Science.gov

Sample records for charged solvent droplets

  1. Effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of poly(ethylene glycol) in droplets.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Sepideh; Oh, Myong In; Consta, Styliani

    2015-03-21

    We examine the effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet by using molecular dynamics simulations. The droplet contains excess charge that is carried by sodium ions. To investigate the principles of the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet, we simulate aqueous and methanol droplets that contain a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule. We find that the solvent plays a critical role in the charging mechanism and in the manner that the sodiated PEG emerges from a droplet. In the aqueous droplets, the sodiated PEG is released from the droplet while it is being charged at a droplet charge state below the Rayleigh limit. The charging of PEG occurs on the surface of the droplet. In contrast to the aqueous droplets, in the methanol droplet, the sodiated PEG resides in the interior of the droplet and it may become charged at any location in the droplet, interior or surface. The sodiated PEG emerges from the droplet by drying-out of the solvent. Even though these two mechanisms appear to be phenomenologically similar to the widely accepted ion-evaporation and charge-residue mechanisms, they have fundamental differences from those. An integral part of the mechanism that the macromolecular ions emerge from droplets is the droplet morphology. Droplet morphologies give rise to different solvation interactions between the solvent and the macromolecule. In the water-sodiated PEG system, we find the extrusion of the PEG morphology, while in methanol-sodiated droplet, we find the "pearl-on-the-necklace" morphology and the extrusion of the sodiated PEG in the last stage of the desolvation process. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that macromolecules acquire their charge in droplets produced in electrospray ionization experiments. PMID:25796249

  2. Effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of poly(ethylene glycol) in droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Sepideh; Oh, Myong In; Consta, Styliani

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet by using molecular dynamics simulations. The droplet contains excess charge that is carried by sodium ions. To investigate the principles of the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet, we simulate aqueous and methanol droplets that contain a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule. We find that the solvent plays a critical role in the charging mechanism and in the manner that the sodiated PEG emerges from a droplet. In the aqueous droplets, the sodiated PEG is released from the droplet while it is being charged at a droplet charge state below the Rayleigh limit. The charging of PEG occurs on the surface of the droplet. In contrast to the aqueous droplets, in the methanol droplet, the sodiated PEG resides in the interior of the droplet and it may become charged at any location in the droplet, interior or surface. The sodiated PEG emerges from the droplet by drying-out of the solvent. Even though these two mechanisms appear to be phenomenologically similar to the widely accepted ion-evaporation and charge-residue mechanisms, they have fundamental differences from those. An integral part of the mechanism that the macromolecular ions emerge from droplets is the droplet morphology. Droplet morphologies give rise to different solvation interactions between the solvent and the macromolecule. In the water-sodiated PEG system, we find the extrusion of the PEG morphology, while in methanol-sodiated droplet, we find the "pearl-on-the-necklace" morphology and the extrusion of the sodiated PEG in the last stage of the desolvation process. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that macromolecules acquire their charge in droplets produced in electrospray ionization experiments.

  3. Reactions of Microsolvated Organic Compounds at Ambient Surfaces: Droplet Velocity, Charge State, and Solvent Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Campbell, Dahlia I.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2012-06-01

    The exposure of charged microdroplets containing organic ions to solid-phase reagents at ambient surfaces results in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions. The electrosprayed droplets were driven pneumatically in ambient air and then electrically directed onto a surface coated with reagent. Using this reactive soft landing approach, acid-catalyzed Girard condensation was achieved at an ambient surface by directing droplets containing Girard T ions onto a dry keto-steroid. The charged droplet/surface reaction was much more efficient than the corresponding bulk solution-phase reaction performed on the same scale. The increase in product yield is ascribed to solvent evaporation, which causes moderate pH values in the starting droplet to reach extreme values and increases reagent concentrations. Comparisons are made with an experiment in which the droplets were pneumatically accelerated onto the ambient surface (reactive desorption electrospray ionization, DESI). The same reaction products were observed but differences in spatial distribution were seen associated with the "splash" of the high velocity DESI droplets. In a third type of experiment, the reactions of charged droplets with vapor phase reagents were examined by allowing electrosprayed droplets containing a reagent to intercept the headspace vapor of an analyte. Deposition onto a collector surface and mass analysis showed that samples in the vapor phase were captured by the electrospray droplets, and that instantaneous derivatization of the captured sample is possible in the open air. The systems examined under this condition included the derivatization of cortisone vapor with Girard T and that of 4-phenylpyridine N-oxide and 2-phenylacetophenone vapors with ethanolamine.

  4. Geoengineering with Charged Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2011-12-01

    Water molecules in a droplet are held together by intermolecular forces generated by hydrogen bonding which has a bonding energy of only about 0.2 eV. One can create a more rugged droplet by using an ion as a condensation nucleus. In that case, water molecules are held together by the interaction between the ion and the dipole moments of the water molecules surrounding the ion, in addition to any hydrogen bonding. In this research, properties of such charged droplets were investigated using first principle quantum mechanical calculations. A molecule which exhibits positive electron affinity is a good candidate to serve as the ionic condensation nucleus, because addition of an electron to such a molecule creates an energetically more stable state than the neutral molecule. A good example is the oxygen molecule (O2) where energy of O2 negative (O2-) ion is lower than that of the neutral O2 by about 0.5 eV. Examples of other molecules which have positive electron affinity include ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur oxides (SOx, x=1-3). Atomic models used in the calculations consisted of a negative ion of one of the molecules mentioned above surrounded by water molecules. Calculations were performed using the DFT method with B3LYP hybrid functional and Pople type basis sets with polarization and diffuse functions. Energy of interaction between O2- ion and the water molecule was found to be ~0.7 eV. This energy is an order of magnitude greater than the thermal energy of even the highest temperatures encountered in the atmosphere. Once created, charged rugged droplets can survive in hot and dry climates where they can be utilized to create humidity and precipitation. The ion which serves as the nucleus of the droplet can attract not only water molecules but also other dipolar gases in the atmosphere. Such dipolar gases include industrial pollutants, for example nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2). Energy of interaction between O2- ion and pollutant

  5. Interaction between electrically charged droplets in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenbourger, Martin; Caps, Herve; Hardouin, Jerome; Vitry, Youen; Boigelot, Bernard; Dorbolo, Stephane; Grasp Team; Beams Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The past ten years, electrically charged droplets have been studied tremendously for their applications in industry (electrospray, electrowetting,...). However, charged droplets are also present in nature. Indeed, it has been shown that the droplets falling from thunderclouds possess an excess of electric charges. Moreover, some research groups try to use the electrical interaction between drops in order to control the coalescence between cloud droplets and control rain generation. The common way to study this kind of system is to make hypothesis on the interaction between two charged drops. Then, these hypothesis are extended to a system of thousands of charged droplets. Thanks to microgravity conditions, we were able to study the interaction between two electrically charged droplets. In practice, the charged droplets were propelled one in front of the other at low speed (less than 1 m/s). The droplets trajectory is studied for various charges and volumes. The repulsion between two charged drops is correctly fitted by a simple Coulomb repulsion law. In the case of attractive interactions, we discuss the collisions observed as a function of the droplets speed, volume and electric charges. Thanks to FNRS for financial support.

  6. Droplet Charging Effects in the Space Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Thomas B.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.

    2011-05-20

    Several applications exist for transiting liquid droplets through the near-Earth space environment. Numerical results are presented for the charging of liquid droplets of trimethyl pentaphenyl siloxane (DC705) in three different plasma environments: ionosphere, auroral, and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Nominal and high geomagnetic activity cases are investigated. In general, high levels of droplet charging (>100 V) exist only in GEO during periods of high geomagnetic or solar activity. An experiment was conducted to assess the charging of silicon-oil droplets due to photoemission. The photoemission yield in the 120-200 nm wavelength range was found to be approximately 0.06.

  7. A pipette dispenses a charged droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Horim; Im, Do Jin; Kang, In Seok; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2012-11-01

    Micropipettes are widely used in many scientific and engineering fields. However, it is hardly known that a droplet dispensed from a plastic pipette tip has a considerable amount of charges (order of 10-10 C). Here we report that the charged droplet is dispensed from a commercial and disposable plastic pipette tip and this charge is originated from the natural electrification between a solution and the inner surface of the pipette tip. The charge amount is dependent on not only the physicochemical properties of a solution (e.g., pH and a concentration) but also dispensing environments (e.g., atmospheric humidity and type of commercial pipette tip). To investigate the effects of the charge on the droplet dispensing, we calculate the electrical force between the droplet and the pipette tip though numerical simulation. The micropipette users especially, who are dealing with discrete droplets in their experiments, should consider this charge effect in their dispensing of a droplet. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant No. R0A-2007-000-20098-0 funded by the Korea government (MEST) and No. 20090083510 through Multiphenomena CFD Engineering Research Center.

  8. Self-arraying of charged levitating droplets.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Paul; Nussbaumer, Jérémie; Masse, Alain; Jeandey, Christian; Grateau, Henri; Pham, Pascale; Reyne, Gilbert; Haguet, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Diamagnetic levitation of water droplets in air is a promising phenomenon to achieve contactless manipulation of chemical or biochemical samples. This noncontact handling technique prevents contaminations of samples as well as provides measurements of interaction forces between levitating reactors. Under a nonuniform magnetic field, diamagnetic bodies such as water droplets experience a repulsive force which may lead to diamagnetic levitation of a single or few micro-objects. The levitation of several repulsively charged picoliter droplets was successfully performed in a ~1 mm(2) adjustable flat magnetic well provided by a centimeter-sized cylindrical permanent magnet structure. Each droplet position results from the balance between the centripetal diamagnetic force and the repulsive Coulombian forces. Levitating water droplets self-organize into satellite patterns or thin clouds, according to their charge and size. Small triangular lattices of identical droplets reproduce magneto-Wigner crystals. Repulsive forces and inner charges can be measured in the piconewton and the femtocoulomb ranges, respectively. Evolution of interaction forces is accurately followed up over time during droplet evaporation. PMID:21500859

  9. Evaporation and discharge dynamics of highly charged multicomponent droplets generated by electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Ronald L; Beauchamp, J L

    2010-01-28

    We investigate the Rayleigh discharge and evaporation dynamics of highly charged two-component droplets consisting principally of methanol with 2-methoxyethanol, tert-butanol, or m-nitrobenzyl alcohol. A phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) characterizes droplets generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) according to size, velocity, and charge as they move through a uniform electric field within an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Repeated field reversals result in droplet "ping-pong" through the PDA. This generates individual droplet histories of solvent evaporation behavior and the dynamics of charge loss to progeny droplets during Rayleigh discharge events. On average, methanol droplets discharge at 127% their Rayleigh limit of charge, q(R), and release 25% of the net charge. Charge loss from methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets behaves similarly to pure 2-methoxyethanol droplets which release approximately 28% of their net charge. Binary methanol droplets containing up to 50% tert-butanol discharge at a lower percent q(R) than pure methanol and release a greater fraction of their net charge. Mixed 99% methanol/1% m-nitrobenzyl alcohol droplets possess discharge characteristics similar to those of methanol. However, droplets of methanol containing 2% m-nitrobenzyl evaporate down to a fixed size and charge that remains constant with no observable discharges. Quasi-steady-state evaporation models accurately describe observed evaporation phenomena in which methanol/tert-butanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of pure methanol and methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of 2-methoxyethanol. We compare these results to previous Rayleigh discharge experiments and discuss the implications for binary solvents in electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS). PMID:19848399

  10. Classification of the ejection mechanisms of charged macromolecules from liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consta, Styliani; Malevanets, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The relation between the charge state of a macromolecule and its ejection mechanism from droplets is one of the important questions in electrospray ionization methods. In this article, effects of solvent-solute interaction on the manifestation of the charge induced instability in a droplet are examined. We studied the instabilities in a prototype system of a droplet comprised of charged poly(ethylene glycol) and methanol, acetonitrile, and water solvents. We observed instances of three, previously only conjectured, [S. Consta, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 5263 (2010), 10.1021/jp912119v] mechanisms of macroion ejection. The mechanism of ejection of charged macroion in methanol is reminiscent of "pearl" model in polymer physics. In acetonitrile droplets, the instability manifests through formation of solvent spines around the solvated macroion. In water, we find that the macroion is ejected from the droplet through contiguous extrusion of a part of the chain. The difference in the morphology of the instabilities is attributed to the interplay between forces arising from the macroion solvation energy and the surface energy of the droplet interface. For the contiguous extrusion of a charged macromolecule from a droplet, we demonstrate that the proposed mechanism leads to ejection of the macromolecule from droplets with sizes well below the Rayleigh limit. The ejected macromolecule may hold charge significantly higher than that suggested by prevailing theories. The simulations reveal new mechanisms of macroion evaporation that differ from conventional charge residue model and ion evaporation mechanisms.

  11. Gas-phase ions of solute species from charged droplets of solutions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Steve; Fenn, John B

    2007-01-23

    Charged droplets, produced by electrostatic dispersion of solutions of amino acids and peptides are driven by a potential difference a countercurrent to a flow of heated nitrogen bath gas. Evaporation of solvent from those droplets increases surface charge density, resulting in subdivision into smaller charged droplets. Each smaller droplet repeats that sequence until the ultimate result is a dispersion of solvent-free solute ions in the bath gas. Surprisingly, mass spectrometric analyses of the final ion-bath gas mixtures showed that the relative abundances of the desolvated ions were substantially higher when the nitrogen bath gas contained vapor of a polar solvent species than when no such solvent vapor was present. Adding solvent vapor to the background bath gas can certainly not increase, but must decrease, the net rate of solvent evaporation from the charged droplets. Consequently, the observed enhancement of ion formation by the presence of solvent vapor in the bath gas constitutes persuasive evidence that the observed solute ions cannot have been produced by the charged residue mechanism originally suggested by Dole et al. [Dole M, et al. (1968) J Chem Phys 49:2240-2249 and Dole M, Rheude A, Mack LL (1970) J Chem Phys 52:4977-4986]. It is therefore concluded that electrospray ions are most likely produced by the ion evaporation mechanism of Iribarne and Thomson [Iribarne JV, Thomson BA (1975) J Chem Phys 64:2287-2294]. Moreover, and probably as important, this observed signal enhancement constitutes a welcome increase in detection sensitivity. PMID:17213314

  12. TRW CHARGED DROPLET SCRUBBER CORROSION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of corrosion studies to provide definitive data concerning the corrosive nature of coke-oven waste-heat flue gas and its effects on wet electrostatic precipitators, and specifically on TRW's Charged Droplet Scrubber (CDS). The study characterized the chem...

  13. CHARGED DROPLET SCRUBBER FOR FINE PARTICLE CONTROL: PILOT DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a successful Charged Droplet Scrubber (CDS) pilot demonstration of coke oven emissions control. It also describes the design, installation, and checkout of the demonstration system. The CDS uses electrically sprayed water droplets, accelerated through ...

  14. Solid-to-Liquid Charge Transfer for Generating Droplets with Tunable Charge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yajuan; Huang, Xu; Soh, Siowling

    2016-08-16

    Charged liquid droplets are typically generated by a high-voltage power supply. Herein, a previously unreported method is used for charging liquid droplets: by transferring charge from an insulating solid surface charged by contact electrification to the droplets. Charging the solid surface by contact electrification involves bringing it into contact with another solid surface for generating static charge. Subsequently, water droplets that flow across the surface are found to be charged-thus, the charge is readily transferred from solid to liquid. The charge of the droplets can be tuned continuously from positive to negative by varying the way the solid surface is charged. The amount of charge generated is sufficient for manipulating, coalescing, and sorting the water droplets by solid surfaces charged by contact electrification. This method of generating charged droplets is general, simple, inexpensive, and does not need any additional equipment or power supply. PMID:27417888

  15. Retreating behavior of a charged ionic liquid droplet in a dielectric liquid under electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Myung Mo; Im, Do Jin; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-01

    Ionic liquids show great promise as excellent solvents or catalysts in energy and biological fields due to their unique chemical and physical properties. The ionic liquid droplets in microfluidic systems can also be used as a potential platform for chemical biological reactions. In order to control electrically the ionic liquid droplets in a microfluidic device, the charging characteristics of ionic liquid droplets need to be understood. In this work, the charging characteristics of various ionic liquids are investigated by using the parallel plate electrodes system. Under normal situation, a charged droplet shows bouncing motion between electrodes continuously. However, for some special ionic liquids, interesting retreating behavior of charged ionic liquid droplet has been observed. This retreating behavior of ionic liquid droplet has been analyzed experimentally by the image analysis and the electrometer signal analysis. Based on the hypothesis of charge leakage of the retreating ionic liquid droplets, FT-IR spectroscopy analysis has also been performed. The retreating behavior of ionic liquid droplet is discussed from the intermolecular point of view according to the species of ionic liquids. This research was supported by grant No. 2013R1A1A2011956 funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and by grant No. 2013R1A1A2010483 funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) through the NRF.

  16. Spontaneous electrical charging of droplets by conventional pipetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Horim; Im, Do Jin; Kang, In Seok; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Dong Sung; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2013-06-01

    We report that a droplet dispensed from a micropipette almost always has a considerable electrical charge of a magnitude dependent on the constituents of the droplet, on atmospheric humidity and on the coating material of pipette tip. We show that this natural electrification of a droplet originates from the charge separation between a droplet and pipette tip surface by contact with water due to the ionization of surface chemical groups. Charge on a droplet can make it difficult to detach the droplet from the pipette tip, can decrease its surface tension, can affect the chemical characteristics of solutions due to interactions with charged molecules, and can influence the combination and localization of charged bio-molecules; in all cases, the charge may affect results of experiments in which any of these factors is important. Thus, these findings reveal experimental parameters that should be controlled in experiments that use micropipettes.

  17. Charge stabilization in nonpolar solvents.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M F; Dufresne, E R; Weitz, D A

    2005-05-24

    While the important role of electrostatic interactions in aqueous colloidal suspensions is widely known and reasonably well-understood, their relevance to nonpolar suspensions remains mysterious. We measure the interaction potentials of colloidal particles in a nonpolar solvent with reverse micelles. We find surprisingly strong electrostatic interactions characterized by surface potentials, |ezeta|, from 2.0 to 4.4 k(B)T and screening lengths, kappa(-1), from 0.2 to 1.4 microm. Interactions depend on the concentration of reverse micelles and the degree of confinement. Furthermore, when the particles are weakly confined, the values of |ezeta| and kappa extracted from interaction measurements are consistent with bulk measurements of conductivity and electrophoretic mobility. A simple thermodynamic model, relating the structure of the micelles to the equilibrium ionic strength, is in good agreement with both conductivity and interaction measurements. Since dissociated ions are solubilized by reverse micelles, the entropic incentive to charge a particle surface is qualitatively changed from aqueous systems, and surface entropy plays an important role. PMID:15896027

  18. The Orbit of Water Droplets around Charged Rod

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferstl, Andrew; Burns, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The motion of charges around a centrally charged object is often compared to gravitational orbits (such as satellites around planets). Recently, a video taken by astronaut Don Pettit onboard the International Space Station shows water droplets orbiting a charged knitting needle. Here we attempt to model this motion and estimate the charges on the…

  19. The Orbit of Water Droplets Around Charged Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferstl, Andrew; Burns, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The motion of charges around a centrally charged object is often compared to gravitational orbits (such as satellites around planets). Recently, a video taken by astronaut Don Pettit onboard the International Space Station shows water droplets orbiting a charged knitting needle. Here we attempt to model this motion and estimate the charges on the objects involved in this system.

  20. Ion-induced nucleation in solution: promotion of solute nucleation in charged levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Draper, Neil D; Bakhoum, Samuel F; Haddrell, Allen E; Agnes, George R

    2007-09-19

    We have investigated the nucleation and growth of sodium chloride in both single quiescent charged droplets and charged droplet populations that were levitated in an electrodynamic levitation trap (EDLT). In both cases, the magnitude of a droplet's net excess charge (ions(DNEC)) influenced NaCl nucleation and growth, albeit in different capacities. We have termed the phenomenon ion-induced nucleation in solution. For single quiescent levitated droplets, an increase in ions(DNEC) resulted in a significant promotion of NaCl nucleation, as determined by the number of crystals observed. For levitated droplet populations, a change in NaCl crystal habit, from regular cubic shapes to dome-shaped dendrites, was observed once a surface charge density threshold of -9 x 10(-4) e.nm(-2) was surpassed. Although promotion of NaCl nucleation was observed for droplet population experiments, this can be attributed in part to the increased rate of solvent evaporation observed for levitated droplet populations having a high net charge. Promotion of nucleation was also observed for two organic acids, 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone monohydrate (THAP) and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). These results are of direct relevance to processes that occur in both soft-ionization techniques for mass spectrometry and to a variety of industrial processes. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of ion-induced nucleation in solution to form ammonium nitrate particles from levitated droplets to be used in in vitro toxicology studies of ambient particle types. PMID:17718487

  1. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  2. Charge of water droplets in non-polar oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeler, Andreas M.; Josephides, Dimitris N.; Sajjadi, Shahriar; Lorenz, Christian D.; Mesquida, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in droplet manipulation methods by electric fields and signals require a deeper understanding of water droplet charge. In this paper, we have investigated the electrophoretic motion of individual water microdroplets injected into non-polar silicone and paraffin oil by video optical microscopy on an individual droplet basis to determine droplet charge. It was found that the initial surface charge density of surfactant free droplets directly after injection from a micropipette is positive and of the order of 10-6 C/m2, regardless of pH and ion concentration in the range from pH 4 to pH 10 and from 0.01 mmol/l to 1.5 mol/l, respectively. The experimental results together with molecular dynamics simulations show that the nature and polarity of the charge can be explained by anisotropic orientation of water molecules at the interface rather than selective adsorption of ions. Furthermore, we showed that slip at the liquid-liquid boundary must be taken into account when interpreting electrophoretic measurements of droplets.

  3. Charge Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; Westphall, Michael S.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a new mechanism to account for analyte ion signal enhancement in ultraviolet-laser desorption mass spectrometry of droplets in the presence of corona ions. Our new insights are based on timing control of corona ion production, laser desorption, and peptide ion extraction achieved by a novel pulsed corona apparatus. We demonstrate that droplet charging rather than gas-phase ion-neutral reactions is the major contributor to analyte ion generation from an electrically isolated droplet. Implications of the new mechanism, termed charge assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI), are discussed and contrasted to those of the laser desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization method (LD-APCI). It is also demonstrated that analyte ion generation in CALDI occurs with external electric fields about one order of magnitude lower than those needed for atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization or electrospray ionization of droplets. PMID:18387311

  4. Release of Native-like Gaseous Proteins from Electrospray Droplets via the Charged Residue Mechanism: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Robert G; Metwally, Haidy; Sun, Yu; Konermann, Lars

    2015-10-01

    The mechanism whereby gaseous protein ions are released from charged solvent droplets during electrospray ionization (ESI) remains a matter of debate. Also, it is unclear to what extent electrosprayed proteins retain their solution structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer insights into the temporal evolution of protein systems. Surprisingly, there have been no all-atom simulations of the protein ESI process to date. The current work closes this gap by investigating the behavior of protein-containing aqueous nanodroplets that carry excess positive charge. We focus on "native ESI", where proteins initially adopt their biologically active solution structures. ESI proceeds while the protein remains entrapped within the droplet. Protein release into the gas phase occurs upon solvent evaporation to dryness. Droplet shrinkage is accompanied by ejection of charge carriers (Na(+) for the conditions chosen here), keeping the droplet at ∼85% of the Rayleigh limit throughout its life cycle. Any remaining charge carriers bind to the protein as the final solvent molecules evaporate. The outcome of these events is largely independent of the initial protein charge and the mode of charge carrier binding. ESI charge states and collision cross sections of the MD structures agree with experimental data. Our results confirm the Rayleigh/charged residue model (CRM). Field emission of excess Na(+) plays an ancillary role by governing the net charge of the shrinking droplet. Models that envision protein ejection from the droplet are not supported. Most nascent CRM ions retain native-like conformations. For unfolded proteins ESI likely proceeds along routes that are different from the native state mechanism explored here. PMID:26325619

  5. Charge separation in the aerodynamic breakup of micrometer-sized water droplets.

    PubMed

    Zilch, Lloyd W; Maze, Joshua T; Smith, John W; Ewing, George E; Jarrold, Martin F

    2008-12-25

    Charged water droplets generated by electrospray, sonic spray, and a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG) have been studied by digital macrophotography and image charge detection mass spectrometry. Image charge detection mass spectrometry provides information on the droplet size, charge, and velocity after transmission through a capillary interface. The digital images provide the droplet size distribution before they enter the capillary. Droplets with 10-100 microm radii generated by sonic spray and VOAG are reduced to 2-3 microm radii by transmission through the capillary interface. The droplets from sonic spray and VOAG are much more highly charged than expected for random charging, and positive droplets are much more prevalent than negative. For positive mode electrospray, >99% of the detected droplets carry a positive charge, whereas for negative mode electrospray, <30% of the detected droplets carry a negative charge (i.e., >70% carry a positive charge). These observation can all be accounted for by the aerodynamic breakup of the droplets in the capillary interface. This breakup reduces the droplets to a terminal size at which point further breakup does not occur. Charge separation during droplet breakup is responsible for the relatively high charges on the sonic spray and VOAG droplets and for the preference for positively charged droplets. The charge separation can be explained using the bag mechanism for droplet breakup and the electrical bilayer at the surface of water. PMID:19035820

  6. Thermodynamics of droplet formation around a soluble condensation nucleus in the atmosphere of a solvent vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekin, A. K.; Shabaev, I. V.; Rusanov, A. I.

    2008-12-01

    An expression for the work of formation of a spherical droplet condensing on a soluble condensation nucleus out of a solvent vapor is derived. The dependence of the formation work on the solvent vapor chemical potential and the droplet and the nucleus residue sizes is analyzed. The balance of the solute matter between the liquid film and the nucleus residue and the effect of overlapping the surface layers of the thin film have been taken into account. It is shown that the equations of the chemical equilibrium of a solute and a solvent in the droplet, resulting from the generating properties of the formation work, coincide with the generalized Gibbs-Kelvin-Köhler and Ostwald-Freundlich equations. The numerical solution of these equations at a fixed number of molecules of the nucleus matter (at an initial size of the nucleus specified) has been performed in the case of the solvent vapor undersaturated over the bulk liquid solvent phase. The solution links the equilibrium sizes of the droplet and the soluble nucleus residue with the chemical potential or the pressure of the solvent vapor saturated over the droplet. It also determines the limiting sizes of the droplet with small nucleus residue above which the chemical equilibrium of the residue surface and the solution film does not exist. The existence of the limiting sizes is responsible for the specific behavior of the droplet thermodynamic characteristics and the work of droplet formation at deliquescence transition from the droplet state with a partly dissolved nucleus to the state of complete dissolution of the nucleus.

  7. Droplet formation and lateral migration via solvent shifting in a microfluidic setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajian, Ramin; Hardt, Steffen

    2014-11-01

    When a non-solvent is added to a solvent/solute mixture and if the solvent and the non-solvent are miscible, a part of the solute transforms to tiny (i.e. micron-/submicron-sized) droplets when the solvent concentration reduces. This phenomenon, resulting from supersaturation, is termed solvent shifting or Ouzo effect. Here we investigate this process in a co-flow microfluidic device. Thanks to the laminar nature of the flow, the mass transfer is mainly diffusive and can be analyzed employing (semi)analytical models. Using the resulting concentration profiles along with the ternary phase diagram (TPD) we analyze droplet formation and their lateral migration in the channel. The ternary system consists of a binary mixture (0.5wt% divinyle benzene (DVB) + 95.5wt% ethanol) and deionized water (non-solvent). Plotting concentration trajectories in the TPD we show that they hit the binodal curve in a region in which droplets of DVB form via nucleation, as opposed to spinodal decomposition. The lateral migration of droplets is partially attributed to the Marangoni effect induced by concentration gradients. However, the main effect governing droplet migration appears to be the phase-separation front (separating the one-phase and two-phase regions) moving toward the center of the channel.

  8. Electrostatic Model Applied to ISS Charged Water Droplet Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Daan; Schaub, Hanspeter; Pettit, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic force can be used to create novel relative motion between charged bodies if it can be isolated from the stronger gravitational and dissipative forces. Recently, Coulomb orbital motion was demonstrated on the International Space Station by releasing charged water droplets in the vicinity of a charged knitting needle. In this investigation, the Multi-Sphere Method, an electrostatic model developed to study active spacecraft position control by Coulomb charging, is used to simulate the complex orbital motion of the droplets. When atmospheric drag is introduced, the simulated motion closely mimics that seen in the video footage of the experiment. The electrostatic force's inverse dependency on separation distance near the center of the needle lends itself to analytic predictions of the radial motion.

  9. Preparation of polymeric microspheres by the solvent evaporation method using sucrose stearate as a droplet stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, N; Baykara, T

    1997-01-01

    Polymeric microspheres containing nicardipine hydrochloride (HCl) as a reference drug were prepared with the acrylic polymers Eudragit RS and L by the solvent evaporation method. Different concentrations of sucrose stearate as a droplet stabilizer were used. Sucrose stearate affected the diffusion rate of the solvent from the preliminary emulsion droplets to the outer phase for the formation of microspheres. Increasing concentrations of sucrose stearate in the formulations caused increasing porosity on the surface of the microspheres. However, a correlation between the concentrations of sucrose stearate and diameters of microspheres could not be assessed. From this point of view, during processing, applied stirring rate was important. PMID:9394253

  10. Effects of Image Charges on the Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Cloud Droplets and on Droplet Charging and Possible Ice Nucleation Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, B. A.; Rohrbaugh, R. P.; Hei, M.; Beard, K. V.

    2000-07-01

    Previous calculations of the rate at which falling droplets in clouds collide with aerosols have led to the conclusion that except in thunderclouds any electrical charges on the aerosols or droplets have little effect on the collision rate. However, it had been assumed that the aerosols would have only a few elementary charges on them, whereas it is now known that at the tops of nonthunderstorm clouds the evaporating droplets may have several hundred elementary charges on them and that much of this charge remains on the residual aerosol for 5 min or so after the evaporation. Also, most previous calculations neglected image charge forces that provide strong attraction at close range even when droplet and aerosol have charges of the same sign and of comparable magnitude.The authors present numerical calculations showing that electrical effects dominate collision rates for charged evaporation aerosols. The calculations are for the size range of 0.1- to 1.0-m radius with the collision efficiency compared to that for phoretic and Brownian effects being greater by up to a factor of 30 greater for droplets from 18.6- to 106-m radius with relative humidity in the range 95%-100% and only 50 elementary charges on the aerosol. The results imply that electrical effects can be important for the scavenging of evaporation aerosol particles in the size range of the Greenfield gap.The authors call this process `electroscavenging.' Electroscavenging of charged particles, when the particles are mostly of the same sign, is a previously unrecognized droplet charging process. Electroscavenging also provides a pathway for contact ice nucleation when charged aerosol particles from evaporated charged droplets collide with supercooled droplets. Ice nucleation can occur because aerosol particles from the evaporation of cloud droplets have been found to be more effective as ice forming nuclei than other aerosol particles that have not been processed through droplets.

  11. Charge separation and isolation in strong water droplet impacts.

    PubMed

    Wiederschein, F; Vöhringer-Martinez, E; Beinsen, A; Postberg, F; Schmidt, J; Srama, R; Stolz, F; Grubmüller, H; Abel, B

    2015-03-14

    Charge separation in condensed matter after strong impacts is a general and intriguing phenomenon in nature, which is often identified and described but not necessarily well understood in terms of a quantitative mechanistic picture. Here we show that charge separation naturally occurs if water droplets/clusters or ice particles with embedded charge carriers, e.g., ions, encounter a high energy impact with subsequent dispersion - even if the involved kinetic energy is significantly below the molecular ionization energy. We find that for low charge carrier concentrations (c < 0.01 mol L(-1)) a simple statistical Poisson model describes the charge distribution in the resulting molecular "fragments" or aggregates. At higher concentrations Coulomb interactions between the charge carriers become relevant, which we describe by a Monte Carlo approach. Our models are compared to experimental data for strong (laser) impacts on liquid micro beams and discussed for the charge generation in cluster-impact mass spectrometry on cosmic dust detectors where particle kinetic energies are below the plasma threshold. Taken together, a simple and intuitive but quantitative microscopic model is obtained, which may contribute to the understanding of a larger range of phenomena related to charge generation and separation in nature. PMID:25672904

  12. Orientation of charged clay nanotubes in evaporating droplet meniscus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yafei; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lvov, Yuri

    2015-02-15

    During drying, an aqueous suspension of strongly charged halloysite clay nanotubes concentrates at the edge of the droplet ("coffee-ring" effect) which provides alignment of the tubes along the liquid-substrate contact line. First, the surface charge of the nanotubes was enhanced by polyanion adsorption inside of the lumen to compensate for the internal positive charges. This increased the magnitude of the ξ-potential of the tubes from -36 to -81 mV and stabilized the colloids. Then, colloidal halloysite was dropped onto the substrate, dried at 65 °C and after a concentration of ∼0.05 mg mL(-1) was reached, the alignment of nanotubes occurred starting from the droplet edges. The process was described with Onsager's theory, in which longer nanorods, which have higher surface charge, give better ordering after a critical concentration is reached. This study indicates a new application of halloysite clay nanotubes in polymeric composites with anisotropic properties, microchannel orientation, and production of coatings with aligned nanotubes. PMID:25460691

  13. Solvent exchange module for LC-NMR hyphenation using machine vision-controlled droplet evaporation.

    PubMed

    Schoonen, Jan-Willem; Vulto, Paul; de Roo, Niels; van Duynhoven, John; van der Linden, Heiko; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2013-06-18

    We report the use of pendant droplet evaporation for exchange of eluents for (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) purposes. Analytes are fed and retained in 500 nL droplets, which are concentrated by evaporation and subsequently redissolved in deuterated solvent. Droplet size is monitored by machine vision (MV), and heating rates are adjusted concordingly to maintain a stable droplet volume. Evaporation control is independent of solvent properties, and the setup handles feed rates up to 7 μL min(-1). The interface is capable of exchanging up to 90% of solvent for deuterated solvent, with a good recovery and repeatability for tomato extracts (Solanum lycopersicum). The system was capable of handling both polar and nonpolar analytes in one run. Volatiles such as formate, acetate, and lactate and the thermosensitive compound epigallocatechin gallate were recovered without significant losses. Ethanol and propionate were recovered with significant losses due to the formation of a minimum boiling azeotrope. The current setup is ideally suited for on- and off-line hyphenation of liquid chromatography and NMR, as it is comprehensive, fully automated, and easy to operate. PMID:23679001

  14. Precision charging of microparticles in plasma via the Rayleigh instability for evaporating charged liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, Euan; Mahony, Charles M. O.; Potts, Hugh E.; Everest, Paul; Rutherford, David; Askari, Sadegh; Kelsey, Colin; Perez-Martin, Fatima; Hamilton, Neil; McDowell, David A.; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul; Diver, Declan A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe a novel method for delivering a precise, known amount of electric charge to a micron-sized solid target. Aerosolised microparticles passed through a plasma discharge will acquire significant electric charge. The fluid stability under evaporative stress is a key aspect that is core to the research. Initially stable charged aerosols subject to evaporation (i.e. a continually changing radius) may encounter the Rayleigh stability limit. This limit arises from the electrostatic and surface tension forces and determines the maximum charge a stable droplet can retain, as a function of radius. We demonstrate that even if the droplet charge is initially much less than the Rayleigh limit, the stability limit will be encountered as the droplet evaporates. The instability emission mechanism is strongly linked to the final charge deposited on the target, providing a mechanism that can be used to ensure a predictable charge deposit on a known encapsulated microparticle. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from EPSRC via Grant Numbers EP/K006142/1 and EP/K006088/1.

  15. Microfluidic production of single micrometer-sized hydrogel beads utilizing droplet dissolution in a polar solvent

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Sari; Yamada, Masumi; Hori, Ayaka; Seki, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a microfluidic process is proposed for preparing monodisperse micrometer-sized hydrogel beads. This process utilizes non-equilibrium aqueous droplets formed in a polar organic solvent. The water-in-oil droplets of the hydrogel precursor rapidly shrunk owing to the dissolution of water molecules into the continuous phase. The shrunken and condensed droplets were then gelled, resulting in the formation of hydrogel microbeads with sizes significantly smaller than the initial droplet size. This study employed methyl acetate as the polar organic solvent, which can dissolve water at 8%. Two types of monodisperse hydrogel beads—Ca-alginate and chitosan—with sizes of 6–10 μm (coefficient of variation < 6%) were successfully produced. In addition, we obtained hydrogel beads with non-spherical morphologies by controlling the degree of droplet shrinkage at the time of gelation and by adjusting the concentration of the gelation agent. Furthermore, the encapsulation and concentration of DNA molecules within the hydrogel beads were demonstrated. The process presented in this study has great potential to produce small and highly concentrated hydrogel beads that are difficult to obtain by using conventional microfluidic processes. PMID:24396529

  16. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing. PMID:21301636

  17. On the theory of the noncoalescence effect for oppositely charged droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Saranin, V. A.

    2011-05-15

    A theory is proposed and numerical simulation is conducted for oppositely charged mutually approaching droplets of an aqueous electrolytic solution in silicon oil. It is shown that at small distances between droplets, a conductive bridge leveling out the potentials of the droplets may form between them due to electrohydrodynamic instability of the equilibrium surface of one of the droplets. As a result, the droplets start to repel each other and may drift apart without coagulation. The proposed theory is confirmed by the effect of nonconfluent droplets observed in experiments [W.D. Ristenpart, J.C. Bird, A. Belmonte, et al., Nature 461, 377 (2009)].

  18. The way to reduce electrical charge of a droplet dispensed from a pipette tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Horim; Im, Do Jin; Kim, Dong Sung

    2013-11-01

    Recently, we reported that a conventional pipetting always makes a charged droplet by spontaneous electrical charging process. The charge amount depends on the constituents of the droplet, on coating material of pipette tip and on atmospheric humidity. We clarified that this natural electrification of a droplet is originated from the charge separation between a droplet and pipette tip surface. The electrical interaction between charged droplet hanging on the end of the pipette tip and the pipette tip inner surface makes the droplet hard to detach from the pipette tip. To suggest the way to suppress the electrification phenomenon, we investigate the influence of the polymer composition on the amount of the charge of the droplet. The Faraday cup method is performed to measure the charge amount of the droplet. The result can be used to reduce charge amount of a droplet dispensed from the micropipette tip effectively. This work was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program No. 2011-0029454 funded by the Korea government (MEST).

  19. Dispersion and coalescence of oil droplets by ultrasound and application for solvent extraction of gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Thanh Nguyen, Tam; Okura, Risa; Nakayama, Shingo; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Jin, Jiye

    2015-07-01

    To improve the performance of solvent extraction of rare metals, the effects of ultrasonic and organic solvent conditions on the demulsification of emulsions were examined. Optimized conditions were adopted in the solvent extraction of gallium by ultrasonic irradiation. As organic solvents, chloroform, 1,2-dichloromethane, p-bromotoluene, bromobenzene, and 1,2-dibromoethane were employed. Emulsification was carried out using a horn-type transducer at 20 kHz. Demulsification was performed with plate-type transducers at 1.0-4.8 MHz. The demulsification time decreased with increasing ultrasonic frequency and power because the primary and secondary acoustic forces of droplets become stronger. Inclining the vessel shortened the demulsification time. In the case of chloroform at a low solution pH, the demulsification time was shortest since the zeta potential of droplets was close to zero. The sequential ultrasonic irradiation at 20 kHz and 4.8 MHz greatly shortens the operation time needed for solvent extraction of gallium from an aqueous solution.

  20. Reversible, voltage-activated formation of biomimetic membranes between triblock copolymer-coated aqueous droplets in good solvents.

    PubMed

    Tamaddoni, Nima; Taylor, Graham; Hepburn, Trevor; Michael Kilbey, S; Sarles, Stephen A

    2016-06-21

    Biomimetic membranes assembled from block copolymers attract considerable interest because they exhibit greater stability and longetivity compared to lipid bilayers, and some enable the reconstitution of functional transmembrane biomolecules. Yet to-date, block copolymer membranes have not been achieved using the droplet interface bilayer (DIB) method, which uniquely allows assembling single- and multi-membrane networks between water droplets in oil. Herein, we investigate the formation of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(dimethyl siloxane)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer-stabilized interfaces (CSIs) between polymer-coated aqueous droplets in solutions comprising combinations of decane, hexadecane and AR20 silicone oil. We demonstrate that triblock-coated droplets do not spontaneously adhere in these oils because all are thermodynamically good solvents for the hydrophobic PDMS middle block. However, thinned planar membranes are reversibly formed at the interface between droplets upon the application of a sufficient transmembrane voltage, which removes excess solvent from between droplets through electrocompression. At applied voltages above the threshold required to initiate membrane thinning, electrowetting causes the area of the CSI between droplets to increase while thickness remains constant; the CSI electrowetting response is similar to that encountered with lipid-based DIBs. In combination, these results reveal that stable membranes can be assembled in a manner that is completely reversible when an external pressure is used to overcome a barrier to adhesion caused by solvent-chain interactions, and they demonstrate new capability for connecting and disconnecting aqueous droplets via polymer-stabilized membranes. PMID:27174295

  1. Droplet synthesis of well-defined block copolymers using solvent-resistant microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Phan Huy; Nguyen, Chi Thanh; Perumal, Jayakumar; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2011-01-21

    Well-defined diblock copolymers were synthesized via an exothermic RAFT route by a droplet microfluidic process using a solvent-resistant and thermally stable fluoropolymer microreactor fabricated by a non-lithographic embedded template method. The resulting polymers were compared to products obtained from continuous flow capillary reactor and conventional bulk synthesis. The droplet based microreactor demonstrated superior molecular weight distribution control by synthesizing a higher molecular weight product with higher conversion and narrow polydispersity in a much shorter reaction time. The high quality of the as-synthesized block copolymer PMMA-b-PS led to a generation of micelles with a narrow size distribution that could be used as a template for well-ordered mesoporous silica with regular frameworks and high surface areas. PMID:21072416

  2. Stable, biocompatible lipid vesicle generation by solvent extraction-based droplet microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Shia-Yen; Khnouf, Ruba; Fan, Hugh; Lee, Abraham P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic platform for the continuous generation of stable, monodisperse lipid vesicles 20–110 μm in diameter. Our approach utilizes a microfluidic flow-focusing droplet generation design to control the vesicle size by altering the system’s fluid flow rates to generate vesicles with narrow size distribution. Double emulsions are first produced in consecutive flow-focusing channel geometries and lipid membranes are then formed through a controlled solvent extraction process. Since no strong solvents are used in the process, our method allows for the safe encapsulation and manipulation of an assortment of biological entities, including cells, proteins, and nucleic acids. The vesicles generated by this method are stable and have a shelf life of at least 3 months. Here, we demonstrate the cell-free in vitro synthesis of proteins within lipid vesicles as an initial step towards the development of an artificial cell. PMID:22685501

  3. Charge-transfer complexation between naphthalene diimides and aromatic solvents.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Chidambar; Periyasamy, Ganga; Balasubramanian, S; George, Subi J

    2014-07-28

    Naphthalene diimides (NDIs) form emissive ground-state charge-transfer (CT) complexes with various electron rich aromatic solvents like benzene, o-xylene and mesitylene. TD-DFT calculation of the complexes suggests CT interaction and accounts for the observed ground-state changes. PMID:24931833

  4. Electric charge-mediated coalescence of water droplets for biochemical microreactors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yong-Mi; Kang, In Seok

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes the use of charged droplets driven by the Coulombic force as solution-phase reaction chambers for biological microreactions. A droplet can be charged near an electrode under dc voltage by direct contact to the electrode. This process is called electrical charging of droplet (ECOD). This charged droplet can then be transported rapidly between electrodes following the arc of an electric field line by exploiting electrostatic force. As on-demand electrocoalescence, both alkalization of phenolphthalein and bioluminescence reaction of luciferase in the presence of adenosine triphosphate are studied to test the feasibility of the biochemical microreactors using ECOD. Two oppositely charged droplets are merged to have a color change immediately after microchemical reaction. The applicability of an ECOD-driven droplet to measurement of glucose concentration is also tested. The glucose concentration is measured using a colorimetric enzyme-kinetic method based on Trinder’s reaction [J. Clin. Pathol. 22, 158 (1969)]. The color change in the merged droplet is detected with an absorbance measurement system consisting of a photodiode and a light emitting diode. PMID:20697585

  5. Effective charge and effective radius of water droplet in dropwise cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlov, A. V.; Romanyuk, S. N.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.

    2013-02-15

    A particle with large electric charge Z (Z Much-Greater-Than 1) and radius R{sub 0} inserted into plasma is surrounded by a plasma shell, which is stable to weak and short-term external exposures. As a result, during experiments the particle can reveal an effective charge Z* lower than the true one (Z*{<=} Z), and an effective radius R* larger than the true one (R*{>=} R{sub 0}). The effective electric charge and the effective radius of a water droplet in a dropwise cluster have been calculated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It has been recognized that these parameters are not the function of a droplet's true charge, but are the function of a droplet's true size and the Debye's radius of the plasma. Experimental data on the droplet properties in a dropwise cluster have been explained.

  6. Visualization of the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition in electrostatic atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Yuanping Wang, Junfeng Zuo, Ziwen; Fan, Yajun

    2015-11-15

    A detailed experimental study on the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition from a capillary is reported. By means of high-speed microscopy, special attention has been paid to the dynamics of the liquid thread and satellite droplets in the dripping mode, and a method for calculating the surface charge on the satellite droplet is proposed. Jet transition behavior based on the electric Bond number has been visualized, droplet sizes and velocities are measured to obtain the ejection characteristic of the spray plume, and the charge and hydrodynamic relaxation are linked to give explanations for ejection dynamics with different properties. The results show that the relative length is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic relaxation time. The magnitude of the electric field strength dominates the behavior of coalescence and noncoalescence, with the charge relationship between the satellite droplet and the main droplet being clear for every noncoalescence movement. Ejection mode transitions mainly depend on the magnitude of the electric Bond number, and the meniscus dynamics is determined by the ratio of the charge relaxation time to the hydrodynamic relaxation time.

  7. Visualization of the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition in electrostatic atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yuanping; Wang, Junfeng; Zuo, Ziwen; Fan, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    A detailed experimental study on the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition from a capillary is reported. By means of high-speed microscopy, special attention has been paid to the dynamics of the liquid thread and satellite droplets in the dripping mode, and a method for calculating the surface charge on the satellite droplet is proposed. Jet transition behavior based on the electric Bond number has been visualized, droplet sizes and velocities are measured to obtain the ejection characteristic of the spray plume, and the charge and hydrodynamic relaxation are linked to give explanations for ejection dynamics with different properties. The results show that the relative length is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic relaxation time. The magnitude of the electric field strength dominates the behavior of coalescence and noncoalescence, with the charge relationship between the satellite droplet and the main droplet being clear for every noncoalescence movement. Ejection mode transitions mainly depend on the magnitude of the electric Bond number, and the meniscus dynamics is determined by the ratio of the charge relaxation time to the hydrodynamic relaxation time.

  8. Pulsed acceleration charge detection mass spectrometry: application to weighing electrosprayed droplets.

    PubMed

    Mabbett, Sarah R; Zilch, Lloyd W; Maze, Joshua T; Smith, John W; Jarrold, Martin F

    2007-11-15

    We describe a new approach to measuring the masses of individual macroions. The method employs a pulsed acceleration tube located between two sensitive image charge detectors. The charge and velocity of the macroion are recorded with the first image charge detector. The ion is pulse accelerated through a known voltage drop, and then the charge and velocity are remeasured using the second image charge detector. The mass of the ion is deduced from its charge and its initial and final velocities. The approach has been used to measure masses in the 10(10)-10(14) Da range with z = 10(3)-10(6) and m/z = 10(6)-10(9). It should be extendable to masses of <10(6) Da. We have used the method to determine the size and charge of water droplets transmitted through a capillary interface and an aperture interface. The droplets detected from the aperture interface are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller in mass than those detected from the capillary interface. The droplets from both interfaces have relatively low charges, particularly with the capillary interface where they are only charged to a small fraction of the Rayleigh limit. These results suggest that the aerodynamic breakup of the droplets plays a significant role in the mechanism of electrospray ionization. PMID:17929878

  9. Electrostatic interactions in charged nanoslits within an explicit solvent theory.

    PubMed

    Buyukdagli, Sahin

    2015-11-18

    Within a dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann theory including electrostatic correlations, we consider the effect of explicit solvent structure on solvent and ion partition confined to charged nanopores. We develop a relaxation scheme for the solution of this highly non-linear integro-differential equation for the electrostatic potential. The scheme is an extension of the approach previously introduced for simple planes (Buyukdagli and Blossey 2014 J. Chem. Phys. 140 234903) to nanoslit geometry. We show that the reduced dielectric response of solvent molecules at the membrane walls gives rise to an electric field significantly stronger than the field of the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This peculiarity associated with non-local electrostatic interactions results in turn in an interfacial counterion adsorption layer absent in continuum theories. The observation of this enhanced counterion affinity in the very close vicinity of the interface may have important impacts on nanofluidic transport through charged nanopores. Our results indicate the quantitative inaccuracy of solvent implicit nanofiltration theories in predicting the ionic selectivity of membrane nanopores. PMID:26443128

  10. Electrostatic interactions in charged nanoslits within an explicit solvent theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin

    2015-11-01

    Within a dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann theory including electrostatic correlations, we consider the effect of explicit solvent structure on solvent and ion partition confined to charged nanopores. We develop a relaxation scheme for the solution of this highly non-linear integro-differential equation for the electrostatic potential. The scheme is an extension of the approach previously introduced for simple planes (Buyukdagli and Blossey 2014 J. Chem. Phys. 140 234903) to nanoslit geometry. We show that the reduced dielectric response of solvent molecules at the membrane walls gives rise to an electric field significantly stronger than the field of the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This peculiarity associated with non-local electrostatic interactions results in turn in an interfacial counterion adsorption layer absent in continuum theories. The observation of this enhanced counterion affinity in the very close vicinity of the interface may have important impacts on nanofluidic transport through charged nanopores. Our results indicate the quantitative inaccuracy of solvent implicit nanofiltration theories in predicting the ionic selectivity of membrane nanopores.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flows With Charged Droplets in Electrostatic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sang-Wook

    1996-01-01

    A numerical method to solve two-phase turbulent flows with charged droplets in an electrostatic field is presented. The ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the electrostatic potential equation are solved using a finite volume method. The transitional turbulence field is described using multiple-time-scale turbulence equations. The equations of motion of droplets are solved using a Lagrangian particle tracking scheme, and the inter-phase momentum exchange is described by the Particle-In-Cell scheme. The electrostatic force caused by an applied electrical potential is calculated using the electrostatic field obtained by solving a Laplacian equation and the force exerted by charged droplets is calculated using the Coulombic force equation. The method is applied to solve electro-hydrodynamic sprays. The calculated droplet velocity distributions for droplet dispersions occurring in a stagnant surrounding are in good agreement with the measured data. For droplet dispersions occurring in a two-phase flow, the droplet trajectories are influenced by aerodynamic forces, the Coulombic force, and the applied electrostatic potential field.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF ENTRAINED ORGANIC DROPLET SIZES AND TOTAL CONCENTRATION FOR AQUEOUS STREAMS FROM THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C; Samuel Fink, S; Michael Restivo, M; Dan Burns, D; Wallace Smith, W; S Crump, S; Zane Nelson, Z; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Michael Norato, M

    2007-02-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility will remove radioactive cesium from Savannah River Site supernate wastes using an organic solvent system. Both designs include decanters and coalescers to reduce carryover of organic solvent droplets. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel conducted experimental demonstrations using a series of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors. They also examined organic carryover during operation of a CINC (Costner Industries Nevada Corporation) V-5 contactor under prototypical conditions covering the range of expected MCU operation. This report details the findings from those studies and the implications on design for the MCU.

  13. Apparatus for Suspension of Charged Particles and Droplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, T. G. Owe

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to study the properties of charged particles suspended in an electric field. The apparatus consists of a suspension chamber, an optical system and power supplies and controls. Experiments conducted include determination of particle size, charge-to-mass ratio and particle collisions and exchange. (LC)

  14. Estimation of droplet charge forming out of an electrified ligament in the presence of a uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, H.; Castle, G. S. P.; Adamiak, K.; Fan, H. T.; Simmer, J.

    2015-10-01

    The charge on a liquid droplet is a critical parameter that needs to be determined to accurately predict the behaviour of the droplet in many electrostatic applications, for example, electrostatic painting and ink-jet printing. The charge depends on many factors, such as the liquid conductivity, droplet and ligament radii, ligament length, droplet shape, electric field intensity, space charge, the presence of adjacent ligaments and previously formed droplets. In this paper, a 2D axisymmetric model is presented which can be used to predict the electric charge on a conductive spherical droplet ejected from a single ligament directly supplied with high voltage. It was found that the droplet charging levels for the case of isolated electrified ligaments are as much as 60 times higher than that in the case of ligaments connected to a planar high voltage electrode. It is suggested that practical atomization systems lie somewhere between these two extremes and that a better model was achieved by developing a 3D approximation of a linear array of ligaments connected to an electrode having variable width. The effect on droplet charge and its radius was estimated for several cases of different boundary conditions.

  15. Electrohydrodynamics of Charge Separation in Droplet-Based Ion Sources with Time-Varying Electrical and Mechanical Actuation

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2010-01-01

    Charge transport and separation in mechanically-driven, droplet-based ion sources are investigated using computational analysis and supporting experiments. A first-principles model of electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and charge migration is formulated and implemented using FLUENT CFD software for jet/droplet formation. For validation, classical experiments of electrospraying from a thin capillary are simulated, specifically, the transient EHD cone-jet formation of a fluid with finite electrical conductivity, and the Taylor cone formation in a perfectly electrically-conducting fluid. The model is also used to investigate the microscopic physics of droplet charging in mechanically-driven droplet-based ion sources, such as AMUSE (Array of Micromachined UltraSonic Electrospray). Here, AMUSE is subject to DC and AC electric fields of varying amplitude and phase, with respect to a time-varying mechanical force driving the droplet formation. For the DC-charging case, a linear relationship is demonstrated between the charge carried by each droplet and an applied electric field magnitude, in agreement with previously reported experiments. For the AC-charging case, a judiciously-chosen phase-shift in the time-varying mechanical (driving ejection) and electrical (driving charge transport) signals allows for a significantly increased amount of charge, of desired polarity, to be pumped into a droplet upon ejection. Complementary experimental measurements of electrospray electrical current and charge-per-droplet, produced by the AMUSE ion source, are performed and support theoretical predictions for both DC and AC-charging cases. The theoretical model and simulation tools provide a versatile and general analytical framework for fundamental investigations of coupled electrohydrodynamics and charge transport. The model also allows for the exploration of different configurations and operating modes to optimize charge separation in atmospheric pressure electrohydrodynamic ion sources

  16. Impact of plasma induced liquid chemistry and charge on bacteria loaded aerosol droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, David; McDowell, David; Mariotti, Davide; Mahony, Charles; Diver, Declan; Potts, Hugh; Bennet, Euan; Maguire, Paul

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of living organisms, such as bacteria, into atmospheric pressure microplasmas offers a unique opportunity to study the local chemical and electrical effects on cell structure and viability. Individual bacteria, each encapsulated in an aerosol droplet, were successfully transmitted through a non-thermal equilibrium RF coaxial plasma, using a custom-design concentric double gas shroud interface and via adjustment of transit times and plasma parameters, we can control cell viability. Plasma electrical characteristics (ne ~ 1013 cm-3), droplet velocity profiles and aspects of plasma-induced droplet chemistry were determined in order to establish the nature of the bacteria in droplet environment. Plasma-exposed viable E coli cells were subsequently cultured and the growth rate curves (lag and exponential phase gradient) used to explore the effect of radical chemistry and electron bombardment on cell stress. The extent and nature of membrane disruption in viable and non-viable cells were investigated through genomic and protein/membrane lipid content estimation. We will also compare our results with simulations of the effect of bacterial presence on plasma induced droplet charging and evaporation. Funding from EPSRC acknowledged (Grants EP/K006088/1 and EP/K006142/1).

  17. Monodisperse red blood cell-like particles via consolidation of charged droplets.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Ho; Chung, Nae-Oh; Lee, Jonghwi

    2011-09-15

    Recently, researchers have tried to produce non-spherical and anisotropic particles to be used in the next generation of multi-functional materials. Of key interest is the red blood cell-like particle. The torus structure was produced under the relatively fast consolidation of monodisperse droplets, and its parameters were found to be tunable by temperature as well as solvent type and concentration. The observation of consolidation demonstrated that the polymers were accumulated and solidified in the torus structure, naturally, whereas there was the critical droplet size to induce the asymmetry diffusivities. The torus structures could be simply tuned by the flow rate and concentration. The coaxial nozzle system produced the core/shell torus particles. These results state that the consolidation mechanism can hold important clues to enhance the range of tuning capabilities. PMID:21719020

  18. Promotion of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and peptide cocrystallization within levitated droplets with net charge.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Michael J; Bakhoum, Samuel F W; Agnes, George R

    2005-02-01

    Many reactions occur as a result of charge imbalance within or between reactive species in reaction vessels that have zero net charge. Here, chemical processes taking place within reaction vessels having net excess charge were studied. For mass spectroscopists, a familiar example of vessels that defy electroneutrality are the charged droplets produced by an electrospray ion source. Evidence is presented that control of the magnitude of the net charge contained in a reaction vessel, in this case a levitated droplet, can be used to promote nucleation and crystal growth of a mixture of an organic acid, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), with one or more peptides. This phenomenon was first observed during our ongoing development of wall-less sample preparation (WaSP), electrodynamic charged droplet processing methodology capable of creating micrometer-sized sample spots for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) from subnanoliter volumes of sample material. Peptide ion signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS from sample spots created from droplets that had high relative magnitude of net charge were consistently greater than those detected from sample spots created from droplets that had lower net charge. To study this unexpected phenomenon further, WaSP methodology was developed to process different mass-to-charge (m/z) droplets levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB), facilitating their deposition onto different positions of a target to create arrays of droplet residues ordered from highest to lowest m/z. This capability allowed simultaneous levitation with subsequent separation of a population of droplets created from a single starting solution, but the droplets had varied magnitudes of net charge. After the droplets were ejected from the EDB and collected on a glass slide or MALDI plate, the solids contained in the deposited droplets were characterized using microscopy and MALDI

  19. Charge tuning in [111] grown GaAs droplet quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Bouet, L.; Vidal, M.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Wang, G.; Urbaszek, B.; Mano, T.; Ha, N.; Kuroda, T.; Sakoda, K.; Durnev, M. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Ivchenko, E. L.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate charge tuning in strain free GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by droplet epitaxy on a GaAs(111)A substrate. Application of a bias voltage allows the controlled charging of the QDs from −3|e| to +2|e|. The resulting changes in QD emission energy and exciton fine-structure are recorded in micro-photoluminescence experiments at T = 4 K. We uncover the existence of excited valence and conduction states, in addition to the s-shell-like ground state. We record a second series of emission lines about 25 meV above the charged exciton emission coming from excited charged excitons. For these excited interband transitions, a negative diamagnetic shift of large amplitude is uncovered in longitudinal magnetic fields.

  20. Fission of multiply charged alkali clusters in helium droplets - approaching the Rayleigh limit.

    PubMed

    Renzler, Michael; Harnisch, Martina; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kuhn, Martin; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2016-04-21

    Electron ionization of helium droplets doped with sodium, potassium or cesium results in doubly and, for cesium, triply charged cluster ions. The smallest observable doubly charged clusters are Na9(2+), K11(2+), and Cs9(2+); they are a factor two to three smaller than reported previously. The size of sodium and potassium dications approaches the Rayleigh limit nRay for which the fission barrier is calculated to vanish, i.e. their fissilities are close to 1. Cesium dications are even smaller than nRay, implying that their fissilities have been significantly overestimated. Triply charged cesium clusters as small as Cs19(3+) are observed; they are a factor 2.6 smaller than previously reported. Mechanisms that may be responsible for enhanced formation of clusters with high fissilities are discussed. PMID:27035406

  1. A model for the prediction of droplet size in Pickering emulsions stabilized by oppositely charged particles.

    PubMed

    Nallamilli, Trivikram; Mani, Ethayaraja; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2014-08-12

    Colloidal particles irreversibly adsorb at fluid-fluid interfaces stabilizing what are commonly called "Pickering" emulsions and foams. A simple geometrical model, the limited coalescence model, was earlier proposed to estimate droplet sizes in emulsions. This model assumes that all of the particles are effective in stabilization. The model predicts that the average emulsion drop size scales inversely with the total number of particles, confirmed qualitatively with experimental data on Pickering emulsions. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in synthesizing emulsions with oppositely charged particles (OCPs). In our experimental study, we observed that the drop size varies nonmonotonically with the number ratio of oppositely charged colloids, even when a fixed total number concentration of colloids is used, showing a minimum. We develop a mathematical model to predict this dependence of drop size on number ratio in such a mixed particle system. The proposed model is based on the hypothesis that oppositely charged colloids form stable clusters due to the strong electrostatic attraction between them and that these clusters are the effective stabilizing agents. The proposed model is a two-parameter model, parameters being the ratio of effective charge of OCPs (denoted as k) and the size of the aggregate containing X particles formed due to aggregation of OCPs. Because the size of aggregates formed during emulsification is not directly measurable, we use suitable values of parameters k and X to best match the experimental observations. The model predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimentally observed nonmonotonic variation of droplet sizes. Using experiments and theory, we present a physical insight into the formation of OCP stabilized Pickering emulsions. Our model upgrades the existing Wiley's limited coalescence model as applied to emulsions containing a binary mixture of oppositely charged particles. PMID:25054284

  2. Solvent-induced reversible solid-state colour change of an intramolecular charge-transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Maier, Josef M; Hwang, Jungwun; Smith, Mark D; Krause, Jeanette A; Mullis, Brian T; Strickland, Sharon M S; Shimizu, Ken D

    2015-10-11

    A dynamic intramolecular charge-transfer (CT) complex was designed that displayed reversible colour changes in the solid-state when treated with different organic solvents. The origins of the dichromatism were shown to be due to solvent-inclusion, which induced changes in the relative orientations of the donor pyrene and acceptor naphthalenediimide units. PMID:26299357

  3. Reactive Charged Droplets for Reduction of Matrix Effects in Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kulyk, Dmytro S; Miller, Colbert F; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2015-11-01

    A new quantitative contained-electrospray (ES) process is described here that employs a movable ES emitter to control the reactivity of charged microdroplets by varying their exposure time with acid vapor. The method allows elimination of ion suppression effects caused by the presence of various surface active compounds that coelute with the analyte. For mixtures, contained-ESI mass spectrometric analysis produces relative ion intensities that reflect the true concentrations of analytes in solution. The mechanism for this effect has been elucidated and ascribed to the generation of fine initial droplets in the presence of a high abundance of protons; together, these two factors eliminate competition for charge and space during ion formation. Examples of analytes tested include steroids, phospholipids, phosphopeptides, and sialylated glycans. At least 1 order of magnitude improvement in detection limits, sensitivity, and accuracy of detection was observed when compared to conventional electrospray. PMID:26437455

  4. Searching for solvent cavities via electron photodetachment: The ultrafast charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics of sodide in a series of ether solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Molly C.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2009-10-21

    It was recently predicted by simulations and confirmed by neutron diffraction experiments that the structure of liquid tetrahydrofuran (THF) contains cavities. The cavities can be quite large and have a net positive electrostatic potential, so they can serve as pre-existing traps for excess electrons created via photodetachment from various solutes. In this paper, we use electron photodetachment via charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) excitation of sodide (Na{sup -}) to probe for the presence of pre-existing cavities in a series of ether solvents: THF, diethyl ether, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), and diglyme (DG). We find that electrons photodetached from sodide appear after a time delay with their equilibrium spectrum in all of these solvents, suggesting that the entire series of ethers contains pre-existing solvent cavities. We then use the variation in electron recombination dynamics with CTTS excitation wavelength to probe the nature of the cavities in the different ethers. We find that the cavities that form the deepest electron traps turn on at about the same energy in all four ether solvents investigated, but that the density of cavities is lower in DG and DME than in THF. We also examine the dynamics of the neutral sodium species that remains following CTTS photodetachment of an electron from sodide. We find that the reaction of the initially created gas-phase-like Na atom to form a (Na{sup +},e{sup -}) tight-contact pair occurs at essentially the same rate in all four ether solvents, indicating that only local solvent motions and not bulk solvent rearrangements are what is responsible for driving the partial ejection of the remaining Na valence electron.

  5. Electric discharges produced by clouds of charged water droplets in the presence of moving conducting object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostinskiy, Alexander Y.; Syssoev, Vladimir S.; Mareev, Eugene A.; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Andreev, Mikhail G.; Bogatov, Nikolai A.; Makal'sky, Leonid M.; Sukharevsky, Dmitry I.; Aleshchenko, Alexander S.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir E.; Shatalina, Maria V.

    2015-12-01

    The possibility of initiation of electric discharges by a crossbow bolt (projectile) moving in the electric field of a cloud of negatively charged water droplets has been demonstrated for the first time. Over one hundred of discharges have been produced. For each event, a high-speed video camera recorded the images of upward positive leaders developing from both the nearby grounded sphere and the projectile, followed by the return-stroke-like process. Corresponding currents were measured and integrated photos of the events were obtained. The results can help to improve our understanding of lightning initiation by airborne vehicles and by a vertical conductor rapidly extended below the thundercloud in order to trigger lightning with the rocket-and-wire technique.

  6. Modulated charge patterns and noise effect in a twisted DNA model with solvent interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi, C. B.; Dang Koko, A.; Oumarou Doko, R.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    We modify the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model and bring out the influence of the torsion and solvent interactions on charge transport in DNA. Through the linear stability analysis, we detect regions of instability and we compare the results with those of the standard Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model. There are two regimes where modulated charge patterns can occur: the undertwisted and the overtwisted conformations. Numerical simulations are used to confirm our analytical predictions. Charge patterns are obtained and propagate more easily in an overwinded helix than in an underwinded one. The effects of dissipation and thermal fluctuations are also studied, which confirm the robustness of the obtained modulated patterns. On the one hand, we argue that in the absence of twisting, temperature can lead to the breaking of the hydrogen bonds between bases and prevent charges from propagating. On the other hand, when the molecule is overtwisted, the solvent and the temperature will rather enhance charge spreading patterns with random features.

  7. Energetics of charge transfer reactions in solvents of dipolar and higher order multipolar character. II. Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perng, Baw-Ching; Newton, Marshall D.; Raineri, Fernando O.; Friedman, Harold L.

    1996-05-01

    We apply the theories developed in the preceding paper (paper I) to calculate various energy quantities of charge transfer (CT) reactions in nine solvents that cover a wide range of polarity, and for which interaction site models (ISM's) may be found in the literature. Besides the two surrogate Hamiltonian theories developed in paper I, the renormalized site-density theory (RST) and the renormalized dielectric theory (RDT), we also investigate a simple harmonic approximation (HXA) for the diabatic free energy profiles, whose characteristic parameters are calculated taking specific advantage of the expression given by the extended reference interaction site method (XRISM) for the free energy of solvation. For each CT process we analyze (a) the solvent reorganization energy λ, (b) the shift of the absorption transition energy due to the solvatochromic effect, and (c) the solvent contribution to the free energy change ΔA. In addition, for a few selected examples, we also report the detailed diabatic free energy profiles. The calculations reported rely on solute-solvent and solvent-solvent pair correlation functions obtained with the XRISM integral equation method applied to nonpolarizable (with fixed mean partial charges) ISM representations of the solute and solvent molecules. To rectify the omission of the solvent electronic degrees of freedom, we correct the dielectric part of the solvent reorganization energy with an additive term designed to compensate for the use of fixed charge ISM models. Contact with theories in which the solvent is represented as a dielectric continuum medium (with or without spatial dispersion) and the solute as a set of charges inside spherical cavities carved out of the dielectric is made straightforwardly within the RDT theory by considering a particularly simple form of the solute-solvent RISM site-site direct correlation functions. Using simple ISM models for several solute species, including Reichardt's betaine-30 dye and a

  8. The effect of the charge density of microemulsion droplets on the bending elasticity of their amphiphilic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, B.; Gradzielski, M.

    2001-06-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion droplets have been investigated with respect to the effect of the electric charge density on the bending elasticity of the amphiphilic film. For this an originally uncharged microemulsion system became charged by the substitution of the nonionic by an ionic surfactant (up to 5 mol %). The sum of the bending constants, 2κ+κ¯, has been determined from the polydispersity index p of the droplets and alternatively from the macroscopic interfacial tension γ together with the maximum particle radius Rm. p and Rm were measured by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments in the shell contrast. Neutron spin echo (NSE) has been employed to measure directly the dynamics of the shape fluctuations of the droplets. This method enables a separate determination of κ on its own. It is found that the effect of the increasing charge density leads only to a fairly small increase for the sum of the bending constants 2κ+κ¯. Also the change of the ionic strength for a charged microemulsion system has almost no influence on this sum. NSE measurements show no measurable difference in the dynamics of the charged and uncharged system leading to the conclusion that not only the sum but separately the two bending constants stay within experimental error unchanged. This experimental observation is in contrast to simple electrostatic theories that would predict a much more pronounced influence of the electric charge density on the bending properties of the amphiphilic film.

  9. Adsorption-Induced Solvent-Based Electrostatic Gating of Charge Transport through Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kotiuga, Michele; Darancet, Pierre; Arroyo, Carlos R; Venkataraman, Latha; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2015-07-01

    Recent experiments have shown that transport properties of molecular-scale devices can be reversibly altered by the surrounding solvent. Here, we use a combination of first-principles calculations and experiment to explain this change in transport properties through a shift in the local electrostatic potential at the junction caused by nearby conducting and solvent molecules chemically bound to the electrodes. This effect is found to alter the conductance of 4,4'-bipyridine-gold junctions by more than 50%. Moreover, we develop a general electrostatic model that quantitatively relates the conductance and dipoles associated with the bound solvent and conducting molecules. Our work shows that solvent-induced effects can be used to control charge and energy transport at molecular-scale interfaces. PMID:26066095

  10. Solvent-dependent singlet oxygen lifetimes: temperature effects implicate tunneling and charge-transfer interactions.

    PubMed

    Bregnhøj, Mikkel; Westberg, Michael; Jensen, Frank; Ogilby, Peter R

    2016-08-17

    The effect of solvent on the lifetime of singlet oxygen, O2(a(1)Δg), particularly the pronounced H/D solvent isotope effect, has drawn the attention of chemists for almost 50 years. The currently accepted model for this phenomenon is built on a foundation in which the electronic excitation energy of O2(a(1)Δg) is transferred to vibrational modes in a solvent molecule, with oxygen returning to its ground electronic state, O2(X(3)Σg(-)). This model of electronic-to-vibrational (e-to-v) energy transfer specifically focusses on the solvent as a "sink" for the excitation energy of O2(a(1)Δg). On the basis of temperature-dependent changes in the solvent-mediated O2(a(1)Δg) lifetime, we demonstrate that this energy-sink-based model has limitations and needs to be re-formulated. We now show that the effect of solvent on the O2(a(1)Δg) lifetime is more reasonably interpreted by considering an activation barrier that reflects the extent to which a solvent molecule perturbs the forbidden O2(a(1)Δg) → O2(X(3)Σg(-)) transition. For a given solvent molecule, this barrier reflects contributions from (a) the oxygen-solvent charge transfer state that mediates nonradiative coupling between the O2(a(1)Δg) and O2(X(3)Σg(-)) states, and (b) vibrations of specific bonds in the solvent molecule. The latter establishes connectivity to the desirable features of the energy-sink-based model. Moreover, temperature-dependent H/D solvent isotope effects imply that tunneling through this barrier plays a role in the mechanism for O2(a(1)Δg) deactivation, even at room temperature. Although we focus on a long-standing problem involving O2(a(1)Δg), our results and interpretation touch fundamental issues of interest to chemists at large. PMID:27484979

  11. Solvent-tuned intramolecular charge-recombination rates in a conjugated donor-acceptor molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Stiegman, A. E.; Perry, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    The nonradiative charge-recombination rates from the charge-transfer state of a new conjugated donor-acceptor molecule (p-cyano-p-prime-methylthiodiphenylacetylene) can be tuned over almost an order of magnitude by varying the polarity of the solvent. These measurements of intramolecular recombination show a turnover of rates as a function of emission energy, consistent with the 'normal' and 'inverted' behavior of Marcus theory. Steady-state spectra and time-resolved measurements make it possible to quantitatively compare thermal and optical electron-transfer rates as a function of driving force and demonstrate their correspondence.

  12. Resonance Raman study of the solvent dynamics for ultrafast charge transfer transition in 4-nitro-4'-dimethylamino-azobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Nandita; Umapathy, Siva

    2003-03-01

    Contribution of solvent reorganization energy is known to be significant for ultrafast charge transfer processes, when the solvent relaxation times are slower than the rate of charge transfer. In this paper, we show that from resonance Raman intensities of a charge transfer transition in combination with Heller's time-dependent wave packet approach and Brownian oscillator model, one can have a reasonable estimate for the different types of solvent (inertial as well as diffusive) and vibrational reorganization energies. Resonance Raman spectra have been recorded for 4-nitro-4'-dimethylamino-azobenzene (DA) that undergoes photoinduced charge transfer transition, in acetonitrile and benzonitrile. In the two solvents, the total solvent reorganization energy is partitioned into its inertial and diffusive components from the available information on their relaxation time scales. Thus, partitioning of the solvent reorganization energy reveals the importance of the extent of contribution of the two components to the charge transfer rates. The short time dynamics of DA in the two solvents is then examined from a priori knowledge of the ground state normal modes in order to convert the wave packet motion in dimensionless displacements to internal coordinates. The dynamics in DA infers that within 20 fs after photoexcitation from the ground to the charge transfer state, the excited state evolution occurs along N-O, N=N, C-N, and C-C stretching vibrations.

  13. Explicit Solvent Simulations of Friction between Brush Layers of Charged and Neutral Bottle-Brush Macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Brown, W Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    We study friction between charged and neutral brush layers of bottle-brush macromolecules using molecular dynamics simulations. In our simulations the solvent molecules were treated explicitly. The deformation of the bottle-brush macromolecules under the shear were studied as a function of the substrate separation and shear stress. For charged bottle-brush layers we study effect of the added salt on the brush lubricating properties to elucidate factors responsible for energy dissipation in charged and neutral brush systems. Our simulations have shown that for both charged and neutral brush systems the main deformation mode of the bottle-brush macromolecule is associated with the backbone deformation. This deformation mode manifests itself in the backbone deformation ratio, , and shear viscosity, , to be universal functions of the Weissenberg number W. The value of the friction coefficient, , and viscosity, , are larger for the charged bottle-brush coatings in comparison with those for neutral brushes at the same separation distance, D, between substrates. The additional energy dissipation generated by brush sliding in charged bottle-brush systems is due to electrostatic coupling between bottle-brush and counterion motion. This coupling weakens as salt concentration, cs, increases resulting in values of the viscosity, , and friction coefficient, , approaching corresponding values obtained for neutral brush systems.

  14. Versatile Role of Solvent Additive for Tailoring Morphology in Polymer Solar Cells for Efficient Charge Transport.

    PubMed

    Khatiwada, Devendra; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Ngo, Evan C; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-09-01

    In this work role of solvent additive namely 1,8 diiodoctane (DIO) on the nanoscale morphology and its relation with the charge transport of poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):PCBM solar cells has been investigated. Addition of DIO led to enhanced structural ordering as observed from optical measurements. Photovoltaic devices processed with DIO additive showed improved efficiencies due to significant enhancement in short circuit current density. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) images showed that DIO led to finer phase segregation that gave rise to better photovoltaic performance in additive processed active layers. Photoinduced current extraction by linearly increasing voltage (P-CELIV) measurements on PDPP3T:PCBM solar cells revealed higher mobility and extracted charge carrier density for DIO processed devices. PMID:26716280

  15. Solvent Role in the Formation of Electric Double Layers with Surface Charge Regulation: A Bystander or a Key Participant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleharty, Mark E.; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2016-01-01

    The charge formation at interfaces involving electrolyte solutions is due to the chemical equilibrium between the surface reactive groups and the potential determining ions in the solution (i.e., charge regulation). In this Letter we report our findings that this equilibrium is strongly coupled to the precise molecular structure of the solution near the charged interface. The neutral solvent molecules dominate this structure due to their overwhelmingly large number. Treating the solvent as a structureless continuum leads to a fundamentally inadequate physical picture of charged interfaces. We show that a proper account of the solvent effect leads to an unexpected and complex system behavior that is affected by the molecular and ionic excluded volumes and van der Waals interactions.

  16. Solvent Role in the Formation of Electric Double Layers with Surface Charge Regulation: A Bystander or a Key Participant?

    PubMed

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2016-01-29

    The charge formation at interfaces involving electrolyte solutions is due to the chemical equilibrium between the surface reactive groups and the potential determining ions in the solution (i.e., charge regulation). In this Letter we report our findings that this equilibrium is strongly coupled to the precise molecular structure of the solution near the charged interface. The neutral solvent molecules dominate this structure due to their overwhelmingly large number. Treating the solvent as a structureless continuum leads to a fundamentally inadequate physical picture of charged interfaces. We show that a proper account of the solvent effect leads to an unexpected and complex system behavior that is affected by the molecular and ionic excluded volumes and van der Waals interactions. PMID:26871358

  17. How Do Distance and Solvent Affect Halogen Bonding Involving Negatively Charged Donors?

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Guimin; Xu, Zhijian; Wang, Jinan; Yu, Yuqi; Cai, Tingting; Shao, Qiang; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang

    2016-09-01

    It was reported that negatively charged donors can form halogen bonding, which is stable, especially, in a polar environment. On the basis of a survey of the Protein Data Bank, we noticed that the distance between the negative charge center and the halogen atom of an organohalogen may vary greatly. Therefore, a series of model systems, composed of 4-halophenyl-conjugated polyene acids and ammonia, were designed to explore the potential effect of distance on halogen bonding in different solvents. Quantum mechanics (QM) calculations demonstrated that the longer the distance, the stronger the bonding. The energy decomposition analysis on all of the model systems demonstrated that electrostatic interaction contributes the most (44-56%) to the overall binding, followed by orbital interaction (42-36%). Natural bond orbital calculations showed that electron transfer takes place from the acceptor to the donor, whereas the halogen atom becomes more positive during the bonding, which is in agreement with the result of neutral halogen bonding. QM/molecular mechanics calculations demonstrated that the polarity of binding pockets makes all of the interactions attractive in a protein system. Hence, the strength of halogen bonding involving negatively charged donors could be adjusted by changing the distance between the negative charge center and halogen atom and the environment in which the bonding exists, which may be applied in material and drug design for tuning their function and activity. PMID:27504672

  18. An implicit solvent model for SCC-DFTB with Charge-Dependent Radii

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guanhua; Zhu, Xiao; Cui, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the need of rapidly exploring the potential energy surface of chemical reactions that involve highly charged species, we have developed an implicit solvent model for the approximate density functional theory, SCC-DFTB. The solvation free energy is calculated using the popular model that employs Poisson-Boltzmann for electrostatics and a surface-area term for non-polar contributions. To balance the treatment of species with different charge distributions, we make the atomic radii that define the dielectric boundary and solute cavity depend on the solute charge distribution. Specifically, the atomic radii are assumed to be linearly dependent on the Mulliken charges and solved self-consistently together with the solute electronic structure. Benchmark calculations indicate that the model leads to solvation free energies of comparable accuracy to the SM6 model (especially for ions), which requires much more expensive DFT calculations. With analytical first derivatives and favorable computational speed, the SCC-DFTB based solvation model can be effectively used, in conjunction with high-level QM calculations, to explore the mechanism of solution reactions. This is illustrated with a brief analysis of the hydrolysis of mono-methyl mono-phosphate ester (MMP) and tri-methyl mono-phosphate ester (TMP). Possible future improvements are also briefly discussed. PMID:20711513

  19. Sulfosuccinate and Sulfocarballylate Surfactants As Charge Control Additives in Nonpolar Solvents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory N; Kemp, Roger; Pegg, Jonathan C; Rogers, Sarah E; Eastoe, Julian

    2015-12-29

    A series of eight sodium sulfonic acid surfactants with differently branched tails (four double-chain sulfosuccinates and four triple-chain sulfocarballylates) were studied as charging agents for sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latexes in dodecane. Tail branching was found to have no significant effect on the electrophoretic mobility of the latexes, but the number of tails was found to influence the electrophoretic mobility. Triple-chain, sulfocarballylate surfactants were found to be more effective. Several possible origins of this observation were explored by comparing sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT1) and sodium trioctylsulfocarballylate (TC1) using identical approaches: the inverse micelle size, the propensity for ion dissociation, the electrical conductivity, the electrokinetic or ζ potential, and contrast-variation small-angle neutron scattering. The most likely origin of the increased ability of TC1 to charge PMMA latexes is a larger number of inverse micelles. These experiments demonstrate a small molecular variation that can be made to influence the ability of surfactants to charge particles in nonpolar solvents, and modifying molecular structure is a promising approach to developing more effective charging agents. PMID:26609708

  20. Substituent and Solvent Effects on Excited State Charge Transfer Behavior of Highly Fluorescent Dyes Containing Thiophenylimidazole-Based Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Javier; Bu, Xiu R.; Mintz, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    The excited state charge transfer for a series of highly fluorescent dyes containing thiophenylimidazole moiety was investigated. These systems follow the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model. Dual fluorescence was observed for each substituted dye. X-ray structures analysis reveals a twisted ground state geometry for the donor substituted aryl on the 4 and 5 position at the imidazole ring. The excited state charge transfer was modeled by a linear solvation energy relationship using Taft's pi and Dimroth's E(sub T)(30) as solvent parameters. There is linear relation between the energy of the fluorescence transition and solvent polarity. The degree of stabilization of the excited state charge transfer was found to be consistent with the intramolecular molecular charge transfer. Excited dipole moment was studied by utilizing the solvatochromic shift method.

  1. Degradation mechanism of alkyl carbonate solvents used in lithium-ion cells during initial charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, H.; Fukunaga, T.; Hazama, T.; Terasaki, M.; Mizutani, M.; Yamachi, M.

    The degradation mechanism of electrolytes in the lithium-ion cell with LiCoO 2 and graphite electrodes was investigated by analyzing: (i) the composition of generated gases; (ii) thin films formed on the electrode, and (iii) the compositional change of the electrolyte during the initial charging. The solvents in this work were ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC). LiPF 6 was used as a salt. In the one- to three-component systems containing EC, carbon monoxide and ethane were detected, whereas Li 2CO 3, RCOOLi and (CH 2OLi) 2 were the main components of the surface film on the negative electrode. From these results, it can be assumed that the decomposition of the systems was mainly due to the reductive reaction of EC at the initial charging. Through the additional analysis of the electrolyte composition, it was confirmed that the dialkyl-2,5-dioxahexane carboxylate was produced in the electrolyte after initial charging. This suggests the occurrence of trans-esterification.

  2. Charge-transfer complex formation in gelation: the role of solvent molecules with different electron-donating capacities.

    PubMed

    Basak, Shibaji; Bhattacharya, Sumantra; Datta, Ayan; Banerjee, Arindam

    2014-05-01

    A naphthalenediimide (NDI)-based synthetic peptide molecule forms gels in a particular solvent mixture (chloroform/aromatic hydrocarbon, 4:1) through charge-transfer (CT) complex formation; this is evident from the corresponding absorbance and fluorescence spectra at room temperature. Various aromatic hydrocarbon based solvents, including benzene, toluene, xylene (ortho, meta and para) and mesitylene, have been used for the formation of the CT complex. The role of different solvent molecules with varying electron-donation capacities in the formation of CT complexes has been established through spectroscopic and computational studies. PMID:24677404

  3. Solvent electronic polarization effects on a charge transfer excitation studied by the mean-field QM/MM method

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hiroshi

    2015-12-31

    Electronic polarization effects of a medium can have a significant impact on a chemical reaction in condensed phases. We discuss the effects on the charge transfer excitation of a chromophore, N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline, in various solvents using the mean-field QM/MM method with a polarizable force field. The results show that the explicit consideration of the solvent electronic polarization effects is important especially for a solvent with a low dielectric constant when we study the solvatochromism of the chromophore.

  4. Negatively-charged residues in the polar carboxy-terminal region in FSP27 are indispensable for expanding lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Yoshikazu; Tateya, Sanshiro; Ijuin, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Yuki; Nakajima, Shinsuke; Ogawa, Wataru

    2016-03-01

    FSP27 has an important role in large lipid droplet (LD) formation because it exchanges lipids at the contact site between LDs. In the present study, we clarify that the amino-terminal domain of FSP27 (amino acids 1-130) is dispensable for LD enlargement, although it accelerates LD growth. LD expansion depends on the carboxy-terminal domain of FSP27 (amino acids 131-239). Especially, the negative charge of the acidic residues (D215, E218, E219 and E220) in the polar carboxy-terminal region (amino acids 202-239) is essential for the enlargement of LD. We propose that the carboxy-terminal domain of FSP27 has a crucial role in LD expansion, whereas the amino-terminal domain only has a supportive role. PMID:26921608

  5. Mesoscale Lattices Assembled from Charge-Tunable Block Copolymer Blends in Selective Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seyoung; Choi, Jewon; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Char, Kookheon

    Recent studies revealed that block copolymer (BCP) microdomains are capable of being organized into unusual symmetries such as the Frank-Casper phases. These unique structures result from a compromise between domain geometry and space-filling constraint; in other words, the deformability of soft matter. Our mesoscale micellar lattices co-assembled from the blends of oppositely charged BCPs demonstrate the nature of deformable soft materials in a distinctive way. The micellar structures and interactions of BCPs in selective solvents can be finely tuned by controlling the charge density such that the spherical micelles further assemble into hexagonal arrays. The micellar lattices show unconventional symmetry and sub-10 nm clean facet formation compared to hard-sphere counterparts reported so far. We attribute these novel phenomena to multi-compartment intrastructure of the micelles assembled and their strong interactions, since the crystalline symmetry disappears with a subtle control of solvency, mixing ratio of BCP blends, and micellar interactions. Analysis on the nucleation condition reveals that such deviation in the micellar lattices arises from the soft nature of BCP assemblies which can be readily deformed upon swelling.

  6. Control of charge transport in a semiconducting copolymer by solvent-induced long-range order

    PubMed Central

    Luzio, Alessandro; Criante, Luigino; D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Caironi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports on high-mobility organic field-effect transistors (FETs) based on donor-acceptor semiconducting co-polymers have indicated an apparently strong deviation from the paradigm, valid for a series of semi-crystalline polymers, which has been strictly correlating charges mobility to crystalline order. This poses a severe limit on the control of mobility and a fundamental question on the critical length scale which is dominating charge transport. Here we focus on a well-known model material for electron transport, a naphthalene-diimide based copolymer, and we demonstrate that mobility can be controlled over two orders of magnitude, with maximum saturation mobility exceeding 1 cm2/Vs at high gate voltages, by controlling the extent of orientational domains through a deposition process as simple as spin-coating. High mobility values can be achieved by adopting solvents inducing a higher amount of pre-aggregates in the solution, which through the interaction with the substrate, provide the polymer with liquid-crystalline like ordering properties. PMID:24305756

  7. Nano-crater Formation on Electrodes during the Electrical Charging of Aqueous Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Eric; Rosenberg, Ethan; Ristenpart, William

    2015-11-01

    A water drop in an insulating fluid acquires charge when it contacts an electrode, but the exact mechanism of charge transfer has remained obscure. Previous work, dating back to Maxwell, has implicitly assumed that the electrode remains unaltered by the charging process. Here we demonstrate that, contrary to this assumption, water drops and other conducting objects create ``nano-craters'' on the electrode surface during the charging process. We used optical microscopy, SEM, and atomic force microscopy to characterize the electrode surfaces before and after water drops were electrically bounced on them. We show that each drop contact creates an approximately micron wide and 30-nm deep crater to form on the electrode surface. Given enough time, the drop will form enough nano-craters to effectively `eat through' a sufficiently thin electrode. We discuss possible physical mechanisms for the nano-crater formation, including localized melting caused by Joule heating during the charge transfer event. The observations reported here are of particular interest in the development of microfluidic devices that use thin film electrodes to control the motion of aqueous drops.

  8. Solvent-Mediated Electron Leapfrogging: Charge Transfer in IBr^-(CO_2) Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Samantha; McCoy, Anne B.; Sheps, Leonid; Miller, Elisa M.; Thompson, Matthew A.; Parson, Robert; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2010-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the time-resolved photoelectron spectra of IBr^-(CO_2). In the photodetachment studies performed by Lineberger and co-workers,^a IBr^-(CO_2) is prepared in its electronic ground state (^2Σ1/2^+) whereupon it is excited to its ~A'^ (^2Π3/2) excited state, before electron photodetachment/photoionization and dissociation on the Ctilde (^1Π_1) excited state of IBr. Previous experimental work showed that dissociation of bare IBr^- yields only I^- + Br products. However in IBr^-(CO_2), a small fraction (˜ 3%) of the dissociating molecules undergo an electron transfer from I to Br at 350 fs after the initial excitation. Thus a single solvent molecule can initiate a non-adiabatic transition from the ~A' state to either the lower ~A or ~X state, thereby producing I + Br^- (+ CO_2) prior to photoionization. To study the dynamics, we perform high level ab initio calculations (MR-SO-CISD/aug-cc-pVTZ(-PP)) as well as classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD simulations capture much of the dynamics of the photodissociation but underestimate the charge-transfer channel. Results of the ab initio calculations show how CO_2 bend vibrational excitation could increase the percentage of non-adiabatic transitions and how the CO_2 modifies the charge distribution of IBr^- to make the charge transfer accessible. The proposed mechanism and timescales are consistent with the observed Br^- products. L. Sheps, E. M. Miller, S. Horvath, M. A. Thompson, R. Parson, A. B. McCoy, and W. C. Lineberger, Science, 2010, in press R. Mabbs, K. Pichugin, and A. Sanov, J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 122, 174305.

  9. On-demand production of uniform DT droplets using pulsed electrohydrodynamic spraying. Charged Particle Research Laboratory report No. 1-82

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Gavrilovic, P.

    1982-04-01

    A technique suitable for on-demand production of uniform DT droplets is investigated using pulsed electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spraying. Liquid hydrogen is employed as the working liquid, into which charge is injected using a sharp tungsten needle raised to high voltage. By controlling this high voltage, the amount of charge injection required for disrupting the liquid surface into a smooth liquid jet of desired size is determined. For on-demand production of the liquid jet (which breaks up into uniform droplets), high voltage pulses of appropriate height and duration are applied to the charge injection electrode. Results obtained with liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen are presented. Considering the potential hazard and scarcity of tritium, the present technique may prove to be particularly useful when there is a need for filling ICF targets with a controlled amount of DT micropellets.

  10. Under non-denaturing solvent conditions, the mean charge state of a multiply charged protein ion formed by electrospray is linearly correlated with the macromolecular surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautreux, Mélanie; Hue, Nathalie; Du Fou de Kerdaniel, Alexis; Zahir, Abdelattif; Malec, Valérie; Laprévote, Olivier

    2004-02-01

    The charge states of protein ion species generated by electrospray under non-denaturing solvent conditions are strongly dependent on the occurrence of gas phase proton transfer reactions. Thus, by adding basic compounds to an array of model protein solutions, the charged states of multiply charged ions decrease with increasing the gas phase basicity of these additives. The role played by the basic (lysine and arginine) and acidic (aspartic and glutamic acids) amino acid side chains toward the proton exchange processes has been examined by using a series of basic compounds added to the protein solutions. In the present study, no relationship could be established between the presence at the protein surface of basic or acidic residues and the measured charged states. Actually, independently on their amino acid composition, the protein ions show a linear correlation between their mean charge state and their surface considered as a spherical area.

  11. The roles of the solute and solvent cavities in charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics: Ultrafast studies of potasside and sodide in diethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, Molly C.; Young, Ryan M.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2008-10-07

    Although electron transfer reactions are among the most fundamental in chemistry, it is still not clear how to isolate the roles of the solute and solvent in moving charge between reactants in solution. In this paper, we address this question by comparing the ultrafast charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) dynamics of potasside (K{sup -}) in diethyl ether (DEE) to those of sodide (Na{sup -}) in both DEE and tetrahydrofuran (THF). We find that for sodide in both DEE and THF, CTTS excitation leads to delayed ejection of a solvated electron that appears with its equilibrium absorption spectrum. This indicates that the ejected electrons are localized in pre-existing solvent traps, suggesting that the structure of liquid DEE is characterized by cavities that are favorably polarized to localize an excess electron, as has been previously shown is the case for liquid THF. We also find that the geminate recombination dynamics following CTTS excitation of sodide in THF and DEE are similar, suggesting that the nature of the CTTS excited states and their coupling to the electronic states supported by the naturally occurring solvent cavities are similar in the two solvents. In contrast, the geminate recombination dynamics of potasside and sodide in DEE are different, with red-edge excitation of the K{sup -} CTTS band producing a greater number of long-lived electrons than is seen following the corresponding red-edge excitation of the Na{sup -} CTTS band. This indicates that the CTTS excited states of K{sup -} are better able to couple to the electronic states supported by the naturally occurring solvent cavities, allowing us to compare the energetic positions of the potasside and sodide ground and CTTS excited states on a common absolute scale. Finally, we also observe a strong transient absorption following the CTTS excitation of potasside in DEE that correlates well with the 766 nm position of the gas-phase potassium D-line. The data indicate that CTTS excitation of alkali metal

  12. Theoretical evidence of charge transfer interaction between SO₂ and deep eutectic solvents formed by choline chloride and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongping; Chang, Yonghui; Zhu, Wenshuai; Wang, Changwei; Wang, Chao; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Ming; Li, Huaming

    2015-11-21

    The nature of the interaction between deep eutectic solvents (DESs), formed by ChCl and glycerol, and SO2 has been systematically investigated using the M06-2X density functional combined with cluster models. Block-localized wave function energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis shows that the interaction between SO2 and DESs is dominated by a charge transfer interaction. After this interaction, the SO2 molecule becomes negatively charged, whereas the ChCl-glycerol molecule is positively charged, which is the result of Lewis acid-base interaction. The current result affords a theoretical proof that it is highly useful and efficient to manipulate the Lewis acidity of absorbents for SO2 capture. Moreover, hydrogen bonding as well as electrostatic interactions may also contribute to the stability of the complex. Structure analysis shows that solvent molecules will adjust their geometries to interact with SO2. In addition, the structure of SO2 is barely changed after interaction. The interaction energy between different cluster models and SO2 ranges from -6.8 to -14.4 kcal mol(-1). It is found that the interaction energy is very sensitive to the solvent structure. The moderate interaction between ChCl-glycerol and SO2 is consistent with the concept that highly efficient solvents for SO2 absorption should not only be solvable but also regenerable. PMID:26446782

  13. Equilibrium distribution of permeants in polyelectrolyte microcapsules filled with negatively charged polyelectrolyte: the influence of ionic strength and solvent polarity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Weijun; Song, Haiqing; Gao, Changyou; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2006-07-01

    The effects of ionic strength and solvent polarity on the equilibrium distribution of fluorescein (FL) and FITC-dextran between the interior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules filled with negatively charged strong polyelectrolyte and the bulk solution were systematically investigated. A negatively charged strong polyelectrolyte, poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), used for CaCO3 core fabrication, was entrapped inside the capsules. Due to the semipermeability of the capsule wall, a Donnan equilibrium between the inner solution within the capsules and the bulk solution was created. The equilibrium distribution of the negatively charged permeants was investigated by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy as a function of ionic strength and solvent polarity. The equilibrium distribution of the negatively charged permeants could be tuned by increasing the bulk ionic strength to decrease the Donnan potential. Decreasing the solvent polarity also could enhance the permeation of FL, which induces a sudden increase of permeation when the ethanol volume fraction was higher than 0.7. This is mainly attributed to the precipitation of PSS. A theoretical model combining the Donnan equilibrium and Manning counterion condensation was employed to discuss the results. PMID:16805590

  14. Vibrational effects in a weakly-interacting quantum solvent: The CO molecule in 4He gas and in 4He droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesani, F.; Gianturco, F. A.

    2002-06-01

    The coupling between the intermolecular motion and the internal vibrational coordinate in the He-CO system is computed at the post-Hartree-Fock level using the DFT+DISP model already employed by us for similar systems and reviewed here in the main text. The quality of the computation of such weak effects is compared with other, earlier model calculations and then used for the evaluation of the vibrational relaxation cross sections of the CO molecule diluted in 4He gas. A further assessment of the vibrational coupling is carried out by computing, with a stochastic approach that employs the Diffusion Monte Carlo method, the effects on the vibrational frequency of the CO impurity from its immersion in 4He droplets of variable size. Both sets of results are analyzed and discussed to gauge the reliability of the computed coupling vis-a-vis one of those suggested by earlier calculations. This study provides further evidence on the difficulty of quantitatively obtaining from calculations the extremely small effects connected with molecular vibrational features in this system and caused by the weak interaction between the title molecule and a quantum solvent like 4He.

  15. A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Feng, Guang; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui; Meunier, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero

  16. Lateral resolution of desorption nanoelectrospray: a nanospray tip without nebulizing gas as a source of primary charged droplets.

    PubMed

    Hartmanová, L; Lorencová, I; Volný, M; Fryčák, P; Havlíček, V; Chmelíčková, H; Ingr, T; Lemr, K

    2016-04-01

    Desorption nanoelectrospray (nanoDESI) was described in 2007 and it represents a miniaturized version of desorption electrospray without the assistance of the nebulizing gas. Compared to DESI, a nanoelectrospray tip (2 ± 1 μm I.D.) generates primary charged droplets of smaller sizes and lower spray liquid flow rates. This is the first report on utilization of nanoDESI for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Its new coupling with a Q-TOF instrument allowed faster mass spectra acquisition (4 Hz) essential for MSI of fine surface details. To evaluate nanoDESI potential for mass spectrometry imaging, etched glass substrates with Rhodamine B patterns of different dimensions were prepared. The Rhodamine B lines were analysed in 1D scanning mode and their width was determined experimentally by nanoDESI measurement. The experimental data revealed that the lateral resolution of nanoDESI is close to 30 μm along the x-axis (orthogonal to the inlet). 2D scanning mode confirmed good resolution along both axes as dye squares with dimensions about 60 μm × 60 μm were easily distinguished. The low flow rate of the spray liquid reduced undesirable analyte washing effects, which allowed repeated scanning analysis of the surface. The presented results demonstrate the applicability of nanoDESI for high surface resolution mass spectrometry imaging. PMID:26958660

  17. Development of a Tandem Electrodynamic Trap Apparatus for Merging Charged Droplets and Spectroscopic Characterization of Resultant Dried Particles.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Jun-Ya; Higashiura, Tetsu; Eguchi, Takaaki; Miura, Shumpei; Ogawa, Masato

    2016-08-11

    Materials work in multicomponent forms. A wide range of compositions must be tested to obtain the optimum composition for a specific application. We propose optimization using a series of small levitated single particles. We describe a tandem-trap apparatus for merging liquid droplets and analyzing the merged droplets and/or dried particles that are produced from the merged droplets under levitation conditions. Droplet merging was confirmed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the levitated particles. The tandem-trap apparatus enables the synthesis of a particle and spectroscopic investigation of its properties. This provides a basis for future investigation of the properties of levitated single particles. PMID:27438227

  18. Single photon emission of a charge-tunable GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As droplet quantum dot device

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, Fabian Plischke, David; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven

    2014-08-25

    In this work, we report the fabrication of a charge-tunable GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As quantum dot (QD) device containing QDs deposited by modified droplet epitaxy producing almost strain and composition gradient free QDs. We obtained a QD density in the low 10{sup 9 }cm{sup −2} range that enables us to perform spectroscopy on single droplet QDs showing linewidths as narrow as 40 μeV. The integration of the QDs into a Schottky diode allows us to controllably charge a single QD with up to four electrons, while non-classical photoluminescence is proven by photon auto-correlation measurements showing photon-antibunching (g{sup (2)}(0) = 0.05).

  19. Solvent dipole modulation of conduction band edge shift and charge recombination in robust dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Feng; Jiao, Xingjian; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Molecular modification is certified as a powerful strategy to adjust the energy alignment and electron transfer dynamics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Herein, devices are assembled with three robust solvent (3-methoxypropionitrile, N,N-dimethylformamide and γ-butyrolactone) based electrolytes to elucidate the solvent dipole effects at the semiconductor-dye-electrolyte interface. Photovoltaic results demonstrate that open-circuit photovoltages of the devices vary linearly with the dipole moment of the solvents, along with an adverse dependence of the short-circuit photocurrent density under simulated irradiation. Impedance analysis reveals an apparent dipole moment-modulated conduction band edge shift of the nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes with respect to the redox potential of the electrolyte. Furthermore, the adverse shifts of the short-circuit photocurrent are explained by a dipole dependence of the driving force for electron injection and the interfacial charge recombination, together with a notably changed charge collection efficiency. Therefore, this study draws attention to the feasibility of tuning the electron transfer dynamics and energy alignment in photoelectrochemical devices by judiciously selecting the electrolyte solvents for further efficiency improvement, especially for those alternative organic sensitizers or quantum dots with inadequate electron injection driven forces.

  20. Signature OH Absorption Spectrum from cluster Models of Solvation: a solvent-to-solute charge transfer state

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Ming Kang; Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-10-25

    ab initio electronic structure theories applied to cluster models support the characterization of the signature of the OH absorption spectrum to be a solvent-to-solute charge transfer state affected by the hydrogen bonding environment in the region of 250 nm (calculated). The vertical excited states were calculated at the TDDFT level of theory with using OH(H2O)n clusters (n = 0-7, 16) with companion calculations at the EOM-CCSD level of theory for n ≤ 7. An intense solvent-to-solute charge transfer transition was calculated for n = 16 cluster where the donor and acceptor molecular orbitals are in favorable alignment. In the other smaller clusters the transitions in this region were found to be weak. The present findings are consistent with the experimental absorption at 230 nm suggested to be a solvent-to-solute charge transfer and provide insight into the electronic states and orbitals that give rise to the intensity of the band. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program, and was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  1. Accelerated Chemical Reactions and Organic Synthesis in Leidenfrost Droplets.

    PubMed

    Bain, Ryan M; Pulliam, Christopher J; Thery, Fabien; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-08-22

    Leidenfrost levitated droplets can be used to accelerate chemical reactions in processes that appear similar to reaction acceleration in charged microdroplets produced by electrospray ionization. Reaction acceleration in Leidenfrost droplets is demonstrated for a base-catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt condensation, hydrazone formation from precharged and neutral ketones, and for the Katritzky pyrylium into pyridinium conversion under various reaction conditions. Comparisons with bulk reactions gave intermediate acceleration factors (2-50). By keeping the volume of the Leidenfrost droplets constant, it was shown that interfacial effects contribute to acceleration; this was confirmed by decreased reaction rates in the presence of a surfactant. The ability to multiplex Leidenfrost microreactors, to extract product into an immiscible solvent during reaction, and to use Leidenfrost droplets as reaction vessels to synthesize milligram quantities of product is also demonstrated. PMID:27465311

  2. Synthesis and spectrophotometric studies of charge transfer complexes of p-nitroaniline with benzoic acid in different polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neeti; Ahmad, Afaq

    2014-09-01

    The charge transfer complexes of the donor p-nitroaniline (PNA) with the π-acceptor benzoic acid (BEA) have been studied spectrophotometrically in various solvents such as acetone, ethanol, and methanol at room temperature using an absorption spectrophotometer. The outcome suggests that the formation of the CT-complex is comparatively high in less polar solvent. The stoichiometry of the CT-complex was found to be 1:1. The physical parameters of the CT-complex were evaluated by the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The data are discussed in terms of the formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (ɛCT), Standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μEN), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID). The formation constant (KCT) of the complex was depends upon the nature of electron acceptor, donor, and polarity of solvents used. It is also observed that a charge transfer molecular complex is stabilized by hydrogen bonding. The formation of the complex has been confirmed by UV-visible, FT-IR, 1H NMR and TGA/DTA. The structure of the CT-complex is [(PNA)+ (BEA)-]. A general mechanism for its formation of the complex has also been proposed.

  3. Photoexcitation and charge-transfer-to-solvent relaxation dynamics of the I(-)(CH3CN) complex.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chun C; Timerghazin, Qadir K; Peslherbe, Gilles H

    2013-08-15

    Photoexcitation of iodide-acetonitrile clusters, I(-)(CH3CN)n, to the charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) state and subsequent cluster relaxation could result in the possible formation of cluster analogues of the bulk solvated electron. In this work, the relaxation process of the CTTS excited iodide-acetonitrile binary complex, [I(-)(CH3CN)]*, is investigated using rigorous ab initio quantum chemistry calculations and direct-dynamics simulations to gain insight into the role and motion of iodine and acetonitrile in the relaxation of CTTS excited I(-)(CH3CN)n. Computed potential energy curves and profiles of the excited electron vertical detachment energy for [I(-)(CH3CN)]* along the iodine-acetonitrile distance coordinate reveal for the first time significant dispersion effects between iodine and the excited electron, which can have a significant stabilizing effect on the latter. Results of direct-dynamics simulations demonstrate that [I(-)(CH3CN)]* undergoes dissociation to iodine and acetonitrile fragments, resulting in decreased stability of the excited electron. The present work provides strong evidence of solvent translational motion and iodine ejection as key aspects of the early time relaxation of CTTS excited I(-)(CH3CN)n that can also have a substantial impact on the subsequent electron solvation processes and further demonstrates that intricate details of the relaxation process of CTTS excited iodide-polar solvent molecule clusters make it heavily solvent-dependent. PMID:23819756

  4. Solvation effect on conformations of 1,2:dimethoxyethane: Charge-dependent nonlinear response in implicit solvent models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhishek K.; Freed, Karl F.

    2008-01-01

    The physical content of and, in particular, the nonlinear contributions from the Langevin-Debye model are illustrated using two applications. First, we provide an improvement in the Langevin-Debye model currently used in some implicit solvent models for computer simulations of solvation free energies of small organic molecules, as well as of biomolecular folding and binding. The analysis is based on the implementation of a charge-dependent Langevin-Debye (qLD) model that is modified by subsequent corrections due to Onsager and Kirkwood. Second, the physical content of the model is elucidated by discussing the general treatment within the LD model of the self-energy of a charge submerged in a dielectric medium for three different limiting conditions and by considering the nonlinear response of the medium. The modified qLD model is used to refine an implicit solvent model (previously applied to protein dynamics). The predictions of the modified implicit solvent model are compared with those from explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations for the equilibrium conformational populations of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), which is the shortest ether molecule to reproduce the local conformational properties of polyethylene oxide, a polymer with tremendous technological importance and a wide variety of applications. Because the conformational population preferences of DME change dramatically upon solvation, DME is a good test case to validate our modified qLD model. The present analysis of the modified qLD model provides the motivation and tools for studying a wide variety of other interesting systems with heterogeneous dielectric properties and spatial anisotropy.

  5. Solvent sensitive intramolecular charge transfer dynamics in the excited states of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-nitrobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajib; Nandi, Amitabha; Palit, Dipak K

    2016-03-21

    Organic molecules substituted with the nitro group show efficient nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, which are a consequence of the strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character of the molecules because of the strong electron withdrawing nature of the nitro group and rapid responsiveness because of highly movable π-electrons. Dynamics of the ICT process in the excited states of a push-pull biphenyl derivative, namely, 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-nitrobiphenyl (DNBP), an efficient NLO material, has been investigated using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results have been corroborated with DFT and TDDFT calculations. In solvents of large polarity, e.g. acetonitrile, the ultrafast ICT process of DNBP is associated with the barrierless twisting of the N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) group with respect to the nitrobenzene moiety to populate the twisted ICT (or TICT) state, and the rate of this process is solely governed by the viscosity of the medium. In solvents of moderate polarity, e.g. ethyl acetate, the rate of the twisting process is significantly slowed down and the LE and TICT states remain in equilibrium because of a low energy barrier for interconversion between these two states. By further lowering the polarity of the solvent, e.g. in dioxane, the twisting process is completely retarded. In nonpolar solvents, e.g. cyclohexane, a reverse twisting motion towards the planar geometry (i.e. the PICT process) has been evident in the excited state dynamics. In this solvent, the S1 state undergoes an ultrafast intersystem crossing to the triplet state because of its close proximity with the T2 state. PMID:26907751

  6. Investigation of the contact charge transfer absorption of organic solvents with oxygen for use in oxygen determination.

    PubMed

    Choi, M F; Hawkins, P

    1995-07-01

    The contact charge transfer (CCT) absorption spectra of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), ethanol, methanol, water, benzene (Bz), N,N'-diethylaniline (DEA), N,N'-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT) and N,N'-diethyl-p-toluidine with molecular oxygen have been investigated. These solvents form strong ultraviolet/visible CCT absorption spectra with intensities that are related to the partial pressure of the applied oxygen. DMSO, DMF, DMA, Bz, DEA and DMT are shown to form 1:1 molecular contact complexes with molecular oxygen. A simple oxygen sensing system is described using CCT absorption spectroscopy of DMT at a wavelength of 400 nm, with a gas flow rate of 60 cm(3) min(-1) through the solvent in a cuvette with a pathlength of 1 cm. Inexpensive plastic fibres are used to relay the light from a xenon lamp source to the cuvette and back to a photo-detector. The response of the sensing system to changes in oxygen concentration is reversible, non-linear and in good agreement with the Beer-Lambert law. The most sensitive response region is from 0 to 20% O(2) with a change in signal level of about 35%. The solvent used shows no deterioration in performance over a long period and can be used to determine gaseous oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100%. It does not respond to carbon dioxide. PMID:18966322

  7. Photoinduced charge generation rates in soluble P3HT : PCBM nano-aggregates predict the solvent-dependent film morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Palas; Jha, Ajay; Dasgupta, Jyotishman

    2016-01-01

    The device efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critically dependent on the nano-morphology of the solution-processed polymer : fullerene blend. Active control on blend morphology can only emanate from a detailed understanding of solution structures during the film casting process. Here we use photoinduced charge transfer (CT) rates to probe the effective length scale of the pre-formed solution structures and their energy disorder arising from a mixture of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in three different organic solvents. The observed solvent-dependent ultrafast biphasic rise of the transient polaron state in solution along with changes detected in the C&z.dbd;C stretching frequency of bound PCBM provides direct evidence for film-like P3HT : PCBM interfaces in solution. Using the diffusive component of the charge transfer rate, we deduce ~3-times larger functional nano-domain size in toluene than in chlorobenzene thereby correctly predicting the relative polymer nanofiber widths observed in annealed films. We thus provide first experimental evidence for the postulated polymer : fullerene : solvent ternary phase that seeds the eventual morphology in spin-cast films. Our work motivates the design of new chemical additives to tune the grain size of the evolving polymer : fullerene domains within the solution phase.The device efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critically dependent on the nano-morphology of the solution-processed polymer : fullerene blend. Active control on blend morphology can only emanate from a detailed understanding of solution structures during the film casting process. Here we use photoinduced charge transfer (CT) rates to probe the effective length scale of the pre-formed solution structures and their energy disorder arising from a mixture of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in three

  8. Frozen-density embedding theory with average solvent charge densities from explicit atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Laktionov, Andrey; Chemineau-Chalaye, Emilie; Wesolowski, Tomasz A

    2016-08-21

    Besides molecular electron densities obtained within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (ρB(r)) to represent the environment, the ensemble averaged density (〈ρB〉(r)) is also admissible in frozen-density embedding theory (FDET) [Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A, 2008, 77, 11444]. This makes it possible to introduce an approximation in the evaluation of the solvent effect on quantum mechanical observables consisting of replacing the ensemble averaged observable by the observable evaluated at ensemble averaged ρB(r). This approximation is shown to affect negligibly the solvatochromic shift in the absorption of hydrated acetone. The proposed model provides a continuum type of representation of the solvent, which reflects nevertheless its local structure, and it is to be applied as a post-simulation analysis tool in atomistic level simulations. PMID:26984532

  9. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  10. Effect of droplet shape on ring stains from dried liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Melvin; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh

    A landmark experimental paper on coffee stains by Deegan et al included a simple theoretical analysis of circular droplets. The analysis was based on a model informally called the Maxwell House equations. It describes the evolving height profile of the droplet, the evaporation of the solvent and the outflow of solute to the rim of the droplet. Since typical droplets are not circles, here we extend the analysis to more general shapes. We find that for thin droplets the height profile may be determined by solving Poisson's equation in a domain corresponding to the footprint of the droplet. Evaporation is treated in a simple approximation via an electrostatic analogy and is dominated by the sharp edges of the droplet. Assuming zero vorticity allows us to analyze the solvent flow in droplets of arbitrary shape. We compare circular droplets to other shapes including long linear droplets, ring shaped droplets and droplets with an elliptical footprint

  11. Resonance Raman study of solvent dynamics on the spectral broadening and intramolecular charge transfer of a hemicyanine dye in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuan; McHale, Jeanne L.

    1998-08-01

    The spectroscopic properties of 4-[2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)ethenyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide (HR) in different solvents reveal the important effects of solvent dynamics on the spectral broadening and the intramolecular charge transfer of HR. In this article, Raman excitation profiles for 18 vibrational modes of HR are reported in aqueous solution at wavelengths that span the S0→S1 charge transfer transition. The absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and resonance Raman profiles of HR are modeled using time-dependent wave packet theory and the Brownian oscillator solvent dephasing model. The solvent reorganization energy in the absorption process is much greater than that due to internal vibrational modes, and the solvent reorganization energy for the emission process is considerably smaller than that for the absorption process. The fluorescence spectrum is mainly broadened by the inhomogeneous Gaussian distribution of the electronic energy, perhaps due to internal rotations in the molecule. The results suggest similar polarity of the emission state and the ground state, and strong coupling between the torsional motion and solvent relaxation. The different dependence of the torsional potential on solvent polarity in the S0and S1 state is the cause of different absorption and fluorescence spectral width. In D2O, the absorption cross section of HR is slightly lower, and the absorption and fluorescence spectra are slightly narrower, than in H2O. The smaller absorption spectral linewidth and generally increased Raman cross sections in D2O are accounted for by smaller amplitude of solvent dephasing, perhaps due to the larger inertial moment and stronger hydrogen bonding in D2O compared to H2O. The magnitude and direction of the solvent isotope effect on Raman intensity varies with normal mode, suggesting that the solvent-induced dephasing is mode dependent. Vibrational modes which are strongly coupled to the electronic transition are most sensitive to the solvent

  12. Determination of fungicides in fruit juice by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic solvent droplets followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Run-Zhen; Liu, Congyun; Jiang, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Fengmao

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) based on solidification of the floating organic solvent droplets (SFO) combined with HPLC was used for determination of five fungicides in fruit juice samples. 1-Dodecanol, which has a low density and low toxicity, was used as the extraction solvent in UA-DLLME. The solidification of floating organic droplets facilitates the transfer of analytes from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. This method was easy, quick, inexpensive, precise, and linear over a wide range. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for a 5 mL fruit juice sample were 25 to 56, and the LODs for the five fungicides ranged from 5 to 50 microg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 71.8 to 118.2% with RSDs of 0.9 to 13.9%. Application of the DLLME-SFO technique allows successful separation and preconcentration of the fungicides at a low concentration level in fruit juice samples. PMID:24672876

  13. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2015-06-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  14. Observation of a new class of electric discharges within artificial clouds of charged water droplets and its implication for lightning initiation within thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostinskiy, Alexander Yu.; Syssoev, Vladimir S.; Bogatov, Nikolay A.; Mareev, Evgeny A.; Andreev, Mikhail G.; Makalsky, Leonid M.; Sukharevsky, Dmitry I.; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2015-10-01

    We have observed unusual plasma formations (UPFs) in artificial clouds of charged water droplets using a high-speed infrared camera operating in conjunction with a high-speed visible-range camera. Inferred plasma parameters were close to those of long-spark leaders observed in the same experiments, while the channel morphology was distinctly different from that of leaders, so that UPFs can be viewed as a new type of in-cloud discharge. These formations can occur in the absence of spark leaders and appear to be manifestations of collective processes building, essentially from scratch, a complex hierarchical network of interacting channels at different stages of development (some of which are hot and live for milliseconds). We believe that the phenomenon should commonly occur in thunderclouds and might give insights on the missing link in the still poorly understood lightning initiation process.

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of charged, amphiphilic triblock copolymer assembly via interaction with organic counterions in solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Honggang

    2007-12-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers, consisting of at least two types of monomers with different affinity to the dissolving solvent(s), have been recognized as a molecular building unit for their chemical tunability and design flexibility. Amphiphilic block copolymers with a chargeable block have structural features of polyelectrolytes, block copolymers and surfactants. The combination of these different features offers great flexibility for developing novel assembled morphologies at the nanoscale and outstanding ability to control and manipulate those morphologies. The nanostructures, formed from the spontaneous association of amphiphilic block copolymer in selective solvents, show promise for applications in nanotechnology and pharmaceuticals, including drug delivery, tissue engineering and bio-imaging. A basic knowledge of their modes of self-assembly and their correspondence to application-related properties is just now being developed and poses a considerable scientific challenge. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the associative behavior of charged, amphiphilic block copolymers in solvent mixtures while in the presence of organic counterions. Self-assembly of poly (acrylic acid)- block-poly (methyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene (PAA- b-PMA-b-PS) triblock copolymers produces nanodomains in THF/water solution specifically through the interaction with organic counterions (polyamines). These assembled structures can include classic micelles (spheres, cylinders and vesicles), but, more importantly, include non-classic micelles (disks, toroids, branched micelles and segmented micelles). Each micelle structure is stable and reproducible at different assembly conditions. The assembled micellar structures depend on not only solution components (thermodynamics) but also mixing procedure and consequent self-assembly pathway (kinetics). The key factors that determine the thermodynamic interactions that partially define the assembled structures and the kinetic

  16. High-Voltage Droplet Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus that is extremely effective in dispensing a wide range of droplets has been developed. This droplet dispenser is unique in that it utilizes a droplet bias voltage, as well as an ionization pulse, to release a droplet. Apparatuses that deploy individual droplets have been used in many applications, including, notably, study of combustion of liquid fuels. Experiments on isolated droplets are useful in that they enable the study of droplet phenomena under well-controlled and simplified conditions. In this apparatus, a syringe dispenses a known value of liquid, which emerges from, and hangs onto, the outer end of a flat-tipped, stainless steel needle. Somewhat below the needle tip and droplet is a ring electrode. A bias high voltage, followed by a high-voltage pulse, is applied so as to attract the droplet sufficiently to pull it off the needle. The voltages are such that the droplet and needle are negatively charged and the ring electrode is positively charged.

  17. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  18. Highly luminescent Sm(III) complexes with intraligand charge-transfer sensitization and the effect of solvent polarity on their luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wai-Sum; Zhang, Junhui; Wong, Wing-Tak; Law, Ga-Lai

    2015-04-20

    Samarium complexes with the highest quantum yields to date have been synthesized, and their luminescence properties were studied in 12 solvents. Sensitization via a nontriplet intraligand charge-transfer pathway was also successfully demonstrated in solution states with good quantum yields. PMID:25835302

  19. Dancing Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2013-11-01

    Inspired by the observation of intricate and beautifully dynamic patterns generated by food coloring on corona treated glass slides, we have investigated the behavior of propylene glycol and water droplets on clean glass surfaces. These droplets exhibit a range of interesting behaviors including long distance attraction or repulsion, and chasing/fleeing upon contact. We present explanations for each of these behaviors, and propose a detailed model for the long distance interactions based on vapor facilitated coupling. Finally we use our understanding to create several novel devices which: passively sort droplets by surface tension, spontaneously align droplets, drive droplets in circles, and cause droplets to bounce on a vertical surface. The simplicity of this system lends it particularly well to application as a toy model for physical systems with force fields and biological systems such as chemotaxis and motility.

  20. Swimming Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Corinna C.; Krüger, Carsten; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Swimming droplets are artificial microswimmers based on liquid droplets that show self-propelled motion when immersed in a second liquid. These systems are of tremendous interest as experimental models for the study of collective dynamics far from thermal equilibrium. For biological systems, such as bacterial colonies, plankton, or fish swarms, swimming droplets can provide a vital link between simulations and real life. We review the experimental systems and discuss the mechanisms of self-propulsion. Most systems are based on surfactant-stabilized droplets, the surfactant layer of which is modified in a way that leads to a steady Marangoni stress resulting in an autonomous motion of the droplet. The modification of the surfactant layer is caused either by the advection of a chemical reactant or by a solubilization process. Some types of swimming droplets possess a very simple design and long active periods, rendering them promising model systems for future studies of collective behavior.

  1. Dynamic in situ fourier transform infrared measurements of chemical bonds of electrolyte solvents during the initial charging process in a Li ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongyou, Kenichi; Hattori, Takashi; Nagai, Youko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nii, Hiroyuki; Shoda, Kaoru

    2013-12-01

    Solvation/desolvation and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at a graphite electrode during the initial charging process were investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. These measurements were developed by applying a diamond attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal, which probed the electrolyte solvents at the surface of the graphite electrode and provided successive FTIR spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio. The charging process was performed in the Li(reference)/electrolyte/graphite(working)/Cu cell at a voltage ranging from 3.2 to 0.0001 V vs. Li/Li+. The measurement elucidated the change in the chemical bond of the electrolyte solvents. In an early stage, the amounts of solvated and desolvated solvents changed, providing evidence that the Li+ ions were intercalated into the graphite layer. The formation of the Li alkyl carbonate that forms the SEI layer was facilitated toward the end of the charging process. Measurements were also obtained of the electrolyte with a vinylene carbonate additive, and the contribution of the additive to the electrolyte solvent reduction was investigated.

  2. Solvent-drop Assisted Mechanochemical Synthesis of the Black and Green Polymorphs of the Tetrathiafulvalene-chloranil Charge Transfer Salt

    SciTech Connect

    S Benjamin; S Pagola; Z Huba; E Carpenter; T Abdel-Fattah

    2011-12-31

    This work describes the synthesis of the green and black polymorphic forms of the tetrathiafulvalene-chloranil (TTF-CA) charge transfer salt as pure phases, by solvent-assisted mechanochemistry. Both materials were characterized using laboratory and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The high-resolution XRPD pattern of the TTF-CA black polymorph was indexed with a triclinic lattice a = 10.756(5) {angstrom}, b = 11.057(4) {angstrom}, c = 6.614(2) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 101.36(2){sup o}, {beta} = 93.69(3){sup o}, {gamma} = 89.37(3){sup o}, V = 769.6(5) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The chemical stability of these phases upon heating was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), indicating that both polymorphs undergo chemical decomposition, and ruling out the transition to an air-stable high temperature polymorph.

  3. A novel extraction method for β-carotene and other carotenoids in fruit juices using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets.

    PubMed

    Sricharoen, Phitchan; Limchoowong, Nunticha; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-07-15

    Green extraction using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets (AA-LDS-LLME-SFOD) prior to spectrophotometry was successfully applied for quantitation of carotenoids in fruit juices. Under optimal conditions, β-carotene could be quantified with a linear response up to a concentration of 60 μg mL(-1). The procedure was performed in a microcentrifuge tube with 40 μL of 1-dodecanol as the extraction solvent and a 1.0 mL juice sample containing 8% NaCl under seven extraction cycles of air pumping by syringe. This method was validated based on linearity (0.2-30 μg mL(-1), R(2) 0.998), limit of detection (0.04 μg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (0.13 μg mL(-1)). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the calibration curve slope (n=12), for inter-day and intra-day analysis was 4.85% and 7.92%, respectively. Recovery of β-carotene was in the range of 93.6-101.5%. The newly proposed method is simple, rapid and environmentally friendly, particularly as a useful screening test for food analysis. PMID:26948629

  4. Solvent bandwidth dependence and band asymmetry features of charge-transfer transitions in N-pyridinium phenolates

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, A.M.; Ulstrup, J.

    1987-04-01

    They have investigated the shape of the solvatochromic absorption band for Betaine-26 2,4,6-triphenyl-N-(di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)pyridinium ion in a range of polar, apolar, protic, and aprotic solvents. Multiphonon band theory, including both molecular modes and a vibrationally dispersive solvent, indicates that the solvents fall in three categories: (1) The bandshape for polar, aprotic solvents is well reproduced by that for a structureless continuous dielectric and a single high-frequency molecular mode. Solvent broadening correlates with epsilon/sub o//sup -1/ - epsilon/sub s//sup -1/, epsilon/sub o/ being the optical and epsilon/sub s/ the static dielectric constant. The molecular frequency, Omega/sub c/, and displacement, ..delta../sub c/, are not very solvent dependent, emphasizing their molecular character, and the value Omega/sub c/ approx. = 1600 cm/sup -1/ suggests that C-O, C-N, and C-C stretching is involved. (2) Bands for apolar, aprotic solvents correspond to the same model. Omega/sub c/ and ..delta../sub c/ are again not very solvent dependent and coincide with the values for polar aprotic solvents. The solvent broadening is solvent independent, and wider than that for a structureless dielectric. This points to multipolar, dispersive, pressure, or pseudopotential forces as coupling mechanisms. (3) The bandshape for normal alcohols can only be produced by a model resting on two molecular modes and a vibrational high-frequency solvent tail. Broadening, asymmetry, molecular frequencies, and deuterium isotope effects trace the protic solvent spectral entanglement to coupling between betaine-26 and a local mode group with features of both O-H stretching and bending and of librational solvent motion.

  5. Splashing Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.; Kizito, John Patrick; Berger, Gordon M.; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2002-01-01

    Current data on droplet breakup is scarce for the sizes and velocities typical of practical applications such as in spray combustion processes and coating processes. While much more representative of practical applications, the small spatial scales and rapid time-scales prevent detailed measurement of the internal fluid dynamics and liquid property gradients produced by impinging upon surfaces. Realized through the extended spatial and temporal scales afforded by a microgravity environment, an improved understanding of drop breakup dynamics is sought to understand and ultimately control the impingement dynamics of droplets upon surfaces in practical situations. The primary objective of this research will be to mark the onset of different 'splashing modes' and to determine their temperature, pressure and angle dependence for impinging droplets representative of practical fluids. In addition, we are modeling the evolution of droplets that do not initially splash but rather undergo a 'fingering' evolution observed on the spreading fluid front and the transformation of these fingers into splashed products. An example of our experimental data is presented below. These images are of Isopar V impacting a mirror-polished surface. They were acquired using a high-speed camera at 1000 frames per second. They show the spreading of a single droplet after impact and ensuing finger instabilities. Normal gravity experimental data such as this will guide low gravity measurements in the 2.2 second drop tower and KC-135 aircraft as available. Presently we are in the process of comparing the experimental data of droplet shape evolution to numerical models, which can also capture the internal fluid dynamics and liquid property gradients such as produced by impingement upon a heated surface. To-date isothermal numerical data has been modeled using direct numerical simulations of representative splashing droplets. The data obtained so far indicates that the present model describes well

  6. Splashing Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.; Kizito, John Patrick; Berger, Gordon M.; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2002-11-01

    Current data on droplet breakup is scarce for the sizes and velocities typical of practical applications such as in spray combustion processes and coating processes. While much more representative of practical applications, the small spatial scales and rapid time-scales prevent detailed measurement of the internal fluid dynamics and liquid property gradients produced by impinging upon surfaces. Realized through the extended spatial and temporal scales afforded by a microgravity environment, an improved understanding of drop breakup dynamics is sought to understand and ultimately control the impingement dynamics of droplets upon surfaces in practical situations. The primary objective of this research will be to mark the onset of different 'splashing modes' and to determine their temperature, pressure and angle dependence for impinging droplets representative of practical fluids. In addition, we are modeling the evolution of droplets that do not initially splash but rather undergo a 'fingering' evolution observed on the spreading fluid front and the transformation of these fingers into splashed products. An example of our experimental data is presented below. These images are of Isopar V impacting a mirror-polished surface. They were acquired using a high-speed camera at 1000 frames per second. They show the spreading of a single droplet after impact and ensuing finger instabilities. Normal gravity experimental data such as this will guide low gravity measurements in the 2.2 second drop tower and KC-135 aircraft as available. Presently we are in the process of comparing the experimental data of droplet shape evolution to numerical models, which can also capture the internal fluid dynamics and liquid property gradients such as produced by impingement upon a heated surface. To-date isothermal numerical data has been modeled using direct numerical simulations of representative splashing droplets. The data obtained so far indicates that the present model describes well

  7. Impurity Extraction by Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G.; Kincaid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The goals are to model and to measure the phase equilibrium properties of a finely divided fluid containing a large number of chemically similar species. The objective is to develop an accurate, usable model for such phenomena as pollutant extraction of rain clouds, industrial separation in spray towers, and separation in emulsions. The project was designed as a hierarchy of complementary theoretical and experimental steps. A theory was developed to describe the segregation of complex impurities at the interface of a solvent. This phenomenon is important in phase behavior when a large fraction of molecules in a material are near an interface, the situation in a finely divided material. The theory will be modified to account for the effect of surface curvature on the surface tension. The study of mixtures differs from pure fluids not only because of the surface effects but also because composition differences between the droplet and the surrounding vapor can stabilize a droplet with respect to a bulk phase.

  8. Droplet Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, Michael Paolo

    When a mixture of two materials, such as aluminum and tin, or alcohol and water, is cooled below a certain temperature, the two components begin to separate. If one component is dilute in the other, it may separate out in the form of small spheres, and these will begin to enlarge, depleting the supersaturated material around them. If the dynamics is sufficiently slow, thermodynamics gives one considerable information about how the droplets grow. Two types of experiment have explored this behavior and given puzzling results. Nucleation experiments measure the rate at which droplets initially appear from a seemingly homogeneous mixture. Near the critical point in binary liquids, experiments conducted in the 1960's and early 1970's showed that nucleation was vastly slower than theory seemed to predict. The resolution of this problem arises by considering in detail the dynamics of growing droplets and comparing it with what experiments actually measure. Here will be presented a more detailed comparison of theory and experiment than has before been completed, obtaining satisfactory agreement with no free parameters needed. A second type of experiment measures droplet size distributions after long times. In the late stage, droplets compete with each other for material, a few growing at the expense of others. A theory first proposed by Lifshitz and Slyozov claims that this distribution, properly scaled, should be universal, and independent of properties of materials. Yet experimental measurements consistently find distributions that are more broad and squat than the theory would predict. Satisfactory agreement with experiment can be achieved by considering two points. First, one must study the complete time development of droplet size distributions, to understand when the asymptotic regime obtains. Second, droplet size distributions are spread by correlations between droplets. If one finds a small droplet, it is small because large droplets nearby are competing with it

  9. Photoinduced charge generation rates in soluble P3HT : PCBM nano-aggregates predict the solvent-dependent film morphology.

    PubMed

    Roy, Palas; Jha, Ajay; Dasgupta, Jyotishman

    2016-02-01

    The device efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critically dependent on the nano-morphology of the solution-processed polymer : fullerene blend. Active control on blend morphology can only emanate from a detailed understanding of solution structures during the film casting process. Here we use photoinduced charge transfer (CT) rates to probe the effective length scale of the pre-formed solution structures and their energy disorder arising from a mixture of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in three different organic solvents. The observed solvent-dependent ultrafast biphasic rise of the transient polaron state in solution along with changes detected in the C=C stretching frequency of bound PCBM provides direct evidence for film-like P3HT : PCBM interfaces in solution. Using the diffusive component of the charge transfer rate, we deduce ∼3-times larger functional nano-domain size in toluene than in chlorobenzene thereby correctly predicting the relative polymer nanofiber widths observed in annealed films. We thus provide first experimental evidence for the postulated polymer : fullerene : solvent ternary phase that seeds the eventual morphology in spin-cast films. Our work motivates the design of new chemical additives to tune the grain size of the evolving polymer : fullerene domains within the solution phase. PMID:26763690

  10. Droplet microactuator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamula, Vamsee K. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Vijay (Inventor); Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Eckhardt, Allen E. (Inventor); Paik, Philip Y. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a droplet microactuator system. According to one embodiment, the droplet microactuator system includes: (a) a droplet microactuator configured to conduct droplet operations; (b) a magnetic field source arranged to immobilize magnetically responsive beads in a droplet during droplet operations; (c) a sensor configured in a sensing relationship with the droplet microactuator, such that the sensor is capable of sensing a signal from and/or a property of one or more droplets on the droplet microactuator; and (d) one or more processors electronically coupled to the droplet microactuator and programmed to control electrowetting-mediated droplet operations on the droplet actuator and process electronic signals from the sensor.

  11. Yeast Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

  12. Modular droplet actuator drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  13. Kinetics of complex plasma with liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.; Mishra, S. K.

    2013-12-15

    This paper provides a theoretical basis for the reduction of electron density by spray of water (or other liquids) in hot plasma. This phenomenon has been observed in a hypersonic flight experiment for relief of radio black out, caused by high ionization in the plasma sheath of a hypersonic vehicle, re-entering the atmosphere. The analysis incorporates a rather little known phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of ions from the surface and includes the charge balance on the droplets and number cum energy balance of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules; the energy balance of the evaporating droplets has also been taken into account. The analysis has been applied to a realistic situation and the transient variations of the charge and radius of water droplets, and other plasma parameters have been obtained and discussed. The analysis through made in the context of water droplets is applicable to all liquids.

  14. Kinetics of complex plasma with liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides a theoretical basis for the reduction of electron density by spray of water (or other liquids) in hot plasma. This phenomenon has been observed in a hypersonic flight experiment for relief of radio black out, caused by high ionization in the plasma sheath of a hypersonic vehicle, re-entering the atmosphere. The analysis incorporates a rather little known phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of ions from the surface and includes the charge balance on the droplets and number cum energy balance of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules; the energy balance of the evaporating droplets has also been taken into account. The analysis has been applied to a realistic situation and the transient variations of the charge and radius of water droplets, and other plasma parameters have been obtained and discussed. The analysis through made in the context of water droplets is applicable to all liquids.

  15. Charge-transfer-to-solvent reactions from I(-) to water, methanol, and ethanol studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Haruki; Suzuki, Yoshi-Ichi; Karashima, Shutaro; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2016-08-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) reactions from iodide (I(-)) to H2O, D2O, methanol, and ethanol were studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid microjets using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer with variable pass energy. Photoexcited iodide dissociates into a weak complex (a contact pair) of a solvated electron and an iodine atom in similar reaction times, 0.3 ps in H2O and D2O and 0.5 ps in methanol and ethanol, which are much shorter than their dielectric relaxation times. The results indicate that solvated electrons are formed with minimal solvent reorganization in the long-range solvent polarization field created for I(-). The photoelectron spectra for CTTS in H2O and D2O-measured with higher accuracy than in our previous study [Y. I. Suzuki et al., Chem. Sci. 2, 1094 (2011)]-indicate that internal conversion yields from the photoexcited I(-*) (CTTS) state are less than 10%, while alcohols provide 2-3 times greater yields of internal conversion from I(-*). The overall geminate recombination yields are found to be in the order of H2O > D2O > methanol > ethanol, which is opposite to the order of the mutual diffusion rates of an iodine atom and a solvated electron. This result is consistent with the transition state theory for an adiabatic outer-sphere electron transfer process, which predicts that the recombination reaction rate has a pre-exponential factor inversely proportional to a longitudinal solvent relaxation time. PMID:27544114

  16. Droplet organelles?

    PubMed

    Courchaine, Edward M; Lu, Alice; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-08-01

    Cells contain numerous, molecularly distinct cellular compartments that are not enclosed by lipid bilayers. These compartments are implicated in a wide range of cellular activities, and they have been variously described as bodies, granules, or organelles. Recent evidence suggests that a liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) process may drive their formation, possibly justifying the unifying term "droplet organelle". A veritable deluge of recent publications points to the importance of low-complexity proteins and RNA in determining the physical properties of phase-separated structures. Many of the proteins linked to such structures are implicated in human diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We provide an overview of the organizational principles that characterize putative "droplet organelles" in healthy and diseased cells, connecting protein biochemistry with cell physiology. PMID:27357569

  17. Proton and charge transfer reactions dynamics of a hydroxyflavone derivative in a polar solvent and in a cyclodextrin nanocavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M.; Organero, J. A.; Douhal, A.

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we report on the observation of ultrafast intramolecular charge- and proton-transfer reactions of 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol (DMAF) in N, N-dimethyl formamide and in γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) solution. Upon femtosecond excitation an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reaction takes place to produce an ICT structure in ˜200 fs. This structure may undergo a proton transfer reaction to generate a zwitterionic (Z) form in 2-3 ps, or relaxes in its potential energy well, to later equilibrate with that of Z in hundreds of ps. Addition of γ-CD does not significantly affect the fast dynamics of the formed anion. The fs-emission signals of the parent molecule, 3-hydroxyflavone, indicate that the dimethyl amino group in DMAF enhances the rate constant of intermolecular proton-transfer and intramolecular charge-transfer reactions.

  18. Detection of heavy-metal ions using liquid crystal droplet patterns modulated by interaction between negatively charged carboxylate and heavy-metal cations.

    PubMed

    Han, Gyeo-Re; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Herein, we demonstrated a simple, sensitive, and rapid label-free detection method for heavy-metal (HM) ions using liquid crystal (LC) droplet patterns on a solid surface. Stearic-acid-doped LC droplet patterns were spontaneously generated on an n-octyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated glass substrate by evaporating a solution of the nematic LC, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), dissolved in heptane. The optical appearance of the droplet patterns was a dark crossed texture when in contact with air, which represents the homeotropic orientation of the LC. This was caused by the steric interaction between the LC molecules and the alkyl chains of the OTS-treated surface. The dark crossed appearance of the acid-doped LC patterns was maintained after the addition of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 8.1 at 25°C). The deprotonated stearic-acid molecules self-assembled through the LC/aqueous interface, thereby supporting the homeotropic anchoring of 5CB. However, the optical image of the acid-doped LC droplet patterns incubated with PBS containing HM ions appeared bright, indicating a planar orientation of 5CB at the aqueous/LC droplet interface. This dark to bright transition of the LC patterns was caused by HM ions attached to the deprotonated carboxylate moiety, followed by the sequential interruption of the self-assembly of the stearic acid at the LC/aqueous interface. The results showed that the acid-doped LC pattern system not only enabled the highly sensitive detection of HM ions at a sub-nanomolar concentration but it also facilitated rapid detection (<10 min) with simple procedures. PMID:25059128

  19. Fabrication of charged membranes by the solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method on SiO2 and Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Vafaei, Setareh; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we employed the solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method to fabricate charged membranes on solid supports. The SALB formation method exploits a ternary mixture of lipid-alcohol-aqueous buffer to deposit lamellar phase structures on solid supports upon gradual increase of the buffer fraction. Using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique, we investigated the formation of negatively and positively charged membranes via the SALB formation method and directly compared with the vesicle fusion method on two different oxide films. Bilayers containing an increasing fraction of negatively charged DOPS lipid molecules were successfully formed on both SiO2 and Al2O3 substrates using the SALB formation method at physiological pH (7.5). In contrast, the vesicle fusion method did not support bilayer formation on Al2O3 and those containing more than 10% DOPS ruptured on SiO2 only under acidic conditions (pH 5). Characterization of the fraction of negatively charge DOPS by in situ annexin 5A binding assay revealed that the fraction of DOPS lipid molecules in the bilayers formed on Al2O3 is significantly higher than that formed on SiO2. This suggests that the SALB self-assembly of charged membranes is predominantly governed by the electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, our findings indicate that when multicomponent lipid mixtures are used, the relative fraction of lipids in the bilayer may differ from the fraction of lipids in the precursor mixture. PMID:25858554

  20. Liquid crystal Janus emulsion droplets: preparation, tumbling, and swimming.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joonwoo; Gross, Adam; Wei, Wei-Shao; Tu, Fuquan; Lee, Daeyeon; Collings, Peter J; Yodh, A G

    2015-09-14

    This study introduces liquid crystal (LC) Janus droplets. We describe a process for the preparation of these droplets, which consist of nematic LC and polymer compartments. The process employs solvent-induced phase separation in emulsion droplets generated by microfluidics. The droplet morphology was systematically investigated and demonstrated to be sensitive to the surfactant concentration in the background phase, the compartment volume ratio, and the possible coalescence of multiple Janus droplets. Interestingly, the combination of a polymer and an anisotropic LC introduces new functionalities into Janus droplets, and these properties lead to unusual dynamical behaviors. The different densities and solubilities of the two compartments produce gravity-induced alignment, tumbling, and directional self-propelled motion of Janus droplets. LC Janus droplets with remarkable optical properties and dynamical behaviors thus offer new avenues for applications of Janus colloids and active soft matter. PMID:26171829

  1. Determination of nicotine in tobacco with second-order spectra data of charge-transfer complex in ethanol-water binary solvents processed by parallel factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-05-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Mass spectrometry of acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Westphall, Michael S; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Smith, Lloyd M

    2008-08-01

    Containerless sample handling techniques such as acoustic levitation offer potential advantages for mass spectrometry, by eliminating surfaces where undesired adsorption/desorption processes can occur. In addition, they provide a unique opportunity to study fundamental aspects of the ionization process as well as phenomena occurring at the air-droplet interface. Realizing these advantages is contingent, however, upon being able to effectively interface levitated droplets with a mass spectrometer, a challenging task that is addressed in this report. We have employed a newly developed charge and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI) technique to obtain mass spectra from a 5-microL acoustically levitated droplet containing peptides and an ionic matrix. A four-ring electrostatic lens is used in conjunction with a corona needle to produce bursts of corona ions and to direct those ions toward the droplet, resulting in droplet charging. Analyte ions are produced from the droplet by a 337-nm laser pulse and detected by an atmospheric sampling mass spectrometer. The ion generation and extraction cycle is repeated at 20 Hz, the maximum operating frequency of the laser employed. It is shown in delayed ion extraction experiments that both positive and negative ions are produced, behavior similar to that observed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser absorption/ionization. No ion signal is observed in the absence of droplet charging. It is likely, although not yet proven, that the role of the droplet charging is to increase the strength of the electric field at the surface of the droplet, reducing charge recombination after ion desorption. PMID:18582090

  3. High-pressure testing of heterogeneous charge transfer in a room-temperature ionic liquid: evidence for solvent dynamic control.

    PubMed

    Dolidze, Tina D; Khoshtariya, Dimitri E; Illner, Peter; Kulisiewicz, Leszek; Delgado, Antonio; van Eldik, Rudi

    2008-03-13

    We report the first application of a high-pressure electrochemical strategy to study heterogeneous charge transfer (CT) in a room-temperature ionic liquid, [BMIM][BTA]. High-pressure kinetic studies on electron exchange for two redox couples of different charge type, viz. [Fe(bipy)3]3+/2+ and [Fe(cp)2]+/0, at bare Au electrodes within the range of 0.1-150 MPa, revealed large positive volumes of activation that were found to be virtually the same for the two redox couples in terms of the CT rate constants and diffusion coefficients, despite the reactant's charge type. Independent viscosity (fluidity) studies at elevated pressure (up to 175 MPa), were also performed and revealed a pressure coefficient closely resembling the former ones. Complementary temperature-dependent kinetic studies within the range of 298-358 K also revealed the virtual similarity in activation enthalpies for the same kinetic and diffusion processes, as well as the viscosity of [BMIM][BTA]. A rigorous analysis of the complete variety of obtained results strongly indicates that dynamic (frictional) control of CT is operative by way of the full adiabatic mechanism. The contribution of the Franck-Condon term to the activation free energy of the kinetic process seems almost diminished because of the high value of electronic coupling and freezing out of the outer-sphere reorganization energy. Further analyses indicate that frictional control most probably takes place through slow translational modes (implying "minimal volume" cooperative dislocations) of constituent ions. This kind of motion seems further slowed down within the vicinity of the active site presumably located within the diffusive-like zone situated next to the compact (first) part of the metal/ionic liquid junction. PMID:18278899

  4. WITHDRAWN: Fragmentation of charged aqueous nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, Kengo

    2005-11-01

    The whole evaporating process of charged aqueous nanodroplets is studied by systematic molecular dynamics simulations until most of the solvent molecules are evaporated. % The solvent evaporation makes the droplet smaller and smaller, and at a certain point the repulsive force among ions causes an instability, where typically single ion and 10 to 20 water molecules are disintegrated from the main droplet. % This ion fragmentation occurs around 70 to 80% of the charge predicted by the Rayleigh theory [Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 14, 184 (1882)]. % The numerical results are summarized in the function R(z) which is the fragmentation radius at the charge z. From the fitting by the power law Rz^β, we find that at lower temperature T=350 and 370 K the result is close to the Rayleigh theory β= 2/3, while at higher temperature T=400 and 450 K it is like β= 1/2. % Another fitting on R(z) by the extended ion evaporation mechanism [M. Gamero-Castaño and J. Fern'andez de la Mora, Anal. Chim. Acta 406, 67 (2000)] works well for both cases. % The final state of the evaporation process is typically a single ion with several water molecules. If we put an alanine dipeptide in zwitterionic form at the beginning, two charges remain in some cases.

  5. Mass Spectrometry of Acoustically Levitated Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Westphall, Michael S.; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-01-01

    Containerless sample handling techniques such as acoustic levitation offer potential advantages for mass spectrometry, by eliminating surfaces where undesired adsorption/desorption processes can occur. In addition, they provide a unique opportunity to study fundamental aspects of the ionization process as well as phenomena occurring at the air–droplet interface. Realizing these advantages is contingent, however, upon being able to effectively interface levitated droplets with a mass spectrometer, a challenging task that is addressed in this report. We have employed a newly developed charge and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI) technique to obtain mass spectra from a 5-μL acoustically levitated droplet containing peptides and an ionic matrix. A four-ring electrostatic lens is used in conjunction with a corona needle to produce bursts of corona ions and to direct those ions toward the droplet, resulting in droplet charging. Analyte ions are produced from the droplet by a 337-nm laser pulse and detected by an atmospheric sampling mass spectrometer. The ion generation and extraction cycle is repeated at 20 Hz, the maximum operating frequency of the laser employed. It is shown in delayed ion extraction experiments that both positive and negative ions are produced, behavior similar to that observed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser absorption/ionization. No ion signal is observed in the absence of droplet charging. It is likely, although not yet proven, that the role of the droplet charging is to increase the strength of the electric field at the surface of the droplet, reducing chargere combination after ion desorption. PMID:18582090

  6. Correlating droplet size with temperature changes in electrospray source by optical methods.

    PubMed

    Soleilhac, Antonin; Dagany, Xavier; Dugourd, Philippe; Girod, Marion; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2015-08-18

    We investigated how the temperature and size of charged droplets are affected by the electrospray ionization (ESI) process, using in situ measurements involving laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering on a thermal gradient focusing ESI source. Rhodamine dyes were employed as temperature indicators using ratiometric intensity-based fluorescence techniques. The results were compared to lifetime-based techniques using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate, [Ru(bpy)3](2+). Both methods gave similar profiles. Nevertheless, the precision and sensitivity were higher for lifetime-based techniques in comparison to intensity-based techniques. Global warming (with ΔT ∼10 K) of the ESI plume is reported while the size of the droplet decreases along the plume. The global warming indicates that the conductive thermal transfer (between the superheated sheath gas and the solvent) is predominant and stronger than the cooling effect due to the evaporation of the droplets, and this outcome is effectively reproduced by a diffusion-controlled evaporation model. Thermal gradient focusing ESI sources therefore appear to be efficient sources for evaporating large amounts of solvent, along with an increase in temperature. PMID:26110558

  7. Solvent Effects on the Formation of Surface Nanodroplets by Solvent Exchange.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ziyang; Xu, Haolan; Zeng, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehua

    2015-11-10

    Solvent exchange is a simple process to form oil nanodroplets at solid-liquid interfaces with well-defined location and morphology. In this process, a good solvent of the oil is displaced by a poor solvent, leading to the nucleation and growth of oil droplets from a transient oversaturation at the mixing front. Our recent work has shown that the final volume of the droplets is related to the flow conditions. In this work, we investigate the effects of the type and the composition of solvents on the droplet formation under the same flow conditions. Water nanodroplets were produced by ethanol/cyclohexane (solution A) and cyclohexane (solution B) on a hydrophilic substrate. We found that the droplet size increases first and then decreases with an increase of the initial ethanol concentration in solution A. This is attributed to the phase separation of ethanol-cyclohexane-water; in particular, the composition of solution A on the phase boundary above the Ouzo region. The same reason also contributes to the lower efficiency in droplet formation for a longer alkane. The important implication from this work is that the maximal droplet volume is limited by the phase separation of the solvents used in the solvent exchange. PMID:26488386

  8. A new droplet generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    A new droplet generator is described. A loud speaker driven extractor needle was immersed in a pendant drop. Pulsing the speaker extracted the needle forming a fluid ligament which will decay into a droplet. The droplets were sized by stroboscopic photographs. The droplet's size was changed by varying the amplitude of the speaker pulses and the extractor needle diameter. The mechanism of droplet formation is discussed and photographs of ligament decay are presented. The droplet generator worked well on both oil and water based pesticide formulations. Current applications and results are discussed.

  9. A new droplet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, W. E.

    1982-03-01

    A new droplet generator is described. A loud speaker driven extractor needle was immersed in a pendant drop. Pulsing the speaker extracted the needle forming a fluid ligament which will decay into a droplet. The droplets were sized by stroboscopic photographs. The droplet's size was changed by varying the amplitude of the speaker pulses and the extractor needle diameter. The mechanism of droplet formation is discussed and photographs of ligament decay are presented. The droplet generator worked well on both oil and water based pesticide formulations. Current applications and results are discussed.

  10. Toward Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of Solvent-Solute Energy Transfer in Doped Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacellar, C.; Ziemkiewicz, M. P.; Leone, S. R.; Neumark, D. M.; Gessner, O.

    2015-05-01

    Superfluid helium nanodroplets provide a unique cryogenic matrix for high resolution spectroscopy and ultracold chemistry applications. With increasing photon energy and, in particular, in the increasingly important Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) regime, the droplets become optically dense and, therefore, participate in the EUV-induced dynamics. Energy- and charge-transfer mechanisms between the host droplets and dopant atoms, however, are poorly understood. Static energy domain measurements of helium droplets doped with noble gas atoms (Xe, Kr) indicate that Penning ionization due to energy transfer from the excited droplet to dopant atoms may be a significant relaxation channel. We have set up a femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging experiment to probe these dynamics directly in the time-domain. Droplets containing 104 to 106 helium atoms and a small percentage (<10-4) of dopant atoms (Xe, Kr, Ne) are excited to the 1s2p Rydberg band by 21.6 eV photons produced by high harmonic generation (HHG). Transiently populated states are probed by 1.6 eV photons, generating time-dependent photoelectron kinetic energy distributions, which are monitored by velocity map imaging (VMI). The results will provide new information about the dynamic timescales and the different relaxation channels, giving access to a more complete physical picture of solvent-solute interactions in the superfluid environment. Prospects and challenges of the novel experiment as well as preliminary experimental results will be discussed.

  11. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  12. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  13. Molecular Dynamics simulations of the electrospray process: formation of NaCl clusters via the charged residue mechanism.

    PubMed

    Konermann, Lars; McAllister, Robert G; Metwally, Haidy

    2014-10-16

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) produces desolvated ions from solution phase analytes for mass spectrometric detection. The final steps of gas phase ion formation from nanometer-sized solvent droplets remain a matter of debate. According to the ion evaporation model (IEM), analytes are ejected from the droplet surface via field emission, whereas the charged residue model (CRM) envisions that ions are released upon droplet evaporation to dryness. Exposure of salt solutions to ESI conditions produces a range of cluster ions. Despite the rich literature on these systems, it is still unclear if these salt clusters form via the CRM or the IEM. The current study explores the formation of Na(n)Cl(m)((n-m)+) clusters from aqueous sodium chloride solution under positive and negative polarity conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) methods are used for simulating the temporal evolution of charged NaCl-containing water droplets. A trajectory stitching approach is developed for continuously removing evaporated moieties from the simulation, thereby dramatically reducing computational cost. In addition, this procedure ensures adequate temperature control and eliminates evaporative cooling that would otherwise slow down the process. Continuous water evaporation leads to progressive droplet shrinkage, while the emission of solvated single ions ensures that the system remains at ca. 90% of the Rayleigh limit. Early during the process all ions in the droplet behave as freely dissolved species, but after a few nanoseconds at 370 K the systems gradually morph into amorphous wet salt aggregates. Ultimately, free Na(n)Cl(m)((n-m)+) clusters form as the last solvent molecules evaporate. Our data therefore provide direct evidence that sodium chloride cluster formation during ESI proceeds via the CRM. The IEM nonetheless plays an ancillary role, as it allows the system to shed charge (mostly in the form of hydrated Na(+) or Cl(-)) during droplet shrinkage. It appears that this study marks the

  14. Salt stains from evaporating droplets.

    PubMed

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F L; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  15. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F. L.; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  16. Directional electrostatic accretion process employing acoustic droplet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for manufacturing a free standing solid metal part. In the present invention metal droplets are produced from a free surface pool of molten metal is when an acoustic wave impacts an acoustic lens that is contiguous with the free standing pool of molten metal. The metal droplets are then charged and deflected toward a target. The build up of the metal droplets combine to form the free standing solid metal part.

  17. Numerical simulations of electrostatically driven jets from nonviscous droplets.

    PubMed

    Garzon, M; Gray, L J; Sethian, J A

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of a perfectly conducting and nonviscous fluid, under the action of an electric field (uniform at infinity), is studied numerically. Level set techniques are employed to develop an Eulerian potential flow model that can follow the drop evolution past breakup, while the free surface fluid velocity and the electric field force are obtained via axisymmetric boundary integral calculations. Numerical results are presented for neutral and charged droplets and for free charged droplets. In all cases, the evolution droplet aspect ratio, progeny droplet size, Taylor cone angles, jet shapes, and self-similar scaling exponents are reported. In particular, for free charged water droplets, the bursting frequency and other jetting characteristics have been carefully analyzed. Wherever possible, these results are compared with previously reported experiments and simulations. PMID:24730941

  18. Patterning droplets with durotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Style, Robert W.; Che, Yonglu; Park, Su Ji; Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho; Hyland, Callen; German, Guy K.; Power, Michael P.; Wilen, Larry A.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cell types have shown a remarkable ability to detect and move along gradients in stiffness of an underlying substrate—a process known as durotaxis. The mechanisms underlying durotaxis are still unresolved, but generally believed to involve active sensing and locomotion. Here, we show that simple liquid droplets also undergo durotaxis. By modulating substrate stiffness, we obtain fine control of droplet position on soft, flat substrates. Unlike other control mechanisms, droplet durotaxis works without imposing chemical, thermal, electrical, or topographical gradients. We show that droplet durotaxis can be used to create large-scale droplet patterns and is potentially useful for many applications, such as microfluidics, thermal control, and microfabrication. PMID:23798415

  19. Simple delay monitor for droplet sorters.

    PubMed

    De Grooth, B G; Doornbos, R M; Van Der Werf, K O; Greve, J

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed a simple device by which the optimal delay time between optical measurement of a cell and the application of the droplet charging pulse can be determined directly in a flow sorter. The device consists of a stainless steel chamber in which the sorted droplets are collected. In the collection chamber the collected droplets run through a capillary where a continuous fluorescence measurement is made. With a sample of fluorescent particles, the delay time is optimal when the measured fluorescence is maximal. The measuring volume is always filled with the last droplets sorted (about 3,000). With this device, the setting of the delay time can be done in a few seconds without the need for microscopical verification. The fluorescence in the collection chamber is excited and detected via optical fibers using about 10% of the light of the existing laser from the flow cytometer and an extra photomultiplier. PMID:1935461

  20. Jumping-droplet electrostatic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J.; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2014-07-01

    Micro- and nanoscale wetting phenomena have been an active area of research due to its potential for improving engineered system performance involving phase change. With the recent advancements in micro/nanofabrication techniques, structured surfaces can now be designed to allow condensing coalesced droplets to spontaneously jump off the surface due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. In addition to being removed at micrometric length scales (˜10 μm), jumping water droplets also attain a positive electrostatic charge (˜10-100 fC) from the hydrophobic coating/condensate interaction. In this work, we take advantage of this droplet charging to demonstrate jumping-droplet electrostatic energy harvesting. The charged droplets jump between superhydrophobic copper oxide and hydrophilic copper surfaces to create an electrostatic potential and generate power during formation of atmospheric dew. We demonstrated power densities of ˜15 pW/cm2, which, in the near term, can be improved to ˜1 μW/cm2. This work demonstrates a surface engineered platform that promises to be low cost and scalable for atmospheric energy harvesting and electric power generation.

  1. Droplet-Based Production of Liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, Donald E.; Forster, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A process for making monodisperse liposomes having lipid bilayer membranes involves fewer, simpler process steps than do related prior methods. First, a microfluidic, cross junction droplet generator is used to produce vesicles comprising aqueous solution droplets contained in single layer lipid membranes. The vesicles are collected in a lipid-solvent mix that is at most partially soluble in water and is less dense than is water. A layer of water is dispensed on top of the solvent. By virtue of the difference in densities, the water sinks to the bottom and the solvent floats to the top. The vesicles, which have almost the same density as that of water, become exchanged into the water instead of floating to the top. As there are excess lipids in the solvent solution, in order for the vesicles to remain in the water, the addition of a second lipid layer to each vesicle is energetically favored. The resulting lipid bilayers present the hydrophilic ends of the lipid molecules to both the inner and outer membrane surfaces. If lipids of a second kind are dissolved in the solvent in sufficient excess before use, then asymmetric liposomes may be formed.

  2. Probing Ion Transfer across Liquid-Liquid Interfaces by Monitoring Collisions of Single Femtoliter Oil Droplets on Ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Kummer, Sina; Kragl, Udo; Strauss, Steven H; Bard, Allen J

    2016-08-01

    We describe a method of observing collisions of single femtoliter (fL) oil (i.e., toluene) droplets that are dispersed in water on an ultramicroelectrode (UME) to probe the ion transfer across the oil/water interface. The oil-in-water emulsion was stabilized by an ionic liquid, in which the oil droplet trapped a highly hydrophobic redox probe, rubrene. The ionic liquid also functions as the supporting electrolyte in toluene. When the potential of the UME was biased such that rubrene oxidation would be possible when a droplet collided with the electrode, no current spikes were observed. This implies that the rubrene radical cation is not hydrophilic enough to transfer into the aqueous phase. We show that current spikes are observed when tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate or tetrahexylammonium hexafluorophosphate are introduced into the toluene phase and when tetrabutylammonium perchlorate is introduced into the water phase, implying that the ion transfer facilitates electron transfer in the droplet collisions. The current (i)-time (t) behavior was evaluated quantitatively, which indicated the ion transfer is fast and reversible. Furthermore, the size of these emulsion droplets can also be calculated from the electrochemical collision. We further investigated the potential dependence on the electrochemical collision response in the presence of tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in toluene to obtain the formal ion transfer potential of tetrabutylammonium across the toluene/water interface, which was determined to be 0.754 V in the inner potential scale. The results yield new physical insights into the charge balance mechanism in emulsion droplet collisions and indicate that the electrochemical collision technique can be used to probe formal ion transfer potentials between water and solvents with very low (ε < 5) dielectric constants. PMID:27387789

  3. How coalescing droplets jump.

    PubMed

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Sprittles, James; Nolan, Kevin; Mitchell, Robert; Wang, Evelyn N

    2014-10-28

    Surface engineering at the nanoscale is a rapidly developing field that promises to impact a range of applications including energy production, water desalination, self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces, thermal management of electronics, microfluidic platforms, and environmental pollution control. As the area advances, more detailed insights of dynamic wetting interactions on these surfaces are needed. In particular, the coalescence of two or more droplets on ultra-low adhesion surfaces leads to droplet jumping. Here we show, through detailed measurements of jumping droplets during water condensation coupled with numerical simulations of binary droplet coalescence, that this process is fundamentally inefficient with only a small fraction of the available excess surface energy (≲ 6%) convertible into translational kinetic energy. These findings clarify the role of internal fluid dynamics during the jumping droplet coalescence process and underpin the development of systems that can harness jumping droplets for a wide range of applications. PMID:25171210

  4. Controlling the Growth Modes of Femtoliter Sessile Droplets Nucleating on Chemically Patterned Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Werbiuk, Zenon; Lohse, Detlef; Zhang, Xuehua

    2016-03-17

    Femtoliter droplet arrays on immersed substrates are essential elements in a broad range of advanced droplet-based technologies, such as light manipulation, sensing, and high throughput diagnosis. Solvent exchange is a bottom-up approach for producing those droplets from a pulse of oil oversaturation when a good solvent of the droplet liquid is displaced by a poor solvent. The position and arrangement of the droplets are regulated by chemical micropatterns on the substrate. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that the growth modes of droplets confined in planar micropatterns on the surface can be manipulated through the laminar flow of the solvent exchange. The control parameters are the area size of the micropatterns and the flow rate, and the observables are the contact angle and the final droplet volume. For a given pattern size, the Peclet number of the flow determines whether the growing droplets switch from an initial constant contact angle mode to a subsequent constant contact radius mode. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental results and our theoretical model that describes the dependence of the final droplet size on Pe. PMID:26938312

  5. Electric-Field-Assisted Droplet Dispensing on Immiscible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2014-11-01

    Dispensing tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in numerous practical applications, such as printed electronics, DNA microarray, and digital microfluidics. The precise positioning with demanded size of droplets is the main issue of dispensing tiny droplets. Furthermore, capability of dispensing charged droplets on the immiscible fluids could bring out more utilities. In this work, we demonstrate the droplet dispensing on immiscible fluids by means of electrical charge concentration (ECC). This results from the fact that the droplet is generated by electric force caused by electric induction between the surface of droplet and the immiscible fluid. The temporal evolution of the droplet-dispensing process was observed consecutively with a high-speed camera. In addition, the relationship between the size of dispensed droplet and the parameters, such as physical properties of fluids and electrical field strength, is established. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant Number: 2013R1A1A2011956).

  6. Flow invariant droplet formation for stable parallel microreactors

    PubMed Central

    Riche, Carson T.; Roberts, Emily J.; Gupta, Malancha; Brutchey, Richard L.; Malmstadt, Noah

    2016-01-01

    The translation of batch chemistries onto continuous flow platforms requires addressing the issues of consistent fluidic behaviour, channel fouling and high-throughput processing. Droplet microfluidic technologies reduce channel fouling and provide an improved level of control over heat and mass transfer to control reaction kinetics. However, in conventional geometries, the droplet size is sensitive to changes in flow rates. Here we report a three-dimensional droplet generating device that exhibits flow invariant behaviour and is robust to fluctuations in flow rate. In addition, the droplet generator is capable of producing droplet volumes spanning four orders of magnitude. We apply this device in a parallel network to synthesize platinum nanoparticles using an ionic liquid solvent, demonstrate reproducible synthesis after recycling the ionic liquid, and double the reaction yield compared with an analogous batch synthesis. PMID:26902825

  7. Flow invariant droplet formation for stable parallel microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riche, Carson T.; Roberts, Emily J.; Gupta, Malancha; Brutchey, Richard L.; Malmstadt, Noah

    2016-02-01

    The translation of batch chemistries onto continuous flow platforms requires addressing the issues of consistent fluidic behaviour, channel fouling and high-throughput processing. Droplet microfluidic technologies reduce channel fouling and provide an improved level of control over heat and mass transfer to control reaction kinetics. However, in conventional geometries, the droplet size is sensitive to changes in flow rates. Here we report a three-dimensional droplet generating device that exhibits flow invariant behaviour and is robust to fluctuations in flow rate. In addition, the droplet generator is capable of producing droplet volumes spanning four orders of magnitude. We apply this device in a parallel network to synthesize platinum nanoparticles using an ionic liquid solvent, demonstrate reproducible synthesis after recycling the ionic liquid, and double the reaction yield compared with an analogous batch synthesis.

  8. Flow invariant droplet formation for stable parallel microreactors.

    PubMed

    Riche, Carson T; Roberts, Emily J; Gupta, Malancha; Brutchey, Richard L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2016-01-01

    The translation of batch chemistries onto continuous flow platforms requires addressing the issues of consistent fluidic behaviour, channel fouling and high-throughput processing. Droplet microfluidic technologies reduce channel fouling and provide an improved level of control over heat and mass transfer to control reaction kinetics. However, in conventional geometries, the droplet size is sensitive to changes in flow rates. Here we report a three-dimensional droplet generating device that exhibits flow invariant behaviour and is robust to fluctuations in flow rate. In addition, the droplet generator is capable of producing droplet volumes spanning four orders of magnitude. We apply this device in a parallel network to synthesize platinum nanoparticles using an ionic liquid solvent, demonstrate reproducible synthesis after recycling the ionic liquid, and double the reaction yield compared with an analogous batch synthesis. PMID:26902825

  9. Droplet transport system and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. Paul (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments of droplet transport systems and methods are disclosed for levitating and transporting single or encapsulated droplets using thermocapillary convection. One method embodiment, among others comprises providing a droplet of a first liquid; and applying thermocapillary convection to the droplet to levitate and move the droplet.

  10. Water droplets also swim!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, Marjolein; Izri, Ziane; Michelin, Sébastien; Dauchot, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Recently there has been a surge of interest in producing artificial swimmers. One possible path is to produce self-propelling droplets in a liquid phase. The self-propulsion often relies on complex mechanisms at the droplet interface, involving chemical reactions and the adsorption-desorption kinetics of the surfactant. Here, we report the spontaneous swimming of droplets in a very simple system: water droplets immersed in an oil-surfactant medium. The swimmers consist of pure water, with no additional chemical species inside: water droplets also swim! The swimming is very robust: the droplets are able to transport cargo such as large colloids, salt crystals, and even cells. In this talk we discuss the origin of the spontaneous motion. Water from the droplet is solubilized by the reverse micellar solution, creating a concentration gradient of swollen reverse micelles around each droplet. By generalizing a recently proposed instability mechanism, we explain how spontaneous motion emerges in this system at sufficiently large Péclet number. Our water droplets in an oil-surfactant medium constitute the first experimental realization of spontaneous motion of isotropic particles driven by this instability mechanism.

  11. An evaporation model of colloidal suspension droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Silvana; Li\\ Nán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2009-11-01

    Colloidal suspensions of polymers in water or other solvents are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to coat tablets with different agents. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or physical appearance. The coating is performed by simultaneously spraying and drying the tablets with the colloidal suspension at moderately high temperatures. The spreading of the coating on the pills surface depends on the droplet Webber and Reynolds numbers, angle of impact, but more importantly on the rheological properties of the drop. We present a model for the evaporation of a colloidal suspension droplet in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the carrier fluid. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface, a compacting front advances into the droplet faster than the liquid surface regresses, forming a shell of a porous medium where the particles reach their maximum packing density. While the surface regresses, the evaporation rate is determined by both the rate at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and the rate at which liquid vapor is diffused away from it. This regime continues until the compacting front reaches the center of the droplet, at which point the evaporation rate is drastically reduced.

  12. Structural morphology of acoustically levitated and heated nanosilica droplet

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Tijerino, Erick; Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi

    2010-09-20

    We study the vaporization and precipitation dynamics of a nanosilica encapsulated water droplet by levitating it acoustically and heating it with a CO{sub 2} laser. For all concentrations, we observe three phases: solvent evaporation, surface agglomeration, and precipitation leading to bowl or ring shaped structures. At higher concentrations, ring reorientation and rotation are seen consistently. The surface temperature from an infrared camera is seen to be dependent on the final geometrical shape of the droplet and its rotation induced by the acoustic field of the levitator. With nonuniform particle distribution, these structures can experience rupture which modifies the droplet rotational speed.

  13. Laboratory studies of collection efficiency of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets on a single-droplet basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardon-Dryer, K.; Huang, Y.-W.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental setup has been constructed to measure the collection efficiency (CE) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets. Droplets of a dilute aqueous ammonium sulfate solution with an average radius of 21.6 μm fall freely into a chamber and collide with sub-micrometer polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere particles of known sizes and concentrations. Two relative humidity (RH) conditions, 15 ± 3 % and 88 ± 3 %, hereafter termed "low" and "high", respectively, were varied with different particles sizes and concentrations. After passing through the chamber, the droplets and aerosol particles were sent to the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument to determine chemical compositions on a single-droplet basis. "Coagulated droplets" (droplets that collected aerosols) had mass spectra that contained signatures from both an aerosol particle and a droplet residual. CE values range from 2.0 × 10-1 to 1.6 for the low-RH case and from 1.5 × 10-2 to 9.0 × 10-2 for the high-RH case. CE values were, within experimental uncertainty, independent of the aerosol concentrations. CE values in this study were found to be in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. To our knowledge, this is the first collection experiment performed on a single-droplet basis with atmospherically relevant conditions such as droplet sizes, droplet charges and flow.

  14. Dynamic wetting of viscoelastic droplets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuli; Minh, Do-Quang; Amberg, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    We conduct numerical experiments on spreading of viscoelastic droplets on a flat surface. Our work considers a Giesekus fluid characterized by a shear-thinning viscosity and an Oldroyd-B fluid, which is close to a Boger fluid with constant viscosity. Our results qualitatively agree with experimental observations in that both shear thinning and elasticity enhances contact line motion, and that the contact line motion of the Boger fluid obeys the Tanner-Voinov-Hoffman relation. Excluding inertia, the spreading speed shows strong dependence on rheological properties, such as the viscosity ratio between the solvent and the polymer suspension, and the polymeric relaxation time. We also discuss how elasticity can affect contact line motion. The molecular migration theory proposed in the literature is not able to explain the agreement between our simulations and experimental results. PMID:26565327

  15. Photopolymerization Of Levitated Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan; Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Experimental containerless process combines two established techniques to make variety of polymeric microspheres. In single step, electrostatically-levitated monomer droplets polymerized by ultraviolet light. Faster than multiple-step emulsion polymerization process used to make microspheres. Droplets suspended in cylindrical quadrupole electrostatic levitator. Alternating electrostatic field produces dynamic potential along axis. Process enables tailoring of microspheres for medical, scientific, and industrial applications.

  16. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  17. Liquid droplet generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntz, E. P.; Orme, Melissa; Farnham, Tony; Vandiep, G. Pham; Huerre, P.

    1989-01-01

    A pre-prototype segment of a droplet sheet generator for a liquid droplet radiator was designed, constructed and tested. The ability to achieve a uniform, non-diverging droplet sheet is limited by manufacturing tolerances on nozzle parallelism. For an array of 100, 100 micrometer diameters nozzles spaced 5 stream diameters apart, typical standard deviations in stream alignment were plus or minus 10 mrad. The drop to drop fractional speed variations of the drops in typical streams were similar and independent of position in the array. The absolute value of the speed dispersion depended on the amplitude of the disturbance applied to the stream. A second generation preliminary design of a 5200 stream segment of a droplet sheet generator was completed. The design is based on information developed during testing of the pre-prototype segment, along with the results of an acoustical analysis for the stagnation cavity pressure fluctuations used to break-up the streams into droplets.

  18. Vaporization of Deforming Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxing; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Dongjun; Yang, Vigor

    2012-11-01

    Droplet deformation is one of the most important factors influencing the evaporation rate. In the present study, high-fidelity numerical simulations of single evaporating droplets with deformation are carried out over a wide range of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The formulation is based on a complete set of conservation equations for both the liquid and surrounding gas phases. A modified volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique that takes into account heat and mass transfer is used to track the behavior of the liquid/gas interface. Special attention is given to the property conservation, which can be realized by using an iterative algorithm that enforces a divergence constraint in cells containing the interface. The effect of the ambient flow on droplet dynamics and evaporation are investigated systematically. Various underlying mechanisms dictating the droplet characteristics in different deformation regimes are identified. Correlations for the droplet evaporation rate are established in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers.

  19. Slip of Spreading Viscoplastic Droplets.

    PubMed

    Jalaal, Maziyar; Balmforth, Neil J; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-11-10

    The spreading of axisymmetric viscoplastic droplets extruded slowly on glass surfaces is studied experimentally using shadowgraphy and swept-field confocal microscopy. The microscopy furnishes vertical profiles of the radial velocity using particle image velocimetry (PIV) with neutrally buoyant tracers seeded in the fluid. Experiments were conducted for two complex fluids: aqueous solutions of Carbopol and xanthan gum. On untreated glass surfaces, PIV demonstrates that both fluids experience a significant amount of effective slip. The experiments were repeated on glass that had been treated to feature positive surface charges, thereby promoting adhesion between the negatively charged polymeric constituents of the fluids and the glass surface. The Carbopol and xanthan gum droplets spread more slowly on the treated surface and to a smaller radial distance. PIV demonstrated that this reduced spreading was associated with a substantial reduction in slip. For Carbopol, the effective slip could be eliminated entirely to within the precision of the PIV measurements; the reduction in slip was less effective for xanthan gum, with a weak slip velocity remaining noticeable. PMID:26418827

  20. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids.

    PubMed

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J P; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-03-21

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state). PMID:26928324

  1. Calculating the binding free energies of charged species based on explicit-solvent simulations employing lattice-sum methods: An accurate correction scheme for electrostatic finite-size effects

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Gabriel J.; Mobley, David L.; Dill, Ken A.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2013-01-01

    calculations for a given system, its dependence on the box size being analytical. The latter scheme also provides insight into the physical origin of the finite-size effects. These two schemes also encompass a correction for discrete solvent effects that persists even in the limit of infinite box sizes. Application of either scheme essentially eliminates the size dependence of the corrected charging free energies (maximal deviation of 1.5 kJ mol−1). Because it is simple to apply, the analytical correction scheme offers a general solution to the problem of finite-size effects in free-energy calculations involving charged solutes, as encountered in calculations concerning, e.g., protein-ligand binding, biomolecular association, residue mutation, pKa and redox potential estimation, substrate transformation, solvation, and solvent-solvent partitioning. PMID:24320250

  2. Calculating the binding free energies of charged species based on explicit-solvent simulations employing lattice-sum methods: An accurate correction scheme for electrostatic finite-size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklin, Gabriel J.; Mobley, David L.; Dill, Ken A.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2013-11-14

    -periodic PB calculations for a given system, its dependence on the box size being analytical. The latter scheme also provides insight into the physical origin of the finite-size effects. These two schemes also encompass a correction for discrete solvent effects that persists even in the limit of infinite box sizes. Application of either scheme essentially eliminates the size dependence of the corrected charging free energies (maximal deviation of 1.5 kJ mol{sup −1}). Because it is simple to apply, the analytical correction scheme offers a general solution to the problem of finite-size effects in free-energy calculations involving charged solutes, as encountered in calculations concerning, e.g., protein-ligand binding, biomolecular association, residue mutation, pK{sub a} and redox potential estimation, substrate transformation, solvation, and solvent-solvent partitioning.

  3. Dipolar correlations in structured solvents under nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Blossey, Ralf

    2014-06-21

    We study electrostatic correlations in structured solvents confined to nanoscale systems. We derive variational equations of Netz-Orland type for a model liquid composed of finite size dipoles. These equations are solved for both dilute solvents and solvents at physiological concentrations in a slit nanopore geometry. Correlation effects are of major importance for the dielectric reduction and anisotropy of the solvent resulting from dipole image interactions and also lead to a reduction of van der Waals attractions between low dielectric bodies. Finally, by comparison with other recently developed self-consistent theories and experiments, we scrutinize the effect of solvent-membrane interactions on the differential capacitance of the charged liquid in contact with low dielectric substrates. The interfacial solvent depletion driven by solvent-image interactions plays the major role in the observed low values of the experimental capacitance data, while non-locality associated with the extended charge structure of solvent molecules only brings a minor contribution. PMID:24952564

  4. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  5. Electrophoretic mobility of oil droplets in electrolyte and surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Wuzhang, Jiachen; Song, Yongxin; Sun, Runzhe; Pan, Xinxiang; Li, Dongqing

    2015-10-01

    Electrophoretic mobility of oil droplets of micron sizes in PBS and ionic surfactant solutions was measured in this paper. The experimental results show that, in addition to the applied electric field, the speed and the direction of electrophoretic motion of oil droplets depend on the surfactant concentration and on if the droplet is in negatively charged SDS solutions or in positively charged hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solutions. The absolute value of the electrophoretic mobility increases with increased surfactant concentration before the surfactant concentration reaches to the CMC. It was also found that there are two vortices around the oil droplet under the applied electric field. The size of the vortices changes with the surfactant and with the electric field. The vortices around the droplet directly affect the drag of the flow field to the droplet motion and should be considered in the studies of electrophoretic mobility of oil droplets. The existence of the vortices will also influence the determination and the interpretation of the zeta potential of the oil droplets based on the measured mobility data. PMID:26140616

  6. Synthesis, and spectroscopic studies of charge transfer complex of 1,2-dimethylimidazole as an electron donor with π-acceptor 2,4-dinitro-1-naphthol in different polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyan, Lal; Khan, Ishaat M.; Ahmad, Afaq

    2015-07-01

    The charge transfer (CT) complex of 1,2-dimethylimidazole (DMI) as an electron donor with π acceptor 2,4-dinitro-1-naphthol (DNN) has been studied spectrophotometrically in different solvents like chloroform, acetonitrile, methanol, methylene chloride, etc. at room temperature. The CT complex which is formed through the transfer of lone pair electrons from DMI to DNN exhibits well resolved CT bands and the regions of these bands were remarkably different from those of the donor and acceptor. The stoichiometry of the CT complex was found to be 1:1 by a straight-line method between donor and acceptor with maximum absorption bands. The novel CT complex has been characterized by FTIR, TGA-DTA, powder XRD, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. The Benesi-Hildebrand equation has been used to determine the formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (εCT), standard gibbs free energy (ΔG°) and other physical parameters of the CT complex. The formation constant recorded higher values and molar extinction coefficient recorded lower values in chloroform compared with methylene chloride, methanol and acetonitrile, confirming the strong interaction between the molecular orbital's of donor and acceptor in the ground state in less polar solvent. This CT complex has been studied by absorption spectra of donor 1,2-dimethylimidazole (DMI) and acceptor 2,4-dinitro-1-naphthol (DNN) by using the spectrophotometric technique in various solvents at room temperature.

  7. Autonomous droplet architectures.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; King, Philip H; Morgan, Hywel; de Planque, Maurits R R; Zauner, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The quintessential living element of all organisms is the cell-a fluid-filled compartment enclosed, but not isolated, by a layer of amphiphilic molecules that self-assemble at its boundary. Cells of different composition can aggregate and communicate through the exchange of molecules across their boundaries. The astounding success of this architecture is readily apparent throughout the biological world. Inspired by the versatility of nature's architecture, we investigate aggregates of membrane-enclosed droplets as a design concept for robotics. This will require droplets capable of sensing, information processing, and actuation. It will also require the integration of functionally specialized droplets into an interconnected functional unit. Based on results from the literature and from our own laboratory, we argue the viability of this approach. Sensing and information processing in droplets have been the subject of several recent studies, on which we draw. Integrating droplets into coherently acting units and the aspect of controlled actuation for locomotion have received less attention. This article describes experiments that address both of these challenges. Using lipid-coated droplets of Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction medium in oil, we show here that such droplets can be integrated and that chemically driven mechanical motion can be achieved. PMID:25622015

  8. Supercritical microgravity droplet vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, J.; Curtis, E.; Farrell, P.

    1990-01-01

    Supercritical droplet vaporization is an important issue in many combustion systems, such as liquid fueled rockets and compression-ignition (diesel) engines. In order to study the details of droplet behavior at these conditions, an experiment was designed to provide a gas phase environment which is above the critical pressure and critical temperature of a single liquid droplet. In general, the droplet begins as a cold droplet in the hot, high pressure environment. In order to eliminate disruptions to the droplet by convective motion in the gas, forced and natural convection gas motion are required to be small. Implementation of this requirement for forced convection is straightforward, while reduction of natural convection is achieved by reduction in the g-level for the experiment. The resulting experiment consists of a rig which can stably position a droplet without restraint in a high-pressure, high temperature gas field in microgravity. The microgravity field is currently achieved by dropping the device in the NASA Lewis 2.2 second drop tower. The performance of the experimental device and results to date are presented.

  9. The roles of electronic exchange and correlation in charge-transfer- to-solvent dynamics: Many-electron nonadiabatic mixed quantum/classical simulations of photoexcited sodium anions in the condensed phase.

    PubMed

    Glover, William J; Larsen, Ross E; Schwartz, Benjamin J

    2008-10-28

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) reactions of solvated atomic anions serve as ideal models for studying the dynamics of electron transfer: The fact that atomic anions have no internal degrees of freedom provides one of the most direct routes to understanding how the motions of solvent molecules influence charge transfer, and the relative simplicity of atomic electronic structure allows for direct contact between theory and experiment. To date, molecular dynamics simulations of the CTTS process have relied on a single-electron description of the atomic anion-only the electron involved in the charge transfer has been treated quantum mechanically, and the electronic structure of the atomic solute has been treated via pseudopotentials. In this paper, we examine the severity of approximating the electronic structure of CTTS anions with a one-electron model and address the role of electronic exchange and correlation in both CTTS electronic structure and dynamics. To do this, we perform many-electron mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations of the ground- and excited-state properties of the aqueous sodium anion (sodide). We treat both of the sodide valence electrons quantum mechanically and solve the Schrodinger equation using configuration interaction with singles and doubles (CISD), which provides an exact solution for two electrons. We find that our multielectron simulations give excellent general agreement with experimental results on the CTTS spectroscopy and dynamics of sodide in related solvents. We also compare the results of our multielectron simulations to those from one-electron simulations on the same system [C. J. Smallwood et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11263 (2003)] and find substantial differences in the equilibrium CTTS properties and the nonadiabatic relaxation dynamics of one- and two-electron aqueous sodide. For example, the one-electron model substantially underpredicts the size of sodide, which in turn results in a dramatically

  10. The roles of electronic exchange and correlation in charge-transfer- to-solvent dynamics: Many-electron nonadiabatic mixed quantum/classical simulations of photoexcited sodium anions in the condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, William J.; Larsen, Ross E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2008-10-01

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) reactions of solvated atomic anions serve as ideal models for studying the dynamics of electron transfer: The fact that atomic anions have no internal degrees of freedom provides one of the most direct routes to understanding how the motions of solvent molecules influence charge transfer, and the relative simplicity of atomic electronic structure allows for direct contact between theory and experiment. To date, molecular dynamics simulations of the CTTS process have relied on a single-electron description of the atomic anion—only the electron involved in the charge transfer has been treated quantum mechanically, and the electronic structure of the atomic solute has been treated via pseudopotentials. In this paper, we examine the severity of approximating the electronic structure of CTTS anions with a one-electron model and address the role of electronic exchange and correlation in both CTTS electronic structure and dynamics. To do this, we perform many-electron mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations of the ground- and excited-state properties of the aqueous sodium anion (sodide). We treat both of the sodide valence electrons quantum mechanically and solve the Schrödinger equation using configuration interaction with singles and doubles (CISD), which provides an exact solution for two electrons. We find that our multielectron simulations give excellent general agreement with experimental results on the CTTS spectroscopy and dynamics of sodide in related solvents. We also compare the results of our multielectron simulations to those from one-electron simulations on the same system [C. J. Smallwood et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11263 (2003)] and find substantial differences in the equilibrium CTTS properties and the nonadiabatic relaxation dynamics of one- and two-electron aqueous sodide. For example, the one-electron model substantially underpredicts the size of sodide, which in turn results in a dramatically

  11. Reactive Leidenfrost droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raufaste, C.; Bouret, Y.; Celestini, F.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally investigate the reactivity of Leidenfrost droplets with their supporting substrates. Several organic liquids are put into contact with a copper substrate heated above their Leidenfrost temperature. As the liquid evaporates, the gaseous flow cleans the superficial copper oxide formed at the substrate surface and the reaction maintains a native copper spot below the evaporating droplet. The copper spot can reach several times the droplet size for the most reactive organic compounds. This study shows an interesting coupling between the physics of the Leidenfrost effect and the mechanics of reactive flows. Different applications are proposed such as drop motion tracking and vapor flow monitoring.

  12. Intramolecular, Exciplex-Mediated, Proton-Coupled, Charge-Transfer Processes in N,N-Dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium Cations: Influence of Anion, Solvent Polarity, and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Safko, Trevor M; Faleiros, Marcelo M; Atvars, Teresa D Z; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-06-16

    An intramolecular exciplex-mediated, proton-coupled, charge-transfer (PCCT) process has been investigated for a series of N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium cations with different anions (PyS) in solvents of low to intermediate polarity over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediates both the equilibrium between conformations of the cation that place the pyrenyl and ammonium groups in proximity (conformation C) or far from each other (conformation O) and the ability of the ammonium group to transfer a proton adiabatically in the PyS excited singlet state. Thus, exciplex emission, concurrent with the PCCT process, was observed only in hydrogen-bond accepting solvents of relatively low polarity (tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane) and not in dichloromethane. From the exciplex emission and other spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, the acidity of the ammonium group in conformation C of the excited singlet state of PyS (pKa*) has been estimated to be ca. -3.4 in tetrahydrofuran. The ratios between the intensities of emission from the exciplex and the locally excited state (IEx/ILE) appear to be much more dependent on the nature of the anion than are the rates of exciplex formation and decay, although the excited state data do not provide a quantitative measure of the anion effect on the C-O equilibrium. The activation energies associated with exciplex formation in THF are calculated to be 0.08 to 0.15 eV lower than for the neutral amine, N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-amine. Decay of the exciplexes formed from the deprotonation of PyS is hypothesized to occur through charge-recombination processes. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which photoacidity and intramolecular exciplex formation (i.e., a PCCT reaction) are coupled. PMID:27268751

  13. Precision stacking of nanoparticle laden sessile droplets to control solute deposit morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabi, Prasenjit; Basu, Saptarshi; Sanyal, Apratim; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo

    2015-02-01

    Stacking pure solvent droplets on a solid substrate is apparently impossible in the absence of an external force as the second droplet will invariably spill over the first leading to a large wetted area. However, the unique feature that emerges during the drying of a nanoparticle laden droplet is the progressively enlarging thin solid film along the evaporating sessile droplet liquid periphery. This solid interface: the edge of which we shall refer to as the agglomeration front comprises of a thin layer of nanoparticle assembly and can support a carefully dispensed second droplet thereby allowing droplet stacking. It will be shown that the growth of this agglomeration front can also be effectively controlled by the dispensing time difference and the nanoparticle concentration in the two droplets. So far, we are commonly aware of material stacking in solid phase. This letter demonstrates stacking in the liquid phase and control over the thin solid interface growth.

  14. Hydrophobic polymers in nano-sized water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilakaratne, Buddhi; Masood, Samina; Cheung, Margaret

    2008-03-01

    As simulations of biopolymers take place in confined and tight spaces, such as protein folding in the interior of bacteria chaperones or the exit tunnels of ribosomes, quantitative analyses of the confinement effects on both biopolymers and solvent molecules become the center of attention as the solvent-mediated interactions are too profound to solve analytically. We are in the progress to investigate the solvation of hexane molecules in various nano-sized water droplets. Free energy profiles for a single hexane molecule in droplets show that the droplet surfaces are favored. Averaged configurations of hexane molecules at the interior and the surface are computed using the umbrella sampling methods. The implications of our results for protein stability in confined spaces will be discussed.

  15. Active droplet generation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhuang Zhi; Tan, Say Hwa; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Tor, Shu Beng; Loh, Ngiap Hiang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of micron-sized droplets is an important process for various applications in droplet-based microfluidics. The generated droplets work as a self-contained reaction platform in droplet-based lab-on-a-chip systems. With the maturity of this platform technology, sophisticated and delicate control of the droplet generation process is needed to address increasingly complex applications. This review presents the state of the art of active droplet generation concepts, which are categorized according to the nature of the induced energy. At the liquid/liquid interface, an energy imbalance leads to instability and droplet breakup. PMID:26555381

  16. Bioprinting: Functional droplet networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-06-01

    Tissue-mimicking printed networks of droplets separated by lipid bilayers that can be functionalized with membrane proteins are able to spontaneously fold and transmit electrical currents along predefined paths.

  17. Microscopic Rayleigh Droplet Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, R. B.

    2005-11-01

    A periodically triggered Rayleigh Droplet Beam (RDB) delivers a perfectly linear and periodic stream of identical, monoenergetic droplets that are phase-locked to the trigger signal. The droplet diameter and spacing are easily adjusted of choice of nozzle diameter and trigger frequency. Any liquid of low viscosity may be emloyed as the beam fluid. Although the field of nanofluidics is expanding rapidly, little effort has yet been devoted to ``external flows'' such as RDB's. At ASU we have generated RDB's of water and methanol down to 2 microns in droplet diameter. Nozzle clogging is the sole impediment to smaller droplets. Microscopic Rayleigh droplet beams offer tremendous potential for fundamental physical measurements, fluid dynamics research, and nanofabrication. This talk will describe the apparatus and techniques used at ASU to generate RDB's (surprisingly simple and inexpensive), discuss the triboelectric phenomena that play a role (surprisingly significant), present some initial experimental fluid dynamics measurements, and briefly survey RDB applications. Our particular interest in RDB's is as microscopic transport systems to deliver hydrated, undenatured proteins into vacuum for structure determination via serial diffraction of x-rays or electrons. This may offer the first general method for structure determination of non-crystallizable proteins.

  18. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  19. Directional Electrostatic Accretion Process Employing Acoustic Droplet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for manufacturing a free standing solid metal part. In the present invention, metal droplets are ejected in a nozzleless fashion from a free surface pool of molten metal by applying focused acoustic radiation pressure. The acoustic radiation pressure is produced by high intensity acoustic tone bursts emitted from an acoustic source positioned at the bottom of the pool which directs the acoustic energy at the pool surface. The metal droplets are electrostatically charged so their trajectory can be controlled by electric fields that guide the droplets to predetermined points on a target. The droplets impinge upon the target and solidify with the target material. The accretion of the electrostatically directed solidified droplets forms the free standing metal part.

  20. Functions of the Coacervate Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okihana, Hiroyuki; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1982-12-01

    Functions of coacervate droplets as protocells are studied by using synthetic polymers. The coacervate droplets were made from PVA-A and PVA-S. When glycine or diglycine were in the surrounding medium, the coacervate droplets concentrated them. The concentration of glycine in the coacervate droplets was higher than that of diglycine. When this mixture was irradiated by UV light, the coacervate droplets protected them from the photochemical decomposition.

  1. Fuel Droplet Burning During Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.4MB, 13-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300168.html.

  2. Improved Charge-Collection Efficiency in PCDTBT:PC71BM-Based Solar Cells via CS2 Solvent Vapor Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Gang; Wu, Jiang; Fu, Ying-Ying; Meng, Bin; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Guo, Shi-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Photo-generated charge collection is strongly correlated with the alignment and connectivity of the individual domains of donor and acceptor in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. It is found that CS2 vapor annealing on PCDTBT:PC71BM (1:4) blend effectively improves the hole-transport pathways of PCDTBT domains, which reduces accumulation of photo-generated charges and improves charge collection efficiency. The PCDTBT:PC71BM-based solar cells with the active layer subjected to CS2 vapor annealing demonstrate a high fill factor of 0.71-0.73 and a power conversion efficiency of 6.68%, about a 10% increase in comparison with the control cell.

  3. Oxidation of SO2 and formation of water droplets under irradiation of 20 MeV protons in N2/H2O/SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Shigeo; Nakai, Yoichi; Funada, Shuhei; Tanikawa, Hideomi; Harayama, Isao; Kobara, Hitomi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Hvelplund, Preben

    2015-12-01

    We have performed an experiment on charged droplet formation in a humidified N2 gas with trace SO2 concentration and induced by 20 MeV proton irradiation. It is thought that SO2 reacts with the chemical species, such as OH radicals, generated through the reactions triggered by N2+ production. Both droplet number and droplet size increased with SO2 consumption for the proton irradiation. The total charged droplet numbers entering the differential mobility analyzer per unit time were proportional to the 0.68 power of the SO2 consumption. These two findings suggest that coagulation among the small droplets contributes to the formation of the droplets. The charged droplet volume detected per unit time is proportional to the SO2 consumption, which indicates that a constant amount of sulfur atoms is contained in a unit volume of droplet, regardless of different droplet-size distributions depending on the SO2 consumption.

  4. Material forming apparatus using a directed droplet stream

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E.; Viswanathan, Srinath; Blue, Craig A.; Wilgen, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for rapidly forming precision metallic and intermetallic alloy net shape parts directly from liquid metal droplets. A directed droplet deposition apparatus includes a crucible with an orifice for producing a jet of material, a jet destabilizer, a charging structure, a deflector system, and an impact zone. The systems and methods provide advantages in that fully dense, microstructurally controlled parts can be fabricated at moderate cost.

  5. A simplified electrospray ionization source based on electrostatic field induction for mass spectrometric analysis of droplet samples.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin

    2012-12-21

    A simplified electrospray ionization source based on electrostatic field induction is introduced in this paper. The electrostatic field induced spray ionization, termed EFISI, is easily performed using a needle electrode and a capillary, and it does not require heat, gas, a syringe pump or any other equipment. A high voltage is applied to a needle electrode which does not contact the sample. The capillary is used as a sample spray emitter without any electrical contact or tip modification. As only a 1 μL sample droplet is needed for analysis with no or little pretreatment, the EFISI source is particularly suitable for the mass spectrometric analysis of microlitre volume samples. The change of charge distribution in the droplet solution, by the induction of an external electrostatic field from the needle electrode, is proposed to be the main cause of ion formation. We demonstrate its feasibility for the characterization of a wide range of organic compounds and biomolecules in pure solutions or complex matrices. The influence of sample capillary length and droplet solvent composition on the ionization process are also discussed. PMID:23095821

  6. Solvent Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities such as corn and molasses was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  7. Solvent-shared pairs of densely charged ions induce intense but short-range supra-additive slowdown of water rotation.

    PubMed

    Vila Verde, Ana; Santer, Mark; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2016-01-21

    The question "Can ions exert supra-additive effects on water dynamics?" has had several opposing answers from both simulation and experiment. We address this ongoing controversy by investigating water reorientation in aqueous solutions of two salts with large (magnesium sulfate) and small (cesium chloride) effects on water dynamics using molecular dynamics simulations and classical, polarizable models. The salt models are reparameterized to reproduce properties of both dilute and concentrated solutions. We demonstrate that water rotation in concentrated MgSO4 solutions is unexpectedly slow, in agreement with experiment, and that the slowdown is supra-additive: the observed slowdown is larger than that predicted by assuming that the resultant of the extra forces induced by the ions on the rotating water molecules tilts the free energy landscape associated with water rotation. Supra-additive slow down is very intense but short-range, and is strongly ion-specific: in contrast to the long-range picture initially proposed based on experiment, we find that intense supra-additivity is limited to water molecules directly bridging two ions in solvent-shared ion pair configuration; in contrast to a non-ion-specific origin to supra-additive effects proposed from simulations, we find that the magnitude of supra-additive slowdown strongly depends on the identity of the cations and anions. Supra-additive slowdown of water dynamics requires long-lived solvent-shared ion pairs; long-lived ion pairs should be typical for salts of multivalent ions. We discuss the origin of the apparent disagreement between the various studies on this topic and show that the short-range cooperative slowdown scenario proposed here resolves the existing controversy. PMID:26687290

  8. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical model. We have considered evolution of baryon-free droplets which have different initial temperatures and expansion rates. As a typical trend we observe an oscillating behavior of the droplet radius superimposed with a gradual shrinkage due to the hadron emission. The characteristic life time of droplets with radii 1.5-2 fm are about 9-16 fm/c.

  9. TDDFT study of twisted intramolecular charge transfer and intermolecular double proton transfer in the excited state of 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol in ethanol solvent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Shi, Ying; Cong, Lin; Li, Hui

    2015-02-25

    Time-dependent density functional theory method at the def-TZVP/B3LYP level was employed to investigate the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding dynamics in the first excited (S1) state of 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol (DMAF) monomer and in ethanol solution. In the DMAF monomer, we demonstrated that the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) takes place in the S1 state. This excited state ICT process was followed by intramolecular proton transfer. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the mechanism proposed in experimental work. For the hydrogen-bonded DMAF-EtOH complex, it was demonstrated that the intermolecular hydrogen bonds can induce the formation of the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state and the conformational twisting is along the C3-C4 bond. Moreover, the intermolecular hydrogen bonds can also facilitate the intermolecular double proton transfer in the TICT state. A stepwise intermolecular double proton transfer process was revealed. Therefore, the intermolecular hydrogen bonds can alter the mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer and proton transfer in the excited state for the DMAF molecule. PMID:25282020

  10. Droplet lasing spectroscopy applied to droplet stream flames

    SciTech Connect

    Santangelo, P.J.; Kennedy, I.M.

    1999-04-01

    Droplet lasing spectroscopy (DLS) has been applied to the measurement of droplet size and vaporization rates in both reacting and non-reacting rectilinear droplet streams. A Berglund-Liu droplet generator was used to generate a stream of droplets, approximately 63 microns in diameter and 6.5 droplet diameters apart. Ethanol, methanol, and a pentane/ethanol mixture were doped with Rhodamine 6G. Lasing spectra were examined in the steady-state combustion regime. In the pentane/ethanol case the measurements were carried out in a sooting region of the flame. In some cases, vaporization rates were high enough to measure the rate from consecutive droplets, yielding a quasi-instantaneous measurement. In all cases, the D{sup 2} law of droplet vaporization was evident. In addition, photographs of the flames yielded measurements of flame height and thickness.

  11. Electrospray Charging of Minerals: Surface Chemistry and Applications to High-Velocity Microparticle Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, T.; Call, S.; Austin, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Electrospray is a soft ionization technique commonly used to charge large biomolecules; it has, however, also been applied to inorganic compounds. We are extending this technique to mineral microparticles. Electrospray-charged mineral microparticles are interesting in the context of surface science because surface chemistry dictates where and how charge carriers can bond to mineral surfaces. In addition, using electrospray to charge mineral particles allows these particles to be electrostatically accelerated as projectiles in high- and hyper-velocity impacts. Since current techniques for producing high- and hyper-velocity microparticle impacts are largely limited to metal or metal-coated projectiles, using minerals as projectiles is a significant innovation. Electrospray involves three steps: creation of charged droplets containing solute/particles, evaporation and bifurcation of droplets, and desolvation of the solute/particles. An acidified solution is slowly pumped through a needle in a strong DC field, which causes the solution to break into tiny, charged droplets laden with protons. Solvent evaporates from the electrosprayed droplets as they move through the electric field toward a grounded plate, causing the charge on the droplet to increase relative to its mass. When the electrosprayed droplet’s charge becomes such that the droplet is no longer stable, it bifurcates, and each of the resulting droplets carries some of the original droplet’s charge. Evaporation and bifurcation continues until the solute particle is completely desolvated. The result is a protonated solute molecule or particle. We built an instrument that electrosprays particles into vacuum and measures them using an image charge detector. Mineral microparticles were prepared by grinding natural mineral samples to ~2 µm diameter. These microparticles are then added to a 4:1 methanol:water solution to create a 0.005% w/v suspension. The suspension is electrosprayed into vacuum, where the

  12. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  13. Chip-based droplet sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  14. Charge-transfer complexes of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone with amino molecules in polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berto, Silvia; Chiavazza, Enrico; Ribotta, Valentina; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Barolo, Claudia; Giacomino, Agnese; Vione, Davide; Malandrino, Mery

    2015-10-01

    The charge-transfer complexes have scientific relevance because this type of molecular interaction is at the basis of the activity of pharmacological compounds and because the absorption bands of the complexes can be used for the quantification of electron donor molecules. This work aims to assess the stability of the charge-transfer complexes between the electron acceptor 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and two drugs, procaine and atenolol, in acetonitrile and ethanol. The stability of DDQ in solution and the time required to obtain the maximum complex formation were evaluated. The stoichiometry and the stability of the complexes were determined, respectively, by Job's plot method and by the elaboration of UV-vis titrations data. The latter task was carried out by using the non-linear global analysis approach to determine the equilibrium constants. This approach to data elaboration allowed us to overcome the disadvantages of the classical linear-regression method, to obtain reliable values of the association constants and to calculate the entire spectra of the complexes. NMR spectra were recorded to identify the portion of the donor molecule that was involved in the interaction. The data support the participation of the aliphatic amino groups in complex formation and exclude the involvement of the aromatic amine present in the procaine molecule.

  15. Lipid droplets go nuclear.

    PubMed

    Farese, Robert V; Walther, Tobias C

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are sometimes found in the nucleus of some cells. In this issue, Ohsaki et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201507122) show that the nuclear membrane, promyelocytic leukemia bodies, and the protein PML-II play a role in nuclear LD formation, suggesting functional relationships between these structures. PMID:26728852

  16. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations. PMID:25578408

  17. Two-dimensional fluid droplet arrays generated using a single nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-11-02

    Amplitudes of drive pulses received by a horizontally-placed dropper determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to an ejection aperture of the dropper. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  18. On Helium Anions in Helium Droplets: Interpreting Recent Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauracher, Andreas; Huber, Stefan E.

    2014-10-01

    Helium droplets provide an ideal environment to study elementary processes in atomic systems at very low temperatures. Here, we discuss properties of charged and neutral, atomic and molecular helium species formed in helium droplets upon electron impact. By studying their interaction with atomic ground state helium we find that He, He2 and excited (metastable) He*- are well bound within the helium droplet. In comparison, He* , He2* and He2* are found to be squeezed out due to energetic reasons. We also present the formation pathways of atomic and molecular helium anions in helium droplets. Transition barriers in the energetic lowest He*- - He interaction potentials prevent molecule formation at the extremely low temperatures in helium droplets. In contrast, some excited states allow a barrier-free formation of molecular helium (anions). With these theoretical results at hand we can interpret recent experiments in which the resonant formation of atomic and molecular helium anions was observed. Furthermore, we give an outlook on the implications of the presence of these anionic species in doped helium droplets with regard to charge transfer reactions. Austrian Fund Agency (FWF, I 978-N20, DK+ project Computational Interdisciplinary Modelling W1227-N16)/Austrian Ministry of Science (BMWF, Konjunkturpaket II, UniInfrastrukturprogramm of the Focal Point Scientific Computing).

  19. Electric Field Mediated Droplet Centering

    SciTech Connect

    Bei, Z.-M.; Jones, T.B.; Tucker-Schwartz, A.; Harding, D.R.

    2010-03-12

    Double emulsion droplets subjected to a uniform ac electric field self-assemble into highly concentric structures via the dipole/dipole force if the outer droplet has a higher dielectric constant than the suspending liquid. The dielectric constant of the inner droplet has no influence. To minimize field-induced droplet distortion, the liquids must be density matched to ~0.1%. Centering of ~3 to 6 mm diameter droplets is achieved within ~60 s for field strengths of ~10^4 V_rms /m in liquids of viscosity ~10 cP. Effective centering depends strongly on frequency if the outer shell is conductive.

  20. Solvents level dipole moments.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H; Eichinger, Bruce E

    2011-11-01

    The dipole moments of highly polar molecules measured in solution are usually smaller than the molecular dipole moments that are calculated with reaction field methods, whereas vacuum values are routinely calculated in good agreement with available vapor phase data. Whether from Onsager's theory (or variations thereof) or from quantum mechanical methods, the calculated molecular dipoles in solution are found to be larger than those measured. The reason, of course, is that experiments measure the net dipole moment of solute together with the polarized (perturbed) solvent "cloud" surrounding it. Here we show that the reaction field charges that are generated in the quantum mechanical self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method give a good estimate of the net dipole moment of the solute molecule together with the moment arising from the reaction field charges. This net dipole is a better description of experimental data than the vacuum dipole moment and certainly better than the bare dipole moment of the polarized solute molecule. PMID:21923185

  1. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  2. Enhancing droplet deposition through in-situ precipitation.

    PubMed

    Damak, Maher; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Hyder, Md Nasim; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2016-01-01

    Retention of agricultural sprays on plant surfaces is an important challenge. Bouncing of sprayed pesticide droplets from leaves is a major source of soil and groundwater pollution and pesticide overuse. Here we report a method to increase droplet deposition through in-situ formation of hydrophilic surface defects that can arrest droplets during impact. Defects are created by simultaneously spraying oppositely charged polyelectrolytes that induce surface precipitation when two droplets come into contact. Using high-speed imaging, we study the coupled dynamics of drop impact and surface precipitate formation. We develop a physical model to estimate the energy dissipation by the defects and predict the transition from bouncing to sticking. We demonstrate macroscopic enhancements in spray retention and surface coverage for natural and synthetic non-wetting surfaces and provide insights into designing effective agricultural sprays. PMID:27572948

  3. Increasing Protein Charge State When Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Santosh; Flanigan, Paul M.; Perez, Johnny J.; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser vaporization is used to transfer cytochrome c, myoglobin, lysozyme, and ubiquitin from the condensed phase into an electrospray (ES) plume consisting of a mixture of a supercharging reagent, m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), acetic acid (AA), or formic acid (FA). Interaction of acid-sensitive proteins like cytochrome c and myoglobin with the highly charged ES droplets resulted in a shift to higher charge states in comparison with acid-stable proteins like lysozyme and ubiquitin. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) measurements showed an increase in both the average charge states (Zavg) and the charge state with maximum intensity (Zmode) for acid-sensitive proteins compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under equivalent solvent conditions. A marked increase in ion abundance of higher charge states was observed for LEMS in comparison with conventional electrospray for cytochrome c (ranging from 19+ to 21+ versus 13+ to 16+) and myoglobin (ranging from 19+ to 26+ versus 18+ to 21+) using an ES solution containing m-NBA and TFA. LEMS measurements as a function of electrospray flow rate yielded increasing charge states with decreasing flow rates for cytochrome c and myoglobin.

  4. Diffraction of walking droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2014-11-01

    We present results from our revisitation of the experiment of a walking droplet passing through a single slit, originally investigated by Couder & Fort (PRL, 2006). On each passage, the walker's trajectory is deviated as a result of the spatial confinement of its guiding wave. We explore the role of the droplet size and the bath's vibration amplitude on both the dynamics and statistics. We find the behavior to be remarkably sensitive to these control parameters. A complex physical picture emerges. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant CMMI-1333242, DMH through the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program, and GP through the Programma Operativo Regionale (POR) Calabria - FSE 2007/2013.

  5. Surface Modification of Droplet Polymeric Microfluidic Devices for the Stable and Continuous Generation of Aqueous Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Balamurugan; Kim, Namwon; Lee, Wonbae; Spivak, David A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; McCarley, Robin L.; Soper, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Droplet microfluidics performed in poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA, microfluidic devices resulted in significant wall wetting by water droplets formed in a liquid-liquid segmented flow when using a hydrophobic carrier fluid, such as perfluorotripropylamine (FC-3283). This wall wetting led to water droplets with non-uniform sizes that were often trapped on the wall surfaces leading to unstable and poorly controlled liquid-liquid segmented flow. To circumvent this problem, we developed a two-step procedure to hydrophobically modify the surfaces of PMMA and other thermoplastic materials commonly used for making microfluidic devices. The surface modification route involved the introduction of hydroxyl groups by oxygen plasma treatment of the polymer surface followed by a solution phase reaction with heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2–tetrahydrodecyl trichlorosilane dissolved in the fluorocarbon solvent FC-3283. This procedure was found to be useful for the modification of PMMA and other thermoplastic surfaces, including polycyclic olefin copolymer (COC) and polycarbonate (PC). Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the fluorination of these polymers took place with high surface selectivity. This procedure was used to modify the surface of a PMMA droplet microfluidic device (DMFD) and was shown to be useful to reduce the wetting problem during the generation of aqueous droplets in a perfluorotripropylamine (FC-3283) carrier fluid and could generate stable segmented flows for hours of operation. In the case of the PMMA DMFD, oxygen plasma treatment was carried out after the PMMA cover plate was thermally fusion bonded to the PMMA microfluidic chip. Because the appended chemistry to the channel wall created a hydrophobic surface, it will accommodate the use of other carrier fluids that are hydrophobic as well, such as hexadecane or mineral oils. PMID:21608975

  6. Droplet monitoring probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughman, J. R.; Thys, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    A droplet monitoring system is disclosed for analysis of mixed-phase fluid flow in development of gas turbines. The system uses a probe comprising two electrical wires spaced a known distance apart and connected at one end to means for establishing a dc potential between the wires. A drop in the fluid stream momentarily contacting both wires simultaneously causes and electrical signal which is amplified, detected and counted.

  7. Displacement of an Electrically Charged Drop on a Vibrating Bath.

    PubMed

    Brandenbourger, M; Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2016-01-29

    In this work, the manipulation of an electrically charged droplet bouncing on a vertically vibrated bath is investigated. When a horizontal, uniform, and static electric field is applied to it, a motion is induced. The droplet is accelerated when the droplet is small. On the other hand, large droplets appear to move with a constant speed that depends linearly on the applied electrical field. In the latter regime, high-speed imaging of one bounce reveals that the droplet experiences an acceleration due to the electrical force during the flight and decelerates to 0 when interacting with the surface of the bath. Thus, the droplet moves with a constant average speed on a large time scale. We propose a criterion based on the force necessary to move a charged droplet at the surface of the bath to discriminate between constant speed and accelerated droplet regimes. PMID:26871337

  8. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  9. Controlled Microdroplet Transport & Charging in an Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Colin; Maguire, Paul; Mahony, Charles; Hamilton, Neil; Mariotti, Davide; Rutherford, David; McDowell, David; Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Bennet, Euan; Potts, Hugh; Diver, Declan; Ulster University Collaboration; University of Glasgow Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    We have measured charge and evaporation rates of a stream of micron-scale H2O droplets transported through a low-temperature helium-neon rf plasma. Ne and Te, estimated from plasma impedance, were ~ 1013/cm3 and ~5 eV respectively; gas temperature, from N2 spectroscopy, was <400 K. With a log-normal aerosol droplet size distribution, 15 micron CMD and droplet velocity distribution within a parabolic envelope of ~75% of the local gas speed, the plasma induced evaporation caused an average diameter reduction of <2 microns. This is equivalent to an average evaporation rate ~ 2 orders of magnitude higher than reported for similar droplets in a comparable gas flow without plasma. Using charged droplet collection and current amplification, we have measured sub-millisecond charge pulses of up to 107e from a droplet stream with ~ 2 . 5 ×103 droplets/s demonstrating the transport of droplets beyond the plasma and recombination region with negative charge retained. Time averaged measurements using an alternative technique show the mean charge per droplet is ~ 105e. Results from an enhanced resolution charge measurement apparatus, currently being tested and using individual and size selectable droplets will be reported. EPSRC funded

  10. An Instrument Employing a Coronal Discharge for the Determination of Droplet-Size Distribution in Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Levine, Joseph; Kleinknecht, Kenneth S.

    1951-01-01

    A flight instrument that uses electric means for measuring the droplet-size distribution in above-freezing clouds has been devised and given preliminary evaluation in flight. An electric charge is placed on the droplets and they are separated aerodynamically according to their mass. Because the charge placed on the droplets is a. function of the droplet size, the size spectrum can 'be determined by measurement of the charge deposited on cylinders of several different sizes placed to intercept the charged droplets. An expression for the rate of charge acquisition by a water droplet in a field of coronal discharge is derived. The results obtained in flight with an instrument based on the method described indicate that continuous records of droplet-size spectrum variations in clouds can be obtained. The experimental instrument was used to evaluate the method and was not refined to the extent necessary for obtaining conclusive meteorological data. The desirable features of an instrument based on the method described are (i) The instrument can be used in clouds with temperatures above freezing; (2) the size and the shape of the cylinders do not change during the exposure time; (3) the readings are instantaneous and continuous; (4) the available sensitivity permits the study of variations in cloud structures of less than 200 feet in extent.

  11. Novel confinement of liquid crystals in Janus droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei-Shao; Jeong, Joonwoo; Collings, Peter J.; Lubensky, Tom C.; Yodh, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we create and investigate Janus droplets composed of liquid crystal (LC) and polymer. The Janus droplets are formed when homogeneous droplets of LC-polymer-solvent phase separate into LC and polymer regions during solvent evaporation through aqueous continuous phase. This scheme enables us to realize unique confinement geometries for LCs such as spherical caps and bowls, which are difficult to be achieved via other systems. The morphologies and surface anchoring conditions can be controlled by changing the size of droplets, the volume ratio between LC and polymer, and the type/concentration of surfactants in aqueous background phase. We explore a variety of defects in these novel confined geometries including dislocations and focal conic defects of smectic LCs. Nematic and cholesteric LCs are also explored. Models that balance the energetics of bulk elasticity and surface anchoring determine the director configurations of confined liquid crystals (LCs). This work is funded by NSF Grant DMR-1205463, NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-1120901, and NASA Grant NNX08AO0G.

  12. Quantum droplets of electrons and holes.

    PubMed

    Almand-Hunter, A E; Li, H; Cundiff, S T; Mootz, M; Kira, M; Koch, S W

    2014-02-27

    Interacting many-body systems are characterized by stable configurations of objects--ranging from elementary particles to cosmological formations--that also act as building blocks for more complicated structures. It is often possible to incorporate interactions in theoretical treatments of crystalline solids by introducing suitable quasiparticles that have an effective mass, spin or charge which in turn affects the material's conductivity, optical response or phase transitions. Additional quasiparticle interactions may also create strongly correlated configurations yielding new macroscopic phenomena, such as the emergence of a Mott insulator, superconductivity or the pseudogap phase of high-temperature superconductors. In semiconductors, a conduction-band electron attracts a valence-band hole (electronic vacancy) to create a bound pair, known as an exciton, which is yet another quasiparticle. Two excitons may also bind together to give molecules, often referred to as biexcitons, and even polyexcitons may exist. In indirect-gap semiconductors such as germanium or silicon, a thermodynamic phase transition may produce electron-hole droplets whose diameter can approach the micrometre range. In direct-gap semiconductors such as gallium arsenide, the exciton lifetime is too short for such a thermodynamic process. Instead, different quasiparticle configurations are stabilized dominantly by many-body interactions, not by thermalization. The resulting non-equilibrium quantum kinetics is so complicated that stable aggregates containing three or more Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs remain mostly unexplored. Here we study such complex aggregates and identify a new stable configuration of charged particles that we call a quantum droplet. This configuration exists in a plasma and exhibits quantization owing to its small size. It is charge neutral and contains a small number of particles with a pair-correlation function that is characteristic of a liquid. We present

  13. Maze Solving by Chemotactic Droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Lagzi, Istvan; Soh, Siowling; Wesson, Paul J.; Browne, Kevin P.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-01-11

    Droplets emitting surface-active chemicals exhibit chemotaxis toward low-pH regions. Such droplets are self-propelled and navigate through a complex maze to seek a source of acid placed at one of the maze’s exits. In doing so, the droplets find the shortest path through the maze. Chemotaxis and maze solving are due to an interplay between acid/base chemistry and surface tension effects.

  14. Solvent jet desorption capillary photoionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Markus; Teppo, Jaakko; Ollikainen, Elisa; Kiiski, Iiro; Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2015-03-17

    A new ambient mass spectrometry method, solvent jet desorption capillary photoionization (DCPI), is described. The method uses a solvent jet generated by a coaxial nebulizer operated at ambient conditions with nitrogen as nebulizer gas. The solvent jet is directed onto a sample surface, from which analytes are extracted into the solvent and ejected from the surface in secondary droplets formed in collisions between the jet and the sample surface. The secondary droplets are directed into the heated capillary photoionization (CPI) device, where the droplets are vaporized and the gaseous analytes are ionized by 10 eV photons generated by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) krypton discharge lamp. As the CPI device is directly connected to the extended capillary inlet of the MS, high ion transfer efficiency to the vacuum of MS is achieved. The solvent jet DCPI provides several advantages: high sensitivity for nonpolar and polar compounds with limit of detection down to low fmol levels, capability of analyzing small and large molecules, and good spatial resolution (250 μm). Two ionization mechanisms are involved in DCPI: atmospheric pressure photoionization, capable of ionizing polar and nonpolar compounds, and solvent assisted inlet ionization capable of ionizing larger molecules like peptides. The feasibility of DCPI was successfully tested in the analysis of polar and nonpolar compounds in sage leaves and chili pepper. PMID:25715054

  15. Scavenging in weakly electrified saturated and subsaturated clouds, treating aerosol particles and droplets as conducting spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Limin; Tinsley, Brian A.; Plemmons, Abigail

    2009-09-01

    The effects of electric charge on collision rate coefficients for scavenging of aerosol particles by droplets are evaluated, as appropriate to weak electrification conditions in clouds. Variations in charges on droplets and particles in clouds are proportional to the flow of current in the global electric circuit through gradients in resistivity, which are determined by gradients in droplet concentration and humidity. We obtain the collision rate coefficients by “trajectory model” calculations for spherical aerosol particles and droplets using the exact electrical force equation, with its long-range repulsion and short-range attraction, interacting with drag, inertia, and phoretic forces. The use of the exact electric force gives rate coefficients up to a factor of two greater than previous image charge calculations for particles in the “Greenfield Gap”. Rate coefficients for scavenging by Brownian diffusion are obtained by the analytic expression for “flux model” calculations. Rate coefficients for combined effects of electric and phoretic scavenging are given, as appropriate for scavenging of droplets evaporating to residual particles while temporarily retaining the original droplet charge. For particles of radii below about 0.1 μm and with charges typical of residues of freshly evaporated droplets, the long-range repulsive electrical force reduces the collision rate coefficients below those for phoretic scavenging in subsaturated air and below the rates for Brownian scavenging. Time constants for scavenging of particles are given for selected values of droplet size, particle and droplet charges, and particle density, and the applications to observed effects in the atmosphere are discussed.

  16. Uranium droplet core nuclear rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim

    1991-01-01

    Uranium droplet nuclear rocket is conceptually designed to utilize the broad temperature range ofthe liquid phase of metallic uranium in droplet configuration which maximizes the energy transfer area per unit fuel volume. In a baseline system dissociated hydrogen at 100 bar is heated to 6000 K, providing 2000 second of Isp. Fission fragments and intense radian field enhance the dissociation of molecular hydrogen beyond the equilibrium thermodynamic level. Uranium droplets in the core are confined and separated by an axisymmetric vortex flow generated by high velocity tangential injection of hydrogen in the mid-core regions. Droplet uranium flow to the core is controlled and adjusted by a twin flow nozzle injection system.

  17. The safety of a cell in a droplet under high electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jihoon; Im, Do Jin; Kang, In Seok

    2010-11-01

    Electrically charged aqueous droplet can be transported by electrical field in a dielectric fluid without the flow of medium (Jung et al. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2008). This phenomenon can be used to transport a single nanoliter droplet in a micro channel, which can serve as biochemical micro-reactor. Because an aqueous droplet is much conductive than the dielectric fluid, there is effectively no electric field inside the droplet suspended in dielectric fluid. Therefore bio-materials are protected from electricity even under high electric field. However, when the droplet is charged near an electrode by direct contact to the electrode, there is possibility that electric field can hurt bio-materials like DNA molecules, microorganisms, cells, protein in droplet. Because of this concern, we should confirm that bio-materials in droplet moving by direct charging are safe under strong external electric field especially to organism cells. Therefore we examine the effect of electric field on the cells such as yeast, E.coli., and sperm in droplet experimentally.

  18. Finger-powered electrophoretic transport of discrete droplets for portable digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Yide; Sungtaek Ju, Y

    2016-07-01

    We report a finger-powered digital microfluidic device based on the electrophoretic transport of discrete droplets (EPD). An array of piezoelectric elements is connected in parallel to metal electrodes immersed in dielectric fluids. When deflected in a controlled sequence via human finger power, the piezoelectric elements charge and actuate droplets across each electrode pair through electrophoretic force. Successful droplet transportation requires the piezoelectric elements to provide both sufficient charge and voltage pulse duration. We quantify these requirements using numerical models to predict the electrical charges induced on the droplets and the corresponding electrophoretic forces. The models are experimentally validated by comparing the predicted and measured droplet translational velocities. We successfully demonstrated transport and merging of aqueous droplets over a range of droplet radii (0.6-0.9 mm). We further showed direct manipulation of body fluids, including droplets of saliva and urine, using our finger-powered EPD device. To facilitate practical implementation of multistep assays based on the approach, a hand/finger-rotated drum system with a programmable pattern of protrusions is designed to induce deflections of multiple piezoelectric elements and demonstrate programmable fluidic functions. An electrode-to-piezoelectric element connection scheme to minimize the number of piezoelectric elements necessary for a sequence of microfluidic functions is also explored. The present work establishes an engineering foundation to enable design and implementation of finger-powered portable EPD microfluidic devices. PMID:27292054

  19. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Norris, David J.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-03-01

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state).Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and

  20. Thin-Film Drainage and Droplet Adhesion in a Microfluidic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Jonathan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In many multiphase fluid processes, such as in petroleum extraction and biochemical analysis, one often sees the lodging of immiscible droplets that block flow in a conduit. The absence of a thin-film lubrication layer surrounding adhered droplets significantly increases the threshold pressure gradient required to induce bulk flows. In this work, we investigate the thin-film drainage process that leads to droplet adhesion and study how coating droplets with charged surfactants or solid particles can prevent direct contact between the droplets and channel wall. We report on our current computational and experimental results of an oversized gas droplet in a water-filled flow channel under the influence of surface tension and interfacial electrostatic repulsion.

  1. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures.

  2. Solvent reorganization of electron transitions in viscous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Pradip K.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2006-04-14

    We develop a model of electron transfer reactions at conditions of nonergodicity when the time of solvent relaxation crosses the observation time window set up by the reaction rate. Solvent reorganization energy of intramolecular electron transfer in a charge-transfer molecule dissolved in water and acetonitrile is studied by molecular dynamics simulations at varying temperatures. We observe a sharp decrease of the reorganization energy at a temperature identified as the temperature of structural arrest due to cage effect, as discussed by the mode-coupling theory. This temperature also marks the onset of the enhancement of translational diffusion relative to rotational relaxation signaling the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation. The change in the reorganization energy at the transition temperature reflects the dynamical arrest of the slow, collective relaxation of the solvent related to the relaxation of the solvent dipolar polarization. An analytical theory proposed to describe this effect agrees well with both the simulations and experimental Stokes shift data. The theory is applied to the analysis of charge-transfer kinetics in a low-temperature glass former. We show that the reorganization energy is substantially lower than its equilibrium value for the low-temperature portion of the data. The theory predicts the possibility of discontinuous changes in the dependence of the electron transfer rate on the free energy gap when the reaction switches between ergodic and nonergodic regimes.

  3. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, Rebecca; Boreyko, Jonathan; Briggs, Dayrl; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Retterer, Scott; Collier, C. Patrick; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2014-03-01

    Exploration of Leidenfrost droplets on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems using boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant way to direct droplet motion in a variety of emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling. This suggests that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon droplet impact onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. Asymmetric wettability and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing this to be the mechanism for the droplet directionality. This work was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is sponsored at Oak Ridge National Lab by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, US Dept. of Energy.

  4. Droplet formation and scaling in dense suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, Marc Z.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2012-01-01

    When a dense suspension is squeezed from a nozzle, droplet detachment can occur similar to that of pure liquids. While in pure liquids the process of droplet detachment is well characterized through self-similar profiles and known scaling laws, we show here the simple presence of particles causes suspensions to break up in a new fashion. Using high-speed imaging, we find that detachment of a suspension drop is described by a power law; specifically we find the neck minimum radius, rm, scales like near breakup at time τ = 0. We demonstrate data collapse in a variety of particle/liquid combinations, packing fractions, solvent viscosities, and initial conditions. We argue that this scaling is a consequence of particles deforming the neck surface, thereby creating a pressure that is balanced by inertia, and show how it emerges from topological constraints that relate particle configurations with macroscopic Gaussian curvature. This new type of scaling, uniquely enforced by geometry and regulated by the particles, displays memory of its initial conditions, fails to be self-similar, and has implications for the pressure given at generic suspension interfaces. PMID:22392979

  5. Interface-tracking electro-hydrodynamic model for droplet coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowl Erickson, Lindsay; Noble, David

    2012-11-01

    Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. micro-fluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface. The electro-hydrodynamic equations solved allow for convection of charge and charge accumulation at the interface, both of which may be important factors for the pinch-off dynamics in this parameter regime.

  6. Experiments examining drag in linear droplet packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. V.; Dunn-Rankin, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of vertically traveling droplet packets, where the droplets in each packet are aligned linearly, one behind another. The paper describes in detail, an experimental apparatus that produces repeatable, linearly aligned, and isolated droplet packets containing 1 6 droplets per packet. The apparatus is suitable for examining aerodynamic interactions between droplets within each packet. This paper demonstrates the performance of the apparatus by examining the drag reduction and collision of droplets traveling in the wake of a lead droplet. Comparison of a calculated single droplet trajectory with the detailed droplet position versus time data for a droplet packet provides the average drag reduction experienced by the trailing droplets due to the aerodynamic wake of the lead droplet. For the conditions of our experiment (4 droplet packet, 145 μm methanol droplets, 10 m/s initial velocity, initial droplet spacing of 5.2 droplet diameters, Reynolds number approx. 80) the average drag on the first trailing droplet was found to be 75% of the drag on the lead droplet.

  7. Droplet Burns in the Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A fuel droplet burns in the Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) Experiment on STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:02/19:20 (approximate). This experiment, performed in the Middeck Glovebox, allows us to study the burning of fuels such as n-heptane, n-decane, methanol, ethanol, methanol/water mixtures, and heptane/hexadecane mixtures in droplets as large as 6 mm (nearly 1/4 inch). In this sequence, you see the burn of a 5mm droplet of n-heptane, in a 30% O2/He environment at 1 atmosphere pressure. The droplet (looking bright pink because of reflected light) hangs suspended from the supporting fiber. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (279KB JPEG, 1350 x 2026 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300175.html.

  8. Leidenfrost levitation: beyond droplets

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Ali; Xu, Yuhao; Coder, Benjamin; Osborne, Paul A.; Spafford, Jonathon; Michael, Grant E.; Yu, Gan; Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Friction is a major inhibitor in almost every mechanical system. Enlightened by the Leidenfrost effect – a droplet can be levitated by its own vapor layer on a sufficiently hot surface – we demonstrate for the first time that a small cart can also be levitated by Leidenfrost vapor. The levitated cart can carry certain amount of load and move frictionlessly over the hot surface. The maximum load that the cart can carry is experimentally tested over a range of surface temperatures. We show that the levitated cart can be propelled not only by gravitational force over a slanted flat surface, but also self-propelled over a ratchet shaped horizontal surface. In the end, we experimentally tested water consumption rate for sustaining the levitated cart, and compared the results to theoretical calculations. If perfected, this frictionless Leidenfrost cart could be used in numerous engineering applications where relative motion exists between surfaces. PMID:23150770

  9. Lossless droplet transfer of droplet-based microfluidic analysis

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ryan T; Tang, Keqi; Page, Jason S; Smith, Richard D

    2011-11-22

    A transfer structure for droplet-based microfluidic analysis is characterized by a first conduit containing a first stream having at least one immiscible droplet of aqueous material and a second conduit containing a second stream comprising an aqueous fluid. The interface between the first conduit and the second conduit can define a plurality of apertures, wherein the apertures are sized to prevent exchange of the first and second streams between conduits while allowing lossless transfer of droplets from the first conduit to the second conduit through contact between the first and second streams.

  10. Points, skyrmions and torons in chiral nematic droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posnjak, Gregor; Čopar, Simon; Muševič, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Chiral nematic droplets with perpendicular surface alignment of liquid crystalline molecules frustrate the helical structure into convoluted 3D textures with complex topology. We observe the droplets with fluorescent confocal polarising microscopy (FCPM), and reconstruct and analyse for the first time the topology of the 3D director field using a novel method of director reconstruction from raw data. We always find an odd number of topological defects, which preserve the total topological charge of the droplet of +1 regardless of chirality. At higher chirality, we observe up to 5 point hedgehog defects, which are elastically stabilized with convoluted twisted structures, reminiscent of 2D skyrmions and toron-like structure, nested into a sphere.

  11. Points, skyrmions and torons in chiral nematic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Posnjak, Gregor; Čopar, Simon; Muševič, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Chiral nematic droplets with perpendicular surface alignment of liquid crystalline molecules frustrate the helical structure into convoluted 3D textures with complex topology. We observe the droplets with fluorescent confocal polarising microscopy (FCPM), and reconstruct and analyse for the first time the topology of the 3D director field using a novel method of director reconstruction from raw data. We always find an odd number of topological defects, which preserve the total topological charge of the droplet of +1 regardless of chirality. At higher chirality, we observe up to 5 point hedgehog defects, which are elastically stabilized with convoluted twisted structures, reminiscent of 2D skyrmions and toron-like structure, nested into a sphere. PMID:27198649

  12. Colloidal transport phenomena of milk components during convective droplet drying.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nan; Woo, Meng Wai; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2011-10-15

    Material segregation has been reported for industrial spray-dried milk powders, which indicates potential material migration during drying process. The relevant colloidal transport phenomenon and the underlying mechanism are still under debate. This study extended the glass-filament single droplet drying technique to observe not only the drying behaviour but also the dissolution behaviour of the correspondingly dried single particle. At progressively longer drying stage, a solvent droplet (water or ethanol) was attached to the semi-dried milk particle and the interaction between the solvent and the particle was video-recorded. Based on the different dissolution and wetting behaviours observed, material migration during milk drying was studied. Fresh skim milk and fresh whole milk were investigated using water and ethanol as solvents. Fat started to accumulate on the surface as soon as drying was started. At the initial stage of drying, the fat layer remained thin and the solubility of the semi-dried milk particle was much affected by lactose and protein present underneath the fat layer. Fat kept accumulating at the surface as drying progressed and the accumulation was completed by the middle stage of drying. The results from drying of model milk materials (pure sodium caseinate solution and lactose/sodium caseinate mixed solution) supported the colloidal transport phenomena observed for the milk drying. When mixed with lactose, sodium caseinate did not form an apparent solvent-resistant protein shell during drying. The extended technique of glass-filament single droplet approach provides a powerful tool in examining the solubility of individual particle after drying. PMID:21703825

  13. Levitation of liquid sodium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.S.; Cramb, A.W.; Hoburg, J.F.; Lally, B.

    1995-12-01

    Droplets of liquid sodium ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 g, immersed in mineral oil, were levitated in an electromagnetic field. The experimental setup was designed and constructed to levitate small metal droplets at audio frequencies. The levitated droplet was found to be very stable inside the inductor, and the equilibrium shape attained by the droplet in the electromagnetic field was measured during the experiment. A surface coupled mathematical model was used to calculate the self-consistent equilibrium droplet shape of liquid sodium under the influence of an electromagnetic field. The predicted shapes of the metal droplet and the position of the droplet inside the inductor compare well with the experimental data. The idea of casting metals and alloys without any physical contact has generated a lot of interest in the metals industry, especially in the production of metals/alloys that are highly reactive and have a very high melting point. Containerless casting can be achieved by levitating or pushing the liquid metal from the surface of the container.

  14. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics. PMID:26486337

  15. Droplet resonator based optofluidic microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraz, Alper; Jonáš, Alexandr; Aas, Mehdi; Karadag, Yasin; Brzobohatý, Oto; Ježek, Jan; Pilát, Zdeněk.; Zemánek, Pavel; Anand, Suman; McGloin, David

    2014-03-01

    We introduce tunable optofluidic microlasers based on active optical resonant cavities formed by optically stretched, dye-doped emulsion droplets confined in a dual-beam optical trap. To achieve tunable dye lasing, optically pumped droplets of oil dispersed in water are stretched by light in the dual-beam trap. Subsequently, resonant path lengths of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) propagating in the droplet are modified, leading to shifts in the microlaser emission wavelengths. We also report lasing in airborne, Rhodamine B-doped glycerolwater droplets which were localized using optical tweezers. While being trapped near the focal point of an infrared laser, the droplets were pumped with a Q-switched green laser. Furthermore, biological lasing in droplets supported by a superhydrophobic surface is demonstrated using a solution of Venus variant of the yellow fluorescent protein or E. Coli bacterial cells expressing stably the Venus protein. Our results may lead to new ways of probing airborne particles, exploiting the high sensitivity of stimulated emission to small perturbations in the droplet laser cavity and the gain medium.

  16. Acceleration of reaction in charged microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kyoo; Banerjee, Shibdas; Nam, Hong Gil; Zare, Richard N

    2015-11-01

    Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we have studied the synthesis of isoquinoline in a charged electrospray droplet and the complexation between cytochrome c and maltose in a fused droplet to investigate the feasibility of droplets to drive reactions (both covalent and noncovalent interactions) at a faster rate than that observed in conventional bulk solution. In both the cases we found marked acceleration of reaction, by a factor of a million or more in the former and a factor of a thousand or more in the latter. We believe that carrying out reactions in microdroplets (about 1-15 μm in diameter corresponding to 0·5 pl - 2 nl) is a general method for increasing reaction rates. The mechanism is not presently established but droplet evaporation and droplet confinement of reagents appear to be two important factors among others. In the case of fused water droplets, evaporation has been shown to be almost negligible during the flight time from where droplet fusion occurs and the droplets enter the heated capillary inlet of the mass spectrometer. This suggests that (1) evaporation is not responsible for the acceleration process in aqueous droplet fusion and (2) the droplet-air interface may play a significant role in accelerating the reaction. We argue that this 'microdroplet chemistry' could be a remarkable alternative to accelerate slow and difficult reactions, and in conjunction with mass spectrometry, it may provide a new arena to study chemical and biochemical reactions in a confined environment. PMID:26537403

  17. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  18. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  19. An intelligent digital microfluidic system with fuzzy-enhanced feedback for multi-droplet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Liu, Xianming; Chen, Tianlan; Mak, Pui-In; Du, Yuguang; Vai, Mang-I; Lin, Bingcheng; Martins, Rui P

    2013-02-01

    The complexity of droplet hydrodynamics on a digital microfluidic (DMF) system eventually weakens its potential for application in large-scale chemical/biological micro-reactors. We describe here an intelligent DMF technology to address that intricacy. A wide variety of control-engaged droplet manageability is proposed and demonstrated through the operation of our modular DMF prototype, which comprises: (i) rigid profiling ability of different droplet's hydrodynamics under a real-time trajectory track of droplet-derived capacitance, permitting accurate and autonomous multi-droplet positioning without visual setup and heavy image signal processing; (ii) fuzzy-enhanced controllability saving up to 21% charging time when compared with the classical approach, enhancing the throughput, fidelity and lifetime of the DMF chip, while identifying and renouncing those weakened electrodes deteriorated over time, and (iii) expert manipulability of multi-droplet routings under countermeasure decisions in real time, preventing droplet-to-droplet or task-to-task interference. Altogether, this work exhibits the first modular DMF system with built-in electronic-control software-defined intelligence to enhance the fidelity and reliability of each droplet operation, allowing future manufacturability of a wide range of life science analyses and combinatorial chemical screening applications. PMID:23232546

  20. Thermocapillary Convection in Liquid Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this video is to understand the effects of surface tension on fluid convection. The fluid system chosen is the liquid sessile droplet to show the importance in single crystal growth, the spray drying and cooling of metal, and the advance droplet radiators of the space stations radiators. A cross sectional representation of a hemispherical liquid droplet under ideal conditions is used to show internal fluid motion. A direct simulation of buoyancy-dominant convection and surface tension-dominant convection is graphically displayed. The clear differences between two mechanisms of fluid transport, thermocapillary convection, and bouncy dominant convection is illustrated.

  1. Orbiting pairs of walking droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefert, Emmanuel; Bush, John W. M.; Oza, Anand

    2015-11-01

    Droplets may self-propel on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath, pushed forward by their own Faraday pilot-wave field. We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the interaction of pairs of such droplets. Particular attention is given to characterizing the system's dependence on the vibrational forcing of the bath and the impact parameter of the walking droplets. Observed criteria for the capture and stability of orbital pairs are rationalized by accompanying theoretical developments. Thanks to the NSF.

  2. Reply to "Comment on `The effect of the charge density of microemulsion droplets on the bending elasticity of their amphiphilic film' " [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4077 (2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, B.; Gradzielski, M.

    2002-08-01

    We show that the criticism as expressed by Lisy is irrelevant. The formalism he developed is identical to the one we used and the only term in which we differ is a matter of choice of reference system. In any case he completely misses the main point of the paper with respect to the physics of the system, namely the apparently lacking influence of the charge density on the bending elasticity.

  3. Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery for a 10-inch Single Stage Centrifugal Contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B.; Leung, D.T.; Baffling, K.E.; Harmon, H.D.; Suggs, P.C.

    2006-07-01

    A test program has been performed to characterize the organic solvent carryover and recovery from centrifugal contactors in the Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. CSSX is the baseline design for removing cesium from salt solutions for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract cesium from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. Meeting the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Saltstone, as well as plant economics, dictate that solvent loss should be kept to a minimum. Solvent droplet size distribution in the aqueous outlet streams of the CSSX contactors is of particular importance to the design of solvent recovery equipment. Because insufficient solvent droplet size data existed to form a basis for the recovery system design, DOE funded the CSSX Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery Test (SCCRT). This paper presents the droplet size distribution of solvent and concentration in the contactor aqueous outlet streams as a function of rotor speed, bottom plate type, and flow rate. It also presents the performance data of a prototype coalescer. (authors)

  4. Droplet spectral broadening in marine stratus

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.G.; Yum, Seong Soo

    1997-11-15

    Broadening of the cloud droplet (diameter < 50 {mu}m) spectrum with increased droplet size was found to depend on the vertical profiles of cloud water. Clouds with liquid water profiles resembling adiabatic conditions displayed constant spectral widths. Other clouds displayed broader droplet spectra and increasing broadness with mean droplet sizes. Less than adiabatic cloud liquid water profiles may be accounted for by conversion to drops (diameter > 50 {mu}m, i.e., drizzle). Broad droplet spectra were most closely associated with drizzle drops. Both the concentration, C and slope, k, of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra were theoretically found to affect droplet spectral width. For individual cloud parcels a higher C and lower k each contributed to broader droplet spectra. When mixing among cloud parcels with different updrafts was considered, the predictions deviated especially at larger mean droplet diameters. Variations in updraft velocity result in differences in droplet concentrations and mean droplet sizes. The predictions for this internal mixing process showed greater droplet spectral widths for CCN spectra with higher k, especially at the larger mean droplet diameters. Instead of the individual parcel predictions of narrower droplet spectra at larger mean droplet sizes, internal mixing predicted increasing droplet spectral width with increasing mean droplet size. These predictions are consistent with the observations. First, when only cloud parcels with small mean droplet diameters (< 1 {mu}m) were considered, the polluted clouds that formed on CCN with higher C and lower k displayed broader droplet spectra than clean clouds. Cloud parcels with large mean droplet diameters (>12 {mu}m) and large {sigma} were observed only in clean conditions where k was high. Increasing droplet spectral width with mean droplet diameter (especially > 12 {mu}m) is typical of many observations here and elsewhere.

  5. Solvent Reaction Field Potential inside an Uncharged Globular Protein: A Bridge between Implicit and Explicit Solvent Models?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nathan A.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The solvent reaction field potential of an uncharged protein immersed in Simple Point Charge/Extended (SPC/E) explicit solvent was computed over a series of molecular dynamics trajectories, intotal 1560 ns of simulation time. A finite, positive potential of 13 to 24 kbTec−1 (where T = 300K), dependent on the geometry of the solvent-accessible surface, was observed inside the biomolecule. The primary contribution to this potential arose from a layer of positive charge density 1.0 Å from the solute surface, on average 0.008 ec/Å3, which we found to be the product of a highly ordered first solvation shell. Significant second solvation shell effects, including additional layers of charge density and a slight decrease in the short-range solvent-solvent interaction strength, were also observed. The impact of these findings on implicit solvent models was assessed by running similar explicit-solvent simulations on the fully charged protein system. When the energy due to the solvent reaction field in the uncharged system is accounted for, correlation between per-atom electrostatic energies for the explicit solvent model and a simple implicit (Poisson) calculation is 0.97, and correlation between per-atom energies for the explicit solvent model and a previously published, optimized Poisson model is 0.99. PMID:17949217

  6. Application of an integrated phase Doppler interferometer/rainbow thermometer/point-diffraction interferometer for characterizing burning droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Sankar, S.V.; Buermann, D.H.; Ibrahim, K.M.; Bachalo, W.D.

    1994-12-31

    A laser-based, nonintrusive diagnostic instrument has been developed for simultaneously measuring the velocity, size, temperature (refractive index) of burning droplets, and the gas-phase temperature field surrounding the burning droplet. The developed diagnostic is suitable for experimental studies involving single droplet/droplet array combustion. The size and velocity of the droplets are measured using the well-established phase Doppler interferometric technique. The temperature/refractive index of the droplets are determined by measuring the primary rainbow location with a linear charge coupled device (CCD) array. The gas-phase temperature distribution is inferred from interferograms obtained with point-diffraction interferometry (PDI). The three diagnostic techniques have been completely integrated to yield a single diagnostic instrument. New algorithms have been developed for extracting and normalizing the interferograms from noisy digital images. Methods for unambiguous phase unwrapping were also identified. The integrated diagnostic was tested by applying it to the case of isolated burning n-heptane droplets in motion. Using a combined experimental/theoretical approach, it was possible to extract the radial temperature profile of the gas phase surrounding the droplet in addition to the droplet velocity size, and temperature. The integrated diagnostic tool has significant potential for studying fundamental droplet combustion processes and for validating state-of-the-art droplet/spray combustion models.

  7. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  8. Droplet combustion at reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, F. L.; Williams, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The current work involves theoretical analyses of the effects identified, experiments in the NASA Lewis drop towers performed in the middeck areas of the Space Shuttle. In addition, there is laboratory work associated with the design of the flight apparatus. Calculations have shown that some of the test-matrix data can be obtained in drop towers, and some are achievable only in the space experiments. The apparatus consists of a droplet dispensing device (syringes), a droplet positioning device (opposing, retractable, hollow needles), a droplet ignition device (two matched pairs of retractable spark electrodes), gas and liquid handling systems, a data acquisition system (mainly giving motion-picture records of the combustion in two orthogonal views, one with backlighting for droplet resolution), and associated electronics.

  9. Droplets engulfing on a filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Fa; Yu, Meng; Zhou, Zhengping; Bedarkar, Amol; Zhao, Youhao

    2014-03-01

    Two immiscible droplets wetting on a filament may assume engulfing, partial-engulfing, or non-engulfing morphology that depends on the wetting behavior and geometries of the resulting droplet-on-filament system. This paper studies the wetting behavior of two immiscible droplets contacting and sitting symmetrically on a straight filament. A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is formulated for determining the wetting morphology of the droplet-on-filament system. In the limiting case of engulfing or non-engulfing, the morphology of the droplet-on-filament system is determined in explicit form. In the case of partial-engulfing, surface finite element method is further employed for determining the wetting morphology, surface energy, and internal pressures of droplets of the system. Numerical scaling study is performed to explore their dependencies upon the wetting properties and geometries of the system. The study can be applicable for analysis and design of textiles with tailorable wetting properties and development of novel multifunctional fibrous materials for environmental protection such as oil-spill sorption, etc.

  10. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  11. Electrically Controllable Microparticle Synthesis and Digital Microfluidic Manipulation by Electric-Field-Induced Droplet Dispensing into Immiscible Fluids.

    PubMed

    Um, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Im, Do Jin; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2016-01-01

    The dispensing of tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in a myriad of applications, such as DNA/protein microarray, cell cultures, chemical synthesis of microparticles, and digital microfluidics. This work systematically demonstrates droplet dispensing into immiscible fluids through electric charge concentration (ECC) method. It exhibits three main modes (i.e., attaching, uniform, and bursting modes) as a function of flow rates, applied voltages, and gap distances between the nozzle and the oil surface. Through a conventional nozzle with diameter of a few millimeters, charged droplets with volumes ranging from a few μL to a few tens of nL can be uniformly dispensed into the oil chamber without reduction in nozzle size. Based on the features of the proposed method (e.g., formation of droplets with controllable polarity and amount of electric charge in water and oil system), a simple and straightforward method is developed for microparticle synthesis, including preparation of colloidosomes and fabrication of Janus microparticles with anisotropic internal structures. Finally, a combined system consisting of ECC-induced droplet dispensing and electrophoresis of charged droplet (ECD)-driven manipulation systems is constructed. This integrated platform will provide increased utility and flexibility in microfluidic applications because a charged droplet can be delivered toward the intended position by programmable electric control. PMID:27534580

  12. Electrically Controllable Microparticle Synthesis and Digital Microfluidic Manipulation by Electric-Field-Induced Droplet Dispensing into Immiscible Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Um, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Im, Do Jin; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2016-01-01

    The dispensing of tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in a myriad of applications, such as DNA/protein microarray, cell cultures, chemical synthesis of microparticles, and digital microfluidics. This work systematically demonstrates droplet dispensing into immiscible fluids through electric charge concentration (ECC) method. It exhibits three main modes (i.e., attaching, uniform, and bursting modes) as a function of flow rates, applied voltages, and gap distances between the nozzle and the oil surface. Through a conventional nozzle with diameter of a few millimeters, charged droplets with volumes ranging from a few μL to a few tens of nL can be uniformly dispensed into the oil chamber without reduction in nozzle size. Based on the features of the proposed method (e.g., formation of droplets with controllable polarity and amount of electric charge in water and oil system), a simple and straightforward method is developed for microparticle synthesis, including preparation of colloidosomes and fabrication of Janus microparticles with anisotropic internal structures. Finally, a combined system consisting of ECC-induced droplet dispensing and electrophoresis of charged droplet (ECD)-driven manipulation systems is constructed. This integrated platform will provide increased utility and flexibility in microfluidic applications because a charged droplet can be delivered toward the intended position by programmable electric control. PMID:27534580

  13. High precision droplet based new form manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves,S; Hadjiconstantinou, N; Miller, W O; Orme, M; Sahai, V; Shapiro, A B

    1999-09-16

    In collaboration with the University of California at Irvine (UCI), we are working on a new technology that relies on the precise deposition of nanoliter molten-metal droplets that are targeted onto a substrate by electrostatic charging and deflection. By this way, three-dimensional (3D) structural materials can be manufactured microlayer by microlayer. Because the volume of the droplets are small, they rapidly solidify on impact, bringing forth a material component with fine grain structures which lead to enhanced material properties (e.g., strength). UCI is responsible for an experimental investigation of the manufacturing feasibility of this process. LLNL has unique expertise in the computational modeling of 3D heat transfer and solid mechanics and has the large-scale computer resources necessary to model this large system. Process modeling will help move this technology from the bench-top to an industrial process. Applications at LLNL include rapid prototyping of metal parts and manufacturing new alloys by co-jetting different metals.

  14. On-demand droplet release for droplet-based microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Chun; Liu, YingShuai; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-03-01

    On-demand droplet release from microwell was successfully implemented and well combined with droplet trapping/fusion functions to make an ideal and integrated droplet based microfluidic system. PMID:20162230

  15. Micro magnetofluidics: droplet manipulation of double emulsions based on paramagnetic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Misuk, Viktor; Mai, Andreas; Giannopoulos, Konstantinos; Alobaid, Falah; Epple, Bernd; Loewe, Holger

    2013-12-01

    The ability to control and manipulate discrete fluid droplets by magnetic fields offers new opportunities in microfluidics. A surfactant-free and easy to realize technique for the continuous generation of double emulsion droplets, composed of an organic solvent and a paramagnetic ionic liquid, is applied. The inner phase of the emulsion droplet consists of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with either iron, manganese, nickel or dysprosium containing anions which provide paramagnetic behaviour. The double emulsion droplets are dispersed in a continuous phase of FC-40. All substances - the organic phase, the paramagnetic ionic liquid and the continuous phase -are immiscible. The magnetic properties of ionic liquids allow, through the influence of external magnetic fields, the manipulation of individual emulsion droplets such as capture and release, rotation and distortion. Arrays of magnets allow a coalescence of emulsion droplets and their subsequent mixing by flowing through an alternating permanent magnetic field. In addition, the double emulsion droplets can be split and reunified, or continuously separated into their original phases. PMID:24108233

  16. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  17. Laser-Driven Nanoplasmas in Doped Helium Droplets: Local Ignition and Anisotropic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaberidze, Alexey; Saalmann, Ulf; Rost, Jan M.

    2009-03-01

    Doping a helium nanodroplet with only a tiny xenon cluster of a few atoms sparks complete ionization of the droplet at laser intensities below the ionization threshold of helium atoms. As a result, the intrinsically inert and transparent droplet turns into a fast and strong absorber of infrared light. Microscopic calculations reveal a two-step mechanism to be responsible for the dramatic change: Avalanchelike ionization of the helium atoms on a femtosecond time scale, driven by field ionization due to the quickly charged xenon core, is followed by resonant absorption enabled by an unusual cigar-shaped nanoplasma within the droplet.

  18. Interactions of PAMAM dendrimers with negatively charged model biomembranes.

    PubMed

    Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Porcar, Lionel; Martel, Anne; Coker, Helena; Lundberg, Dan; Chang, Debby P; Soltwedel, Olaf; Barker, Robert; Nylander, Tommy

    2014-11-13

    We have investigated the interactions between cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of generation 4 (G4), a potential gene transfection vector, with net-anionic model biomembranes composed of different ratios of zwitterionic phosphocholine (PC) and anionic phospho-L-serine (PS) phospholipids. Two types of model membranes were used: solid-supported bilayers, prepared with lipids carrying palmitoyl-oleoyl (PO) and diphytanoyl (DPh) acyl chains, and free-standing bilayers, formed at the interface between two aqueous droplets in oil (droplet interface bilayers, DIBs) using the DPh-based lipids. G4 dendrimers were found to translocate through POPC:POPS bilayers deposited on silica surfaces. The charge density of the bilayer affects translocation, which is reduced when the ionic strength increases. This shows that the dendrimer-bilayer interactions are largely controlled by their electrostatic attraction. The structure of the solid-supported bilayers remains intact upon translocation of the dendrimer. However, the amount of lipids in the bilayer decreases and dendrimer/lipid aggregates are formed in bulk solution, which can be deposited on the interfacial layers upon dilution of the system with dendrimer-free solvent. Electrophysiology measurements on DIBs confirm that G4 dendrimers cross the lipid membranes containing PS, which then become more permeable to ions. The obtained results have implications for PAMAM dendrimers as delivery vehicles to cells. PMID:25310456

  19. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  20. Solvent refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, T.C.; Sequeira, A.J.; Smith, B.F.

    1981-10-13

    An improved process is described for solvent refining lubricating oil base stocks from petroleum fractions containing both aromatic and nonaromatic constituents. The process utilizes n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as a selective solvent for aromatic hydrocarbons wherein the refined oil fraction and the extract fraction are freed of final traces of solvent by stripping with gaseous ammonia. The process has several advantages over conventional processes including a savings in energy required for the solvent refining process, and reduced corrosion of the process equipment.

  1. Liquid droplet radiator development status. [waste heat rejection devices for future space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan, III

    1987-01-01

    Development of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) is described. Significant published results of previous investigators are presented, and work currently in progress is discussed. Several proposed LDR configurations are described, and the rectangular and triangular configurations currently of most interest are examined. Development of the droplet generator, collector, and auxiliary components are discussed. Radiative performance of a droplet sheet is considered, and experimental results are seen to be in very good agreement with analytical predictions. The collision of droplets in the droplet sheet, the charging of droplets by the space plasma, and the effect of atmospheric drag on the droplet sheet are shown to be of little consequence, or can be minimized by proper design. The LDR is seen to be less susceptible than conventional technology to the effects of micrometeoroids or hostile threats. The identification of working fluids which are stable in the orbital environments of interest is also made. Methods for reducing spacecraft contamination from an LDR to an acceptable level are discussed. Preliminary results of microgravity testing of the droplet generator are presented. Possible future NASA and Air Force missions enhanced or enabled by a LDR are also discussed. System studies indicate that the LDR is potentially less massive than heat pipe radiators. Planned microgravity testing aboard the Shuttle or space station is seen to be a logical next step in LDR development.

  2. Survey of the literature: Controlled generation of liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Craig R.; Carlon, Hugh R.; Stuempfle, Arthur K.; Hoffer, Thomas E.; Pitter, Richard L.

    1988-08-01

    Techniques utilized in generating large drops from visco-elastic liquids, which are also referred to as non-Newtonian liquids, are surveyed, reviewed and evaluated. The minimum droplet size of interest was 0.2 mm (200 micrometers). Drop generation techniques considered include the capillary dropper, liquid jets, atomization, the spinning disc, vaporization-condensation, impulse generation, and other techniques. Of these, only three generator configurations were found to meet experimental requirements. These included a drop impulse/ejection system, a capillary device utilizing immiscible liquids, and a microfilm technique whereby presized drops are released into free fall by the sudden removal of the supporting microfilm utilizing a liquid solvent spray technique.

  3. Exploiting droplet formation in microfluidic devices to create functional particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Emilia; Simmons, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Microfluidic devices offer excellent capabilities for the formation of microstructured particles which have functional attributes e.g. in controlled delivery of pharmaceuticals, enhanced nutrition and flavours in food. In this work, a microfluidic device is employed to form microstructured particles in two steps: (i) by formation of single/double emulsions and (ii) solidification of the droplet by either gelation or solvent evaporation. Both may impart non-Newtonian properties to the component phases. The influence of phase flow rates (capillary number), surfactant type/concentration and the rheology of the component phases upon the particle formation and hydrodynamic behaviour are described. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  4. Dry Zones Around Frozen Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbano, Caitlin; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    The saturation pressure of water vapor above supercooled water exceeds that above ice at the same temperature. A frozen droplet will therefore grow by harvesting water vapor from neighboring supercooled condensate, which has recently been demonstrated to be a primary mechanism of in-plane frost growth on hydrophobic surfaces. The underlying physics of this source-sink interaction is still poorly understood. In this work, a deposited water droplet is frozen on a dry hydrophobic surface initially held above the dew point. We demonstrate that when the surface is then cooled beneath the dew point, the frozen droplet harvests nearby water vapor in the air. This results in an annular dry zone that forms between the frozen droplet and the forming supercooled condensation. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the length of the dry zone varied strongly with surface temperature and weakly with droplet volume. The dependence of the dry zone on surface temperature is due to the fact that the vapor pressure gradients between the ambient and the surface and between the liquid and frozen water are both functions of temperature.

  5. Droplets merging through wireless ultrasonic actuation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Praveen Priyaranjan; Kar, Durga Prasanna; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    A new technique of droplets merging through wireless ultrasonic actuation has been proposed and experimentally investigated in this work. The proposed method is based on the principle of resonant inductive coupling and piezoelectric resonance. When a mechanical vibration is excited in a piezoelectric plate, the ultrasonic vibration transmitted to the droplets placed on its surface and induces merging. It has been observed that the merging rate of water droplets depends on the operating frequency, mechanical vibration of piezoelectric plate, separation distance between the droplets, and volume of droplets. The investigated technique of droplets merging through piezoelectric actuation is quite useful for microfluidics, chemical and biomedical engineering applications. PMID:26299402

  6. Solvents and sustainable chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Solvents are widely recognized to be of great environmental concern. The reduction of their use is one of the most important aims of green chemistry. In addition to this, the appropriate selection of solvent for a process can greatly improve the sustainability of a chemical production process. There has also been extensive research into the application of so-called green solvents, such as ionic liquids and supercritical fluids. However, most examples of solvent technologies that give improved sustainability come from the application of well-established solvents. It is also apparent that the successful implementation of environmentally sustainable processes must be accompanied by improvements in commercial performance. PMID:26730217

  7. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  8. Dual solvent refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-04-20

    A dual solvent refining process is claimed for solvent refining petroleum based lubricating oil stocks with n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as selective solvent for aromatic oils wherein a highly paraffinic oil having a narrow boiling range approximating the boiling point of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is employed as a backwash solvent. The process of the invention results in an increased yield of refined lubricating oil stock of a predetermined quality and simplifies separation of the solvents from the extract and raffinate oil fractions.

  9. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  10. Vibration-Induced Droplet Atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. K.; James, A.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal management is critical to a number of technologies used in a microgravity environment and in Earth-based systems. Examples include electronic cooling, power generation systems, metal forming and extrusion, and HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning) systems. One technique that can deliver the large heat fluxes required for many of these technologies is two-phase heat transfer. This type of heat transfer is seen in the boiling or evaporation of a liquid and in the condensation of a vapor. Such processes provide very large heat fluxes with small temperature differences. Our research program is directed toward the development of a new, two-phase heat transfer cell for use in a microgravity environment. In this paper, we consider the main technology used in this cell, a novel technique for the atomization of a liquid called vibration-induced droplet atomization. In this process, a small liquid droplet is placed on a thin metal diaphragm that is made to vibrate by an attached piezoelectric transducer. The vibration induces capillary waves on the free surface of the droplet that grow in amplitude and then begin to eject small secondary droplets from the wave crests. In some situations, this ejection process develops so rapidly that the entire droplet seems to burst into a small cloud of atomized droplets that move away from the diaphragm at speeds of up to 50 cm/s. By incorporating this process into a heat transfer cell, the active atomization and transport of the small liquid droplets could provide a large heat flux capability for the device. Experimental results are presented that document the behavior of the diaphragm and the droplet during the course of a typical bursting event. In addition, a simple mathematical model is presented that qualitatively reproduces all of the essential features we have seen in a burst event. From these two investigations, we have shown that delayed droplet bursting results when the system passes through a resonance

  11. The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (167KB, 5-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300166.html.

  12. Electrostatic Effects on Droplet Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Fernandez, Arturo; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2002-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the effect of electric fields on the behavior of a suspensions of drops in channels. The effect of the electric field is modeled using the "leaky dielectric" model, coupled with the full Navier-Stokes equations. The governing equations are solved using a front-tracking/finite volume technique. The method has been validated by detailed comparison with previous results for the axisymmetric interactions of two drops in Stokes flow. An extensive set of two-dimensional simulations has allowed us to explore the effect of the conductivity and permittivity ratios in some detail. The interaction of two drops is controlled by two effects. The drops are driven together due to the charge distribution on the surface. Since the net charge of the drops is zero, the drops see each other as dipoles. This dielectrophoretic motion always leads to drops attraction. The second effect is fluid motion driven by tangential stresses at the fluid interface. The fluid motion depends on the relative magnitude of the permittivity and conductivity ratios. When the permittivity ratio is higher than the conductivity ratio, the tangential forces induce flow from the poles of the drops to the equator. If the center of two such drops lies on a line parallel to the electric field, the flow drains from the region between the drops and they attract each other. When the ratios are equal, no tangential motion is induced and the drops attract each other by dielectrophoretic motion. When an electric field is applied to many drops suspended in a channel flow, drops first attract each other pair-wise and some drops move to the wall. If the forces are strong (compared to the fluid shear) the drops can form columns or fibers, spanning the channel and blocking the two-dimensional flow. Electronic "fibration" of suspensions has been observed in a number of systems, including dispersion of milk droplets and red blood cells. If the attractive forces are weak

  13. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. For these data, diffusion from the upper surface of the drop is a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  14. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  15. Dielectrowetting Driven Spreading of Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, G.; Brown, C. V.; Newton, M. I.; Wells, G. G.; Sampara, N.

    2011-10-01

    The wetting of solid surfaces can be modified by altering the surface free energy balance between the solid, liquid, and vapor phases. Here we show that liquid dielectrophoresis induced by nonuniform electric fields can be used to enhance and control the wetting of dielectric liquids. In the limit of thick droplets, we show theoretically that the cosine of the contact angle follows a simple voltage squared relationship analogous to that found for electrowetting on dielectric. Experimental observations confirm this predicted dielectrowetting behavior and show that the induced wetting is reversible. Our findings provide a noncontact electrical actuation process for meniscus and droplet control.

  16. Effect of buffer cations and of H3O+ on the charge states of native proteins. Significance to determinations of stability constants of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Udo H; Peschke, Michael; Kebarle, Paul

    2003-06-01

    The progressive reduction of charge in charge states of non-denatured proteins (lysozyme, ubiquitin, and cytochrome c), observed with nanospray in the positive ion mode, when the buffer salt ammonium acetate is replaced by ethylammonium acetates (EtNH(3)Ac, Et(2)NH(2)Ac and Et(3)NHAc) is rationalized on the basis of the charge residue model (CRM). The charge states of the multiply protonated protein are shown to be controlled by the increasing gas-phase basicities, GB(B), of the bases(B) NH(3), EtNH(2), Et(2)NH and Et(3)N. Charge states derived from evaluated apparent gas-phase basicities GB(app) of the basic side-chains of the protein and the known GB(B) of the above bases are found to be in agreement with the experimentally observed charge states. This is a requirement of the CRM, because in this model the small positive ions (the buffer cations in the present case) at the surface of the electrospray droplets are the excess ions that provide the charge of the final small droplet that contains the protein molecule and on evaporation of the solvent transfer the charge to the protein. The observed charge states in the absence of buffer salts, i.e. pure water, are attributed to excess H(3)O(+) ions produced by the electrolysis process that attends electrospray. A proposed extended mechanism provides predictions of factors that determine the sensitivity for detection of the multiply protonated proteins. Consideration of restraints imposed by the CRM lead to some simple predictions for conditions that should be present to obtain accurate determinations by electrospray and nanospray of stability constants for the protein-complex equilibrium in aqueous solution. PMID:12827631

  17. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica Rutledge; Kristi Christensen; Troy Garn; Jack Law

    2010-12-01

    This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment including viscosity, density, surface tension, distribution coefficients, and diffusion coefficients. Then, experiments will be carried out to provide data for comparison to the simulation’s calculation of mass transfer coefficients. Experiments will be conducted with solutions used in the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process extraction section. The TRUEX process was chosen since it is one solvent extraction system currently proposed for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from used nuclear fuel, it is diffusion limited, testing can be performed using non radioactive lanthanides to evaluate mass transfer. The extraction section involves transfer of one or more lanthanide species from an aqueous solution to an organic solvent. Single droplets rising by buoyancy will be studied first. Droplet size and number of species transferred will be varied independently to provide mass transfer coefficients as a function of each variable. An apparatus has been designed specifically for these experiments. In order to get more accurate measurements of droplet size, contact time, time of droplet formation, and possibly droplet breakup and coalescence, a high speed camera will be utilized for these experiments. Other potential experiments include examining the effects of jetted droplets and shear flow on the mass transfer coefficients.

  18. Interdroplet attractive forces in AOT water-in-oil microemulsions formed in subcritical and supercritical solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, J.M.; Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D. )

    1990-03-08

    The van der Waals attractive interactions between aqueous droplets in water-in-oil type microemulsions have been investigated for a range of continuous-phase solvents including the alkanes from methane to isooctane and the noble gases, krypton and xenon. Hamaker constants for water droplets with surfactant shells of the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) in subcritical and supercritical solvents were calculated by using Lifshitz theory and the resulting interaction potential calculations qualitatively account for many features of the phase behavior of these systems.

  19. Materials science: Droplets leap into action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    What could cause a water droplet to start bouncing on a surface? It seems that a combination of evaporation and a highly water-repellent surface induces droplet bouncing when ambient pressure is reduced. See Letter p.82

  20. Beauveriolides, specific inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse macrophages, produced by Beauveria sp. FO-6979.

    PubMed

    Namatame, I; Tomoda, H; Si, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Masuma, R; Omura, S

    1999-01-01

    Beauveria sp. FO-6979, a soil isolate, was found to produce inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. A new compound beauveriolide III was isolated along with a known compound beauveriolide I from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, ODS column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Beauveriolides I and III caused a reduction in the number and size of cytosolic lipid droplets in macrophages at 10 microM without any cytotoxic effect on macrophages. PMID:10092189

  1. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations.

    PubMed

    You, David J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    A computer numerical control (CNC) apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using "wire-guided" method (a pipette tip was used in this study). This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate). Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction). The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability), in rapid succession (using droplets), and with a high level of

  2. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A computer numerical control (CNC) apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using “wire-guided” method (a pipette tip was used in this study). This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate). Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction). The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability), in rapid succession (using droplets), and with a high level of

  3. A QSPR study on the solvent-induced frequency shifts of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yu Heng; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ying Shao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, solvent-induced frequency shifts (SIFS) in the infrared spectrum of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents were investigated by using four types of quantum-chemical reactivity descriptors. The results showed that the SIFS of acetone is mainly affected by the electron-acceptance chemical potential and the maximum nucleophilic condensed local softness of organic solvents, which represent the electron flow and the polarization between acetone and solvent molecules. On the other hand, the SIFS of dimethyl sulfoxide changes with the maximum positive charge of hydrogen atom and the inverse of apolar surface area of solvent molecules, showing that the electrostatic and hydrophilic interactions are main mechanisms between dimethyl sulfoxide and solvent molecules. The introduction of the four-element theory model-based quantitative structure-property relationship approach improved the assessing quality and provided a basis for interpreting the solute-solvent interactions.

  4. A QSPR study on the solvent-induced frequency shifts of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu Heng; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ying Shao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, solvent-induced frequency shifts (SIFS) in the infrared spectrum of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents were investigated by using four types of quantum-chemical reactivity descriptors. The results showed that the SIFS of acetone is mainly affected by the electron-acceptance chemical potential and the maximum nucleophilic condensed local softness of organic solvents, which represent the electron flow and the polarization between acetone and solvent molecules. On the other hand, the SIFS of dimethyl sulfoxide changes with the maximum positive charge of hydrogen atom and the inverse of apolar surface area of solvent molecules, showing that the electrostatic and hydrophilic interactions are main mechanisms between dimethyl sulfoxide and solvent molecules. The introduction of the four-element theory model-based quantitative structure-property relationship approach improved the assessing quality and provided a basis for interpreting the solute-solvent interactions. PMID:26994584

  5. Sophisticated compound droplets on fiber networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, Floriane; Lismont, Marjorie; Dreesen, Laurent; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Droplets on fibers are part of our everyday lives. Indeed, many phenomena involve drops and fibers such as the formation of dew droplets on a spiderweb, the trapping of water droplets on cactus spines or the dyeing of cotton or wool fibers. Therefore, this topic has been widely studied in the recent years and it appears that droplets on fibers can be the starting point for an open digital microfluidics. We study the behavior of soapy water droplets on a fiber array. When a droplet slides along a vertical fiber and encounters a horizontal fiber, it can either stick there or continue its way. In the latter case, the droplet releases a tiny residue. We study the volume of these residues depending on the geometry of the node. By using this technique, a large number of small droplets can be trapped at the nodes of a fiber array. These residues can be encapsulated and collected by an oil droplet in order to create a multicompound droplet. Moreover, by using optical fibers, we can provoke and detect the fluorescence of the inner droplets. Fibers provide therefore an original way to study compound droplets and multiple reactions. F. Weyer is financially supported by an FNRS grant. This work is also supported by the FRFC 2.4504.12.

  6. Water droplet impact on elastic superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Weisensee, Patricia B; Tian, Junjiao; Miljkovic, Nenad; King, William P

    2016-01-01

    Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and industry, where the time of contact between droplet and surface influences the transfer of mass, momentum and energy. To manipulate and reduce the contact time of impacting droplets, previous publications report tailoring of surface microstructures that influence the droplet - surface interface. Here we show that surface elasticity also affects droplet impact, where a droplet impacting an elastic superhydrophobic surface can lead to a two-fold reduction in contact time compared to equivalent rigid surfaces. Using high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics on elastic nanostructured superhydrophobic substrates having membrane and cantilever designs with stiffness 0.5-7630 N/m. Upon impact, the droplet excites the substrate to oscillate, while during liquid retraction, the substrate imparts vertical momentum back to the droplet with a springboard effect, causing early droplet lift-off with reduced contact time. Through detailed experimental and theoretical analysis, we show that this novel springboarding phenomenon is achieved for a specific range of Weber numbers (We >40) and droplet Froude numbers during spreading (Fr >1). The observation of the substrate elasticity-mediated droplet springboard effect provides new insight into droplet impact physics. PMID:27461899

  7. Water droplet impact on elastic superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisensee, Patricia B.; Tian, Junjiao; Miljkovic, Nenad; King, William P.

    2016-07-01

    Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and industry, where the time of contact between droplet and surface influences the transfer of mass, momentum and energy. To manipulate and reduce the contact time of impacting droplets, previous publications report tailoring of surface microstructures that influence the droplet - surface interface. Here we show that surface elasticity also affects droplet impact, where a droplet impacting an elastic superhydrophobic surface can lead to a two-fold reduction in contact time compared to equivalent rigid surfaces. Using high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics on elastic nanostructured superhydrophobic substrates having membrane and cantilever designs with stiffness 0.5–7630 N/m. Upon impact, the droplet excites the substrate to oscillate, while during liquid retraction, the substrate imparts vertical momentum back to the droplet with a springboard effect, causing early droplet lift-off with reduced contact time. Through detailed experimental and theoretical analysis, we show that this novel springboarding phenomenon is achieved for a specific range of Weber numbers (We >40) and droplet Froude numbers during spreading (Fr >1). The observation of the substrate elasticity-mediated droplet springboard effect provides new insight into droplet impact physics.

  8. Droplet Combustion and Soot Formation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    One of the most complex processes involved in the combustion ot liquid fuels is the formation of soot. A well characterized flow field and simplified flame structure can improve considerably the understanding of soot formation processes. The simplest flame shape to analyze for a droplet is spherical with its associated one-dimensional flow field. It is a fundamental limit and the oldest and most often analyzed configuration of droplet combustion. Spherical symmetry in the droplet burning process will arise when there is no relative motion between the droplet and ambience or uneven heating around the droplet periphery, and buoyancy effects are negligible. The flame and droplet are then concentric with each other and there is no liquid circulation within the droplet. An understanding of the effect of soot on droplet combustion should therefore benefit from this simplified configuration. Soot formed during spherically symmetric droplet combustion, however, has only recently drawn attention and it appears to be one of the few aspects associated with droplet combustion which have not yet been thoroughly investigated. For this review, the broad subject of droplet combustion is narrowed considerably by restricting attention specifically to soot combined with spherically symmetric droplet burning processes that are promoted.

  9. Structure analysis using acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Leiterer, J; Delissen, F; Emmerling, F; Thünemann, A F; Panne, U

    2008-06-01

    Synchrotron diffraction with a micrometer-sized X-ray beam permits the efficient characterization of micrometer-sized samples, even in time-resolved experiments, which is important because often the amount of sample available is small and/or the sample is expensive. In this context, we will present acoustic levitation as a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquid samples, which are suspended in a gaseous environment (air) by means of a stationary ultrasonic field. A study of agglomeration and crystallization processes in situ was performed by continuously increasing the concentration of the samples by evaporating the solvent. Absorption and contamination processes on the sample container walls were suppressed strongly by this procedure, and parasitic scattering such as that observed when using glass capillaries was also absent. The samples investigated were either dissolved or dispersed in water droplets with diameters in the range of 1 micrometer to 2 millimeters. Initial results from time-resolved synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements of ascorbic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, apoferritin, and colloidal gold are presented. PMID:18373085

  10. Fabrication, Cleaning, and Filtering of Microscopic Droplet Beam Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J.; Hunter, M.; Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Doak, R. B.

    2006-10-01

    Structure determination of proteins is a subject of intense current interest. Most relevant is a protein's native conformation, which generally requires it be immersed in water (if water-soluble) or a lipid jacket (if a membrane protein). Emerging schemes of serial protein diffraction propose to embed proteins in microscopic water droplets (membrane proteins encased in a detergent micelle) and pass these in vacuum through an x-ray or electron beam. Droplet diameters of <2 μm and <200 nm are dictated by the respective probe penetration depths. Rayleigh nozzles of <1 μm and <100 nm can deliver such droplets, but clogging becomes a major hurdle at nozzle diameters below even 10 μm. This talk will present an extensive study of the cleaning, filtering, and operation of 4 μm diameter nozzles with intent to minimize clogging. Borosilicate and fused silica nozzles were investigated in both commercial and self-fabricated forms. Equipment was developed to flush the nozzles from both the tip and distal ends. A variety of solvents and detergents were tested, with and without sonication and both before and after the nozzle tip was formed. Flame burnishing was employed to smooth and clean the nozzles. In situ formation of silicate filter frits was investigated. Still, only about 30% of the 4 μm nozzles would run without clogging. An alternative to solid convergent nozzles will be described.

  11. Ice and water droplets on graphite: A comparison of quantum and classical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, Rafael; Singh, Jayant K.; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Böhm, Michael C.

    2014-11-28

    Ice and water droplets on graphite have been studied by quantum path integral and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The point-charge q-TIP4P/F potential was used to model the interaction between flexible water molecules, while the water-graphite interaction was described by a Lennard-Jones potential previously used to reproduce the macroscopic contact angle of water droplets on graphite. Several energetic and structural properties of water droplets with sizes between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 3} molecules were analyzed in a temperature interval of 50–350 K. The vibrational density of states of crystalline and amorphous ice drops was correlated to the one of ice Ih to assess the influence of the droplet interface and molecular disorder on the vibrational properties. The average distance of covalent OH bonds is found 0.01 Å larger in the quantum limit than in the classical one. The OO distances are elongated by 0.03 Å in the quantum simulations at 50 K. Bond distance fluctuations are large as a consequence of the zero-point vibrations. The analysis of the H-bond network shows that the liquid droplet is more structured in the classical limit than in the quantum case. The average kinetic and potential energy of the ice and water droplets on graphite has been compared with the values of ice Ih and liquid water as a function of temperature. The droplet kinetic energy shows a temperature dependence similar to the one of liquid water, without apparent discontinuity at temperatures where the droplet is solid. However, the droplet potential energy becomes significantly larger than the one of ice or water at the same temperature. In the quantum limit, the ice droplet is more expanded than in a classical description. Liquid droplets display identical density profiles and liquid-vapor interfaces in the quantum and classical limits. The value of the contact angle is not influenced by quantum effects. Contact angles of droplets decrease as the size of the water droplet

  12. Electric field effects on droplet burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patyal, Advitya; Kyritsis, Dimitrios; Matalon, Moshe

    2015-11-01

    The effects of an externally applied electric field are studied on the burning characteristics of a spherically symmetric fuel drop including the structure, mass burning rate and extinction characteristics of the diffusion flame. A reduced three-step chemical kinetic mechanism that reflects the chemi-ionization process for general hydrocarbon fuels has been proposed to capture the production and destruction of ions inside the flame zone. Due to the imposed symmetry, the effect of the ionic wind is simply to modify the pressure field. Our study thus focuses exclusively on the effects of Ohmic heating and kinetic effects on the burning process. Two distinguished limits of weak and strong field are identified, highlighting the relative strength of the internal charge barrier compared to the externally applied field, and numerically simulated. For both limits, significantly different charged species distributions are observed. An increase in the mass burning rate is noticed with increasing field in either limit with negligible change in the flame temperature. Increasing external voltages pushes the flame away from the droplet and causes a strengthening of the flame with a reduction in the extinction Damkhöler number.

  13. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  14. What Protein Charging (and Supercharging) Reveal about the Mechanism of Electrospray Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek; Lakshmanan, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the charging mechanism of electrospray ionization is central to overcoming shortcomings such as ion suppression or limited dynamic range and explaining phenomena such as supercharging. Towards that end, we explore what accumulated observations reveal about the mechanism of electrospray. We introduce the idea of an intermediate region for electrospray ionization (and other ionization methods) to account for the facts that solution charge state distributions (CSDs) do not correlate to those observed by ESI– MS (the latter bear more charge) and that gas phase reactions can reduce, but not increase the extent of charging. This region incorporates properties, e.g., basicities, intermediate between solution and gas phase. Assuming that droplet species polarize within the high electric field leads to equations describing ion emission resembling those from the equilibrium partitioning model. The equations predict many trends successfully, including CSD shifts to higher m/z for concentrated analytes and shifts to lower m/z for sprays employing smaller emitter opening diameters. From this view, a single mechanism can be formulated to explain how reagents that promote analyte charging (“supercharging”) such as m–NBA, sulfolane, and 3–nitrobenzonitrile increase analyte charge from “denaturing” and “native” solvent systems. It is suggested that additives’ Brønsted basicities are inversely correlated to their ability to shift CSDs to lower m/z in positive ESI, as are Brønsted acidities for negative ESI. Because supercharging agents reduce an analyte's solution ionization, excess spray charge is bestowed on evaporating ions carryingfewer opposing charges. Brønsted basicity (or acidity) determines how much ESI charge is lost to the agent (unavailable to evaporating analyte). PMID:25135609

  15. What Protein Charging (and Supercharging) Reveal about the Mechanism of Electrospray Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Lakshmanan, Rajeswari; Loo, Joseph A.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the charging mechanism of electrospray ionization is central to overcoming shortcomings such as ion suppression or limited dynamic range, and explaining phenomena such as supercharging. Towards that end, we explore what accumulated observations reveal about the mechanism of electrospray. We introduce the idea of an intermediate region for electrospray ionization (and other ionization methods) to account for the facts that solution charge state distributions (CSDs) do not correlate with those observed by ESI-MS (the latter bear more charge) and that gas phase reactions can reduce, but not increase, the extent of charging. This region incorporates properties (e.g., basicities) intermediate between solution and gas phase. Assuming that droplet species polarize within the high electric field leads to equations describing ion emission resembling those from the equilibrium partitioning model. The equations predict many trends successfully, including CSD shifts to higher m/z for concentrated analytes and shifts to lower m/z for sprays employing smaller emitter opening diameters. From this view, a single mechanism can be formulated to explain how reagents that promote analyte charging ("supercharging") such as m-NBA, sulfolane, and 3-nitrobenzonitrile increase analyte charge from "denaturing" and "native" solvent systems. It is suggested that additives' Brønsted basicities are inversely correlated to their ability to shift CSDs to lower m/z in positive ESI, as are Brønsted acidities for negative ESI. Because supercharging agents reduce an analyte's solution ionization, excess spray charge is bestowed on evaporating ions carrying fewer opposing charges. Brønsted basicity (or acidity) determines how much ESI charge is lost to the agent (unavailable to evaporating analyte).

  16. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  17. Spin torque-generated magnetic droplet solitons.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, S M; Sani, S R; Persson, J; Nguyen, T N Anh; Chung, S; Pogoryelov, Ye; Muduli, P K; Iacocca, E; Eklund, A; Dumas, R K; Bonetti, S; Deac, A; Hoefer, M A; Akerman, J

    2013-03-15

    Dissipative solitons have been reported in a wide range of nonlinear systems, but the observation of their magnetic analog has been experimentally challenging. Using spin transfer torque underneath a nanocontact on a magnetic thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), we have observed the generation of dissipative magnetic droplet solitons and report on their rich dynamical properties. Micromagnetic simulations identify a wide range of automodulation frequencies, including droplet oscillatory motion, droplet "spinning," and droplet "breather" states. The droplet can be controlled by using both current and magnetic fields and is expected to have applications in spintronics, magnonics, and PMA-based domain-wall devices. PMID:23493707

  18. Simulation of Airborne Microbial Droplet Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, Bruce; Kim, Jinwon

    1989-01-01

    The framework for a simulation model which describes the dispersion of individual droplets of water containing viable microbes is presented. The model accounts for physical, chemical, biological, and measured meteorological parameters of each droplet at each of many short time steps. Repeating the modeling process for many droplets will simulate a cloud of droplets. The model is compared with the Tulelake, Calif., release in 1988 and found to show very similar patterns of deposition within 30 m (the maximum observation distance of the source. A hypothesis for the survival sequence in the microbe-containing droplets is discussed. PMID:16348015

  19. Microfluidic approach to the formation of internally porous polymer particles by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takaichi; G Lopez, Carlos; Douglas, Jack F; Ono, Tsutomu; Cabral, João T

    2014-03-11

    We report the controlled formation of internally porous polyelectrolyte particles with diameters ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers through selective solvent extraction using microfluidics. Solvent-resistant microdevices, fabricated by frontal photopolymerization, encapsulate binary polymer (P)/solvent (S1) mixtures by a carrier solvent phase (C) to form plugs with well-defined radii and low polydispersity; the suspension is then brought into contact with a selective extraction solvent (S2) that is miscible with C and S1 but not P, leading to the extraction of S1 from the droplets. The ensuing phase inversion yields polymer capsules with a smooth surface but highly porous internal structure. Depending on the liquid extraction time scale, this stage can be carried out in situ, within the chip, or ex situ, in an external S2 bath. Bimodal polymer plugs are achieved using asymmetrically inverted T junctions. For this demonstration, we form sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (P) particles using water (S1), hexadecane (C), and methyl ethyl ketone (S2). We measure droplet extraction rates as a function of drop size and polymer concentration and propose a simple scaling model to guide particle formation. We find that the extraction time required to form particles from liquid droplets does not depend on the initial polymer concentration but is rather proportional to the initial droplet size. The resulting particle size follows a linear relationship with the initial droplet size for all polymer concentrations, allowing for the precise control of particle size. The internal particle porous structure exhibits a polymer density gradient ranging from a dense surface skin toward an essentially hollow core. Average particle porosities between 10 and 50% are achieved by varying the initial droplet compositions up to 15 wt % polymer. Such particles have potential applications in functional, optical, and coating materials. PMID:24568261

  20. Helium Droplets Doped with Sulfur and C60

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of sulfur are grown by passing superfluid helium nanodroplets through a pickup cell filled with sulfur vapor. In some experiments the droplets are codoped with C60. The doped droplets are collided with energetic electrons and the abundance distributions of positively and negatively charged cluster ions are recorded. We report, specifically, distributions of Sm+, Sm–, and C60Sm– containing up to 41 sulfur atoms. We also observe complexes of sulfur cluster anions with helium; distributions are presented for HenSm– with n ≤ 31 and m ≤ 3. The similarity between anionic and cationic C60Sm± spectra is in striking contrast to the large differences between spectra of Sm+ and Sm–. PMID:26045732

  1. Formation and Levitation of Unconfined Droplet Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S.; Ruff, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the confounding effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. The overall objective of this research is to study the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would fill a large gap in our current understanding of droplet and spray combustion and provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. This paper describes current work on the design and performance of an apparatus to generate and stabilize droplet clusters using acoustic and electrostatic forces.

  2. Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion. Experiment 32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagam, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.; Shaw, Ben D.

    1998-01-01

    Individual droplets with diameters ranging from about 2 mm to 5 mm were burned under microgravity conditions in air at 1 bar with an ambient temperature of 300 K. Each droplet was tethered by a silicon carbide fiber of 80 mm or 150 mm diameter to keep it in view of video recording, and, in some tests, a forced air flow was applied in a direction parallel to the fiber axis. Methanol, two methanol-water mixtures, two methanol-dodecanol mixtures, and two heptane-hexadecane mixtures were the fuels. Droplet diameters were measured as functions of time and compared with existing theoretical predictions. The prediction that methanol droplets extinguish at diameters that increase with increasing initial droplet diameter is verified by these experiments. In addition, the quasi-steady burning rate constant of the heptane-hexadecane mixtures appears to decrease with increasing droplet diameter; obscuration consistent with very heavy sooting, but without the formation of soot shells, is observed for the largest of these droplets. Forced convective flow around methanol droplets was found to increase the burning rate and to produce a ratio of downstream-to-upstream flame radius that remained constant as the droplet size decreased, a trend in agreement with earlier results obtained at higher convective velocities for smaller droplets having larger flame standoff ratios. There are a number of implications of the experimental results regarding droplet-combustion theory.

  3. The epididymis, cytoplasmic droplets and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Trevor G

    2011-01-01

    The potential of spermatozoa to become motile during post-testicular maturation, and the relationship between the cytoplasmic droplet and fertilizing capacity are reviewed. Post-testicular maturation of spermatozoa involves the autonomous induction of motility, which can occur in vivo in testes with occluded excurrent ducts and in vitro in testicular explants, and artefactual changes in morphology that appear to occur in the testis in vitro. Both modifications may reflect time-dependent oxidation of disulphide bonds of head and tail proteins. Regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which counters sperm swelling at ejaculation, is discussed in relation to loss of cytoplasmic droplets and consequences for fertility. It is postulated that: (i) fertile males possess spermatozoa with sufficient osmolytes to drive RVD at ejaculation, permitting the droplet to round up and pinch off without membrane rupture; and (ii) infertile males possess spermatozoa with insufficient osmolytes so that RVD is inadequate, the droplet swells and the resulting flagellar angulation prevents droplet loss. Droplet retention at ejaculation is a harbinger of infertility caused by failure of the spermatozoon to negotiate the uterotubal junction or mucous and reach the egg. In this hypothesis, the epididymis regulates fertility indirectly by the extent of osmolyte provision to spermatozoa, which influences RVD and therefore droplet loss. Man is an exception, because ejaculated human spermatozoa retain their droplets. This may reflect their short midpiece, approximating head length, permitting a swollen droplet to extend along the entire midpiece; this not only obviates droplet migration and flagellar angulation but also hampers droplet loss. PMID:21076437

  4. Nanoscale logic operation in optically manipulated micro-droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Yusuke; Nishimura, Takahiro; Tanida, Jun

    2010-08-01

    Logic gates consisting of DNA molecules are useful for direct processing of information that relates to biomolecules including DNA at nanoscale. This study is aimed at demonstrating operation of the DNA logic gates by optical manipulation of micro-droplets that contain DNA to show potential of photonics techniques in realizing nanoscale computing. Connections of different DNA logic gates are reconfigurable owing to flexibility in manipulating the micro-droplets. The method is effective in, for example, implementing logic operations in limited-volumes at multiple positions in parallel, enhancing an operation rate, and decreasing sample consumption, and it can be a promising technique applicable to photonic DNA computing. We used a two-input and one-output AND or OR gate consisting of DNA in experiments. The individual inputs, A and B, were encoded into different DNA molecules, I1 and I2, and the output was obtained from a fluorescence signal. Input A (B) is 1 when DNA I1 (I2) exists, and 0 when the DNA does not exist. Microdroplets were made by mixing DNA solution, acetophenone as solvent, and sorbitan monooleate as surfactant. For AND/OR operation, two micro-droplets, one of which contained input-DNAs and the other contained AND/OR logic gates, were optically manipulated to be in contact each other; then the micro-droplets coalesced and the operation started. Experimental results show that expected fluorescence intensities are obtained as the output for all possible input values, and logic operation can be implemented successfully in optically manipulated microdroplets.

  5. Electron Diffraction of Superfluid Helium Droplets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental results of electron diffraction of superfluid helium droplets and droplets doped with phthalocyanine gallium chloride and discuss the possibility of performing the same experiment with a laser aligned sample. The diffraction profile of pure droplets demonstrates dependence on the nozzle temperature, that is, on the average size of the droplets. Larger clusters demonstrate faster decay with increasing momentum transfer, whereas smaller clusters converge to isolated gas phase molecules at source temperatures of 18 K and higher. Electron diffraction of doped droplets shows similar modified molecular scattering intensity as that of the corresponding gas phase molecules. On the basis of fittings of the scattering profile, the number of remaining helium atoms of the doped droplets is estimated to be on the order of hundreds. This result offers guidance in assessing the possibility of electron diffraction from laser aligned molecules doped in superfluid helium droplets. PMID:24920997

  6. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  7. Exciplex fluorescence thermometry of falling hexadecane droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, T.R.; Melton, L.A. )

    1992-05-01

    Exciplex fluorescence thermometry has been used to measure the temperature of 283 micron hexadecane droplets falling through a quiescent, oxygen-free, approximately 500 C ambient. After a period of negligible change, the derived droplet temperatures exhibit a sharp rise of about 100 C followed by a gentle increase to approximately 200 C. The derived temperatures, although averaged over most of the volume of the droplet, still provide some evidence of internal processes in the droplet due to the partially selective optical sampling of the droplet volume, in which fluorescence from the region between 0.50 and 0.75 of the droplet is presumed to be approximately homogeneous, and the exciplex fluorescence thermometry measurements provide accurate, interpretable temperatures for the freely falling droplets.

  8. Enhanced Droplet Control by Transition Boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grounds, Alex; Still, Richard; Takashina, Kei

    2012-10-01

    A droplet of water on a heated surface can levitate over a film of gas produced by its own evaporation in the Leidenfrost effect. When the surface is prepared with ratchet-like saw-teeth topography, these droplets can self-propel and can even climb uphill. However, the extent to which the droplets can be controlled is limited by the physics of the Leidenfrost effect. Here, we show that transition boiling can be induced even at very high surface temperatures and provide additional control over the droplets. Ratchets with acute protrusions enable droplets to climb steeper inclines while ratchets with sub-structures enable their direction of motion to be controlled by varying the temperature of the surface. The droplets' departure from the Leidenfrost regime is assessed by analysing the sound produced by their boiling. We anticipate these techniques will enable the development of more sophisticated methods for controlling small droplets and heat transfer.

  9. Enhanced Droplet Control by Transition Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Grounds, Alex; Still, Richard; Takashina, Kei

    2012-01-01

    A droplet of water on a heated surface can levitate over a film of gas produced by its own evaporation in the Leidenfrost effect. When the surface is prepared with ratchet-like saw-teeth topography, these droplets can self-propel and can even climb uphill. However, the extent to which the droplets can be controlled is limited by the physics of the Leidenfrost effect. Here, we show that transition boiling can be induced even at very high surface temperatures and provide additional control over the droplets. Ratchets with acute protrusions enable droplets to climb steeper inclines while ratchets with sub-structures enable their direction of motion to be controlled by varying the temperature of the surface. The droplets' departure from the Leidenfrost regime is assessed by analysing the sound produced by their boiling. We anticipate these techniques will enable the development of more sophisticated methods for controlling small droplets and heat transfer. PMID:23056912

  10. Triboelectrification-Induced Large Electric Power Generation from a Single Moving Droplet on Graphene/Polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sung Soo; Lin, Shisheng; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Tae Yun; Zhong, Huikai; Chen, Hongsheng; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-08-23

    Recently, several reports have demonstrated that a moving droplet of seawater or ionic solution over monolayer graphene produces an electric power of about 19 nW, and this has been suggested to be a result of the pseudocapacitive effect between graphene and the liquid droplet. Here, we show that the change in the triboelectrification-induced pseudocapacitance between the water droplet and monolayer graphene on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) results in a large power output of about 1.9 μW, which is about 100 times larger than that presented in previous research. During the graphene transfer process, a very strong negative triboelectric potential is generated on the surface of the PTFE. Positive and negative charge accumulation, respectively, occurs on the bottom and the top surfaces of graphene due to the triboelectric potential, and the negative charges that accumulate on the top surface of graphene are driven forward by the moving droplet, charging and discharging at the front and rear of the droplet. PMID:27415838

  11. Spreading of Thin Droplets of Perfect and Leaky Dielectric Liquids on Inclined Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Andrew; Kumar, Satish

    2016-07-01

    The spreading of droplets may be influenced by electric fields, a situation that is relevant to applications such as coating, printing, and microfluidics. In this work we study the effects of an electric field on the gravity-driven spreading of two-dimensional droplets down an inclined plane. We consider both perfect and leaky dielectric liquids, as well as perfectly and partially wetting systems. In addition to the effects of electric fields, we examine the use of thermocapillary forces to suppress the growth of the capillary ridge near the droplet front. Lubrication theory is applied to generate a set of coupled partial differential equations for interfacial height and charge, which are then solved numerically with a finite-difference method. Electric fields increase the height of the capillary ridge in both perfect and leaky dielectric droplets due to electrostatic pressure gradients that drive liquid into the ridge. In leaky dielectrics, large interfacial charge gradients in the contact-line region create shear stresses that also enhance ridge growth and the formation of trailing minor ridges. The coalescence of these ridges can significantly affect the long-time thinning rate of leaky dielectric droplets. In partially wetting liquids, electric fields promote the splitting of smaller droplets from the primary droplet near the receding contact line due to the interplay between electrostatic forces and disjoining pressure. Cooling from below and heating from above generates thermocapillary forces that counteract the effects of electric fields and suppress the growth of the capillary ridge. The results of this work have important implications for manipulating the spreading of droplets down inclined surfaces. PMID:27247998

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  13. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and a low-emission vapor degreaser with closed solvent, liquid an...

  14. Solvent-free synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter gives a brief introduction about solvent-free reactions whose importance can be gauged by the increasing number of publications every year during the last decade. The mechanistic aspects of the reactions under solvent-free conditions have been highlighted. Our observ...

  15. Unraveling the rationale behind organic solvent stability of lipases.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Debamitra; Parameswaran, Saravanan; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Patra, Sanjukta

    2012-06-01

    Organic solvent-stable lipases have pronounced impact on industrial economy as they are involved in synthesis by esterification, interesterification, and transesterification. However, very few of such natural lipases have been isolated till date. A study of the recent past provided few pillars to rely on for this work. The three-dimensional structure, inclusive of the surface and active site, of 29 organic solvent-stable lipases was analyzed by subfamily classification and protein solvent molecular docking based on fast Fourier transform correlation approach. The observations revealed that organic solvent stability of lipases is their intrinsic property and unique with respect to each lipase. In this paper, factors like surface distribution of charged, hydrophobic, and neutral residues, interaction of solvents with catalytically immutable residues, and residues interacting with essential water molecules required for lipase activity, synergistically and by mutualism contribute to render a stable lipase organic solvent. The propensity of surface charge in relation to stability in organic solvents by establishing repulsive forces to exclude solvent molecules from interacting with the surface and prohibiting the same from gaining entry to the protein core, thus stabilizing the active conformation, is a new finding. It was also interesting to note that lipases having equivalent surface-exposed positive and negative residues were stable in a wide range of organic solvents, irrespective of their LogP values. PMID:22562495

  16. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  17. Shape-Shifting Droplet Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Wan, Duanduan; Schwarz, J M; Bowick, M J

    2016-03-11

    We consider a three-dimensional network of aqueous droplets joined by single lipid bilayers to form a cohesive, tissuelike material. The droplets in these networks can be programed to have distinct osmolarities so that osmotic gradients generate internal stresses via local fluid flows to cause the network to change shape. We discover, using molecular dynamics simulations, a reversible folding-unfolding process by adding an osmotic interaction with the surrounding environment which necessarily evolves dynamically as the shape of the network changes. This discovery is the next important step towards osmotic robotics in this system. We also explore analytically and numerically how the networks become faceted via buckling and how quasi-one-dimensional networks become three dimensional. PMID:27015513

  18. Droplet actuator analyzer with cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gregory F. (Inventor); Sturmer, Ryan A. (Inventor); Paik, Philip Y. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Vijay (Inventor); Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Pamula, Vamsee K. (Inventor); Brafford, Keith R. (Inventor); West, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator with cartridge is provided. According to one embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes an analyzer unit comprising electronic or optical receiving means, a cartridge comprising self-contained droplet handling capabilities, and a wherein the cartridge is coupled to the analyzer unit by a means which aligns electronic and/or optical outputs from the cartridge with electronic or optical receiving means on the analyzer unit. According to another embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes a sample analyzer comprising a cartridge coupled thereto and a means of electrical interface and/or optical interface between the cartridge and the analyzer, whereby electrical signals and/or optical signals may be transmitted from the cartridge to the analyzer.

  19. Shape-Shifting Droplet Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Wan, Duanduan; Schwarz, J. M.; Bowick, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a three-dimensional network of aqueous droplets joined by single lipid bilayers to form a cohesive, tissuelike material. The droplets in these networks can be programed to have distinct osmolarities so that osmotic gradients generate internal stresses via local fluid flows to cause the network to change shape. We discover, using molecular dynamics simulations, a reversible folding-unfolding process by adding an osmotic interaction with the surrounding environment which necessarily evolves dynamically as the shape of the network changes. This discovery is the next important step towards osmotic robotics in this system. We also explore analytically and numerically how the networks become faceted via buckling and how quasi-one-dimensional networks become three dimensional.

  20. Droplet Core Nuclear Rocket (DCNR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim

    1991-01-01

    The most basic design feature of the droplet core nuclear reactor is to spray liquid uranium into the core in the form of droplets on the order of five to ten microns in size, to bring the reactor to critical conditions. The liquid uranium fuel ejector is driven by hydrogen, and more hydrogen is injected from the side of the reactor to about one and a half meters from the top. High temperature hydrogen is expanded through a nozzle to produce thrust. The hydrogen pressure in the system can be somewhere between 50 and 500 atmospheres; the higher pressure is more desirable. In the lower core region, hydrogen is tangentially injected to serve two purposes: (1) to provide a swirling flow to protect the wall from impingement of hot uranium droplets: (2) to generate a vortex flow that can be used for fuel separation. The reactor is designed to maximize the energy generation in the upper region of the core. The system can result in and Isp of 2000 per second, and a thrust-to-weight ratio of 1.6 for the shielded reactor. The nuclear engine system can reduce the Mars mission duration to less than 200 days. It can reduce the hydrogen consumption by a factor of 2 to 3, which reduces the hydrogen load by about 130 to 150 metric tons.

  1. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, J. John Soundar Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe

    2013-11-15

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  2. The phosphorylation of serine 492 of perilipin a directs lipid droplet fragmentation and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Amy; Gauthier, Denise; Garcia, Anne; Brasaemle, Dawn L

    2006-04-28

    Perilipin A is a key regulator of triacylglycerol storage and hydrolysis in adipocytes; phosphorylation of perilipin A by protein kinase A facilitates maximal lipolysis. Chronic stimulation of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes causes large perinuclear lipid droplets to fragment into myriad dispersed perilipin A-covered microlipid droplets. In cultured fibroblasts stably expressing ectopic perilipin A, clustered lipid droplets disperse throughout the cytoplasm upon incubation of the cells with forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) to elevate levels of cAMP and activate protein kinase A, mirroring events observed in adipocytes. Furthermore, diethylum-belliferyl phosphate inhibits stimulated lipolysis but not the dispersion of lipid droplets, suggesting that products of lipolysis are not required for this remodeling process. We hypothesized that protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin A triggers the remodeling of lipid droplets. The mutation of serine 492 of perilipin A to alanine prevented the dispersion of clustered lipid droplets in fibroblasts stably expressing the mutated perilipin upon incubation with forskolin and IBMX. In contrast, the substitution of serines 81, 222, 276, or 433 with alanine, either singly or in combinations, did not affect the protein kinase A-mediated remodeling of lipid droplets. Interestingly, substitution of serines 433, 492, and 517 of perilipin A with glutamic acid residues blocked the dispersion of clustered lipid droplets in cells incubated with forskolin and IBMX, indicating that the addition of a negative charge does not mimic a phosphate group. We conclude that protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of serine 492 of perilipin A drives the fragmentation and dispersion of lipid droplets. PMID:16488886

  3. Charge-induced secondary atomization in diffusion flames of electrostatic sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Alessandro; Chen, Gung

    1994-01-01

    The combustion of electrostatic sprays of heptane in laminar counterflow diffusion flames was experimentally studied by measuring droplet size and velocity distributions, as well as the gas-phase temperature. A detailed examination of the evolution of droplet size distribution as droplets approach the flame shows that, if substantial evaporation occurs before droplets interact with the flame, an initially monodisperse size distribution becomes bimodal. A secondary sharp peak in the size histogram develops in correspondence of diameters about one order of magnitude smaller than the mean. No evaporation mechanism can account for the development of such bimodality, that can be explained only in terms of a disintegration of droplets into finer fragments of size much smaller than that of the parent. Other evidence in support of this interpretation is offered by the measurements of droplet size-velocity correlation and velocity component distributions, showing that, as a consequence of the ejection process, the droplets responsible for the secondary peak have velocities uncorrelated with the mean flow. The fission is induced by the electric charge. When a droplet evaporates, in fact, the electric charge density on the droplet surface increases while the droplet shrinks, until the so-called Rayleigh limit is reached at which point the repulsion of electric charges overcomes the surface tension cohesive force, ultimately leading to a disintegraton into finer fragments. We report on the first observation of such fissions in combustion environments. If, on the other hand, insufficient evaporation has occurred before droplets enter the high temperature region, there appears to be no significant evidence of bimodality in their size distribution. In this case, in fact, the concentration of flame chemi-ions or, in the case of positively charged droplets, electrons may be sufficient for them to neutralize the charge on the droplets and to prevent disruption.

  4. Insight into instabilities in burning droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2014-03-01

    The complex multiscale physics of nano-particle laden functional droplets in a reacting environment is of fundamental and applied significance for a wide variety of applications ranging from thermal sprays to pharmaceutics to modern day combustors using new brands of bio-fuels. Formation of homogenous nucleated bubbles at the superheat limit inside vaporizing droplets (with or without nanoparticles) represents an unstable system. Here we show that self-induced boiling in burning functional pendant droplets can produce severe volumetric shape oscillations. Internal pressure build-up due to ebullition activity ejects bubbles from the droplet domain causing undulations on the droplet surface and oscillations in bulk. Through experiments, we establish that the degree of droplet deformation depends on the frequency and intensity of these bubble expulsion events. In a distinct regime of single isolated bubble residing in the droplet, however, pre-ejection transient time is identified by Darrieus-Landau evaporative instability, where bubble-droplet system behaves as a synchronized driver-driven system with bulk bubble-shape oscillations being imposed on the droplet. The agglomeration of nanophase additives modulates the flow structures within the droplet and also influences the bubble inception and growth leading to different levels of instabilities.

  5. Bouncing of polymeric droplets on liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Gier, S; Dorbolo, S; Terwagne, D; Vandewalle, N; Wagner, C

    2012-12-01

    The effect of polymers on the bouncing behavior of droplets in a highly viscous, vertically shaken silicone oil bath was investigated in this study. Droplets of a sample liquid were carefully placed on a vibrating bath that was maintained well below the threshold of Faraday waves. The bouncing threshold of the plate acceleration depended on the acceleration frequency. For pure water droplets and droplets of aqueous polymer solutions, a minimum acceleration amplitude was observed in the acceleration threshold curves as a function of frequency. The bouncing acceleration amplitude for a droplet of a dilute aqueous polymer solution was higher than the acceleration amplitude for a pure water droplet. Measurements of the center of mass trajectory and the droplet deformations showed that the controlling parameter in the bouncing process was the oscillating elongational rate of the droplet. This parameter can be directly related to the elongational viscosity of the polymeric samples. The large elongational viscosity of the polymer solution droplets suppressed large droplet deformations, resulting in less chaotic bouncing. PMID:23368045

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  7. Rapid microfabrication of solvent-resistant biocompatible microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Hung, Lung-Hsin; Lin, Robert; Lee, Abraham Phillip

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a rapid, simple, and low-cost fabrication method to prepare solvent resistant and biocompatible microfluidic devices with three-dimensional geometries. The devices were fabricated in thiolene and replicated from PDMS master with high molding fidelity. Good chemical compatibility for organic solvents allows volatile chemicals in synthesis and analysis applications. The surface can be processed to be hydrophobic or hydrophilic for water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. Monodisperse organic solvent droplet generation is demonstrated to be reproducible in thiolene microchannels without swelling. The thiolene surface prevents cell adhesion but normal cell growth and adhesion on glass substrates is not affected by the adjacent thiolene patterns. PMID:18497921

  8. [Micro-droplet characterization and its application for amino acid detection in droplet microfluidic system].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huiling; Dong, Libing; Tu, Ran; Du, Wenbin; Ji, Shiru; Wang, Qinhong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the droplet microfluidic system attracts interests due to its high throughput and low cost to detect and screen. The picoliter micro-droplets from droplet microfluidics are uniform with respect to the size and shape, and could be used as monodispensed micro-reactors for encapsulation and detection of single cell or its metabolites. Therefore, it is indispensable to characterize micro-droplet and its application from droplet microfluidic system. We first constructed the custom-designed droplet microfluidic system for generating micro-droplets, and then used the micro-droplets to encapsulate important amino acids such as glutamic acid, phenylalanine, tryptophan or tyrosine to test the droplets' properties, including the stability, diffusivity and bio-compatibility for investigating its application for amino acid detection and sorting. The custom-designed droplet microfluidic system could generate the uniformed micro-droplets with a controllable size between 20 to 50 microm. The micro-droplets could be stable for more than 20 h without cross-contamination or fusion each other. The throughput of detection and sorting of the system is about 600 micro-droplets per minute. This study provides a high-throughput platform for the analysis and screening of amino acid-producing microorganisms. PMID:24818488

  9. Oscillatory combustion of liquid monopropellant droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanin, S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted on the open-loop combustion response of monopropellant droplets and sprays to imposed pressure oscillations. The theoretical model was solved as a perturbation analysis through first order, yielding linear response results. Unsteady gas phase effects were considered in some cases, but the bulk of the calculations assumed a quasi-steady gas phase. Calculations were conducted using properties corresponding to hydrazine decomposition. Zero-order results agreed with earlier measurements of hydrazine droplet burning in combustion gases. The droplet response was greatest (exceeding unity in some cases) for large droplets with liquid phase temperature gradients; at frequencies near the characteristic frequency of the liquid phase thermal wave. The response of a spray is less than that of its largest droplet, however, a relatively small percentage of large droplets provides a substantial response (exceeding unity in some cases).

  10. Supercritical droplet combustion and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor; Hsieh, K. C.; Shuen, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in theoretical analyses of supercritical droplet vaporization and combustion is conducted. Both hydrocarbon and cryogenic liquid droplets over a wide range of thermodynamic states are considered. Various important high-pressure effects on droplet behavior, such as thermodynamic non-ideality, transport anomaly, and property variation, are reviewed. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influence on fluid transport, gas-liquid interfacial thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibit a considerable change in the combustion mechanism at the criticl pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure. The influence of droplet size on the burning characteristics is also noted.

  11. A parameterization of cloud droplet nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J. ); Chuang, C.; Penner, J.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Droplet nucleation is a fundamental cloud process. The number of aerosols activated to form cloud droplets influences not only the number of aerosols scavenged by clouds but also the size of the cloud droplets. Cloud droplet size influences the cloud albedo and the conversion of cloud water to precipitation. Global aerosol models are presently being developed with the intention of coupling with global atmospheric circulation models to evaluate the influence of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions on climate. If these and other coupled models are to address issues of aerosol-cloud interactions, the droplet nucleation process must be adequately represented. Here we introduce a droplet nucleation parametrization that offers certain advantages over the popular Twomey (1959) parameterization.

  12. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Shani; Sapir, Zvi; Schultz, Moty; Butenko, Alexander V; Ocko, Benjamin M; Deutsch, Moshe; Sloutskin, Eli

    2016-01-19

    Liquid droplets, widely encountered in everyday life, have no flat facets. Here we show that water-dispersed oil droplets can be reversibly temperature-tuned to icosahedral and other faceted shapes, hitherto unreported for liquid droplets. These shape changes are shown to originate in the interplay between interfacial tension and the elasticity of the droplet's 2-nm-thick interfacial monolayer, which crystallizes at some T = Ts above the oil's melting point, with the droplet's bulk remaining liquid. Strikingly, at still-lower temperatures, this interfacial freezing (IF) effect also causes droplets to deform, split, and grow tails. Our findings provide deep insights into molecular-scale elasticity and allow formation of emulsions of tunable stability for directed self-assembly of complex-shaped particles and other future technologies. PMID:26733673

  13. Electropermanent magnet actuation for droplet ferromicrofluidics

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, José I.; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Howe, Roger T.

    2016-01-01

    Droplet actuation is an essential mechanism for droplet-based microfluidic systems. On-demand electromagnetic actuation is used in a ferrofluid-based microfluidic system for water droplet displacement. Electropermanent magnets (EPMs) are used to induce 50 mT magnetic fields in a ferrofluid filled microchannel with gradients up to 6.4 × 104 kA/m2. Short 50 µs current pulses activate the electropermanent magnets and generate negative magnetophoretic forces that range from 10 to 70 nN on 40 to 80 µm water-in-ferrofluid droplets. Maximum droplet displacement velocities of up to 300 µm/s are obtained under flow and no-flow conditions. Electropermanent magnet-activated droplet sorting under continuous flow is demonstrated using a split-junction microfluidic design. PMID:27583301

  14. Evaporation of multi-component mixtures and shell formation in spray dried droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Pedro; Duarte, Íris; Porfirio, Tiago; Temtem, Márcio

    2015-11-01

    Drug particles where the active pharmaceutical ingredient (APIs) is dispersed in a polymer matrix forming an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is a commonly used strategy to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble APIs. However, the formation and stability of an amorphous solid dispersion depends on the polymer/API combination and process conditions to generate it. The focus of the present work is to further develop a numerical tool to predict the formation of ASDs by spray drying solutions of different polymer/API combinations. Specifically, the evaporation of a multi-component droplet is coupled with a diffusion law within the droplet that minimizes the Gibbs free energy of the polymer/API/solvents system, following the Flory-Huggins model. Prior to the shell formation, the evaporation of the solvents is modelled following the simplified approach proposed by Abramzon & Sirignano (1989) which accounts for the varying relative velocity between the droplet and the drying gas. After shell formation, the diffusion of the solvents across the porous shell starkly modifies the evaporative dynamics.

  15. Droplet Deformation Prediction with the Droplet Deormation and Break Up Model (DDB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model was used to predict deformation of droplets approaching the leading edge stagnation line of an airfoil. The quasi-steady model was solved for each position along the droplet path. A program was developed to solve the non-linear, second order, ordinary differential equation that governs the model. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equation. Experimental slip velocities from droplet breakup studies were used as input to the model which required slip velocity along the particle path. The center of mass displacement predictions were compared to the experimental measurements from the droplet breakup studies for droplets with radii in the range of 200 to 700 mm approaching the airfoil at 50 and 90 m/sec. The model predictions were good for the displacement of the center of mass for small and medium sized droplets. For larger droplets the model predictions did not agree with the experimental results.

  16. Droplet Deformation Prediction With the Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model (DDB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model was used to predict deformation of droplets approaching the leading edge stagnation line of an airfoil. The quasi-steady model was solved for each position along the droplet path. A program was developed to solve the non-linear, second order, ordinary differential equation that governs the model. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equation. Experimental slip velocities from droplet breakup studies were used as input to the model which required slip velocity along the particle path. The center of mass displacement predictions were compared to the experimental measurements from the droplet breakup studies for droplets with radii in the range of 200 to 700 mm approaching the airfoil at 50 and 90 m/sec. The model predictions were good for the displacement of the center of mass for small and medium sized droplets. For larger droplets the model predictions did not agree with the experimental results.

  17. Droplet Vaporization in a Supercritical Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, E. W.; Farrell, P. V.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which describes single liquid droplet vaporization at nearly critical liquid pressures and temperatures. A modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state is used to evaluate the fugacities and liquid and vapor mole fractions at the interface under the assumption of interface equilibrium. Results obtained for different droplet sizes and conditions indicate significant differences in behavior in comparison with low-pressure quasi-steady droplet vaporization.

  18. Impingement of Water Droplets on a Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, Robert G.; Saper, Paul G.; Kadow, Charles F.

    1955-01-01

    Droplet trajectories about a sphere in ideal fluid flow were calculated. From the calculated droplet trajectories the droplet impingement characteristics of the sphere were determined. Impingement data and equations for determining the collection efficiency, the area, and the distribution of impingement are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters. The range of flight and atmospheric conditions covered in the calculations was extended considerably beyond the range covered by previously reported calculations for the sphere.

  19. CHLORINATED SOLVENT PLUME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water plumes of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

  20. Continuous countercurrent membrane column for the separation of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent systems

    DOEpatents

    Nerad, Bruce A.; Krantz, William B.

    1988-01-01

    A reverse osmosis membrane process or hybrid membrane - complementary separator process for producing enriched product or waste streams from concentrated and dilute feed streams for both solvent/solvent and solute/solvent systems is described.

  1. Model for the charge-transfer probability in helium nanodroplets following electron-impact ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Andrew M.; Yang Shengfu

    2007-09-15

    A theoretical model has been developed to describe the probability of charge transfer from helium cations to dopant molecules inside helium nanodroplets following electron-impact ionization. The location of the initial charge site inside helium nanodroplets subject to electron impact has been investigated and is found to play an important role in understanding the ionization of dopants inside helium droplets. The model is consistent with a charge migration process in small helium droplets that is strongly directed by intermolecular forces originating from the dopant, whereas for large droplets (tens of thousands of helium atoms and larger) the charge migration increasingly takes on the character of a random walk. This suggests a clear droplet size limit for the use of electron-impact mass spectrometry for detecting molecules in helium droplets.

  2. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  4. Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion-2 (FSDC-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato; Dietrich, Daniel; Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results for the burning characteristics of fiber supported, liquid droplets in ambient Shuttle cabin air (21% oxygen, 1 bar pressure) were obtained from the Glove Box Facility aboard the STS-94/MSL-1 mission using the Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion - 2 (FSDC-2) apparatus. The combustion of individual droplets of methanol/water mixtures, ethanol, ethanol/water azeotrope, n-heptane, n-decane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures were studied in quiescent air. The effects of low velocity, laminar gas phase forced convection on the combustion of individual droplets of n-heptane and n-decane were investigated and interactions of two droplet-arrays of n-heptane and n-decane droplets were also studied with and without gas phase convective flow. Initial diameters ranging from about 2mm to over 6mm were burned on 80-100 micron silicon fibers. In addition to phenomenological observations, quantitative data were obtained in the form of backlit images of the burning droplets, overall flame images, and radiometric combustion emission measurements as a function of the burning time in each experiment. In all, 124 of the 129 attempted experiments (or about twice the number of experiments originally planned for the STS-94/MSL-1 mission) were conducted successfully. The experimental results contribute new observations on the combustion properties of pure alkanes, binary alkane mixtures, and simple alcohols for droplet sizes not studied previously, including measurements on individual droplets and two-droplet arrays, inclusive of the effects of forced gas phase convection. New phenomena characterized experimentally for the first time include radiative extinction of droplet burning for alkanes and the "twin effect" which occurs as a result of interactions during the combustion of two-droplet arrays. Numerical modeling of isolated droplet combustion phenomenon has been conducted for methanol/water mixtures, n-heptane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures, and results

  5. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  6. Strings of droplets propelled by coherent waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filoux, B.; Hubert, M.; Vandewalle, N.

    2015-10-01

    Bouncing walking droplets possess fascinating properties due to their peculiar wave-particle interaction leading to unexpected quantumlike behaviors. We propose a study consisting in droplets walking along annular cavities. We show that, in this geometry, they spontaneously form a string of synchronized bouncing droplets that share a common coherent wave propelling the group at a speed faster than single walkers. The formation of this coherent wave and the collective droplet behaviors are captured by a model. Those are at the opposite of the ones found in two-dimensional geometries. Our results shed light on walking dynamics.

  7. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; T'ien, James S.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY) ) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  8. Janus droplet as a catalytic micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklyaev, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    Self-propulsion of a Janus droplet in a solution of surfactant, which reacts on a half of a drop surface, is studied theoretically. The droplet acts as a catalytic motor creating a concentration gradient, which generates its surface-tension-driven motion; the self-propulsion speed is rather high, 60 μ \\text{m/s} and more. This catalytic motor has several advantages over other micromotors: simple manufacturing, easily attained neutral buoyancy. In contrast to a single-fluid droplet, which demonstrates a self-propulsion as a result of symmetry breaking instability, for the Janus one no stability threshold exists; hence, the droplet radius can be scaled down to micrometers.

  9. Rapid solidification of highly undercooled alloy droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, M. G.; Shiohara, Y.; Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental work is described on undercooling and structure of tin-lead droplets emulsified in oil. The droplets, predominantly in the size range of 10-20 microns, were cooled at rates ranging from about 0.04 K/sec to 1,000,000 K/sec. The higher cooling rates were obtained by a newly developed technique of quenching the emulsified droplets in a cold liquid. Measured undercoolings (at the lower cooling rates) ranged up to about 100 C. Structures obtained depended strongly on undercooling, cooling rate before nucleation, droplet size, alloy composition and the rate of heat extraction after nucleation.

  10. Droplet immobilization within a polymeric organogel improves lipid bilayer durability and portability.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Guru A; Sarles, Stephen A

    2016-05-24

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a promising technique for assembling lipid membrane-based materials and devices using water droplets in oil, but it has largely been limited to laboratory environments due to its liquid construction. With a vision to transform this lab-based technique into a more-durable embodiment, we investigate the use of a polymer-based organogel to encapsulate DIBs within a more-solid material matrix to improve their handling and portability. Specifically, a temperature-sensitive organogel formed from hexadecane and poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] (SEBS) triblock copolymer is used to replace the liquid solvent that surrounds the lipid-coated droplets to establish a novel liquid-in-gel DIB system. Through specific capacitance measurements and single-channel recordings of the pore forming peptide alamethicin, we verify that the structural and functional membrane properties are retained when DIBs are assembled within SEBS organogel. In addition, we demonstrate that organogel encapsulation offers improved handling of droplets and yields DIBs with a near 3× higher bilayer durability, as quantified by the lateral acceleration required to rupture the membrane, compared to liquid-in-liquid DIBs in oil. This encapsulated DIB system provides a barrier against contamination from the environment and offers a new material platform for supporting multilayered DIB-based devices as well as other digital microfluidic systems that feature water droplets in oil. PMID:27164314

  11. An Investigation of the Behavior of Solvent based Polycaprolactone ink for Material Jetting

    PubMed Central

    He, Yinfeng; Wildman, Ricky D.; Tuck, Chris J.; Christie, Steven D. R.; Edmondson, Steven

    2016-01-01

    An initial study of processing bioresorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) through material jetting was conducted using a Fujifilm Dimatix DMP-2830 material printer. The aim of this work was to investigate a potential solvent based method of jetting polycaprolactone. Several solvents were used to prepare a PCL solvent based ink and 1, 4-dioxane was chosen with the consideration of both solubility and safety. The morphology of PCL formed under different substrate temperatures, droplet spacings were investigated. Multi-layer PCL structures were printed and characterized. This work shows that biodegradable polycaprolactone can be processed through material jetting. PMID:26868530

  12. An Investigation of the Behavior of Solvent based Polycaprolactone ink for Material Jetting.

    PubMed

    He, Yinfeng; Wildman, Ricky D; Tuck, Chris J; Christie, Steven D R; Edmondson, Steven

    2016-01-01

    An initial study of processing bioresorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) through material jetting was conducted using a Fujifilm Dimatix DMP-2830 material printer. The aim of this work was to investigate a potential solvent based method of jetting polycaprolactone. Several solvents were used to prepare a PCL solvent based ink and 1, 4-dioxane was chosen with the consideration of both solubility and safety. The morphology of PCL formed under different substrate temperatures, droplet spacings were investigated. Multi-layer PCL structures were printed and characterized. This work shows that biodegradable polycaprolactone can be processed through material jetting. PMID:26868530

  13. An Investigation of the Behavior of Solvent based Polycaprolactone ink for Material Jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yinfeng; Wildman, Ricky D.; Tuck, Chris J.; Christie, Steven D. R.; Edmondson, Steven

    2016-02-01

    An initial study of processing bioresorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) through material jetting was conducted using a Fujifilm Dimatix DMP-2830 material printer. The aim of this work was to investigate a potential solvent based method of jetting polycaprolactone. Several solvents were used to prepare a PCL solvent based ink and 1, 4-dioxane was chosen with the consideration of both solubility and safety. The morphology of PCL formed under different substrate temperatures, droplet spacings were investigated. Multi-layer PCL structures were printed and characterized. This work shows that biodegradable polycaprolactone can be processed through material jetting.

  14. LLNL solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitch, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), manufactures the electrical, electromechanical, mechanical, and plastic components for nuclear weapons. The KCD has made a commitment to eliminate the use of chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents to the greatest technical extent possible consistent with nuclear safety and stockpile reliability requirements by July 1993. Several non-halogenated solvents (Exxate 1000, Bioact EC-7, Bioact EC-7R, d-limonene, ACT-100, Kester 5769, and isopropyl alcohol) were evaluated to determine the most effective, non-chlorinated non-fluorinated, alternate solvent cleaning system for a particular electronic assembly in lieu of the current trichloroethylenefisopropyl alcohol baseline cleaning process. All of these solvents were evaluated using current manual spray cleaning processes. The solvents were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing a rosin based RMA solder flux, a particular silicone mold release, and a wide variety of general contaminants (oils, greases, mold releases, resins, etc.) normally found in production departments. A DI water/isopropyl alcohol spray cleaning process was also evaluated for removing two organic acid fluxes. Test samples were contaminated, spray cleaned with the appropriate solvent, and then analyzed for cleanliness. The Meseran Surface Analyzer was used to measure,, organic contamination on the samples before and after cleaning. An Omega Meter Model 600 was also used to detect solder flux residues.

  15. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  16. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  17. A hemispherical Langmuir probe array detector for angular resolved measurements on droplet-based laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gambino, Nadia Brandstätter, Markus; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza

    2014-09-15

    In this work, a new diagnostic tool for laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) is presented. The detector is based on a multiple array of six motorized Langmuir probes. It allows to measure the dynamics of a LPP in terms of charged particles detection with particular attention to droplet-based LPP sources for EUV lithography. The system design permits to temporally resolve the angular and radial plasma charge distribution and to obtain a hemispherical mapping of the ions and electrons around the droplet plasma. The understanding of these dynamics is fundamental to improve the debris mitigation techniques for droplet-based LPP sources. The device has been developed, built, and employed at the Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zürich. The experimental results have been obtained on the droplet-based LPP source ALPS II. For the first time, 2D mappings of the ion kinetic energy distribution around the droplet plasma have been obtained with an array of multiple Langmuir probes. These measurements show an anisotropic expansion of the ions in terms of kinetic energy and amount of ion charge around the droplet target. First estimations of the plasma density and electron temperature were also obtained from the analysis of the probe current signals.

  18. Modulation of Buckling Dynamics in Nanoparticle Laden Droplets Using External Heating.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-03-22

    Dynamics of contact free (levitated) drying of nanofluid droplets is ubiquitous in many application domains ranging from spray drying to pharmaceutics. Controlling the final morphology (macro to micro scales) of the dried out sample poses some serious challenges. Evaporation of solvent and agglomeration of particles leads to porous shell formation in acoustically levitated nanosilica droplets. The capillary pressure due to evaporation across the menisci at the nanoscale pores causes buckling of the shell which leads to ring and bowl shaped final structures. Acoustics plays a crucial role in flattening of droplets which is a prerequisite for initiation of buckling in the shell. Introduction of mixed nanocolloids (sodium dodecyl sulfate + nanosilica) reduces evaporation rate, disrupts formation of porous shell, and enhances mechanical strength of the shell, all of which restricts the process of buckling. Although buckling is completely arrested in such surfactant added droplets, controlled external heating using laser enhances evaporation through the pores in the shell due to thermally induced structural changes and rearrangement of SDS aggregates which reinitializes buckling in such droplets. Furthermore, inclusion of anilinium hydrochloride into the nanoparticle laden droplets produces ions which adsorb and modify the morphology of sodium dodecyl sulfate crystals and reinitializes buckling in the shell (irrespective of external heating conditions). The kinetics of buckling is determined by the combined effect of morphology of the colloidal particles, particle/aggregate diffusion rate within the droplet, and the rate of evaporation of water. The buckling dynamics leads to cavity formation which grows subsequently to yield final structures with drastically different morphological features. The cavity growth is controlled by evaporation through the nanoscale pores and exhibits a universal trend irrespective of heating rate and nanoparticle type. PMID:26938984

  19. Micellar interactions in water-AOT based droplet microemulsions containing hydrophilic and amphiphilic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Markus; Spehr, Tinka Luise; Wipf, Robert; Moers, Christian; Frey, Holger; Stühn, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the influence of addition of hydrophilic and amphiphilic polymer on percolation behavior and micellar interactions in AOT-based water-in-oil droplet microemulsions. We focus on two series of samples having constant molar water to surfactant ratio W = 20 and constant droplet volume fraction Φ = 30%, respectively. From dielectric spectroscopy experiments, we extract the bending rigidity of the surfactant shell by percolation temperature measurements. Depending on droplet size, we find stabilization and destabilization of the surfactant shell upon addition of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (Mn = 3100 g mol-1) and amphiphilic poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer with comparable length of the hydrophilic block. Complementary small angle X-ray scattering experiments corroborate the finding of stabilization for smaller droplets and destabilization of larger droplets. Subsequent analysis of dielectric spectra enables us to extract detailed information about micellar interactions and clustering by evaluating the dielectric high frequency shell relaxation. We interpret the observed results as a possible modification of the inter-droplet charge transfer efficiency by addition of PEG polymer, while the amphiphilic polymer shows a comparable, but dampened effect.

  20. Droplet Vaporization In A Levitating Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Liu, S.; Ciobanescu, I.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. To eliminate the effect of the fiber, several researchers have conducted microgravity experiments using unsupported droplets. Jackson and Avedisian investigated single, unsupported drops while Nomura et al. studied droplet clouds formed by a condensation technique. The overall objective of this research is to extend the study of unsupported drops by investigating the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. In this work, the formation of drop clusters is precisely controlled using an acoustic levitation system so that dilute, as well as dense clusters can be created and stabilized before combustion in microgravity is begun. While the low-gravity test facility is being completed, tests have been conducted in 1-g to characterize the effect of the acoustic field on the vaporization of single and multiple droplets. This is important because in the combustion experiment, the droplets will be formed and

  1. Solvent and substrate effects on inkjet-printed dots and lines of silver nanoparticle colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kwon-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Oh, Je Hoon

    2011-04-01

    The shape changes of inkjet-printed dots and lines were investigated by varying the primary solvent of nanosilver colloids, surface wettability and substrate temperature. The morphological changes in dots and lines in array patterns due to the interaction between neighboring dots or lines during evaporation was also examined for two different nanosilver colloids. In order to examine the effect of solvent evaporation rate, two different solvents with different boiling points (BP) were employed for nanosilver inks. With a fluorocarbon film coating and subsequent ultraviolet ozone (UV/O3) treatment, various surface wettability conditions were obtained on silicon (Si) wafers. Substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to 80 °C, and droplets from a 50 µm diameter nozzle were printed onto the substrate after optimizing the ejection of individual droplets. The results indicate that the shapes and sizes of dots and lines are sensitive to changes in both surface energy and substrate temperature, and the ink with a higher BP solvent produces larger dots under the same surface condition due to its slower evaporation. Dots and lines with better quality are achieved using the ink with a lower BP solvent. The morphological changes in dot and line arrays are dependent on the evaporation rate of the primary solvent as well as the distance between neighboring features. As a result, selecting a proper solvent for nanosilver ink is very crucial for controlling the shape and morphology of inkjet-printed patterns.

  2. Digital droplet PCR on disk.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Friedrich; Trotter, Martin; Geltman, Marcel; Schwemmer, Frank; Wadle, Simon; Domínguez-Garrido, Elena; López, María; Cervera-Acedo, Cristina; Santibáñez, Paula; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Paust, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Existing systems for digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) either suffer from low integration or are difficult to introduce to mass fabrication. Here we present an integrated system that is compatible to mass fabrication and combines emulsification, PCR, and fluorescence readout in a single chamber within a disposable cartridge (disk). Droplets are generated by injecting the sample into fluorinated oil via centrifugal step emulsification. The resulting emulsion is aligned in the PCR and readout zone by capillary action. During thermocycling, gas bubbles generated by degassing are removed by capillary driven transport through tapered regions in the PCR chamber. Thereby, the positioning of the emulsion within the readout zone of the PCR chamber is ensured at any time and no bubbles are present during readout. Manual handling of the disk solely requires pipetting of oil and PCR mix into the inlet structures, placing the disk into the thermocycler and subsequently into a microarray scanner. The functionality of the ddPCR process chain is demonstrated by quantitative detection of the cystic fibrosis causing mutation p.Phe508del, which is of interest for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The mutation was detected in a concentration range spanning four orders of magnitude. We envision that this work will lay the base for the development of highly integrated sample-to-digital-answer PCR systems that can be employed in routine clinical diagnosis. PMID:26610263

  3. Friction-formed liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, A. J.; Anantheshwara, K.; Bobji, M. S.; Inkson, B. J.

    2011-03-01

    The formation of nanoscale liquid droplets by friction of a solid is observed in real-time. This is achieved using a newly developed in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) triboprobe capable of applying multiple reciprocating wear cycles to a nanoscale surface. Dynamical imaging of the nanoscale cyclic rubbing of a focused-ion-beam (FIB) processed Al alloy by diamond shows that the generation of nanoscale wear particles is followed by a phase separation to form liquid Ga nanodroplets and liquid bridges. The transformation of a two-body system to a four-body solid-liquid system within the reciprocating wear track significantly alters the local dynamical friction and wear processes. Moving liquid bridges are observed in situ to play a key role at the sliding nanocontact, interacting strongly with the highly mobile nanoparticle debris. In situ imaging demonstrates that both static and moving liquid droplets exhibit asymmetric menisci due to nanoscale surface roughness. Nanodroplet kinetics are furthermore dependent on local frictional temperature, with solid-like surface nanofilaments forming on cooling. TEM nanotribology opens up new avenues for the real-time quantification of cyclic friction, wear and dynamic solid-liquid nanomechanics, which will have widespread applications in many areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  4. Droplet Microfluidics for Virus Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.

  5. Bismuth nano-droplets for group-V based molecular-beam droplet epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zeng, Z. Q.; Fan, D. S.; Hirono, Y.; Wu, J.; Morgan, T. A.; Hu, X.; Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Zh. M.; Salamo, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembly of bismuth droplets at nanoscale on GaAs(100) surface using molecular beam epitaxy was demonstrated. Fine control of density and size was achieved by varying growth temperature and total bismuth deposition. Droplet density was tuned by roughly 3 orders of magnitude, and the density-temperature dependence was found to be consistent with classical nucleation theory. These results may extend the flexibility of droplet epitaxy by serving as templates for group V based droplet epitaxy, which is in contrast to conventional group III based droplet epitaxy and may encourage nanostructure formation of bismuth-containing materials.

  6. Influence of Ag+ interaction on 1D droplet array spacing and the repulsive forces between stimuli-responsive nanoemulsion droplets.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, V; Philip, John

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports results on the effect of interaction of Ag(+) on 1D droplet array spacing and the repulsive forces between stimuli-responsive nanoemulsion droplets, stabilized with an anionic surfactant--sodium dodecyl sulfate--and a diblock polymer--poly(vinyl alcohol)-vinyl acetate. The repulsive interaction is probed by measuring the in-situ equilibrium force-distance in the presence of Ag(+) using the magnetic chaining technique. At a constant static magnetic field, emulsion droplets form 1D array that diffract visible light. A large blue-shift in the diffracted light is observed in the presence of interacting Ag(+) because of the reduction in the interdroplet spacing within the 1D array. The in-situ equilibrium force-distance measurement results show that the onset of repulsions and magnitude of repulsive forces are strongly influenced by the presence of Ag(+) in ppb levels. This suggests that the Ag(+) ions screen the surface charges through the formation of both Stern and diffuse electric double layer and produces a dramatic blue-shift in surfactant-stabilized emulsion, whereas a dramatic conformational change in the adsorbed polymer layer causes a reduction in the 1D array spacing in the diblock polymer stabilized emulsion. The force-distance results are compared with the predictions of electrical double-layer and repulsive steric forces. The droplet array shows an excellent selectivity to Ag(+) due to the strong interaction of Ag(+) with the stabilizing moieties at the oil-water interface. The possible mechanisms of interaction of Ag(+) with surfactant and polymer are discussed. The dramatic decrease in the 1D array spacing in the presence of Ag(+) may find promising practical applications in the development of optical sensors for selective detection of cations with ultrahigh sensitivity. PMID:25105903

  7. Dynamic Morphologies of Microscale Droplet Interface Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mruetusatorn, Prachya; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Sarles, Stephen A; Venkatesan, Guru; Hayes, Douglas G; Collier, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are a powerful platform for studying the dynamics of synthetic cellular membranes; however, very little has been done to exploit the unique dynamical features of DIBs. Here, we generate microscale droplet interface bilayers ( DIBs) by bringing together femtoliter-volume water droplets in a microfluidic oil channel, and characterize morphological changes of the DIBs as the droplets shrink due to evaporation. By varying the initial conditions of the system, we identify three distinct classes of dynamic morphology. (1) Buckling and Fission: When forming DIBs using the lipid-out method (lipids in oil phase), lipids in the shrinking monolayers continually pair together and slide into the bilayer to conserve their mass. As the bilayer continues to grow, it becomes confined, buckles, and eventually fissions one or more vesicles. (2) Uniform Shrinking: When using the lipid-in method (lipids in water phase) to form DIBs, lipids uniformly transfer from the monolayers and bilayer into vesicles contained inside the water droplets. (3) Stretching and Unzipping: Finally, when the droplets are pinned to the wall(s) of the microfluidic channel, the droplets become stretched during evaporation, culminating in the unzipping of the bilayer and droplet separation. These findings offer a better understanding of the dynamics of coupled lipid interfaces.

  8. Synchronous universal droplet logic and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsikis, Georgios; Cybulski, James S.; Prakash, Manu

    2015-07-01

    Droplets are versatile digital materials; they can be produced at high throughput, perform chemical reactions as miniature beakers and carry biological entities. Droplets have been manipulated with electric, optical, acoustic and magnetic forces, but all these methods use serial controls to address individual droplets. An alternative is algorithmic manipulation based on logic operations that automatically compute where droplets are stored or directed, thereby enabling parallel control. However, logic previously implemented in low-Reynolds-number droplet hydrodynamics is asynchronous and thus prone to errors that prevent scaling up the complexity of logic operations. Here we present a platform for error-free physical computation via synchronous universal logic. Our platform uses a rotating magnetic field that enables parallel manipulation of arbitrary numbers of ferrofluid droplets on permalloy tracks. Through the coupling of magnetic and hydrodynamic interaction forces between droplets, we developed AND, OR, XOR, NOT and NAND logic gates, fanouts, a full adder, a flip-flop and a finite-state machine. Our platform enables large-scale integration of droplet logic, analogous to the scaling seen in digital electronics, and opens new avenues in mesoscale material processing.

  9. On the lifetimes of evaporating droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Stephen; Stauber, Jutta; Duffy, Brian; Sefiane, Khellil

    2013-11-01

    The evaporation of a fluid droplet on a solid substrate is a practically important problem which has been the subject of considerable research in recent years, much of it motivated by a range of technological applications, such as the application of pesticides to plants, DNA microarray analysis, inkjet printing, micro-fabrication, and spray cooling. In particular, the lifetime of a fluid droplet is not only of fundamental scientific interest, but is also important in a number of technological applications, such as inkjet printing and spray cooling applications (in which shorter droplet lifetimes are often needed) and the application of pesticides to plants (in which longer droplet lifetimes are often needed). In this talk we will analyse the lifetimes of fluid droplets evaporating in a variety of modes and, in particular, show that the widely believed folklore that the lifetime of a droplet is always longer than that of an identical droplet evaporating in the constant radius (i.e. pinned contact line) mode and shorter than that of an identical droplet evaporating in the constant angle mode is not, in general, true.

  10. Binary droplet collision at high Weber number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kuo-Long; Chou, Ping-Chung; Tseng, Yu-Jen

    2009-09-01

    By using the techniques developed for generating high-speed droplets, we have systematically investigated binary droplet collision when the Weber number (We) was increased from the range usually tested in previous studies on the order of 10 to a much larger value of about 5100 for water (a droplet at 23 m/s with a diameter of 0.7 mm). Various liquids were also used to explore the effects of viscosity and surface tension. Specifically, beyond the well-known regimes at moderate We’s, which exhibited coalescence, separation, and separation followed by satellite droplets, we found different behaviors showing a fingering lamella, separation after fingering, breakup of outer fingers, and prompt splattering into multiple secondary droplets as We was increased. The critical Weber numbers that mark the boundaries between these impact regimes are identified. The specific impact behaviors, such as fingering and prompt splattering or splashing, share essential similarity with those also observed in droplet-surface impacts, whereas substantial variations in the transition boundaries may result from the disparity of the boundary conditions at impacts. To compare the outcomes of both types of collisions, a simple model based on energy conservation was carried out to predict the maximum diameter of an expanding liquid disk for a binary droplet collision. The results oppose the dominance of viscous drag, as proposed by previous studies, as the main deceleration force to effect a Rayleigh-Taylor instability and ensuing periphery fingers, which may further lead to the formations of satellite droplets.

  11. Fine droplet generation using tunable electrohydrodynamic pulsation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin; Ba, Zhengyu; Xiong, Zhenhua

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency generation of fine droplets is significant for many microfluidic chips and sensor applications. To produce fine droplets, nozzles with small diameters are needed, which results in a high cost for nozzles and low efficiency of droplet generation. In this paper, a tunable electrohydrodynamic pulsation method which can generate fine droplets with high frequency and controllable size is presented using low conductivity liquids. The effects of flow rates and voltage parameters with respect to deposition frequency and droplet size are investigated. The influence of these parameters on Taylor cone formation time are also discussed and simple scaling laws are proposed to reveal and guide the droplet generation process. Experimental results show that single cycle deposition frequency decreases with increasing voltage frequency, but is only slightly influenced by the flow rates. The droplet size also decreases with voltage frequency, while large flow rates can make this decline gradual allowing better control. Moreover, the Taylor cone formation time may greatly affect the stability of the deposition frequency when the voltage frequency is larger than 30 Hz. Due to the short cycle time of high voltage frequencies, the hydrodynamic behavior in the emission process may be considerably affected by the increase of volume, which is also related to the flow rates. Tunable micropatterns consisting of fine droplets can be achieved by using this method in combination with motion stages.

  12. Double droplets simultaneous impact on liquid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Chen, G.; Shen, S.; Zhang, J.

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of double droplets simultaneously impinging on flat liquid film are obtained with CLSVOF method(Combined Level Set and VOF). the impinging velocity, liquid film thickness, and the horizontal distance between the two droplets were investigated to analyze the factors that affect the evolution.

  13. Computational Analysis of Solvent Effects in NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dračínský, Martin; Bouř, Petr

    2010-01-12

    Solvent modeling became a standard part of first principles computations of molecular properties. However, a universal solvent approach is particularly difficult for the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding and spin-spin coupling constants that in part result from collective delocalized properties of the solute and the environment. In this work, bulk and specific solvent effects are discussed on experimental and theoretical model systems comprising solvated alanine zwitterion and chloroform molecules. Density functional theory computations performed on larger clusters indicate that standard dielectric continuum solvent models may not be sufficiently accurate. In some cases, more reasonable NMR parameters were obtained by approximation of the solvent with partial atomic charges. Combined cluster/continuum models yielded the most reasonable values of the spectroscopic parameters, provided that they are dynamically averaged. The roles of solvent polarizability, solvent shell structure, and bulk permeability were investigated. NMR shielding values caused by the macroscopic solvent magnetizability exhibited the slowest convergence with respect to the cluster size. For practical computations, however, inclusion of the first solvation sphere provided satisfactory corrections of the vacuum values. The simulations of chloroform chemical shifts and CH J-coupling constants were found to be very sensitive to the molecular dynamics model used to generate the cluster geometries. The results show that computationally efficient solvent modeling is possible and can reveal fine details of molecular structure, solvation, and dynamics. PMID:26614339

  14. Droplet turbulence interactions under subcritical and supercritical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, E. B.; Greenfield, S. C.; Ondas, M. S.; Song, Y.-H.; Spegar, T. D.; Santavicca, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research is to experimentally characterize the behavior of droplets in vaporizing liquid sprays under conditions typical of those encountered in high pressure combustion systems such as liquid fueled rocket engines. Of particular interest are measurements of droplet drag, droplet heating, droplet vaporization, droplet distortion, and secondary droplet breakup, under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. The paper presents a brief description of the specific accomplishments which have been made over the past year.

  15. Deformable homeotropic nematic droplets in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Ronald H. J.; van der Schoot, Paul

    2012-10-01

    We present a Frank-Oseen elasticity theory for the shape and structure of deformable nematic droplets with homeotropic surface anchoring in the presence of a magnetic field. Inspired by recent experimental observations, we focus on the case where the magnetic susceptibility is negative, and find that small drops have a lens shape with a homogeneous director field for any magnetic-field strength, whereas larger drops are spherical and have a radial director field, at least if the magnetic field is weak. For strong magnetic fields the hedgehog configuration transforms into a split-core line defect that, depending on the anchoring strength, can be accompanied by an elongation of the tactoid itself. We present a three-dimensional phase diagram that shows the tactoid shape and director field for a given anchoring strength, tactoid size, and magnetic-field strength. Our findings rationalize the different shapes and structures that recently have been observed experimentally for nematic droplets found in dispersions of gibbsite platelets in two types of solvent.

  16. Influence of droplet characteristics on the formation of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by surfactant-chitosan layers.

    PubMed

    Mun, Saehun; Decker, Eric A; McClements, D Julian

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for preparing stable oil-in-water emulsions containing droplets surrounded by surfactant-chitosan layers. A primary emulsion containing small droplets (d32 approximately = 0.3 microm) was prepared by homogenizing 20 wt% corn oil with 80 wt% emulsifier solution (20 mM SDS, 100 mM acetate buffer, pH 3) using a high-pressure valve homogenizer. The primary emulsion was diluted with chitosan solutions to produce secondary emulsions with a range of oil and chitosan concentrations (0.5-10 wt% corn oil, 0-1 wt% chitosan, pH 3). The secondary emulsions were sonicated to help disrupt any droplet aggregates formed during the mixing process. The electrical charge, particle size, and amount of free chitosan in the emulsions were then measured. The droplet charge changed from negative to positive as the amount of chitosan in the emulsions was increased, reaching a relatively constant value (approximately +50 mV) above a critical chitosan concentration (C(Sat)), which indicated that saturation of the droplet surfaces with chitosan occurred. Extremely large droplet aggregates were formed at chitosan concentrations below C(Sat), but stable emulsions could be formed above C(Sat) provided the droplet concentration was not high enough for depletion flocculation to occur. Interestingly, we found that stable multilayer emulsions could also be formed by mixing chitosan with an emulsion stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20) due to the fact the initial droplets had some negative charge. The information obtained from this study is useful for preparing emulsions stabilized by multilayer interfacial layers. PMID:15982024

  17. Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion Experiment-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato O.

    1998-01-01

    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. Understanding the fundamental physical processes involved in droplet combustion is not only important in energy production but also in propulsion, in the mitigation of combustion-generated pollution, and in the control of the fire hazards associated with handling liquid combustibles. Microgravity makes spherically symmetric combustion possible, allowing investigators to easily validate their droplet models without the complicating effects of gravity. The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC-2) investigation was conducted in the Microgravity Glovebox facility of the shuttles' Spacelab during the reflight of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL- 1R) on STS-94 in July 1997. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and duo droplets with and without forced air convection. FSDC-2 is sponsored by the NASA Lewis Research Center, whose researchers are working in cooperation with several investigators from industry and academia. The rate at which a droplet burns is important in many commercial applications. The classical theory of droplet burning assumes that, for an isolated, spherically symmetric, single-fuel droplet, the gas-phase combustion processes are much faster than the droplet surface regression rate and that the liquid phase is at a uniform temperature equal to the boiling point. Recent, more advanced models predict that both the liquid and gas phases are unsteady during a substantial portion of the droplet's burning history, thus affecting the instantaneous and average burning rates, and that flame radiation is a dominant mechanism that can extinguish flames in a microgravity environment. FSDC-2 has provided well-defined, symmetric droplet burning data including radiative emissions to validate these theoretical

  18. Dynamics of charged hemispherical soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, J. E.; van der Net, A.

    2009-04-01

    Raising the potential of a charged hemispherical soap bubble over a critical limit causes deformation of the bubble into a cone and ejection of a charged liquid jet. This is followed by a mode which has not previously been observed in bubbles, in which a long cylindrical liquid film column is created and collapses due to a Rayleigh-Plateau instability creating child bubbles. We show that the formation of the column and subsequent creation of child bubbles is due to a drop in potential caused by the ejection of charge from the system via the jet. Similar dynamics may occur in microscopic charged liquid droplets (electrospray processes), causing the creation of daughter droplets and long liquid spindles.

  19. A Comprehensive Model of Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-07-21

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (∼10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms

  20. Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

  1. Settling of fixed erythrocyte suspension droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that when particles behave collectively rather than individually, the fractionation of micron-size particles on the basis of size, density, and surface characteristics by centrifugation and electrophoresis is hindered. The formation and sedimentation of droplets containing particles represent an extreme example of collective behavior and pose a major problem for these separation methods when large quantities of particles need to be fractionated. Experiments are described that measure droplet sizes and settling rates for a variety of particles and droplets. Expressions relating the particle concentration in a drop to measurable quantities of the fluids and particles are developed. The number of particles in each droplet is then estimated, together with the effective droplet density. Red blood cells from different animals fixed in glutaraldehyde provide model particle groups.

  2. Removal of biofilms by impinging water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cense, A. W.; van Dongen, M. E. H.; Gottenbos, B.; Nuijs, A. M.; Shulepov, S. Y.

    2006-12-01

    The process of impinging water droplets on Streptococcus mutans biofilms was studied experimentally and numerically. Droplets were experimentally produced by natural breakup of a cylindrical liquid jet. Droplet diameter and velocity were varied between 20 and 200 μm and between 20 and 100 m/s, respectively. The resulting erosion process of the biofilm was determined experimentally with high-speed recording techniques and a quantitative relationship between the removal rate, droplet size, and velocity was determined. The shear stress and the pressure on the surface during droplet impact were determined by numerical simulations, and a qualitative agreement between the experiment and the simulation was obtained. Furthermore, it was shown that the stresses on the surface are strongly reduced when a water film is present.

  3. Mechanism of Protein Molecule Isolation by IR Laser Ablation of Droplet Beam.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Kensuke; Nirasawa, Takuya; Hoshino-Nagasaka, Mariko; Kohno, Jun-ya

    2016-03-10

    Gas-phase isolation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from aqueous solutions is performed by IR laser ablation of a droplet beam. Multiply charged BSA ions (positive and negative) were produced by the IR laser irradiation onto a droplet beam of aqueous BSA solutions with various pH values prepared by addition of hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide to the solution. The isolation mechanism was discussed based on the charge state of the isolated BSA ions. A nanodroplet model explains the gas-phase charge distribution of the BSA ions. This study provides a fundamental basis for further studies of a wide variety of biomolecules in the gas phase isolated directly from solution. PMID:26903000

  4. Separation by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  5. Halogenated solvent remediation

    DOEpatents

    Sorenson, Kent S.

    2004-08-31

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. A preferred method includes adding a composition to the ground water wherein the composition is an electron donor for microbe-mediated reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents and enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative compositions effective in these methods include surfactants such as C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred compositions for use in these methods include lactic acid, salts of lactic acid, such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the composition.

  6. Halogenated solvent remediation

    DOEpatents

    Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.

    2008-11-11

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. An illustrative method includes adding an electron donor for microbe-mediated anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents, which electron donor enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative electron donors include C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof, of which lactic acid, salts of lactic acid--such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof are particularly illustrative. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the electron donor.

  7. Breathing with chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, P.L.

    1997-06-06

    Chlorinated solvents are effective cleaners and in the past dirted solvents were dumped into landfills, stored in tanks that often leaked, or spilled. As a result the most common contaminants of organic groundwater at hazardous waste sites are the two major chlorinated solvents - tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Both are suspected carcinogens and both are highly resistant to biodegradation. Now however, there is a report of a bacterium that can remove all of the chlorine atoms from both by halorespiration to form ethene, an innocuous end product. This article goes on to discuss the background of biodegradation of chlorinated compounds, why it is so difficult, and what the future is in this area. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Solvent resistant copolyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Alice C. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A solvent resistant copolyimide was prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with a diaimine blend comprising, based on the total amount of the diamine blend, about 75 to 90 mole percent of 3,4'-oxydianiline and about 10 to 25 mole percent p-phenylene diamine. The solvent resistant copolyimide had a higher glass transition temperature when cured at 350.degree. , 371.degree. and 400.degree. C. than LaRC.TM.-IA. The composite prepared from the copolyimide had similar mechanical properties to LaRC.TM.-IA. Films prepared from the copolyimide were resistant to immediate breakage when exposed to solvents such as dimethylacetamide and chloroform. The adhesive properties of the copolyimide were maintained even after testing at 23.degree., 150.degree., 177.degree. and 204.degree. C.

  9. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  10. The Lipid-Droplet Proteome Reveals that Droplets Are a Protein-Storage Depot

    SciTech Connect

    Cermelli, Silvia; Guo, Yi; Gross, Steven P.; Welte, Michael

    2006-09-19

    Lipid droplets are ubiquitous organelles that are among the basic building blocks of eukaryotic cells. Despite central roles for cholesterol homeostasis and lipid metabolism, their function and protein composition are poorly understood. Results: We purified lipid droplets from Drosophila embryos and analyzed the associated proteins by capillary LC-MS-MS. Important functional groups include enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, signaling molecules, and proteins related to membrane trafficking. Unexpectedly, histones H2A, H2Av, and H2B were present. Using biochemistry, genetics, real-time imaging, and cell biology, we confirm that roughly 50% of certain embryonic histones are physically attached to lipid droplets, a localization conserved in other fly species. Histone association with droplets starts during oogenesis and is prominent in early embryos, but it is undetectable in later stages or in cultured cells. Histones on droplets are not irreversibly trapped; quantitation of droplet histone levels and transplantation experiments suggest that histones are transferred from droplets to nuclei as development proceeds. When this maternal store of histones is unavailable because lipid droplets are mislocalized, zygotic histone production starts prematurely. Conclusions: Because we uncover a striking proteomic similarity of Drosophila droplets to mammalian lipid droplets, Drosophila likely provides a good model for understanding droplet function in general. Our analysis also reveals a new function for these organelles; the massive nature of histone association with droplets and its developmental time-course suggest that droplets sequester maternally provided proteins until they are needed. We propose that lipid droplets can serve as transient storage depots for proteins that lack appropriate binding partners in the cell. Such sequestration may provide a general cellular strategy for handling excess proteins.

  11. Induction Charge Detector with Multiple Sensing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An induction charge detector with multiple sensing stages has been conceived for use in characterizing sprayed droplets, dust particles, large ionized molecules, and the like. Like related prior single-stage devices, each stage yields a measurement of the electric charge and the time of flight of the particle. In effect, an n-stage sensor yields n independent sets of such measurements from the same particle. The benefit of doing this is to increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio and thereby lower the charge-detection limit and the standard error of the charge measurement.

  12. Droplet migration characteristics in confined oscillatory microflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, Kaustav; Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the migration characteristics of a droplet in an oscillatory flow field in a parallel plate microconfinement. Using phase field formalism, we capture the dynamical evolution of the droplet over a wide range of the frequency of the imposed oscillation in the flow field, drop size relative to the channel gap, and the capillary number. The latter two factors imply the contribution of droplet deformability, commonly considered in the study of droplet migration under steady shear flow conditions. We show that the imposed oscillation brings an additional time complexity in the droplet movement, realized through temporally varying drop shape, flow direction, and the inertial response of the droplet. As a consequence, we observe a spatially complicated pathway of the droplet along the transverse direction, in sharp contrast to the smooth migration under a similar yet steady shear flow condition. Intuitively, the longitudinal component of the droplet movement is in tandem with the flow continuity and evolves with time at the same frequency as that of the imposed oscillation, although with an amplitude decreasing with the frequency. The time complexity of the transverse component of the movement pattern, however, cannot be rationalized through such intuitive arguments. Towards bringing out the underlying physics, we further endeavor in a reciprocal identity based analysis. Following this approach, we unveil the time complexities of the droplet movement, which appear to be sufficient to rationalize the complex movement patterns observed through the comprehensive simulation studies. These results can be of profound importance in designing droplet based microfluidic systems in an oscillatory flow environment.

  13. Two Droplets on Wire Approaching Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) uses two droplets positioned on the fiber wire, instead of the usual one. Two droplets more closely simulates the environment in engines, which ignite many fuel droplets at once. The behavior of the burning was also unexpected -- the droplets moved together after ignition, generating quite a bit of data for understanding the interaction of fuel droplets while they burn. This MPEG movie (1.3 MB) shows a time-lapse of this burn (3x speed). Because FSDC is backlit (the bright glow behind the drops), you carnot see the glow of the droplets while they burn -- instead, you see them shrink! The small blobs left on the wire after the burn are the beads used to center the fuel droplet on the wire. This image was taken on STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/19:13 (approximate). FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (1.3MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300178.html.

  14. Solvent dewatering coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.E.; Buchholz, H.F.

    1984-07-17

    Drying of wet coal is facilitated by the addition of a nonaqueous solvent, such as acetone, to the coal followed by application of heat to remove both solvent and water from the coal. The coal may be further upgraded by briquetting or pelletizing fine coal particles with waxes and resins extracted from the coal, or the waxes and resins may be left on the coal to reduce the tendency of the coal to reabsorb water. In addition, minerals such as sodium and potassium salts may be removed from the coal to reduce slagging and fouling behavior of the coal.

  15. Solvent Polarity Effect on Nonradiative Decay Rate of Thioflavin T.

    PubMed

    Stsiapura, Vitali I; Kurhuzenkau, Siarhei A; Kuzmitsky, Valery A; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergey A

    2016-07-21

    It has been established earlier that fluorescence quantum yield of thioflavin T (ThT)-a probe widely used for amyloid fibrils detection-is viscosity-dependent, and photophysical properties of ThT can be well-described by the fluorescent molecular rotor model, which associates twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) reaction with the main nonradiative decay process in the excited state of the dye. Solutions of ThT in a range of polar solvents were studied using steady-state fluorescence and sub-picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy methods, and we showed that solvent effect on nonradiative transition rate knr cannot be reduced to the dependence on viscosity only and that ∼3 times change of knr can be observed for ThT in aprotic solvents and water, which correlates with solvent polarity. Different behavior was observed in alcohol solutions, particularly in longer n-alcohols, where TICT rate was mainly determined by rotational diffusion of ThT fragments. Quantum-chemical calculations of S0 → S1 transition energy were performed to get insight of polar solvent contribution to the excited-state energy stabilization. Effect of polar solvent on electronic energy levels of ThT was simulated by applying homogeneous electric field according to the Onsager cavity model. Static solvent effect on the excited-state potential energy surface, where charge transfer reaction takes place, was not essential to account for experimentally observed TICT rate differences in water and aprotic solvents. From the other side, nonradiative decay rate of ThT in water, ethylene glycol, and aprotic solvents was found to follow dynamics of polar solvation knr ∼ τS(-1), which can explain dependence of the TICT rate on both polarity and viscosity of the solvents. PMID:27351358

  16. Electrospray Droplet Impact/SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo

    A new type of cluster SIMS, named as electrospray droplet impact (EDI), has been developed in our laboratory. It was found that peptides deposited on the stainless steel substrate were ionized/desorbed without the accumulation of radiation products. The organic samples with film thickness thinner than 10 monolayers are desorbed/ionized with little damage underneath the surface. In general, rather strong negative ions as well as positive ions are generated. The mechanism for the ionization/desorption in EDI is much less complicated than those for MALDI and SIMS due to the fact that only very thin sample layers take part in the shock-wave excited selvedge and higher-order side reactions are largely suppressed.

  17. Numerical simulations of pendant droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Carlos; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon

    2015-11-01

    We simulate the evolution of a three-dimensional pendant droplet through pinch-off using a new parallel two-phase flow solver called BLUE. The parallelization of the code is based on the technique of algebraic domain decomposition where the velocity field is solved by a parallel GMRes method for the viscous terms and the pressure by a parallel multigrid/GMRes method. Communication is handled by MPI message passing procedures. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique which defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. This structure allows the interface to undergo large deformations including the rupture and coalescence of fluid interfaces. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  18. Freezing of stratospheric aerosol droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas; Crutzen, Paul

    Theoretical calculations are presented for homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing of sulfuric acid droplets under stratospheric conditions, based on classical nucleation theory. In contrast to previous results it is shown that a prominent candidate for freezing, sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT ≡ H2SO4·4H2O), does not freeze homogeneously. The theoretical results limit the homogeneous freezing rate at 200 K to much less than 1 cm-3s-1, a value that may be estimated from bulk phase laboratory experiments. This suggests that the experimental value is likely to be a measure of heterogeneous, not homogeneous nucleation. Thus, under statospheric conditions, freezing of SAT can only occur in the presence of suitable nuclei; however, even for heterogeneous nucleation experimental results impose strong constraints. Since a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) embryo probably needs a solid body for nucleation, these results put an important constraint on the theory of NAT formation in polar stratospheric clouds.

  19. Observation of triply charged metal ion clusters by electrospray and laser spray

    PubMed

    Kojima; Kudaka; Sato; Asakawa; Akiyama; Kawashima; Hiraoka

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the gas phase ion chemistry of triply charged metal ions, M(3+) = Sc(3+), Y(3+), La(3+), Ce(3+), and Yb(3+), were made by electrospray and laser spray. Triply charged ion ligand complexes, M(3+)(ligand)(n) were produced in the gas phase by electrospray and laser spray for the following ligands; glucose; sucrose; raffinose; cyclodextrin; ginsenoside Rb(1); dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The ion evaporation mechanism must be invoked to explain the transfer of more surface active ions (e.g., NH(4)(+)(H(2)O)(n)) in solution to the gas phase, while the transfer of low surface active ions (e.g., La(3+)(sucrose)(n)) may be explained by the charged residue model. In general, the laser spray gives stronger ion signals than electrospray for aqueous and water/methanol solutions. The laser spray is found to be more suitable for the observation of ions with larger solvation energies (e.g., Sc(3+)(DMSO)(n)). These results may be due to the enrichment of the sample concentration by the selective vaporization of the volatile solvent on the tip of the stainless steel capillary and also to the finer droplet formation caused by the laser irradiation. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10523765

  20. Morphological transitions and buckling characteristics in a nanoparticle-laden sessile droplet resting on a heated hydrophobic substrate.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Lalit; Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we have established the evaporation-liquid flow coupling mechanism by which sessile nanofluid droplets on a hydrophobic substrate evaporate and agglomerate to form unique morphological features under controlled external heating. It is well understood that evaporation coupled with internal liquid flow controls particle transport in a spatiotemporal sense. Flow characteristics inside the heated droplet are investigated and found to be driven by the buoyancy effects. Velocity magnitudes are observed to increase by an order at higher temperatures with similar looking flow profiles. The recirculating flow induced particle transport coupled with collision of particles and shear interaction between them leads to the formation of dome shaped viscoelastic shells of different dimensions depending on the surface temperature. These shells undergo sol-gel transition and subsequently undergo buckling instability leading to the formation of daughter cavities. With an increase in the surface temperature, droplets exhibit buckling from multiple sites over a larger sector in the top half of the droplet. Irrespective of the initial nanoparticle concentration and substrate temperature, growth of a daughter cavity (subsequent to buckling) inside the droplet is found to be controlled by the solvent evaporation rate from the droplet periphery and is shown to exhibit a universal trend. PMID:27176350

  1. Morphological transitions and buckling characteristics in a nanoparticle-laden sessile droplet resting on a heated hydrophobic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Lalit; Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we have established the evaporation-liquid flow coupling mechanism by which sessile nanofluid droplets on a hydrophobic substrate evaporate and agglomerate to form unique morphological features under controlled external heating. It is well understood that evaporation coupled with internal liquid flow controls particle transport in a spatiotemporal sense. Flow characteristics inside the heated droplet are investigated and found to be driven by the buoyancy effects. Velocity magnitudes are observed to increase by an order at higher temperatures with similar looking flow profiles. The recirculating flow induced particle transport coupled with collision of particles and shear interaction between them leads to the formation of dome shaped viscoelastic shells of different dimensions depending on the surface temperature. These shells undergo sol-gel transition and subsequently undergo buckling instability leading to the formation of daughter cavities. With an increase in the surface temperature, droplets exhibit buckling from multiple sites over a larger sector in the top half of the droplet. Irrespective of the initial nanoparticle concentration and substrate temperature, growth of a daughter cavity (subsequent to buckling) inside the droplet is found to be controlled by the solvent evaporation rate from the droplet periphery and is shown to exhibit a universal trend.

  2. Directional Movement of Droplets in Grooves: Suspended or Immersed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Lan, Zhong; Peng, Benli; Wen, Rongfu; Chen, Yansong; Ma, Xuehu

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of droplets trapped in geometric structures is essential to droplet manipulation applications such as for droplet transport. Here we show that directional droplet movement can be realized by a V-shaped groove with the movement direction controlled by adjusting the surface wettability of the groove inner wall and the cross sectional angle of the groove. Experiments and analyses show that a droplet in a superhydrophobic groove translates from the immersed state to the suspended state as the cross sectional angle of the groove decreases and the suspended droplet departs from the groove bottom as the droplet volume increases. We also demonstrate that this simple grooved structure can be used to separate a water-oil mixture and generate droplets with the desired sizes. The structural effect actuated droplet movements provide a controllable droplet transport method which can be used in a wide range of droplet manipulation applications.

  3. Directional Movement of Droplets in Grooves: Suspended or Immersed?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Lan, Zhong; Peng, Benli; Wen, Rongfu; Chen, Yansong; Ma, Xuehu

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of droplets trapped in geometric structures is essential to droplet manipulation applications such as for droplet transport. Here we show that directional droplet movement can be realized by a V-shaped groove with the movement direction controlled by adjusting the surface wettability of the groove inner wall and the cross sectional angle of the groove. Experiments and analyses show that a droplet in a superhydrophobic groove translates from the immersed state to the suspended state as the cross sectional angle of the groove decreases and the suspended droplet departs from the groove bottom as the droplet volume increases. We also demonstrate that this simple grooved structure can be used to separate a water-oil mixture and generate droplets with the desired sizes. The structural effect actuated droplet movements provide a controllable droplet transport method which can be used in a wide range of droplet manipulation applications. PMID:26743167

  4. Fluoropolymer surface coatings to control droplets in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Riche, Carson T; Zhang, Chuchu; Gupta, Malancha; Malmstadt, Noah

    2014-06-01

    We have demonstrated the application of low surface energy fluoropolymer coatings onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices for droplet formation and extraction-induced merger of droplets. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was used to pattern fluoropolymer coatings within microchannels based on geometrical constraints. In a two-phase flow system, the range of accessible flow rates for droplet formation was greatly enhanced in the coated devices. The ability to controllably apply the coating only at the inlet facilitated a method for merging droplets. An organic spacer droplet was extracted from between a pair of aqueous droplets. The size of the organic droplet and the flow rate controlled the time to merge the aqueous droplets; the process of merging was independent of the droplet sizes. Extraction-induced droplet merging is a robust method for manipulating droplets that could be applied in translating multi-step reactions to microfluidic platforms. PMID:24722827

  5. Small GTPase Rab40c associates with lipid droplets and modulates the biogenesis of lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ran; Wang, Weijie; Wang, Shicong; Wang, Zhen; Sun, Lixiang; He, Wei; Fan, Rong; Zhou, Yunhe; Xu, Xiaohui; Hong, Wanjin; Wang, Tuanlao

    2013-01-01

    The subcellular location and cell biological function of small GTPase Rab40c in mammalian cells have not been investigated in detail. In this study, we demonstrated that the exogenously expressed GFP-Rab40c associates with lipid droplets marked by neutral lipid specific dye Oil red or Nile red, but not with the Golgi or endosomal markers. Further examination demonstrated that Rab40c is also associated with ERGIC-53 containing structures, especially under the serum starvation condition. Rab40c is increasingly recruited to the surface of lipid droplets during lipid droplets formation and maturation in HepG2 cells. Rab40c knockdown moderately decreases the size of lipid droplets, suggesting that Rab40c is involved in the biogenesis of lipid droplets. Stimulation for adipocyte differentiation increases the expression of Rab40c in 3T3-L1 cells. Rab40c interacts with TIP47, and is appositionally associated with TIP47-labeled lipid droplets. In addition, over-expression of Rab40c causes the clustering of lipid droplets independent of its GTPase activity, but completely dependent of the intact SOCS box domain of Rab40c. In addition, Rab40c displayed self-interaction as well as interaction with TIP47 and the SOCS box is essential for its ability to induce clustering of lipid droplets. Our results suggest that Rab40c is a novel Rab protein associated with lipid droplets, and is likely involved in modulating the biogenesis of lipid droplets. PMID:23638186

  6. Self-propelled droplet behavior during condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Zhu, Bei; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-05-01

    Self-propelled droplet motion has applications in various engineering fields such as self-cleaning surfaces, heat transfer enhancement, and anti-icing methods. A superhydrophobic surface was fabricated using two simultaneous chemical reactions with droplet condensation experiments performed on the horizontal superhydrophobic surface to characterize the droplet behavior. The droplet behavior is classified into three types based on their motion features and leftover marks as immobile droplet coalescence, self-propelled droplet jumping, and self-propelled droplet sweeping. This study focuses on the droplet sweeping that occurs due to the ultra-small rolling angle of the superhydrophobic surface, where the resulting droplet sweeps along the surface, merging with all the droplets it meets and leaving a long, narrow, clear track with a large droplet at the end of the track. An easy method is developed to predict the droplet sweeping direction based on the relative positions of the droplets just before coalescence. The droplet sweeping always absorbs dozens of droplets and is not limited by the surface structures; thus, this sweeping has many useful applications. In addition, the relationships between the droplet behavior and the number of participating droplets are also analyzed statistically.

  7. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  9. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  10. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  11. Automated solvent concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  12. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  13. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  14. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  15. Repulsion between Oppositely Charged Planar Macroions

    PubMed Central

    Jho, YongSeok; Brown, Frank L. H.; Kim, MahnWon; Pincus, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water) and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons. PMID:23940518

  16. Control of droplet morphology for inkjet-printed TIPS-pentacene transistors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung Won; Ryu, Gi Seong; Lee, Young Uk; Pearson, Christopher; Petty, Michael C.; Song, Chung Kun

    2012-01-01

    We report on methods to control the morphology of droplets of 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN), which are then used in the fabrication of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The grain size and distribution of the TIPS-PEN were found to depend on the temperature of the droplets during drying. The performance of the OTFTs could be improved by heating the substrate and also by changing the relative positions of the inkjet-printed droplets. In our experiments, the optimum substrate temperature was 46 °C in air. Transistors with the TIPS-PEN grain boundaries parallel to the current flow between the source and drain electrodes exhibited charge carrier mobilities of 0.44 ± 0.08 cm2/V s.

  17. Convective flows in evaporating sessile droplets.

    PubMed

    Barmi, Meysam R; Meinhart, Carl D

    2014-03-01

    The evaporation rate and internal convective flows of a sessile droplet with a pinned contact line were formulated and investigated numerically. We developed and analyzed a unified numerical model that includes the effects of temperature, droplet volume, and contact angle on evaporation rate and internal flows. The temperature gradient on the air/liquid interface causes an internal flow due to Marangoni stress, which provides good convective mixing within the droplet, depending upon Marangoni number. As the droplet volume decreases, the thermal gradient becomes smaller and the Marangoni flow becomes negligible. Simultaneously, as the droplet height decreases, evaporation-induced flow creates a large jet-like flow radially toward the contact line. For a droplet containing suspended particles, this jet-like convective flow carries particles toward the contact line and deposits them on the surface, forming the so-called "coffee ring stain". In addition, we reported a simple polynomial correlation for dimensionless evaporation time as a function of initial contact angle of the pinned sessile droplet which agrees well with the previous experimental and numerical results. PMID:24512008

  18. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schutzius, Thomas M; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces. PMID:26536959

  19. Ferrofluid Droplet Formation by Vibratory Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Paul; Hsu, Chang-Fang; Ashgriz, Nasser

    1996-11-01

    A new technique for the formation of ferrofluid droplets is developed. A vertically applied magnetic field is used to cause instabilities and then eventual droplet formation from a pool of ferrofluid. The magnetic field is created by a flat solenoid wrapped around a soft iron core. Instabilities are excited on the ferrofluid surface by applying a field strength below a critical strength for droplet formation. The ferrofluid is then subjected to vertical vibration. The surface vibration is achieved by mounting the ferrofluid container to a speaker. The frequency of this vibration is on the order of 10 Hz. This technique allows the variation of the droplet spacing, by changing the frequency of the pool oscillation, and the variation of the droplet size by changing the strength of the magnetic field. The main advantage of this technique over presently available droplet generators is that it does not require any orfices. The droplets can be formed directly from the surface of a pool of liquid. This eliminates the need for manufacturing minute orfices which may also be plugged easily.

  20. Mechanical vibration of viscoelastic liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, James; Harrold, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    The resonant vibrations of viscoelastic sessile droplets supported on different substrates were monitored using a simple laser light scattering technique. In these experiments, laser light was reflected from the surfaces of droplets of high Mw poly acrylamide-co-acrylic acid (PAA) dissolved in water. The scattered light was allowed to fall on the surface of a photodiode detector and a mechanical impulse was applied to the drops using a vibration motor mounted beneath the substrates. The mechanical impulse caused the droplets to vibrate and the scattered light moved across the surface of the photodiode. The resulting time dependent photodiode signal was then Fourier transformed to obtain the mechanical vibrational spectra of the droplets. The frequencies and widths of the resonant peaks were extracted for droplets containing different concentrations of PAA and with a range of sizes. This was repeated for PAA loaded water drops on surfaces which displayed different values of the three phase contact angle. The results were compared to a simple model of droplet vibration which considers the formation of standing wave states on the surface of a viscoelastic droplet. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Leverhulme trust under grant number RPG-2012-702.

  1. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  2. Solvent-Ion Interactions in Salt Water: A Simple Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Joan D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a procedurally quick, simple, and inexpensive experiment which illustrates the magnitude and some effects of solvent-ion interactions in aqueous solutions. Theoretical information, procedures, and examples of temperature, volume and hydration number calculations are provided. (JN)

  3. Charge transport in desolvated DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Mario; Elstner, Marcus; Kubař, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    The conductivity of DNA in molecular junctions is often probed experimentally under dry conditions, but it is unclear how much of the solvent remains attached to the DNA and how this impacts its structure, electronic states, and conductivity. Classical MD simulations show that DNA is unstable if the solvent is removed completely, while a micro-hydrated system with few water molecules shows similar charge transport properties as fully solvated DNA does. This surprising effect is analyzed in detail by mapping the density functional theory-based electronic structure to a tight-binding Hamiltonian, allowing for an estimate of conductivity of various DNA sequences with snapshot-averaged Landauer's approach. The characteristics of DNA charge transport turn out to be determined by the nearest hydration shell(s), and the removal of bulk solvent has little effect on the transport.

  4. Visualization of Electrohydrodynamic Effects and Time Scale Analysis for Impinging Spray Droplets of HFE-7000

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitzer, Paul J.; Kuhlman, John M.

    2008-01-21

    Spray cooling is becoming a leading technique for removing excess heat from high heat flux electronics. Electrohydrodynamic effects have been found to result in significant variation in spray behavior once the applied voltage level is increased enough to reach the Rayleigh limit. In the present work the dielectric coolant HFE-7000 has been used to study spray cooling heat transfer across a thick film resistor heater mounted to a 16 mm diameter pedestal. Heater power levels have been varied from 0 to 80 Watts, with spray flow rates varied from 2 GPH to 6 GPH (2.1x10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s to 6.3x10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s). Applied voltage levels between 0 kV and 30 kV with both positive and negative polarity have been applied directly to the brass spray nozzle, resulting in contact charging of the spray. A high-speed video camera was used to study behavior of both the impinging spray and the liquid film that formed on the heater surface. The contact charging was observed to lead to electrostatic atomization or 'breakup' of the droplets. Time scale estimates of the various physical processes within the spray and the liquid film based on the average droplet size have indicated that the time between droplet impacts falling into a crater from a previous droplet is the shortest time scale, which will limit the amount of heat transfer that may take place during spray cooling. However, the observed time between large droplet impacts onto the same heater surface location is comparable to the computed time to heat and vaporize a large drop, indicating a new explanation for the onset of spray cooling CHF: localized dryout of the original large droplet impact craters.

  5. Orbiting droplets on a vibrated bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampara, Naresh; Burger, Loic; Gilet, Tristan; Microfluidics, university of liege Team

    2015-11-01

    A millimeter-sized oil droplet can bounce on a vertically vibrated liquid bath for unlimited time. It may couple to the surface wave it emits; leading to horizontal self-propulsion called walking. When several walkers coexist close to one another, they either repel or attract each other, in response to the superposition of the waves they generate. Attraction leads to various bound states, including droplets that orbit around each other. We have experimentally investigated the variety of quantized orbital motions exhibited by two, three and more identical walkers, as a function of forcing acceleration. Each motion is quantified in terms of droplet and wave energy.

  6. Laser induced surface stress on water droplets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng; Lin, Zhifang; Ng, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Laser induced stress on spherical water droplets is studied. At mechanical equilibrium, the body stress vanishes therefore we consider only the surface stress. The surface stress on sub-wavelength droplets is slightly weaker along the light propagation direction. For larger droplets, due to their light focusing effect, the forward stress is significantly enhanced. For a particle roughly 3 micron in radius, when it is excited at whispering gallery mode with Q ∼ 10⁴ by a 1 Watt Gaussian beam, the stress can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude, and can be comparable with the Laplace pressure. PMID:25321955

  7. Undercooling and crystallization behaviour of antimony droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. A.; Perepezko, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The droplet emulsion technique is presently used to examine the undercooling and crystallization behavior of pure antimony. Control of droplet size and applied cooling rate allowed maximum undercooling to be extended from 0.08 to 0.23 T(m). A droplet coating was produced by means of emulsification which appears to furnish a favorable crystallographic matching for effective nucleation catalysis of a metastable simple cubic structure. Thermal analysis shows the melting temperature of the single cubic phase to be about 625 C.

  8. Liquid Droplets on a Highly Deformable Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Rafael D.; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2015-11-01

    We examine the deformation produced by microdroplets atop thin elastomeric and glassy free-standing films. Because of the Laplace pressure, the droplets deform the elastic membrane thereby forming a bulge. Thus, two angles define the droplet or membrane geometry: the angles the deformed bulge and the liquid surface make with the film. These angles are measured as a function of the film tension, and are in excellent agreement with a force balance at the contact line. Finally, we find that if the membrane has an anisotropic tension, the droplets are no longer spherical but become elongated along the direction of high tension.

  9. Fog, plant leaves and deposition of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, W.; Ebner, M.; Traiser, C.; Roth-Nebelsick, A.

    2010-07-01

    For various plants and animals, the accumulation of fog or dew droplets constitutes an essential part of their water supply. Understanding how water droplets deposited by fog or dew events interact with plant or animal surfaces is essential for gaining insight into the functionality of these surfaces. Besides being interesting within the realm of biology, this knowledge is indispensable for technical applications. Frequently, it is advantageous to know (i) the growth rate of a droplet attached by surface tension to a surface which grows due to a given influx of fog particles, (ii) the maximum volume and (iii) the "lifespan" of a droplet before it detaches from the surface or starts to slide down along the plant surface, driven by gravity. Starting from principles of physics, we calculate quantitative expressions addressing questions (i) to (iii) for droplets which are attached to surfaces characterised by a high degree of symmetry, such as horizontally oriented or inclined planes, sections of spheres, cones and rotationally symmetric crevices. Furthermore, we treat the behaviour of droplets attached to a surface of non-constant contact angle. Although real surfaces never meet their geometric idealisations, results based on these often represent suitable and useful approximations to reality. Finally, we apply our results to Stipagrostis sabulicola, a dune grass of the Namib desert which satisfies its water demand solely by capturing fog and dew droplets. Pictures taken with a scanning electron microscope show that the stem of S. sabulicola is longitudinally built up by alternating elevated and countersunk strips. Filling gaps in the experimental observation with theoretical speculation, the following picture emerges: Assuming that the elevated strips exhibit a higher contact angle than the countersunk strips, water droplets being deposited on the elevated strips are drawn towards the latter. The lower contact angle which prevails there increases the droplets

  10. Diffusion and evaporation of a liquid droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, K. N.

    1980-06-01

    The process of evaporation and diffusion of a spherical liquid droplet in an atmosphere of noncondensable gas is studied theoretically. An equation for the shrinkage of the radius of the droplet is derived on the basis of continuity and momentum equations. Further, a conjugate problem consisting of the energy and mass balance for the gaseous environment is formulated. An approximation of thin thermal and diffusion boundary-layers is introduced to simplify the analysis. Results are presented for methanol-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, and sodium-argon systems. It has been observed that the droplet of highly viscous fluid exhibits rapid contraction.

  11. Fog droplet distribution functions for lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, J.V.

    1982-04-15

    The interpretation of lidar data on fog has been limited by two obstacles: approximations in the form of the Mie scattering cross sections for water droplets, and droplet size distribution functions whose relationship to the experiment has not been clear. This paper develops a method for generating distribution functions from experimental data. These functions are then used with newly available Mie cross sections to obtain backscattering and extinction coefficients for singly scattered ruby laser pulses in fog. The results show what experimental lidar accuracies are needed to uniquely determine fog droplet size distribution.

  12. Solvent recovery combines with catalytic incineration to effectively control fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Goodstein, S.; Flachmeyer, T.; Wickersham, C.P.

    1985-11-01

    The engineering staff at Key Pharmaceuticals Inc. was charged with the challenge to design, construct and troubleshoot a new facility which would manufacture pharmaceutical products used to combat bronchial asthma. An Environmental Assessment was required which would outline the proposed procedures to remove or destroy the solvents used in production, thereby preventing their release to the atmosphere. Since the solvents required in the manufacturing process represented two different classes of materials, chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvents, the treatment decision became complicated. Single system treatment options were not viable. A solvent recovery system and a catalytic incinerator were installed in a parallel arrangement to treat chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvents, respectively. This arrangement was possible because the two types of solvents are mutually exclusive in their manufacturing uses. Solvent-laden air is forced into the carbon adsorption unit by a blower. Cylindrically wound carbon filter elements remove the chlorinated solvents, and clean air exits through a top outlet. For non-chlorinated solvents, catalytic incineration via a platinum metal catalyst on a ceramic honeycomb substrate is controlled by regulating inlet and outlet temperatures. The catalyst increases the chemical oxidation rate to permit the reaction to proceed at a lower energy level than would be experienced with a thermal incinerator. The catalytic incinerator has treated process exhausts with normal solvent concentrations of 1000-1200 ppm and as high as 2000 ppm - with a conversion rate of 97%, well above regulatory compliance requirements. The management at Key Pharmaceutical feels that the reliability and performance levels exhibited by both the catalytic incinerator and the carbon adsorption solvent recovery system warranted the high initial capital expense.

  13. The effects of turbulence on droplet drag and secondary droplet breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y.-H.; Coy, E.; Greenfield, S.; Ondas, M.; Prevish, T.; Spegar, T.; Santavicca, D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to obtain an improved understanding of the behavior of droplets in vaporizing sprays, particularly under conditions typical of those in high pressure rocket sprays. Experiments are conducted in a variety of high pressure, high temperature, optically-accessible flow systems, including one which is capable of operation at pressures up to 70 atm, temperatures up to 600 K, gas velocities up to 30 m/sec and turbulence intensities up to 40 percent. Single droplets, 50 to 500 micron in diameter, are produced by an aerodynamic droplet generator and transversely injected into the flow. Measurements are made of the droplet position, size, velocity and temperature and of the droplet's vapor wake from which droplet drag, dispersion, heating, vaporization and breakup are characterized.

  14. Nonadiabatic dynamics of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer: comparison of explicit and implicit solvent simulations.

    PubMed

    Auer, Benjamin; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-07-01

    Theoretical approaches for simulating the ultrafast dynamics of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions in solution are developed and applied to a series of model systems. These processes are simulated by propagating nonadiabatic surface hopping trajectories on electron-proton vibronic surfaces that depend on the solute and solvent nuclear coordinates. The PCET system is represented by a four-state empirical valence bond model, and the solvent is treated either as explicit solvent molecules or as a dielectric continuum, in which case the solvent dynamics is described in terms of two collective solvent coordinates corresponding to the energy gaps associated with electron and proton transfer. The explicit solvent simulations reveal two distinct solvent relaxation time scales, where the faster time scale relaxation corresponds to librational motions of solvent molecules in the first solvation shell, and the slower time scale relaxation corresponds to the bulk solvent dielectric response. The charge transfer dynamics is strongly coupled to both the fast and slow time scale solvent dynamics. The dynamical multistate continuum theory is extended to include the effects of two solvent relaxation time scales, and the resulting coupled generalized Langevin equations depend on parameters that can be extracted from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The implicit and explicit solvent approaches lead to qualitatively similar charge transfer and solvent dynamics for model PCET systems, suggesting that the implicit solvent treatment captures the essential elements of the nonequilibrium solvent dynamics for many systems. A combination of implicit and explicit solvent approaches will enable the investigation of photoinduced PCET processes in a variety of condensed phase systems. PMID:22651684

  15. Surfactant-adsorption-induced initial depinning behavior in evaporating water and nanofluid sessile droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2015-05-19

    A surfactant-induced autophobic effect has been observed to initiate an intense depinning behavior at the initial stage of evaporation in both pure water and nanofluid sessile droplets. The cationic surfactant adsorbing to the negatively charged silicon wafer makes the solid surface more hydrophobic. The autophobing-induced depinning behavior, leading to an enlarged contact angle and a shortened base diameter, takes place only when the surfactant concentration is below its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The initial spreading degree right before the droplet retraction, the retracting velocity of the contact line, and the duration of the initial droplet retraction are shown to depend negatively on the surfactant concentration below the cmc. An unexpected enhancement in the initial depinning has been found in the nanofluid droplets, possibly resulting from the hydrophilic interplay between the graphite nanoparticle deposition and the surfactant molecules. Such promotion of the initial depinning due to the nanoparticle deposition makes the droplet retract even at a surfactant concentration higher than the cmc (1.5 cmc). The resulting deposition formed in the presence of the depinning behavior has great enhancement for coffee-ring formation as compared to the one free of surfactant, implying that the formation of a coffee ring does not require the pinning of the contact line during the entire drying process. PMID:25923721

  16. Janus Particles in a Nonpolar Solvent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Yezer, Benjamin A; Prieve, Dennis C; Behrens, Sven Holger

    2016-04-01

    Amphiphilic Janus particles are currently receiving great attention as "solid surfactants". Previous studies have introduced such particles with a variety of shapes and functions, but there has so far been a strong emphasis on water-dispersible particles that mimic the molecular surfactants soluble in polar solvents. Here we present an example of lipophilic Janus particles which are selectively dispersible in very nonpolar solvents such as alkanes. Interfacial tension measurements between the alkane dispersions and pure water indicate that these particles do have interfacial activity, and like typical hydrophobic, nonionic surfactants, they do not partition to the aqueous bulk. We also show that the oil-borne particles, by retaining locally polar domains where charges can reside, generate electric conductivity in nonpolar liquids-another feature familiar from molecular surfactants and one commonly exploited to mitigate explosion hazards due to flow electrification during petroleum pumping and in the formulation of electronic inks. PMID:26974187

  17. Solvent dewaxing of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-04-09

    This paper describes improvement in a process for producing a dewaxed lubricating oil from a wax-bearing mineral oil by the steps comprising; mixing the oil with a dewaxing solvent thereby forming an oil-solvent mixture, chilling the oil-solvent mixture to a dewaxing temperature thereby crystallizing the wax and forming an oil-solvent crystalline wax mixture, separating the oil-solvent-crystalline wax mixture to form a dewaxed oil-solvent mixture and crystalline wax, steam stripping the dewaxed oil-solvent mixture at a temperature of 300{degrees}F to 600{degrees}F and pressure of 1 atm to 3 atm, to yield a solvent free dewaxed oil.

  18. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the signing of 1987 Montreal Protocol, reducing and eliminating the use of harmful solvents has become an internationally imminent environmental protection mission. Solvent substitution is an effective way to achieve this goal. The Program for Assisting the Replacement of...

  19. Organic nanocomposite structure tailored by controlling droplet coalescence during inkjet printing.

    PubMed

    Ihnen, Andrew C; Petrock, Anne M; Chou, Tsengming; Fuchs, Brian E; Lee, Woo Y

    2012-09-26

    Inkjet printing offers a low-cost, high-throughput avenue for producing functional organic materials through rapid translation of desktop discoveries to industrial roll-to-roll processes. Here, we report a simple, but effective strategy to control droplet coalescence during inkjet printing, as a major variable, to tailor the nanoscale morphology of organic composite materials produced upon evaporation of all-liquid inks. During deposition, the spacing between ink droplets was controlled to systematically vary the extent of droplet coalescence. Our results show that decreasing coalescence increased the solvent evaporation rate, supersaturation of the solutes, and nucleation density of the precipitating organic crystals. This phenomenon was utilized to tailor the average size of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) crystals dispersed in an adhesive binder matrix from ~0.2 to upwards of 100 μm. The results suggest that controlling the extent of droplet coalescence can be used as an effective means to tailor the composite morphology of printed organic materials at the nanoscale. PMID:22950443

  20. Evaporation of liquid droplets from a surface of anodized aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. V.; Feoktistov, D. V.; Orlova, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of study of evaporation of water droplets and NaCl salt solution from a solid substrate made of anodized aluminum are presented in this paper. The experiment provides the parameters describing the droplet profile: contact spot diameter, contact angle, and droplet height. The specific rate of evaporation was calculated from the experimental data. The water droplets or brine droplets with concentration up to 9.1 % demonstrate evaporation with the pinning mode for the contact line. When the salt concentration in the brine is taken up to 16.7 %, the droplet spreading mode was observed. Two stages of droplet evaporation are distinguished as a function of phase transition rate.

  1. Quasistatic packings of droplets in flat microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-02-01

    As observed in recent experiments, monodisperse droplets self-assemble spontaneously in different ordered packings. In this work, we present a numerical study of the droplet packings in the flat rectangular microfluidic channels. Employing the boundary element method, we numerically solve the Stokes equation in two-dimension and investigate the appearance of droplet packing and transition between one and two-row packings of monodisperse emulsion droplets. By calculating packing force applied on the droplet interface, we investigate the effect of flow rate, droplet size, and surface tension on the packing configurations of droplets and transition between different topological packings.

  2. Solvent substitution for electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), manufactures the electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and plastic components for nuclear weapons. The KCD has made a commitment to eliminate the use of chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents to the greatest technical extent possible consistent with nuclear safety and stockpile reliability requirements. Current cleaning processes in the production departments use trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and various CFC-113 based solvents. Several non-halogenated solvents (Solvent A - an aqueous solvent based on N,N-dimethylacetamide, Solvent B - an aqueous mixture of ethanol amines, Solvent C - a hydrocarbon solvent based on octadecyl acetate, Solvent D - a terpene (d-limonene) hydrocarbon solvent combined with emulsifiers, Solvent E - a terpene (d-limonene) hydrocarbon solvent combined with a separation agent, d-limonene, and isopropyl alcohol) were evaluated to determine the most effective, non-chlorinated, non-fluorinated, alternate solvent cleaning system. All of these solvents were evaluated using current manual spray cleaning processes. The solvents were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing a rosin based RMA solder flux, a particular silicone mold release, and oils, greases, mold releases, resins, etc. The Meseran Surface Analyzer was used to measure organic contamination on the samples before and after cleaning. An Omega Meter Model 600 was also used to detect solder flux residues. Solvents C, D, E and d-limonene the best alternatives to trichloroethylene for removing all of the contaminants tested. For this particular electronic assembly, d-limonene was chosen as the alternate because of material compatibility and long-term reliability concerns.

  3. Glove permeation by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Lum, B.Y.; Carlson, G.J.; Wong, C.M.; Johnson, J.S.

    1981-03-01

    The vapor penetration of 29 common laboratory solvents on 28 protective gloves has been tested and measured using gas-phase, infrared spectrophotometric techniques to determine the permeation characteristics. Five different types of permeation behavior were identified. No one glove offered complete protection against all the solvents tested. The permeation rate of the solvent was found to be inversely proportional to glove thickness for a given manufacturer's material. Of two solvent mixtures tested, one exhibited a large, positive, synergistic rate.

  4. Droplet Breakup in Expansion-contraction Microchannels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pingan; Kong, Tiantian; Lei, Leyan; Tian, Xiaowei; Kang, Zhanxiao; Wang, Liqiu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the influences of expansion-contraction microchannels on droplet breakup in capillary microfluidic devices. With variations in channel dimension, local shear stresses at the injection nozzle and focusing orifice vary, significantly impacting flow behavior including droplet breakup locations and breakup modes. We observe transition of droplet breakup location from focusing orifice to injection nozzle, and three distinct types of recently-reported tip-multi-breaking modes. By balancing local shear stresses and interfacial tension effects, we determine the critical condition for breakup location transition, and characterize the tip-multi-breaking mode quantitatively. In addition, we identify the mechanism responsible for the periodic oscillation of inner fluid tip in tip-multi-breaking mode. Our results offer fundamental understanding of two-phase flow behaviors in expansion-contraction microstructures, and would benefit droplet generation, manipulation and design of microfluidic devices. PMID:26899018

  5. Droplet evaporation in a nonpremixed counterflowing flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Chen, Gang

    1991-01-01

    A numerical study is conducted that considers droplets in a conterflowing flame established by flowing two opposing streams of gaseous methane and air against each other. It is noted that this investigation is similar to the flowfield studied experimentally by Puri and Libby (1989), the results of which are used in combination with the results from this experiment in order to develop a further understanding of droplet motion in counterflowing streams. Based on calculations, it is concluded that, in a rapidly changing ambient medium, when the droplet residence time in the high-temperature region is small compared to the time spent in the entire couterflowing flowfield, the choice of gasification models is unimportant. Droplets at different locations in the flowfield, experiencing similar convective conditions, and having the same residence times in the high-temperature zone, are found to possess the same radius history.

  6. Droplet Breakup in Expansion-contraction Microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pingan; Kong, Tiantian; Lei, Leyan; Tian, Xiaowei; Kang, Zhanxiao; Wang, Liqiu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the influences of expansion-contraction microchannels on droplet breakup in capillary microfluidic devices. With variations in channel dimension, local shear stresses at the injection nozzle and focusing orifice vary, significantly impacting flow behavior including droplet breakup locations and breakup modes. We observe transition of droplet breakup location from focusing orifice to injection nozzle, and three distinct types of recently-reported tip-multi-breaking modes. By balancing local shear stresses and interfacial tension effects, we determine the critical condition for breakup location transition, and characterize the tip-multi-breaking mode quantitatively. In addition, we identify the mechanism responsible for the periodic oscillation of inner fluid tip in tip-multi-breaking mode. Our results offer fundamental understanding of two-phase flow behaviors in expansion-contraction microstructures, and would benefit droplet generation, manipulation and design of microfluidic devices. PMID:26899018

  7. Substrate Curvature Gradient Drives Rapid Droplet Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cunjing; Chen, Chao; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Grey, Francois; Zheng, Quanshui

    2014-07-01

    Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42 m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100 m/s on tapered surfaces.

  8. Substrate curvature gradient drives rapid droplet motion.

    PubMed

    Lv, Cunjing; Chen, Chao; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Grey, Francois; Zheng, Quanshui

    2014-07-11

    Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42  m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100  m/s on tapered surfaces. PMID:25062213

  9. Droplet Breakup in Expansion-contraction Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Pingan; Kong, Tiantian; Lei, Leyan; Tian, Xiaowei; Kang, Zhanxiao; Wang, Liqiu

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the influences of expansion-contraction microchannels on droplet breakup in capillary microfluidic devices. With variations in channel dimension, local shear stresses at the injection nozzle and focusing orifice vary, significantly impacting flow behavior including droplet breakup locations and breakup modes. We observe transition of droplet breakup location from focusing orifice to injection nozzle, and three distinct types of recently-reported tip-multi-breaking modes. By balancing local shear stresses and interfacial tension effects, we determine the critical condition for breakup location transition, and characterize the tip-multi-breaking mode quantitatively. In addition, we identify the mechanism responsible for the periodic oscillation of inner fluid tip in tip-multi-breaking mode. Our results offer fundamental understanding of two-phase flow behaviors in expansion-contraction microstructures, and would benefit droplet generation, manipulation and design of microfluidic devices.

  10. Investigation of critical burning of fuel droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The general problem of spray combustion was investigated. The combustion of bipropellent droplets; combustion of hydrozine fuels; and combustion of sprays were studied. A model was developed to predict mean velocities and temperatures in a combusting gas jet.

  11. Transformation of oil droplets into giant vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Li; Kurihara, Kensuke

    2016-06-14

    We propose a protocell model in which compartments are constructed via a new process involving the formation of robust vesicles using an autocatalytic, self-reproducing oil droplet system as a 'scaffold'. PMID:27152371

  12. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Shani; Sapir, Zvi; Schultz, Moty; Butenko, Alexander V.; Ocko, Benjamin M.; Deutsch, Moshe; Sloutskin, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Liquid droplets, widely encountered in everyday life, have no flat facets. Here we show that water-dispersed oil droplets can be reversibly temperature-tuned to icosahedral and other faceted shapes, hitherto unreported for liquid droplets. These shape changes are shown to originate in the interplay between interfacial tension and the elasticity of the droplet’s 2-nm-thick interfacial monolayer, which crystallizes at some T = Ts above the oil’s melting point, with the droplet’s bulk remaining liquid. Strikingly, at still-lower temperatures, this interfacial freezing (IF) effect also causes droplets to deform, split, and grow tails. Our findings provide deep insights into molecular-scale elasticity and allow formation of emulsions of tunable stability for directed self-assembly of complex-shaped particles and other future technologies. PMID:26733673

  13. Nucleation pressure threshold in acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Christopher J.; Doering, Charles R.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2016-07-01

    We combine classical nucleation theory with superharmonic focusing to predict necessary pressures to induce nucleation in acoustic droplet vaporization. We show that linear acoustics is a valid approximation to leading order when particle displacements in the sound field are small relative to the radius of the droplet. This is done by perturbation analysis of an axisymmetric compressible inviscid flow about a droplet with small surface perturbations relative to the mean radius subjected to an incoming ultrasonic wave. The necessary nucleation pressure threshold inside the droplet is calculated to be -9.33 ± 0.30 MPa for typical experimental parameters by employing results from classical homogeneous nucleation theory. As a result, we are able to predict if a given incident pressure waveform will induce nucleation.

  14. Impact of droplet on superheated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef; Staat, Hendrik J. J.; Tran, Tuan; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao

    2012-11-01

    At impact of a liquid droplet on a smooth surface heated way above the liquid's boiling point, the droplet spreads without any surface contact, floating on its own (Leidenfrost-type) vapor layer, and then bounces back. We show that the dimensionless maximum spreading factor Γ, defined by the ratio of the maximal spreading diameter and the droplet diameter, shows a universal scaling Γ ~ Weγ with the Weber number We - regardless of surface temperature and of liquid properties - which is much steeper than that for the impact on non-heated (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) surfaces, for which γ = 1 / 4 . Based on the idea that the vapor shooting out of the gap between the droplet and the superheated surface drags the liquid outwards, we derive scaling laws for the spreading factor Γ, the vapor layer thickness, and the vapor flow velocity.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Acoustically Driven, Burning Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.-C.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.; Urban, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This computational study focuses on understanding and quantifying the effects of external acoustical perturbations on droplet combustion. A one-dimensional, axisymmetric representation of the essential diffusion and reaction processes occurring in the vicinity of the droplet stagnation point is used here in order to isolate the effects of the imposed acoustic disturbance. The simulation is performed using a third order accurate, essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) numerical scheme with a full methanol-air reaction mechanism. Consistent with recent microgravity and normal gravity combustion experiments, focus is placed on conditions where the droplet is situated at a velocity antinode in order for the droplet to experience the greatest effects of fluid mechanical straining of flame structures. The effects of imposed sound pressure level and frequency are explored here, and conditions leading to maximum burning rates are identified.

  16. Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Carl A; Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions using an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly an active isotropic fluid boundary consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. Secondly, a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with homeotropic anchoring at the droplet interface. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way. PMID:27606609

  17. Dispensing nano-pico droplets of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irajizad, Peyman; Farokhnia, Nazanin; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2015-11-01

    Dispensing miniature volumes of a ferrofluid is of fundamental and practical importance for diverse applications ranging from biomedical devices, optics, and self-assembly of materials. Current dispensing systems are based on microfluidics flow-focusing approaches or acoustic actuation requiring complicated structures. A simple method is presented to continuously dispense the miniature droplets from a ferrofluid reservoir. Once a jet of the ferrofluid is subjected to a constrained flux through a membrane and an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the jet experiences a curvature-driven instability and transforms to a droplet. Ferrofluid droplets in the range of 0.1-1000 nl are dispensed with tunable dispensing frequencies. A model is developed that predicts the dispensed volume of the ferrofluid droplets with an excellent agreement with the measurements.

  18. Droplet Microfluidics for Chip-Based Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Karan V. I. S.; Prakash, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Droplet microfluidics (DMF) is a fluidic handling technology that enables precision control over dispensing and subsequent manipulation of droplets in the volume range of microliters to picoliters, on a micro-fabricated device. There are several different droplet actuation methods, all of which can generate external stimuli, to either actively or passively control the shape and positioning of fluidic droplets over patterned substrates. In this review article, we focus on the operation and utility of electro-actuation-based DMF devices, which utilize one or more micro-/nano-patterned substrates to facilitate electric field-based handling of chemical and/or biological samples. The underlying theory of DMF actuations, device fabrication methods and integration of optical and opto-electronic detectors is discussed in this review. Example applications of such electro-actuation-based DMF devices have also been included, illustrating the various actuation methods and their utility in conducting chip-based laboratory and clinical diagnostic assays. PMID:25490590

  19. Impact of liquid droplets on granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delon, G.; Terwagne, D.; Dorbolo, S.; Vandewalle, N.; Caps, H.

    2011-10-01

    The crater formation due to the impact of a water droplet onto a granular bed has been experimentally investigated. Three parameters were tuned: the impact velocity, the size of the droplet, and the size of the grains. The aim is to determine the influence of the kinetic energy on the droplet pattern. The shape of the crater depends on the kinetic energy at the moment the droplet starts to impact the bed. The spreading and recession of the liquid during the impact were carefully analyzed from the dynamical point of view, using image analysis of high-speed video recordings. The different observed regimes are characterized by the balance between the impregnation time of the water by the granular bed by the water and the capillary time responsible for the recession of the drop.

  20. Effects of droplet interactions on droplet transport at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of droplet interactions on drag, evaporation, and combustion of a planar droplet array, oriented perpendicular to the approaching flow, are studied numerically. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, with variable thermophysical properties, are solved using finite-difference techniques. Parameters investigated include the droplet spacing, droplet Reynolds number, approaching stream oxygen concentration, and fuel type. Results are obtained for the Reynolds number range of 5 to 100, droplet spacing from 2 to 24 diameters, oxygen concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2, and methanol and n-butanol fuels. The calculations show that the gasification rates of interacting droplets decrease as the droplet spacings decrease. The reduction in gasification rates is significant only at small spacings and low Reynolds numbers. For the present array orientation, the effects of interactions on the gasification rates diminish rapidly for Reynolds numbers greater than 10 and spacings greater than 6 droplet diameters. The effects of adjacent droplets on drag are shown to be small.

  1. Effects of droplet interactions on droplet transport at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1987-01-01

    Effects of droplet interactions on drag, evaporation, and combustion of a planar droplet array, oriented perpendicular to the approaching flow, are studied numerically. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, with variable thermophysical properties, are solved using finite-difference techniques. Parameters investigated include the droplet spacing, droplet Reynolds number, approaching stream oxygen concentration, and fuel type. Results are obtained for the Reynolds number range of 5 to 100, droplet spacings from 2 to 24 diameters, oxygen concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2, and methanol and n-butanol fuels. The calculations show that the gasification rates of interacting droplets decrease as the droplet spacings decrease. The reduction in gasification rates is significant only at small spacings and low Reynolds numbers. For the present array orientation, the effects of interactions on the gasification rates diminish rapidly for Reynolds numbers greater than 10 and spacings greater than 6 droplet diameters. The effects of adjacent droplets on drag are shown to be small.

  2. Thermodynamic and kinetic theory of nucleation, deliquescence and efflorescence transitions in the ensemble of droplets on soluble particles.

    PubMed

    Shchekin, Alexander K; Shabaev, Ilya V; Hellmuth, Olaf

    2013-02-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic peculiarities of nucleation, deliquescence and efflorescence transitions in the ensemble of droplets formed on soluble condensation nuclei from a solvent vapor have been considered. The interplay of the effects of solubility and the size of condensation nuclei has been analyzed. Activation barriers for the deliquescence and phase transitions and for the reverse efflorescence transition have been determined as functions of the relative humidity of the vapor-gas atmosphere, initial size, and solubility of condensation nuclei. It has been demonstrated that, upon variations in the relative humidity of the atmosphere, the crossover in thermodynamically stable and unstable variables of the droplet state takes place. The physical meaning of stable and unstable variables has been clarified. The kinetic equations for establishing equilibrium and steady distributions of binary droplets have been solved. The specific times for relaxation, deliquescence and efflorescence transitions have been calculated. PMID:23406138

  3. Numerical simulation of droplet impact on interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahouadji, Lyes; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar; Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of three-dimensional droplet impact on interfaces are carried out using BLUE, a massively-parallel code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-Set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. High resolution numerical results show fine details and features of droplet ejection, crown formation and rim instability observed under similar experimental conditions. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  4. Laser diagnostics for microgravity droplet studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Rapid advances have recently been made in numerical simulation of droplet combustion under microgravity conditions, while experimental capabilities remain relatively primitive. Calculations can now provide detailed information on mass and energy transport, complex gas-phase chemistry, multi-component molecular diffusion, surface evaporation and heterogeneous reaction, which provides a clearer picture of both quasi-steady as well as dynamic behavior of droplet combustion. Experiments concerning these phenomena typically result in pictures of the burning droplets, and the data therefrom describe droplet surface regression along with flame and soot shell position. With much more precise, detailed, experimental diagnostics, significant gains could be made on the dynamics and flame structural changes which occur during droplet combustion. Since microgravity experiments become increasingly more expensive as they progress from drop towers and flights to spaceborne experiments, there is a great need to maximize the information content from these experiments. Sophisticated measurements using laser diagnostics on individual droplets and combustion phenomena are now possible. These include measuring flow patterns and temperature fields within droplets, vaporization rates and vaporization enhancement, radical species profiling in flames and gas-phase flow-tagging velocimetry. Although these measurements are sophisticated, they have undergone maturation to the degree where with some development, they are applicable to studies of microgravity droplet combustion. This program beginning in September of 1992, will include a series of measurements in the NASA Learjet, KC-135 and Drop Tower facilities for investigating the range of applicability of these diagnostics while generating and providing fundamental data to ongoing NASA research programs in this area. This program is being conducted in collaboration with other microgravity investigators and is aimed toward supplementing

  5. Fluid Flow in An Evaporating Droplet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, H.; Larson, R.

    1999-01-01

    Droplet evaporation is a common phenomenon in everyday life. For example, when a droplet of coffee or salt solution is dropped onto a surface and the droplet dries out, a ring of coffee or salt particles is left on the surface. This phenomenon exists not only in everyday life, but also in many practical industrial processes and scientific research and could also be used to assist in DNA sequence analysis, if the flow field in the droplet produced by the evaporation could be understood and predicted in detail. In order to measure the fluid flow in a droplet, small particles can be suspended into the fluid as tracers. From the ratio of gravitational force to Brownian force a(exp 4)(delta rho)(g)/k(sub B)T, we find that particle's tendency to settle is proportional to a(exp 4) (a is particle radius). So, to keep the particles from settling, the droplet size should be chosen to be in a range 0.1 -1.0 microns in experiments. For such small particles, the Brownian force will affect the motion of the particle preventing accurate measurement of the flow field. This problem could be overcome by using larger particles as tracers to measure fluid flow under microgravity since the gravitational acceleration g is then very small. For larger particles, Brownian force would hardly affect the motion of the particles. Therefore, accurate flow field could be determined from experiments in microgravity. In this paper, we will investigate the fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under normal gravity, and compare experiments to theories. Then, we will present our ideas about the experimental measurement of fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under microgravity.

  6. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  7. Lipid droplets, lipophagy, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Lipids are essential components for life. Their various structural and physical properties influence diverse cellular processes and, thereby, human health. Lipids are not genetically encoded but are synthesized and modified by complex metabolic pathways, supplying energy, membranes, signaling molecules, and hormones to affect growth, physiology, and response to environmental insults. Lipid homeostasis is crucial, such that excess fatty acids (FAs) can be harmful to cells. To prevent such lipotoxicity, cells convert excess FAs into neutral lipids for storage in organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). These organelles do not simply manage lipid storage and metabolism but also are involved in protein quality management, pathogenesis, immune responses, and, potentially, neurodegeneration. In recent years, a major trend in LD biology has centered around the physiology of lipid mobilization via lipophagy of fat stored within LDs. This review summarizes key findings in LD biology and lipophagy, offering novel insights into this rapidly growing field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26713677

  8. Acoustic Droplet Vaporization in Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, David; Fabiilli, Mario; Kripfgans, Oliver; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Gas embolotherapy is a proposed cancer therapy where gas bubbles acting as embolic agents are selectively generated near the tumor site to block blood supply, resulting to tumor necrosis. The gas bubbles are generated by using focused ultrasound to selective vaporize intravenously injected microdroplets. In this study, albumin encapsulated dodecafluorocarbon microdroplets were isolated in 25 to 100 micron diameter polydimethylsiloxane microchannels. The droplets were vaporized at 37 °C using a single pulse from a 7.5 MHz single element focused transducer with 8-32 cycles at 2.2 to 5.6 MPa peak negative pressure. The vaporization process was recorded using an ultra-high speed camera attached to an inverted microscope. A theoretical Rayleigh-Plesset like model was derived to describe the both the expansion of small spherical bubbles as well as cylindrical bubbles in a long microchannel. The gas phase was described as an ideal gas and the liquid DDFP and bulk fluid were viscous Newtonian fluids. Additionally, surface tension, viscous losses from the channel, and the phase change process were included in the model. The theoretical model matched very well to experiments with channel diameters or 50 micron or less. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  9. Hazardous solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-11-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is `What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?`You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product`s constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace.

  10. Structure and Properties of DNA in Apolar Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The study of nucleic acids in low-polarity environments paves the way for novel biotechnological applications of DNA. Here, we use a repertoire of atomistic molecular simulation tools to study the nature of DNA when placed in a highly apolar environment and when transferred from aqueous to apolar solvent. Our results show that DNA becomes stiffer in apolar solvents and suggest that highly negatively charged states, which are the most prevalent in water, are strongly disfavored in apolar solvents and neutral states with conformations not far from the aqueous ones are the dominant forms. Transfer from water to an apolar solvent such as CCl4 is unlikely to occur, but our results suggest that if forced, the DNA would migrate surrounded by a small shell of water (the higher the DNA charge, the larger the number of water molecules in this shell). Even the neutral form (predicted to be the dominant one in apolar solvents) would surround itself by a small number of highly stable water molecules when moved from water to a highly apolar environment. Neutralization of DNA charges seems a crucial requirement for transfer of DNA to apolar media, and the most likely mechanism to achieve good transfer properties. PMID:24968001

  11. Gel-like double-emulsion droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzowski, Jan; Korczyk, Piotr; Garstecki, Piotr; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally study the problem of packing of micro-droplets inside a droplet of another immiscible liquid phase. We use microfluidics to encapsulate multiple monodisperse aqueous segments inside a drop of oil. For small numbers N (N<10) of the aqueous droplets and at their volume fraction in oil exceeding the close-packing threshold we observe multiple metastable structures with well-defined point-group symmetries. We attribute the observed metastability to the deformability of the droplets which leads to effective many-body interactions and energy barriers for rearrangement. By changing the composition of the oil phase we find that when the surface tensions of the droplets and of the encapsulating phase are comparable, the energy barriers are high enough to trap elongated structures or even linear chains, independently of N. However, when the surface tension of the encapsulating phase is much larger than that of the droplets, non-spherical morphologies are stable only at sufficiently high N. In such a case multiple internal interfaces can hold stresses and prevent relaxation of the global deformations which leads to a plastic, gel-like behavior. Our findings can serve as guidelines for synthesis of functional particles as well as for designing biomimetic materials, e.g. for tissue engineering. J.G. acknowledges financial support from Polish Ministry of Science provided within the framework Mobility Plus.

  12. Caustics and the growth of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, Rama; Ravichandran, S.; Ray, Samriddhi; Deepu, P.

    Caustics are formed when inertial particles of very different velocities collide in a flow, and are a consequence of the dissipative nature of particle motion in a suspension. Using a model vortex-dominated flow with heavy droplets in a saturated environment, we suggest that sling caustics form only within a neighbourhood around a vortex, the square of whose radius is proportional to the product of circulation and particle inertia. Droplets starting close to this critical radius congregate very close together, resulting in large spikes in (Lagrangian) number density. Allowing for merger when droplets collide, we show that droplets starting out close to the critical radius display a much more rapid growth in size than those starting elsewhere, and a large fraction of the large droplets are those that originate within the caustics-forming region. We test these predictions in a two-dimensional simulation of turbulent flow. We hope that our study will be of interest in long-standing problems of physical interest such as the mechanism of broadening of droplet spectra in a turbulent flow. Support from the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India for the project Coupled physical processes in the Bay of Bengal and monsoon air-sea interaction under OMM is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Dictyostelium Lipid Droplets Host Novel Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoli; Barisch, Caroline; Paschke, Peggy; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Bertinetti, Oliver; Pawolleck, Nadine; Otto, Heike; Rühling, Harald; Feussner, Ivo; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2013-01-01

    Across all kingdoms of life, cells store energy in a specialized organelle, the lipid droplet. In general, it consists of a hydrophobic core of triglycerides and steryl esters surrounded by only one leaflet derived from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to which a specific set of proteins is bound. We have chosen the unicellular organism Dictyostelium discoideum to establish kinetics of lipid droplet formation and degradation and to further identify the lipid constituents and proteins of lipid droplets. Here, we show that the lipid composition is similar to what is found in mammalian lipid droplets. In addition, phospholipids preferentially consist of mainly saturated fatty acids, whereas neutral lipids are enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. Among the novel protein components are LdpA, a protein specific to Dictyostelium, and Net4, which has strong homologies to mammalian DUF829/Tmem53/NET4 that was previously only known as a constituent of the mammalian nuclear envelope. The proteins analyzed so far appear to move from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lipid droplets, supporting the concept that lipid droplets are formed on this membrane. PMID:24036346

  14. Dictyostelium lipid droplets host novel proteins.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoli; Barisch, Caroline; Paschke, Peggy; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Bertinetti, Oliver; Pawolleck, Nadine; Otto, Heike; Rühling, Harald; Feussner, Ivo; Herberg, Friedrich W; Maniak, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Across all kingdoms of life, cells store energy in a specialized organelle, the lipid droplet. In general, it consists of a hydrophobic core of triglycerides and steryl esters surrounded by only one leaflet derived from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to which a specific set of proteins is bound. We have chosen the unicellular organism Dictyostelium discoideum to establish kinetics of lipid droplet formation and degradation and to further identify the lipid constituents and proteins of lipid droplets. Here, we show that the lipid composition is similar to what is found in mammalian lipid droplets. In addition, phospholipids preferentially consist of mainly saturated fatty acids, whereas neutral lipids are enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. Among the novel protein components are LdpA, a protein specific to Dictyostelium, and Net4, which has strong homologies to mammalian DUF829/Tmem53/NET4 that was previously only known as a constituent of the mammalian nuclear envelope. The proteins analyzed so far appear to move from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lipid droplets, supporting the concept that lipid droplets are formed on this membrane. PMID:24036346

  15. Mechanical vibrations of pendant liquid droplets.

    PubMed

    Temperton, Robert H; Smith, Michael I; Sharp, James S

    2015-07-01

    A simple optical deflection technique was used to monitor the vibrations of microlitre pendant droplets of deuterium oxide, formamide, and 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane. Droplets of different volumes of each liquid were suspended from the end of a microlitre pipette and vibrated using a small puff of nitrogen gas. A laser was passed through the droplets and the scattered light was collected using a photodiode. Vibration of the droplets resulted in the motion of the scattered beam and time-dependent intensity variations were recorded using the photodiode. These time-dependent variations were Fourier transformed and the frequencies and widths of the mechanical droplet resonances were extracted. A simple model of vibrations in pendant/sessile drops was used to relate these parameters to the surface tension, density and viscosity of the liquid droplets. The surface tension values obtained from this method were found to be in good agreement with results obtained using the standard pendant drop technique. Damping of capillary waves on pendant drops was shown to be similar to that observed for deep liquid baths and the kinematic viscosities obtained were in agreement with literature values for all three liquids studied. PMID:26189195

  16. Ignition of Droplet Suspended on a Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion Experiment completing a number of successful burns on STS-94, July 11, 1997, MET:9/17:40 (approximate). The photo shows a droplet of 95% heptane and 5% hexadecane, suspended and positioned by the fiber wire, just as it is being ignited by the glowing coil beneath. Study of the physical properties of burning fuel from this experiment is expected to contribute to more efficient use of fossil fuels and reduction of combustion by-products on Earth. The sequence is from a time-lapse movie (34 seconds condensed to 12 seconds), and clearly shows particles emanating from the droplet during the burn. The droplet shrank to nothing as it was consumed. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (133KB JPEG, 656 x 741 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300181.html.

  17. Whole Teflon valves for handling droplets.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Olgierd; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr

    2016-06-21

    We propose and test a new whole-Teflon gate valve for handling droplets. The valve allows droplet plugs to pass through without disturbing them. This is possible due to the geometric design, the choice of material and lack of any pulses of flow generated by closing or opening the valve. The duct through the valve resembles a simple segment of tubing, without constrictions, change in lumen or side pockets. There are no extra sealing materials with different wettability or chemical resistance. The only material exposed to liquids is FEP Teflon, which is resistant to aggressive chemicals and fully biocompatible. The valve can be integrated into microfluidic systems: we demonstrate a complex system for culturing bacteria in hundreds of microliter droplet chemostats. The valve effectively isolates modules of the system to increase precision of operations on droplets. We verified that the valve allowed millions of droplet plugs to safely pass through, without any cross-contamination with bacteria between the droplets. The valve can be used in automating complex microfluidic systems for experiments in biochemistry, biology and organic chemistry. PMID:27182628

  18. Studies of droplet burning and extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    A project on droplet combustion, pursued jointly with F. L. Dryer of Princeton University, has now been in progress for many years. The project involves experiments on the burning of single droplets in various atmospheres, mainly at normal atmospheric pressure and below, performed in drop towers and designed to be performed aboard space-based platforms such as the Space Shuttle or the Space Station and currently manifest for Spacelab in the MSL-1 flight of the Space Shuttle in April of 1997. It also involves numerical computations on droplet burning, performed mainly at Princeton, and asymptotic analyses of droplet burning, performed mainly at UCSD. The focus of the studies rests primarily on time-dependent droplet-burning characteristics and on extinction phenomena. The presentation to be given here concerns the recent research on application of asymptotic methods to investigation of the flame structure and extinction of alcohol droplets. These theoretical studies are relevant to the second of the proposed space-flight tests and are currently investigating the extent to which combustion of alcohols can be described by four-step reduced chemistry similar to that which has achieved a good degree of success for alkane flames. These studies have progressed to a point at which a number of definite conclusions can now be stated. These conclusions and the reasoning that led to them are outlined.

  19. Colloidal particles embedded in liquid crystal droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, Drew; Sadati, Monirosadat; Zhou, Ye; de Pablo, Juan J.

    In this work, we encapsulate polystyrene and silica particles in nematic liquid crystal (LC) droplets dispersed in water using microfluidic glass capillary devices. While polystyrene particles induce planar anchoring on the surface, silica particles, treated with DMOAP, create homeotropic anchoring of the LC molecules at their surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is added to the aqueous phase to stabilize LC droplets and promote a radial configuration with point defect in the center of LC droplet. Our experimental and computational studies show that, when trapped inside the LC droplets, particles with both anchoring types become mostly localized at the defect point (at the center) and interact with the radial configuration. Interestingly, a twisting structure is observed for polystyrene particle with strong planar anchoring. Although localization of the particles at the droplet center is the most stable state and with the lowest free energy, off-center positions also emerge, displacing the defect point from the center to near the surface of a radial droplet. - Corresponding author - Second affiliation: Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA.

  20. Burning Heptane Droplets on STS-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 11, 1997. This round of experiments burned heptane droplets in 1/2 atmosphere pressure consisting of oxygen and helium. During this mission, scientists have seen for the first time droplets which stop burning due to heat loss by radiation. From these data, the investigators hope to understand the physical and chemical processes that take place in droplet combustion in different environments, including conditions under which the flames extinguish, the chemistry of the combustion reaction, and the production of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and soot particles. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station.(983KB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300172.html.