials.

    PubMed

    Boerigter, Calvin; Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-28

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles can efficiently convert the energy of visible photons into the energy of hot charge carriers within the nanoparticles. These energetic charge carriers can transfer to molecules or semiconductors, chemically attached to the nanoparticles, where they can induce photochemical transformations. Classical models of photoinduced charge excitation and transfer in metals suggest that the majority of the energetic charge carriers rapidly decay within the metal nanostructure before they are transferred into the neighboring molecule or semiconductor, and therefore, the efficiency of charge transfer is low. Herein, we present experimental evidence that calls into question this conventional picture. We demonstrate a system where the presence of a molecule, adsorbed on the surface of a plasmonic nanoparticle, significantly changes the flow of charge within the excited plasmonic system. The nanoparticle-adsorbate system experiences high rates of direct, resonant flow of charge from the nanoparticle to the molecule, bypassing the conventional charge excitation and thermalization process taking place in the nanoparticle. This picture of charge transfer suggests that the yield of extracted hot electrons (or holes) from plasmonic nanoparticles can be significantly higher than the yields expected based on conventional models. We discuss a conceptual physical framework that allows us to explain our experimental observations. This analysis points us in a direction toward molecular control of the charge transfer process using interface and local field engineering strategies. PMID:27268233

  4. Wire transfer of charge packets using a CCD-BBD structure for charge-domain signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1991-02-01

    A structure for the virtual transfer of charge packets across metal wires is described theoretically and is experimentally verified. The structure is a hybrid of charge-coupled device (CCD) and bucket-brigade device (BBD) elements and permits the topological crossing of charge-domain signals in low power signal processing circuits. A test vehicle consisting of 8-, 32-, and 96-stage delay lines of various geometries implemented in a double-poly, double-metal foundry process is used to characterize the wire-transfer operation. Transfer efficiency ranging between 0.998 and 0.999 is obtained for surface n-channel devices with clock cycle times in the range from 40 ns to 0.3 ms. Transfer efficiency as high as 0.9999 is obtained for buried n-channel devices. Good agreement is found between experiment and simulation.

  5. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs. PMID:27160484

  6. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  7. The effects of charge transfer on the properties of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Alexis J.; Rick, Steven W.

    2011-05-14

    A method for treating charge transfer interactions in classical potential models is developed and applied to water. In this method, a discrete amount of charge is transferred for each hydrogen bond formed. It is designed to be simple to implement, to be applicable to a variety of potential models, and to satisfy various physical requirements. The method does not transfer charge at large intramolecular distances, it does not result in a conductive liquid, and it can be easily parameterized to give the correct amount of charge transfer. Two charge transfer models are developed for a polarizable and a non-polarizable potential. The models reproduce many of the properties of liquid water, including the structure, the diffusion constant, and thermodynamic properties over a range of temperatures.

  8. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-05-01

    The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.

  9. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs. PMID:27160484

  10. Crystal growth of new charge-transfer salts based on π-conjugated donor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morherr, Antonia; Witt, Sebastian; Chernenkaya, Alisa; Bäcker, Jan-Peter; Schönhense, Gerd; Bolte, Michael; Krellner, Cornelius

    2016-09-01

    New charge transfer crystals of π-conjugated, aromatic molecules (phenanthrene and picene) as donors were obtained by physical vapor transport. The melting behavior, optimization of crystal growth and the crystal structure are reported for charge transfer salts with (fluorinated) tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ-Fx, x=0, 2, 4), which was used as acceptor material. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Growth conditions for different vapor pressures in closed ampules were applied and the effect of these starting conditions for crystal size and quality is reported. The process of charge transfer was investigated by geometrical analysis of the crystal structure and by infrared spectroscopy on single crystals. With these three different acceptor strengths and the two sets of donor materials, it is possible to investigate the distribution of the charge transfer systematically. This helps to understand the charge transfer process in this class of materials with π-conjugated donor molecules.

  11. Vibrationally enhanced charge transfer and mode/bond-specific H{sup +} and D{sup +} transfer in the reaction of HOD{sup +} with N{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, David M.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-09-21

    The reaction of HOD{sup +} with N{sub 2}O was studied over the collision energy (E{sub col}) range from 0.20 eV to 2.88 eV, for HOD{sup +} in its ground state and in each of its fundamental vibrational states: bend (010), OD stretch (100), and OH stretch (001). The dominant reaction at low E{sub col} is H{sup +} and D{sup +} transfer, but charge transfer becomes dominant for E{sub col} > 0.5 eV. Increasing E{sub col} enhances charge transfer only in the threshold region (E{sub col} < 1 eV), but all modes of HOD{sup +} vibrational excitation enhance this channel over the entire energy range, by up to a factor of three. For reaction of ground state HOD{sup +}, the H{sup +} and D{sup +} transfer channels have similar cross sections, enhanced by increasing collision energy for E{sub col} < 0.3 eV, but suppressed by E{sub col} at higher energies. OD stretch excitation enhances D{sup +} transfer by over a factor of 2, but has little effect on H{sup +} transfer, except at low E{sub col} where a modest enhancement is observed. Excitation of the OH stretch enhances H{sup +} transfer by up to a factor of 2.5, but actually suppresses D{sup +} transfer over most of the E{sub col} range. Excitation of the bend mode results in ∼60% enhancement of both H{sup +} and D{sup +} transfer at low E{sub col} but has little effect at higher energies. Recoil velocity distributions at high E{sub col} are strongly backscattered in the center-of-mass frame, indicating direct reaction dominated by large impact parameter collisions. At low E{sub col} the distributions are compatible with mediation by a short-lived collision complex. Ab initio calculations find several complexes that may be important in this context, and RRKM calculations predict lifetimes and decay branching that is consistent with observations. The recoil velocity distributions show that HOD{sup +} vibrational excitation enhances reactivity in all collisions at low E{sub col}, while for high E{sub col} with enhancement comes

  12. Is there a light collision partner effect in vibrational energy transfer? Relaxation of p-difluorobenzene by He and Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudjijono; Lawrence, Warren D.

    1994-06-01

    State-to-state branching ratios are reported for vibrational energy transfer (VET) from the 30 2 and 8 2 vibrational levels in S 1 ( 1B 2u) p-difluorobenzene by the collision partners He and Ar in the collision region of a supersonic free-jet expansion. For VET from the 8 2 level, He removes more energy than does Ar. This is the expected light collision partner effect. For the 30 2 level, however, Ar unexpectedly removes more energy than He. The opposing behaviour observed for relaxation by He and Ar from two vibrational levels of the same molecule is inconsistent with a universal 'light collision partner effect'.

  13. 46 CFR 35.35-35 - Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duties of person in charge of transfer-TB/ALL. 35.35-35 Section 35.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-35 Duties of person in charge of transfer—TB/ALL. The person in charge of the transfer of liquid cargo in bulk, fuel oil in bulk,...

  14. Charge-transfer excitons at organic semiconductor surfaces and interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X-Y; Yang, Q; Muntwiler, M

    2009-11-17

    When a material of low dielectric constant is excited electronically from the absorption of a photon, the Coulomb attraction between the excited electron and the hole gives rise to an atomic H-like quasi-particle called an exciton. The bound electron-hole pair also forms across a material interface, such as the donor/acceptor interface in an organic heterojunction solar cell; the result is a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. On the basis of typical dielectric constants of organic semiconductors and the sizes of conjugated molecules, one can estimate that the binding energy of a CT exciton across a donor/acceptor interface is 1 order of magnitude greater than k(B)T at room temperature (k(B) is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature). How can the electron-hole pair escape this Coulomb trap in a successful photovoltaic device? To answer this question, we use a crystalline pentacene thin film as a model system and the ubiquitous image band on the surface as the electron acceptor. We observe, in time-resolved two-photon photoemission, a series of CT excitons with binding energies < or = 0.5 eV below the image band minimum. These CT excitons are essential solutions to the atomic H-like Schrodinger equation with cylindrical symmetry. They are characterized by principal and angular momentum quantum numbers. The binding energy of the lowest lying CT exciton with 1s character is more than 1 order of magnitude higher than k(B)T at room temperature. The CT(1s) exciton is essentially the so-called exciplex and has a very low probability of dissociation. We conclude that hot CT exciton states must be involved in charge separation in organic heterojunction solar cells because (1) in comparison to CT(1s), hot CT excitons are more weakly bound by the Coulomb potential and more easily dissociated, (2) density-of-states of these hot excitons increase with energy in the Coulomb potential, and (3) electronic coupling from a donor exciton to a hot CT exciton across the D

  15. Quantifying the intrinsic surface charge density and charge-transfer resistance of the graphene-solution interface through bias-free low-level charge measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jinglei; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2016-07-01

    Liquid-based bio-applications of graphene require a quantitative understanding of the graphene-liquid interface, with the surface charge density of adsorbed ions, the interfacial charge transfer resistance, and the interfacial charge noise being of particular importance. We quantified these properties through measurements of the zero-bias Faradaic charge-transfer between graphene electrodes and aqueous solutions of varying ionic strength using a reproducible, low-noise, minimally perturbative charge measurement technique. The measurements indicated that the adsorbed ions had a negative surface charge density of approximately -32.8 mC m-2 and that the specific charge transfer resistance was 6.5 ± 0.3 MΩ cm2. The normalized current noise power spectral density for all ionic concentrations tested collapsed onto a 1/fα characteristic with α = 1.1 ± 0.2. All the results are in excellent agreement with predictions of the theory for the graphene-solution interface. This minimally perturbative method for monitoring charge-transfer at the sub-pC scale exhibits low noise and ultra-low power consumption (˜fW), making it suitable for use in low-level bioelectronics in liquid environments.

  16. Electron transfer and bond-forming reactions following collisions of I2+ with CO and CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, James D.; Parkes, Michael A.; Price, Stephen D.

    2015-08-01

    Collisions between I2+ and CO have been investigated using time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a range of centre-of-mass collision energies between 0.5 and 3.0 eV. Following I2++CO collisions, we detect I++CO+ from a single-electron transfer reaction and IO++C+ from bond-forming reactivity. Reaction-window calculations, based on Landau-Zener theory, have been used to rationalise the electron transfer reactivity and computational chemistry has been used to explore the [I-CO]2+ potential energy surface to account for the observation of IO+. In addition, collisions between I2+ and CS2 have been investigated over a range of centre-of-mass collision energies between 0.8 and 6.0 eV. Both single- and double-electron transfer reactions are observed in the I2+/CS2 collision system, an observation again rationalised by reaction-window theory. The monocations IS+ and IC+ are also detected following collisions of I2+ with CS2, and these ions are clearly products from a bond-forming reaction. We present a simple model based on the structure of the [I-CS2]2+ collision complex to rationalise the significantly larger yield of IS+ than IC+ in this bond-forming process.

  17. Three-centered model of ultrafast photoinduced charge transfer: Continuum dielectric approach

    SciTech Connect

    Khohlova, Svetlana S.; Mikhailova, Valentina A.; Ivanov, Anatoly I.

    2006-03-21

    A theoretical description of photoinduced charge transfer involves explicit treating both the optical formation of the nuclear wave packet on the excited free energy surface and its ensuing dynamics. The reaction pathway constitutes two-stage charge transfer between three centers. Manifestations of fractional charge transfer at first stage are explored. An expression for time dependent rate constant of photoinduced charge transfer is found in the framework of the linear dielectric continuum model of the medium. The model involves both the intramolecular vibrational reorganization and the Coulombic interaction of the transferred charge with the medium polarization fluctuations and allows to express the rate in terms of intramolecular reorganization parameters and complex dielectric permittivity. The influence of the vibrational coherent motion in the locally excited state on the charge transfer dynamics has been explored. The dependence of the ultrafast photoinduced charge transfer dynamics on the excitation pulse carrier frequency (spectral effect) has been investigated. The spectral effect has been shown to depend on quantity of the fractional charge.

  18. Particle-in-cell charged-particle simulations, plus Monte Carlo collisions with neutral atoms, PIC-MCC

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, C.K. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences)

    1991-04-01

    Many-particle (meaning 100's) charged-particle plasma simulations using spatial meshes for the electromagnetic field solutions, particle-in-cell (PIC) merged with Monte Carlo collision (MCC) calculations, are coming into wide use for application to partially ionized gases. This paper emphasizes the development of PIC computer experiments since the 1950's starting with one-dimensional (1-D) charged-sheet models, the addition of the mesh, and fast direct Poisson equation solvers for 2-D and 3-D. The finite-size particle-in-mesh (finite {Delta}{chi}, {Delta}t) theory of Langdon is presented in part to display the effects of too small {lambda}{sub D}/{Delta}{chi}, even for Maxwellian velocity distributions, as a caution, for example, when some ions are cooled to background gas temperatures by charge exchange. Early work on adding collisions to 1-D charge-sheet models by Burger and Shanny et al. are presented, with many of the elements of current Monte Carlo codes. Bounded plasma modeling is presented with electrode charges and external R, L, C, and V(t), I(t) sources now in use on fast desktop computers as real-time computer experiments, complementing analytic modeling and laboratory experiments. This paper reports that the addition of Monte Carlo collisions (usually done with irregular timesteps) to PIC (usually done with uniform {Delta}t's) is displayed as a developing art, relying on experimental total cross sections and approximate analytical differential cross sections to produce changes in charged-particle speed and direction due to collisions with neutrals, so far including elastic, excitation, ionization, charge exchange, and attachment processes.

  19. Possibility of vibrationally resolved cross section measurements for low energy charge transfer in H + H2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillen, C. I.; Strom, R. A.; Tobar, J. A.; Panchenko, D. I.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    Charge transfer (CT) in H + H2+--> H+ + H2 has fundamental implications because it involves the smallest atomic ion, atom, molecular ion, and molecule possible. The current merged-beam apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, can reliably create and access low collision energies; the existing ion-atom merged beams apparatus there is currently able to benchmark the CT of these fundamental systems at energies below 0.1eV/u (Phys. Rev. A 84, 062716, 2011). A strong contribution from vi = 2 is observed, however, the data analysis still suffers from the lack of information on the vibrational state distribution of H2+.We are exploring the possibility of inserting a three-dimensional imaging technique at the end station of the ORNL apparatus in order to measure the vibrational state distribution of H2+that are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. Discussion of our initial design for the insertion of this technique in the aforementioned system will be presented here. Work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1068877.

  20. Electron transfer, excitation, and ionization in collisions between protons and the ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, and C5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas G.

    2013-03-01

    Coupled-state cross sections have been determined for electron transfer and excitation to individual states up to 3d, as well as ionization, in collisions between protons and ground-state hydrogenic ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, and C5+ at intermediate and higher proton energies using two-center 120- and 281-Sturmian bases, extending previous smaller basis results by the author [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.35.3799 35, 3799 (1987)] at intermediate energies, and reexamining scaling rules with target nuclear charge Z.

  1. Charge transfer in DNA: The role of thermal fluctuations and of symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orsogna, Maria-Rita Rosaria

    The DNA double helix is a linear one-dimensional molecule, and charge transfer occurs along the base-pairs stacked along its longitudinal axis. DNA, however, is highly subject to disruptions and modifications in its configurational stacking due, for instance, to thermal fluctuations. These departures from a rigid, crystal-like structure must be taken in account for a correct description of the charge transfer process, so that the usual solid-state tight-binding pictures of charge transfer along organic one-dimensional crystals, such as the Bechgaard salts, cannot be used. We propose a model Hamiltonian for charge transfer between the DNA base-pairs with temperature driven fluctuations in the base-pair positions acting as the rate limiting factor. The underlying idea is that charge tunneling between base-pairs that fluctuate significantly from their nominal configuration can occur only when an optimal base-pair relative configuration is reached. We focus on this aspect of the process by modeling two adjacent base pairs in terms of a classical damped oscillator subject to thermal fluctuations and charge transfer to the acceptor. The Fokker-Planck equation for the system yields an unusual two-stage process, with distinct initial and late-time charge transfer rates. This result is in agreement with experimental findings and is not contemplated by other charge transfer paradigms. Another known consequence of charge transfer between DNA base-pairs is the geometrical modification of the base-pairs after the addition or removal of the migrating charge. This structural deformation breaks the mirror symmetry of the original DNA base-pair, leading to two alternate, symmetry related, 'left' and 'right' ionic configurations. We study charge transfer between donor-acceptor molecules subject to a mirror symmetry constraint in the presence of a dissipative environment. The symmetry requirement leads to the breakdown of the standard single reaction-coordinate paradigm of charge

  2. Probing the charge-transfer dynamics in DNA at the single-molecule level.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kiyohiko; Matsutani, Eri; Maruyama, Atsushi; Majima, Tetsuro

    2011-10-01

    Photoinduced charge-transfer fluorescence quenching of a fluorescent dye produces the nonemissive charge-separated state, and subsequent charge recombination makes the reaction reversible. While the information available from the photoinduced charge-transfer process provides the basis for monitoring the microenvironment around the fluorescent dyes and such monitoring is particularly important in live-cell imaging and DNA diagnosis, the information obtainable from the charge recombination process is usually overlooked. When looking at fluorescence emitted from each single fluorescent dye, photoinduced charge-transfer, charge-migration, and charge recombination cause a "blinking" of the fluorescence, in which the charge-recombination rate or the lifetime of the charge-separated state (τ) is supposed to be reflected in the duration of the off time during the single-molecule-level fluorescence measurement. Herein, based on our recently developed method for the direct observation of charge migration in DNA, we utilized DNA as a platform for spectroscopic investigations of charge-recombination dynamics for several fluorescent dyes: TAMRA, ATTO 655, and Alexa 532, which are used in single-molecule fluorescence measurements. Charge recombination dynamics were observed by transient absorption measurements, demonstrating that these fluorescent dyes can be used to monitor the charge-separation and charge-recombination events. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) of ATTO 655 modified DNA allowed the successful measurement of the charge-recombination dynamics in DNA at the single-molecule level. Utilizing the injected charge just like a pulse of sound, such as a "ping" in active sonar systems, information about the DNA sequence surrounding the fluorescent dye was read out by measuring the time it takes for the charge to return. PMID:21875061

  3. X-ray emission in collisions of highly charged I, Pr, Ho, and Bi ions with a W surface

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S.; Sun, J.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Sakurai, M.

    2007-06-15

    X-ray emission yields, which are defined as the total number of emitted x-ray photons per incident ion, and dissipated fractions of potential energies through x-ray emission have been measured for slow highly charged ions of I, Pr, Ho, and Bi colliding with a W surface. A larger amount of potential energy was consumed for the x-ray emission with increasing the atomic number and the charge state. The present measurements show that x-ray emission is one of the main decay channels of hollow atoms produced in collisions of very highly charged ions of heavy elements.

  4. Charge-transfer induced EUV and soft X-ray emissions in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroumpa, D.; Lallement, R.; Kharchenko, V.; Dalgarno, A.; Pepino, R.; Izmodenov, V.; Quémerais, E.

    2006-12-01

    Aims.We study the EUV/soft X-ray emission generated by charge transfer between solar wind heavy ions and interstellar neutral atoms and variations of the X-ray intensities and spectra with the line of sight direction, the observer location, the solar cycle phase and the solar wind anisotropies, and a temporary enhancement of the solar wind similar to the event observed by Snowden et al. (2004) during the XMM-Hubble Deep Field North exposure. Methods: .Using recent observations of the neutral atoms combined with updated cross-sections and cascading photon spectra we have computed self-consistent distributions of interstellar hydrogen, helium and highly charged solar wind ions for a stationary solar wind and we have constructed monochromatic emission maps and spectra. We have evaluated separately the contribution of the heliosheath and heliotail, and included X-ray emission of the excited solar wind ions produced in sequential collisions to the signal. Results: .In most practicable observations, the low and medium latitude X-ray emission is significantly higher at minimum activity than at maximum, especially around December. This occurs due to a strong depletion of neutrals during the high activity phase, which is not compensated by an increase of the solar wind flux. For high latitudes the emission depends on the ion species in a complex way. Intensity maps are in general significantly different for observations separated by six-month intervals. Secondary ions are found to make a negligible contribution to the X-ray line of sight intensities, because their density becomes significant only at large distances. The contribution of the heliosheath-heliotail is always smaller than 5%. We can reproduce both the intensity range and the temporal variation of the XMM-HDFN emission lines in the 0.52-0.75 keV interval, using a simple enhanced solar wind spiral stream. This suggests a dominant heliospheric origin for these lines, before, during and also after the event.

  5. Ligand dissociation mediated charge transfer observed at colloidal W18O49 nanoparticle interfaces.

    PubMed

    Grauer, David C; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2014-03-11

    Understanding charge transfer dynamics through the ligand shell of colloidal nanoparticles has been an important pursuit in solar energy conversion. While charge transport through ligand shells of nanoparticle films has been studied intensely in static dry and electrochemical systems, its influence on charge transfer kinetics in dispersed colloidal systems has received relatively less attention. This work reports the oxidation of amine passivated tungsten oxide nanoparticles by an organically soluble tris-(1,10-phenanthroline) iron(III) derivative. By following the rate of this oxidation optically via the production of the ferroin derivative under various reaction conditions and particle derivatizations, we are able to show that the fluxional ligand shells on dispersed, colloidal nanoparticles provide a separate and more facile pathway for charge transfer, in which the rate-limiting step for charge transfer is the ligand dissociation. Since such ligand shells are frequently required for nanoparticle stability, this observation has significant implications for colloidal nanoparticle photocatalysis. PMID:24564847

  6. Transition-density-fragment interaction combined with transfer integral approach for excitation-energy transfer via charge-transfer states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Kazuhiro J.

    2012-07-01

    A transition-density-fragment interaction (TDFI) combined with a transfer integral (TI) method is proposed. The TDFI method was previously developed for describing electronic Coulomb interaction, which was applied to excitation-energy transfer (EET) [K. J. Fujimoto and S. Hayashi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 14152 (2009)] and exciton-coupled circular dichroism spectra [K. J. Fujimoto, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 124101 (2010)]. In the present study, the TDFI method is extended to the exchange interaction, and hence it is combined with the TI method for applying to the EET via charge-transfer (CT) states. In this scheme, the overlap correction is also taken into account. To check the TDFI-TI accuracy, several test calculations are performed to an ethylene dimer. As a result, the TDFI-TI method gives a much improved description of the electronic coupling, compared with the previous TDFI method. Based on the successful description of the electronic coupling, the decomposition analysis is also performed with the TDFI-TI method. The present analysis clearly shows a large contribution from the Coulomb interaction in most of the cases, and a significant influence of the CT states at the small separation. In addition, the exchange interaction is found to be small in this system. The present approach is useful for analyzing and understanding the mechanism of EET.

  7. Kinetic theory of current and density drift instabilities with weak charged-neutral collisions. [in space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the linear kinetic theory of electrostatic instabilities driven by a density gradient drift and a magnetic-field-aligned current in a plasma with weak charged neutral collisions. The configuration is that of a uniform magnetic field B, a weak, uniform density gradient in the x direction and a weak, uniform electric field in the z direction. Collisions are represented by the BGK model. The transition from the (kinetic) universal density drift instability to the (fluidlike) current convective instability is studied in detail, and the short wavelength properties of the latter mode are investigated.

  8. An electron energy-loss study of picene and chrysene based charge transfer salts

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Eric; Mahns, Benjamin; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin

    2015-05-14

    The electronic excitation spectra of charge transfer compounds built from the hydrocarbons picene and chrysene, and the strong electron acceptors F{sub 4}TCNQ (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) and TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethan) have been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The corresponding charge transfer compounds have been prepared by co-evaporation of the pristine constituents. We demonstrate that all investigated combinations support charge transfer, which results in new electronic excitation features at low energy. This might represent a way to synthesize low band gap organic semiconductors.

  9. Exceptional photosensitivity of a polyoxometalate-based charge-transfer hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jian-Zhen; Wu, Chen; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Deng, Shui-Quan; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2016-05-31

    An unusual room-temperature light sensitivity was realized in a polyoxometalate-based hybrid material due to cooperative multicomponent molecular charge-transfer interactions taking place in this material, mainly among POMs, NDIs, and other molecules. The functional π-acidic NDI linkers and POM clusters in the discussed hybrid material were individually designed as photosensors and electron reservoirs. To propose a photo-induced charge-transfer mechanism, EPR, XPS, UV-Vis and computational studies were carried out, and indicated the presence of active charge-transfer interactions among several of the components. PMID:27192943

  10. Transfer of phosphatidic acid from liposomes to cells is collision dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Longmuir, K.J.; Malinick, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    The kinetics of lipid transfer from unilamellar liposomes to cells in monolayer culture were determined for a fluorescent phosphatidic acid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(6-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)aminocaproyl) -sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (C6-NBD-PA), and for the analogous phosphatidic acid without the fluorescent NBD group, 1-palmitoyl-2-caproyl-sn-(U-14C) glycerol 3-phosphate (C6-(14C)PA). Initial rates of liposome-to-cell transfer were measured at 2 degrees C under conditions in which the concentration of diffusible monomer in the aqueous medium was constant during the course of an experiment and was independent of total liposome concentration. Rates were similar for C6-NBD-PA and C6-(14C)PA, indicating that the NBD group does not significantly alter the transfer kinetics. It was found that liposome-to-cell transfer was dependent on 1) the mole fraction of diffusible lipid in the liposomes, 2) the liposome concentration, and 3) the cell density. The dependence of rate on the liposome concentration (observed under conditions in which aqueous monomer concentration remained constant) cannot be explained by a liposome-to-cell transfer mechanism involving the free diffusion of monomers through the aqueous medium. Instead, the data are consistent with a collision-dependent mechanism of monomer transfer that occurs when liposome and cell membranes come into contact but do not fuse.

  11. Centrality dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s(NN)] = 2.76 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aamodt, K; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Book, J; Borel, H; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Boyer, B; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Coffin, J-P; Coli, S; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Erasmo, G D; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Azevedo Moregula, A; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; Delagrange, H; Delgado Mercado, Y; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Gemme, R; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Girard, M R; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; González Santos, H; Gorbunov, S; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jayarathna, S P; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanović, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, S H; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornaś, E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lara, C; Larsen, D T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Lea, R; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Li, X; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Noriega, M; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Midori, J; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Müller, H; Muhuri, S; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Obayashi, H; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petráček, V; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Piyarathna, D B; Platt, R; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Rademakers, O; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saiz, P; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Traczyk, T; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A J; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M

    2011-01-21

    The centrality dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV is presented. The charged-particle density normalized per participating nucleon pair increases by about a factor of 2 from peripheral (70%-80%) to central (0%-5%) collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be similar to that observed at lower collision energies. The data are compared with models based on different mechanisms for particle production in nuclear collisions. PMID:21405267

  12. Single-collision studies of hot atom energy transfer and chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in the collision dynamics of translationally hot atoms, with funding with DOE for the project Single-Collision Studies of Hot Atom Energy Transfer and Chemical Reaction,'' Grant Number DE-FG03-85ER13453. The work reported here was done during the period September 9, 1988 through October 31, 1991. During this period this DOE-funded work has been focused on several different efforts: (1) experimental studies of the state-to-state dynamics of the H + RH {yields} H{sub 2} R reactions where RH is CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, or C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, (2) theoretical (quasiclassical trajectory) studies of hot hydrogen atom collision dynamics, (3) the development of photochemical sources of translationally hot molecular free radicals and characterization of the high resolution CARS spectroscopy of molecular free radicals, (4) the implementation of stimulated Raman excitation (SRE) techniques for the preparation of vibrationally state-selected molecular reactants.

  13. Single-collision studies of hot atom energy transfer and chemical reaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, J.J.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses research in the collision dynamics of translationally hot atoms, with funding with DOE for the project ``Single-Collision Studies of Hot Atom Energy Transfer and Chemical Reaction,`` Grant Number DE-FG03-85ER13453. The work reported here was done during the period September 9, 1988 through October 31, 1991. During this period this DOE-funded work has been focused on several different efforts: (1) experimental studies of the state-to-state dynamics of the H + RH {yields} H{sub 2} R reactions where RH is CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, or C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, (2) theoretical (quasiclassical trajectory) studies of hot hydrogen atom collision dynamics, (3) the development of photochemical sources of translationally hot molecular free radicals and characterization of the high resolution CARS spectroscopy of molecular free radicals, (4) the implementation of stimulated Raman excitation (SRE) techniques for the preparation of vibrationally state-selected molecular reactants.

  14. Close-coupling study of rotational energy transfer in H2O collisions with He atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Benhui; Stancil, Phillip

    2007-06-01

    Due to the astrophysical importance of water and helium, the H2O-He collisional system has been the subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. For numerical astrophysical models, quantitative determinations of state-to-state cross sections and rate coefficients for H2O-He collisions are crucial. In this work quantum close-coupling scattering calculations of rotational energy transfer (RET) of rotationally excited H2O due to collisions with He are presented for collision energies between 10-6 and 1000 cm-1 with para-H2O initially in levels 11,1, 20,2, 21,1, 22,0, and ortho-H2O in levels 11,0, 21,2, 22,1. Differential cross section, quenching cross sections and rate coefficients for state-to-state RET were computed on three new H2O-He potential energy surfaces (PESs). The inelastic and elastic differential cross sections are also compared with available experimental measurements.

  15. Electron emission in collisions of fast highly charged bare ions with helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Abhoy; Mandal, Chittranjan; Purkait, Malay

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the electron emission from ground state helium atom in collision with fast bare heavy ions at intermediate and high incident energies. In the present study, we have applied the present three-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-3B) model and the previously adopted four-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-4B). To represent the active electron in the helium atom in the 3C-3B model, the initial bound state wavefunction is chosen to be hydrogenic with an effective nuclear charge. The wavefunction for the ejected electron in the exit channel has been approximated to be a Coulomb continuum wavefunction with same effective nuclear charge. Effectively the continuum-continuum correlation effect has been considered in the present investigation. Here we have calculated the energy and angular distribution of double differential cross sections (DDCS) at low and high energy electron emission from helium atom. The large forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the angular distribution which is explained in terms of the two-center effect (TCE). Our theoretical results are compared with available experimental results as well as other theoretical calculations based on the plain wave Born approximation (PWBA), continuum-distorted wave (CDW) approximation, continuum-distorted wave eikonal-initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, and the corresponding values obtained from the 3C-4B model [S. Jana, R. Samanta, M. Purkait, Phys. Scr. 88, 055301 (2013)] respectively. It is observed that the four-body version of the present investigation produces results which are in better agreement with experimental observations for all cases.

  16. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  17. Integer versus Fractional Charge Transfer at Metal(/Insulator)/Organic Interfaces: Cu(/NaCl)/TCNE

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Semilocal and hybrid density functional theory was used to study the charge transfer and the energy-level alignment at a representative interface between an extended metal substrate and an organic adsorbate layer. Upon suppressing electronic coupling between the adsorbate and the substrate by inserting thin, insulating layers of NaCl, the hybrid functional localizes charge. The laterally inhomogeneous charge distribution resulting from this spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry is reflected in observables such as the molecular geometry, the valence and core density of states, and the evolution of the work function with molecular coverage, which we discuss for different growth modes. We found that the amount of charge transfer is determined, to a significant extent, by the ratio of the lateral spacing of the molecules and their distance to the metal. Therefore, charge transfer does not only depend on the electronic structure of the individual components but, just as importantly, on the interface geometry. PMID:25905769

  18. Topological Effects of Charge Transfer in Telomere G-Quadruplex Mechanism on Telomerase Activation and Inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-02-01

    We explore the charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of the charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4 (CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 0.3 eV energy gap. Charges transfer favorably in the CTG4, but are trapped in the nonconsecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  19. Resonant charge transfer of hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at a metallic sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, J. A.; Softley, T. P.

    2016-06-01

    A wavepacket propagation study is reported for the charge transfer of low principal quantum number (n = 2) hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at an isolated metallic sphere. Such a sphere acts as a model for a nanoparticle. The three-dimensional confinement of the sphere yields discrete surface-localized ‘well-image’ states, the energies of which vary with sphere radius. When the Rydberg atom energy is degenerate with one of the quantized nanoparticle states, charge transfer is enhanced, whereas for off-resonant cases little to no charge transfer is observed. Greater variation in charge-transfer probability is seen between the resonant and off-resonant examples in this system than for any other Rydberg-surface system theoretically investigated thus far. The results presented here indicate that it may be possible to use Rydberg-surface ionization as a probe of the surface electronic structure of a nanoparticle, and nanostructures in general.

  20. The mechanisms of delayed fluorescence in charge-transfer crystal of tetracyanobenzene-hexamethylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozankiewicz, B.; Prochorow, J.

    1989-08-01

    Fluorescence, phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence emission characteristics of tetracyanobenzene-hexamethylbenzene (TCNB-HMB) charge-transfer crystal have been studied in the 1.7-340 K temperature range. Delayed fluorescence, originating from heterogeneous triplet-triplet annihilation indicates the presence of mobile charge-transfer triplet excitons at a temperature as low as 1.7 K. However, the behaviour of triplet excitons in TCNB-HMB crystal is strongly controlled by a very efficient trapping process in the whole temperature range investigated. It was found that thermally activated delayed fluorescence, which is a dominating emission of the crystal at elevated temperatures (>60 K), has a different origin (a different initial state) at different temperatures. These observations were analysed and interpreted in terms of a photokinetic model, which is considered to be typical for charge-transfer crystals with high charge-transfer character of triplet excitons.

  1. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  2. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions. Progress report, February 16, 1990--February 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from February 16, 1990 through February 15, 1993. This work involves the experimental investigation of atomic interactions in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron-correlation effects. The processes studied are of interest both from fundamental and applied points of view. In the latter case, results are obtained which are relevant to the understanding of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, highly-excited (Rydberg) and continuum states of atoms and ions, atomic structure effects, the interaction of ions with surfaces, and the development of heavy-ion storage-rings. The results obtained have provided the basis for several M.A. thesis projects at Western Michigan and several Ph.D. dissertation projects are currently underway. Summaries of work completed and work in progress are given below in Section II. This research has resulted in 26 papers (in print and in press), 12 invited presentations at national and international meetings, and 28 contributed presentations as detailed in Section III.

  3. The role of charge-transfer states in energy transfer and dissipation within natural and artificial bacteriochlorophyll-proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wahadoszamen, Md.; Margalit, Iris; Ara, Anjue Mane; van Grondelle, Rienk; Noy, Dror

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how specific protein environments affect the mechanisms of non-radiative energy dissipation within densely assembled chlorophylls in photosynthetic protein complexes is of great interest to the construction of bioinspired solar energy conversion devices. Mixing of charge-transfer and excitonic states in excitonically interacting chlorophylls was implicated in shortening excited states lifetimes but its relevance to active control of energy dissipation in natural systems is under considerable debate. Here we show that the degree of fluorescence quenching in two similar pairs of excitonically interacting bacteriochlorophyll derivatives is directly associated with increasing charge transfer character in the excited state, and that the protein environment may control non-radiative dissipation by affecting the mixing of charge transfer and excitonic states. The capability of local protein environments to determine the fate of excited states, and thereby to confer different functionalities to excitonically coupled dimers substantiates the dimer as the basic functional element of photosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25342121

  4. Vibrational and Electronic Energy Transfer and Dissociation of Diatomic Molecules by Electron Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At high altitudes and velocities equal to or greater than the geosynchronous return velocity (10 kilometers per second), the shock layer of a hypersonic flight will be in thermochemical nonequilibrium and partially ionized. The amount of ionization is determined by the velocity. For a trans atmospheric flight of 10 kilometers per second and at an altitude of 80 kilometers, a maximum of 1% ionization is expected. At a velocity of 12 - 17 kilometer per second, such as a Mars return mission, up to 30% of the atoms and molecules in the flow field will be ionized. Under those circumstances, electrons play an important role in determining the internal states of atoms and molecules in the flow field and hence the amount of radiative heat load and the distance it takes for the flow field to re-establish equilibrium. Electron collisions provide an effective means of transferring energy even when the electron number density is as low as 1%. Because the mass of an electron is 12,760 times smaller than the reduced mass of N2, its average speed, and hence its average collision frequency, is more than 100 times larger. Even in the slightly ionized regime with only 1% electrons, the frequency of electron-molecule collisions is equal to or larger than that of molecule-molecule collisions, an important consideration in the low density part of the atmosphere. Three electron-molecule collision processes relevant to hypersonic flows will be considered: (1) vibrational excitation/de-excitation of a diatomic molecule by electron impact, (2) electronic excitation/de-excitation, and (3) dissociative recombination in electron-diatomic ion collisions. A review of available data, both theory and experiment, will be given. Particular attention will be paid to tailoring the molecular physics to the condition of hypersonic flows. For example, the high rotational temperatures in a hypersonic flow field means that most experimental data carried out under room temperatures are not applicable. Also

  5. Near-resonant rotational energy transfer in HCl–H{sub 2} inelastic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Mathieu; Lique, François; Kalugina, Yulia; Wiesenfeld, Laurent

    2014-02-14

    We present a new four-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface for the HCl–H{sub 2} van der Waals system. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. Potential energy surface was obtained from electronic structure calculations using a coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations method. The four atoms were described using the augmented correlation-consistent quadruple zeta basis set and bond functions were placed at mid-distance between the HCl and H{sub 2} centers of mass for a better description of the van der Waals interaction. The global minimum is characterized by the well depth of 213.38 cm{sup −1} corresponding to the T-shape structure with H{sub 2} molecule on the H side of the HCl molecule. The dissociation energies D{sub 0} are 34.7 cm{sup −1} and 42.3 cm{sup −1} for the complex with para- and ortho-H{sub 2}, respectively. These theoretical results obtained using our new PES are in good agreement with experimental values [D. T. Anderson, M. Schuder, and D. J. Nesbitt, Chem. Phys. 239, 253 (1998)]. Close coupling calculations of the inelastic integral rotational cross sections of HCl in collisions with para-H{sub 2} and ortho-H{sub 2} were performed at low and intermediate collisional energies. Significant differences exist between para- and ortho-H{sub 2} results. The strongest collision-induced rotational HCl transitions are the transitions with Δj = 1 for collisions with both para-H{sub 2} and ortho-H{sub 2}. Rotational relaxation of HCl in collision with para-H{sub 2} in the rotationally excited states j = 2 is dominated by near-resonant energy transfer.

  6. Near-resonant rotational energy transfer in HCl-H2 inelastic collisions.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Mathieu; Kalugina, Yulia; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Lique, François

    2014-02-14

    We present a new four-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface for the HCl-H2 van der Waals system. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. Potential energy surface was obtained from electronic structure calculations using a coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations method. The four atoms were described using the augmented correlation-consistent quadruple zeta basis set and bond functions were placed at mid-distance between the HCl and H2 centers of mass for a better description of the van der Waals interaction. The global minimum is characterized by the well depth of 213.38 cm(-1) corresponding to the T-shape structure with H2 molecule on the H side of the HCl molecule. The dissociation energies D0 are 34.7 cm(-1) and 42.3 cm(-1) for the complex with para- and ortho-H2, respectively. These theoretical results obtained using our new PES are in good agreement with experimental values [D. T. Anderson, M. Schuder, and D. J. Nesbitt, Chem. Phys. 239, 253 (1998)]. Close coupling calculations of the inelastic integral rotational cross sections of HCl in collisions with para-H2 and ortho-H2 were performed at low and intermediate collisional energies. Significant differences exist between para- and ortho-H2 results. The strongest collision-induced rotational HCl transitions are the transitions with Δj = 1 for collisions with both para-H2 and ortho-H2. Rotational relaxation of HCl in collision with para-H2 in the rotationally excited states j = 2 is dominated by near-resonant energy transfer. PMID:24527924

  7. Near-resonant rotational energy transfer in HCl-H2 inelastic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Mathieu; Kalugina, Yulia; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Lique, François

    2014-02-01

    We present a new four-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface for the HCl-H2 van der Waals system. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. Potential energy surface was obtained from electronic structure calculations using a coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations method. The four atoms were described using the augmented correlation-consistent quadruple zeta basis set and bond functions were placed at mid-distance between the HCl and H2 centers of mass for a better description of the van der Waals interaction. The global minimum is characterized by the well depth of 213.38 cm-1 corresponding to the T-shape structure with H2 molecule on the H side of the HCl molecule. The dissociation energies D0 are 34.7 cm-1 and 42.3 cm-1 for the complex with para- and ortho-H2, respectively. These theoretical results obtained using our new PES are in good agreement with experimental values [D. T. Anderson, M. Schuder, and D. J. Nesbitt, Chem. Phys. 239, 253 (1998)]. Close coupling calculations of the inelastic integral rotational cross sections of HCl in collisions with para-H2 and ortho-H2 were performed at low and intermediate collisional energies. Significant differences exist between para- and ortho-H2 results. The strongest collision-induced rotational HCl transitions are the transitions with Δj = 1 for collisions with both para-H2 and ortho-H2. Rotational relaxation of HCl in collision with para-H2 in the rotationally excited states j = 2 is dominated by near-resonant energy transfer.

  8. Quantum Plasmonics: Optical Monitoring of DNA-Mediated Charge Transfer in Plasmon Rulers.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sarah; Reinhard, Björn M

    2016-03-01

    Plasmon coupling between DNA-tethered gold nanoparticles is investigated by correlated single-particle spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy for interparticle separations between 0.5 and 41 nm. Spectral characterization reveals a weakening of the plasmon coupling due to DNA-mediated charge transfer for separations up to 2.8 nm. Electromagnetic simulations indicate a coherent charge transfer across the DNA. PMID:26789736

  9. Laser-plasma ion beams-experiments towards charge transfer x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Fill, E.E. ); Bruch, R. ); Schneider, D. )

    1993-06-05

    Laser plasmas produced at intensities of up to 10[sup 14] W/cm[sup 2] expand towards a secondary target a few millimeters away. The intense x-ray emission during the interaction plasma-target was recorded spectrally, spatially and time-resolved. A number of processes, like recombination and charge transfer may account for this strong radiation. The implications of these experiments to the design of a charge transfer x-ray laser are discussed.

  10. Picosecond spectroscopy of charge-transfer processes. Photochemistry of anthracene-tetranitromethane EDA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnovi, J. M.; Huffman, J. C.; Kochi, J. K.; Hilinski, E. F.; Rentzepis, P. M.

    1984-04-01

    The temporal sequence of events that follow 532 nm excitation of electron donor-acceptor, EDA, complexes of several substituted anthracenes with tetranitromethane is monitored by means of picosecond spectroscopy. Excitation of the charge-transfer band of these EDA complexes produces high yields of 1 : 1 adducts. Absorption spectra and kinetics of the transient species involved in these photochemical reactions provide the basis for elucidation of the reaction mechanism following charge-transfer excitation to the ion pairs.

  11. Charge-exchange EUV spectroscopy in collisions of Xe{sup q+} (q=7-9) with rare gases

    SciTech Connect

    Tanuma, H.; Ohashi, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.

    2011-10-15

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission spectra have been measured in charge exchange collisions between Xe{sup q+} (q=7--9) and rare gases at an energy of 20 q keV. We have observed 4, 22, and 39 lines in collisions of Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, and Xe{sup 9+}. Of these emission lines, four lines of Xe vii, eight lines of Xe viii, and nine lines of Xe ix correspond to newly observed transitions. The identification procedure is described in detail. The aim of this work is to obtain spectroscopic data for multiply charged Xe ions. In addition, the electron capture mechanism is also discussed using the crude classical over-the-barrier model to understand the target dependence of the emission spectra.

  12. Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    Parity-odd domains, corresponding to non-trivial topological solutions of the QCD vacuum, might be created during relativistic heavy-ion collisions. These domains are predicted to lead to charge separation of quarks along the orbital momentum of the system created in non-central collisions. To study this effect, we investigate a three particle mixed harmonics azimuthal correlator which is a {Rho}-even observable, but directly sensitive to the charge separation effect. We report measurements of this observable using the STAR detector in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 and 62 GeV. The results are presented as a function of collision centrality, particle separation in rapidity, and particle transverse momentum. A signal consistent with several of the theoretical expectations is detected in all four data sets. We compare our results to the predictions of existing event generators, and discuss in detail possible contributions from other effects that are not related to parity violation.

  13. Charge transfer along DNA molecule within Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Apalkov, Vadym

    2010-03-01

    Charge transport through DNA molecule is important in many areas ranging from DNA damage repair to molecular nanowires. It is now widely accepted that a phonon mediated hopping of a charge carrier plays a major role in charge transport through DNA. In the present study we investigate system dynamics within Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model for the charge transfer between donor and acceptor sites. We found that an escape time of a charge, trapped at the donor state of the DNA strand, is very sensitive to the initial value of H-bond stretching. This suggests importance of ensemble averaging. Moreover sharp phase transitions were observed for escape time in parameter space of transfer integrals and phonon-charge coupling constant.

  14. Why are the Interaction Energies of Charge-Transfer Complexes Challenging for DFT?

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Stephan N; Piemontesi, Cyril; Delachat, Aurore; Corminboeuf, Clemence

    2012-05-01

    The description of ground state charge-transfer complexes is highly challenging. Illustrative examples include large overestimations of charge-transfer by local and semilocal density functional approximations as well as inaccurate binding energies. It is demonstrated here that standard density functionals fail to accurately describe interaction energies of charge-transfer complexes not only because of the missing long-range exchange as generally assumed but also as a result of the neglect of weak interactions. Thus, accounting for the missing van der Waals interactions is of key importance. These assertions, based on the evaluation of the extent of stabilization due to dispersion using both DFT coupled with our recent density-dependent dispersion correction (dDsC) and high-level ab initio computations, reflect the imperfect error-cancellation between the overestimation of charge-transfer and the missing long-range interactions. An in-depth energy decomposition analysis of an illustrative series of four small ambidentate molecules (HCN, HNC, HF, and ClF) bound together with NF3 provides the main conclusions, which are validated on a prototypical organic charge-transfer complex (i.e., tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane, TTF-TCNQ). We establish that the interaction energies for charge-transfer complexes can only be properly described when using well-balanced functionals such as PBE0-dDsC, M06-2X, and LC-BOP-LRD. PMID:26593656

  15. Estimitation of Charge-Transfer Resistivity of Pt Cathode on YSZ Electrolyte Using Patterned Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Virkar, Anil V.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    2005-04-01

    YSZ Electrolyte discs with patterned LSM electrodes having different three phase boundary (TPB) lengths but the same electrode-electrolyte interface area, were prepared using photomicrolithography. Impedance spectra for half-cells were obtained under oxygen partial pressures, ranging from 10-3 to 1 atm and temperatures from 650 to 800oC. Area specific charge transfer resistance was found to vary inversely. While the charge transfer resistance is inversely proportional to consistent with the charge transfer reaction occurring mainly at the TPB, at 800oC some transport through LSM also appears to occur. The estimated value of charge transfer resistivity corresponding to the charge transfer reaction occurring at TPB, in air at 800oC is in good agreement with that estimated from actual fuel cell tests using quantitative stereological analysis of LSM-YSZ composite electrodes and were found to decrease with increasing and with increasing temperature. The activation energy for the overall charge transfer reaction was estimated to be ~1.5 eV.

  16. Potential curves for Na2/+/ and resonance charge transfer cross sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottcher, C.; Allison, A. C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1971-01-01

    A mode potential method, applied earlier to the positively charged diatomic lithium molecule Li2(+), is used to calculate the six lowest potential energy curves of Na2(+). Charge transfer cross sections are calculated for Li(+) on Li and for Na(+) on Na and found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  17. Charged-particle multiplicity pp collisions at square root of (s) = 1.8 TeV.

    PubMed

    Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Akopian, A; Albrow, M G; Amaral, P; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berge, J P; Berryhill, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bokhari, W; Bolla, G; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; van Brink, S; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Bruner, N; Buckley-Geer, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Connolly, A; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Cropp, R; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; DeJongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Done, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Elias, J E; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Giannetti, P; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Grim, G; Gris, P; Groer, L; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; Guimaraes De Costa, J; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Hao, W; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hoffman, K D; Holck, C; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karr, K; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, A M; Lee, K; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, M; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, A; Matthews, J A; Mayer, J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McKigney, E; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mulhearn, M; Mukherjee, A; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakano, I; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C Y; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pitts, K T; Plunkett, R; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Popovic, M; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Rakitine, A; Ratnikov, F; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Robinson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Roy, A; Ruiz, A; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Segler, S; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Singh, P; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, C; Snider, F D; Solodsky, A; Spalding, J; Speer, T; Sphicas, P; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Spiegel, L; Steele, J; Stefanini, A; Strologas, J; Strumia, F; Stuart, D; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, T

    2001-11-19

    We report on a measurement of the mean charged-particle multiplicity of jets in dijet events with dijet masses in the range 80-630 GeV/c(2), produced at the Tevatron in pp collisions with square root (s) = 1.8 TeV and recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The data are fit to perturbative-QCD calculations carried out in the framework of the modified leading log approximation and the hypothesis of local parton-hadron duality. The fit yields values for two parameters in that framework: the ratio of parton multiplicities in gluon and quark jets, r identical withN(g-jet)(partons)/N(q-jet)(partons) = 1.7+/-0.3, and the ratio of the number of charged hadrons to the number of partons in a jet, K(charged)(LPHD) identical with N(charged)(hadrons)/N(partons) = 0.57+/-0.11. PMID:11736333

  18. Centrality and energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in heavy ion collisions in the context of elementary reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-08-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.

  19. Conformationally Gated Charge Transfer in DNA Three-Way Junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqi; Young, Ryan M; Thazhathveetil, Arun K; Singh, Arunoday P N; Liu, Chaoren; Berlin, Yuri A; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Lewis, Frederick D; Ratner, Mark A; Renaud, Nicolas; Siriwong, Khatcharin; Voityuk, Alexander A; Wasielewski, Michael R; Beratan, David N

    2015-07-01

    Molecular structures that direct charge transport in two or three dimensions possess some of the essential functionality of electrical switches and gates. We use theory, modeling, and simulation to explore the conformational dynamics of DNA three-way junctions (TWJs) that may control the flow of charge through these structures. Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum calculations indicate that DNA TWJs undergo dynamic interconversion among "well stacked" conformations on the time scale of nanoseconds, a feature that makes the junctions very different from linear DNA duplexes. The studies further indicate that this conformational gating would control charge flow through these TWJs, distinguishing them from conventional (larger size scale) gated devices. Simulations also find that structures with polyethylene glycol linking groups ("extenders") lock conformations that favor CT for 25 ns or more. The simulations explain the kinetics observed experimentally in TWJs and rationalize their transport properties compared with double-stranded DNA. PMID:26266714

  20. Time delay and integration detectors using charge transfer devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, D. H.; White, M. H.; Turly, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    An imaging system comprises a multi-channel matrix array of CCD devices wherein a number of sensor cells (pixels) in each channel are subdivided and operated in discrete intercoupled groups of subarrays with a readout CCD shift register terminating each end of the channels. Clock voltages, applied to the subarrays, selectively cause charge signal flow in each subarray in either direction independent of the other subarrays. By selective application of four phase clock voltages, either one, two or all three of the sections subarray sections cause charge signal flow in one direction, while the remainder cause charge signal flow in the opposite direction. This creates a form of selective electronic exposure control which provides an effective variable time delay and integration of three, six or nine sensor cells or integration stages. The device is constructed on a semiconductor sustrate with a buried channel and is adapted for front surface imaging through transparent doped tin oxide gates.

  1. Probing charge transfer and hot carrier dynamics in organic solar cells with terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Paul D.; Lane, Paul A.; Melinger, Joseph S.; Esenturk, Okan; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) was used to explore charge generation, transfer, and the role of hot carriers in organic solar cell materials. Two model molecular photovoltaic systems were investigated: with zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or alpha-sexathiophene (α-6T) as the electron donors and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as the electron acceptor. TRTS provides charge carrier conductivity dynamics comprised of changes in both population and mobility. By using time-resolved optical spectroscopy in conjunction with TRTS, these two contributions can be disentangled. The sub-picosecond photo-induced conductivity decay dynamics of C60 were revealed to be caused by auto-ionization: the intrinsic process by which charge is generated in molecular solids. In donor-acceptor blends, the long-lived photo-induced conductivity is used for weight fraction optimization of the constituents. In nanoscale multilayer films, the photo-induced conductivity identifies optimal layer thicknesses. In films of ZnPc/C60, electron transfer from ZnPc yields hot charges that localize and become less mobile as they thermalize. Excitation of high-lying Franck Condon states in C60 followed by hole-transfer to ZnPc similarly produces hot charge carriers that self-localize; charge transfer clearly precedes carrier cooling. This picture is contrasted to charge transfer in α-6T/C60, where hole transfer takes place from a thermalized state and produces equilibrium carriers that do not show characteristic signs of cooling and self-localization. These results illustrate the value of terahertz spectroscopic methods for probing charge transfer reactions.

  2. Incorporation of charge transfer into the explicit polarization fragment method by grand canonical density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Isegawa, Miho; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular fragmentation algorithms provide a powerful approach to extending electronic structure methods to very large systems. Here we present a method for including charge transfer between molecular fragments in the explicit polarization (X-Pol) fragment method for calculating potential energy surfaces. In the conventional X-Pol method, the total charge of each fragment is preserved, and charge transfer between fragments is not allowed. The description of charge transfer is made possible by treating each fragment as an open system with respect to the number of electrons. To achieve this, we applied Mermin's finite temperature method to the X-Pol wave function. In the application of this method to X-Pol, the fragments are open systems that partially equilibrate their number of electrons through a quasithermodynamics electron reservoir. The number of electrons in a given fragment can take a fractional value, and the electrons of each fragment obey the Fermi–Dirac distribution. The equilibrium state for the electrons is determined by electronegativity equalization with conservation of the total number of electrons. The amount of charge transfer is controlled by re-interpreting the temperature parameter in the Fermi–Dirac distribution function as a coupling strength parameter. We determined this coupling parameter so as to reproduce the charge transfer energy obtained by block localized energy decomposition analysis. We apply the new method to ten systems, and we show that it can yield reasonable approximations to potential energy profiles, to charge transfer stabilization energies, and to the direction and amount of charge transferred. PMID:21895159

  3. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LNG may not use the services of any person, as a person in charge of shoreside transfer operations, unless that person— (1) Has at least 48 hours of LNG transfer experience; (2) Knows the hazards of LNG... at the waterfront facility handling LNG....

  4. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LNG may not use the services of any person, as a person in charge of shoreside transfer operations, unless that person— (1) Has at least 48 hours of LNG transfer experience; (2) Knows the hazards of LNG... at the waterfront facility handling LNG....

  5. Radiative loss and charge exchange in low energy Na - Ca+ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; McAlpine, K.; McCann, J. F.; Pattillo, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Forrey, R. C.; Babb, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments on radiative loss and capture are currently being performed at the University of Connecticut. In response to this experimental effort we have performed detailed calculations for a variety of loss and capture processes. Several low lying states of the NaCa+ cation are used with the accurate potentials energy curves, transition dipole moments and non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements between the states, obtained at the MRCI+Q level of approximation with the MOLPRO suite of quantum chemistry codes. Cross sections and rate coefficients are calculated for radiative charge transfer (RCX), radiative association (RA) and charge exchange in a fully quantum molecular close-coupling (MOCC) approximation at the higher energies. We use a variety of approaches, the optical potential method, semi-classical and MOCC methods to compare and contrast approximations. In addition a kinetic theory recently applied to SiO is utilized which illustrates the dramatic impact resonances have on the radiative association rates. Supported by NASA and HLRS at Stuttgart University.

  6. Influence of the isotope effect on the charge exchange in slow collisions of Li, Be, and C ions with H, D, and T

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.; Shevelko, V. P.; Kato, Daiji

    2011-07-15

    The influence of the isotope effect (mass dependence) on the charge-exchange process in low-energy collisions of light ions with hydrogen isotopes (H, D, and T) is studied using the adiabatic theory of transitions in slow collisions developed by E. Solov'ev [Sov. Phys. Usp. 32, 228 (1989)]. Results of the numerical calculations are presented for the charge-exchange probabilities and cross sections of Li, Be, and C ions colliding with hydrogen isotopes and for the inverse reactions.

  7. Using metal complex-labeled peptides for charge transfer-based biosensing with semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medintz, Igor L.; Pons, Thomas; Trammell, Scott A.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Philip E.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2009-02-01

    Luminescent colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have unique optical and photonic properties and are highly sensitive to charge transfer in their surrounding environment. In this study we used synthetic peptides as physical bridges between CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and some of the most common redox-active metal complexes to understand the charge transfer interactions between the metal complexes and QDs. We found that QD emission underwent quenching that was highly dependent on the choice of metal complex used. We also found that quenching traces the valence or number of metal complexes brought into close proximity of the nanocrystal surface. Monitoring of the QD absorption bleaching in the presence of the metal complex provided insight into the charge transfer mechanism. The data suggest that two distinct charge transfer mechanisms can take place. One directly to the QD core states for neutral capping ligands and a second to surface states for negatively charged capping ligands. A basic understanding of the proximity driven charge-transfer and quenching interactions allowed us to construct proteolytic enzyme sensing assemblies with the QD-peptide-metal complex conjugates.

  8. Giant quantum Hall plateaus generated by charge transfer in epitaxial graphene.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Webber, J A; Huang, J; Maude, D K; Janssen, T J B M; Tzalenchuk, A; Antonov, V; Yager, T; Lara-Avila, S; Kubatkin, S; Yakimova, R; Nicholas, R J

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial graphene has proven itself to be the best candidate for quantum electrical resistance standards due to its wide quantum Hall plateaus with exceptionally high breakdown currents. However one key underlying mechanism, a magnetic field dependent charge transfer process, is yet to be fully understood. Here we report measurements of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene showing the widest quantum Hall plateau observed to date extending over 50 T, attributed to an almost linear increase in carrier density with magnetic field. This behaviour is strong evidence for field dependent charge transfer from charge reservoirs with exceptionally high densities of states in close proximity to the graphene. Using a realistic framework of broadened Landau levels we model the densities of donor states and predict the field dependence of charge transfer in excellent agreement with experimental results, thus providing a guide towards engineering epitaxial graphene for applications such as quantum metrology. PMID:27456765

  9. Giant quantum Hall plateaus generated by charge transfer in epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander-Webber, J. A.; Huang, J.; Maude, D. K.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Tzalenchuk, A.; Antonov, V.; Yager, T.; Lara-Avila, S.; Kubatkin, S.; Yakimova, R.; Nicholas, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Epitaxial graphene has proven itself to be the best candidate for quantum electrical resistance standards due to its wide quantum Hall plateaus with exceptionally high breakdown currents. However one key underlying mechanism, a magnetic field dependent charge transfer process, is yet to be fully understood. Here we report measurements of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene showing the widest quantum Hall plateau observed to date extending over 50 T, attributed to an almost linear increase in carrier density with magnetic field. This behaviour is strong evidence for field dependent charge transfer from charge reservoirs with exceptionally high densities of states in close proximity to the graphene. Using a realistic framework of broadened Landau levels we model the densities of donor states and predict the field dependence of charge transfer in excellent agreement with experimental results, thus providing a guide towards engineering epitaxial graphene for applications such as quantum metrology.

  10. Controllable Quantum State Transfer Between a Josephson Charge Qubit and an Electronic Spin Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Run-Ying; Wang, Hong-Ling; Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to implement controllable quantum state transfer between a superconducting charge qubit and an electronic spin ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers. By an electro-mechanical resonator acting as a quantum data bus, an effective interaction between the charge qubit and the spin ensemble can be achieved in the dispersive regime, by which state transfers are switchable due to the adjustable electrical coupling. With the accessible experimental parameters, we further numerically analyze the feasibility and robustness. The present scheme could provide a potential approach for transferring quantum states controllably with the hybrid system.

  11. Photophysics of charge transfer in a polyfluorene/violanthrone blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanillas-Gonzalez, J.; Virgili, T.; Lanzani, G.; Yeates, S.; Ariu, M.; Nelson, J.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the photophysical and photovoltaic properties of blends of violanthrone in poly[9, 9-bis (2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2, 7-diyl ] (PF2/6) . Photoluminescence quenching and photocurrent measurements show moderate efficiencies for charge generation, characteristic of such polymer/dye blends. Pump-probe measurements on blend films suggest that while ˜47% of the total exciton population dissociates within 4ps of photoexcitation, only ˜32% subsequently results in the formation of dye anions. We attribute the discrepancy to the likely formation of complex species with long lifetimes, such as stabilized interface charge pairs or exciplexes. This conclusion is supported by the appearance of a long lifetime component of 2.4ns in the dynamics of the photoinduced absorption signal associated to polarons in photoinduced absorption bands centered at 560nm .

  12. Wire transfer of charge packets for on-chip CCD signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    A structure for the virtual transfer of charge packets across metal wires is described theoretically and is experimentally verified. The structure is a hybrid of charge-coupled device (CCD) and bucket-brigade device (BBD) elements and permits the topological crossing of charge-domain signals in low power signal processing circuits. A test vehicle consisting of 8-, 32- and 96-stage delay lines of various geometries implemented in a double-poly, double-metal foundry process was used to characterize the wire-transfer operation. Transfer efficiency ranging between 0.998 and 0.999 was obtained for surface n-channel devices with clock cycle times in the range from 40 nsec to 0.3 msec. Transfer efficiency as high as 0.9999 was obtained for buried n-channel devices. Good agreement is found between experiment and simulation.

  13. The effects of charge transfer on the aqueous solvation of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2012-07-28

    Ab initio-based charge partitioning of ionic systems results in ions with non-integer charges. This charge-transfer (CT) effect alters both short- and long-range interactions. Until recently, the effects of CT have been mostly neglected in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The method presented in this paper for including charge transfer between ions and water is consistent with ab initio charge partitioning and does not add significant time to the simulation. The ions of sodium, potassium, and chloride are parameterized to reproduce dimer properties and aqueous structures. The average charges of the ions from MD simulations (0.900, 0.919, and -0.775 for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup -}, respectively) are consistent with quantum calculations. The hydration free energies calculated for these ions are in agreement with experimental estimates, which shows that the interactions are described accurately. The ions also have diffusion constants in good agreement with experiment. Inclusion of CT results in interesting properties for the waters in the first solvation shell of the ions. For all ions studied, the first shell waters acquire a partial negative charge, due to the difference between water-water and water-ion charge-transfer amounts. CT also reduces asymmetry in the solvation shell of the chloride anion, which could have important consequences for the behavior of chloride near the air-water interface.

  14. Dynamics of the Rydberg state population of slow highly charged ions impinging a solid surface at arbitrary collision geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedeljković, N. N.; Majkić, M. D.; Božanić, D. K.; Dojčilović, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the population dynamics of the intermediate Rydberg states of highly charged ions (core charge Z\\gg 1, principal quantum number {n}{{A}}\\gg 1) interacting with solid surfaces at arbitrary collision geometry. The recently developed resonant two-state vector model for the grazing incidence (2012 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 215202) is extended to the quasi-resonant case and arbitrary angle of incidence. According to the model, the population probabilities depend both on the projectile parallel and perpendicular velocity components, in a complementary way. A cascade neutralization process for {{{Xe}}}Z+ ions, for Z=15{--}45, interacting with a conductive-surface is considered by taking into account the population dynamics. For an arbitrary collision geometry and given range of ionic velocities, a micro-staircase model for the simultaneous calculation of the kinetic energy gain and the charge state of the ion in front of the surface is proposed. The relevance of the obtained results for the explanation of the formation of nanostructures on solid surfaces by slow highly charged ions for normal incidence geometry is briefly discussed.

  15. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles in d+Au Collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in minimum-bias d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV is presented for the first time. This distribution falls off less rapidly in the gold direction as compared to the deuteron direction. The average value of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at midrapidity is ∣η∣≤0.6=9.4±0.7(syst) and the integrated primary charged particle multiplicity in the measured region is 82±6(syst). Estimates of the total charged particle production, based on extrapolations outside the measured pseudorapidity region, are also presented. The pseudorapidity distribution, normalized to the number of participants in d+Au collisions, is compared to those of Au+Au and p+p¯ systems at the same energy. The d+Au distribution is also compared to the predictions of the parton saturation model, as well as microscopic models.

  16. The lowest-energy charge-transfer state and its role in charge separation in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Nan, Guangjun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2016-06-29

    Energy independent, yet higher than 90% internal quantum efficiency (IQE), has been observed in many organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, its physical origin remains largely unknown and controversial. The hypothesis that the lowest charge-transfer (CT) state may be weakly bound at the interface has been proposed to rationalize the experimental observations. In this paper, we study the nature of the lowest-energy CT (CT1) state, and show conclusively that the CT1 state is localized in typical OPVs. The electronic couplings in the donor and acceptor are found to determine the localization of the CT1 state. We examine the geminate recombination of the CT1 state and estimate its lifetime from first principles. We identify the vibrational modes that contribute to the geminate recombination. Using material parameters determined from first principles and experiments, we carry out kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to examine the charge separation of the localized CT1 state. We find that the localized CT1 state can indeed yield efficient charge separation with IQE higher than 90%. Dynamic disorder and configuration entropy can provide the energetic and entropy driving force for charge separation. Charge separation efficiency depends more sensitively on the dimension and crystallinity of the acceptor parallel to the interface than that normal to the interface. Reorganization energy is found to be the most important material parameter for charge separation, and lowering the reorganization energy of the donor should be pursued in the materials design. PMID:27306609

  17. Charge transfers from Na atom in (H2O)n clusters and in water solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozue, Takeshi; Hoshino, Junichi; Tsumuraya, Kazuo

    2006-03-01

    The charge state of sodium ions in water is an essential issue in both biophysical and physicochemical areas. Although the nominal charge state of sodium is +1 in water solution, the true charge is less than unity and will depend on the environments. We clarify the true charges states with ab initio density functional methods. There have been several methods to evaluate the charges that belong to each atom in molecules: Bader analysis divides up into regions where the dividing surfaces are at a minimum in the density. [1] The Bader charge analysis [2] has difficulty of finding all the critical points around the atom. Henkelman et al. have proposed a modified partition scheme. [3] We use a modified version of the Henkelman's scheme to integrate the core charge densities separately. The method gives the charge transfer from Na to H2O to be 0.167e and that to (H2O)2 to be 0.522e. The original Bader charge scheme gives 0.156e and 0.596e respectively. We present the transfers surrounded by a large number of water molecules and those in water solution in periodic system. [1]R.F.W.Bader, Atoms in Molecules: A Quantum Theory, Clarendon:Oxford. 1990. [2]C.F.Guerra, et al., J.Comp.Chem. 25, 189(2003). [3]G.Henkelman, et al., Comp. Mat. Sci. in press.

  18. Centrality dependence of charged particle multiplicity at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hołyński, R.; Hofman, D. J.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S.; Steinberg, P.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    We present a measurement of the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles near midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV as a function of the number of participating nucleons. The pseudorapidity density, dNch/dη\\|\\|η\\|<1/(1/2), rises from 2.87+/-0.21 in peripheral events (~83) to 3.45+/-0.18 in central events (~353), which is 53+/-8% higher than pp&; collisions at a similar center-of-mass energy. This is consistent with an additional contribution to charged particle production that scales with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll).

  19. Total Cross Section Measurements and Velocity Distributions of Hyperthermal Charge Transfer in Xe2+ + N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Michael; Prince, Benjamin; Bemish, Raymond

    Guided-ion beam measurements of the charge exchange (CEX) cross section for Xe2+ + N2 are reported for collision energies ranging from 0.3 to 100 eV in the center-of-mass frame. Measured total XS decrease from 69.5 +/-0.3 Angstroms2 (Angs.) at the lowest collision energies to 40 Angs.2at 100 eV. The product N2+CEX cross section is similar to the total CEX cross section while those of the dissociative product, N+, are less than 1Angs.2 for collision energies above 9 eV. The product N2+CEXcross section measured here are much larger than the total optical emission-excitation cross sections for the N2+(A) and (B) state products determined previously in the chemiluminescence study of Prince and Chiu suggesting that most of the N2+products are in the X state. Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of both the Xe+ and N2+products suggest two different CEX product channels. The first leaves highly-vibrationally excited N2+products with forward scattered Xe+ (LAB frame) and releases between 0.35 to 0.6 eV translational energy for collisions below 17.6 eV. The second component decreases with collisional energy and leaves backscattered Xe+ and low-vibrational states of N2+.At collision energies above 17.6 eV, only charge exchange involving minimal momentum exchange remains in the TOF spectra. AFOSR 13RV07COR.

  20. Measurements of the charge asymmetry using the dilepton decay channel in pp collisions at = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Heracleous, N.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Kim, T. J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Diblen, S. Salva; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M. Vidal; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Junior, M. Correa Martins; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Montoya, C. A. Carrillo; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Moreno, B. Gomez; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. b.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Alvarez, J. D. Ruiz; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Donckt, M. Vander; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Ahmad, W. Haj; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Pardos, C. Diez; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Grebenyuk, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Hempel, M.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Stein, M.; Trevino, A. D. R. Vargas; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Höing, R. S.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Pardo, P. Lobelle; Martschei, D.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-giotis, I.; Gouskos, L.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Jones, J.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Singh, A. P.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Mehdiabadi, S. Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Vetere, M. Lo; Musenich, R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; La Cruz, I. Heredia-de; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Moreno, S. Carrillo; Valencia, F. Vazquez; Ibarguen, H. A. Salazar; Linares, E. Casimiro; Pineda, A. Morelos; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Parracho, P. G. Ferreira; Gallinaro, M.; Nguyen, F.; Antunes, J. Rodrigues; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Korenkov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. 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A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sakharov, A.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Woods, N.

    2014-04-01

    The charge asymmetry in proton-proton collisions at = 7 TeV is measured using the dilepton decay channel (ee, e μ, or μμ). The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb-1, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The tt and lepton charge asymmetries, defined as the differences in absolute values of the rapidities between the reconstructed top quarks and antiquarks and of the pseudorapidities between the positive and negative leptons, respectively, are measured to be A C = -0 .010 ± 0 .017 (stat .) ± 0 .008 (syst .) and = 0 .009 ± 0 .010 (stat .) ± 0 .006 (syst .). The lepton charge asymmetry is also measured as a function of the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the system. All measurements are consistent with the expectations of the standard model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Beam Energy Dependence of Moments of the Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    We report the first measurements of the moments—mean (M), variance (σ2), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)—of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au +Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from √sNN =7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ2/M, Sσ, and κσ2, with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ2 values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models.

  2. Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-29

    We report the first measurements of the moments--mean (M), variance (σ(2)), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)--of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from sqrt[sNN]=7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ(2)/M, Sσ, and κσ(2), with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ(2) values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models. PMID:25215979

  3. L-shell resonant transfer excitation in Cuq++H2 (q=18,19) collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Závodszky, P. A.; Wroblewski, J. A.; Ferguson, S. M.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Houck, J. H.; Woitke, O.; Tanis, J. A.; Badnell, N. R.

    1997-09-01

    Resonant transfer excitation (RTE) involving L-1Mn (n>=M) resonant states has been investigated for Na-like and Ne-like Cuq++H2 collisions (q=18 and 19). The M- to L-shell x-ray production cross sections (RTEX's) of these resonance states are studied by x-ray projectile ion coincidences. Previous measurements of L-shell RTEX for Nbq+ (q=28-31) ions showed the measured cross sections to be nearly a factor of 2 smaller than the calculated ones. For Cu18+ the present results show the position and width of the measured RTEX maximum cross section to be in agreement with the calculations; however, the measured absolute cross sections are about 60% higher than the predicted ones. In the case of Ne-like Cu19+ projectiles, the metastable component in the beam made it impossible to observe RTEX's.

  4. A scaling law for energy transfer by inelastic electron-molecule collisions in mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienkowski, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The equation governing the electron energy distribution in the presence of a spatially uniform electric field in a weakly ionized gas was reformulated into an integral equation for the logarithmic slope of the distribution function. For gas mixtures in which the dominant electron energy loss mechanism is by vibrational excitation of the molecules, this equation is suitable for approximate analysis and exact numerical solution by iteration. Superelastic collisions are easily included in this formulation, and do not seriously effect the convergence of the numerical scheme. The approximate analytical results are only qualitatively correct, but suggest appropriate parameters which correlate the exact numerical results very well. The distribution function as well as certain gross properties such as net energy transfer into vibration, mean energy, and drift velocity depend primarily on a single nondimensional parameter involving only E/N and the cross sections.

  5. Ultrafast Charge- and Energy-Transfer Dynamics in Conjugated Polymer: Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystal Blends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocrystal–polymer systems are promising candidates for photovoltaic applications, but the processes controlling charge generation are poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the energy- and charge-transfer processes occurring in a model system based on blends of cadmium selenide nanocrystals (CdSe-NC) with poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) using a combination of time-resolved absorption and luminescence measurements. The use of different capping ligands (n-butylamine, oleic acid) as well as thermal annealing allows tuning of the polymer–nanocrystal interaction. We demonstrate that energy transfer from MDMO-PPV to CdSe-NCs is the dominant exciton quenching mechanism in nonannealed blends and occurs on ultrafast time scales (<1 ps). Upon thermal annealing electron transfer becomes competitive with energy transfer, with a transfer rate of 800 fs independent of the choice of the ligand. Interestingly, we find hole transfer to be much less efficient than electron transfer and to extend over several nanoseconds. Our results emphasize the importance of tuning the organic–nanocrystal interaction to achieve efficient charge separation and highlight the unfavorable hole-transfer dynamics in these blends. PMID:24490650

  6. Ultrafast holography and transient absorption spectroscopy in charge-transfer polymers

    SciTech Connect

    McBranch, D.W.; Maniloff, E.S.; Vacar, D.; Heeger, A.J.

    1997-10-01

    Charge-transfer polymers are a new class of nonlinear optical materials which can be used for generating femtosecond holographic gratings. Using semiconducting polymers sensitized with varying concentrations of C{sub 60}, holographic gratings were recorded by individual ultrafast laser pulses; the diffraction efficiency and time decay of the gratings were measured using non-degenerate four-wave mixing. Using a figure of merit for dynamic data processing, the temporal diffraction efficiency, this new class of materials exhibits between two and 12 orders of magnitude higher response than previous reports. The charge transfer range at polymer/C{sub 60} interfaces was further studied using transient absorption spectroscopy. The fact that charge-transfer occurs in the picosecond-time scale in bilayer structures (thickness 200 {angstrom}) implies that diffusion of localized excitations to the interface is not the dominant mechanism; the charge transfer range is a significant fraction of the film thickness. From analysis of the excited state decay curves, we estimate the charge transfer range to be 80 {angstrom} and interpret that range as resulting from quantum delocalization of the photoexcitations.

  7. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    The success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we find that the collective motion of excitons at the interface lead to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. Furthermore, instability of these oscillations explain the rapid charge transfer across the interface and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.

  8. Charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in central Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] = 2.76 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aamodt, K; Abelev, B; Quintana, A Abrahantes; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Rinella, G Aglieri; Agocs, A G; Salazar, S Aguilar; Ahammed, Z; Masoodi, A Ahmad; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Molina, R Alfaro; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Aviña, E Almaráz; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Ferroli, R Baldini; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Pedrosa, F Baltasar Dos Santos; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Bergmann, C; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Boyer, B; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bugaiev, K; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Villar, E Calvo; Camerini, P; Roman, V Canoa; Romeo, G Cara; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Díaz, A Casanova; Caselle, M; Castellanos, J Castillo; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Barroso, V Chibante; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Coffin, J-P; Coli, S; Balbastre, G Conesa; Del Valle, Z Conesa; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Morales, Y Corrales; Maldonado, I Cortés; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Erasmo, G D; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Moregula, A De Azevedo; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; Debski, P R; Sanchez, E Del Castillo; Delagrange, H; Mercado, Y Delgado; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Majumdar, A K Dutta; Majumdar, M R Dutta; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Feofilov, G; Téllez, A Fernández; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Girard, M Fusco; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gemme, R; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; Santos, H González; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Gutierrez, C Guerra; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Corral, G Herrera; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanović, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, S H; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornaś, E; Don, C Kottachchi Kankanamge; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Meethaleveedu, G Koyithatta; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; de Guevara, P Ladrón; Lafage, V; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Larsen, D T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Lea, R; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; Monzón, I León; Vargas, H León; Lévai, P; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; Noriega, M López; Torres, E López; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Cervantes, I Maldonado; Malinina, L; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Davalos, A Martínez; García, G Martínez; Martynov, Y; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mayer, C; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Lorenzo, P Mendez; Menis, I; Pérez, J Mercado; Meres, M; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Midori, J; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Zetina, L Montaño; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; De Godoy, D A Moreira; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Obayashi, H; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Velasquez, A Ortiz; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Jayarathna, S P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Peresunko, D; Lara, C E Pérez; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Piyarathna, D B; Platt, R; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Rademakers, O; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Read, K F; Real, J; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Cahuantzi, M Rodríguez; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Montero, A J Rubio; Rui, R; Rivetti, A; Rusanov, I; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Castro, X Sanchez; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stokkevag, C H; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Vásquez, M A Subieta; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Takaki, J D Tapia; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Muñoz, G Tejeda; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Traczyk, T; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A J; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Palomo, L Valencia; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernekohl, D C; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Baillie, O Villalobos; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Øvrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Karampatsos, L Xaplanteris; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zichichi, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M

    2010-12-17

    The first measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √ S NN = 2.76 TeV is presented. For an event sample corresponding to the most central 5% of the hadronic cross section, the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles at midrapidity is 1584 ± 4(stat) ± 76(syst), which corresponds to 8.3 ± 0.4(syst) per participating nucleon pair. This represents an increase of about a factor 1.9 relative to pp collisions at similar collision energies, and about a factor 2.2 to central Au-Au collisions at √ S NN = 2.76 TeV. This measurement provides the first experimental constraint for models of nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies. PMID:21231579

  9. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: Charge transfer reaction of N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v{sup +}= 0-2; N{sup +}= 0-9) + Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu Yuntao; Lu Zhou; Xu Hong; Ng, C. Y.

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N{sub 2}{sup +}(v{sup +}, N{sup +}) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N{sub 2}{sup +} PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of {Delta}E{sub lab}={+-} 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E{sub cm}'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) for the N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E{sub cm} range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E{sub cm}-dependencies of {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0-2, N{sup +}= 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E{sub cm}= 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar{sup +} from N{sub 2}{sup +}(X; v{sup +}= 0, N{sup +}) + Ar was observed by the measured {sigma}(v{sup +}= 0), confirming the narrow {Delta}E{sub cm} spread achieved in

  10. Spectrophotometric study of the charge transfer complex between 2-amino-4-picoline with chloranilic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghanmi, Reem M.; Al-Attas, Amirah S.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.

    2013-02-01

    Charge transfer complex formation between 2-amino-4-picoline (2A4P) as the electron donor with chloranilic acid (CLA) as the electron acceptor has been studied spectrophotometrically in different polar solvents included acetone (AcN), ethanol (EtOH) and acetonitrile (AN). The molecular composition of the formed complex was recognized utilizing Job's, photometric and conductometric titration methods to be 1:1. The formation constants and molecular extinction coefficients were estimated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation; they recorded high values confirming high stability of the formed complex. Moreover, the results showed that the complex is more stable in acetone with lower electric permittivity compared with ethanol or acetonitrile of higher ones. The values of some spectroscopic physical parameters like oscillator strength f, transition dipole moment μ, resonance energy RN, charge transfer energy ECT, dissociation energy W, ionization potential IP and standard free energy ΔGo were determined and evaluated. The solid complex was isolated and its molecular composition was determined by elemental analysis to be 1:1. Furthermore, the solid complex was characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR measurements. They confirmed the presence of proton transfer beside charge transfer in the obtained complex. Molecular orbital calculations utilizing GAMESS computations were carried out to predict infrared spectra. They also confirmed the presence of proton transfer beside charge transfer in the formed complex.

  11. Charge transfer and charge conversion of K and N defect centers in Si3N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Erbetta, Davide

    2000-06-01

    Charge traps in silicon nitride and their interaction have been studied by first principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The K0 (N3≡Si•) and N0 (Si2=N•) Si and N dangling bond centers, respectively, are electrically active paramagnetic point defects. They show an amphoteric behavior and convert into the more stable diamagnetic charged centers K- (N3≡Si-), K+ (N3≡Si+), N- (Si2=N-), and N+ (Si2=N+). The overcoordination of K+ and N+ and the electrostatic interaction with the K- or N- counterparts are important contributions to the negative-U character of the defects.

  12. DNA in a Dissipative Environment: A Charge Transfer Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, Sohrab; Fathizadeh, Samira; Akhshani, Afshin

    2015-08-01

    Conductivity properties of DNA molecule is investigated in a simple, chemically specific approach, that is intimately related to the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. In the SSH model, the non-diagonal matrix element dependent on intersite displacements is considered and there is a coupling between the charge and lattice deformation along DNA helix. In order to study the evolution of the electrical current flowing through DNA in the presence of external electrical field, the electrical current is directly extracted from the dynamical equations. Ranges of electrical field and hopping constant value are estimated using MLE approach. The model is studied by means of I-V characteristic diagrams and the environmental effects is conducted through a phonon bath using different lengths of DNA. The NDR and quasi-Ohmic regions are observed.

  13. Charge transfer and electronic doping in nitrogen-doped graphene

    PubMed Central

    Joucken, Frédéric; Tison, Yann; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Tejeda, Antonio; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Conrad, Edward; Repain, Vincent; Chacon, Cyril; Bellec, Amandine; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Ghijsen, Jacques; Sporken, Robert; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, François; Lagoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the modification of the graphene’s electronic structure upon doping is crucial for enlarging its potential applications. We present a study of nitrogen-doped graphene samples on SiC(000) combining angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The comparison between tunneling and angle-resolved photoelectron spectra reveals the spatial inhomogeneity of the Dirac energy shift and that a phonon correction has to be applied to the tunneling measurements. XPS data demonstrate the dependence of the N 1s binding energy of graphitic nitrogen on the nitrogen concentration. The measure of the Dirac energy for different nitrogen concentrations reveals that the ratio usually computed between the excess charge brought by the dopants and the dopants’ concentration depends on the latter. This is supported by a tight-binding model considering different values for the potentials on the nitrogen site and on its first neighbors. PMID:26411651

  14. Effect of collective response on electron capture and excitation in collisions of highly charged ions with fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C

    2003-03-01

    Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions. PMID:12689221

  15. Centrality Dependence of Charged-Hadron Transverse-Momentum Spectra in d+Au Collisions at (sNN)=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Noell, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Teng, R.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2003-08-01

    We have measured transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in d+Au collisions at (sNN)=200 GeV. The spectra were obtained for transverse momenta 0.25collision centrality is presented in comparison to p+p¯ collisions at the same collision energy. With increasing centrality, the yield at high transverse momenta increases more rapidly than the overall particle density, leading to a strong modification of the spectral shape. This change in spectral shape is qualitatively different from observations in Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The results provide important information for discriminating between different models for the suppression of high-pT hadrons observed in Au+Au collisions.

  16. Pseudorapidity density of charged particles in p+Pb collisions at √(s(NN))=5.02 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, W; Carena, F; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, K; Das, I; Das, S; Das, D; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; Erasmo, G D; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, S; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harton, A; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hippolyte, B; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, V; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jang, H J; Janik, R; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, K H; Khan, P; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D W; Kim, T; Kim, B; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, D J; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kour, R; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravčáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, V; Kushpil, S; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizuno, S; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, V; Nikulin, S; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oh, S; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Pastirčák, B; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Planinic, M; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santagati, G; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, S; Sharma, N; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sultanov, R; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szostak, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Trubnikov, V; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, V; Wagner, B; Wan, R; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilk, A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, S; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, F; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhu, J; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-18

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured over four units of pseudorapidity in nonsingle-diffractive p+Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √(s(NN))=5.02 TeV is presented. The average value at midrapidity is measured to be 16.81±0.71 (syst), which corresponds to 2.14±0.17 (syst) per participating nucleon, calculated with the Glauber model. This is 16% lower than in nonsingle-diffractive pp collisions interpolated to the same collision energy and 84% higher than in d+Au collisions at s√(s(NN))=0.2 TeV. The measured pseudorapidity density in p+Pb collisions is compared to model predictions and provides new constraints on the description of particle production in high-energy nuclear collisions. PMID:23373913

  17. Centrality dependence of charged-hadron transverse-momentum spectra in d+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Back, B B; Baker, M D; Ballintijn, M; Barton, D S; Becker, B; Betts, R R; Bickley, A A; Bindel, R; Budzanowski, A; Busza, W; Carroll, A; Decowski, M P; García, E; Gburek, T; George, N; Gulbrandsen, K; Gushue, S; Halliwell, C; Hamblen, J; Harrington, A S; Henderson, C; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Hołyński, R; Holzman, B; Iordanova, A; Johnson, E; Kane, J L; Khan, N; Kulinich, P; Kuo, C M; Lee, J W; Lin, W T; Manly, S; Mignerey, A C; Noell, A; Nouicer, R; Olszewski, A; Pak, R; Park, I C; Pernegger, H; Reed, C; Remsberg, L P; Roland, C; Roland, G; Sagerer, J; Sarin, P; Sawicki, P; Sedykh, I; Skulski, W; Smith, C E; Steinberg, P; Stephans, G S F; Sukhanov, A; Teng, R; Tonjes, M B; Trzupek, A; Vale, C; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Verdier, R; Veres, G I; Wadsworth, B; Wolfs, F L H; Wosiek, B; Woźniak, K; Wuosmaa, A H; Wysłouch, B; Zhang, J

    2003-08-15

    We have measured transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in d+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. The spectra were obtained for transverse momenta 0.25collision centrality is presented in comparison to p+pmacr; collisions at the same collision energy. With increasing centrality, the yield at high transverse momenta increases more rapidly than the overall particle density, leading to a strong modification of the spectral shape. This change in spectral shape is qualitatively different from observations in Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The results provide important information for discriminating between different models for the suppression of high-p(T) hadrons observed in Au+Au collisions. PMID:12935007

  18. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  19. Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Robin, A; Lhuillier, E; Xu, X Z; Ithurria, S; Aubin, H; Ouerghi, A; Dubertret, B

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1-1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties. PMID:27143413

  20. Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, A.; Lhuillier, E.; Xu, X. Z.; Ithurria, S.; Aubin, H.; Ouerghi, A.; Dubertret, B.

    2016-05-01

    Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1–1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties.

  1. Laboratory Studies of Thermal Energy Charge Transfer of Silicon and Iron Ions in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The laser ablation/ion storage facility at the UNLV Physics Department is dedicated to the study of atomic processes in low temperature plasmas. Our current program is directed to the study of charge transfer of multiply charged ions and neutrals that are of importance to astrophysics at energies less than 1 eV (about 10(exp 4) K). Specifically, we measure the charge transfer rate coefficient of ions such as N(2+), Si(3+), Si(3+), with helium and Fe(2+) with molecular and atomic hydrogen. All these ions are found in a variety of astrophysical plasmas. Their electron transfer reactions with neutral atoms can affect the ionization equilibrium of the plasma.

  2. Photophysical properties of charge transfer pairs encapsulated inside macrocycle cage: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arkamita; Pati, Swapan K.

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed on three charge transfer donor-acceptor (D-A) molecular pairs, i.e. naphthalene-diamine (Naph) and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) molecules as electron donors and benzene-diimide (Diimide) and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as electron acceptors. Structural, charge transfer and optical properties of the systems have been studied. The D-A pairs then has been considered inside a macrocycle (cucurbit[8]uril) cavity and Naph-Diimide and TTF-Diimide pairs have been shown to exhibit changes in their structures and orientations, TTF-TCNQ pair does not show any significant structural change. Our work suggests that these changes in structures or orientations are result of electronic repulsion between the keto group oxygen atoms and it can lead to tuning of charge transfer and optical properties of the systems.

  3. Relation between geometry and charge transfer in low-dimensional organic salts

    SciTech Connect

    Umland, T.C.; Allie, S.; Kuhlmann, T.; Coppens, P.

    1988-11-03

    The Cambridge Data Base has been used to examine the relation between charge transfer and geometry in salts containing the TCNQ (tetracyanoquinodimethanide) anion and the TTF (tetrathiofulvalene), TSF (tetraselenofulvalene), and BEDT-TTF (bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiofulvalene) cations. The correlation is based on either a bond length ratio or a bond length difference function and is calculated both for an extended data set, including charge transfers based on stoichiometry, and on a more restricted set based on neutral molecules and experimentally measured charge transfers. A two-parameter linear least-squares fit is found to be adequate; inclusion of a third (quadratic) coefficient does not give a significant improvement with the data available. The bond length difference function tends to give somewhat smaller standard deviations in predictions based on the derived equations. The curves for BEDT-TTF are not significantly different from those for the larger TTF set of entries.

  4. Horizontal versus vertical charge and energy transfer in hybrid assemblies of semiconductor nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, Gilad; Guliamov, Rahamim

    2012-01-01

    Summary We studied the photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence from self-assembled bilayers of donor and acceptor nanoparticles (NPs) adsorbed on a quartz substrate through organic linkers. Charge and energy transfer processes within the assemblies were investigated as a function of the length of the dithiolated linker (DT) between the donors and acceptors. We found an unusual linker-length-dependency in the emission of the donors. This dependency may be explained by charge and energy transfer processes in the vertical direction (from the donors to the acceptors) that depend strongly on charge transfer processes occurring in the horizontal plane (within the monolayer of the acceptor), namely, parallel to the substrate. PMID:23019559

  5. Engineering the Charge Transfer in all 2D Graphene-Nanoplatelets Heterostructure Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Robin, A.; Lhuillier, E.; Xu, X. Z.; Ithurria, S.; Aubin, H.; Ouerghi, A.; Dubertret, B.

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional layered (i.e. van der Waals) heterostructures open up great prospects, especially in photodetector applications. In this context, the control of the charge transfer between the constituting layers is of crucial importance. Compared to bulk or 0D system, 2D materials are characterized by a large exciton binding energy (0.1–1 eV) which considerably affects the magnitude of the charge transfer. Here we investigate a model system made from colloidal 2D CdSe nanoplatelets and epitaxial graphene in a phototransistor configuration. We demonstrate that using a heterostructured layered material, we can tune the magnitude and the direction (i.e. electron or hole) of the charge transfer. We further evidence that graphene functionalization by nanocrystals only leads to a limited change in the magnitude of the 1/f noise. These results draw some new directions to design van der Waals heterostructures with enhanced optoelectronic properties. PMID:27143413

  6. Charge transfer and mobility enhancement at CdO/SnTe heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, Junichi; Yu, Kin Man; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2014-09-29

    We report a study of the effects of charge transfer on electrical properties of CdO/SnTe heterostructures. A series of structures with variable SnTe thicknesses were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Because of an extreme type III band offset with the valence band edge of SnTe located at 1.5 eV above the conduction band edge of CdO, a large charge transfer is expected at the interface of the CdO/SnTe heterostructure. The electrical properties of the heterostructures are analyzed using a multilayer charge transport model. The analysis indicates a large 4-fold enhancement of the CdO electron mobility at the interface with SnTe. The mobility enhancement is attributed to reduction of the charge center scattering through neutralization of the donor-like defects responsible for the Fermi level pinning at the CdO/SnTe interface.

  7. High charge state, ion-atom collision experiments using accel-decel

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Tanis, J.A.; Graham, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of /sub 16/S/sup 13 +/ + He collisions between 2.5 and 200 MeV, which were made using the accel-decel technique with the Brookhaven National Laboratory coupled MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerators, are discussed. Cross sections were measured for single electron-capture and -loss as well as K x rays correlated to electron-capture. Other planned ion-atom collision experiments requiring accel-decel are also presented. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Gating of single molecule junction conductance by charge transfer complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Andrea; Grace, Iain; Brooke, Carly; Wang, Kun; Lambert, Colin J.; Xu, Bingqian; Nichols, Richard J.; Higgins, Simon J.

    2015-11-01

    The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference.The solid-state structures of organic charge transfer (CT) salts are critical in determining their mode of charge transport, and hence their unusual electrical properties, which range from semiconducting through metallic to superconducting. In contrast, using both theory and experiment, we show here that the conductance of metal |single molecule| metal junctions involving aromatic donor moieties (dialkylterthiophene, dialkylbenzene) increase by over an order of magnitude upon formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). This enhancement occurs because CT complex formation creates a new resonance in the transmission function, close to the metal contact Fermi energy, that is a signal of room-temperature quantum interference. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of 1c; experimental details of conductance measurements, formation of charge transfer complexes of 1c and 2 in solution; further details of theoretical methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04420k

  9. Detection of single-nucleotide variations by monitoring the blinking of fluorescence induced by charge transfer in DNA.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kiyohiko; Majima, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2013-08-19

    Charge transfer dynamics in DNA: Photo-induced charge separation and charge-recombination dynamics in DNA was assessed by monitoring the blinking of fluorescence. Single nucleotide variations, mismatch and one base deletion, were differentiated based on the length of the off-time of the blinking, which corresponds to the lifetime of the charge-separated state. PMID:23846860

  10. Inner shell vacancy filling and production in highly-charged-ion surface collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Grether, M.

    1994-12-31

    Secondary electron spectra of H-like Ne{sup 9+} ions incident with impact energies from 135 eV to 22.5 keV on a solid Al(111) surface were measured. The dependence of the K Auger electron yield on the observation angle and on the projectile energy is studied in detail. The data show clear evidence for Auger emission from below the surface even for the lowest projectile velocity. In addition, it is found that the Ne L shell filling via charge exchange decrease with decreasing impact energy and reaches zero near an incident energy of 200 eV. Also, the authors measured the intensity of the Au N{sub 5}N{sub 6,7}N{sub 6,7} Auger electrons for Ar{sup 9+} ions with kinetic energies from 125 eV up to 5.3 keV. A threshold behavior is observed in the production of target Au N{sub 5} vacancies by Ar{sup 9+} ions. To analyse the data, they calculated correlation diagrams involving model energies to obtain the internuclear distance of orbital and potential curve crossings. The comparison of experiment and theory shows that the excitation process is not expected to be due to a resonant vacancy transfer from the projectile to the target but due to a dielectronic process which is governed by the electron-electron interaction.

  11. Charge-asymmetry dependence of kaon elliptic flow in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN} = 27 GeV from STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Keenan; STAR Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Theory predicts that a chiral magnetic wave (CMW) at finite baryon density can induce a charge-asymmetry dependence of elliptic flow (v2) of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions. In the case of pions, STAR has observed that v2 (π-) -v2 (π+) exhibits a linear dependence on charge asymmetry with a positive slope in Au +Au collisions from 27 to 200 GeV. This is consistent with the CMW picture. At lower collision energies, it was found that the charge-asymmetry integrated v2 for negative pions is higher while for kaons, the positive charge is favored. Therefore, an observation of the same positive linear dependence of kaon v2 difference on charge asymmetry will provide a further test on the CMW predictions in heavy-ion collisions. In this work, we will present the status of our kaon elliptic flow measurements as a function of charge asymmetry for Au +Au collisions at √{sNN} = 27 GeV. For the STAR Collaboration.

  12. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer: Moving Together and Charging Forward

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is ubiquitous throughout chemistry and biology. This Perspective discusses recent advances and current challenges in the field of PCET, with an emphasis on the role of theory and computation. The fundamental theoretical concepts are summarized, and expressions for rate constants and kinetic isotope effects are provided. Computational methods for calculating reduction potentials and pKa’s for molecular electrocatalysts, as well as insights into linear correlations and non-innocent ligands, are also described. In addition, computational methods for simulating the nonadiabatic dynamics of photoexcited PCET are discussed. Representative applications to PCET in solution, proteins, electrochemistry, and photoinduced processes are presented, highlighting the interplay between theoretical and experimental studies. The current challenges and suggested future directions are outlined for each type of application, concluding with an overall view to the future. PMID:26110700

  13. Charge transfer properties through graphene for applications in gaseous detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchino, S.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jackman, R. B.; Muller, H.; Nguyen, T. T.; de Oliveira, R.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.; van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2×2 cm2, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.

  14. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer: Moving Together and Charging Forward.

    PubMed

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-07-22

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is ubiquitous throughout chemistry and biology. This Perspective discusses recent advances and current challenges in the field of PCET, with an emphasis on the role of theory and computation. The fundamental theoretical concepts are summarized, and expressions for rate constants and kinetic isotope effects are provided. Computational methods for calculating reduction potentials and pKa's for molecular electrocatalysts, as well as insights into linear correlations and non-innocent ligands, are also described. In addition, computational methods for simulating the nonadiabatic dynamics of photoexcited PCET are discussed. Representative applications to PCET in solution, proteins, electrochemistry, and photoinduced processes are presented, highlighting the interplay between theoretical and experimental studies. The current challenges and suggested future directions are outlined for each type of application, concluding with an overall view to the future. PMID:26110700

  15. Observation of slow charge redistribution preceding excited-state proton transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Spry, D. B.; Fayer, M. D.

    2007-11-28

    The photoacid 8-hydroxy-N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '},N{sup '},N{sup '}-hexamethylpyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonamide (HPTA) and related compounds are used to investigate the steps involved in excited-state deprotonation in polar solvents using pump-probe spectroscopy and time correlated single photon counting fluorescence spectroscopy. The dynamics show a clear two-step process leading to excited-state proton transfer. The first step after electronic excitation is charge redistribution occurring on a tens of picoseconds time scale followed by proton transfer on a nanosecond time scale. The three states observed in the experiments (initial excited state, charge redistributed state, and proton transfer state) are recognized by distinct features in the time dependence of the pump-probe spectrum and fluorescence spectra. In the charge redistributed state, charge density has transferred from the hydroxyl oxygen to the pyrene ring, but the OH sigma bond is still intact. The experiments indicate that the charge redistribution step is controlled by a specific hydrogen bond donation from HPTA to the accepting base molecule. The second step is the full deprotonation of the photoacid. The full deprotonation is clearly marked by the growth of stimulated emission spectral band in the pump-probe spectrum that is identical to the fluorescence spectrum of the anion.

  16. High pressure study of charge transfer complexes and radical ion salts: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yadunath

    2016-05-01

    High pressure is an important tool to study of material in respect of variation in interatomic distances, phase transitions and other physical properties. The pressure study of charge transfer complexes and radical ion salts provide us a better understanding about the effect of charge transfer forces, structural changes, formation of new ground states, suppression ofPeierls distortions occurs particularly at low temperatures and the intra-molecular overlapping etc. in these materials. The pressure plays a significant role in bringing superconducting transitions in the organic materials.

  17. Modeling of charge transfer processes to understand photophysical signatures: The case of Rhodamine 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarese, Marika; Raucci, Umberto; Netti, Paolo A.; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria; Rega, Nadia

    2014-08-01

    Photophysical signatures, namely absorption and emission energies, lifetime and quantum yields, have been computed through TD-DFT approaches and compared with experimental counterparts for the Rhodamine 110 dye in aqueous solution. Thanks to a new protocol of analysis, based on the use of very promising electronic based indices, it has been possible to investigate the interplay between Rhodamine 110 dye's structure, degree of charge transfer upon excitation, and fluorescence signatures. This combined analysis is very promising to support the understanding of charge transfer based mechanisms affecting dyes photophysics.

  18. Polarization dependence of charge-transfer excitations in La2CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Hancock, Jason; Vajk, Owen; Yu, Guichuan; Ishii, Kenji; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Casa, Diego; Gog, Thomas; Greven, Martin

    2006-03-01

    We have carried out an extensive resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) study of La2CuO4 at the Cu K-edge. Multiple charge-transfer excitations have been identified using the incident photon energy dependence of the cross section and studied carefully with polarizations E//c and E //ab. An analysis of the incident photon energy dependence, the polarization dependence, as well as the K-edge absorption spectra, indicates that the RIXS spectra reveal rich physics about the K-edge absorption process and momentum-dependent charge-transfer excitations in cuprates.

  19. Ion-atom charge-transfer reactions and a hot intercloud medium. [in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the ionization equilibrium of carbon in a hot intercloud medium (ICM), taking into account various charge-transfer reactions. Attention is given to problems related to observations of carbon along the lines of sight to several unreddened stars. It is pointed out that the observed underabundance of C III and overabundance of C I can be consistent with the presence of a hot, partially ionized ICM, provided that two of the charge-transfer reactions considered are rapid at thermal energies.

  20. The origin of delayed fluorescence in charge-transfer crystals: pyromellitic dianhydride-phenanthrene crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozankiewicz, B.

    1987-03-01

    The temperature dependence of emission spectra and their decay parameters for pyromellitic dianhydride-phenanthrene chargetransfer crystals have been investigated between 1.7 and 300 K. It has been established that the delayed fluorescence originates from triplet-triplet annihilation at temperatures between 30 and 60 K. (activation energy 290 ± 20 cm -1) and from thermal activation of triplet excitons to the singlet excitonic band for temperatures higher than 60 K (activation energy 600 ± 30 cm -1). This mechanism may be considered as typical for charge-transfer crystals characterized by intermediate (50-80%) charge-transfer character of triplet excitons.

  1. Resonant charge transfer in low-energy ion scattering: Information depth in the reionization regime.

    PubMed

    Primetzhofer, D; Spitz, M; Taglauer, E; Bauer, P

    2011-11-01

    Time-Of-Flight Low-energy ion scattering (TOF-LEIS) experiments were performed for He(+) ions scattered from Cu(100) and Cu(0.5)Au(0.5)(100). Probabilities for resonant neutralization and reionization in close collisions were deduced in a wide energy range. To learn about the information depth in LEIS, in a next step ion spectra were analyzed for polycrystalline Cu samples. The relative yield of backscattered projectiles, which have undergone distinct charge exchange processes, was calculated. Results indicate a strong contribution to the ion yield that origins from particles reionized in a close collision in deeper layers when experiments are performed at energies where reionization is prominent. The surface sensitivity of the ion signal at different energies is quantified. Based on these results, the total ion spectrum was quantitatively modelled by two consistent, but different approaches. PMID:22053118

  2. Charge separation relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s(NN)] = 2.76 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, S A; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Boyer, B; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Bugaiev, K; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, W; Carena, F; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, K; Das, I; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; Erasmo, G D; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanova, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jacobs, P M; Jang, H J; Janik, R; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jirden, L; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kakoyan, V; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, J S; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, T; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, B; Kim, S; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Korneev, A; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lazzeroni, C; Lea, R; Le Bornec, Y; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, K S; Lee, G R; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Ma, K; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Marin Tobon, C A; Markert, C; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Naumov, N P; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Pastirčák, B; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puchagin, S; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, B; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, P; Roy, C; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, S; Sharma, N; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sinha, B C; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strabykin, K; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sultanov, R; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szostak, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Ovrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, V; Wagner, B; Wan, R; Wang, Y; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilk, A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, Y; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhu, J; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations with the ALICE detector at the LHC are reported for Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s(NN)] = 2.76 TeV. Two- and three-particle charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 0.8 are presented as a function of the collision centrality, particle separation in pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum. A clear signal compatible with a charge-dependent separation relative to the reaction plane is observed, which shows little or no collision energy dependence when compared to measurements at RHIC energies. This provides a new insight for understanding the nature of the charge-dependent azimuthal correlations observed at RHIC and LHC energies. PMID:23383780

  3. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  4. Charge dependence and electric quadrupole effects on single-nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Single-nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  5. Elliptic flow due to charged hadrons for Au+Au collisions at RHIC energy 62.4 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Somani Ajit; Sudhir, Bhardwaj; Ashish, Agnihotri

    2016-05-01

    Elliptic flow is an important observable in search of Quark Gluon Plasma. The elliptic flow parameter dependence on centrality due to charged hadrons were studied using events generated by event generator AMPT at center of mass energy of 62.4 GeV per nucleon pair for Au+Au collisions. This study performed for pseudorapidity range from -0.35 to 0.35 and transverse momentum bins pt = 0.2 to 1 GeV/c and 1 to 2 GeV/c. We compared the results obtained from simulated data and RHIC-PHENIX data.

  6. Shape, Transverse Size, and Charged Hadron Multiplicity of Jets in pp Collisions at 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements of jet characteristics from inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV are presented. The data sample was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC during 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The mean charged hadron multiplicity, the differential and integral jet shape distributions, and two independent moments of the shape distributions are measured as functions of the jet transverse momentum for jets reconstructed with the anti-kT algorithm. The measured observables are corrected to the particle level and compared with predictions from various QCD Monte Carlo generators.

  7. Charge-displacement analysis via natural orbitals for chemical valence: Charge transfer effects in coordination chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Rampino, Sergio; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    We recently devised a simple scheme for analyzing on quantitative grounds the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson donation and back-donation in symmetric coordination complexes. Our approach is based on a symmetry decomposition of the so called Charge-Displacement (CD) function quantifying the charge flow, upon formation of a metal (M)-substrate (S) bond, along the M-S interaction axis and provides clear-cut measures of donation and back-donation charges in correlation with experimental observables [G. Bistoni et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52, 11599 (2013)]. The symmetry constraints exclude of course from the analysis most systems of interest in coordination chemistry. In this paper, we show how to entirely overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the properties of the natural orbitals for chemical valence [M. Mitoraj and A. Michalak, J. Mol. Model. 13, 347 (2007)]. A general scheme for disentangling donation and back-donation in the CD function of both symmetric and non-symmetric systems is presented and illustrated through applications to M-ethyne (M = Au, Ni and W) coordination bonds, including an explicative study on substrate activation in a model reaction mechanism.

  8. Surface charging and x-ray emission from insulator surfaces induced by collisions with highly charged ions : relevance to cometary and planetary sp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristic X-ray emission lines are detected from simulants of comet surfaces as they undergo collisions with highly charged ions (HCIs). The HCI projectiles are O+2-O+7. Ion energies are varied in the range (2-7)q keV, where q is the ion charge state. The targets are the insulator minerals olivine, augite, and quartz. It is found that the emission of characteristic K-L, K-M X-rays appears to proceed during positive charging of the surface by the HCI beam. When one uses low-energy, flood-gun electrons to neutralize the surface charge, the X-ray emission is eliminated or greatly reduced, depending on the flood-gun current. Acceleration of background electrons onto the charged surface results in excitation of elemental transitions, including the K-L2 and K-L3 target X-ray emission lines of Mg and Si located spectroscopically at 1253.6 and 1739.4 eV, respectively. Also observed are emission lines from O, Na, Ca, Al, and Fe atoms in the target and charge-exchange lines via surface extraction of electrons by the O+q electric field. Good agreement is found in the ratio of the measured X-ray yields for Mg and Si relative to the ratio of their electron-impact K-shell ionization cross sections. The present study may serve as a guide to astronomers as to specific observing X-ray energies indicative of solar/stellar wind or magnetospheric ion interactions with a comet, planetary surface, or circumstellar dust.

  9. A 190 by 244 charge-coupled area image sensor with interline transfer organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    A 190 x 244 element charge coupled area image sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested. This sensor employs an interline transfer organization and buried n-channel technology. It features a novel on-chip charge integrator and a distributed floating gate amplifier for high and low light level applications. The X-Y element count has been chosen to establish the capability of producing an NTSC compatible video signal. The array size is also compatible with the Super 8 lens format. The first few sample devices have been successfully operated at full video bandwidth for both high and low light levels with the charge amplifier system.

  10. Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /CERN /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /CHEP, Taegu /Chonnam Natl. U. /Korea U. /UCLA /CERN /UC, Riverside /Budapest, RMKI /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Caltech /Carnegie Mellon U. /Colorado U. /Cornell U. /Fairfield U.

    2010-05-01

    Charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV are measured with the inner tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC. The charged-hadron yield is obtained by counting the number of reconstructed hits, hit-pairs, and fully reconstructed charged-particle tracks. The combination of the three methods gives a charged-particle multiplicity per unit of pseudorapidity dN{sub ch}/d{eta}|{eta}|<0.5 = 5.78 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.23 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive events, higher than predicted by commonly used models. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from {radical}s = 0.9 to 7 TeV is 66.1% {+-} 1.0% (stat.) {+-} 4.2% (syst.). The mean transverse momentum is measured to be 0.545 {+-} 0.005 (stat.) {+-} 0.015 (syst.) GeV/c. The results are compared with similar measurements at lower energies.

  11. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer: Moving Together and Charging Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-06-25

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is ubiquitous throughout chemistry and biology. This Perspective discusses recent advances and current challenges in the field of PCET, with an emphasis on the role of theory and computation. The fundamental theoretical concepts are summarized, and expressions for rate constants and kinetic isotope effects are provided. Computational methods for calculating reduction potentials and pKa’s for molecular electrocatalysts, as well as methods for simulating the nonadiabatic dynamics of photoinduced processes, are also described. Representative applications to PCET in solution, proteins, electrochemistry, and photoinduced processes are presented, highlighting the interplay between theoretical and experimental studies. The current challenges and suggested future directions are outlined for each type of application, concluding with an overall view to the future. The work described herein was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CHE-13-61293 (theory development), National Institutes of Health Grant GM056207 (soybean lipoxygenase), Center for Chemical Innovation of the National Science Foundation Solar Fuels Grant CHE-1305124 (cobalt catalysts), Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (nickel catalysts), and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Award No. FA9550-14-1-0295 (photoinduced PCET).

  12. Spectral properties of molecular charge-transfer probe QMOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomin, V. I.; Jaworski, R.; Yushchenko, D. A.

    2010-09-01

    The spectral characteristics of solutions of a dye with dual fluorescence, 1-methyl-2-(4-methoxy)phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone, in acetonitrile are studied upon selective excitation. This dye is a structural analogue of 3-hydroxyflavone and also exhibits excited-state proton transfer, which, as well as in the case of 3-hydroxyflavone, has a kinetic nature. The fluorescence spectra are studied upon excitation by photons of various energies, and the excitation spectra are recorded at wavelengths of different fluorescence bands. It is found that the intensity ratio of the emission of the normal and tautomeric forms (at wavelength of 415 and 518 nm, respectively) is almost the same (0.23-0.25) for excitation in the regions of the main and the second absorption bands. At the same time, in the case of excitation between these bands, this ratio decreases to 0.19. The second interesting feature is the existence of a third latent emission band peaked at about 480 nm, which is reliably detected upon excitation at wavelengths in the region of 400-450 nm. This study shows that this emission belongs to the anionic form of the dye. This form is also responsible for a decrease in the intensity ratio of the emission of the two main forms in the case of excitation between the first and second absorption bands.

  13. Computing intramolecular charge and energy transfer rates using optimal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xunmo; Bittner, Eric R.

    2015-06-28

    In our recent work [X. Yang and E. R. Bittner, J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 5196 (2014)], we showed how to construct a reduced set of nuclear motions that capture the coupling between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom over the course of an electronic transition. We construct these modes, referred to as “Lanczos modes,” by applying a search algorithm to find linear combinations of vibrational normal modes that optimize the electronic/nuclear coupling operator. Here, we analyze the irreducible representations of the dominant contributions of these modes and find that for the cases considered here, these belong to totally symmetric irreducible representations of the donor and acceptor moieties. Upon investigating the molecular geometry changes following the transition, we propose that the electronic transition process can be broken into two steps, in the agreement of Born-Oppenheimer approximation: a fast excitation transfer occurs, facilitated by the “primary Lanczos mode,” followed by slow nuclear relaxation on the final electronic diabatic surface.

  14. Evidence of Delocalization in Charge-Transfer State Manifold for Donor:Acceptor Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhiqiang; Li, Ho-Wa; Zhang, Jinfeng; Cheng, Yuanhang; Yang, Qingdan; Lo, Ming-Fai; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-08-24

    How charge-transfer states (CTSs) assist charge separation of a Coulombically bound exciton in organic photovoltaics has been a hot topic. It is believed that the delocalization feature of a CTS plays a crucial role in the charge separation process. However, the delocalization of the "hot" and the "relaxed" CTSs is still under debate. Here, with a novel frequency dependent charge-modulated electroabsorption spectroscopy (CMEAS) technique, we elucidate clearly that both "hot" and "relaxed" CTSs are loosely bound and delocalized states. This is confirmed by comparing the CMEAS results of CTSs with those of localized polaron states. Our results reveal the role of CTS delocalization on charge separation and indicate that no substantial delocalization gradient exists in CTSs. PMID:27482867

  15. Note: Charge transfer in a hydrated peptide group is determined mainly by its intrinsic hydrogen-bond energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, Noemi G.; Krimm, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    Charge transfer in a hydrogen-bonded N-methylacetamide(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} system is obtained from ωB97X-D/6-31++G** and CHelpG atomic charge calculations of individual peptide-water interactions as well as that of the entire complex. In the latter, the electron transfer to water is 0.19 e, influenced primarily by the hydrogen bonds to the C=O group. The values of such charge transfer are paralleled by the corresponding intrinsic hydrogen-bond energies. These results support the desirability of incorporating charge transfer in molecular mechanics energy functions.

  16. Intramolecular charge transfer photoemission of a silicon-based copolymer containing carbazole and divinylbenzene chromophores. Electron transfer across silicon bridges.

    PubMed

    Bayda, Malgorzata; Ludwiczak, Monika; Hug, Gordon L; Majchrzak, Mariusz; Marciniec, Bogdan; Marciniak, Bronislaw

    2014-07-01

    A new copolymer consisting of N-isopropylcarbazole/dimethylsilylene bridge/divinylbenzene units was synthesized and characterized. Dual fluorescence was observed in this copolymer in polar solvents. The absence of the second band at the lower transition energy of the two emission maxima in nonpolar solvents and the quantitative correlation of the lower-energy emission band maxima with solvent polarity indicate that the lower-energy emission band arises from an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. A series of model compounds was synthesized to investigate the source of the charge transfer. It was found that the Si-bridged dyad with a single N-isopropylcarbazole and a single divinylbenzene was the minimum structure necessary to observe dual luminescence. The lack of dual luminescence in low-temperature glasses indicates that the ICT requires a conformation change in the copolymer. Analogous behavior in the Si-bridged dyad suggests that the ICT in the copolymer is across the silicon bridge. Results from time-resolved luminescence measurements with picosecond and subnanosecond excitation were used to support the thesis that twisted charge-transfer states are the likely source of the observed dual luminescence. PMID:24901805

  17. Camptothecins guanine interactions: mechanism of charge transfer reaction upon photoactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkeste, K.; Guiot, E.; Tfibel, F.; Pernot, P.; Mérola, F.; Georges, P.; Fontaine-Aupart, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    The potent activity exhibited by the antitumoral camptothecin (CPT) and its analog irinotecan (CPT-11) is known to be related to a close contact between the drug and the nucleic acid base guanine. This specificity of interaction between these two chromophores was examined by following changes in the photophysical properties of the drug using steady-state as well as time-resolved absorption and fluorescence methods. The observed effects on absorption, fluorescence emission and singlet excited state lifetimes give evidence for the occurrence of a stacking complex formation restricted to the quinoline part of CPT or CPT-11 and the guanine base but also with the adenine base. The triplet excited state properties of the drugs have been also characterized in absence and in presence of guanosine monophosphate and reveal the occurrence of an electron transfer from the guanine base to the drug. Support for this conclusion was obtained from the studies of a set of biological targets of various oxido-reduction potentials, adenosine monophosphate, cytidine, cytosine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine. This finding gives an interpretation of the CPT-induced guanine photolesions previously reported in the literature. These data taken together are discussed in connection with the drug activity. The stacking complex CPT/guanine is necessary but not sufficient to explain the role of the chirality and of the lactone structure in the function of the drug. A stereospecific interaction with the enzyme topoisomerase I seems necessary to stabilize the stacking complex. The first experiments using time-resolved fluorescence by two-photon excitation confirms that CPT does not bind to the isolated enzyme.

  18. Photophysical studies of metal to ligand charge transfer involving quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Malcolm H; Brown-Xu, Samantha E; Spilker, Thomas F

    2015-03-17

    Photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions afford numerous applications in terms of photon energy harvesting. The majority of metal complexes studied to date involve diamagnetic systems of d(6), d(8), and d(10) transition metals. These typically have very short-lived, ∼100 fs, singlet metal to ligand charge transfer ((1)MLCT) states that undergo intersystem crossing to triplet metal to ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) states that are longer lived and are responsible for much of the photophysical studies. In contrast, the metal-metal quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten supported by carboxylate, O2CR, and related amidinate ligands (RN)2C(R') have relatively long-lived (1)MLCT states arising from M2δ to Lπ* transitions. These have lifetimes in the range 1-20 ps prior to intersystem crossing to T1 states that may be (3)MLCT or (3)MMδδ* with lifetimes of 1-100 ns and 1-100 μs, respectively. The M2 quadruply bonded complexes take the form M2L4 or M2L4-nL'n where n = 1-3. Thus, in their photoexcited MLCT states, these compounds pose the question of how the charge resides on the ligands. This Account reviews the current knowledge of how charge is positioned with time in S1 and T1 states with the aid of active IR reported groups located on the ligands, for example, C≡X multiple bonds (X = C, N, or O). Several examples of localized and delocalized charge distributions are noted along with kinetic barriers to the interconversion of MLCT and δδ* states. On the 50th anniversary of the recognition of the MM quadruple bond, these complexes are revealing some remarkable features in the study of the photophysical properties of metal-ligand charge transfer states. PMID:25695495

  19. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in collisions between protons and the ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, and C5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Coupled-state cross sections have been determined for electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in collisions between keV-energy protons and the hydrogenic ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, and C5+, extending work reported 26 years ago with a limited basis for electron transfer and ionization only; the C5+ process was also considered in a later study. In the present calculation, a basis of 60 Sturmians on each center has been used, and in a second calculation, a basis of 280 Sturmians on the target nucleus and a single 1 s function on the proton, with greater overall accuracy than the previously published results. Further, cross sections for direct excitation and capture to individual excited states up to 3 d have been determined. The extent to which high-energy scaling rules with target nuclear charge Z are valid has been re-examined for transfer to the ground state, total transfer, and ionization, and is now considered also for excitation and individual-state processes at intermediate energies near where the cross sections peak.

  20. Ion Collision, Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Anil K.

    2013-09-11

    The outcome of a collision between an ion and neutral species depends on the chemical and physical properties of the two reactants, their relative velocities, and the impact parameter of their trajectories. These include elastic and inelastic scattering of the colliding particles, charge transfer (including dissociative charge transfer), atom abstraction, complex formation and dissociation of the colliding ion. Each of these reactions may be characterized in terms of their energy-dependent rate coefficients, cross sections and reaction kinetics. A theoretical framework that emphasizes simple models and classical mechanics is presented for these processes. Collision processes are addressed in two categories of low-energy and high-energy collisions. Experiments under thermal or quasi-thermal conditions–swarms, drift tubes, chemical ionization and ion cyclotron resonance are strongly influenced by long-range forces and often involve collisions in which atom exchange and extensive energy exchange are common characteristics. High-energy collisions are typically impulsive, involve short-range intermolecular forces and are direct, fast processes.

  1. Exclusive muon-pair production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions: Realistic nucleus charge form factor and differential distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Klusek-Gawenda, M.; Szczurek, A.

    2010-07-15

    The cross sections for exclusive muon-pair production in nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated and several differential distributions are shown. Realistic (Fourier transform of charge density) charge form factors of nuclei are used and the corresponding results are compared with the cross sections calculated with monopole form factor often used in the literature and discussed recently in the context of higher-order QED corrections. Absorption effects are discussed and quantified. The cross sections obtained with realistic form factors are significantly smaller than those obtained with the monopole form factor. The effect is bigger for large muon rapidities and/or large muon transverse momenta. The predictions for the STAR and PHENIX collaboration measurements at RHIC as well as the ALICE and CMS collaborations at LHC are presented.

  2. Observation of Charge Asymmetry Dependence of Pion Elliptic Flow and the Possible Chiral Magnetic Wave in Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, H Z; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, C; Li, N; Li, Z M; Li, X; Li, X; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D L; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B J; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbaek, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, G; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Y F; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Q H; Xu, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, S; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J L; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-06-26

    We present measurements of π(-) and π(+) elliptic flow, v(2), at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at √[s(NN)]=200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, A(ch), based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π(-) (π(+)) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √[s(NN)]=27  GeV and higher. At √[s(NN)]=200  GeV, the slope of the difference of v(2) between π(-) and π(+) as a function of A(ch) exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies. PMID:26197122

  3. Observation of Charge Asymmetry Dependence of Pion Elliptic Flow and the Possible Chiral Magnetic Wave in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, N.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We present measurements of π- and π+ elliptic flow, v2, at midrapidity in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN }=200 , 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5, and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, Ach, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that π- (π+) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at √{sNN }=27 GeV and higher. At √{sNN }=200 GeV , the slope of the difference of v2 between π- and π+ as a function of Ach exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

  4. Charged Higgs and neutral Higgs pair production of the weak gauge boson fusion process in electron-positron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozumi, Takuya; Tamai, Kotaro

    2013-09-01

    Pair production of the neutral and charged Higgs bosons is a unique process that is a signature of the two-Higgs-doublet model. In this paper, we study the pair production and decays of the Higgses in the neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model. The pair production occurs through the W and Z gauge boson fusion process. In the neutrinophilic model, the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the second Higgs doublet is small and is proportional to the neutrino mass. The smallness of VEV is associated with the approximate global U(1) symmetry, which is slightly broken. Therefore, there is a suppression factor for the U(1) charge breaking process. The second Higgs doublet has U(1) charge; its single production from gauge boson fusion violates the U(1) charge conservation and is strongly suppressed. In contrast to the single production, the pair production of the Higgses conserves U(1) charge and the approximate symmetry does not forbid it. To search for the pair productions in a collider experiment, we study the production cross section of a pair of charged Higgs and neutral Higgs bosons in e^+ e^- collisions with a center of energy from 600 GeV to 2000 GeV. The total cross section varies from 10^{-4} fb to 10^{-3} fb for the degenerate (200 GeV) charged and neutral Higgs mass case. The background process to the signal is the gauge boson pair W^+ + Z production and their decays. We show that the signal over background ratio is about 2-3% by combining the cross section ratio with ratios of branching fractions.

  5. Elliptic and Hexadecapole Flow of Charged Hadrons in Au+Au Collisions at s_NN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Differential measurements of the elliptic (v{sub 2}) and hexadecapole (v{sub 4}) Fourier flow coefficients are reported for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) and collision centrality or number of participant nucleons (N{sub part}) for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The v{sub 2,4} measurements at pseudorapidity |{eta}| {le} 0.35, obtained with four separate reaction-plane detectors positioned in the range 1.0 < |{eta}| < 3.9, show good agreement, indicating the absence of significant {Delta}{eta}-dependent nonflow correlations. Sizable values for v{sub 4}(p{sub T}) are observed with a ratio v{sub 4}(p{sub T},N{sub part})/v{sub 2}{sup 2}(p{sub T},N{sub part}) {approx} 0.8 for 50 {le} N{sub part} {le} 200, which is compatible with the combined effects of a finite viscosity and initial eccentricity fluctuations. For N{sub part} {ge} 200 this ratio increases up to 1.7 in the most central collisions.

  6. Charged particle transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-08-01

    The charged particle transverse momentum (pT) spectra are presented for pp collisions at sqrt(s)=0.9 and 7 TeV. The data samples were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to integrated luminosities of 231 inverse microbarns and 2.96 inverse picobarns, respectively. Calorimeter-based high-transverse-energy triggers are employed to enhance the statistical reach of the high-pT measurements. The results are compared with both leading-order QCD and with an empirical scaling of measurements at different collision energies using the scaling variable xT = 2 pT/sqrt(s) over the pT range up to 200 GeV/c. Using a combination of xT scaling and direct interpolation at fixed pT, a reference transverse momentum spectrum at sqrt(s)=2.76 TeV is constructed, which can be used for studying high-pT particle suppression in the dense QCD medium produced in heavy-ion collisions at that centre-of-mass energy.

  7. [Time-resolved optical studies of charge relaxation and charge transfer at electrode interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Key components were identified in a quantitative model of carrier relaxation in semiconductor electrodes: nonlinear aspects of nonradiative and radiative recombination, effect of space charge field on carrier dynamics, self-absorption effects in direct gas semiconductors, and influence of surface state population kinetics on charge carrier recombination. For CdSe, the first three are operative (no direct proof of the last one). A realistic kinetic model for carrier recombination in the bulk of CdSe was used which includes important nonlinear effects, both radiative and nonradiative. The change in interfacial recombination velocity with the chemical nature of the sinterface was studied (n-CdSe/silane interfaces). Temperature effect (278 to 328 K) on fluorescence decay of n-CdSe in contact with 0.5 M KOH was found to be weak. An analytical solution was obtained for time-resolved fluoresence from electrodes under potential bias, and is being tested. Fluorescence work on a different material, CdS, indicate different recombination kinetics; this material was used to directly pump an optical transition of a surface state.

  8. [Time-resolved optical studies of charge relaxation and charge transfer at electrode interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Key components were identified in a quantitative model of carrier relaxation in semiconductor electrodes: nonlinear aspects of nonradiative and radiative recombination, effect of space charge field on carrier dynamics, self-absorption effects in direct gas semiconductors, and influence of surface state population kinetics on charge carrier recombination. For CdSe, the first three are operative (no direct proof of the last one). A realistic kinetic model for carrier recombination in the bulk of CdSe was used which includes important nonlinear effects, both radiative and nonradiative. The change in interfacial recombination velocity with the chemical nature of the sinterface was studied (n-CdSe/silane interfaces). Temperature effect (278 to 328 K) on fluorescence decay of n-CdSe in contact with 0.5 M KOH was found to be weak. An analytical solution was obtained for time-resolved fluoresence from electrodes under potential bias, and is being tested. Fluorescence work on a different material, CdS, indicate different recombination kinetics; this material was used to directly pump an optical transition of a surface state.

  9. Charge transfer in a sharply nonuniform electric field mediated by swirling liquid flow with minimal hydraulic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorny, V. S.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Chernyshev, A. S.; Kolodyazhny, D. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    A scheme of a fuel nozzle with "needle-plane" electrode system, the location of which enables one to minimize the imparted hydraulic resistance, is proposed. We consider the processes of charge transfer in a sharply inhomogeneous electric field in order to estimate the amount of charge coming out of the channel. For this purpose, we used the OpenFOAM software package, modified to account for the electrohydrodynamic effects. By using the k-ω SST turbulence model within an axial-symmetrical RANS problem, the vortex liquid flow and charge transfer are calculated. The impact of vorticity degree on the processes of charge transfer is studied. It is found that the charge flowing out of the calculation domain is about 80% of the injected charge. The vorticity degree in the above range of values has little effect on the process of charge transfer.

  10. Hybridization-controlled charge transfer and induced magnetism at correlated oxide interfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grisolia, M. N.; Varignon, J.; Barthelemy, A.; Bibes, M.; Sanchez-Santolino, G.; Varela, M.; Santamaria, J.; Arora, A.; Valencia, S.; Abrudan, R.; et al

    2016-01-25

    At interfaces between conventional materials, band bending and alignment are classically controlled by differences in electrochemical potential. Applying this concept to oxides in which interfaces can be polar and cations may adopt a mixed valence has led to the discovery of novel two-dimensional states between simple band insulators such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. However, many oxides have a more complex electronic structure, with charge, orbital and/or spin orders arising from strong Coulomb interactions at and between transition metal and oxygen ions. Such electronic correlations offer a rich playground to engineer functional interfaces but their compatibility with the classical band alignmentmore » picture remains an open question. Here we show that beyond differences in electron affinities and polar effects, a key parameter determining charge transfer at correlated oxide interfaces is the energy required to alter the covalence of the metal–oxygen bond. Using the perovskite nickelate (RNiO3) family as a template, we probe charge reconstruction at interfaces with gadolinium titanate GdTiO3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the charge transfer is thwarted by hybridization effects tuned by the rare-earth (R) size. Charge transfer results in an induced ferromagnetic-like state in the nickelate, exemplifying the potential of correlated interfaces to design novel phases. Furthermore, our work clarifies strategies to engineer two-dimensional systems through the control of both doping and covalence.« less

  11. Probing excited state charge transfer dynamics in a heteroleptic ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajib; Palit, Dipak K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of metal to ligand charge transfer in the excited states of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, which have shown promise as materials for artificial solar energy harvesting, has been of immense interest recently. Mixed ligand complexes are especially important for broader absorption in the visible region. Dynamics of ultrafast vibrational energy relaxation and inter-ligand charge transfer processes in the excited states of a heteroleptic ruthenium complex, [Ru(bpy)2(pap)](ClO4)2 (where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and pap is 2-(phenylazo)pyridine) have been investigated using femtosecond to nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopic techniques. A good agreement between the TA spectrum of the lowest excited (3)MLCT state of [Ru(bpy)2(pap)](ClO4)2 complex and the anion radical spectrum of the pap ligand, which has been generated using the pulse radiolysis technique, confirmed the charge localization at the pap ligand. While the lifetime of the inter-ligand charge transfer from the bpy to the pap ligand in the (3)MLCT state is about 2.5 ps, vibrational cooling of the pap-localized(3)MLCT state occurs over a much longer time scale with a lifetime of about 35 ps. Ultrafast charge localization dynamics observed here may have important consequences in artificial solar energy harvesting systems, which employ heteroleptic ruthenium complexes. PMID:24247908

  12. Hybridization-controlled charge transfer and induced magnetism at correlated oxide interfaces