Sample records for chemical composition chemical

  1. Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Willie; Cavanagh, Richard; Turk, Gregory; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody; Derose, Paul; Choquette, Steven; Kramer, Gary; Sieber, John; Greenberg, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth; Scott, John; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  2. Chemical Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie May; Richard Cavanagh; Gregory Turk; Michael Winchester; John Travis; Melody Smith; Paul Derose; Steven Choquette; Gary Kramer; John Sieber; Robert Greenberg; Richard Lindstrom; George Lamaze; Rolf Zeisler; Michele Schantz; Karen Phinney; Michael Welch; Thomas Vetter; Kenneth Pratt; John Scott; John Small; Scott Wight; Stephan Stranick

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and

  3. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  4. CHAPTER XVII CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER XVII CHEMICAL COMPOSITION PfJ#e Proximate composition of oyster meat._ 381 Seasonal_________ ___ __ _ _____________ ____ ____ ___________ _______ 383 Heavy metals__ _ _ __ __ ___ __ 383 Observations on New England oysters of magnitude of the three components is common to all the speeies studied. The proteins make up 50 percent

  5. Aqueous chemical wash compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, C.E.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes an aqueous, substantially unfoamed chemical wash composition having properties making it suitable for use as a pre-flush in well cementing operations and/or for removal of drilling mud from a borehole at a temperature of from about 150/sup 0/F to about 270/sup 0/F, the wash a. being predominantly composed of water, b. containing an active surfactant component comprising a combination of (1) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a water soluble anionic surfactant; (2) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a nonionic surfactant; and (3) from about 0.05 to about 0.54 weight percent (total weight basis) of at least one water soluble amphoteric surfactant, and c. having dispersed therein a heterogeneous mixture of distinct particles comprising both a first particulate oil soluble resin which is friable and a second particulate oil soluble resin which is pliable and where the size of the friable resin particles ranges from about 0.5 to about 300 microns and the size of the pliable resin particles ranges from about 0.05 to about 30 microns. The amount of the friable-pliable resin mixture is sufficient to impart effective fluid loss control to the chemical wash composition.

  6. Chemical composition of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    The composition of Mars has been calculated from the cosmochemical model of Ganapathy and Anders (1974) which assumes that planets and chondrites underwent the same 4 fractionation processes in the solar nebula. Because elements of similar volatility stay together in these processes, only 4 index elements (U, Fe, K and Tl or Ar36) are needed to calculate the abundances of all 83 elements in the planet. The values chosen are U = 28 ppb, K = 62 ppm (based on K U = 2200 from orbital ??-spectrometry and on thermal history calculations by Tokso??z and Hsui (1978) Fe = 26.72% (from geophysical data), and Tl = 0.14 ppb (from the Ar36 and Ar40 abundances measured by Viking). The mantle of Mars is an iron-rich [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.77] garnet wehrlite (?? = 3.52-3.54 g/cm3), similar to McGetchin and Smyth's (1978) estimate but containing more Ca and Al. It is nearly identical to the bulk Moon composition of Morgan et al. (1978b). The core makes up 0.19 of the planet and contains 3.5% S-much less than estimated by other models. Volatiles have nearly Moon-like abundances, being depleted relative to the Earth by factors of 0.36 (K-group, Tcond = 600-1300 K) or 0.029 (Tl group, Tcond < 600 K). The water abundance corresponds to a 9 m layer, but could be higher by as much as a factor of 11. Comparison of model compositions for 5 differentiated planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Moon, and eucrite parent body) suggests that volatile depletion correlates mainly with size rather than with radial distance from the Sun. However, the relatively high volatile content of shergottites and some chondrites shows that the correlation is not simple; other factors must also be involved. ?? 1979.

  7. Minerals by Chemical Composition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive periodic table displays a listing of minerals by element, sorted by percent of the element. Clicking on a symbol on the table leads users to information on the element (atomic mass and number, name origin, year of discovery, and a brief description), and to a table listing each mineral known to contain the element in decreasing order by percentage. Each mineral name in the table is linked to additional information on the mineral, such as formula and composition, images, crystallography, physical properties, and many others.

  8. Chemical recycling of scrap composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

  9. The chemical composition of Polaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luck, R. E.; Bond, H. E.

    1986-04-01

    From high signal-to-noise coude Reticon spectral obtained at Lick Observatory, the chemical composition of the bright Population I Cepheid Polaris (Alpha UMi) has been determined. The chemical abundances in Polaris are found to be completely typical of normal F-G supergiants. The iron abundance is solar (Fe/H = 0.0), and other metals are present in essentially solar ratios. Carbon is deficient (C/H = -0.4) and nitrogen overabundant (N/H = +0.4) relative to solar abundances, indicating the presence of CN-cycle products at the surface. Oxygen shows an underabundance (O/H = -0.2) that is also typical of F-G supergiants, but is not as easily understood.

  10. Original article Chemical composition and coagulation properties

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Chemical composition and coagulation properties of Modicana and Holstein cows composition was the same in both breeds. The pH of the Mo milk was lower (­0.07), coagulation time and curd coagulation du lait des races bovines Modicana et Holstein. La production, la composition chimique et l

  11. Average chemical composition of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The available data on the chemical composition of the lunar surface at eleven sites (3 Surveyor, 5 Apollo and 3 Luna) are used to estimate the amounts of principal chemical elements (those present in more than about 0.5% by atom) in average lunar surface material. The terrae of the moon differ from the maria in having much less iron and titanium and appreciably more aluminum and calcium.

  12. Boron Nitride Composites By Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh O. Pierson

    1975-01-01

    Composites of boron nitride (BN) have been made by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a BN matrix on a BN felt fiber substrate. Reactant gases were boron trifluoride and ammonia. The composites have a relatively high density (1.70 g\\/cm3), a crystallite size LC = 150 A and an interlayer spacing d002 = 3.35 A. Measurements of elastic modulus and

  13. Chemical Composition of South Polar Snow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Wilson; D. A. House

    1965-01-01

    The chemical composition of south polar snow is of interest because of the remoteness of the snow from the earth's oceans, being at an altitude of 2700 m and a distance of 1600 km from the ocean in summer and twice that distance in winter. Unlike measurements made at the centers of other large continents, measurements made at the South

  14. Chemical microsensors based on polymer fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessick, Royal F.; Levit, Natalia; Tepper, Gary C.

    2005-05-01

    There is an urgent need for new chemical sensors for defense and security applications. In particular, sensors are required that can provide higher sensitivity and faster response in the field than existing baseline technologies. We have been developing a new solid-state chemical sensor technology based on microscale polymer composite fiber arrays. The fibers consist of an insulating polymer doped with conducting particles and are electrospun directly onto the surface of an interdigitated microelectrode. The concentration of the conducting particles within the fiber is controlled and is near the percolation threshold. Thus, the electrical resistance of the polymer fiber composite is very sensitive to volumetric changes produced in the polymer by vapor absorption. Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of the new microsensor. The objective is to take advantage of the very high surface to volume ratio, low thermal mass and linear geometry of the composite fibers to produce sensors exhibiting an extremely high vapor sensitivity and rapid response. The simplicity and low cost of a resistance-based chemical microsensor makes this sensing approach an attractive alternative to devices requiring RF electronics or time-of-flight analysis. Potential applications of this technology include battlespace awareness, homeland security, environmental surveillance, medical diagnostics and food process monitoring.

  15. Inferring Chemical Reaction Patterns Using Rule Composition in Graph Grammars

    E-print Network

    Flamm, Christoph

    Inferring Chemical Reaction Patterns Using Rule Composition in Graph Grammars Jakob Lykke Andersen1:studla@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; Corresponding author Abstract Background: Modeling molecules as undirected graphs and chemical reactions, to summarize several subsequent reactions into a single composite chemical reaction. Results: We introduce

  16. Chemical Composition and Photometry of BE Lyncis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhee; Yushchenko, A. V.; Kim, S.-L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Kim, Chun-Hwey

    2012-05-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observation was carried out to find the chemical composition of BE Lyn. The abundances of 25 chemical elements from carbon to neodymium were found. The deficiency of iron appeared to be equal to ?log N(Fe) = -0.26 ± 0.08 with respect to the solar metallicity, and the abundances of other elements were mainly undersolar. Only nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, and sulfur showed overabundances near 0.2--0.3 dex. The abundance pattern showed no clear signs of accretion or mass transfer events. It is not possible to exclude the classification of BE Lyn as a SX Phe--type star with slightly undersolar abundances of chemical elements. In addition, new differential time-series observations of BE Lyn were secured using V filters, and seven new times of light maximum were identified. We collected 162 times of light maximum from the literature, unpublished data, and an open database, and we proceeded to investigate the pulsational properties of BE Lyn. All five harmonic frequencies were identified using the Fourier decomposition method.

  17. Environmental effects of oilfield chemicals on composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sorem, R.M. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a feasibility study of the effects of oilfield chemicals on composite materials. In this initial study only hydrochloric acid is considered. Initial attempts were made to test stressed specimens, but results were very poor. Subsequent testing was performed to determine how the composite material constituents reacted to the hydrochloric acid. The initial testing was performed on tubular specimens with axial and essentially hoop wound fibers of different materials with different resins. The specimens were loaded in bending to induce representative strains in the tubing. All specimens failed. The second tests consisted of only an environmental soak to determine the amount of mass uptake as well as the reduction in strength. The strength reduction results will be presented at a later time. Testing was performed on S-2 glass, carbon and Kevlar 49 as well as three different resins.

  18. ORIGIN AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ANDROSCOGGIN RIVER FOAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling and analysis program on the Androscoggin River and at International Paper Company's Androscoggin Mill in Jay, Maine was undertaken to determine the origin and chemical composition of Androscoggin River foam. The report documents an extremely complex chemical compositio...

  19. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NIGMS). Both of these instruments have substantial heritage as they are based on those developed for the CRAF Mission. The engineering instruments include a simplified Comet Dust Environmental Monitor (SCODEM) and a navigational Camera, NAVCAM. While neither of the instruments will be permitted to establish science requirements, it is anticipated that significant science return will be accomplished Radio science will also be included.

  20. On the chemical composition of Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Heiter, U.

    2014-12-01

    Open clusters are key objects to study the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk, but metallicities and detailed abundances are available for only a small fraction of them. We review here the current status of metallicity determinations. Open clusters are also perfect objects to test the chemical tagging method which intends to identify stars formed from the same molecular cloud. First results about this technique are presented, based on homogeneously derived chemical abundances for a large sample of stars in open clusters.

  1. Chemical provinces reveal Elysium Volcano's compositional evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susko, D. A.; Karunatillake, S.; Wray, J. J.; Skok, J. R.; Hurowitz, J.; Ojha, L.; Judice, T.; Bently, R. O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical provinces of Mars became definable[1-3] with the maps of elemental mass fractions generated with Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data[4,5]. Previous work highlighted the Elysium lava flow province as anomalous, with a depletion in K and Th relative to the average crust in the rest of Mars (ROM).[3] We characterize the elemental composition, geology, and geomorphology of the region to constrain the processes that have contributed to its evolution. We compare SE Elysium with its North West lava fields, advancing prior work on thermal evolution of the martian mantle.[6] Lava fields at both sites probably source from Elysium eruptions. Both show similar Si content, as well as a Ca-enrichment compared to ROM, consistent with prior models.[6,7] Nevertheless, the two fields are compositionally distinct from each other, with NW Elysium decisively depleted in Ca and Fe, but enriched in K and Th. Such distinctness, in elements that reflect magmatic fractionation, reveals the possibility that a single volcanic complex on Mars may evolve rapidly during the Amazonian era, causing variable flow compositions. Interestingly, a chemical province containing volcanics that is contemporaneous with Elysium, overlaps the Tharsis region.[3] Unlike Elysium, the K and Th distributions within Tharsis are indistinguishable from ROM. Meanwhile, the mass fraction signature in Tharsis is enriched in Cl and depleted in Si. Such contrast, in chemical anomalies between volcanic constructs of similar age, may indicate that the depletion of K and Th in SE Elysium did not arise from temporal evolution of the mantle. [1] Taylor, G. et al. Geology 38, 183-186, 2010 [2] Gasnault, O. et al. 207, 226-247, 2010 [3] Karunatillake, S. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E12001, 2009 [4] Boynton, W. V. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 112, E12S99, 2007 [5] Feldman, W. C. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E09006, 2004 [6] Baratoux, D. et al. Nature 472, 338-41, 2011 [7] Balta, J. et al. Geology 41, 1115-1118, 2013

  2. Carbon Nano Tube Composites with Chemically Functionalized Plant Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Thielemans; Richard P. Wool; Werner Blau; Valerie Barron

    2003-01-01

    Carbon Nano Tube Composites with Chemically Functionalized Plant Oil Wim Thielemans, R., P. Wool, V. Barron and W. Blau Multi-Wall Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) made by the Kratchmer-Huffman CCVD process were found to interact and solubilize by slow mechanical stirring, with chemically functionalized plant oils, such as acrylated, epoxidized and maleinated triglycerides (TG) derived from plant oils. The chemical functionality

  3. Chemical composition of selected edible nut seeds.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2006-06-28

    Commercially important edible nut seeds were analyzed for chemical composition and moisture sorption. Moisture (1.47-9.51%), protein (7.50-21.56%), lipid (42.88-66.71%), ash (1.16-3.28%), total soluble sugars (0.55-3.96%), tannins (0.01-0.88%), and phytate (0.15-0.35%) contents varied considerably. Regardless of the seed type, lipids were mainly composed of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (>75% of the total lipids). Fatty acid composition analysis indicated that oleic acid (C18:1) was the main constituent of monounsaturated lipids in all seed samples. With the exception of macadamia, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid. In the case of walnuts, in addition to linoleic acid (59.79%) linolenic acid (C18:3) also significantly contributed toward the total polyunsaturated lipids. Amino acid composition analyses indicated lysine (Brazil nut, cashew nut, hazelnut, pine nut, and walnut), sulfur amino acids methionine and cysteine (almond), tryptophan (macadamia, pecan), and threonine (peanut) to be the first limiting amino acid as compared to human (2-5 year old) amino acid requirements. The amino acid composition of the seeds was characterized by the dominance of hydrophobic (range = 37.16-44.54%) and acidic (27.95-33.17%) amino acids followed by basic (16.16-21.17%) and hydrophilic (8.48-11.74%) amino acids. Trypsin inhibitory activity, hemagglutinating activity, and proteolytic activity were not detected in the nut seed samples analyzed. Sorption isotherms (Aw range = 0.08-0.97) indicated a narrow range for monolayer water content (11-29 mg/g of dry matter). No visible mold growth was evident on any of the samples stored at Aw < 0.53 and 25 degrees C for 6 months. PMID:16787018

  4. Chemical Composition of Boron Carbonitride Films Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition from Trimethylamineborane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Kosinova; Yu. M. Rumyantsev; A. N. Golubenko; N. I. Fainer; B. M. Ayupov; I. P. Dolgovesova; B. A. Kolesov; V. V. Kaichev; F. A. Kuznetsov

    2003-01-01

    Boron carbonitride and boron nitride films were grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using trimethylamineborane and its mixtures with ammonia, hydrogen, or helium. The effects of the starting-mixture composition and substrate temperature on the chemical composition of the deposits was studied by ellipsometry, scanning microscopy, IR spectroscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the initial composition

  5. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

    1992-02-01

    The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

  6. Chemical compositions of four barium stars

    E-print Network

    Liang, Y C; Chen, Y Q; Qiu, H M; Zhang, B

    2003-01-01

    Chemical compositions of four barium stars HD 26886, HD 27271, HD 50082 and HD 98839 are studied based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise Echelle spectra. Results show that all of them are disk stars. Their \\alpha and iron peak elements are similar to the solar abundances. The neutron-capture process elements are overabundant relative to the Solar. The heavy-element abundances of the strong Ba star HD 50082 are higher than those of other three mild Ba stars. Its mass is 1.32Msun (+0.28,-0.22Msun), and is consistent with the average mass of strong Ba stars (1.5Msun). For mild Ba star HD 27271 and HD 26886, the derived masses are 1.90Msun (+0.25,-0.20Msun) and 2.78Msun (+0.75,-0.78M_sun), respectively, which are consistent with the average mass of mild Ba stars. We also calculate the theoretical abundances of Ba stars by combining the AGB stars nucleosynthesis and wind accretion formation scenario of Ba binary systems. The comparisons between the observed abundance patterns of the sample stars with the th...

  7. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    PubMed

    Wi?niewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2014-10-15

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25315338

  8. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARCTURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, I. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Allende Prieto, C., E-mail: ivan@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-12-20

    We derive a self-consistent set of atmospheric parameters and abundances of 17 elements for the red giant star Arcturus: T{sub eff} = 4286 {+-} 30 K, log g = 1.66 {+-} 0.05, and [Fe/H] = -0.52 {+-} 0.04. The effective temperature was determined using model atmosphere fits to the observed spectral energy distribution from the blue to the mid-infrared (0.44 to 10 {mu}m). The surface gravity was calculated using the trigonometric parallax of the star and stellar evolution models. A differential abundance analysis relative to the solar spectrum allowed us to derive iron abundances from equivalent width measurements of 37 Fe I and 9 Fe II lines, unblended in the spectra of both Arcturus and the Sun; the [Fe/H] value adopted is derived from Fe I lines. We also determine the mass, radius, and age of Arcturus: M = 1.08 {+-} 0.06 M{sub Sun }, R = 25.4 {+-} 0.2 R{sub Sun }, and {tau} = 7.1{sup +1.5}{sub -1.2} Gyr. Finally, abundances of the following elements are measured from an equivalent width analysis of atomic features: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn. We find the chemical composition of Arcturus typical of that of a local thick-disk star, consistent with its kinematics.

  9. Chemical compositions of four barium stars

    E-print Network

    Y. C. Liang; G. Zhao; Y. Q. Chen; H. M. Qiu; B. Zhang

    2003-12-15

    Chemical compositions of four barium stars HD 26886, HD 27271, HD 50082 and HD 98839 are studied based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise Echelle spectra. Results show that all of them are disk stars. Their \\alpha and iron peak elements are similar to the solar abundances. The neutron-capture process elements are overabundant relative to the Solar. The heavy-element abundances of the strong Ba star HD 50082 are higher than those of other three mild Ba stars. Its mass is 1.32Msun (+0.28,-0.22Msun), and is consistent with the average mass of strong Ba stars (1.5Msun). For mild Ba star HD 27271 and HD 26886, the derived masses are 1.90Msun (+0.25,-0.20Msun) and 2.78Msun (+0.75,-0.78M_sun), respectively, which are consistent with the average mass of mild Ba stars. We also calculate the theoretical abundances of Ba stars by combining the AGB stars nucleosynthesis and wind accretion formation scenario of Ba binary systems. The comparisons between the observed abundance patterns of the sample stars with the theoretical results show that wind accretion scenario can explain the abundance patterns of HD 50082 and HD 27271 well, but fail to explain the abundances of HD 26886. It means that the mild Ba star HD 26886, with shorter orbital period (P11000 d), may be either a star with the heavy elements enriched by itself or a "true Ba" star.

  10. The chemical composition of a Greenland glacier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Weiss; Kathe Bertine; Minoru Koide; Edward D. Goldberg

    1975-01-01

    Chemical analyses on water from dated strata of a south Greenland permanent ice sheet revealed that there is a larger amount of sulfate in samples accumulated during the past decade than in those 60 or more years older. This increase is attributed to combustion of fossil fuel. With the exception of mercury, cadmium and possibly copper, the heavy metal distributions

  11. On line chemical composition of analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This status report details progress made on the development of an on-line chemical analyzer. Dynamic studies of the distillation column, approval of testing plans, installation of a sample cell and raman analyzer, design of computerized control systems are described. Information on seminars and published papers is also included. (GHH)

  12. Review article Propolis: chemical composition, biological

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and its use in medicine are presented. propolis / phenolics / antimicrobial activity / toxicity Propolis is a natural resinous substance col- lected by bees from parts of plants, buds and exudates of chemical sub- stances found in propolis are waxes, resins, balsams, aromatic and ethereal oils, pollen

  13. Chemical Composition of Interstellar Dust: A Monte Carlo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role towards the chemical enrichment of the Interstellar medium. Except the dust chemistry it is impossible to explain the huge abundances of the most abundant species namely molecular hydrogen. Dense cloud is enriched by several molecules which could readily accreted to the dust surface for further chemical enrichment. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation to explore the chemical composition of the dusty grain mantle. It is evident from our simulation that the grain mantle is mainly consists of Water, Methanol Carbon-dioxide and Carbon monoxide. Depending upon the stimulants present around the surrounding atmosphere of the ISM, chemical composition of the grain mantle will change. Around the lower visual extinction region, interstellar photons are seen to play a crucial role (via photo-reactions) for the composition of the dusty grain mantle.

  14. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRAESEPE (M44)

    SciTech Connect

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Roper, Brian W.; Lum, Michael G., E-mail: boes@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: brianwroper@gmail.com, E-mail: mikelum@ifa.hawaii.edu [Visiting astronomer, W. M. Keck Observatory jointly operated by the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. (United States)

    2013-09-20

    Star clusters have long been used to illuminate both stellar evolution and Galactic evolution. They also hold clues to the chemical and nucleosynthetic processes throughout the history of the Galaxy. We have taken high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectra of 11 solar-type stars in the Praesepe open cluster to determine the chemical abundances of 16 elements: Li, C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, and Ba. We have determined Fe from Fe I and Fe II lines and find [Fe/H] = +0.12 ±0.04. We find that Li decreases with temperature due to increasing Li depletion in cooler stars; it matches the Li-temperature pattern found in the Hyades. The [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] abundances are below solar and lower than the field star samples due to the younger age of Praesepe (0.7 Gyr) than the field stars. The alpha-elements, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, have solar ratios with respect to Fe, and are also lower than the field star samples. The Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, track Fe and have solar values. The neutron capture element [Y/Fe] is found to be solar, but [Ba/Fe] is enhanced relative to solar and to the field stars. Three Praesepe giants were studied by Carrera and Pancino; they are apparently enhanced in Na, Mg, and Ba relative to the Praesepe dwarfs. The Na enhancement may indicate proton-capture nucleosynthesis in the Ne ? Na cycling with dredge-up into the atmospheres of the red giants.

  15. Inorganic chemical composition of native trees of the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    De França, E J; De Nadai Fernandes, E A; Bacchi, M A; Rodrigues, R R; Verburg, T G

    2005-03-01

    The Atlantic Forest with its exuberant vegetation of high level of biodiversity is classified as one hotspot of the world. Chemical composition of leaves from native trees and underlying soils was evaluated by INAA. The predominant species Euterpe edulis, Bathysa meridionalis, Hyeronima alchorneoides, Marlierea tomentosa, Gomidesia flagellaris, and Gomidesia spectabilis belonging to the diverse plant families were studied. Euterpe edulis, the most abundant understory specie, presented the lowest element concentrations except for Zn. Some variation in chemical composition was noted, however, the chemical specificity of tree species can be more predominant than the soil variability for the obtained leaf concentrations. Factor values obtained through the Monte-Carlo assisted factor analysis were used for species discrimination, The results indicate that chemical investigation of native trees is a quite promising tool for biodiversity studies in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:15869195

  16. Cometary coma chemical composition (C4) mission. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.; Clark, B. C.; Niemann, H. B.; Alexander, M.; Knocke, P. C.; O'Hara, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary missions are of enormous fundamental importance for many different space science disciplines, including exobiology. Comets are presumed relics of the earliest, most primitive material in the solar nebula and are related to the planetesimals. They undoubtedly provided a general enrichment of volatiles to the inner solar system (contributing to atmospheres and oceans) and may have been key to the origin of life. A Discovery class, comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, was selected for further study by NASA earlier this year. The C4 Mission is a highly focused and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission, concentrating exclusively on measurements which will lead to an understanding of the chemical composition and make-up of the cometary nucleus. The scientific goals of the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission are to rendezvous with a short-period comet and (1) to determine the elemental, chemical, and isotopic composition of the nucleus and (2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. Further, it is a goal to obtain preliminary data on the development of the coma (dust and gas composition) as a function of time and orbital position.

  17. Chemical composition and origin of the earth's primitive mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-S. Sun

    1982-01-01

    The chemical composition of the earth's primitive crust is estimated by critical evaluation of data derived from ultramafic mantle samples and partial melting model calculations for mafic and ultramafic magmas of various ages. Chemical irregularities inferred in the earth are discussed in terms of earth-forming and mantle-core differentiation processes. The well-defined continuous depletion trend of lithophile elements towards lower temperature

  18. The chemical composition and structure of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is assumed that most of the igneous rocks on the lunar surface are the product of partial melting in the lunar interior, followed by segregation and upward transport of an igneous liquid. An attempt is made to determine constraints on the composition of the lunar interior that derive from the chemical composition of the lunar igneous rocks. The salient chemical characteristics of igneous rocks from the lunar surface are summarized, and are compared to analogous characteristics of terrestrial volcanic rocks so that major similarities and differences between terrestrial and lunar basaltic rocks can be established.

  19. Fuel options from microalgae with representative chemical compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, D. A.

    1984-07-01

    Representative species of microalgae are examined with respect to their reported chemical compositions. Each species is analyzed under a variety of culture conditions, with the objective being to characterize an optimum mixture of fuel products (e.g., methane, ethanol, methylester) which should be produced by the particular species. Historically the emphasis has been on the entire algal cell mass. Using the reported chemical composition for the representative species under specific sets of growth conditions, some conclusions can be drawn about the preferred fuel product conversion routes that could be employed. 10 references, 7 figures, 12 tables.

  20. Chemical composition of Cynara scolymus leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Orlovskaya; I. L. Luneva; V. A. Chelombit’ko

    2007-01-01

    methionine. The amino-acid composition was studied in further detail as before [3]. The qualitative composition of amino acids was determined from retention times. The internal standard was a standard mixture of 18 amino acids. Colored complexes that were formed by reaction with ninhydrin were measured colorimetrically at 570 nm. Peak areas of identified acids were used for quantitative determination (automatically).

  1. Energetic composites and method of providing chemical energy

    DOEpatents

    Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

  2. The influence of inclusion chemical composition on weld metal microstructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Liu; D. L. Olson

    1987-01-01

    The effects of nonmetallic inclusions on weld metal microstructures were investigated. The inclusions were extracted from\\u000a niobium microalloyed steel weld metal specimens, and examined with light and electron microscopic techniques. An EDS (Energy\\u000a Dispensive Spectroscopy) system was used to determine the chemical composition of the inclusions. Correlation between weld\\u000a metal and inclusion composition was established. Aluminum, titanium, sulfur, and iron

  3. Brazilian Propolis: Correlation between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Salomão; Paulo Roberto S. Pereira; Leila C. Campos; Cintia M. Borba; Pedro H. Cabello; Maria Cristina Marcucci; Solange L. de Castro

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of ethanol extracts from samples of Brazilian propolis (EEPs) determined by HPLC and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were determined. Based on the predominant botanical origin in the region of samples' collection, the 10 extracts were separated into three groups: A( B. dracunculifolia þ

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of the Centipeda minima (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surjani Soetardjo; Jong Poh Chan; Ahmad Mohamad Noor; Yoga Latha Lachimanan; Sasidharan Sreenivasan

    The antimicrobial activity of the Centipeda minima L. (Asteraceae) extract was evaluated against seven microorganisms using the disc diffusion method. The extract showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacterial strains, especially Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The chemical composition of the extract obtained fromCentipedaminima was analysed by GC-MS. Twenty - three

  5. Chemical Composition of Mycelium of the Thermotolerant Fungus Penicillium atrovenetum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zh. Tashpulatov; B. G. Baibaev; T. S. Shul'man

    2000-01-01

    The chemical composition of mycelium ofPenicillium atrovenetum,a highly active producer of cellulase and protein, is studied. The protein content in the mycelium is 37.6%. The highest amino-acid content occurs in the albumin fraction (18.28%)

  6. Composition and Thermodynamic Properties of Air in Chemical Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeckel, W E; Weston, Kenneth C

    1958-01-01

    Charts have been prepared relating the thermodynamic properties of air in chemical equilibrium for temperatures to 15,000 degrees k and for pressures 10(-5) to 10 (plus 4) atmospheres. Also included are charts showing the composition of air, the isentropic exponent, and the speed of sound. These charts are based on thermodynamic data calculated by the National Bureau of Standards. (author)

  7. Chemical composition and pulping of banana pseudo-stems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Cordeiro; M. N Belgacem; I. C Torres; J. C. V. P Moura

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the determination of chemical composition and the study of the pulping potentialities of banana pseudo-stems growing in Madeira Island (Portugal). First, the raw material was both studied as a whole (type I) and as the outer bark part (type II), which is richer in cellulose fibres. Before starting the cooking of banana wastes, the main components

  8. Chemical composition of acid rains in the Venezuelan savannah region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sanhueza; M. C. Arias; L. Donoso; N. Graterol; M. Hermoso; I. Martí; J. Romero; A. Rondón; M. Santana

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition of rain events has been determined at 6 sites in the Venezuelan savannah region. The results indicate that precipitations are little affected by anthropogenic emissions and that rain concentrations of anions and cations are similar to those observed at \\

  9. Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were ...

  10. Cyanobacterial chemical warfare affects zooplankton community composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARS-ANDERS HANSSON; SUSANNE GUSTAFSSON; KARIN RENGEFORS; LINA BOMARK

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Toxic algal blooms widely affect our use of water resources both with respect to drinking water and recreation. However, it is not only humans, but also organisms living in freshwater and marine ecosystems that may be affected by algal toxins. 2. In order to assess if cyanobacterial toxins affect the composition of natural zooplankton communities, we quantified the

  11. Chemical composition of Earth, Venus, and Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, John W.; Anders, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Model compositions of Earth, Venus, and Mercury are calculated from the premise that planets and chondrites underwent four identical fractionation processes in the solar nebula. Because elements of similar properties stay together in these processes, five constraints suffice to define the composition of a planet: mass of the core, abundance of U, and the ratios K/U, Tl/U, and FeO/(FeO + MgO). Complete abundance tables, and normative mineralogies, are given for all three planets. Review of available data shows only a few gross trends for the inner planets: FeO decreases with heliocentric distance, whereas volatiles are depleted and refractories are enriched in the smaller planets. Images PMID:16592930

  12. Chemical composition of Hanford Tank SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, E.; Agnew, S.; Jarvinen, G.; Yarbro, S.

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the radioactive waste, both current and future, stored in double-shell and single-shell tanks at the Hanford sites. One major program element in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal using the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. In support of this program, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a conceptual process flow sheet which will remediate the entire contents of a selected double-shelled underground waste tank, including supernatant and sludge, into forms that allow storage and final disposal in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally sound manner. The specific tank selected for remediation is 241-SY-102 located in the 200 West Area. As part of the flow sheet development effort, the composition of the tank was defined and documented. This database was built by examining the history of liquid waste transfers to the tank and by performing careful analysis of all of the analytical data that have been gathered during the tank`s lifetime. In order to more completely understand the variances in analytical results, material and charge balances were done to help define the chemistry of the various components in the tank. This methodology of defining the tank composition and the final results are documented in this report.

  13. Fast, Contactless Monitoring of the Chemical Composition of Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, O.; Stoyanov, Zh.; Stoyanov, B.; Nadoliisky, M.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    A technique to monitor chemical composition of materials during manufacturing of ceramic products, in particular - of bricks, is investigated. The technique of monitoring is likely to offset environmental pollution and save energy. For this purpose, we use the Surface photo charge effect, which is generated for each solid body interacting with electromagnetic field. The measurement is express and can be performed in-situ in production conditions. The experimental work has shown that different samples of the investigated materials with different compositions produce different signals specific to each sample. For the same material, the signal varies with the change in chemical composition. More specifically, it is shown that for the material from which the bricks are fired, the signal is a function of the percentage of coal sludge. The results indicate that the characterization technique as a viable technique for control of incoming raw materials.

  14. Aqueous Alteration and Martian Bulk Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Boynton, W. V.; McLennan, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    The bulk compositions of the terrestrial planets are fundamentally important in testing models for planetary accretion. This is particularly true for the abundances of volatile elements. In the absence of direct samples of the mantle, we must rely on samples of surface materials obtained from orbit (specifically from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, GRS), Martian meteorites, and in situ analyses. Use of these databases requires understanding the processes that formed and modified the igneous rocks composing the crust; aqueous processes are particularly important. Halogens are useful elements for understanding Martian bulk composition and surface aqueous alteration. Here, we focus on Cl, which is an incompatible element during partial melting. Cosmochemically, Cl is a moderately volatile element with a condensation temperature of 948 Kelvin, only slightly below that of K (1006 Kelvin), another incompatible lithophile element. Cl is substantially lost during magma degassing at or near the surface, making it difficult to determine its abundances in the interior through analyses of rocks, leading to an underestimate of Cl abundance in bulk silicate Mars. GRS data for Mars between approximately 52 degrees north and south show that K and Cl are uncorrelated. This is not surprising as they fractionate easily by release of Cl-bearing gases from magmas near the surface and during eruptions, by aqueous alteration of surface materials, and by the large solubility of Cl salts in water. A positive correlation of Cl with H supports the role of water in Cl redistribution. In spite of the lack of correlation between K and Cl, the mean Cl/K ratio is roughly chondritic: 1.5 ±0.1 compared to 1.28 in CI chondrites. However, Cl appears to be enriched at least in the uppermost few tens of cm analyzed by the GRS: Cl correlates with both H and S, but a linear fit to the data shows a positive Cl intercept of about 0.3, which suggests a decoupling of Cl from S and H. Adjusting the mean Cl abundance at the surface by subtracting 0.3 yields a global near-surface Cl/K of 0.6, about half the chondritic value. These data provide one framework for understanding the details of aqueous alteration on Mars. A reasonable interpretation of the Cl/K ratio at the surface is that the moderately-volatile elements K and Cl are present in chondritic proportions in bulk Mars, but are redistributed by volcanic and aqueous processes. Considering their similar incompatible igneous behavior, any deviations in Cl/K are likely caused in part by aqueous processes on or near the surface. Thus, Cl/K might be a useful index for identifying regions enriched or depleted in deposits modified or formed by aqueous alteration. Enhancement of Cl/K above chondritic could also be caused by additions from volcanic outgassing and variations in the K concentration of igneous rocks, so additional parameters are clearly necessary (e.g., H and S concentrations). Although complicated, these compositional relationships emphasize the need to understand aqueous processing on Mars quantitatively.

  15. Chemical composition of passive films on AISI 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Lorang, G.; Da Cunha Belo, M. (Centre E'Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique du CNRS, Vitry-Sur-Seine (France)); Simoes, A.M.P.; Ferreira, M.G.S. (Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica)

    1994-12-01

    Chemical characterization of passive films formed on AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel, in a borate/boric acid solution at pH 9.2, under various conditions of potential, temperature, and polarizations time, was made by Auger electron spectroscopy combined with ion sputtering, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The depth chemical composition, thickness, and duplex character of the passive layers were determined after processing AES sputter profiles by their quantitative approach based on the sequential layer sputtering model. Moreover, separated contributions of elements in their oxidized and unoxidized state could be disclosed from part to part of the oxide-alloy interface. The XPS study specified the chemical bondings which take placed inside the film, between Fe and oxygen (and water).

  16. The average chemical composition of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The available analytical data from twelve locations on the moon are used to estimate the average amounts of the principal chemical elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe) in the mare, the terra, and the average lunar surface regolith. These chemical elements comprise about 99% of the atoms on the lunar surface. The relatively small variability in the amounts of these elements at different mare (or terra) sites, and the evidence from the orbital measurements of Apollo 15 and 16, suggest that the lunar surface is much more homogeneous than the surface of the earth. The average chemical composition of the lunar surface may now be known as well as, if not better than, that of the solid part of the earth's surface.

  17. Formation of thermally stable chemical composition gratings in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokine, Michael

    2002-08-01

    Experimental results and a discussion of possible chemical pathways in the formation of thermally stable chemical composition gratings in optical fibers are presented. Gratings are formed through high-temperature treatment of UV-exposed hydrogen-loaded fibers. The final refractive-index modulation is ascribed to variations in fluorine concentration attained by periodically increased diffusion of fluorine. The mechanism behind this increase is the formation of mobile hydrogen fluoride from chemical reactions of fluorine and UV-induced hydroxyl, which occur with the spatial periodicity of the UV pattern. A hydroxyl-assisted increase in fluorine diffusion has been verified by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. Formation of ultrastable grating by periodic variation of oxygen concentration through diffusion of molecular water is also discussed.

  18. Chemical Composition of Laboratory Generated Seafoam Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyree, C. A.; Alexandrova, O. A.; Allen, J. O.

    2005-12-01

    Remote marine aerosols include a significant number of sea-salt particles that may be effective cloud condensation nuclei. For example, O`Dowd and Smith (1993) found that remote marine aerosols in the particle size range 0.1-3.0 ?m were dominated by sea-salt particles in the case of moderate-to-high wind speeds. Measurements of the flux of sub-micron sea-salt particles for the same wind speed vary by orders of magnitude, which indicate that other parameters, for example, may have a role in their production (Reid et al., 2001). Previous laboratory experiments using artificial seawater have shown that organic content (Garrett, 1968) and salinity (Mortensson et al., 2003) affect sea-salt particle production. We present laboratory measurements of sea-salt particles generated from seawater foams and compare them to measurements of remote marine particles. Foam droplets were generated by bubbling air through a fine pore diffuser into aqueous media in a precleaned glass column. The effect of salinity was studied by varying the salinity of artificial seawater over the range 0-3.5%. The effect of organic content was also studied by diluting filtered seawater with artificial seawater. Size distributions of dried seafoam droplets were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Seafoam particles were also size segregated and collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Collected material was analyzed for sodium, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Sub-micron particle size distributions were unimodal with a mean diameter of ~100 nm in agreement with recent seafoam laboratory experiments (Martensson et al., 2003). This mode is comparable to the "accumulation" mode particles typical of the remote marine environment and known to contain significant amounts of sea-salt (Bates et al., 1998). The size and number of seafoam particles were dependent on salinity; mean droplet size and total number concentration increased with salinity. Surprisingly, the size and number of seafoam particles was independent of organic content; this is in contrast to previous laboratory experiments that showed seafoam particle numbers were enhanced when surface-active organics were added to artificial seawater (Garrett, 1968). We present recent measurements of the composition and enrichment of laboratory seafoam particles, which we propose approximate remote marine boundary layer particles.

  19. Studies on surface composition and chemical states of calcium manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Raju, V. S.; Bera, Santanu; Vijaynandhini, K.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes investigations on atomic composition and chemical states of sintered calcium manganites discs in surface and near surface regions. The atomic composition was determined by 3.05 MeV 16O(?, ?) 16O resonance elastic scattering while the chemical states by, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The specimens examined included undoped and donor (Y 3+, Bi 3+) doped CaMnO 3, and Ca-excess and Mn-excess manganites namely Ca 2MnO 4 and CaMn 2O 4 respectively. Calcium manganite powder used in the preparation of discs was synthesized by a wet chemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that all the discs are monophasic except CaMn 2O 4, which contained ˜98% requisite manganite. The atomic compositions of undoped specimens are close to the stoichiometric value while Y 3+ and Bi 3+ doped specimens are deficient in Mn and O respectively. The O deficiency may be responsible for comparatively higher electrical conductivity of Bi 3+ doped specimen. Some of the specimens were also examined subsequent to their annealing in low P atmosphere. This treatment produced significant compositional and structural modifications in the near surface regions. Mn(2p) electrons have identical binding energies in the sintered discs; therefore the valence states of Mn could not be discerned. However lesser binding energies of these electrons in annealed CaMnO 3 indicated the existence of Mn(II)/Mn(III) in the specimen.

  20. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  1. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Gongronema latifolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afolabi F. Eleyinmi

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition of Gongronema latifolium leaves was determined using standard methods. Aqueous and methanol G. latifolium extracts were tested against thirteen pathogenic bacterial isolates. Crude protein, lipid extract, ash, crude fibre and nitrogen\\u000a free extractives obtained are: 27.2%, 6.07%, 11.6%, 10.8% and 44.3% dry matter respectively. Potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus\\u000a and cobalt contents are 332, 110, 115, 125 and 116

  3. THE COMPOSITION OF 433 EROS: A MINERALOGICAL-CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

    E-print Network

    Nittler, Larry R.

    THE COMPOSITION OF 433 EROS: A MINERALOGICAL-CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS T.J. McCoy1, T.H. Burbine1, L.A. Mc, J.F. Bell III9, B.E. Clark5, P.E. Clark3, S.W. Squyres9, C.R. Chapman10, W.V. Boynton11 and J, respectively, of the target asteroid 433 Eros. Synthesis of these two data sets provides information

  4. The Chemical Composition of Spanish Myrtle Oils. Part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mans H. Boelens; Rafael Jimenez

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Spanish wild-growing myrtle leaves, flowers, unripe and ripe fruits was examined by GC\\/MS. About 130 constituents were present in the various oils, from which 80 components could be identified and quantified. The yields of the hydrodistilled oils obtained from different plant parts were: leaves, 0.4–0.5%; flowers, 0.4%; unripe fruits,

  5. The Chemical Composition of Spanish Myrtle Leaf Oils. Part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mans H. Boelens; Rafael Jimenez

    1991-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Spanish cultivated and wild growing plants from Myrtus communis L. was examined by GC\\/MS. Over one hundred compounds were detected in the oils, from which about fifty could be identified and quantified. The main components were found to be ?-pinene (8.05–8.18%), 1,8-cineole (15.14–29.89%), linalool (0.5–8.3%), and myrtenyl acetate (32.90–35.90%).

  6. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Seseli libanotis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzan Ozturk; Sezai Ercisli

    2006-01-01

    Summary  The antibacterial efficacy of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Seseli libanotis by using disc diffusion assay against 107 strains from 52 bacterial species and the chemical composition of the essential\\u000a oil using GC\\/MS analysis were studied for the first time. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of single compounds\\u000a were determined by the microbroth dilution method. Gas chromatography–mass

  7. Chemical composition of the sediment from Lake 20 (Antarctica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato BAUDO; Paola BARBERO; Monica BELTRAMI; Daria ROSSI

    Lake 20 (19,000 m2) is located on the coast of the Ross Sea, in the North-Central part of Victoria Land, and its surface is ice-free between the end of December and early February. Within the framework of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica, a study was made of the chemical composition of sediments from the lake, with the intention

  8. Chemical composition of oleo-gum-resin from Ferula gummosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein T. Jalali; Zahra J. Ebrahimian; Dmitry V. Evtuguin; Carlos Pascoal Neto

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of oleo-gum-resin from Ferula gummosa collected in the northern part of Iran has been studied. The fraction of oleo-gum-resin soluble in ethanol (ca 67wt.%) is composed by three major fractions: (i) monoterpenes and monoterpenoids (ca 15wt.% fraction), (ii) sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids (ca 30wt.%) and (iii) triterpenes and triterpenoids (ca 55wt.%). The major families of terpenes and terpenoids

  9. Chemical Composition of Fennel Oil, Foeniculum vulgare Miller, from Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noemí García-Jiménez; María José Péerez-Alonso; Arturo Velasco-Negueruela

    2000-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile oils of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Miller from two Spanish locations (Santander and Aranjuez) were investigated by means of GC and GC\\/MS. Leaf and stem oils of F.vulgare from Aranjuez were also examined. Two different chemotypes have been found in the seeds: (I) methyl chavicol (54.9%), fenchone (24.6%) in the seeds collected in Santander;

  10. Carbon Nano Tube Composites with Chemically Functionalized Plant Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemans, Wim; Wool, Richard P.; Blau, Werner; Barron, Valerie

    2003-03-01

    Carbon Nano Tube Composites with Chemically Functionalized Plant Oil Wim Thielemans, R., P. Wool, V. Barron and W. Blau Multi-Wall Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) made by the Kratchmer-Huffman CCVD process were found to interact and solubilize by slow mechanical stirring, with chemically functionalized plant oils, such as acrylated, epoxidized and maleinated triglycerides (TG) derived from plant oils. The chemical functionality on the TG imparted amphiphilic properties to the oils which allows them to self-assemble on the nanotubes, promoting both dissolution and the ability to make nanocomposites with unusual properties. Once in solution, the MWCT can be processed in a variety of methods, in particular to make composites with enhanced mechanical, fracture and thermal properties. Since the tensile modulus of MWs is about 1 TPa and a vector percolation analysis indicated tensile strengths of 50-100 GPa, we obtain significantly improved properties with even small amounts (1-3the glass transition temperature of the composite by about 20 oC, and the tensile modulus by about 11significant effects on the fracture stress can be obtained due to the both the influence of the strength and length of the MWNT at the crack tip. The ability of the oils to self-assemble on the carbon nanotube surfaces also makes them ideal candidates for self-healing materials. The properties with different functionalized oils will be reported. Supported by EPA, DoE and ISF

  11. Chemical composition studies of flint with different origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarina, Liga; Seglins, Valdis; Kostjukovs, Juris; Burlakovs, Juris

    2015-04-01

    Flint is a widely used material in the Stone Age because of its physical characteristics, which makes the material suitable for obtaining tools with sharp working edges. Chert, flint, chalcedony, agate and jasper in composition and several other physical characteristics are very similar. Therefore in archaeology most often they are determined simplified and are not distinguished, but described as flint or chert, denoting only the material in a general sense. However, in-depth studies it is necessary accurately identify the rock type and, in addition, to determine the origin of the flint and the conditions of the formation for the various archaeological research needs. As a typical example can be noted the localization problems in determining whether flint is local, or have emerged in the region through the exchange or by transportation. Flint consists mainly from quartz and mostly it has cryptocrystalline or amorphous structure. In nature it occurs as nodules and interbedded inclusions in sedimentary deposits as a result of digenesis processes when calcium carbonate is replaced with silicia. Bedded chert primarily is accumulations originated from excess alkalinity in the sediments. Flint can also be formed in the crystallization processes of the chemically unstable amorphous silicia. In this context, it should be noted that flint is naturally heterogeneous and very varied material by the physical properties and therefore problematic in many contemporary studies. In the study different origin flint samples from England, Denmark and Latvia were compared after their chemical composition. Flint nodules from Northern Europe chalk cliffs formed as inclusions in interbedded deposits or results of the digenesis and samples of chalcedony saturated dolomite from Latvia formed in hydrothermal processes were analysed using XRD and XRF methods. The obtained data were statistically analysed, identifying major, minor and trace elements and subsequently assessing the chemical composition characteristics of the various origins flint. The obtained data indicates that in the flint nodules the amount of silicia is large and relatively stable, as well the presence of other chemical elements are uniform and relatively homogeneous. In turn, in the chalcedony saturated dolomite can be observed the highly variable quantity of silicia, the unstable proportion of Ca-Mg and other key chemical elements and the constantly present rare earth elements, whose concentration can be significant. The performed analysis confirmed that with the chemical composition analysis it is possible to distinguish flint formed in the different geological conditions, as well as to evaluate the indicative characteristics.

  12. Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, C.W.; Holdren, M.W.; Smith, D.L. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (US)); Hughes, D.P. (Tinker AFB, Oklahoma City, OK (US)); Smith, M.D. (Environics Div., Tyndall AFB, Panama City, FL (US))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports measurement of the chemical composition of exhaust from two aircraft tubing engines. The two engines are the F101, used on the B-1B aircraft, and the F110, used on the F-16C and F-16D aircraft. Samples were collected from each engine using a probe positioned just behind the exhaust nozzle. The measurements reported her were made at four power settings from idle to intermediate power. Exhaust composition measurements included carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, and individual organic species. The principle focus of this paper is on the detailed organic species results.

  13. Chemical and isotopic compositions in acid residues from various meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, N.; Yamakoshi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.

    1993-01-01

    We are planning to carry out systematic isotopic investigations of Ru, Mg, etc., in primordial samples. The investigations will be pursued in the context of a study of the pre-history of the solar system. It is hoped that the study will yield direct evidence for processes of nucleosynthesis in the pre-solar stage and detection of extinct radioactive nuclides. In this paper, we present the results of chemical compositions of acid residues obtained from three types of meteorites: Canyon Diablo (IA), Allende (CV3), and Nuevo Mercuro (H5); and the preliminary results of Ru isotopic compositions.

  14. Chemical Composition of Rainwater in Córdoba City, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M. L.; Asar, M. L.; Ceppi, S.; Bürgesser, R. E.; Avila, E.

    2013-05-01

    Sampling and chemical analysis of rainwater has proved to be a useful technique for studying its chemical composition and provides a greater understanding of local and regional dispersion of pollutants and their potential impacts to ecosystems through deposition processes. Samples of rainwater were collected during 2009-2012, in Córdoba city, Argentina. Two kind of sampling were performed: event-specific and sequential. The objective of the first of these was to determine the chemical concentration of the total rain, while the objective of the second one was to analyze the variability of the chemical concentration during an individual rain event. The total volume of each sample was divided in halves. One half was filtered through 0.45 ?m membrane filter. After this, all the samples were reduced by evaporation to a final volume of 10 ml. The non-filtered samples were acidified and digested in accordance to the method 3050B of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for acid digestion of sediments. Multi-elemental standard solutions in different concentrations were prepared by adequate dilutions. Gallium was added as an internal standard in all standard solutions and samples. Exactly 5 ?L of these solutions were deposited on acrylic supports. When these droplets were dried, Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for determining the chemical elements. Spectra were analyzed with the AXIL package for spectrum analysis. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the total reflection technique, the background of the measurements is significantly reduced and there are no matrix effects, therefore quantification can be obtained from the linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of the element of interest. The elements quantified were S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Pb. For all of them a calibration curve was performed in order to quantify their concentrations on the samples. The results show that the average pH in city rainwater was pH=6.5; the elements found in the samples were S, Ca, Cu, Cr, Sr, P, Fe, Mn, Pb, K, Ti, V, Zn and the average concentrations of these elements were below the limits established by World Health Organization for drinking water, and show a high natural variability. The temporal evolution of inorganic ion concentration during rain events was analyzed and the scavenging coefficients were calculated and compared with data from literature. A comparison was made between the rainwater chemical composition and chemical composition in the aerosols scavenging during the rain. This study is the first in Córdoba city to analyze the chemical composition of rainwater and constitute a base for future comparison of variability in pH and elemental composition.

  15. Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-10-05

    Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

  16. Chemical geodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zindler; S. R. Hart

    1986-01-01

    Consideration is given to the following three principal boundary conditions relating to the nature and development of chemical structure in the earth's mantle: (1) inferred scale lengths for mantle chemical heterogeneities, (2) interrelationships of the various isotopic tracers, and (3) the bulk composition of the earth. These boundary conditions are integrated with geophysical constraints in order to evaluate models for

  17. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-09-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  18. Physical Characterization and Steam Chemical Reactivity of Carbon Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, Robert Andrew; Pawelko, Robert James; Smolik, Galen Richard

    2001-05-01

    This report documents experiments and analyses that have been done at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to measure the steam chemical reactivity of two types of carbon fiber composites, NS31 and NB31, proposed for use at the divertor strike points in an ITER-like tokamak. These materials are 3D CFCs constituted by a NOVOLTEX preform and densified by pyrocarbon infiltration and heat treatment. NS31 differs from NB31 in that the final infiltration was done with liquid silicon to reduce the porosity and enhance the thermal conductivity of the CFC. Our approach in this work was twofold: (1) physical characterization measurements of the specimens and (2) measurements of the chemical reactivity of specimens exposed to steam.

  19. Chem I Supplement: The Chemical Composition of the Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the principal chemical substances which occur in most cells. These chemicals are the lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. Suggests that the structures of these substances be taught first since structure determines function. (JN)

  20. The physical and chemical composition of the lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Bovolo, C Isabella

    2005-12-15

    This article reviews some of the recent advances made within the field of mineral physics. In order to link the observed seismic and density structures of the lower mantle with a particular mineral composition, knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the candidate materials is required. Determining which compositional model best matches the observed data is difficult because of the wide variety of possible mineral structures and compositions. State-of-the-art experimental and analytical techniques have pushed forward our knowledge of mineral physics, yet certain properties, such as the elastic properties of lower mantle minerals at high pressures and temperatures, are difficult to determine experimentally and remain elusive. Fortunately, computational techniques are now sufficiently advanced to enable the prediction of these properties in a self-consistent manner, but more results are required.A fundamental question is whether or not the upper and lower mantles are mixing. Traditional models that involve chemically separate upper and lower mantles cannot yet be ruled out despite recent conflicting seismological evidence showing that subducting slabs penetrate deep into the lower mantle and that chemically distinct layers are, therefore, unlikely.Recent seismic tomography studies giving three-dimensional models of the seismic wave velocities in the Earth also base their interpretations on the thermodynamic properties of minerals. These studies reveal heterogeneous velocity and density anomalies in the lower mantle, which are difficult to reconcile with mineral physics data. PMID:16286292

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Algerian propolis.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Mencherini, Teresa; Celano, Rita; Mouhoubi, Zina; Tamendjari, Azeddine; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca

    2013-05-29

    Chemical composition of propolis samples from north Algeria was characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. High-performance liquid chromatorgaphy with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) fingerprint of the methanol extracts allowed the definition of two main types of Algerian propolis (AP) directly related to their secondary metabolite composition. Investigation of two representative types of AP by preparative chromatographic procedure and mass spectrometric (MS) and NMR techniques led to the identification of their main constituents: caffeate esters and flavonoids from an AP type rich in phenolic compounds (PAP) and labdane and clerodane diterpenes, together with a polymethoxyflavonol, from an AP type containing mainly diterpenes (DAP). Subsequently, two specific HPLC-MS/MS methods for detection of PAP and DAP markers were developed to study the chemical composition of propolis samples of different north Algerian regions. Antioxidant activity of AP samples was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay, and a significant free-radical scavenging effect was observed for propolis of the PAP series rich in polyphenols. PMID:23650897

  2. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical peels ... skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used to ...

  3. Chemical composition and thermal property of cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amonrat Thanonkaew; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition and thermal property of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) muscle were studied. The head and mantle contained 11.9–14.9% protein, 0.5% fat, 1.2–1.3% ash, and 0.6–1.8% collagen. Lipids from the head and mantle contained phospholipid as the major component (78.6–87.8% of total lipid), with 10.6–19.5% diglyceride. Polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted 50.3–54.9% of fatty acids with a high content of DHA

  4. Chemical feasibility of lithium as a matrix for structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, R. T.; Esterling, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical compatibility of lithium with tows of carbon and aramid fibers and silicon carbide and boron monofilaments was investigated by encapsulating the fibers in liquid lithium and also by sintering. The lithium did not readily wet the various fibers. In particular, very little lithium infiltration into the carbon and aramid tows was achieved and the strength of the tows was seriously degraded. The strength of the boron and silicon carbide monofilaments, however, was not affected by the liquid lithium. Therefore lithium is not feasible as a matrix for carbon and aramid fibers, but a composite containing boron or silicon carbide fibers in a lithium matrix may be feasible for specialized applications.

  5. IR spectroscopic study of the chemical composition of epiphytic lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysurova, A. F.; Khizhnyak, S. D.; Pakhomov, P. M.

    2011-11-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of lichens exposed to pollutants are investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy. According to model experiments, alkyl nitrates, ammonium salts, amines, and sulfones develop in the lichen thallus through the action of ammonia and nitric and sulfuric acids. Spectroscopic data of modeling experiments enabled nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances to be identified as the main air pollutants in the vicinity of a pig-breeding complex and information to be obtained on the content of the pollutants and their impact on the lichens.

  6. Vega Mission results and chemical composition of Venusian clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopol'skii, V.A. (Institut Kosmicheskikh Issledovanii, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-07-01

    Physical and chemical analyses of the clouds and atmosphere of Venus on the basis of Vega payload data have yielded a cloud-particle composition in which the presence of phosphoric acid straightforwardly accounts for the fact that the clouds extend down to the 33-km limit of Vega's spectrometric, nephelometric, and photometric instrumentation. Attention is given to the problem posed by the inconsistency of these results with the much lower or entirely absent phosphorus at other Venera and Pioneer Venus landing probe sites. P4O6 is the main phosphorus-bearing gas. 30 refs.

  7. Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

  8. Chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Jagan Mohan Rao, L; Sakariah, K K

    2000-09-01

    The steam-distilled oil of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) flowers was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. It consists of 23% hydrocarbons and 74% oxygenated compounds. A total of 26 compounds constituting approximately 97% of the oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (41.98%), trans-alpha-bergamotene (7.97%), and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%) are found to be major compounds. This is the first report on the chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. PMID:10995352

  9. Young upper crustal chemical composition of the orogenic Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Shigeko; Imai, Noboru; Okuyama-Kusunose, Yasuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Okai, Takashi; Koma, Takeshi; Murata, Yasuaki

    2000-11-01

    A new geochemical estimate of the young (mainly Paleozoic age to present) upper crust of the Japan Arc shows a dacitic composition in contrast to the idea that andesite is predominant in active orogenic arcs. Temporal changes in composition are not significant from the Paleozoic age to the present for the Japan Arc. The major element composition is similar to previous models of old cratonic upper crusts. The coincidence in the major elements between young and old crusts indicates that essential mechanisms during crust formation have not changed from the Archean era to the present. In trace element compositions the average young upper crust of the Japan Arc has higher Sb and As concentrations and lower concentrations of alkaline, light rare earth, and high field strength elements with respect to previous models of continental upper crusts. The large degree of constancy of trace element composition in marine sedimentary rocks is in contrast to the large variety in igneous rocks. However, the averages for both accretionary and nonaccretionary sedimentary rocks are almost identical to the average for the igneous rocks of the Japan Arc, with the exceptions of high Sb and As concentrations in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. The compositional homogeneity among different types of rocks on an arc scale implies that recycling processes mechanically mix the arc-derived igneous materials to homogenize the chemical composition during erosion, transportation, sedimentation, accretion, and uplifting. Since the contribution of oceanic crust to the composition of arc crust is small, the recycling processes have not changed the bulk upper crustal composition of the active continental margin except increase the Sb and As from sediments. Instead, the influx of differentiated acidic rocks from depth is essential to characterize the orogenic crust formation of the young Japan Arc. The characteristically low incompatible element content of the Japanese upper arc crust appears inherited from parental magmas derived from a mantle source depleted during a long-term evolution.

  10. Chemical composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae

    E-print Network

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S; Agúndez, M; Pinte, C; Alonso-Albi, T; Neri, R; Cernicharo, J; Goicoechea, J R; Berné, O; Wiesenfeld, L; Bachiller, R; Lefloch, B

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Our goal is to determine the molecular composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae (hereafter, AB Aur). AB Aur is a prototypical Herbig Ae star and the understanding of its disk chemistry is of paramount importance to understand the chemical evolution of the gas in warm disks. Methods. We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to perform a sensitive search for molecular lines in AB Aur as part of the IRAM Large program ASAI (A Chemical Survey of Sun-like Star-forming Regions). These data were complemented with interferometric observations of the HCO+ 1-0 and C17O 1-0 lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). Single-dish and interferometric data were used to constrain chemical models. Results. Throughout the survey, several lines of CO and its isotopologues, HCO+, H2CO, HCN, CN and CS, were detected. In addition, we detected the SO 54-33 and 56-45 lines, confirming the previous tentative detection. Comparing to other T Tauri's and Herbig Ae disks, AB Aur presents low HCN 3-2/HCO+ 3-2 ...

  11. Leaching properties and chemical compositions of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, B.A.; Paige, B.E.; Rhodes, D.W.; Wilding, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the ratios of strontium-90 to cesium-137 are typical of aged fission product. The variations in concentrations of radionuclides within the composite samples of each bin also reflect the differences in compositions of waste solutions calcined. In general the leaching characteristics of both calcines by distilled water are similar. In both materials the radionuclides of cesium and strontium were selectively leached at significant rates, although cesium leached much more completely from the alumina calcine than from the zirconia calcine. Cesium and strontium are probably contained in both calcines as nitrate salts and also as fluoride salts in zirconia calcine, all of which are at least slightly soluble in water. Radionuclides of cerium, ruthenium, and plutonium in both calcines were highly resistant to leaching and leached at rates similar to or less than those of the matrix elements. These elements exist as polyvalent metal ions in the waste solutions before calcination and they probably form insoluble oxides and fluorides in the calcine. The relatively slow leaching of nitrate ion from zirconia calcine and radiocesium from both calcines suggests that the calcine matrix in some manner prevents complete or immediate contact of the soluble ions with water. Whether radiostrontium forms slightly fluoride salts or forms nitrate salts which are protected in the same manner as radiocesium is unknown. Nevertheless, selective leaching of cesium and strontim is retarded in some manner by the calcine matrix.

  12. Application of near infrared spectroscopy to predict chemical composition and energy value

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    equations were developed to determine chemical composition, gross energy (GE), dOM, energy digestibility (d.4 % for ADF, 14 % for ADL). The association of certain chemical criteria (NDF, ADF, ADL, fat) affords

  13. Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jolley

    2005-10-25

    In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

  14. Vector diagram of the chemical compositions of tektites and earth lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvasha, L. G.; Gorshkov, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical compositions of tektites and various volcanic glasses, similar in composition to tektites are compared by a petrochemical method. The advantage of the method is that a large number of chemical analyses of igneous rocks can be graphically compared with the help of vectors, plotted in relation to six parameters. These parameters, calculated from ratios of the main oxides given by silicate analysis, reflect the chief characteristics of igneous rock. Material for the study was suppled by data from chemical analysis characterizing tektites of all known locations and data from chemical analyses of obsidians similar in chemical composition to tektites of various petrographical provinces.

  15. Switchgrass biomass and chemical composition for biofuel in eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Madakadze, I.C.; Stewart, K.; Peterson, P.R.; Coulman, B.E.; Smith, D.L.

    1999-08-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is one of several warm-season grasses that have been identified as potential biomass crops in North America. A two-year field study was conducted, on a free-draining sandy clay loam (St. Bernard, Typic Hapludalf), to characterize the growth and evaluate changes in biomass accumulation and composition of switchgrass at Montreal, QC. Three cultivars, Cave-in-Rock, Pathfinder, and Sunburst, were grown in solid stands in a randomized complete block design. Canopy height, dry matter (DM) accumulation and chemical composition were monitored biweekly throughout the growing season. Average maximum canopy heights were 192.5 cm for Cave-in-Rock, 169.9 for Pathfinder, and 177.8 for Sunburst. The respective end-of-season DM yields were 12.2, 11.5, and 10.6 Mg/ha. Biomass production among cultivars appeared to be related to time of maturation. Nitrogen concentration of DM decreased curvilinearly from 25 g/kg at the beginning of the season to 5 g/kg DM at season's end. Both acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations increased to a maximum early in the season, after which no changes were detected. The average maximum values of ADF and NDF were, respectively, 647.6 and 849.0 g/kg DM for Cave-in-Rock, 669.1 and 865.2 for Pathfinder, and 661.8 and 860.9 for Sunburst. Changes in canopy height, DM accumulation, and chemical composition could all be described by predictive regression equations. These results indicate that switchgrass has potential as a biomass crop in a short-season environment.

  16. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of Hibiscus cannabinus grown in Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pascoal Neto; A. Seca; D. Fradinho; M. A. Coimbra; F. Domingues; D. Evtuguin; A. Silvestre; J. A. S. Cavaleiro

    1996-01-01

    Different morphological regions of Hibiscus cannabinus plants grown in Portugal were submitted to chemical composition studies. General chemical composition was determined by established methods. The polysaccharides were fractionated by successive extractions of holocellulose with aqueous KOH solutions. The sugar composition was determined by hydrolysis of polysaccharides followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis of neutral sugars and spectrophotometric determination of uronic

  17. Chemical composition of semi-regular variable giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. A.; Martin, P.

    2007-03-01

    Aims:The aim of this work was to derive chemical abundances in 5 stars that were previously reported to be SRd variable stars from the halo population, and, in particular, to check if manganese does show significant underabundance in our program stars similar to that of TY Vir, first detected by Luck & Bond. Methods: Elemental abundances have been found through the LTE and NLTE analyses, applied to high-resolution (R˜50 000) spectra. Results: We have derived the abundances of 18 chemical elements in RX Vir, AB Leo, CK Vir, SV UMa, and TY Vir, and made the following conclusions. Conclusions: .RX Vir is a typical solar-like star. Its classification as a halo population SRd variable star should be ruled out. The remaining four stars of our program have chemical composition and fundamental parameters that confirm their status as metal-deficient halo giants. All studied SRd giants have relative-to-solar elemental abundances typical of the field halo stars of metallicity -1.8. There is only one exception, which is the relative manganese abundance. All SRd program stars show uniform [Mn/Fe] ratios that are typical of the stars with metallicity [Fe/H] ? -3.5. The reason for such a low manganese abundance in these stars is unknown. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  18. Determining the chemical composition of cloud condensation nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.; Rothert, J.E.; McClure, K.E. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Alofs, D.J.; Hagen, D.E.; Schmitt, J.; White, D.R.; Hopkins, A.R.; Trueblood, M.B. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Science Lab.)

    1992-12-01

    This third progress report describes the status of our efforts to develop the instrumentation to collect cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in amounts sufficient for chemical analysis. During the fall of 1992 we started collecting filter samples of CCN with the laboratory version of the apparatus at Rolla -MO. The mobile version of the apparatus is in the latter stages of construction. This report includes a fairly rigorous discussion of the operation of the CCN sampling system. A statistical model of the operation of the system is presented to show the ability of the system to collect CCN in the two different size ranges for which we plan to determine the chemical composition. A question is raised by the model results about the operation of one of the virtual impactors. It appears to pass a small percent of particles larger than its cut-point that has the potential of contaminating the smallest CCN sample with larger CCN material. Further tests are necessary, but it may be necessary to redesign that impactor. The appendices of the report show pictures of both the laboratory version and the mobile version of the CCN sampling system. The major hardware has been completed, and the mobile version will be in operation within a few weeks.

  19. Relation of sensory perception with chemical composition of bioprocessed lingonberry.

    PubMed

    Viljanen, Kaarina; Heiniö, Raija-Liisa; Juvonen, Riikka; Kössö, Tuija; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2014-08-15

    The impact of bioprocessing on lingonberry flavour was studied by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis (organic acids, mannitol, phenolic compounds, sugars and volatile compounds). Bioprocessing of lingonberries with enzymes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or yeast, or their combination (excluding pure LAB fermentation) affected their perceived flavour and chemical composition. Sweetness was associated especially with enzyme treatment but also with enzyme+LAB treatment. Yeast fermentation caused significant changes in volatile aroma compounds and perceived flavour, whereas minor changes were detected in LAB or enzyme-treated berries. Increased concentration of organic acids, ethanol and some phenolic acids correlated with perceived fermented odour/flavour in yeast fermentations, in which increase in benzoic acid level was significant. In enzymatic treatment decreasing anthocyanins correlated well with decreased perceived colour intensity. Enzyme treatment is a potential tool to decrease naturally acidic flavour of lingonberry. Fermentation, especially with yeast, could be an interesting new approach to increase the content of natural preservatives, such as antimicrobial benzoic acid. PMID:24679764

  20. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you wish ... cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice for ...

  1. Chemical composition of rainwater in western Amazonia — Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honório, B. A. D.; Horbe, A. M. C.; Seyler, P.

    2010-11-01

    An extensive sample study in western Amazonia, Brazil was performed over the course of one year to i) establish the natural influence of the forest, ii) determine the contribution of the vegetation and fossil fuel burning and iii) detect the geographical and temporal influences on the rainwater composition. Six sampling stations were chosen on two 1000 km-long orthogonal axes. Parintins, Itapiranga, Manaus, Tabatinga were the stations from East to West, and Boa Vista, Manaus, and Apui were the stations from North to South. The results indicate a complex control of the chemical composition of the rainwater and a rather high heterogeneity among the stations. This heterogeneity can be explained by the influence of biogenic, terrestrial dust, agriculture activities and biomass-burning aerosols, and the urban development of Manaus City with its rapid increase in the use of fossil fuel. The isotopic composition of the rainwater indicates that from the north and west sides to the south and east sides, a slight geographical and temporal gradient exists, and more ?180 enriched rainwater tends to be present in the west (Tabatinga) and in the North (Boa Vista). During the dry season a more negative ?180 rainwater was observed in Manaus and Boa Vista stations, as compared to others stations. This observation indicates the more intense evaporative contribution of rainwater as a consequence of a rapid deforestation (savannization) process in the Manaus region.

  2. Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of Salvia verbenaca essential oil.

    PubMed

    Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice

    2011-07-01

    Salvia verbenaca L. (syn. S. minore) is a perennial herb known in the traditional medicine of Sicily as "spaccapetri" and is used to resolve cases of kidney stones, chewing the fresh leaves or in decoction. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of S. verbenaca collected in Piano Battaglia (Sicily) on July 2009, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oil was strongly characterized by fatty acids (39.5%) and carbonylic compounds (21.2%), with hexadecanoic acid (23.1%), (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid (11.1%) and benzaldehyde (7.3%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil against some microorganisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the broth dilution method was determined. The oil exhibited a good activity as inhibitor of growth of Gram + bacteria. PMID:21834249

  4. Chemical composition and turnover of peptidoglycan in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Hebeler, B H; Young, F E

    1976-01-01

    The peptidoglycan of all four colonial types of a number of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae constituted 1 to 2% of the dry weight of the cell. The chemical composition of cell types examined was similar with molar ratios of 1:1:2:1:1 for muramic acid, glucosamine, alanine, glutamic acid, and diaminopimelic acid, respectively. Ninety-six percent of the mass of the peptidoglycan was composed of these compounds. A lipoprotein analogous to that observed in Escherichia coli was not detected. The chain length of the glycan varied from 80 to 110 disaccharide units. The peptide contained equimolar amounts of D- and L-alanine. The rate of turnover of peptidoglycan in strain RD5 was 50% per generation. Turnover proceeded without a lag and followed first-order kinetics. PMID:820685

  5. Chemical composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S.; Fuente, A.; Agúndez, M.; Pinte, C.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Neri, R.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Berné, O.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Bachiller, R.; Lefloch, B.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Our goal is to determine the molecular composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae (hereafter, AB Aur). AB Aur is a prototypical Herbig Ae star and the understanding of its disk chemistry is paramount for understanding the chemical evolution of the gas in warm disks. Methods: We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to perform a sensitive search for molecular lines in AB Aur as part of the IRAM Large program ASAI (a chemical survey of Sun-like star-forming regions). These data were complemented with interferometric observations of the HCO+ 1?0 and C17O 1?0 lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). Single-dish and interferometric data were used to constrain chemical models. Results: Throughout the survey, several lines of CO and its isotopologues, HCO+, H2CO, HCN, CN, and CS, were detected. In addition, we detected the SO 54?33 and 56?45 lines, confirming the previously tentative detection. Compared to other T Tauri and Herbig Ae disks, AB Aur presents low HCN 3?2/HCO+ 3?2 and CN 2?1/HCN 3?2 line intensity ratios, similar to other transition disks. AB Aur is the only protoplanetary disk detected in SO thus far, and its detection is consistent with interpretation of this disk being younger than those associated with T Tauri stars. Conclusions: We modeled the line profiles using a chemical model and a radiative transfer 3D code. Our model assumes a flared disk in hydrostatic equilibrium. The best agreement with observations was obtained for a disk with a mass of 0.01 M?, Rin = 110 AU, Rout = 550 AU, a surface density radial index of 1.5, and an inclination of 27°. The intensities and line profiles were reproduced within a factor of ˜2 for most lines. This agreement is reasonable considering the simplicity of our model that neglects any structure within the disk. However, the HCN 3?2 and CN 2?1 line intensities were predicted to be more intense by a factor of >10. We discuss several scenarios to explain this discrepancy. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Chemical composition of urinary calculi in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mshelia, D S; Gali, B M; Naaya, U H; Habu, S A

    2005-06-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disorder in Maiduguri and constitutes a significant proportion of surgical diseases in Nigerian Hospitals today. Although, the analysis of the stones is an integral part of the assessment of stone formers, earlier report in Maiduguri did not dwell well on it. We therefore, carry out this study to report on the composition of urinary tract calculi removed during surgery at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and to find out if stone composition in the area changes with time. Fourty-nine urinary tract calculi removed in the surgery unit of the Hospital in 2003 were chemically analyzed in the Department of Chemical Pathology of the same Hospital. We also retrieved results of stones analyzed in 1989 (41) and 1999 (21) and compared the results with the 49 analyzed in 2003. The results showed a male preponderance with male: female ratio 12:1, and the calculi occurred more in the upper part of the tract (70.9%) than the lower part of the tract (29.1%). Calcium containing stones constituted the majority; 76.9%, uric acid/urate was associated with 16.3% of the stones while struvite constitutes 4.3%, xanthine 1.7% and cystine 0.9%. There was subsequent reduction of struvite stones with time. Urinary tract stone is common in Maiduguri. There is need for identification of risk factors of calculi formation in the environment to enable the health care providers plan preventive measures in order to reduce the high incidence in the area. PMID:16749345

  7. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherif E. A. Badr; Mohamed Shaaban; Yehya M. Elkholy; Maher H. Helal; Akila S. Hamza; Mohamed S. Masoud; Mounir M. El Safty

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, ?-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts,

  8. XPS analysis of combustion aerosols for chemical composition, surface chemistry, and carbon chemical state.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Randy L; Bryg, Vicky M; Hays, Michael D

    2011-03-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols can vary in elemental content, surface chemistry, and carbon nano-structure. Each of these properties is related to the details of soot formation. Fuel source, combustion process (affecting formation and growth conditions), and postcombustion exhaust where oxidation occurs all contribute to the physical structure and surface chemistry of soot. Traditionally such physical and chemical parameters have been measured separately by various techniques. Presented here is the unified measurement of these characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the present study, XPS is applied to combustion soot collected from a diesel engine (running biodiesel and pump-grade fuels); jet engine; and institutional, plant, and residential oil-fired boilers. Elemental composition is mapped by a survey scan over a broad energy range. Surface chemistry and carbon nanostructure are quantified by deconvolution of high-resolution scans over the C1s region. This combination of parameters forms a distinct matrix of identifiers for the soots from these sources. PMID:21322576

  9. Yield and chemical composition of fractions from fermented shrimp biowaste.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Bhaskar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Zituji, Sakhare Patiram; Manjabhatta, Sachindra Nakkerike; Gowda, Lalitha Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Chemical composition of chitinous residue and fermentation liquor fractions, obtained from fermented shrimp biowaste, was evaluated in order to explore their potential for further utilization. Lyophilization of the liquor fraction obtained after fermentation resulted in a powder rich in both protein (30%) and carotenoids (217.18 +/- 2.89 microg/g). The yield of chitinous residue was 44% (w/w) whereas the yield of lyophilized powder was >25% (w/v). About 69% of total carotenoids were recovered by fermentation. Fermentation resulted in the removal of both protein as well as ash content from the shrimp biowaste, as indicated by approximately 92% deproteination and >76% demineralization, respectively. Post fermentation, the residue had a chitin content of >90%. The lyophilized liquor fraction had all the essential amino acids (except threonine) in quantities comparable to Food & Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization reference protein. The composition of fermentation liquor is indicative of its potential for application as an amino acid supplement in aquaculture feed formulations. PMID:19723823

  10. Aperture Synthesis Studies of the Chemical Composition of Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, C.; Kessler, J.; Sargent, A. I.; Blake, G. A.

    2000-12-01

    Circumstellar disks around forming stars have become the subject of increasingly detailed investigations with high spatial resolution astronomical techniques. The observations presented here concentrate on 3 mm transitions of HCN/HCO+ and 13CO/CN toward the star/disk systems LkCa 15, GM Aur, MWC 480, and HD 163296 using the OVRO Millimeter Array. Two of the disks surround classical T Tauri stars and two encircle Herbig Ae stars, enabling the influence of the central stellar luminosity on the chemical composition of the disk to be investigated. All are well isolated from dense molecular clouds. Even at a resolution of 2'' (or a linear scale of ~300 AU at the distance of Taurus and Ophiuchus), the OVRO observations show that the chemistry in circumstellar disks is sensitive to both the central stellar lumninosity and the degree of dust settling toward the disk midplane. The emission from LkCa 15 is particularly intense, with many molecules being detected, including HCN/HCO+ and their 13C-isotopomers, DCN, CN, CH3OH, CS, SO, 13CO,and C18O. The overall abundance patterns are consistent with recent models of photon-dominated chemistry in the near surface regions of flaring circumstellar disks that also provide a natural explanation for the mid- and far-infrared properties of the disk spectral energy distribution. The CO emission strength and the double peaked nature of the CN and HCN distribution, however, is most naturally explained by a cold disk interior underlying the chemically active disk surface(s). Substantial volatile depletion onto grain mantles occurs in the interior, and as a result the emission from molecular lines is a more robust tracer of the disk velocity field than its mass. The OVRO Millimeter Array is operated by the California Institute of Technology under funding from the National Science Foundation (AST99-81546). Additional support from the NASA Origins of Solar Systems Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Three-dimensional chemical modeling of the martian atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebonnois, S.; Lefevre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Forget, F.

    2003-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ozone (O3) are important products of the chemistry in the martian atmosphere. Ozone has already been observed, and will be mapped in more details with SPICAM onboard the european mission Mars-Express. Hydrogen peroxide might be responsible for the lack of organic material at the surface. Although predicted by 1D photochemical models, this coumpound has never been detected so far and only upper limits of the martian H2O2 abundance could be given in recent observational studies. We will present here three-dimensional simulations of Mars' atmospheric composition using our new photochemical model coupled to the LMD general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The chemical module includes 11 species (H, H2, O, O(1D), O2, O3, OH, HO2, H2O, H2O2, and CO), and takes into account 9 photodissociations and 29 chemical reactions. Considering the main UV absorbers (CO2, O2, H2O, and O3), transmission is calculated for every wavelengths with a resolution varying from 0.1 nm to 5 nm. The vertical profiles of the photodissociation coefficients are then tabulated for all altitudes, and as a function of solar zenith angles, overhead CO2 and O3 column densities, and temperature. The chemical evolution of the tracers is calculated on-line using the temperature calculated by the GCM, takes into account the diurnal cycle, and is interactively coupled to the water cycle. The global seasonal cycles of H2O2 and O3 will be described. Emphasis will be given to the interactions with the water cycle. Since the LMD-GCM now includes a water cloud scheme, the hypothesis (formulated by Krasnopolsky, sixth Mars Conference, 2003) that heterogenous reactions of HOx species on water ice particles strongly affect H2O2 and O3 budget in Mars' atmosphere will be tested. The results of our simulations will be compared to the constraints derived from observational data.

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

  13. Influence of mineral and chemical composition of coal ashes on their fusibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav V. Vassilev; Kunihiro Kitano; Shohei Takeda; Takashi Tsurue

    1995-01-01

    The relationships between ash-fusion temperature (AFT) and mineral and chemical composition of coals and coal ashes from a wide variety of deposits (41) were studied by a melting test. X-ray diffractometry, light microscopy, differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and chemical analyses. A reliable explanation and prediction of AFT only from the total chemical composition of coal ash is inadequate because most important are

  14. Exploring the chemical composition of water in the Kandalaksha Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Khaitov, Vadim; Maksimova, Victoria; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Oil films were noted at the head of the Kandalaksha Bay as far back as in 1971, as soon as the first stage of the oil tank farm had been commissioned (the autumn of 1970). In 1997-1998 there were accidental oil spills posing a real threat to the Kandalaksha Reserve biota. In May 2011, oil spills from the Belomorsk oil tank farm resulted in a local environmental emergency. In this work we have traced the evolution of polluted water by means of hydrogeochemical monitoring and reconstructing the chemical composition of surface and near-bottom water of the Kandalaksha Bay by using physical-chemical modeling (Selector software package, Chudnenko, 2010). The surface and near-bottom water was sampled in the summer of 2012 and 2013 at the following sites: under the numbers 3 (N 67.2.673, E 32.23.753); 4 (N 67.3.349, E 32.28.152); 1 (N 67.5.907, E 32.29.779), and 2 (N 67.6.429, E 32.30.539). The monitored objects and sampling time were sensitive to both the effects of the White Sea water (high tide), fresh water, and water affected by human impact (the oil tank farm). At each site, three samples were taken. The next stage involved reconstructing of the sea water ion composition by modeling within the Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-H-O-e system, where e is an electron. Modeling of the chemical composition of near-bottom water (site 3) has revealed high contents of carbon dioxide, hydrogen disulphide, hydrocarbonates, and no oxygen (Eh<0). All this suggests a transformation of hydrocarbons that might have got to the sampling area in May 2011, or as the result of constant leakage of petroleum hydrocarbons from the oil tank farm. Sampling at site 4 in 2013 has revealed petroleum hydrocarbons both in surface (0.09 mg/l) and near-bottom (0.1 mg/l) water. Both monitoring and modeling have demonstrated that hydrobionts on areas adjoining the oil tank farm are far from prospering. Monitoring should be accompanied by express analysis of oxidizing conditions in both the soil and near-bottom water. Since the water contamination in the White Sea has lasted for decades, it is necessary to examine the near-bottom water, in particular in its deeper areas, to reveal the possible accumulation and destruction of organic substances at the sea floor. It is evident that an unbiased assessment of the environmental situation can be obtained by involving all kinds of information processing technologies.

  15. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material should be fluorinated ethylene/propylene (FEP), and one or more FEP O ring(s) should be used in the aluminum end fitting(s). This choice of materials is dictated by experimental observations that pure aluminum and FEP are the only materials suitable for long-term storage of hydrogen peroxide and that other materials tend to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Other thermoplastic liner materials that are suitable for some applications include nylon 6 and polyethylene. The processing temperatures for nylon 6 are lower than those for FEP. Nylon 6 is compatible with propane, natural gas, and other petroleum-based fuels. Polyethylene is compatible with petroleum- based products and can be used for short-term storage of hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Changes in chemical wax composition of three different apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars during storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Els A. Veraverbeke; Jeroen Lammertyn; Stijn Saevels

    2001-01-01

    The effects of year, picking date and storage conditions on the chemical composition of the wax layer of three apple cultivars (‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagored’ and ‘Elstar’) were investigated by means of GCMS and multivariate statistical techniques. Wax of apples with different surface characteristics also differed in chemical composition. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and subsequent shelf life affected wax properties and caused

  17. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica Weinstein Teixeira; Dejair Message; Giuseppina Negri; Antonio Salatino; Paulo Cesar Stringheta

    2008-01-01

    Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil) were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC\\/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Candido municipalities were found to have high

  18. Carbon\\/silicon carbide composites prepared by chemical vapor infiltration combined with silicon melt infiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongdong Xu; Laifei Cheng; Litong Zhang

    1999-01-01

    In order to reduce processing costs and improve the thermal stability of three-dimensional carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites, a chemical vapor infiltration combined with silicon melt infiltration method was developed for fabricating composites. According to the size of the pores in the preform, chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and silicon melt infiltration (SMI) were mainly used to infiltrate small pores between

  19. Chemical composition of leaf extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni grown experimentally in Vojvodina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BILJANA F. ABRAMOVI?; Trg D. Obradovi?a

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of leaf extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Ber- toni, grown for the first time on an experimental field near Zrenjanin, was examined by GC-MS. The tested plant material was harvested in September of 2002. To analyze the chemical composition of the lipophilic components of the plant leaves, essential oils and ethyl acetate extract were isolated. Qualitative analysis of

  20. Short Communication Effect of Probiotic and Growth Promoters on Chemical Composition of Broiler Carcass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TARIQ MAHMOOD; MUHAMMAD SAFDAR ANJUM; IMTIAZ HUSSAIN; RASHIDA PERVEEN

    Experiment was performed to study the effect of probiotics and growth promoters (Protexin, Albac & Dried Curd) on the chemical composition of broiler carcass. Birds were reared under similar environmental and managemental conditions up to 42 days of age except treatments. Chemical composition of all four treatment groups (Randomly divided in to 12 experimental units) was done in the Laboratory

  1. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  2. Chemical compositions, functional properties, and microstructure of defatted macadamia flours.

    PubMed

    Jitngarmkusol, Siwaporn; Hongsuwankul, Juthamas; Tananuwong, Kanitha

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this research was to study the chemical compositions, functional properties, and microstructure of partially defatted flours (PDF, 12-15% fat, dry basis (db)) and totally defatted flours (TDF, 1% db fat) from three macadamia cultivars, PY 741, DS 344, and DS 800, grown in Northern Thailand. The defatted flours were high in protein (30.40-36.45% db) and carbohydrate (49.29-57.09% db). For each macadamia cultivar, while emulsion activities and emulsion stabilities of the TDF tended not to be different from those of the PDF (p>0.05), TDF had significantly greater water absorption capacities (WAC), oil absorption capacities and foaming capacities (FC), but had significantly lower foaming stability (FS) than the PDF (p?0.05). The TDF from PY 741 cultivar possessed the highest WAC and FC but the lowest FS. The variation in the functional properties of the defatted flours could mainly arise from the difference in the quantity and characteristics of the proteins in the flours. Structure determination of macadamia flours showed that the proteins bodies and starch granules were embedded in kernel tissues. The starch granules were oval and approximately 10?m in diameter. PMID:26050161

  3. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB[sub 2] composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Starr, T.L. (Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB[sub 2] cathode surface. The use of TiB[sub 2], however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB[sub 2] is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB[sub 2]. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB[sub 2] from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000[degrees]C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB[sub 2]THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  4. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Starr, T.L. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB{sub 2} cathode surface. The use of TiB{sub 2}, however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB{sub 2} is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB{sub 2}. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB{sub 2} from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000{degrees}C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB{sub 2}THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Piper ovatum Vahl.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Endo, Eliana Harue; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Claudia M; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piperovatum Vahl by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents found were delta-amorphene (16.5 %), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (14.29 %) and gamma-muurolene(13.26%). The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl, essential oil andamides isolated from leaves were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. All extracts and amides were active against Bacillus subtilis andCandida tropicalis, including clinical strains. Essential oil was active against C. tropicalis.These amides showed an inhibitory effect on the adherence of C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 on cover glasses at 10 microg/mL, but did not show morphological alterations at the tested concentrations. Amides were identified as piperovatine and piperlonguminine, and showed MIC values of 15.6 and 31.2 microg/mL to B. subtilis and 3.9 microg/mL to C. tropicalis, and low toxic effects to Vero cells and macrophages. PMID:19325517

  6. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega Bay. The purpose of this work was geochemical mapping of the surface sediments of this area. The main tasks were: compilation data base of element composition of the surface sediments, geochemical mapping of each element, research of the anormal concentration of elements on the surface. To detect the content of chemical elements several methods were used: atomic absorption spectrometry (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology); neutron activation analysis (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry), total and organic carbon analysis, photometric method to detection Si, Al, P (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology). Bulk composition is one of the fundamental characteristics of sediments and bottom deposites of modern basins. Coarse-grained sediments with portion of pelitic component <50% is spread on the shallow area (Kandalaksha Bay), in areas with high hydrodynamic activity of near-bottom water. Under the conditions of their low activity, fine-grained facies are common(>80%). Character of elements distribution correlates with facial distribution of sediments from White Sea. According to litologic description, bottom surface of Dvina Bay is practically everywhere covered by layer of fine-grained sand. In the border area between Dvina Bay and White Sea basin on terraced subwater slope aleurite politic silts are abundant. They tend to exhange down the slope to clay silts. In Onega Bay fractions of non-deposition are observed. They are characterized by wide spread of thin blanket poorgraded sediments, which are likely to be relic. Relief of Kandalakscha Bay bottom is presented as alternation of abyssal fosses (near 300 m) with silles and elevations (<20 m), and also numerous islands. Thus variety of sediment composition is observed here - from rules and gravels to fine-grained clay silts [1]. The map of distribution of chemical elements was created by using bulk composition data with the help of program ArcView. Mn distribution in sedimentation mass is largely determed by influence of redox diagenesis. Reactive form of Mn dominates over less moving, litogenic form in sedimation mass of White Sea. Litogenic form remains in sediment, reactive form moves into silt near-bottom water, resulting Mn migration both in sediment and near-bottom layer of marine water. Mn oxidizes on the contact with oxygen of marine water and alters into insoluble form MnO2, causing Mn enrichment of surface layer of sediments. Highly movable silt deposit MnO2 and enriched by Mn suspension are moved by underflow and accumulate in bottom depressions and in central part of the sea, which is quite wide from both places of original sedimentation and run off sources [2]. Thus, the interrelation between granulometric composition of sediment and materials concentration can be shown by the example of Mn. Local conditions, leading to accumulation of clastic components, are: 1. Rise of content in sand owning to separation of heavy minerals 2. Rise of content in surface, mainly sandy clay sediments owning to presence of concretions 3. Rise of content in lower bunches roof owning to diagenetic contraction. Authors thank academic Lisitsyn for encourage, Andrey Apletalin for valuable help, and everybody, who helped in field and laboratory research of the White sea sediments. Work was being done under the auspices of Russian foundation of basic research (grants 09-05-10081, 09-05-00658 and 08-05-00860), RSA presidiums program of 17 fundamental researches (project 17.1). References: 1.Kuzmina T., Lein A., Lutchsheva L., Murdmaa I., Novigatsky A., Shevchenko V. Chemical composition of White Sea's sediments // Litology and mineral deposits . 2009. - ? 2. - P 115-132. 2.Nevessky E., Medvedev V. , Kalin

  7. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  8. Chemical Composition of Inks of Diverse Marine Molluscs Suggests Convergent Chemical Defenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Derby; Cynthia E. Kicklighter; P. M. Johnson; Xu Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Some marine molluscs, notably sea hares, cuttlefish, squid, and octopus, release ink when attacked by predators. The sea hare\\u000a Aplysia californica releases secretions from the ink gland and opaline gland that protect individuals from injury or death from predatory spiny\\u000a lobsters through a combination of mechanisms that include chemical deterrence, sensory disruption, and phagomimicry. The latter\\u000a two mechanisms are facilitated

  9. Lunar clinopyroxenes: Chemical composition, structural state, and texture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, M.; Bence, A.E.; Dwornik, E.J.; Clark, J.R.; Papike, J.J.

    1970-01-01

    Single-crystal x-ray diffraction, microprobe, optical and electron optical examinations of clinopyroxenes from Apollo 11 lunar samples 10003, 10047, 10050, and 10084 show that generally the crystals are composed of (001) augite-pigeonite intergrowths in varying ratios. Transmission electron micrographs reveal abundant exsolution lamellae, many only 60 A?? thick. In addition to the phase inhomogeneities, primary chemical inhomogeneities are clearly demonstrated. There are reciprocal relationships between calcium and iron and between Ti4+ + 2Al and R2+ + 2Si. Our evidence suggests that a chemically inhomogeneous subcalcic C2/c augite was the only primary pyroxene from which pigeonite later exsolved.

  10. Expanding our Knowledge of the Chemical Composition of Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Michael D.; Young, P.; Butler, P.

    2011-01-01

    I will be presenting abundances of X elements and physical properties for a selection of nearby radial velocity planet search candidates. The abundances are derived from high resolution spectra from MIKE on Magellan. These are the first results of an attempt to create a uniform high resolution chemical abundance database that can be used to understand the chemical evolution of nearby stars, in particular those with potentially habitable worlds. These high resolution spectra are the first from a group of 600 nearby stars, obtained by Paul Butler(Carnigie Institute of Washington).

  11. Chemical composition of phosphorites of the Phosphoria Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical composition, both major and minor constituents, of 60 samples of phosphorite from the Phosphoria Formation was determined. Major constituents of the average phosphorite are, by weight per cent: SiO2, 11??9; Al2O3, 1??7; Fe2O3,1??1; MgO, 0??3; CaO, 44??0; Na2O, 0??6; K2O, 0??5; total H2O, 2??2; H2O-, 0??6; TiO2, 0??1; P2O5, 30??5; CO2, 2??2; SO3, 1??8; F, 3??1; organic matter, 2??1; and oil, 0??2. Uranium averages 0??009 per cent. The phosphate mineral is basically apatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, with small but significant and variable substitutions-Na, Sr, U and Th for Ca, and CO3 and SO4 for PO4. Rare metals not associated with apatite are associated principally with the organic-matter component of the rocks. This group includes As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, V and Zn. Chromium is the most abundant, having a modal abundance of 0??1 per cent and a maximum concentration of 0??3 per cent. The average phosphorite is composed of approximately 80 per cent apatite, 10 per cent quartz, 5 per cent muscovite-illite, 2 per cent organic matter, 1 per cent dolomite-calcite, 1 per cent iron oxide, and 1 per cent other components. It is texturally a medium-grained pellet phosphorite. ?? 1966.

  12. Anisotropy vs chemical composition at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, Martin [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Waxman, Eli, E-mail: lemoine@iap.fr, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute, PO Box 26, Rehovot 7600 (Israel)

    2009-11-01

    This paper proposes and discusses a test of the chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays that relies on the anisotropy patterns measured as a function of energy. In particular, we show that if one records an anisotropy signal produced by heavy nuclei of charge Z above an energy E{sub thr}, one should record an even stronger (possibly much stronger) anisotropy at energies >E{sub thr}/Z due to the proton component that is expected to be associated with the sources of the heavy nuclei. This conclusion remains robust with respect to the parameters characterizing the sources and it does not depend at all on the modelling of astrophysical magnetic fields. As a concrete example, we apply this test to the most recent data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Assuming that the anisotropy reported above 55 EeV is not a statistical accident, and that no significant anisotropy has been observed at energies ?<10 EeV, we show that the apparent clustering toward Cen A cannot be attributed to heavy nuclei. Similar conclusions are drawn regarding the apparent excess correlation with nearby active galactic nuclei. We then discuss a robust lower bound to the magnetic luminosity that a source must possess in order to be able to accelerate particles of charge Z up to 100 EeV, L{sub B} ?> 10{sup 45} Z{sup ?2} erg/s. Using this bound in conjunction with the above conclusions, we argue that the current PAO data does not support the model of cosmic ray origin in active radio-quiet or even radio-loud galaxies. Finally, we demonstrate that the apparent clustering in the direction of Cen A can be explained by the contribution of the last few gamma-ray bursts or magnetars in the host galaxy thanks to the scattering of the cosmic rays on the magnetized lobes.

  13. Brazilian Propolis: Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salomão, Kelly; Pereira, Paulo Roberto S.; Campos, Leila C.; Borba, Cintia M.; Cabello, Pedro H.; Marcucci, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of ethanol extracts from samples of Brazilian propolis (EEPs) determined by HPLC and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were determined. Based on the predominant botanical origin in the region of samples' collection, the 10 extracts were separated into three groups: A (B. dracunculifolia + Auraucaria spp), B (B. dracunculifolia) and C (Araucaria spp). Analysis by the multiple regression of all the extracts together showed a positive correlation, higher concentrations leading to higher biological effect, of S. aureus with p-coumaric acid (PCUM) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-(oxo-butenyl)-phenylacrylic acid (DHCA1) and of trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative 4 (DHCA4) and 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DCBEN). When the same approach was employed for each group, due to the small number of observations, the statistical test gave unreliable results. However, an overall analysis revealed for group A an association of S. aureus with caffeic acid (CAF) and dicaffeoylquinic acid 3 (CAFQ3), of S. pneumoniae with CAFQ3 and monocaffeoylquinic acid 2 (CAFQ2) and of T. cruzi also with CAFQ3. For group B, a higher activity against S. pneumoniae was associated DCBEN and for T. cruzi with CAF. For group C no association was observed between the anitmicrobial effect and any component of the extracts. The present study reinforces the relevance of PCUM and derivatives, especially prenylated ones and also of caffeolyquinic acids, on the biological activity of Brazilian propolis. PMID:18830454

  14. Brazilian propolis: correlation between chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Kelly; Pereira, Paulo Roberto S; Campos, Leila C; Borba, Cintia M; Cabello, Pedro H; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; de Castro, Solange L

    2008-09-01

    The chemical composition of ethanol extracts from samples of Brazilian propolis (EEPs) determined by HPLC and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were determined. Based on the predominant botanical origin in the region of samples' collection, the 10 extracts were separated into three groups: A (B. dracunculifolia + Auraucaria spp), B (B. dracunculifolia) and C (Araucaria spp). Analysis by the multiple regression of all the extracts together showed a positive correlation, higher concentrations leading to higher biological effect, of S. aureus with p-coumaric acid (PCUM) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-(oxo-butenyl)-phenylacrylic acid (DHCA1) and of trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative 4 (DHCA4) and 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DCBEN). When the same approach was employed for each group, due to the small number of observations, the statistical test gave unreliable results. However, an overall analysis revealed for group A an association of S. aureus with caffeic acid (CAF) and dicaffeoylquinic acid 3 (CAFQ3), of S. pneumoniae with CAFQ3 and monocaffeoylquinic acid 2 (CAFQ2) and of T. cruzi also with CAFQ3. For group B, a higher activity against S. pneumoniae was associated DCBEN and for T. cruzi with CAF. For group C no association was observed between the anitmicrobial effect and any component of the extracts. The present study reinforces the relevance of PCUM and derivatives, especially prenylated ones and also of caffeolyquinic acids, on the biological activity of Brazilian propolis. PMID:18830454

  15. The chemical composition of matter in the early universe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Chuvenkov; B. V. Vainer

    1989-01-01

    The results of the computations of the chemical evolution for a galaxy cluster are presented. The matter exchange between galaxies and intergalactic medium is taken into account. Two dependences of star formation rate on time are considered: (i) monotonously decreasing dependence characteristic of elliptical galaxies, (ii) dependence having two peaks associated with creation of spiral galaxy subsystems, with suppression of

  16. Chemical composition and biological activity of Citrus jambhiri Lush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Hamdan; Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi; Ahmad Tahrani; Florian Herrmann; Dorothea Kaufmann; Nawal Farrag; Assem El-Shazly; Michael Wink

    2011-01-01

    The fresh peel of Citrus jambhiri was extracted with aqueous methanol and the residue was fractionated using light petroleum, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The constituents of the extracts were separated by column chromatography employing solvents of different polarity. The chemical structure of the isolated compounds was then identified by MS and NMR. Column chromatography of the petroleum fraction resulted in

  17. Variation in Miscanthus chemical composition and implications for conversion by pyrolysis and thermo-chemical bio-refining for fuels and chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Hodgson; D. J. Nowakowski; I. Shield; A. Riche; A. V. Bridgwater; J. C. Clifton-Brown; I. S. Donnison

    2011-01-01

    Different species and genotypes of Miscanthus were analysed to determine the influence of genotypic variation and harvest time on cell wall composition and the products which may be refined via pyrolysis. Wet chemical, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC–MS) methods were used to identify the main pyrolysis products and determine the extent to which genotypic differences in cell wall

  18. Characterization of forages by differential scanning calorimetry and prediction of their chemical composition and nutritive value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Walshaw; G. W Mathison; T. F Fenton; G Sedgwick; H Hsu; G Recinos-Diaz; A Suleiman

    1998-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of grass and legume hay samples were made to determine the potential of using this technique to estimate forage chemical composition and cattle intake and digestibility parameters. Ninety-three hay samples were examined, with 56 samples being used for development of calibration equations relating 17 forage chemical parameters and animal measurements to heat fluxes in response

  19. The chemical composition of subducting sediment and its consequences for the crust and mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Plank; Charles H. Langmuir

    1998-01-01

    Subducted sediments play an important role in arc magmatism and crust–mantle recycling. Models of continental growth, continental composition, convergent margin magmatism and mantle heterogeneity all require a better understanding of the mass and chemical fluxes associated with subducting sediments. We have evaluated subducting sediments on a global basis in order to better define their chemical systematics and to determine both

  20. Chemometric Survey of Italian Bottled Mineral Waters by Means of their Labelled Physicochemical and Chemical Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Versari; Giuseppina Paola Parpinello; Sergio Galassi

    2002-01-01

    Bottled mineral waters (132 samples) from 19 districts of Italy were characterized by means of the physico-chemical and chemical composition (30 parameters) reported on their label by using statistical analysis. Bottled waters showed a lack of homogeneity in the type of parameters reported in the label, the level of aluminium being reported by only five brands. The relationships among 12

  1. Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

  2. On the chemical composition of L-chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl, and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 subgroups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe rich subgroup support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe poor subgroup seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock induced loss from L chondrites. However, contrasting chemical trends in several L chondrite sample sets indicate that these meteorites constitute a more irregular sampling of, or more heterogeneous parent material than do carbonaceous or enstatite chondrites. Data for 15 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  3. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M.; Little, Mark G.; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N.; Leeman, William P.; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

  4. Influence of chemical surface modification on the properties of biodegradable jute fabrics—polyester amide composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Mohanty; M. A Khan; G Hinrichsen

    2000-01-01

    The chemical surface modifications of jute fabrics involving bleaching, dewaxing, alkali treatment, cyanoethylation and vinyl grafting are made in view of their use as reinforcing agents in composites based on a biodegradable polyester amide matrix, BAK 1095. The effect of different fibre surface treatments and fabric amounts on the performance of resulting composites are investigated. The mechanical properties of composites

  5. Fog water chemical composition in different geographic regions of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B?a?, Marek; Polkowska, ?aneta; Sobik, Mieczys?aw; Klimaszewska, Kamila; Nowi?ski, Kamil; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    The fog water samples were collected with the use of both passive and active fog collectors during 2005-2006 at 3 sites: lowland in northern Poland (Borucino; 186 m a.s.l.), valley basin in southern Poland (Zakopane; 911 m a.s.l.) and mountain top (Szrenica Mt.; 1330 m a.s.l.) in south-western Poland. For all daily samples (Borucino—25; Zakopane—4 and Szrenica—155), electric conductivity, pH, and concentrations of some anions: Cl -, F -, Br -, NO 2-, NO 3-, SO 42-, PO 43-and cations: NH 4+, Ca 2+, K +, Na + and Mg 2+ were measured. The selected ions were determined using ion suppressed chromatography (IC). Fog consists of a specific type of atmospheric phenomena. Results obtained on the basis of analysis of suitable fog samples can be treated as a source of valuable information on the chemistry of the atmosphere. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences depending on region, altitude, local morphology and, last but not least, fog origin. A distinct contrast is evident in the concentration and chemical composition between lowland radiation fog (represents lower layers of the atmosphere which are more influenced by continental emissions) versus orographic slope fog represented by a summit station, Mt Szrenica. It is partly induced by a distinction in weather conditions favouring fog existence, height of fog formation and its microphysical parameters. Acidity was associated with high concentrations of excess sulphate and nitrate in the fog water samples. Ammonium and calcium concentrations represent the most important neutralizing inputs. Collected cloud water at Szrenica Mt. includes solute contributions from emission sources located at much larger upwind distances. The fact that 95% of fog/cloud deposition is concentrated during SW-W-NW-N-NE, atmospheric circulation exerts an influence on the environmental quality of montane forests in the Sudety Mts. At numerous conspicuous convex landforms, where fog/cloud deposition becomes at least as important as wet deposition via atmospheric precipitation, a distinct difference in the health of coniferous forests is clearly visible, with the areas of the NW aspect being the worst affected, contrary to SE slopes with relatively healthy forest stands.

  6. Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ]. However, anaerobic digestion is not effective for nutrient removal and should be followed by a processLocation and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic different operating conditions. Three dairy wastewater effluents, from three different upflow anaerobic

  7. Composite biomaterials with chemical bonding between hydroxyapatite filler particles and PEG/PBT copolymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

    1998-06-01

    In an effort to make composites from hydroxyapatite and a PEG/PBT copolymer (Polyactive 70/30), chemical linkages were introduced between the filler particles and polymer matrix using hexamethylene diisocyanate as a coupling agent. Infrared spectra (IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the presence of Polyactive 70/30 on the surface of HA filler particles. The amount of chemically bound polymer was 4.7 wt.%, as determined by TGA. The mechanical properties of the composites, that is, tensile strength and Young's modulus, were improved significantly by the introduction of a chemical linkage between the filler particles and polymer matrix compared to control composites. This method provides an effective way to introduce chemical linkage between HA filler particles and a polymer matrix. By optimizing the grafting process, a further improvement of the mechanical properties in the composites can be expected. PMID:9570082

  8. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...

  9. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...

  10. Chemical-garden formation, morphology, and composition. II. Chemical gardens in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Stodieck, Louis S

    2011-04-01

    We studied the growth of metal-ion silicate chemical gardens under Earth gravity (1 g) and microgravity (?g) conditions. Identical sets of reaction chambers from an automated system (the Silicate Garden Habitat or SGHab) were used in both cases. The ?g experiment was performed on board the International Space Station (ISS) within a temperature-controlled setup that provided still and video images of the experiment downlinked to the ground. Calcium chloride, manganese chloride, cobalt chloride, and nickel sulfate were used as seed salts in sodium silicate solutions of several concentrations. The formation and growth of osmotic envelopes and microtubes was much slower under ?g conditions. In 1 g, buoyancy forces caused tubes to grow upward, whereas a random orientation for tube growth was found under ?g conditions. PMID:21391639

  11. Influence of chemical composition of vacuum gasoil cuts on pyrolysis results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Vasil'eva; Yu. M. Zhorov; G. S. Volokhova

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on the pyrolysis of gasoil cuts differing in distillation range and chemical composition in a flow unit at 500°C with a contact time of 0.25 sec and with steam dilution. The results indicate that the pyrolysis of feeds with the same distillation range, under identical conditions, is influenced by the chemical composition, not the distillation range, of

  12. Chemical composition of seeds and oil of Xylopia aethiopica grown in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Barminas; M. K. James; U. M. Abubakar

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition and mineral constituents of Xylopia aethiopica, which is valued as a spice in Nigeria, were determined along with the physicochemical characteristics of the seed oil. The seeds had the following chemical compositions moisture (8.43 g\\/100 g), ash (5.89 g\\/100 g), crude lipid (9.58 g\\/100 g), crude protein (12.45 g\\/100 g) crude fiber (8.66 g\\/100 g) and carbohydrate

  13. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-07-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active. PMID:9687969

  14. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-03-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active. PMID:9609390

  15. A rapid method for the computation of equilibrium chemical composition of air to 15000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid computational method has been developed to determine the chemical composition of equilibrium air to 15000 K. Eleven chemically reacting species, i.e., O2, N2, O, NO, N, NO+, e-, N+, O+, Ar, and Ar+ are included. The method involves combining algebraically seven nonlinear equilibrium equations and four linear elemental mass balance and charge neutrality equations. Computational speeds for determining the equilibrium chemical composition are significantly faster than the often used free energy minimization procedure. Data are also included from which the thermodynamic properties of air can be computed. A listing of the computer program together with a set of sample results are included.

  16. Software for analysis of chemical mixtures--composition, occurrence, distribution, and possible toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Jonathon C.; Skach, Kenneth A.; Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The composition, occurrence, distribution, and possible toxicity of chemical mixtures in the environment are research concerns of the U.S. Geological Survey and others. The presence of specific chemical mixtures may serve as indicators of natural phenomena or human-caused events. Chemical mixtures may also have ecological, industrial, geochemical, or toxicological effects. Chemical-mixture occurrences vary by analyte composition and concentration. Four related computer programs have been developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey for research of chemical-mixture compositions, occurrences, distributions, and possible toxicities. The compositions and occurrences are identified for the user-supplied data, and therefore the resultant counts are constrained by the user’s choices for the selection of chemicals, reporting limits for the analytical methods, spatial coverage, and time span for the data supplied. The distribution of chemical mixtures may be spatial, temporal, and (or) related to some other variable, such as chemical usage. Possible toxicities optionally are estimated from user-supplied benchmark data. The software for the analysis of chemical mixtures described in this report is designed to work with chemical-analysis data files retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System but can also be used with appropriately formatted data from other sources. Installation and usage of the mixture software are documented. This mixture software was designed to function with minimal changes on a variety of computer-operating systems. To obtain the software described herein and other U.S. Geological Survey software, visit http://water.usgs.gov/software/.

  17. Chemical Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

  18. [Chemical composition of 2 wild vegetable species compared with chard].

    PubMed

    Escudero, N L; Fernández, S; Albarracín, G; de Lúquez, G N; de Arellano, L M; Mucciarelli, S

    1999-03-01

    The nutritional quality of two wild vegetable species, Kochia scoparia (Ks) and Chenopodium album (Cha) was evaluated and compared with Beta vulgaris var. cicla(chard) (Bv), in order to propose their domestication as alternative protein sources. Chemical percentual analysis (AOAC), gaseous chromatography fatty acid determination, and antinutrient searching (by chemical, enzymatic and immunological method) were performed. Protein quality was determined by the following indexes: net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (tD) and biological value (BV). The three species exhibited similar protein concentration values, 25.8, 25.0 and 22.1 g/100 g for Ks, Cha and Bv, respectively. Kochia scoparia showed the highest value for fatty acid analysis (82%), with predominance of linolenic acid. Since the samples were subjected to boiling, the amounts of antinutrients found can be considered to be within levels not affecting health. As regards the biological quality, the obtained values for Ks, Cha and Bv, respectively, were: NPU: 68.0 +/- 0.4, 55.0 +/- 6.1 and 56.0 +/- 4.2; tD 70.0 +/- 0.7, 71.0 +/- 4.0 and 76.0 +/- 8.2; BV: 97, 77 and 74. The analysis of the biological quality indexes gave highest nitrogen profit for Ks. These results indicate that Kochia scoparia is suitable for the objective proposed. PMID:10412504

  19. Electroluminescence from Au\\/Si oxynitride film\\/Si structures with the films having different chemical compositions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Li; L. D. Zhang; Y. P. Qiao; G. G. Qin; Z. C. Ma; W. H. Zong; Xin Wang; X. W. Hu

    1997-01-01

    Si oxynitride films (with thicknesses of about 40 - 80 Å) with different chemical compositions were deposited on Si wafers by three kinds of method: electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) chemical vapour deposition, magnetron sputtering, and direct nitration of Si wafers in an ECR plasma. The chemical composition of Si oxynitride films was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electroluminescence (EL) from

  20. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Campanula alliariifolia.

    PubMed

    Dumlu, M U; Gurkan, E; Tuzlaci, E

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the chemical constituents of Campanula alliariifolia Willd. (Campanulaceae) are being investigated for the first time with the aid of this article. Five known compounds, which were quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, lobetyolin (9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2,10-tetradecadien-4,6-diyne-8,14-diol) and lobetyol (2,10-tetradecadien-4,6-diyne-8,9,14-triol), were isolated from the methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract and the purified compounds of the plant was investigated with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-picrilyhydrazyl) (free radical scavenging activity) and reducing power methods. The methanol extract has antioxidant capacity according to the mentioned methods. Lobetyol and lobetyolin showed significant antioxidant activity more than both methanol extract and other purified compounds. PMID:18415853

  2. Does forest fire effect chemical composition of surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, A.T. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Chemical Data for stream drainages in Yellowstone National Park area have been examined for trends associated with the 1988 burn. Limited pre-fire data make assessment difficult. Data from the Snake River (at maximum recorded discharge) suggest that TDS decreases, total Nitrogen remains constant and total Phosphorus increases from pre-fire (and very dry conditions) to post-fire (and more normal conditions). To test these apparent trends post-fire data from adjacent valleys (Jones Creek, burned; Crow Creek, unburned) were compared. Each shows a decrease in TDS, similar nearly constant total Nitrogen and an increase in total Phosphorus. Although year to year changes in surface water seem greater from the burned valley, the data from the unburned valley show similar trends. Therefore these data do not clearly distinguish trends resulting solely from the burn.

  3. Regional variations in the chemical and helium–carbon isotope composition of geothermal fluids across Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fourré; R. Di Napoli; A. Aiuppa; F. Parello; E. Gaubi; P. Jean-Baptiste; P. Allard; S. Calabrese; A. Ben Mamou

    2011-01-01

    Tunisia has numerous thermo-mineral springs. Previous studies have shown that their chemical composition and occurrence are strongly influenced by the regional geology. However little work has been done so far to study the isotopic composition of volatiles associated with these geothermal manifestations. Here, we report on the results of an extensive survey of both natural hot springs and production wells

  4. Chemical composition and size distributions of coastal aerosols observed on the US East Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Xia; Yuan Gao

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of coastal aerosols is important to the study of the atmospheric input of nutrients to the adjacent marine and the ocean ecosystems. Over a land–ocean transition zone, however, aerosol composition could be strongly modified by anthropogenic emissions and transport processes. This work focuses on examining aerosol properties, in particular chemical composition, particle-size distributions and iron (Fe) solubility, over the

  5. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed ( Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. Adelakun; O. J. Oyelade; B. I. O. Ade-Omowaye; I. A. Adeyemi; M. Van de Venter

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160°C for 10–60mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and

  6. Chemical Composition and Antigenic Structure of Cell Walls of Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Actinomyces and Arthrobacter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Cummins; E. Lopidon

    1962-01-01

    14 comparison has been made between the chemical composition of the cell walls of strains from the genera Corynebucterizcm, Alycobacterium, Nocardia, Actiwmycrs and Arthrobacter, and the antigenic composition of the same cell-wall fractions as judged by an agglutination test. ,4 common antigenic component was identified in all those strains of' corynchacteria, mycohacteria and nocardias which have arabinose and galactose as

  7. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae. I. Fundamental parameters and chemical abundance patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, A. O.; Sbordone, L.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Yong, D.; Zaggia, S.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Collet, R.; Asplund, M.; Ventura, P.; D'Antona, F.; Meléndez, J.; D'Ercole, A.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is key importance to constraining the different candidates for intracluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a wide range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) atmospheric models, together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis, we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al, and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.07 and [ ?/ Fe ] = 0.34 ± 0.03 in good agreement with previous studies. The remaining elements show good agreement with the literature, but including NLTE for Al has a significant impact on the behavior of this key element. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an Na-O anti-correlation in 47 Tucanae found by several other works. Our NLTE analysis of Al shifts the [Al/Fe] to lower values, indicating that this may be overestimated in earlier works. No evidence of an intrinsic variation is found in any of the remaining elements. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Programmes 084.B-0810 and 086.B-0237).Full Tables 2, 5, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A108Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Chemical composition of glass and crystalline phases in coarse coal gasification ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward; David French

    2008-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for determining the chemical composition and relative abundance of the amorphous or glassy material, as well as crystalline phases, present in coarse coal gasification ash, in order to assist in predicting the behaviour of the material in cement\\/brick\\/concrete applications. The procedure is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis and electron

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY OF FIBER FRACTIONS OF CERTAIN BY-PRODUCT FEEDSTUFFS FED TO RUIVIINANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Garleb; G. C. Fahey; S. M. Lewis; M. S. Kerley; L. Montgomery

    These experiments were conducted to study chemical composition of five by-product feedstuffs and their fiber fractions to determine the components that make up their indigesti- ble residue. Corn fiber (CF), coarse corn fiber (CCF), oat hulls (OH), soybean hulls (SH) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) were chemically fractionated into eight components: original by- product, chloroform-methanol (CHC13:CHaOH)-extracted material, NDF, lignin-carbohy- drate complex

  10. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  11. Large dielectric constant of the chemically purified carbon nanotube\\/polymer composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qun Li; Qingzhong Xue; Qingbin Zheng; Lanzhong Hao; Xili Gao

    2008-01-01

    The chemically purified multiwalled carbon nanotube\\/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (MWCNT\\/PVDF) composites were fabricated. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs indicated that the catalysts metal particles and amorphous carbon had been removed from the purified MWCNTs. The percolation threshold of the composites is relatively large, about 3.8 vol.%. The most important result is that the dielectric constant of the composites is enhanced remarkably,

  12. Brazilian red propolis--chemical composition and botanical origin.

    PubMed

    Daugsch, Andreas; Moraes, Cleber S; Fort, Patricia; Park, Yong K

    2008-12-01

    Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae) and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea), but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L) Taub. (Leguminosae) to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum) was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity. PMID:18955226

  13. Chemical composition of precipitation in a Mexican Maya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, H. A.; Saavedra, M. I. R.; Sánchez, P. A.; Torres, R. J.; Granada, L. M. M.

    The chemical characteristics of wet precipitation in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo State, Mexico, were measured from April 1994 to December 1995. Puerto Morelos is located in the Caribbean Mayan coastal region of the Peninsula of Yucatan, and is normally exposed to winds from the Caribbean region. Wetfall was analyzed for pH, conductivity and Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ion concentrations. Volume-weighted mean pH for the whole sampling period was 5.35, although values as low as 4.6 were measured in several rain samples. Concentrations of all species correlated negatively with rain volume. Sea-salt aerosols contributed with most of the Na +, Cl -, Mg 2+, K + and SO 42- found in wet precipitation. The mean [SO 42-excess] was 9.7 ?Eq l -1, which agrees with the background hemispheric values of ?10 ?Eq l -1 reported elsewhere. The mean [NO 3-] was 11.4 ?Eq l -1, almost four times higher than the background hemispheric value of ?2.5 ?Eq l -1 reported elsewhere. However, a major component causing the slight acidity character of rain in Puerto Morelos seems to be H 2SO 4.

  14. The Chemical Compositions of RR Lyrae Type C Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govea, Jose; Gomez, Thomas; Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance study of eight RR Lyrae variable stars of subclass c (RRc). The target RRc stars chosen for study exhibit "Blazhko-effect" period and amplitude modulations to their pulsational cycles. Data for this study were gathered with the echelle spectrograph of the 100 inch du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Spectra were obtained throughout each star's pulsation cycle. Atmospheric parameters—effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity—were derived at multiple phase points. We found metallicities and element abundance ratios to be constant within observational uncertainties over the pulsational cycles of all stars. Moreover, the ?-element and Fe-group abundance ratios with respect to iron are consistent with other horizontal-branch members (RRab, blue and red non-variables). Finally, we have used the [Fe/H] values of these eight RRc stars to anchor the metallicity estimates of a large-sample RRc snapshot spectroscopic study being conducted with the same telescope and instrument combination employed here.

  15. The chemical compositions of RR Lyrae type c variable stars

    SciTech Connect

    Govea, Jose; Gomez, Thomas; Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Preston, George W., E-mail: jgovea@utexas.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: iii@ociw.edu [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    We present a detailed chemical abundance study of eight RR Lyrae variable stars of subclass c (RRc). The target RRc stars chosen for study exhibit 'Blazhko-effect' period and amplitude modulations to their pulsational cycles. Data for this study were gathered with the echelle spectrograph of the 100 inch du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Spectra were obtained throughout each star's pulsation cycle. Atmospheric parameters—effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity—were derived at multiple phase points. We found metallicities and element abundance ratios to be constant within observational uncertainties over the pulsational cycles of all stars. Moreover, the ?-element and Fe-group abundance ratios with respect to iron are consistent with other horizontal-branch members (RRab, blue and red non-variables). Finally, we have used the [Fe/H] values of these eight RRc stars to anchor the metallicity estimates of a large-sample RRc snapshot spectroscopic study being conducted with the same telescope and instrument combination employed here.

  16. Conical intersection seams in polyenes derived from their chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Nenov, Artur; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univerisitaet, Muenchen Butenandtstr. 11, 81377 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-08-21

    The knowledge of conical intersection seams is important to predict and explain the outcome of ultrafast reactions in photochemistry and photobiology. They define the energetic low-lying reachable regions that allow for the ultrafast non-radiative transitions. In complex molecules it is not straightforward to locate them. We present a systematic approach to predict conical intersection seams in multifunctionalized polyenes and their sensitivity to substituent effects. Included are seams that facilitate the photoreaction of interest as well as seams that open competing loss channels. The method is based on the extended two-electron two-orbital method [A. Nenov and R. de Vivie-Riedle, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034304 (2011)]. It allows to extract the low-lying regions for non-radiative transitions, which are then divided into small linear segments. Rules of thumb are introduced to find the support points for these segments, which are then used in a linear interpolation scheme for a first estimation of the intersection seams. Quantum chemical optimization of the linear interpolated structures yields the final energetic position. We demonstrate our method for the example of the electrocyclic isomerization of trifluoromethyl-pyrrolylfulgide.

  17. The chemical composition of a mild barium star HD202109

    E-print Network

    Yushchenko, A V; Kim, C; Liang, Y; Musaev, F A; Galazutdinov, G A; Kim, Chulhee; Liang, Yanchun

    2003-01-01

    We present the result of chemical abundances of a mild barium star HD202109 (zeta Cyg) determined from the analysis of spectrum obtained by using a 2-m telescope at the Peak Terskol Observatory and a high-resolution spectrometer with R=80,000, signal to noise ratio >100. We also present the atmospheric parameters of the star determined by using various methods including iron-line abundance analysis. For line identifications, we use whole-range synthetic spectra computed by using the Kurucz database and the latest lists of spectral lines. Among the determined abundances of 51 elements, those of P, S, K, Cu, Zn, Ge, Rb, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, In, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Hf, Os, Ir, Pt, Tl, and Pb have not been previously known. Under the assumption that the overabundance pattern of Ba stars is due to wind-accretion process, adding information of more element abundances enables one to show that the heavy element overabundances of HD202109 can be explained with the wind accretion scenario model.

  18. Chemical Bonds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

  19. Multifunctional composite materials for catalysis and chemical mechanical planarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecil A. Coutinho

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials formed from two or more functionally different materials offer a versatile avenue to create a tailored material with well defined traits. Within this dissertation research, multi-functional composites were synthesized based on organic and inorganic materials. The functionally of these composites was experimentally tested and a semi-empirical model describing the sedimentation behavior of these particles was developed. This first

  20. Model nebulae and determination of the chemical composition of the Magellanic Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Aller, L. H.; Keyes, C. D.; Czyzak, S. J.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of previously presented photoelectric spectrophotometry of HII regions (emission-line diffuse nebulae) in the two Magellanic Clouds is carried out with the aid of theoretical nebular models, which are used primarily as interpolation devices. Some advantages and limitations of such theoretical models are discussed. A comparison of the finally obtained chemical compositions with those found by other observers shows generally a good agreement, suggesting that it is possible to obtain reliable chemical compositions from low excitation gaseous nebulae in our own galaxy as well as in distant stellar systems. PMID:16592633

  1. Predicting Chemical Fingerprints of Vadose Zone Soil Gas and Indoor Air from NonAqueous Phase Liquid Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen D. Uhler; Kevin J. McCarthy; Stephen D. Emsbo-Mattingly; Scott A. Stout; Gregory S. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Complex mixtures of volatile organic chemical (VOC) vapors can exist over subsurface accumulations of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and contaminated soils. The ability to predict the relative soil gas chemical composition arising from such NAPLs is relevant to studies of the sources and fate of soil gas, and in assessing the possible intrusion of soil gas chemical constituents to indoor

  2. [Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat chemical compositions: a review].

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin-Li; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Deng, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Xi

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to conventional methods for the determination of meat chemical composition, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy enables rapid, simple, secure and simultaneous assessment of numerous meat properties. The present review focuses on the use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat chemical compositions. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict crude protein, intramuscular fat, fatty acid, moisture, ash, myoglobin and collagen of beef, pork, chicken and lamb is reviewed. This paper discusses existing questions and reasons in the current research. According to the published results, although published results vary considerably, they suggest that near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy shows a great potential to replace the expensive and time-consuming chemical analysis of meat composition. In particular, under commercial conditions where simultaneous measurements of different chemical components are required, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy is expected to be the method of choice. The majority of studies selected feature-related wavelengths using principal components regression, developed the calibration model using partial least squares and modified partial least squares, and estimated the prediction accuracy by means of cross-validation using the same sample set previously used for the calibration. Meat fatty acid composition predicted by near-infrared spectroscopy and non-destructive prediction and visualization of chemical composition in meat using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate regression are the hot studying field now. On the other hand, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy shows great difference for predicting different attributes of meat quality which are closely related to the selection of calibration sample set, preprocessing of near-infrared spectroscopy and modeling approach. Sample preparation also has an important effect on the reliability of NIR prediction; in particular, lack of homogeneity of the meat samples influenced the accuracy of estimation of chemical components. In general the predicting results of intramuscular fat, fatty acid and moisture are best, the predicting results of crude protein and myoglobin are better, while the predicting results of ash and collagen are less accurate. PMID:24555369

  3. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2009-05-01

    We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

  4. Comparative investigation of the surface properties of commercial titanium dental implants. Part I: chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Massaro, C; Rotolo, P; De Riccardis, F; Milella, E; Napoli, A; Wieland, M; Textor, M; Spencer, N D; Brunette, D M

    2002-06-01

    The surfaces of five commercially available titanium implants (Brånemark Nobel Biocare, 3i ICE, 3i OSSEOTITE, ITI-TPS, and ITI-SLA) were compared by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. All five implant types were screw-shaped and fabricated from commercially pure (cp) titanium, but their surface properties differed both as regards surface morphology and surface chemical composition. The macro- and microstructure of the implant surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The surfaces chemical composition was determined using the surface-sensitive analytical techniques of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion spectrometry. Surface topographies were found to reflect the type of mechanical/chemical fabrication procedures applied by the manufacturers. The titanium oxide (passive) layer thickness was similar (5-6 nm) and typical for oxide films grown at or near room temperature. A variety of elements and chemical compounds not related to the metal composition were found on some implant types. They ranged from inorganic material such as sodium chloride to specific organic compounds believed to be due to contamination during fabrication or storage. The experimental findings are believed to make a contribution to a better understanding of the interplay between industrial fabrication procedure and physico-chemical implant surface properties. PMID:15348583

  5. Level and Chemical Composition of Cryoglobulins in Schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoyetsyan, Aren; Boyajyan, Anna; Melkumova, Maya

    The blood samples of 40 schizophrenic patients were tested for the presence of cryoglobulins (Cgs) and composition of Cgs was examined. The elevated levels of type III Cgs, containing complement components, were detected in all study subjects.

  6. Characterization of Stem Growth and Chemical Composition in Sorghum Bicolor 

    E-print Network

    Anderson Jr, Robert Taylor

    2014-03-31

    genes which may regulate stem development. In addition, I attempt to correlate variation in stem composition with saccharification efficiency in two sorghum populations. Under greenhouse conditions, stem length in the vegetative phase typically...

  7. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ? 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. PMID:25998468

  8. Chemical versus electrochemical synthesis of carbon nano-onion/polypyrrole composites for supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mykhailiv, Olena; Imierska, Monika; Petelczyc, Martyna; Echegoyen, Luis; Plonska-Brzezinska, Marta E

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-surface-area carbon electrodes with a defined pore size distribution and the incorporation of pseudo-active materials to optimize the overall capacitance and conductivity without destroying the stability are at present important research areas. Composite electrodes of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) and polypyrrole (Ppy) were fabricated to improve the specific capacitance of a supercapacitor. The carbon nanostructures were uniformly coated with Ppy by chemical polymerization or by electrochemical potentiostatic deposition to form homogenous composites or bilayers. The materials were characterized by transmission- and scanning electron microscopy, differential thermogravimetric analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, piezoelectric microgravimetry, and cyclic voltammetry. The composites show higher mechanical and electrochemical stabilities, with high specific capacitances of up to about 800?F?g(-1) for the CNOs/SDS/Ppy composites (chemical synthesis) and about 1300?F?g(-1) for the CNOs/Ppy bilayer (electrochemical deposition). PMID:25736714

  9. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions. PMID:25730368

  10. Differences in Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Carbon Resulting From Long-Term Fertilization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1–3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4–6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3–52.6% and 9.4–64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  11. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  12. Chemical composition and origin of Apollo 15 impact melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Spudis, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen Apollo 15 impact melt rocks were analyzed for major (fused bead microprobe) and trace element (INAA) abundances, and the compositions of these Apennine Front rocks were compared with samples from other landing sites. The rocks show a wide range in trace element abundances, although all but one have a typical KREEP incompatible element pattern and have low-K Fra Mauro basaltic or medium-K Fra Mauro basaltic compositions. The melt chemistries appear to form five groups (labeled A to E in order of decreasing incompatible elements), with the compositions unlike nearly all other impact melts and regoliths from highland sites. All groups except Group A may represent single impact events (either Imbrian or post-Imbrian). One unique sample has a non-KREEP incompatible element pattern, with low abundances and a positive Eu anomaly. Its target is believed to be either a pre-Imbrian melt or exotic.

  13. Effect of Chemical Treatment of Kevlar Fibers on Mechanical Interfacial Properties of Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Jin Park; Min-Kang Seo; Tae-Jun Ma; Douk-Rae Lee

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the effects of chemical treatment on Kevlar 29 fibers have been studied in a composite system. The surface characteristics of Kevlar 29 fibers were characterized by pH, acid–base value, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and FT-IR. The mechanical interfacial properties of the final composites were studied by interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), critical stress intensity factor (KIC), and specific

  14. Influence of chemical composition of tungsten carbide catalysts on their electrocatalytic properties in hydrogen reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Boikova, G.V.; Schneider, W.; Wiesener, K.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Tarasevich, M.R.

    1987-02-01

    The authors attempt to discover how the specific electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide in hydrogen ionization and evolution depends on the chemical composition and specific surface area of the catalyst. They produce 13 tungsten carbide samples with different contents nonstoichiometric tungsten oxides and free and bound carbon and perform comparative electrochemical testing in sulfuric acid in order to locate the composition which maximizes the catalytic activity of the carbide.

  15. Chemical composition, intraspecies variation and seasonal variation in essential oils of Calendula arvensis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Paolini; Toussaint Barboni; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Nassim Djabou; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil composition of Calendula arvensis was established for the first time using GC and GC\\/MS. Eighty-five essential oil components were identified, which accounted for 90.3g\\/100g of essential oil. The oil contained a high concentration of sesquiterpenes, of which ?-cadinene and ?-cadinol were the main components. The chemical composition of 25 Corsican C. arvensis oils was analyzed to determine

  16. [Elemental chemical composition of Scolelepis fuliginosa (Annelida, Polychaeta): effect of growth conditions].

    PubMed

    Guerin, J P; Kerambrum, P

    1976-09-27

    The elemental chemical composition of Scolelepis fuliginosa was comparatively with specimens reared in laboratory and from a natural population. The carbon-nitrogen ratio variations show a certain homogeneity of composition in juveniles and young sexed and a sexual dimorphism in adults. C/N ratio of the laboratory specimens is not significantly different from that of the ones from natural surroundings. But, when these are kept several weeks in captivity, this ratio considerably decreases. PMID:825314

  17. Chemically modified fly ash for fabricating super-strong biodegradable poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilip Chandra Deb Nath; Sri Bandyopadhyay; Philip Boughton; Aibing Yu; Darryl Blackburn; Chris White

    2010-01-01

    Composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chemically modified fly ash (MFA) by sodium hydroxide were prepared by aqueous\\u000a cast method with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt% MFA treated with 1 wt% cross-linking agent (glutaraldehyde, GLA). The tensile strengths\\u000a of the composite films were found to increase proportionally with MFA and the maximum strength attained was 414% higher in\\u000a the

  18. Chemical composition and biological activity of a new type of Brazilian propolis: Red propolis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Alencar; T. L. C. Oldoni; M. L. Castro; I. S. R. Cabral; C. M. Costa-Neto; J. A. Cury; P. L. Rosalen; M. Ikegaki

    2007-01-01

    Propolis has been used as a medicinal agent to treat infections and promote wound healing for centuries. The aim of the present study was to test the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of a new type of Brazilian propolis, popularly called red propolis, as well as to analyze its chemical composition. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and

  19. The chemical composition of planetary nebulae and HII regions in NGC 3109

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Peña; G. Stasinska; M. G. Richer

    2007-01-01

    Aims:We present deep spectrophotometry for a sample of 8 planetary nebulae (PNe) and 12 HII regions distributed throughout the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 3109, in order to analyze the chemical composition of both types of nebulae. Methods: We describe the observations and data reduction, and present line intensities for the nebular emission lines detected. The physical conditions and the abundances

  20. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 ?g/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 ?g/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 ?g/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 ?g/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 ?g/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 ?g/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

  1. Chemical composition and calculated nutritive value of commonly available feedstuffs for ruminants in Burundi

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chemical composition and calculated nutritive value of commonly available feedstuffs for ruminants Louvain, Place Croix du Sud2 (Boite 14),1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique Burundese domestic ruminants, in : Alimentation des ruminants, INRA ed, Versailles, 469-584) and Xandé et al (1989, in : Paturages et alimentation

  2. Chemical composition of interstitial waters from the Japan Sea, ODP Leg 128

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sturz; M. Von Breymann; R. Dunbar

    1990-01-01

    During ODP Leg 128, interstitial waters were recovered from Oki Ridge (Site 798) and Kita-Yamato Trough (Site 799) sediment, Sea of Japan. Interstitial water chemical composition reflects diagenetic processes. Evidence indicating organic matter degradation processes includes sulfate depletion, high ammonium concentrations, and shallow maxima of dissolved phosphate. Rapid alkalinity increases in the uppermost sections of the sediments are accompanied by

  3. Chemical composition and cell wall polysaccharide degradability of pith and rind tissues from mature maize internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was undertaken to identify tissue-specific biochemical traits that may be targeted in breeding programs for improving forage digestibility. We compared cell wall chemical composition and 24- and 96-h in vitro degradabilities in separated pith and rind tissues from six maize inbred lines. A...

  4. Chemical composition and cell wall polysaccharide degradability of pith and rind tissues from mature maize internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to identify tissue-specific biochemical traits that may be targeted in breeding programs for improving forage digestibility. We compared cell wall chemical composition and 24- and 96-h in vitro degradabilities in separated pith and rind tissues of the fourth above-ground in...

  5. Surface structure, composition, and polarity of indium nitride grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-print Network

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    Surface structure, composition, and polarity of indium nitride grown by high-pressure chemical of the surface was observed, N-polarity indium nitride is indicated. © 2006 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2187513 Research on the growth and characterization of indium nitride InN has increased

  6. Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM David G. Nashab, Esra Mutluc, William T. Prestond, Michael D. Haysb, Sarah H. Warrenc, Charly Kingc, William P. Linakb, M. lan Gilmourc, and David M. DeMarinic aOak Ridge Institute for Science and Ed...

  7. Essential oils of Retama raetam from Libya: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahlul Zayed Sh Awen; C. Ramachandra Unnithan; Subban Ravi; Adel Kermagy; J. M. Sasikumar; Amal S. Khrbash; Wafa Lutfi Ekreem

    2011-01-01

    Retama raetam (Forssk) Webb & Berthel is well known in the folk medicine of North and East Mediterranean regions for the treatment of microbial infections. The powdered leaves are used to heal circumcision wounds and used as an antiseptic for wounds, skin rash and pruritus. In this study, to validate this antiseptic property, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of

  8. In-situ aircraft observations of the 2000 Mt. Hekla volcanic cloud: Composition and chemical

    E-print Network

    Lee, Shan-Hu

    In-situ aircraft observations of the 2000 Mt. Hekla volcanic cloud: Composition and chemical An instrumented NASA aircraft made comprehensive, in-situ measurements of trace gas concentrations and aerosol stratosphere. Thirty-five hours after the initial, sub- Plinian explosion on February 26, 2000, the aircraft

  9. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Aromatic Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar D. Marin

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Antibacterial activity of these oils and their components; i.e. linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ?- pinene, ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were

  10. Influence of Cultivar on Quality Parameters and Chemical Composition of Strawberry Fruits Grown in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Rosana Cordenunsi; João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento; MARIA INE Ä S GENOVESE; Franco Maria Lajolo

    2002-01-01

    Six strawberry cultivars grown on the same commercial plantation in Brazil were evaluated for their chemical composition and quality attributes at the ripe stage. The profiles of the main soluble sugars, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanins were also obtained during the developmental stages. Results showed significant differences among cultivars in all of the investigated parameters. Cv. Campineiro showed an average value

  11. Influence of coal briquetting conditions on the chemical composition of the products of thermal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Turenko, F.P.

    1984-01-01

    A spectro-statistical method was used to examine the chemical composition of liquid non-volatile constituents from a mixture of Donbass coals (gas, fat, lean, caking). The thermal destruction products obtained by thermal filtration in a centrifugal field from both briquetted and non-briquetted charges differ in terms of their structural group content.

  12. The Wadi Natrun: Chemical composition and microbial mass developments in alkaline brines of Eutrophic Desert Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes F. Imhoff; Hans G. Sahl; Gaber S. H. Soliman; Hans G. Trüper

    1979-01-01

    Six lakes of the Wadi Natrun, Egypt, were studied with respect to the chemical composition of their brines and the occurrence of microbial mass developments. All investigated lakes showed pH values of approximately 11 and a total salt content of generally more than 30%. The main components were sulfate, carbonate, chloride, sodium, and minor amounts of potassium. Only traces of

  13. Numerical simulation of the middle atmosphere chemical composition and temperature under changing solar conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadorozhny, A. M.; Dyominov, I. G.; Tuchkov, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    There are given results of the numerical experiments on modelling the influence of solar activity on chemical composition and temperature of the middle atmosphere. The consideration is made for peculiarities of solar activity impact under different values of antropogenic pollution of the atmosphere with chlorofluorocarbons and other stuff.

  14. Prediction of chemical contaminants and food compositions by near infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of Food Adulteration by Infrared Spectroscopy H. Zhuang Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 Food adulteration, including both chemical contamination and composition alternation, has been one of major quality and/or safety c...

  15. INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON SELECTED PHYSICAL FEATURES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARONIA FRUIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Skupie?; Ireneusz Ochmian; Józef Grajkowski

    A b s t r a c t . Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot, called also black chokeberry, is a species with lower cultivation requirements within the Rosaceae family. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of foliar fertilization with Mn, 'Alkalin' (N, K and S i) and Mn + 'Alkalin' on physical features and chemical composition of

  16. Ice Nuclei, Rainwater Chemical Composition, and Static Cloud Seeding Effects in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Levi; Daniel Rosenfeld

    1996-01-01

    This study analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of natural ice nuclei (IN), total suspended particles (TSP), and rainwater chemical composition (RCC) in Israel. This research is complementary to the statistical analyses of cloud seeding, which have shown significant positive seeding effects only in northern Israel, together with detrimemtal effects of desert dust.It was observed that the concentration of continental

  17. Rosenroot ( Rhodiola rosea): Traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Panossian; G. Wikman; J. Sarris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review article was to summarize accumulated information related to chemical composition, pharmacological activity, traditional and official use of Rhodiola rosea L. in medicine. In total approximately 140 compounds were isolated from roots and rhizome - monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides, flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives.

  18. A methodology to reduce error sources in the determination of thin film chemical composition by EDAX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Ares; A. Pascual; I. J. Ferrer; C. Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    EDAX is commonly used to determine the chemical composition of thin films. We use this technique to know the stoichiometric ratio of FeS2 films. We have identified three main error sources, which can affect the obtained results and yield mistaken conclusions: (a) EDAX signals from the substrate components; (b) carbon thin film used to protect the reference sample against environmental

  19. Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Measurements of the Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Niemann; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

    1996-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere was measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS). This data was obtained on December 7, 1995 over a time period of approximately 1 hour during the probe descent in the 0.5 to 20 bar pressure region and transmitted to Earth over a period of several weeks. The sampling was either

  20. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of jupiter with the galileo probe mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Niemann; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; D. M. Hunten; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion

  1. Improved interactions in chemically modified pineapple leaf fiber reinforced polyethylene composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayamol George; S. S. Bhagawan; Sabu Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fiber reinforced low density polyethylene composites have been studied with special reference to the effects of interface modifications. Various chemical treatments using reagents such as NaOH, PMPPIC, silane and peroxide were carried out to improve the interfacial bonding. Both infrared spectroscopy and SEM were used to characterize the interface and the modified fiber surface. It

  2. Chemical composition of lake sediments along a pollution gradient in a Subarctic watercourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Dauvalter; Nikolay Kashulin; Sergey Sandimirov; Petr Terentjev; Dmitry Denisov; Per-Arne Amundsen

    2011-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from seven lakes in the Subarctic Pasvik watercourse, polluted by sewage waters and air emissions from the Pechenganickel Metallurgical Company, in order to study chemical composition and estimate the intensity of pollution by taking into account background concentration of elements and the vertical and spatial distribution of their contents in cores and surficial layers of sediments.

  3. Analysis of the morphology and chemical composition at the growth front of YBCO bulks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanmin Yang; Lian Zhou; Yong Feng; Pingxiang Zhang; Jingrong Wang; Cuiping Zhang; Zeming Yu; Xiaodong Tang

    2000-01-01

    The morphology and chemical composition at the growth front of YBCO bulks have been investigated to make clear the stopped growth mechanism in the samples which have covered the whole melt growth process. It is found that the breakdown of quasi-single crystal growth occurs when the liquid phase ahead of the growth front becomes rich in copper and depleted in

  4. Chemical composition of single aerosol particles at Idaho Hill: Positive ion measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Murphy; D. S. Thomson

    1997-01-01

    The chemical compositions of single aerosol particles larger than 0.3 gm optical diameter were measured at Idaho Hill using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer can analyze either positive or negative ions; this paper covers the negative ion results. Sulfate, nitrate, organics, O-, and OH- were the most common peaks observed in the negative ion spectra. Other species

  5. IR spectral analysis of the chemical composition of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes to assess atmospheric pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Meisurova; S. D. Khizhnyak; P. M. Pakhomov

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the level of atmospheric pollution in different urban recreational areas using analysis of the chemical composition\\u000a of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes by Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. We have developed a procedure for determining the dominant pollutant, its concentration,\\u000a and the degree of its impact on the structure of the lichen.

  6. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from-Industrielles'', 17042 La Rochelle, France Abstract: Essential oils of thyme (Thymus numidicus (Poiret)) from Algeria.5 minutes of extraction were tested using the filter paper method. Analysis of the essential oil made

  7. The chemical composition and membrane stability activity of some herbs used in local therapy for anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Falade; I. O. Otemuyiwa; A. Oladipo; O. O. Oyedapo; B. A. Akinpelu; S. R. A. Adewusi

    2005-01-01

    The chemical composition and the membrane stabilizing activity of the decoctions of the dry Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) calyx (Sobo in a Nigerian language), Theobroma cacao Linn. (N.O. Sterculiaceae) root (cocoa) and the dry stalk of white and red cultivars of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae) were determined. These herbs are often used locally for the management of anemia. Ash

  8. The D.C. Conduction Mechanisms of Ethylene Propylene Rubber as a Function of Chemical Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Kingod Katia

    1984-01-01

    The d.c. electrical conduction mechanisms of ethylene propylene rubber have been measured as a function of various chemical compositions and their concentrations at different fields and temperatures. The additives used are dicumyl peroxide, as curing agent, Ethyl numbers 702 and 330 and Topanol antioxidants and Kaolin RS 1730 for inorganic fillers. Results from this work have led to the following

  9. One-step synthesis and chemical characterization of Pt-C nanowire composites by plasma sputtering

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    One-step synthesis and chemical characterization of Pt-C nanowire composites by plasma sputtering and strategic metals from the platinum group.[5] Here, a high surface-to-volume ratio leading to large fraction to obtain the highest catalytic surface area from a low metal weight, as for fuel cells [9] or sensors

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of the chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosova, T. E.; Prokhodchenko, L. K.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Suboch, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil was characterized using spectral methods. It was demonstrated that Vartamil is a mixture of saccharose chloro derivatives, the main one of which is 4,1',6'-trichloro-4,1',6'-trideoxygalactosaccharose (Sucralose).

  11. Plant response to drought stress simulated by ABA application: Changes in chemical composition of cuticular waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Macková; Martina Vašková; Petr Macek; Marie Hronková; Lukas Schreiber; Ji?í Šantr??ek

    2010-01-01

    Plant cuticles form the interface between epidermal plant cells and the atmosphere. The cuticle creates an effective barrier against water loss, bacterial and fungal infection and also protects plant tissue from UV radiation. It is composed of the cutin matrix and embedded soluble lipids also called waxes. Chemical composition of cuticular waxes and physiological properties of cuticles are affected by

  12. Table 1 Chemical composition of steels, wt-% Steel C Si Mn Cr Fe

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Table 1 Chemical composition of steels, wt-% Steel C Si Mn Cr Fe A 0·12 2·03 2·96 ... Bal. B 0·96 0 of 10 and 12 mm from alloys A and B respectively. Specimens were then homogenised at 1200°C to eliminate

  13. PhysicoChemical Properties, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Camelina sativa Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronika Abram

    2005-01-01

    Summary Camelina sativa is a cruciferous oilseed plant. With the aim of describing the general characteristics of the oil obtained from the seeds of plants grown in Slovenia and of com- paring it to camelina oil from other countries we determined some physico-chemical pro- perties, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification value and followed its oxidative stability under different storage

  14. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  15. A snapshot in the effect of time of day on herbage toughness and chemical composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbage chemical composition varies diurnally; however, it is not known if this variation affects herbage biomechanical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential changes in herbage toughness and particle size reduction index (PSR) in relation to diurnal fluctuations of herbag...

  16. The ideal ceramic-fibre\\/oxide-matrix composite: how to reconcile antagonist physical and chemical requirements?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Colomban; Gwénael Gouadec

    2005-01-01

    Starting with a short historical introduction, this paper deals with the search for the best materials to be used in ceramic composites. The reinforcement and oxide matrix must satisfy multiple - and often antagonist - requirements in terms of physical (failure resistance, damage tolerance) and chemical (thermal stability, corrosion resistance) properties. The best compromise is obtained by \\

  17. The Chemical Composition of Texas Honey and Pecans 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1921-01-01

    and purification of .the saccharine juices of plants, with the exception of corn syrup, whlch is made by heating starch with dilute acid and evaporating after neutralizing the acid. Cam syrup consists of glucose, dextrin, gums and water. COMPOSITION OF PECANS...

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Imran; Hamayun Khan; Mohibullah Shah; Rasool Khan; Faridullah Khan

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose,\\u000a the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash,

  19. Chemical composition of the lunar surface in mare tranquillitatis.

    PubMed

    Turkevich, A L; Franzgrote, E J; Patterson, J H

    1969-07-18

    More precise and comprehensive analytical results have been derived for lunar material at the Surveyor V landing site from alpha-scattering data. The composition is, in general, basaltic; the low sodium and high titanium contents, however, are distinctly different from the abundances in meteorites or common terrestrial rocks. PMID:17814825

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE WALLS OF CERTAIN ALGAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY E. WURDACK

    In spite of the fact that numerous investigations of the nature of cell walls of algae have been made, the recorded data are still far too incomplete to be of the greatest service to science. It is usually impossible to obtain from the literature a complete record of the composition of the walls of the most commonly occurring fresh water

  1. Chemical composition of cell walls as a taxonomical marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Takeda

    1993-01-01

    Matrix sugar composition ofChlorella is species-specifically different. The rigid wall consists of either glucosamine or glucose and mannose. Ruthenium red stainability\\u000a and anisotropy of cell wall are either plus or minus species-specifically. The cell wall is specifically degraded by the lytic\\u000a enzyme of the cell itself.

  2. Stress transfer from polymerization shrinkage of a chemical-cured composite bonded to a pre-cast composite substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Sakaguchi; Jack L. Ferracane

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To develop and test a strain gauge-based method for evaluating the strain transferred through a bonded interface to a deformable substrate; and (2) to develop and test a finite element (FE) model for evaluating the stress development in a chemical-cured composite during polymerization.Methods: A generic light-cured resin composite was used to fabricate a rectangular plate with an internal

  3. Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics of Unpopped Popcorn Hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. D. Allen; Frank R. Stermitz; Joseph A. Maga

    2000-01-01

    Kernel number, individual kernel weight, individual kernel volume, crude fat, crude protein, reducing sugars, starch content, amylose\\/amylopectin ratio and fatty acid composition were determined for six popcorn hybrids, grown in Colorado or Nebraska and harvested in 1997. The popcorn hybrids were A358W, 353W, BKH, 019, 1601 and 5501. Also, popcorn hybrids were categorized based on their popped color and popped

  4. Investigation of the chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship of essential oils by chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Miladinovi?, Dragoljub L; Ili?, Budimir S; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Nikoli?, Nikola D; Miladinovi?, Ljiljana C; Cvetkovi?, Olga G

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and Calamintha nepeta (Lamiaceae) Savi subsp. nepeta var. subisodonda (Borb.) Hayek essential oils on five different bacteria were estimated. Laboratory control strain and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media were researched by broth microdilution method, with an emphasis on a chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95%) and p-cymene (18.34%). Linalool acetate (38.23%) and ?-linalool (35.01%) were main compounds in lavender oil. C. nepeta essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of piperitone oxide (59.07%) and limonene (9.05%). Essential oils have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Classification and comparison of essential oils on the basis of their chemical composition and antibacterial activity were made by utilization of appropriate chemometric methods. The chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierachical cluster analysis (HCA) separated essential oils into two groups and two sub-groups. Thyme essential oil forms separate chemical HCA group and exhibits highest antibacterial activity, similar to tetracycline. Essential oils of lavender and C. nepeta in the same chemical HCA group were classified in different groups, within antibacterial PCA and HCA analyses. Lavender oil exhibits higher antibacterial ability in comparison with C. nepeta essential oil, probably based on the concept of synergistic activity of essential oil components. PMID:22389175

  5. Effects of Annealing on Chemical Composition, Crystallinity, Optical Transmission and Electrical Conductivity of ZnO Thin Films Prepared on Glass Substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Kobayashi; Kohei Oshima; Takayuki Sasaki; Nozomu Tsuboi; Futao Kaneko

    2005-01-01

    The effects of annealing on the chemical composition and other properties of ZnO thin films prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition are described. The atomic ratio [Zn]:[O] of the unannealed film measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) is 45:55, lower than the ideal ratio 50:50. It gradually increases toward the ideal ratio with increasing annealing temperature up

  6. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  7. Characterization of chemical composition of bee pollen in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Dan; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Sun, Peilong

    2013-01-23

    Bee pollen has been praised for its good nutrition and therapeutic values. China is the largest producer in the world. Twelve common varieties of monofloral bee pollen collected from China's main producing regions were selected for nutritional composition analysis, including proximate contents, dietary fibers, amino acid distribution, fatty acid composition, and mineral elements. The proximate compositions mostly met the specifications regulating pollen load quality of China. Proline and glutamic acids were found to be the predominant amino acids in the form of both total amino and free amino acids. Lysine was the relative limiting amino acid. The percentage of total essential amino acids (TEAA) to total amino acids (TAA) reached the nutrition recommendation of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The major fatty acids, presented as mean values, were C18:3 (25.1%), C16:0 (19.6%), C18:1 (17.3%), C18:2 (8.78%), C22:0 (4.07%), and C18:0 (2.96%) acids. The proportions of C18:3 were generally higher than those of C18:2, and the ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS) to total saturated fatty acids (TS) was >1.0, except for Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. pollen for the characteristic absence of C18:3 acids. High levels of beneficial elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn. and Cu were observed in pollen samples. The contents of detrimental trace elements of Cd, Pb, and Hg were primarily lower or not detected. However, more attention should be paid to a large amount of Al, with a concentration of >100 mg/kg DW in most samples. There were some significant differences between samples. On the whole, the Chinese bee pollen was evaluated as a good complement to diet. PMID:23265625

  8. Chemical composition of Silene morganae Freyn volatile oil.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Boshra; Sohrabi, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil composition of flowering aerial parts of Iranian Silene morganae Freyn (Caryophyllaceae) was analysed for the first time using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-one compounds consisting of 90.3% of the volatile oil were detected. The major constituents were benzaldehyde (11.6%), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (9.6%), (E)-?-ocimene (8.2%) and linalool (7.4%). Terpenoids (43.5%), particularly monoterpene hydrocarbons (24.2%), had the highest contribution in S. morganae Freyn flowering aerial parts oil. PMID:25422069

  9. Testing chemical composition of highest energy comic rays

    E-print Network

    Nosek, D; Noskova, J; Ebr, J

    2013-01-01

    We study basic characteristics of distributions of the depths of shower maximum in air showers caused by cosmic rays with the highest energies. The consistency between their average values and widths, and their energy dependences are discussed within a simple phenomenological model of shower development independently of assumptions about detailed features of high--energy interactions. It is shown that reliable information on primary species can be derived within a partition method. We present examples demonstrating implications for the changes in mass composition of primary cosmic rays.

  10. Characterization of the chemical composition of lotus plumule oil.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanlan; Yang, Guolong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Genwang; Guo, Zheng

    2006-10-01

    Characterizations of lotus plumule and plumule oil, focusing on approximate composition analysis of lotus plumule powder and fatty acid composition, lipid classes, triglyceride (TG) profiles, and sterol analysis of the plumule oil, were conducted in this work. The results revealed that the lotus plumule constitutes 7.8% moisture, 4.2% ash, and 12.5% crude oil and 26.3% protein on the dry base. Lotus plumule oil is rich in linoleic acid (50.4%) and oleic acid (13.5%), and the dominating saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid (18.0%) and behenic acid (6.8%). The principal components of TG in lotus plumule oil are LLL (12.80%), beta-PLL (11.27%), beta-POL (8.28%), beta-PLO (8.58%), and beta-BeLL (8.32%). Lipid class assay of the crude oil gave the saponification value of 153.4 KOH mg/g and tocopherol content 390 mg/100 g. A distinct characteristic of lotus plumule oil is that its unsaponifiable matter is incredibly high, up to 14-19%, which consists mainly of beta-sitosterol (32%), Delta(5)-avenasterol (20%), and campesterol (6.3%). The major occurring form of sterols was found to be steryl ester. This work might be useful to develop innovative applications of lotus plumule oil. PMID:17002438

  11. Photoionization models for PNe with inhomogeneous chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pequignot, D.; Amara, M.; Liu, X.-W.; Morisset, C.; Barlow, M. J.; Storey, P. J.

    2000-11-01

    It is well known that, using standard methods, planetary nebula abundances derived from optical recombination lines are often larger than those derived from collisionally excited lines. Considering the archetypal case of NGC 6153, in which the discrepancy amounts to a factor 10, it is shown that photoionization models including two components with different abundances can account for most of the numerous spectroscopic data available from UV to far-IR within observational uncertainties. Gas pressure is about the same in both components, suggesting that small, cold, ionized clumps, highly enriched in CNONe (factor ~ 20 by mass) and deficient in H, are embedded in a gas of more usual composition. The "t2 formalism" describing temperature fluctuations around a mean value is not applicable to nebulae with strongly fluctuating abundances. The total mass of the clumps is small and the average abundances are relatively close to those of the "normal" component. Thus the recombination line ratios do not reflect faithfully the actual average abundance ratios. In particular the helium abundance, very high in NGC 6153 according to conventional analyses, is currently left undetermined. More generally, fluctuations of composition within planetary nebulae will lead to overestimating the helium abundance. Deep multiwavelength observations and detailed photoionization models are necessary to obtain reliable abundances.

  12. [Submerged cultivation and chemical composition of Hericium erinaceus mycelium].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Bakanov, A V; Shuktueva, M I; Vinokurov, V A; Popova, O V; Usov, A I; Krasnopol'skaia, L M

    2012-01-01

    Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media was studied. The yield of the biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of water soluble polysaccharides depended mainly on the nitrogen source. The optimal medium composition provided the biomass yield of 21-23 g/l in 7 days. The biomass was characterized by the content of total protein, lipids and carbohydrates. In addition, the amino acid composition of the biomass was determined and shown to meet all the requirements of FAO/WHO concerning the amounts of essential amino acids (with exception of tryptophane). Oleinic and linoleic acids were identified as the main components of the fatty acids. Two water soluble polysaccharide fractions differing in solubility in aqueous ethanol were isolated and shown to contain rhamnose, fucose, xylose, glucose and galactose in different proportions. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP and E, ergosterol and coenzyme Q were also detected in the biomass of H. erinaceus. PMID:23350189

  13. An estimate of the chemical composition of Titan's lakes

    E-print Network

    Cordier, D; Lunine, J -I; Lavvas, P; Vuitton, V

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of radar-dark patches interpreted as lakes have been discovered in the north and south polar regions of Titan. We have estimated the composition of these lakes by using the direct abundance measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) aboard the Huygens probe and recent photochemical models based on the vertical temperature profile derived by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI). Thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between the atmosphere and the lakes, which are also considered as nonideal solutions. We find that the main constituents of the lakes are ethane (C2H6) (~76-79%), propane (C3H8) (~7-8%), methane (CH4) (~5-10%), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (~2-3%), butene (C4H8) (~1%), butane (C4H10) (~1%) and acetylene (C2H2) (~1%). The calculated composition of lakes is then substantially different from what has been expected from models elaborated prior to the exploration of Titan by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft.

  14. AN ESTIMATE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TITAN's LAKES

    SciTech Connect

    Cordier, Daniel [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Lavvas, Panayotis [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Vuitton, Veronique, E-mail: daniel.cordier@ensc-rennes.f [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Planetologie de Grenoble, CNRS/INSU (France)

    2009-12-20

    Hundreds of radar-dark patches interpreted as lakes have been discovered in the north and south polar regions of Titan. We have estimated the composition of these lakes by using the direct abundance measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer aboard the Huygens probe and recent photochemical models based on the vertical temperature profile derived by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument. Thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between the atmosphere and the lakes, which are also considered nonideal solutions. We find that the main constituents of the lakes are ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) (approx76%-79%), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) (approx7%-8%), methane (CH{sub 4}) (approx5%-10%), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (approx2%-3%), butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) (approx1%), butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) (approx1%), and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) (approx1%). The calculated composition of lakes is then substantially different from what has been expected from models elaborated prior to the exploration of Titan by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft.

  15. Chemical erosion of different carbon composites under ITER-relevant plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhout, J.; Borodin, D.; Al, R. S.; Brezinsek, S.; 't Hoen, M. H. J.; Kirschner, A.; Lisgo, S.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Philipps, V.; van de Pol, M. J.; Shumack, A. E.; De Temmerman, G.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Wright, G. M.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the chemical erosion of different carbon composites in Pilot-PSI at ITER-relevant hydrogen plasma fluxes (~1024 m-2 s-1) and low electron temperatures (Te~1 eV). Optical emission spectroscopy on the CH A-X band was used to characterize the chemical sputtering. Fine grain graphite (R 6650, SGL Carbon Group), ITER-reference carbon fiber composite material (SNECMA NB31 and NB41; Dunlop 3D), nano- and micro-crystalline diamond coatings on molybdenum and SiC (Silit® SKD Reaction-Bonded, Saint-Gobain Ceramics) were compared. The chemical sputtering was similar for the different composites under comparable plasma conditions, except for SiC, which produced a ten times lower rate. The CH emission was constant at electron temperatures Te>1 eV and ion fluxes ranging between 1023 and 1024 m- 2 s-1, but decreased at lower temperatures. This decrease is possibly due to changes in the excitation of CH and not due to a change in the chemical erosion rate.

  16. Effect of chemical treatment of Kevlar fibers on mechanical interfacial properties of composites.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Seo, Min-Kang; Ma, Tae-Jun; Lee, Douk-Rae

    2002-08-01

    In this work, the effects of chemical treatment on Kevlar 29 fibers have been studied in a composite system. The surface characteristics of Kevlar 29 fibers were characterized by pH, acid-base value, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and FT-IR. The mechanical interfacial properties of the final composites were studied by interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), critical stress intensity factor (K(IC)), and specific fracture energy (G(IC)). Also, impact properties of the composites were investigated in the context of differentiating between initiation and propagation energies and ductile index (DI) along with maximum force and total energy. As a result, it was found that chemical treatment with phosphoric acid solution significantly affected the degree of adhesion at interfaces between fibers and resin matrix, resulting in improved mechanical interfacial strength in the composites. This was probably due to the presence of chemical polar groups on Kevlar surfaces, leading to an increment of interfacial binding force between fibers and matrix in a composite system. PMID:16290785

  17. Corrosion protection of Al alloys and Al-based metal-matrix composites by chemical passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfeld, F.; Lin, S.; Sim, S.; Shih, H.

    1989-08-01

    Chemical passivation by immersion of aluminium alloys and aluminium 6061/ silicon carbide and aluminium 6061/graphite metal-matrix composites in cerium chloride solution produces very corrosion-resistant surfaces. Aluminium 6061 and aluminium 7075-T6 that had been immersed in 1000 ppm cerium chloride for one week did not suffer from pitting corrosion during immersion in acerated 0.5 N NaCl for three weeks. For aluminium 7075-T7l3 some improvement of the corrosion resistance was also achieved, but to a much lesser extent. Chemical passivation in cerium chloride was also successful for aluminium/silicon carbide and Allgraphite.

  18. Effect of Chemical Treatments on Flax Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites on Tensile and Dome Forming Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wentian; Lowe, Adrian; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure) to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. Scanning electronic microscopic examinations suggested that flax fibres and the flax/polypropylene interface were affected by the treatments resulting in tensile property variations. The ductility of natural fibre composites was improved significantly under wet condition and mechanical properties (elongation-to-failure, stiffness and strength) can almost retain back to pre-treated levels when dried from wet condition. Preheating is usually required to improve the formability of material in rapid forming, and the chemical treatments performed in this study were far more effective than preheating. The major breakthrough in improving the formability of natural fibre composites can aid in rapid forming of this class of material system. PMID:25789505

  19. Effect of chemical treatments on flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites on tensile and dome forming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentian; Lowe, Adrian; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure) to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. Scanning electronic microscopic examinations suggested that flax fibres and the flax/polypropylene interface were affected by the treatments resulting in tensile property variations. The ductility of natural fibre composites was improved significantly under wet condition and mechanical properties (elongation-to-failure, stiffness and strength) can almost retain back to pre-treated levels when dried from wet condition. Preheating is usually required to improve the formability of material in rapid forming, and the chemical treatments performed in this study were far more effective than preheating. The major breakthrough in improving the formability of natural fibre composites can aid in rapid forming of this class of material system. PMID:25789505

  20. The chemical composition of B-supergiant atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, D. J.

    The authors present new estimates of He/H and CNO abundance ratios in the atmospheres of a selection of B2 supergiants which imply that the C/N ratio in the most luminous Ia stars is close to its equilibrium value. There is also some evidence for more moderate CN abundance anomalies in the B2Ib and B2II supergiants. These results, together with other recent work, imply that the effects of the CNO bi-cycle on the composition of B-supergiant atmospheres are most severe for the more luminous and massive stars. Furthermore, studies of LMC B-supergiants indicate that a small fraction of these very luminous stars are nitrogen weak. This picture is qualitatively consistent with theoretical predictions whenever massive stars perform blue loops in the HR diagram, returning from a red supergiant phase to become core helium burning blue supergiants with atmospheres contaminated by nuclear processed material.

  1. The chemical composition of B-supergiant atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, D. J.

    1993-03-01

    We present new estimates of He/H and CNO abundance ratios in the atmospheres of a selection of B2 supergiants which imply that the C/N ratio in the most luminous Ia stars is close to its equilibrium value. The is also some evidence for more moderate CN abundance anomalies in the B2Ib and B2II supergiants. These results, together with other recent work, imply that the effects of the CNO bi-cycle on the composition of B-supergiant atmospheres are most severe for the more luminous and massive stars. Furthermore, studies of LMC B-supergiants indicate that a small fraction of these very luminous stars are nitrogen weak. This picture is qualitatively consistent with theoretical predictions whenever massive stars perform blue loops in the HR diagram, returning from a red supergiant phase to become core helium burning blue supergiants with atmospheres contaminated by nuclear processed material.

  2. Mantle Metasomatism in Mars: Evidence from Bulk Chemical Compositions of Martian Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    Bulk compositions of martian meteorite basalts suggest that they formed from a highly depleted mantle that was variably metasomatised and enriched in incompatible elements. These results are consistent with radio-isotope results. Bulk chemical compositions of basaltic rocks retain clues and tracers to their origins and histories. Interpretations of bulk compositions are not so straight-forward as once envisioned, because real-world magmatic processes can be far from theoretical simple models like one-stage partial melting or closed-system fractional crystallization. Yet, bulk chemistry can shed a broad (if dim) light on Martian basalt petrogenesis that complements the sharply focussed illumination of radio-isotope systematics.

  3. Chemical Composition of Rocks and Soils at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Gellert, R.; Maurice, S.

    2012-12-01

    Gale crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory rover for its 5 km tall sedimentary mound, which includes phyllosilicate-containing layers near its base. Gale (5.4°S 137.8°E) is located near the north-south dichotomy and is one of the deepest craters in the region (lowest elevation is -4674 m). The lower part of the crater, near the landing ellipse, features an alluvial fan descending from the rim and overlying a region of high thermal inertia which appears to be layered. In addition to the fan, inverted channels indicate that water flowed in this region prior to some deflation. Nearer to the mound lies a dune field, and water-carved canyons descend from the mound. The Curiosity rover is equipped with several instruments with broad elemental composition capabilities to investigate along the traverse the expected variations in rock and soil types representing different kinds of environments in early Martian history. The remote sensing instrument, ChemCam, determines semi-quantitative elemental compositions using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to a distance of up to 7 m with an analysis footprint ? 0.5 mm in diameter, and also providing context images with better than 100 microradian resolution. ChemCam is capable of rapidly analyzing nearly all elements including light elements H through O, although atmospheric species can interfere with C and N observations. Using multiple laser pulses per analysis location allows dust to be removed from the analysis locations remotely, and facilitates depth profiles up to 1 mm in rocks and deeper in soils. For tactical operations, in addition to overall reconnaissance, ChemCam analyses will aid in determining placement for arm and sampling operations. Linescans and rasters provide information on sample heterogeneity, and facilitate rapid analysis of layered rock exposures. The arm-mounted APXS is an improved version of its predecessors on MER. The sensitivity is increased by a factor of ~ 3, allowing a rapid analysis in 15 minutes and a full analysis with low detection limits in 3 hours. About 20 elements from Na to Y are determined for typical Martian materials. Bound water or light elements in excess of ~ 5 wt% can be inferred by the scatter peaks of the primary x-ray radiation. Good quality spectra can be taken at temperatures of up to -10 degrees C using the built-in Peltier cooler. The APXS has a high accuracy, only limited by microscopic heterogeneity, and an unprecedented precision to identify elemental trends and local anomalies. The ~ 1.7 cm sample diameter is close to the drill diameter, producing bulk analysis to support powder analysis with SAM and Chemin. APXS sample preparation utilizes the dust removal tool, and analyses are also performed on the drill fines. The complementary analyses from ChemCam and APXS allow efficient selection of the most promising samples for extensive analysis with Chemin and SAM and provide a comparison of the unprocessed sample with the processed powder for these instruments. Both will be used to perform chemostratigraphy studies at Gale to understand Mars' climate and geological history. The talk will report the first Curiosity rover results on the compositions of rocks and soils at Gale crater.

  4. A Raman model for determining the chemical composition of silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Morgavi, Daniele; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Neuville, Daniel R.; Perugini, Diego; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light which provides information about molecular vibrations of the investigated sample. Since the discovery of the Raman Effect (1928) in scattered light from liquids, the Raman investigation has been extended to a large number of substances at different pressure-temperature conditions. Recently, the Raman instrument setup has rapidly grown thanks to the progress in development of lasers, charge coupled devices and confocal systems (see Neuville et al. 2014 for a review). Here we present the first Raman model able to determine the chemical composition of silicate glasses. In this study we combine chemical analysis from magma mixing experiments between remelted basaltic and rhyolitic melts, with a high spatial resolution Raman spectroscopy investigation; we focus on tracking the evolution of the Raman spectrum with chemical composition of silicate glasses. The mixing process is driven by a recently-developed apparatus that generates chaotic streamlines in the melts (Morgavi et al., 2013), mimicking the development of magma mixing in nature. From these experiments we obtained a glassy filament with a chemical composition ranging from a basalt to a rhyolite. Raman and microprobe measurements have been performed on a filament of ~1000 ?m diameter, every 2.5-20 ?m. The evolution of the acquired Raman spectra with the measured chemical composition has been parametrized by combining both the Raman spectra of the basaltic and rhyolitic end-members. Using the developed Raman model we have been able to determine the chemical composition (mol% of SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O) of the investigated filament. Additionally, the proposed Raman model has been successfully tested using external remelted natural samples; reference glasses (Jochum et al., 2000), a remelted basalt, andesite from Etna and Montserrat respectively. Finally, as the Raman spectrum depends on the silicate structure yielding information about network-forming structural units (Qn species, where n indicates the number of bridging oxygen), we combined the deconvoluted Raman spectra, in the rhyolitic field, with the chemical analyses and abundance of Qn species. This demonstrate how the evolution of silicate structure might control the bimodal eruptive style (explosive vs effusive) as shown by silica-rich volcanic systems. References: D. Morgavi et al., 2013. Morphochemistry of patterns produced by mixing of rhyolitic and basaltic melts. JVGR, 253, 87-96. D. R. Neuville, et al. 2014. Advances in Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Material Sciences. Rev. Min. Geochem., 78, 509-541.

  5. Physico-mechanical properties of chemically treated palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Hasan, Mahbub; Islam, Md Saiful; Ali, Md Ershad

    2009-10-01

    In this work, palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene bio-composites were manufactured using a single extruder and injection molding machine. Raw palm and coir were chemically treated with benzene diazonium salt to increase their compatibility with the polypropylene matrix. Both raw and treated palm and coir fiber at five level of fiber loading (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 wt.%) was utilized during composite manufacturing. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Comparison has been made between the properties of the palm and coir fiber composites. Treated fiber reinforced specimens yielded better mechanical properties compared to the raw composites, while coir fiber composites had better mechanical properties than palm fiber ones. Based on fiber loading, 30% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties. PMID:19477124

  6. Chemical composition of an exo-planetary debris disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    In the recent years, four white dwarfs with gaseous planetary debris disk were discovered. It is thought that they were created by tidally disrupted planetary bodies. This offers the unique possibility to determine directly the composition of exo-planetary material by spectroscopic means. However, only very few bright emission lines from the optically thin gas disk are detectable because the white dwarf's photospheric flux in the near-IR to UV spectral band is rather strong. Here we propose to perform far-UV observations of one of these WDs shortward of 115 nm where the WD flux is effectively blocked by broad and deep photospheric hydrogen Lyman lines. We expect to detect disk emission lines from carbon and silicon. Together with optical and near-UV archival spectra that exhibit lines from Ca, Mg, and Fe, this enables us for the first time to determine the relative abundances of most of the abundant elements in the disk. In particular, we may decide whether the planetary debris was formed from chondritic or bulk-Earth like material.

  7. Chemical and phytochemical compositions of Voandzeia subterranea seeds.

    PubMed

    Marcel, Andzouana; Bienvenu, Mombouli Jean; Attibayeba

    2014-09-01

    The seeds of Voandzeia subterranean (L.) Thouars (Fabaceae), from Congo-Brazzaville were studied for proximate, qualitative and quantitative compositions. Phytochemical screening of various solvent extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Tannins and anthraquinones were not found. Quantitative analysis showed a high amount of alkaloids (34.40 ±0.2%), flavonoids (4.93 ± 0.17%), saponins (2.20 ± 0.11%) and anthocyanins (1.00 ± 0.12%) in decreasing order. Phenols (0.60 ± 0.12%) and carotenoids had low yields (0.26 ± 0.07%). Proximate analysis of the seeds showed high moisture, carbohydrate and energy content values (49.14, 20.53% and 956.14 kJ 100 g(-1), respectively). The results showed low ash content (3.84%) and the relatively high fat (7.84%) and protein content (18.65%). The mineral analysis revealed that potassium (3.15%) and phosphorus (1.74%) were the most abundant minerals. Calcium (0.35) and magnesium (0.39%), were found in low amounts. Sodium, iron and aluminum were detected in trace quantities (0.01%). Manganese was not detected in the present study. The seeds were found to be important both for their nutrients and non-nutrients which determined the medicinal and nutritional value of the plant. PMID:26031031

  8. Chemical composition of nuts and seeds sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Keun Hee; Shin, Kyung Ok; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Kyung-Soon

    2013-04-01

    Eleven types of nuts and seeds were analyzed to determine their energy (326-733 mg), moisture (1.6-18.3 mg), carbohydrate (8.8-70.9 mg), protein (4.9-30.5 mg), lipid (2.5-69.8 mg), and ash (1.2-5.5 mg) contents per 100 g of sample. Energy content was highest in pine nuts (733 mg/100 g), carbohydrate level was highest in dried figs (70.9 mg/100 g) and protein was highest in peanuts (30.5 mg/100 g). The amino acid compositions of nuts and seeds were characterized by the dominance of hydrophobic (range = 1,348.6-10,284.6 mg), hydrophilic (range = 341.1-3,244.3 mg), acidic (range = 956.1-8,426.5 mg), and basic (range = 408.6-4,738.5 mg) amino acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were highest in macadamia nuts (81.3%), whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were highest in the walnuts (76.7%). Macadamia nuts did not contain any vitamin E, whereas sunflower seeds contained the highest level (60.3 mg/kg). Iron (Fe) content was highest in pumpkin seeds (95.85 ± 33.01 ppm), zinc (Zn) content was highest in pistachios (67.24 ± 30.25 ppm), copper (Cu) content was greatest in walnuts (25.45 ± 21.51 ppm), and lead (Pb) content was greatest in wheat nuts (25.49 ± 4.64 ppm), significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, current commercial nuts and seeds have no safety concerns, although further analysis of Pb contents is necessary to ensure safety. PMID:23610599

  9. Chemical composition of nuts and seeds sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyung Ok; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Kyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Eleven types of nuts and seeds were analyzed to determine their energy (326-733 mg), moisture (1.6-18.3 mg), carbohydrate (8.8-70.9 mg), protein (4.9-30.5 mg), lipid (2.5-69.8 mg), and ash (1.2-5.5 mg) contents per 100 g of sample. Energy content was highest in pine nuts (733 mg/100 g), carbohydrate level was highest in dried figs (70.9 mg/100 g) and protein was highest in peanuts (30.5 mg/100 g). The amino acid compositions of nuts and seeds were characterized by the dominance of hydrophobic (range = 1,348.6-10,284.6 mg), hydrophilic (range = 341.1-3,244.3 mg), acidic (range = 956.1-8,426.5 mg), and basic (range = 408.6-4,738.5 mg) amino acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were highest in macadamia nuts (81.3%), whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were highest in the walnuts (76.7%). Macadamia nuts did not contain any vitamin E, whereas sunflower seeds contained the highest level (60.3 mg/kg). Iron (Fe) content was highest in pumpkin seeds (95.85 ± 33.01 ppm), zinc (Zn) content was highest in pistachios (67.24 ± 30.25 ppm), copper (Cu) content was greatest in walnuts (25.45 ± 21.51 ppm), and lead (Pb) content was greatest in wheat nuts (25.49 ± 4.64 ppm), significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, current commercial nuts and seeds have no safety concerns, although further analysis of Pb contents is necessary to ensure safety. PMID:23610599

  10. Lutzomyia longipalpis peritrophic matrix: formation, structure, and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Secundino, N F C; Eger-Mangrich, I; Braga, E M; Santoro, M M; Pimenta, P F P

    2005-11-01

    Sandflies are vectors of several pathogens, constituting serious health problems. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi, agent of visceral leishmaniasis. They synthesize a thick bag-like structure that surrounds the bloodmeal, named peritrophic matrix (PM). One of the major roles of PM in blood-fed insects includes protection against ingested pathogens by providing a defensive barrier to their development. We used traditional and modern morphological methods as well as biochemical and immunolabeling tools to define details of the PM structure of the Lu. longipalpis sandfly, including composition, synthesis, and degradation. The kinetics of PM formation and degradation was found to be related to the ingestion and time of digestion of the bloodmeal. The midgut changes its size and morphology after the blood ingestion and during the course of digestion. A striking morphological modification takes place in the midgut epithelium after the stretching caused by the bloodmeal, revealing a population of cells that was not observed in the unfed midgut. The transmission and scanning electron microscopies were used to reveal several morphological aspects of PM formation. The PM looks thicker and well formed 24 h after the bloodmeal. Presence of chitin in the PM was demonstrated by immunolabeling with an alpha-chitin monoclonal antibody. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed at least five protein bands with molecular masses of 38.7-135 kDa, induced by the protein-free diet. Mouse polyclonal antiserum was produced against PMs induced by protein-free meal and used in Western blotting, which revealed at least three associated proteins. PMID:16465730

  11. Apxs Chemical Composition of the Kimberley Sandstone in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Campbell, J. L.; VanBommel, S.; Thompson, L. M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Berger, J. A.; Clark, B. C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Yen, A. S.; Fisk, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Kimberley was chosen as a major waypoint of the MSL rover Curiosity on its way to Mount Sharp. APXS data before drilling showed interestingly high K, Fe and Zn. This warranted drilling of the fine-grained sandstone for detailed investigations with SAM and Chemin. With significantly lower Na, Al and higher K, Mg and Fe, the composition of the drill target Windjana is very distinct from the previous ones in the mudstones at Yellowknife Bay. Up to 2000 ppm Br and 4000 ppm Zn post-brush were among the highest measured values in Gale Crater. The excavated fines, stemming from about 6cm, showed lower Br, but even higher Zn. Preliminary Chemin results indicate K-feldspar and magnetite being major mineral phases in Windjana, which is consistent with the pre drill APXS result and derived CIPW norms. Inside the accessible work volume of the arm at the drill site ChemCam exposed a greyish, shinier patch of rock underneath the dust, dubbed Stephen. ChemCam sees a high Mn signal in most of the spots. An APXS integration revealed high MnO as well (~4%), in addition to high Mg, Cl,K,Ni,Zn,Br,Cu,Ge and for the first time an APXS detectable amount of ~300 ppm Co. The surface might reflect a thin surface layer and may underestimate the higher Z elemental concentration since the APXS analysis assumes an infinite sample. Important elemental correlations are likely not impacted. A four spot daytime raster of Stephen before leaving the drill site showed a good correlation of Mn with Zn, Cu and Ni. All spots have 3-3.5% Cl, the highest values measured on Mars so far. While the stratigraphic setting of the Stephen sample is discussed elsewhere, the similarity with Mn deep-sea nodules is striking, e.g. the APXS calibration sample GBW07296. Whatever process formed Stephen, the process of Mn scavenging high Z trace metals from solutions seems to have happened similarly at this site on Mars.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

    2010-12-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)-(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)-(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%-(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and niacin (vitamin B(3)) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)-(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±3.22)-(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)-(576±7.37), (260±3.86)-(280±3.50), and (240±3.51)-(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

  13. Enamels in stained glass windows: Preparation, chemical composition, microstructure and causes of deterioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalm, O.; Van der Linden, V.; Frederickx, P.; Luyten, S.; Van der Snickt, G.; Caen, J.; Schryvers, D.; Janssens, K.; Cornelis, E.; Van Dyck, D.; Schreiner, M.

    2009-08-01

    Stained glass windows incorporating dark blue and purple enamel paint layers are in some cases subject to severe degradation while others from the same period survived the ravages of time. A series of dark blue, green-blue and purple enamel glass paints from the same region (Northwestern Europe) and from the same period (16-early 20th centuries) has been studied by means of a combination of microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis, electron probe micro analysis and transmission electron microscopy with the aim of better understanding the causes of the degradation. The chemical composition of the enamels diverges from the average chemical composition of window glass. Some of the compositions appear to be unstable, for example those with a high concentration of K 2O and a low content of CaO and PbO. In other cases, the deterioration of the paint layers was caused by the less than optimal vitrification of the enamel during the firing process. Recipes and chemical compositions indicate that glassmakers of the 16-17th century had full control over the color of the enamel glass paints they made. They mainly used three types of coloring agents, based on Co (dark blue), Mn (purple) and Cu (light-blue or green-blue) as coloring elements. Blue-purple enamel paints were obtained by mixing two different coloring agents. The coloring agent for red-purple enamel, introduced during the 19th century, was colloidal gold embedded in grains of lead glass.

  14. The use of chemical composition data in waste management planning - A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Burnley, S.J. [Department of Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk

    2007-07-01

    As the waste industry continues to move from a disposal-based system to one based on a combination of recovery options, the need for information on the composition of waste increases and this is reflected by the amount of information on the physical composition of municipal solid wastes that is now available. However, there is far less information on the chemical composition of municipal solid waste. The results from a number of chemical surveys from Europe are compared and show a reasonable degree of agreement, but several problems were identified with the data. Chemical and physical compositional data are combined in a case study example to investigate the flow of key potential pollutants in an integrated solid waste management system that uses materials recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. This case study has shown that an integrated waste management strategy diverts lead and cadmium away from composting and recycling to incineration, which effectively isolates these elements from the environment through efficient capture of the pollutants followed by secure landfilling or recycling of the residues. However, further work is needed to determine the distribution of mercury in incineration residues and its fate when the residues are landfilled.

  15. Expanding current knowledge on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the genus Lactarius.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the presence of toxic compounds in inedible mushrooms, the question whether the chemical nutrients and non-nutrients compositions in edible and inedible Lactarius species are similar remains unanswered. To answer this question, Lactarius citriolens Pouzar and Lactarius turpis (Weinm.) Fr., two inedible species, were studied in order to obtain information about their chemical composition and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L. citriolens and L. turpis methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition). The composition of macronutrients varied among the two species, but the profiles were similar between them and among other Lactarius species; L. citriolens gave the highest energy contribution, saturated fatty acids and organic acids, while the L. turpis sample was richer in free sugars, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. L. turpis methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. The absence of hepatoxicity of the methanolic extracts was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells (in vitro conditions). The present study provided new information about wild L. citriolens and L. turpis, comparing their chemical composition and antioxidant properties with other Lactarius species, and expanding the knowledge about this genus. PMID:25514055

  16. The use of chemical composition data in waste management planning--a case study.

    PubMed

    Burnley, S J

    2007-01-01

    As the waste industry continues to move from a disposal-based system to one based on a combination of recovery options, the need for information on the composition of waste increases and this is reflected by the amount of information on the physical composition of municipal solid wastes that is now available. However, there is far less information on the chemical composition of municipal solid waste. The results from a number of chemical surveys from Europe are compared and show a reasonable degree of agreement, but several problems were identified with the data. Chemical and physical compositional data are combined in a case study example to investigate the flow of key potential pollutants in an integrated solid waste management system that uses materials recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. This case study has shown that an integrated waste management strategy diverts lead and cadmium away from composting and recycling to incineration, which effectively isolates these elements from the environment through efficient capture of the pollutants followed by secure landfilling or recycling of the residues. However, further work is needed to determine the distribution of mercury in incineration residues and its fate when the residues are landfilled. PMID:16647255

  17. Microbial and chemical composition of liquid-associated bacteria in goats' rumen and fermenters.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Soto, E C; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between chemical composition and microbial profile of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in vivo (Murciano-Granadina goats) and in a rumen simulation system (single-flow continuous-culture fermenters). To achieve this aim, analyses of purine bases along with some molecular techniques (quantitative PCR to assess abundance and DGGE to identify biodiversity and bacterial profile) were carried out. A control diet (AHC) based on alfalfa hay (AH) and concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio and two experimental diets (AHCBI and AHCBII), in which concentrate was partially replaced with multinutrient blocks, were used. Diets AHCBI and AHCBII included multinutrient blocks differing in the relative amount of two-stage olive cake and the source of protein (sunflower meal vs. fava beans). We aimed to investigate the effect of these blocks on rumen microbiota to evaluate their potential as safe substitutes of cereal-based concentrates. Similar patterns of response to diet were found for chemical composition, microbial abundances and diversity in LAB isolated from goat's rumen and fermenters. Whereas bacterial density (log10 gene copies/g FM: 11.6 and 9.4 for bacteria and methanogens, respectively, in rumen) and diversity indexes (Shannon index: 3.6) were not affected by diet, DGGE analyses showed that bacterial community profile was affected. The cluster analysis suggested differences in bacterial profile between LAB pellets isolated from the rumen of goat and fermenters. A relationship between chemical composition and bacterial community composition in LAB pellets seems to exist. Changes in the former were reflected in the bacterial community profile. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between chemical and microbial composition of ruminal bacterial pellets with diets of different quality. PMID:24460876

  18. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  19. Spectroscopic Investigations of the Chemical Composition and Coma Morphology of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, D.; Lewis, B.; Vaughan, C.; Cochran, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based emission spectroscopy at optical wavelengths is important for understanding the chemical composition of comets. We have made spectroscopic observations of comets using both long-slit and integral-field unit spectrographs on the Harlan J. Smith telescope at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory in order to study radical species in cometary comae. We will discuss the techniques used to extract chemical abundances in comets from these data and show how the spatial distribution of the observed species and large-scale coma morphological features (e.g. jets or fans) are mapped and characterized. Analyses of data we have acquired for several comets to date will be presented that examine their chemical abundances, track the temporal evolution of coma morphology in relation to nuclear rotational behavior (where known), and gauge potential chemical heterogeneity of cometary nuclei. We will also place this work into broader context by comparing our results to existing large-sample photometric and spectroscopic surveys of comets, as well as comparing our results to those obtained during prior apparitions to determine whether these comets show any evolutionary changes in measured chemical abundances or sources of outgassing on their surfaces. This work has been funded by the NSF GK-12 STEM Fellowship program, NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Atmospheres programs, and the Fund for Astrophysical Research, Inc.

  20. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  1. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength

    SciTech Connect

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-10-14

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer.

  2. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata?>?D. indica?>?G. xanthochymus?>?A. carambola?>?G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2)?>?0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2)?=?0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time. PMID:25694698

  3. [Characteristics of chemical composition of glass finds from the Qiemo tomb sites on the Silk Road].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qian; Guo, Jin-Long; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jian-Feng

    2012-07-01

    Qiemo was an ancient country on the south branch of the Silk Road. The Zagunluke tomb site is located at the Qiemo County of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Glass beads and only colourless glass cup were excavated from the 3rd cultural layer of the tomb site M133 and M49, dated between the 1st AD-6th AD. LA-ICP-AES was applied to analyse chemical composition of these glass finds with the corning glass as reference. According to the result, characteristics of chemical composition are very similar to typical soda-lime glass, which indicates the glasses were imported productions from the west. These soda-lime glasses were divided into two groups in terms of flux source: natron glass and plant ash glass. This analytical research indicates the history of glass trade and communication between the East and the West on the Silk Road. PMID:23016362

  4. Influence of chemical composition of precipitation on migration of radioactive caesium in natural soils.

    PubMed

    Thørring, H; Skuterud, L; Steinnes, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of the chemical composition of precipitation on radiocaesium mobility in natural soil. This was done through column studies. Three types of precipitation regimes were studied, representing a natural range found in Norway: Acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); precipitation rich in marine cations (highly oceanic coastal areas); and low concentrations of sea salts (slightly continental inland areas). After 50 weeks and a total precipitation supply of ?10 000 L m(-2) per column, results indicate that acidic precipitation increased the mobility of (134)Cs added during the experiment. However, depth distribution of already present Chernobyl fallout (137)Cs was not significantly affected by the chemical composition of precipitation. PMID:24704765

  5. Chemical compositions of essential oils from Xyloselinum vietnamense and X. selinum leonidii.

    PubMed

    Tran, Huy Thai; Nguyen, Sinh Khang; Nguyen, Thi Hien; Tran, Minh Hoi; Nguyen, Tien Dat

    2012-10-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves and stems of Xyloselinum vietnamense and X. leonidii, two new species belonging to the family Apiaceae, were analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in both species were sabinene, alpha- and beta-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, (Z)-beta-ocimene, and terpinen-4-ol. The monoterpene sabinene was most abundant in the leaves of X. vietnamense (75.0%). These compounds might be considered as chemotaxonomic markers of Xyloselinum species. In the DPPH radical scavenging assay, all four essential oils showed moderate activity, while the water extracts exhibited stronger effects. The strong DPPH scavenging activity of the water residues of X. vietnamens and X. leonidii might be due to their phenolic components. This paper is the first report on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of X. vietnamens and X. leonidii. PMID:23162914

  6. Determination of Chemical Compositions on Adult Kidney Stones—A Spectroscopic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, K.; Rakkappan, C.

    2008-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the kidney stones of both the sexes of patients, aged from 40 to 70, living in and around Chidambaram town are determined by using FT-IR and X-RD technique. The kidney stone samples used in the present study were procured from the Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University. The FT-IR spectra of different kidney stone samples were recorded in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. By identifying the characteristic frequency, the chemical compositions of the samples are determined. The results analyzed by FTIR technique were confirmed by X-RD method, in which the recorded X-ray diffractogram are compared with JCPDS files using search match method. Further analysis of XRD pattern also reveals the same.

  7. Expected gamma-ray emission spectra from the lunar surface as a function of chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    The gamma rays emitted from the moon or any similar body carry information on the chemical composition of the surface layer. The elements most easily measured are K, U, Th and major elements such as O, Si, Mg, and Fe. The expected fluxes of gamma ray lines were calculated for four lunar compositions and one chondritic chemistry from a consideration of the important emission mechanisms: natural radioactivity, inelastic scatter, neutron capture, and induced radioactivity. The models used for cosmic ray interactions were those of Reedy and Arnold and Lingenfelter. The areal resolution of the experiment was calculated to be around 70 to 140 km under the conditions of the Apollo 15 and 16 experiments. Finally, a method was described for recovering the chemical information from the observed scintillation spectra obtained in these experiments.

  8. Chemical Composition, wt.%: CF8C-Plus CF8C

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Chemical Composition, wt.%: (Nominal) CF8C-Plus CF8C Copper 0.08 0.1 Silicon 0.5 1.0 Manganese 4 bal bal Physical Properties: The thermal expansion and conductivity of CF8C-Plus are basically equivalent to CF8C, so redesign of stainless steel components is not required for replacement with CF8C-Plus

  9. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides. PMID:22422292

  10. Comparative investigations of the morphology and chemical composition of the eggshells of Acanthocephala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Peters; H. Taraschewski; Inge Latka

    1991-01-01

    Eggshells ofMacracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Archiacanthocephala) were investigated for their fine structure as well as their chemical composition. The acanthor larvae are surrounded by four eggshells (E1–4) separated by interstices of low electron density (G1–4). As these envelopes are secreted in different sequences and are reinforced to different degrees, their appearance varies throughout development. The outermost eggshell (E1) of this species has

  11. Effect of vanadium on the growth, yield and chemical composition of maize ( Zea Mays L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Singh

    1971-01-01

    Summary  The effects of application of vanadium on the growth, yield, and chemical composition of maize were compared in a series of\\u000a pot experiments during several years.\\u000a \\u000a It was concluded that above a threshold value (0.05 ppm) vanadium was injurious to maize crop, but at milder dose it increased\\u000a the yield of maize crop significantly. Quality of produce was also affected

  12. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. E. Inyang; U. J. Abah

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended\\u000a with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both\\u000a the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg\\/100 ml. Steaming of\\u000a the cashew apple

  13. The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the leaf extract of Salvia repens Burch. Ex Benth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buyisile Mayekiso; Micheal L. Magwa; Roger M. Coopoosamy

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of S. repens contain the following major constituents: 1 - camphor (0.4%) para-cymene (34.1%), sabinene (23.9%), 1-? ? ? ?-pinene (16.9%),, myrcene (3.9%), ? - terpinene (1.8%), trans- ? ? ? ?-Ocimene (1.3%), terpinene-4-ol (0.7%), nopol (0.4%), ? ? ? ?-terpinolene (15.89%), ? ? ? ? - caryophllene (0.6%). The antibacterial activity of

  14. Anti-inflammation activity and chemical composition of flower essential oil from Hedychium coronarium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Lu; C. X. Zhong; L. Wang; C. Lu; X. L. Li; P. J. Wang

    Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Family Zingiberaceae), popularly named butterfly ginger, is widely available in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been used in folk medicine for many conditions, such as contusion inflammation, anti-rheumatic and so on. In this study, chemical compositions and anti-inflammatory activity of this flowers' essential oil were investigated for the first time. Followed by GC-MS analysis, a total

  15. In-situ DLC/TiC composite coating by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsiao Lei; Hon, Min Hsiung [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-31

    In-situ diamond like carbon (DLC)/TiC composite film was coated on silicon wafer, steel and glass substrates with titanium chloride, methane, hydrogen and argon gas mixtures by R.F. plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectra showed the coexistance of DLC and TiC in the films. The growth rate and DLC/TiC ratio of these films were investigated as a function of the inert gas flow rate.

  16. Composite chemical wastewater treatment by biofilm configured periodic discontinuous batch process operated in anaerobic metabolic function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venkata Mohan; N. Chandrasekhara Rao; P. N. Sarma

    2007-01-01

    Biofilm configured system with sequencing\\/periodic discontinuous batch mode operation was studied in anaerobic metabolic function for the treatment of composite chemical wastewater (low-biodegradable [low BOD\\/COD ratio ?0.31] and sulfate content, 1.75g\\/l). Inert stone chips were used as biofilm supporting material. Reactor was operated with a total cycle period of 24h (FILL: 15min; REACT (aeration with recirculation): 23h; SETTLE: 30min; DECANT:

  17. Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and microstructure of duck egg as influenced by salting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thammarat Kaewmanee; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan

    2009-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and microstructure of duck egg, during salting for up to 14 days, were determined. Duck egg consisted of 10.87% shell, 54.73% egg white and 33.94% yolk. Salting resulted in an increase in weight proportion of egg white, but a decrease in yolk proportion. Moisture contents of both egg white and yolk decreased gradually with

  18. Chemical composition of indigenous wild herbs, spices, fruits, nuts and leafy vegetables used as food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Achinewhu; C. C. Ogbonna; A. D. Hart

    1995-01-01

    Thirty wild fruits, nuts, herbs, spices and leafy vegetables were characterized and their chemical composition determined. Some of them were not only used for food, but for medicine in minor aliments by the natives. Results of the proximate analysis showed that on dry weight basis, the crude protein content ranged from 4.6 to 22.1 percent for spices and herbs, 3.2

  19. Chemical composition and nutrient profile of low molecular weight fraction of bovine colostrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Christiansen; Mingruo Guo; Derek Kjelden

    2010-01-01

    Bovine colostrum collected within 12 h of parturition was de-fatted, de-caseinated, and ultrafiltered (UF) using a 5 kDa cut-off membrane; the resulting UF permeate was freeze dried to create a powder with possible use as a functional food ingredient. Samples representative of five lots of this powdered “colostrum low molecular weight fraction” (CLMWF) were analyzed for chemical composition and nutrient profile. The

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Heracleum rechingeri Manden from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohreh Habibi; Rasool Eshaghi; Mehdi Mohammadi; Maryam Yousefi

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from Heracleum rechingeri was analysed using GC-MS. Twenty-seven compounds, accounting for 94.62% of the extracted essential oil, were identified. The main oil compounds were octyl acetate (29.49%), elemicine (23.06%), (E)-caryophyllene (9.26%), caryophyllene oxide (6.42%), terpinolene (6.12%) and (Z)-3-octenyl acetate (4.72%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against three different bacteria

  1. Essential-Oil Composition and Chemical Variability of Senecio vulgaris L. from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Stéphane; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Senecio vulgaris plants collected in 30 Corsican localities was characterized using GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 54 components, which accounted for 95.2% of the total oil composition, were identified in the 30 essential-oil samples. The main compounds were ?-humulene (1; 57.3%), (E)-?-caryophyllene (2; 5.6%), terpinolene (3; 5.3%), ar-curcumene (4; 4.3%), and geranyl linalool (5; 3.4%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the complete vegetative cycle of the plants were also studied, to gain more knowledge about the plant ecology. The production of monoterpene hydrocarbons, especially terpinolene, seems to be implicated in the plant-flowering process and, indirectly, in the dispersal of this weed species. Comparison of the present results with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican S. vulgaris essential oils and indicated that ?-humulene might be used as taxonomical marker for the future classification of the Senecio genus. A study of the chemical variability of the 30 S. vulgaris essential oils using statistical analysis allowed the discrimination of two main clusters according to the soil nature of the sample locations. These results confirmed that there is a relation between the soil nature, the chemical composition of the essential oils, and morphological plant characteristics. Moreover, they are of interest for commercial producers of essential oil in selecting the most appropriate plants. PMID:26010664

  2. Monthly variation in the chemical composition of Eisenia arborea J.E. Areschoug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Hernández-Carmona; Silvia Carrillo-Domínguez; Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; J. Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Mauricio Muñoz-Ochoa; Rosa María Castillo-Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    The brown alga Eisenia arborea is the second most abundant brown alga along the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. Samples of E. arborea were collected in Bahía Asunción, BCS, over 10 months. Chemical composition was analyzed from dried alga (%, dw): moisture\\u000a (10.34%), protein (9.44%), ash (24.77%), lipids (0.60%), fiber (5.22%), and carbohydrates (49%). Gross energy was

  3. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Peel Oil of Citrus nobilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevcihan Gursoy; Bektas Tepe; Munevver Sokmen

    2010-01-01

    Peel oil of Citrus nobilis (Lour) was analyzed for determining its chemical composition. Fourteen identified components accounted for 99.1% (GC) and 100.0% (FID) of the total oil. Major component of the oil was limonene (76.8%-GC and 86.2%-FID). Essential oil was also evaluated for its antioxidant activity in four complementary test systems namely; ?-carotene\\/linoleic acid, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and

  4. Gummosis in grape hyacinth ( Muscari armeniacum ) bulbs: hormonal regulation and chemical composition of gums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kensuke Miyamoto; Toshihisa Kotake; Makiko Sasamoto; Marian Saniewski; Junichi Ueda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of gummosis in grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum) bulbs, focusing especially on the chemical composition of the gums. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic\\u000a acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 1% and 2% (w\\/w) in lanolin as well as ethylene induced gummosis in the bulbs within\\u000a several days. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 0.1–2%

  5. Effect of Germination on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Amaranth Grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. COLMENARES DE RUIZ; R. BRESSANI

    Cereal Chem. 67(6):5 19-522 Changes in chemical composition and in nutritive value during germi- in protein, crude fiber, and ash content, whereas lipid and phytic acid nation of amaranth grain were studied. One variety each of Amaranthus content decreased with respect to germination time. Reducing sugars, hypochondriacus, A. cruentus, and A. caudatus was germinated for 0, total sugars, and damaged

  6. Corrosion protection of Al alloys and Al-based metal-matrix composites by chemical passivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mansfeld; S. Lin; S. Sim; H. Shih

    1989-01-01

    Chemical passivation by immersion of aluminium alloys and aluminium 6061\\/ silicon carbide and aluminium 6061\\/graphite metal-matrix composites in cerium chloride solution produces very corrosion-resistant surfaces. Aluminium 6061 and aluminium 7075-T6 that had been immersed in 1000 ppm cerium chloride for one week did not suffer from pitting corrosion during immersion in acerated 0.5 N NaCl for three weeks. For aluminium

  7. Effect of outdoor conditions on growth rate and chemical composition of Gelidium crinale in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Areen Boulus; Ehud Spaneir; Michael Friedlander

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the major environmental factors affecting growth and chemical composition of Gelidium crinale is presented here for the first time. The purpose of this study was to analyze the significance of the major growth factors\\u000a and to formulate them into regression models. For this purpose summer and winter experiments were conducted in small aerated\\u000a seawater tanks under

  8. An authigenic iron phosphate phase in estuarine sediments: composition, formation and chemical reactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hyacinthe; P. Van Cappellen

    2004-01-01

    Reductive dissolution experiments and microprobe analyses reveal the existence of a discrete iron–phosphorus phase (Fe–P) in intertidal freshwater sediments from the eutrophic Scheldt estuary (Belgium and The Netherlands). This mineral phase is found at all depths sampled (0–50 cm) and exhibits a remarkably uniform composition and chemical reactivity. It accounts for more than 70% of total phosphorus in the sediments,

  9. Effects of Salinity and Soil Phosphorus Application on Growth and Chemical Composition of Pistachio Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Shahriaripour; A. Tajabadi Pour; V. Mozaffari

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to assess the single and combined effects of salinity and phosphorus (P) on growth and chemical composition of pistachio seedlings (Pistacia vera L.) cv. Badami grown in a calcareous soil under greenhouse conditions. Pistachio plants were treated with four P levels [0, 60, 120, and 180 mg P kg soil as calcium phosphate, Ca (H2PO4)2·2H2O

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXPELLER-EXTRACTED AND COLD-PRESSED RAPESEED CAKE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Leming; A. Lember

    Chemical composition of locally produced expeller extracted and cold-pressed rapeseed cake was evaluated. Cold-pressed rapeseed cake was produced at 60 °C and the temperature during processing of expeller extracted cake varied between 98-112 °C. It was concluded that cold-pressed rapeseed cake contained less crude protein (30.6 vs. 36.1%), N-free extractives (28.2 and 30.7%, resp.) and crude fibre (11.2 and 12.4%,

  11. Botanical and chemical composition of sheep diets on two grazing systems in the Edwards Plateau 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Cheryl Lee

    1990-01-01

    system. Esophageal diet samples were collected the first and last two days of grazing periods. Botanical and chemical campmition were analyzed. Available vegetation was measured before and after each grazing period. No significant diff~ were found... Protein of Available Forage 16 16 18 18 18 23 25 30 TABLE OF CCST$?IS (Continued) III (Continued) Page Digestibility of Available Forage Grazing Pressure Animal Performance Oampositicn of tbe Diet Botanical Composition of Esophageal Samples...

  12. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants from Rwanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ancilla Muhayimana; Jean-Claude Chalchat; Raymond-Philippe Garry

    1998-01-01

    We report the chemical compositions of the essential oils of five medicinal plants from Rwanda belonging to the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae): Leonitis nepetifolia, Leucas martinicensis, Plectranthus sylvestris, Plectranthus harbatus and Satureja pseudosimensis. Only the oil of Plectanthus harbatus had been studied previously. The main components of Leonitis nepetifolia leaf and flower oils were linalool (0.5% and 10.5%), ?-caryophyllene (10.3% and

  13. Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2001-05-01

    Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in marine isotopic composition. Rare earth elements (REE) have a unique chemistry and are ideal for such tracer studies. We explored the effect of modern chemical weathering of black shales on the hydrochemistry of surface and groundwaters in the Mohawk Valley of New York State. This region provides an ideal site for the investigation of trace element remobilization during the chemical weathering of black shales. In this region, surface and groundwaters, in intimate contact with black shales and have high dissolved metal concentrations presumably due to water-rock interactions. The extent to which the dissolved REE composition of the surface and ground waters retains the rock signature is, in someway related to the length of time that the water remains in contact with the rock. We compared the REE compositions of surface and groundwaters in areas draining black shale to those of waters draining regions of dolostone-limestone to explore the extent of metal release due to chemical weathering. Shale normalized REE patterns for stream waters exhibit slight heavy REE enrichments and, at some locations, LREE depletion. REE patterns of the waters normalized to their respective sediments show some LREE depletion. However, waters associated with the Little Falls dolomite show fractionation predominantly enriched in the heavy REEs. Differences between the black shale sites, recorded as light REE depletion and/or middle REE enrichment, may be related to the discharge of the streams and the total dissolved solids. The dissolved REE chemistry of rivers draining the limestone-dolostone facies to the north and west of the black shale facies is dominated by the Ln-carbonate species. REE speciation in the black shale sites when compared to the dolomitic sites show interesting features. For example, the "dolomite" lake exhibits a significant amount of free metal species as well as lanthanide-fluoride complexation. Our preliminary results indicate that the surface and groundwaters discretely record metal release from black shales. These data lend further credence to the hypothesis that black shale weathering may significantly contribute to the ocean metal budget.

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Hussein; Rammal, Hassan; Hijazi, Akram; Daher, Ahmad; Reda, Mohamad; Annan, Hussein; Chokr, Ali; Bassal, Ali; Badran, Bassam; Ghaloub, Abdulameer Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the chemical composition, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras (E. macroclada), and to evaluate their antioxidant potential using DPPH, H2O2, and chelating of ferrous ions tests. Methods Quantification of the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems and the antioxidant activities were evaluated using spectrophotometric analyses. The chemical composition has been estimated using different techniques such as IR, LC/MS and NMR. Results Ethanolic extract from leaves of E. macroclada was better than aqueous extract and showed higher content in total phenolic and total flavonoid than found in the stems. On the other hand, using DPPH and H2O2 tests, this extract from leaves showed higher antioxidant capacity than aqueous extract. However, using the chelating of ferrous ions test, the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of both stems and leaves was stronger than that of ethanolic once. The chemical composition of the whole plant showed the presence of some aromatic compounds and fatty acids. Conclusions Both ethanolic and water extracts from both parts of this plant are effective and have good antioxidant power. So, this plant can be used in the prevention of a number of diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:23836193

  15. Preparation of 3YSZ\\/Cu composite by in-situ chemical route

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Ding; Naiqin Zhao; Chunsheng Shi; Xiwen Du; Chunnian He; Jiajun Li

    2007-01-01

    To improve electrical and mechanical properties of electrodes for contact welding, a 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3YSZ)\\u000a to reinforced copper matrix composite was developed by an in-situ chemical process. The microstructure and properties of the\\u000a in-situ composite were investigated. The results showed that in-situ nano-scale particles were uniformly dispersed in the\\u000a copper matrix by dispersed nano-particle and its cluster. Due

  16. Refinery piping fires resulting from variations in chemical composition of piping materials

    SciTech Connect

    Setterlund, R.B. [Metallurgical Consultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A number of refinery fires in recent years are traceable to variations in the chemical composition of piping materials. These fires are typically more destructive than those due to other causes and can take place without warning. Some, but not all, were the result of the inadvertent use of carbon steel in alloy steel piping systems. Others were the result of alloy welds in carbon steel systems while still others were due to variations in residual elements leading to anomalous corrosion behavior. Recommendations are given on areas of refinery units where the greatest need for close control of material composition exists.

  17. Chemical Composition of the essential oils from Vietnamese Clausena indica and C. anisum-olens.

    PubMed

    Thaia, Tran Huy; Bazzali, Ophélie; Hoi, Tran Minh; Hien, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Nguyen Viet; Félix Tomi; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-10-01

    The chemical composition of Vietnamese oil samples of the aerial parts of Clausena indica (Dalz.) Oliver and C. anisum-olens (Blanco) Merryll have been investigated using a combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. C. indica essential oil contained mainly terpinolene (53.9 and 56.1%), and myristicin (17.9 and 7.3%), whereas the major components of C. anisun-olens essential were citronellal (22.8%), geranial (21.4%) and neral (16.8%). The compositions of the investigated samples have been compared with those of essential oils from various origins. PMID:25522554

  18. Chemically produced tungsten-praseodymium oxide composite sintered by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Lai-Ma; Lu, Ze-Long; Luo, Guang-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Pr2O3 doped W composite were synthesized by a novel wet chemical method and spark plasma sintering. The grain size, relative density and the Vicker hardness HV0.2 of Pr2O3/W samples were 4 ?m, 98.3% and 377.2, respectively. The tensile strength values of Pr2O3/W were higher than those of pure W. As the temperature rises from 25 °C to 800 °C, the conductivity of pure W and W-1 wt% Pr2O3 composites decreased with the same trend, was above 150 W/m K.

  19. Chemical Mahjong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  20. Chemical Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this chemistry activity, learners explore the amount of copper in a new penny. Learners use toilet bowl cleaner to hollow out the interior of a penny with zinc inside. This experiment will demonstrate how chemical changes can separate matter. Learners can also discuss how zinc is cheaper than copper, in a lesson about economics.

  1. Chemical Evolution

    E-print Network

    Francesca Matteucci

    2007-04-05

    In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

  2. Chemical Ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen H. Gross; Mass Spectrometry

    \\u000a Mass spectrometrists have ever been searching for ionization methods softer than EI, because molecular weight determination\\u000a is key for structure elucidation. Chemical ionization (CI) is the first of the so-called soft ionization methods we are going to discuss (cf. Fig. 1.2).

  3. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  4. Exploring the Chemical Sensitivity of a Carbon Nanotube/Green Tea Composite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanan; Lee, Yang Doo; Vedala, Harindra; Allen, Brett L.; Star, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possess unique electronic and physical properties, which make them very attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, SWNTs and their composites have shown a great potential for chemical and biological sensing. Green tea, or more specifically its main antioxidant component, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been found to disperse SWNTs in water. However, the chemical sensitivity of this SWNT/green tea (SWNT/EGCG) composite remained unexplored. With EGCG present, this SWNT composite should have strong antioxidant properties and thus respond to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we report on fabrication and characterization of SWNT/EGCG thin films and the measurement of their relative conductance as a function of H2O2 concentrations. We further investigated the sensing mechanism by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and field-effect transistor measurements (FET). We propose here that the response to H2O2 arises from the oxidation of EGCG in the composite. These findings suggest that SWNT/green tea composite has a great potential for developing simple resistivity-based sensors. PMID:21043457

  5. Comparison surface characteristics and chemical composition of conventional metallic and nickel-free brackets.

    PubMed

    Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Knop, Luegya Amorim Henriques; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Martins, Lidia Parsekian; Pires, Aline Segatto

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at comparing conventional and nickel-free metal bracket surface characteristics with elemental composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The sample consisted of 40 lower incisor brackets divided into four groups: ABZ = conventional brackets, Kirium Abzil 3M® (n = 10); RL = conventional brackets, Roth Light Morelli® (n = 10); NF = nickel-free brackets, Nickel-Free Morelli® (n = 10); and RM = nickel-free brackets, Roth Max Morelli® (n = 10). Qualitative evaluation of the bracket surface was performed using SEM, whereby surface features were described and compared. The elemental composition was analyzed by EDS. According to surface analysis, groups ABZ and RL showed a homogeneous surface, with better finishing, whereas the surfaces in groups NF and RM were rougher. The chemical components with the highest percentage were Fe, Cr and C. Groups NF and MR showed no nickel in their composition. In conclusion, the bracket surface of the ABZ and RL groups was more homogeneous, with grooves and pores, whereas the surfaces in groups NF and RM showed numerous flaws, cracks, pores and grooves. The chemical composition analysis confirmed that the nickel-free brackets had no Ni in their composition, as confirmed by the manufacturer's specifications, and were therefore safe to use in patients with a medical history of allergy to this metal. PMID:25590508

  6. X-ray Tomographic Study of Chemical Vapor Infiltration Processing of Ceramic Composites.

    PubMed

    Kinney, J H; Breunig, T M; Starr, T L; Haupt, D; Nichols, M C; Stock, S R; Butts, M D; Saroyan, R A

    1993-05-01

    The fabrication of improved ceramic-matrix composites will require a better understanding of processing variables and how they control the development of the composite microstructure. Noninvasive, high-resolution methods of x-ray tomography have been used to measure the growth of silicon carbide in a woven Nicalon-fiber composite during chemical vapor infiltration. The high spatial resolution allows one to measure the densification within individual fiber tows and to follow the closure of macroscopic pores in situ. The experiments provide a direct test of a recently proposed model that describes how the surface area available for matrix deposition changes during infiltration. The measurements indicate that this surface area is independent of the fiber architecture and location within the preform and is dominated by large-scale macroporosity during the final stages of composite consolidation. The measured surface areas are in good agreement with the theoretical model. PMID:17746112

  7. X-ray tomographic study of chemical vapor infiltration processing of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.H.; Haupt, D.; Saroyan, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Breunig, T.M.; Nichols, M.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)); Starr, T.L.; Stock, S.R.; Butts, M.D. (Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta (United States))

    1993-05-07

    The fabrication of improved ceramic-matrix composites will require a better understanding of processing variables and how they control the development of the composite microstructure. Noninvasive, high-resolution methods of x-ray tomography have been used to measure the growth of silicon carbide in a woven Nicalon-fiber composite during chemical vapor infiltration. The high spatial resolution allows one to measure the densification within individual fiber tows and to follow the closure of macroscopic pores in situ. The experiments provide a direct test of a recently proposed model that describes how the surface area available for matrix deposition changes during infiltration. The measurements indicate that this surface area is independent of the fiber architecture and location within the preform and is dominated by large-scale macroporosity during the final stages of composite consolidation. The measured surface areas are in good agreement with the theoretical model. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Modification of Chemically Exfoliated Graphene to Produce Efficient Piezoresistive Polystyrene-Graphene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasirpouri, Farzad; Pourmahmoudi, Hassan; Abbasi, Farhang; Littlejohn, Samuel; Chauhan, Ashok S.; Nogaret, Alain

    2015-05-01

    We report the chemical exfoliation of grapheneoxide from graphite and its subsequent reduction to graphene nanosheets (GN) to obtain highly conducting composites of graphene sheets in a polymer matrix. The effect of using graphite nanoparticles or flakes as precursors, and different drying methods, was investigated to obtain multilayer graphene sheets of atomically controlled thickness, which was essential to optimizing their dispersion in a polystyrene (PS) polymer matrix. In situ emulsion polymerization of the styrene monomer in the presence of GN was performed to obtain thin composite films with highly uniform dispersion and fewer graphene layers when GN were obtained from graphite flakes then freeze drying. The highest electrical conductivity of PS-GN composites was ~0.01 S/m for a graphene filling fraction of 2%. The piezoresistance of the PS-GN composites was evaluated and used in pressure sensor arrays with pressure field imaging capability.

  9. Chemical compositions of soluble aerosols around the last termination in the NEEM (Greenland) ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Karlin, Torbjorn; Fukui, Manabu; Hondoh, Takeo; Hansson, Margareta

    2013-04-01

    The polar ice cores provide us with reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric aerosols such as dust and sea salt in both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores are well discussed by using the proxy of ion concentration/flux. Recently, studies on the chemical compositions of soluble aerosols in the ice cores have been carried out. The chemical compositions and transition of soluble aerosols in the Dome Fuji (Antarctica) has been revealed, however, there are few studies on those of soluble aerosols in Greenland ice cores. Using ice sublimation method #1, we analyzed the chemical compositions of soluble aerosols around the last termination in the NEEM (Greenland) ice core. A total of 43 samples were distributed from NEEM ice core section from 1280 to 1580 m. Soluble aerosols were extracted from the samples by sublimation system. Constituent elements and diameter of each non-volatile particle were measured by scanning electron micro scope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). By using a method in our recent paper #2, we assumed that particles containing Ca and S are calcium sulfate and particles containing Na and S are sodium sulfate. We divided around the last termination into 4 stages by focusing on the temperature; Holocene, Younger Dryas (YD), Bølling-Allerød (B-A) and Last Glacial Period (LGP), and compared the mass ratio of sulfate and chloride aerosols in each stage. During the cold stage in YD and LGP, calcium sulfate accounted large percentage of soluble aerosols. On the other hand, during the warm stage in Holocene and B-A, sodium sulfate accounted large percentage of soluble aerosols. These relationships between chemical composition and temperature are probably related to non sea salt (nss)-calcium ion concentration. We will discuss the relationship between nss-calcium ion concentration and chemical compositions of soluble aerosols in the presentation. References #1 Iizuka et al., J. Glaciol., 55(191), 58-64, 2009. #2 Iizuka, Y. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 117, D04308, 2012.

  10. Effects of chemical fuel composition on energy generation from thermopower waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Jeong, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kang Yeol; Hong, Jongsup; Song, Changsik; Choi, Wonjoon

    2014-11-01

    Thermopower waves, which occur during combustion within hybrid structures formed from nanomaterials and chemical fuels, result in a self-propagating thermal reaction and concomitantly generate electrical energy from the acceleration of charge carriers along the nanostructures. The hybrid structures for thermopower waves are composed of two primary components: the core thermoelectric material and the combustible fuel. So far, most studies have focused on investigating various nanomaterials for improving energy generation. Herein, we report that the composition of the chemical fuel used has a significant effect on the power generated by thermopower waves. Hybrid nanostructures consisting of mixtures of picric acid and picramide with sodium azide were synthesized and used to generate thermopower waves. A maximum voltage of ˜2 V and an average peak specific power as high as 15 kW kg?1 were obtained using the picric acid/sodium azide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) array composite. The average reaction velocity and the output voltage in the case of the picric acid/sodium azide were 25 cm s?1 and 157 mV, while they were 2 cm s?1 and 3 mV, in the case of the picramide/sodium azide. These marked differences are attributable to the chemical and structural differences of the mixtures. Mixing picric acid and sodium azide in deionized water resulted in the formation of 2,4,6-trinitro sodium phenoxide and hydrogen azide (H-N3), owing to the exchange of H+ and Na+ ions, as well as the formation of fiber-like structures, because of benzene ? stacking. The negative enthalpy of formation of the new compounds and the fiber-like structures accelerate the reaction and increase the output voltage. Elucidating the effects of the composition of the chemical fuel used in the hybrid nanostructures will allow for the control of the combustion process and help optimize the energy generated from thermopower waves, furthering the development of thermopower waves as an energy source.

  11. Effects of chemical fuel composition on energy generation from thermopower waves.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Jeong, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kang Yeol; Hong, Jongsup; Song, Changsik; Choi, Wonjoon

    2014-11-01

    Thermopower waves, which occur during combustion within hybrid structures formed from nanomaterials and chemical fuels, result in a self-propagating thermal reaction and concomitantly generate electrical energy from the acceleration of charge carriers along the nanostructures. The hybrid structures for thermopower waves are composed of two primary components: the core thermoelectric material and the combustible fuel. So far, most studies have focused on investigating various nanomaterials for improving energy generation. Herein, we report that the composition of the chemical fuel used has a significant effect on the power generated by thermopower waves. Hybrid nanostructures consisting of mixtures of picric acid and picramide with sodium azide were synthesized and used to generate thermopower waves. A maximum voltage of ?2 V and an average peak specific power as high as 15 kW kg(-1) were obtained using the picric acid/sodium azide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) array composite. The average reaction velocity and the output voltage in the case of the picric acid/sodium azide were 25 cm s(-1) and 157 mV, while they were 2 cm s(-1) and 3 mV, in the case of the picramide/sodium azide. These marked differences are attributable to the chemical and structural differences of the mixtures. Mixing picric acid and sodium azide in deionized water resulted in the formation of 2,4,6-trinitro sodium phenoxide and hydrogen azide (H-N3), owing to the exchange of H(+) and Na(+) ions, as well as the formation of fiber-like structures, because of benzene ? stacking. The negative enthalpy of formation of the new compounds and the fiber-like structures accelerate the reaction and increase the output voltage. Elucidating the effects of the composition of the chemical fuel used in the hybrid nanostructures will allow for the control of the combustion process and help optimize the energy generated from thermopower waves, furthering the development of thermopower waves as an energy source. PMID:25319506

  12. Chemical composition of acid–base fractions separated from biooil derived by fast pyrolysis of chicken manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharani D. Das; Morris I. Schnitzer; Carlos M. Monreal; Paul Mayer

    2009-01-01

    Our earlier investigations on the chemical composition of biooils derived by the fast pyrolysis of chicken manure revealed the presence of more than 500 compounds. In order to simplify this heterogeneous and complex chemical system, we produced four biooil fractions namely strongly acidic fraction A, weakly acidic fraction B, basic fraction C and neutral fraction D on the basis of

  13. Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor: Experimental measurements, model

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor 13 April 2000; accepted 23 October 2000 Experimental measurements of wafer temperature in a single-wafer, lamp-heated chemical vapor deposition system were used to study the wafer temperature response to gas

  14. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity of solid wastes from the fruits of Silybum marianum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Li; Xiangyang Wu; Ting Zhao; Jiangli Zhao; Feng Li; Liang Han; Liuqing Yang

    2011-01-01

    äThe chemical composition of solid wastes from Silybum marianum fruits (WSS) and the contents of total polyphenols, total ¿avonoids and antioxidant activity of the extracts from WSS with distilled water, ethanol (40%, 70% and 95%) and methanol was investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that WSS contained high amounts of crude protein (25.58%), calcium, potassium and magnesium. The content of plumbum, selenium

  15. Effects of the stage of maturation and varieties on the chemical composition of banana and plantain peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Happi Emaga; Rado Herinavalona Andrianaivo; Bernard Wathelet; Jean Tchango Tchango; Michel Paquot

    2007-01-01

    A study of the chemical composition of six varieties of fruit peels of the banana and plantain: dessert banana (Musa AAA), plantain (Musa AAB) cooking banana (Musa ABB) and hybrid (Musa AAAB) at three stages of ripeness, was carried out in order to explore their potential applications. The varieties did not affect chemical constituents in a consistent manner. Peel of

  16. Compositional, structural, and optical study of nanocrystalline ZnS thin films prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Sahraei; Ghaffar Motedayen Aval; Alireza Goudarzi

    2008-01-01

    Zinc sulphide nanocrystalline thin films are prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route on glass and quartz substrates using a weak acidic bath, in which nitrilotriacetic acid acts as a complexing agent and thioacetamide acts as a source of sulphide ions. The thickness of films varied from a few nm to 500nm. The chemical composition of films was determined

  17. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Three Polysaccharide Fractions from Pine Cones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Bo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Lu, Wei-Hong; Cui, Jie; Cheng, Cui-Lin; Zou, Pan; Huang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Pu; Li, Wen-Jing; Hu, Xing-Long

    2012-01-01

    The traditional method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for monosaccharide component analysis with pretreatment of acetylation is described with slight modifications and verified in detail in this paper. It was then successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of component monosaccharides in polysaccharides extracted from the pine cones. The results demonstrated that the three pine cone polysaccharides all consisted of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios. According to the recovery experiment, the described method was proved accurate and practical for the analysis of pine cone polysaccharides, meeting the need in the field of chemical analysis of Pinus plants. Furthermore; the chemical characteristics, such as neutral sugar, uronic acids, amino acids, molecular weights, and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were investigated by chemical and instrumental methods. The results showed that the chemical compositions of the polysaccharides differed from each other, especially in the content of neutral sugar and uronic acid. In the antioxidant assays, the polysaccharide fractions exhibited effective scavenging activities on ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical, with their antioxidant capabilities decreasing in the order of PKP > PAP > PSP. Therefore, although the polysaccharide fractions had little effect on superoxide radical scavenging, they still have potential to be developed as natural antioxidant agents in functional foods or medicine. PMID:23203063

  18. AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION DETERMINED ON BOARD THE DOE G1 AIRCRAFT DURING MAX-MEX IN MARCH 2006

    E-print Network

    AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION DETERMINED ON BOARD THE DOE G1 AIRCRAFT DURING MAX-MEX IN MARCH 2006 Y-IC showed a general agreement with the former using a collection efficiency (CE) of 0.5, (2) the aerosol

  19. Chemical composition and mass flow measurements in a supercritical reactive flow for hypersonic real-time application

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chemical composition and mass flow measurements in a supercritical reactive flow for hypersonic Abstract. In the framework of the hypersonic propulsion, ensured with fuel cooled Supersonic Combustion massique, caractérisation chimique, Super-statoréacteur. 1. Introduction Hypersonic flight (over Mach 6

  20. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  1. Chemical composition and thermal behavior of five brands of thermoplasticized gutta-percha

    PubMed Central

    Maniglia-Ferreira, Claudio; Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo; de Araújo Silva, João Batista; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro; de Andrade Feitosa, Judith Pessoa; de Sousa-Filho, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was determine the chemical composition and thermal behavior of Thermafil (TH), Microseal Cone (MC), Microseal Microflow (MF), Obtura (OB) and Obtura Flow (OF). In addition, their thermal behavior in response to temperature variations was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the temperature at which gutta-percha switches from the beta to alpha form, and from the alpha to the amorphous phase. Materials and Methods: The organic and inorganic fractions were separated by dissolution in chloroform. Gutta-percha (GP) was precipitated with acetone. The inorganic fraction was analyzed via Elemental Microanalysis. Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis and X-ray Diffraction were used to identify the chemical elements and compounds (BaSO4 and ZnO). Thermal analysis was conducted using DSC. Results: The organic and inorganic fractions ranged from 21.3% and 26.9% of weights, respectively. MC and MF showed the highest percentages of organic compounds (P = 0.0125). All specimens exhibited two crystalline transformations when heated from ambient temperature to 130°C. MC presented the highest percentage of GP. Conclusions: No correlation was observed between chemical composition and thermal behavior. Each of the products showed thermal behavior that is typical of beta-phase gutta-percha. PMID:24883027

  2. Chemical composition of odorous secretions in the Tasmanian short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus).

    PubMed

    Harris, Rachel L; Davies, Noel W; Nicol, Stewart C

    2012-11-01

    The short-beaked echidna is believed to use olfactory cues from a cloacal scent gland to attract and locate mates during the breeding season. We investigated the chemical composition of echidna secretions, including cloacal swabs and solid, "waxy" exudates from the cloaca and spurs. Scent samples from 37 individuals were collected over a 1-year period and analyzed using a range of different analytical techniques. A total of 186 compounds were identified, including volatile carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, methyl esters, ethyl esters, terpenes, nitrogen- and sulphur-containing compounds, alcohols, and aromatics. Long chain and very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and sterol esters were identified as the major constituents of solid exudates, some of which have not previously been described from any animal skin gland. There was a high degree of composition overlap between male and female cloaca swabs; however, there is significant variation, which could mediate echidna mating behavior. Many of the volatile and nonvolatile chemicals detected are used for communication in other species, suggesting that chemical signals have important and diverse functions in echidna social interactions. PMID:22871649

  3. Chemical composition of high proper-motion stars based on short-wavelength optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V. G.; Mishenina, T. V.; Panchuk, V. E.; Korotin, S. A.; Marsakov, V. A.; Usenko, I. A.; Tsymbal, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations made with the NES echelle spectrograph of the 6-m BTA telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the wavelength interval of 3550-5100 Å with a spectral resolution of R?50000 are used to determine the fundamental parameters and atmospheric abundances of more than 20 chemical elements including heavy s- and r-process elements from Sr to Dy for a total of 14 metal-poor G-K-type stars. The abundances of Mg, Al, Sr, and Ba were calculated with non-LTE line-formation effects accounted for. The inferred overabundance of europium with respect to iron agrees with the results obtained for the stars of similar metallicity. The chemical composition of the star BD+80°245 located far from the Galactic plane is typical of stars of the accreted halo: this star exhibits, in addition to the over-deficiency of ?-process elements, also the over-deficiency of the ?-process element Ba: [Ba/Fe]= -1.46. The kinematical parameters and chemical composition imply that the stars studied belong to different Galactic populations. The abundance of the long-living element Th relative to that of the r-process element Eu is determined for six stars using the synthetic-spectrum method.

  4. The Composition of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy and Implications for Nucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution

    E-print Network

    McWilliam, A; William, Andrew Mc; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2004-01-01

    We outline the results of a study of the chemical composition of 14 stars in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). For the Sgr dSph stars with [Fe/H]>-1 the abundances are highly unusual, showing a striking enhancement in heavy s-process elements, increasing with [Fe/H], deficiencies of the alpha- elements (O, Si, Ca, and Ti), deficiencies of Al and Na, and deficiencies of the iron-peak elements Mn and Cu. Our abundances suggest that the composition of the metal-rich Sgr dSph stars is dominated by the ejecta of an old, metal-poor population, including products of AGB stars and type Ia supernovae (SN). We suggest two scenarios to explain the observations: Prolonged chemical evolution in a galaxy experiencing significant mass-loss, and chemical enrichment with episodic bursts of star formation. The Galactic globular cluster Omega Cen, and the Fornax dwarf galaxy show similar abundance patterns, which suggests that those systems evolved similar to the Sgr dSph.

  5. Crystal Structure and Chemical Composition of a Presolar Silicate from the Queen Elizabeth Range 99177 Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral characterization of presolar silicate grains, the most abundant stardust phase, has provided valuable information about the formation conditions in circumstellar environments and in super-nova (SN) outflows. Spectroscopic observations of dust around evolved stars suggest a majority of amor-phous, Mg-rich olivine grains, but crystalline silicates, most of which are pyroxene, have also been observed [1]. The chemical compositions of hundreds of presolar silicates have been determined by Auger spectroscopy and reveal high Fe contents and nonstoichiometric compositions intermediate to olivine and pyroxene [2-6]. The unexpectedly high Fe contents can partly be attributed to secondary alteration on the meteorite parent bodies, as some grains have Fe isotopic anomalies from their parent stellar source [7]. Only about 35 presolar silicates have been studied for their mineral structures and chemical compositions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These grains display a wide range of compositions and structures, including crystalline forsterite, crystalline pyroxene, nanocrystalline grains, and a majority of amorphous nonstoichiometric grains. Most of these grains were identified in the primitive Acfer 094 meteorite. Presolar silicates from this meteorite show a wide range of Fe-contents, suggestive of secondary processing on the meteorite parent body. The CR chondrite QUE 99177 has not suffered as much alteration [8] and displays the highest presolar silicate abundance to date among carbonaceous chondrites [3, 6]. However, no mineralogical studies of presolar silicates from this meteorite have been performed. Here we examine the mineralogy of a presolar silicate from QUE 99177.

  6. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hicken

    2009-05-04

    We are going go over a general view of reactions to prepare us for our unit on Chemical Reactions! Have fun learning! WARNING: If you are caught looking at ANY other site, without permission, you will be sent to the ALC, and you will not participate in any other computer activities for the rest of the year. Get your worksheet and begin! Overview Take this quiz and have me come over and sign off on your worksheet when you have completed the quiz! Overview Quiz Next let's take a look at what effect the rate of a chemical reaction. Rates of Reactions Another quiz, another check off by me! Rates of Reactions Quiz Now how do we measure how fast a ...

  7. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  8. Large scale investigation of chemical composition, structure and corrosion mechanism of bronze archeological artefacts from Mediterranean basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Ingo; T. de Caro; C. Riccucci; E. Angelini; S. Grassini; S. Balbi; P. Bernardini; D. Salvi; L. Bousselmi; A. Çilingiroglu; M. Gener; V. K. Gouda; O. Al Jarrah; S. Khosroff; Z. Mahdjoub; Z. Al Saad; W. El-Saddik; P. Vassiliou

    2006-01-01

    A large number of Cu-based archaeological artefacts from the Mediterranean basin have been selected for investigation of their chemical composition, metallurgical features and corrosion products (i.e. the patina).The guidelines for the selection of the Cu-based artefacts have taken into account the representativeness of the Mediterranean archaeological context, the manufacturing technique, the degradation state and the expected chemical composition and structure

  9. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Jennifer Quao; Jemmy Takrama; Agnes Simpson Budu; Firibu Kwesi Saalia

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation\\u000a on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors\\u000a as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for\\u000a their chemical composition (moisture, crude

  10. Effects of breed type and feeding regimen on goat composition, retail shelf-life, sensory and chemical characteristics 

    E-print Network

    Oman, Jessica Spurling

    1995-01-01

    EFFECTS OF BREED TYPE AND FEEDING REGIMEN ON GOAT COMPOSITION, RETAIL SHELF-LIFE, SENSORY AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS A Thesis by JESSICA SPURLING OMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Animal Science EFFECTS OF BREED TYPE AND FEEDING REGIMEN ON GOAT COMPOSITION, RETAIL SHELF-LIFE, SENSORY AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS A Thesis by JESSICA...

  11. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from Salvia sclarea plants regenerated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ku?ma, Lukasz; Kalemba, Danuta; Rózalski, Marek; Rózalska, Barbara; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Krajewska, Urszula; Wysoki?ska, Halina

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of dried aerial parts of Salvia sclarea L. plants, regenerated in vitro and reproduced from seeds, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils from in vitro and in vivo plants were compared in respect to their chemical composition as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The chemical profiles of both oils were very similar, although the yield of essential oil from in vitro plants was lower (0.1%, v/w) than the oil yield isolated from in vivo S. sclarea plants (0.2%, v/w). Both oils showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. The oil from in vitro regenerated plants of S. sclarea exhibited stronger cytotoxic action against NALM-6 cell lines in comparison with the essential oil from in vivo plants. PMID:19384275

  12. Applications of Complementary Analytical Techniques to Study Chemical Composition and Properties of Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, A.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosols are widely recognized as key elements in atmospheric environment. Chemical and morphological data of individual particles are of crucial importance for understanding of their formation, reactions, atmospheric history and aging. Microprobe analytical techniques have been extensively used in the past to characterize the size, morphology, phase and composition of particles collected in field and laboratory studies. These technique coupled with an appropriate time-resolved aerosol sampling are capable of generating time-resolved single-particle data, which then can be used to follow in detail the time evolution of specific types of aerosols. In this presentation we give a summary of recent research projects carried out in our laboratory that demonstrates how the use of complementary microprobe methods and other analytical techniques provides new insights into the atmospheric reactions of aerosols, their physical and chemical transformations, and how the obtained data is utilized to define future directions in laboratory and field studies of aerosols.

  13. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  14. The cell wall of Rickettsia mooseri. I. Morphology and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Wood, W H; Wisseman, C L

    1967-03-01

    Cell walls prepared by mechanically disrupting intact Rickettsia mooseri (R. typhi) were examined in an electron microscope and analyzed chemically. Electron micrographs of metal-shadowed and negatively stained rickettsial cell walls revealed no significant differences, except for smaller size, from bacterial cell walls prepared in a similar manner. The chemical composition was complex, and resembled that of gram-negative bacterial cell walls more closely than that of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. R. mooseri cell walls contained the sugars, glucose, galactose, and glucuronic acid, the amino sugars, glucosamine, and muramic acid, and at least 15 amino acids. Diaminopimelic acid, a compound hitherto found only in bacteria and blue-green algae, was demonstrated in rickettsiae for the first time. Teichoic acids were not detected. The compounds identified accounted for about 70% of the dry weight of the cell walls. PMID:6025416

  15. Recent progress of propolis for its biological and chemical compositions and its botanical origin.

    PubMed

    Toreti, Viviane Cristina; Sato, Helia Harumi; Pastore, Glaucia Maria; Park, Yong Kun

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources to collect plant resins, genetic variability of the queen bee, the technique used for production, and the season in which propolis is produced. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journal, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis. This paper presents a review on the publications on propolis and patents of applications and biological constituents of propolis. PMID:23737843

  16. Recent Progress of Propolis for Its Biological and Chemical Compositions and Its Botanical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Toreti, Viviane Cristina; Sato, Helia Harumi; Pastore, Glaucia Maria; Park, Yong Kun

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources to collect plant resins, genetic variability of the queen bee, the technique used for production, and the season in which propolis is produced. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journal, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis. This paper presents a review on the publications on propolis and patents of applications and biological constituents of propolis. PMID:23737843

  17. Chemical composition of Titan’s atmosphere and ionosphere: Observations and the photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2014-07-01

    Basic observational data on hydrocarbons, nitriles, and ions on Titan are compared with predictions of the photochemical model. Uncertainties of the observed abundances and differences between the data from different instruments and observing teams are comparable with the differences between the observations and the model results. Main reactions of production and loss for each species are quantitatively assessed and briefly discussed. Formation of haze by polymerization of hydrocarbons and nitriles and recombination of heavy ions is calculated along with condensation of various species near the tropopause. Overall deposition is a layer of 300 m thick for the age of the Solar System, and nitrogen constitutes 8% of the deposition. The model reproduces the basic observational data and adequately describes basic chemical processes in Titan’s atmosphere and ionosphere. The presented model results and the observational data may be used as a reference to chemical composition of Titan’s atmosphere and ionosphere.

  18. Evaluating the influence of chemical weathering on the composition of the continental crust using lithium and its isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The continental crust has an "intermediate" bulk composition that is distinct from primary melts of peridotitic mantle (basalt or picrite). This mismatch between the "building blocks" and the "edifice" of the continental crust points to the operation of processes that preferentially remove mafic to ultramafic material from the continents. Such processes include lower crustal recycling (via density foundering or lower crustal subduction - e.g., relamination, Hacker et al., 2011, EPSL), generation of evolved melts via slab melting, and/or chemical weathering. Stable isotope systems document the influence of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition: the oxygen isotope composition of the bulk crust is distinctly heavier than that of primary, mantle-derived melts (Simon and Lecuyer, 2005, G-cubed) and the Li isotopic composition of the bulk crust is distinctly lighter than that of mantle-derive melts (Teng et al., 2004, GCA; 2008, Chem. Geol.). Both signatures mark the imprint of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition. Here, we use a simple mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust to quantify the mass lost due to chemical weathering. We find that a minimum of 15%, a maximum of 60%, and a best estimate of ~40% of the original juvenile rock mass may have been lost via chemical weathering. The accumulated percentage of mass loss due to chemical weathering leads to an average global chemical weathering rate (CWR) of ~ 8×10^9 to 2×10^10 t/yr since 3.5 Ga, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the minimum estimates based on modern rivers (Gaillardet et al., 1999, Chem. Geol.). While we cannot constrain the exact portion of crustal mass loss via chemical weathering, given the uncertainties of the calculation, we can demonstrate that the weathering flux is non-zero. Therefore, chemical weathering must play a role in the evolution of the composition and mass of the continental crust.

  19. Properties of thermo-chemically surface treated carbon fibers and of their epoxy and vinyl ester composites

    SciTech Connect

    Vautard, Frederic [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    High strength carbon fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermo-chemical surface treatment. The surface and the mechanical properties of the fibers were investigated before and after treatment and compared to the properties obtained with a conventional industrial electro-chemical surface treatment. An increase of the oxygen atomic content from 3 % to 20 % with a preferential generation of carboxylic acid functionalities and hydroxyl groups was highlighted after the thermo-chemical surface treatment, compared to an oxygen atomic content of 7 % and a wide variety of oxygen moieties with the electro-chemical surface treatment. The tensile strength of the fibers increased slightly after the thermo-chemical surface treatment and remained the same after the electro-chemical surface treatment. Short beam shear and 90 flexural tests of composites revealed that the improvement of interfacial adhesion with a vinyl ester matrix was limited, revealing that oxidation of the carbon fiber surface alone cannot tremendously improve the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. Atomic force microscopy showed that the creation of roughness with both surface treatments at a nanometric scale. Although the surface is slightly rougher after the electro-chemical surface treatment and is expected to lead to higher adhesion due to mechanical interlocking between the fiber surface and the matrix, the effect of covalent bonding coming from the high concentration of chemical groups on the surface results in higher adhesion strength, as obtained with the thermo-chemical surface treatment.

  20. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial symbionts are becoming increasingly recognized as mediators of many aspects of plant - herbivore interactions. However, the influence of plant chemical defenses on gut associates of insect herbivores is less well understood. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), and differing trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) genotypes that vary in chemical defenses, to assess the influence of foliar chemistry on bacterial communities of larval midguts. We evaluated the bacterial community composition of foliage, and of midguts of larvae feeding on those leaves, using next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Plant defense chemicals did not influence the composition of foliar communities. In contrast, both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins affected the bacterial consortia of gypsy moth midguts. The two most abundant operational taxonomic units were classified as Ralstonia and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of Ralstonia was higher in midguts than in foliage when phenolic glycoside concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when phenolic glycosides were high. In contrast, the relative abundance of Ralstonia was lower in midguts than in foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but higher in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter showed a different relationship with host chemistry, being relatively more abundant in midguts than with foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter tended to have a greater relative abundance in midguts of insects feeding on genotypes with high phenolic glycoside concentrations. These results show that plant defense chemicals influence herbivore midgut communities, which may in turn influence host utilization. PMID:25475786

  1. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Voudrias, Evangelos, E-mail: voudrias@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-671 00 Xanthi (Greece); Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-671 00 Xanthi (Greece)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied pharmaceutical and chemical waste production in a Greek hospital. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit production rate for total pharmaceutical waste was 12.4 {+-} 3.90 g/patient/d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit production rate for total chemical waste was 5.8 {+-} 2.2 g/patient/d. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and 'other'. Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and solid waste with 11.4% w/w of the total. The total production of chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Thus, the sum of pharmaceutical and chemical waste was 5.7% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. The unit production rates for total chemical waste for the hospital were 5.8 (2.2) g/patient/d and 1.1 (0.4) g/exam/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for reagents 1.7 (2.4) g/patient/d and 0.3 (0.4) g/examination/d, (2) for solvents 248 (127) g/patient/d and 192 (101) g/examination/d, (3) for dyes and tracers 4.7 (1.4) g/patient/d and 2.5 (0.9) g/examination/d and (4) for solid waste 54 (28) g/patient/d and 42 (22) g/examination/d.

  2. Chemical composition of the Howardite Parent Body deduced from Kapoeta primary 'mafic' magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Schmitt, R.A.

    1982-11-15

    Chemical data are presented for three 'mafic' clasts extracted from the Kapoeta howardite. Bulk compositions and petrologic observations suggest that two of these lithic clasts represent olivine-plagioclase bearing orthopyroxenites. Chondrite-relative refractory LIL abundances of two of the clasts are inferred to represent primary Mg-rich magmas produced by extensive (> or approx. =70%) partial melting of a source composition indistinguishable from the silicate fraction of average CH-CL ordinary chondrites, with the exception of the depletion of the alkalis Na and K by a factor of 13 +- 1 in the source composition. A metal-free and volatile depleted Kapoeta Parent Body (KPB) is subsequently deduced and is shown to compare very well with other similarly derived Achondrite Parent Body (APB) and Howardite Parent Body (HPB) estimates but not to parent body estimates derived from inferences based on eucrite phase equilibrium studies. Other implications suggest that the KPB is heterogeneous with respect to Fe/Mg ratios.

  3. Characterizing the origins of bottled water on the South Korean market using chemical and isotopic compositions.

    PubMed

    Bong, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2009-01-12

    We analyzed the major elements and stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon (dissolved inorganic carbon: DIC) in various types of bottled water (domestic and foreign) commercially available in South Korea to classify the water types and to identify their origins. Only marine waters and some sparkling waters could be discriminated by their physicochemical compositions. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes made marine waters more distinguishable from other water types. The determination of the carbon isotope composition of DIC was clearly useful for distinguishing between naturally and artificially sparkling waters. In addition, statistical analysis also appeared to aid in the discrimination of bottled water types. Our results indicate that a method that combines chemical and stable isotope composition analysis with statistical analysis is the most useful for discriminating water types and characterizing the origins of bottled water. PMID:19084625

  4. Thermal expansion of laminated, woven, continuous ceramic fiber/chemical-vapor-infiltrated silicon carbide matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Bradt, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal expansions of three two-dimensional laminate, continuous fiber/chemical-vapor-infiltrated silicon carbide matrix composites reinforced with either FP-Alumina (alumina), Nextel (mullite), or Nicalon (Si-C-O-N) fibers are reported. Experimental thermal expansion coefficients parallel to a primary fiber orientation were comparable to values calculated by the conventional rule-of-mixtures formula, except for the alumina fiber composite. Hysteresis effects were also observed during repeated thermal cycling of that composite. Those features were attributed to reoccurring fiber/matrix separation related to the micromechanical stresses generated during temperature changes and caused by the large thermal expansion mismatch between the alumina fibers and the silicon carbide matrix.

  5. Study of the structure and electrical properties of chemically reduced graphene/polyvinyl alcohol composite films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haixia; Gao, Guo; Yang, Haijun; Zhou, Xuejiao; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Shouwu

    2013-03-01

    Thin films of composites of chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared by simple solution-mixing technique followed by filtration or evaporation. The as-obtained composite rGO/PVA films were characterized by using optical microscope, gloss meter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The different glossiness of the upper and lower surface of the films prepared by filtration and evaporation, combined with the section SEM images indicated that the thin films have a gradient layered structure, and the distance between the layers increases from the bottom to the top surface of the thin film obtained by filtration, and decreases for the film obtained by evaporation. Such a structure gives the films anisotropic swelling and electrical conduction properties which may find practical applications in electrodes and multifunctional composites. PMID:23755585

  6. Wet chemically grown composite thin film for room temperature LPG sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birajadar, Ravikiran; Desale, Dipalee; Shaikh, Shaheed; Mahajan, Sandip; Upadhye, Deepak; Ghule, Anil; Sharma, Ramphal

    2014-04-01

    We have synthesized thin film of zinc oxide-polyaniline (ZnO/PANI) composite using a simple wet chemical approach. As-synthesized ZnO/PANI composite thin film studied using different characterization techniques. The optical study reveals the penetration and interaction of PANI molecules with ZnO thin film. Prominent blue shift in UV-vis due to interaction between ZnO and PANI indicate presence of zinc oxide in polyaniline matrix. It is observed that ZnO thin film is not sensitive to LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) at room temperature. On the other hand ZnO/PANI composite thin film shows good response and recovery behaviors at room temperature.

  7. Effects of reversible chemical reaction on Li diffusion and stresses in spherical composition-gradient electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Qi

    2015-06-01

    Composition-gradient electrode materials have been proven to be one of the most promising materials in lithium-ion battery. To study the mechanism of mechanical degradation in spherical composition-gradient electrodes, the finite deformation theory and reversible chemical theory are adopted. In homogeneous electrodes, reversible electrochemical reaction may increase the magnitudes of stresses. However, reversible electrochemical reaction has different influences on stresses in composition-gradient electrodes, resulting from three main inhomogeneous factors—forward reaction rate, backward reaction rate, and reaction partial molar volume. The decreasing transition form of forward reaction rate, increasing transition form of backward reaction rate, and increasing transition form of reaction partial molar volume can reduce the magnitudes of stresses. As a result, capacity fading and mechanical degradation are reduced by taking advantage of the effects of inhomogeneous factors.

  8. Computational Chemical Materials Engineering

    E-print Network

    to understand behavior and properties of materials as a function of ­ Chemical constitution ­ Composition signature, recognition, shielding · Multifunctional composites · Biomaterials #12;Home Multi Functional-particles, nano-wires, nano-rods, nano-platelets ­ Fullerenes, nano tubes; dendrimers, hyper branched polymers

  9. Chemically treated kindling and process

    SciTech Connect

    Earlywine, R.T.

    1984-10-09

    A chemically treated kindling and process for the production thereof wherein the kindling is comprised of a pressed mixture of wood fibers, alum, and cornstarch, and is saturated with a prepared composition comprising a plurality of chemically distinct compositions, each of the compositions containing a different predetermined amount of refined petroleum wax and refined oil.

  10. Estimation of aerosol water and chemical composition from POLDER/PARASOL satellite retrievals of aerosol properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beelen, Arjan; Roelofs, Geert-Jan; Hasekamp, Otto; Röckmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing of aerosols provides important information on the atmospheric aerosol abundance. Due to the hygroscopic nature of aerosol particles, their optical properties reflect not only the dry aerosol properties but are also influenced by atmospheric humidity. Remotely sensed aerosol optical properties are used to validate aerosol-climate models, but a more consistent validation requires knowledge of the actual aerosol dry chemical composition. We present results from a model that estimates the dry aerosol chemical composition and aerosol water, using remotely sensed aerosol properties from POLDER/PARASOL (e.g. optical thickness, single scattering albedo, refractive index and size distribution) and ECMWF relative humidity as input. The model applies a minimization technique to derive column-integrated quantities of sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sea salt, organic matter, black carbon and dust, for the aerosol fine and coarse modes. First, we compare POLDER data with data from AERONET to assess the accuracy and consistency of the input data, and discuss the influence of uncertainties in optical parameters (especially the refractive index) on the model results. Then, the model is applied to POLDER measurements at several near-oceanic sites. The results are used to investigate the monthly and seasonal variability of aerosol abundance and composition at these sites.

  11. Change in the surface morphology and chemical composition of some oxide crystals under UV laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzanyan, A S; Badalyan, G R; Kuzanyan, V S; Nikogosyan, V R; Pilosyan, S Kh; Nesterov, V M

    2011-07-31

    The effect of the 248-nm KrF and 355-nm YAG:Nd{sup 3+} laser radiation on the surface morphology and chemical composition of SrTiO{sub 3}, Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}, PbMoO{sub 4}, LiNbO{sub 3}, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals has been studied. A relationship between the laser energy density on the sample surface and the surface roughness caused by the irradiation is determined. A technique for determining exactly the geometric surface characteristics is proposed. The effect of the surface roughness on the results of energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis has been investigated. A method for correcting the EDX data for samples with a rough surface has been developed. It is shown that the small variation in the composition of PbMoO{sub 4}, LiNbO{sub 3}, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples after laser irradiation can be explained by the measurement error, related to the change in the surface roughness. At the same time, the irradiation of SrTiO{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} crystals by a YAG:Nd laser changes the chemical composition of their surface layers. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  12. Characterization of the chemical composition of polyisobutylene-based oil-soluble dispersants by fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Pirouz, Solmaz; Wang, Yulin; Chong, J Michael; Duhamel, Jean

    2014-04-10

    A novel methodology based on fluorescence quenching measurements is introduced to determine quantitatively the amine content of polyisobutylene succinimide (PIBSI) dispersants used as engine oil-additives. To this end, a series of five PIBSI dispersants were prepared by reacting 2 mol equiv of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride (PIBSA) with 1 mol equiv of hexamethylenediamine (HMDA), diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, and pentaethylenehexamine to yield the corresponding b-PIBSI dispersants. After having demonstrated that the presence of hydrogen bonds between the polyamine linker and the succinimide carbonyls of the dispersants prevents the quantitative analysis of the (1)H NMR and FTIR spectra of the dispersants to determine their chemical composition, alternative procedures based on gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and fluorescence quenching were implemented to estimate the amine content of the b-PIBSI dispersants. Taking advantage of the doubling in size that occurs when 2 mol of PIBSA are reacted with 1 mol of HMDA, a combination of GPC and FTIR was employed to follow how the chemical composition and molecular weight distribution of the polymers produced evolved with the reaction of PIBSA and HMDA mixed at different molar ratios. These experiments provided the PIBSA-to-HMDA molar ratio yielding the largest b-PIBSI dispersants and this molar ratio was then selected to prepare the four other dispersants. Having prepared five b-PIBSI dispersants with well-defined secondary amine content, the fluorescence of the succinimide groups was found to decrease with increasing number of secondary amines present in the polyamine linker. This result suggests that fluorescence quenching provides a valid method to determine the chemical composition of b-PIBSI dispersants which is otherwise difficult to characterize by standard (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. PMID:24628080

  13. Effect of stainless steel chemical composition on brazing ability of filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Yasuyuki; Ohta, Kei; Nishiyama, Akira

    2014-08-01

    Many kinds of stainless steel have been used in the engineering field. So it is necessary to investigate the effect of SUS chemical compositions on the brazing ability of filler metal. In this study, SUS315J containing Cr, Ni, Si, Cu, and Mo was employed as a base metal. Excellent spreading ability of the molten nickel-based brazing filler on SUS315J was obtained as compared with that on SUS316. Copper and silicon influenced the significant spreading ability of the filler.

  14. Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis of Goat Fats: Comparison of Chemical Composition and Thermal Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Tahsin Y?lmaz; M. Karakaya

    2009-01-01

    The physical–chemical properties, fatty acid composition and thermal properties of goat subcutaneous (SF), tallow (TF) and\\u000a intestinal (IF) fats were determined. SF differed from other fat types with respect to its lower melting (41.6 °C), lower\\u000a saponification (190.3 mg KOH\\/g) and higher iodine (40.4) values as compared to those of other fats. Goat fat types contained\\u000a palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0),

  15. Composition Control of Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Kiyotoshi; Kazuhiro Eguchi; Keitaro Imai; Tsunetoshi Arikado

    1998-01-01

    Composition control of barium strontium titanate thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition using Ba(THD)2, Sr(THD)2, and Ti(THD)2(i-OC3H7)2 (THD: 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) has been studied by investigating the effects of deposition temperature and the supply rates of metal sources. Although there were complicated correlations among the deposition rates of Ba, Sr, and Ti under kinetically limited conditions, the deposition rate ratio of

  16. Chemical compositions of siderophile element-rich opaque assemblages in an Allende inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sylvester, Paul J.; Ward, Brian J.; Grossman, Lawrence; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical compositions of ten opaque assemblages, or Fremdlinge, from an Allende Type B Ca-,Al-rich coarse-grained inclusion were determined. Attempts to model the abundances of refractory siderophiles assuming condensation from the solar nebula into a single phase failed to match the observed combination of subchondritic Re/Os and Ir/Pt ratios. However, virtually all refractory siderophile fractionations in these Fremdlinge could be matched by a different model, in which all metals condensed into three separate alloys according to their crystal structures.

  17. Ion-Molecule Reactions and Chemical Composition of Emanated from Herculane Spa Geothermal Sources

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, Constantin; Suciu, Ioan; Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bolboac?, Sorana D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a chemical composition analysis of the gases emanated from geothermal sources in the Herculane Spa area (Romania). The upper homologues of methane have been identified in these gases. An ion-molecule reaction mechanism could be implicated in the formation of the upper homologues of methane. The CH4+ ions that appear under the action of radiation are the starting point of these reactions. The presence of hydrogen in the emanated gases may be also a result of these reactions. PMID:19325844

  18. Composition control of manganite perovskites in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with in situ spectroscopic monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiro Nakamura; Ryusuke Tai; Takuro Nishimura; Kunihide Tachibana

    2005-01-01

    Using in situ infrared absorption spectroscopy, the behavior of the film precursors, tris(dipivaloylmethanato)lanthanum [La(DPM)3], tris(dipivaloylmethanato)manganese [Mn(DPM)3], and bis(dipivaloylmethanato)strontium [Sr(DPM)2], in the gas phase was investigated under actual chemical vapor deposition conditions of manganite perovskites. The temperature dependence of the infrared absorption indicates that La(DPM)3, Mn(DPM)3, and Sr(DPM)2 differ significantly in the decomposition temperature. The atomic composition of the deposited film

  19. Microbial Mineralization of Soil Organic Matter: Role of Chemical Composition and Structural Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, M. M. R.; Chilom, G.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the effect of organic matter self-assembly on its resistance to microbial mineralization. Humic acids isolated from leonardite, two peats and a mineral soil were used as organic matter samples because they provide a broad range of variability in terms of the origin and nature of their organic components. Using a solvent-based fractionation method, humic acid samples were disassembled into a humic-like component and a humic-lipid composite. The humic-lipid composite was further disassembled into an amphiphilic and a lipid component using an alkaline aqueous solution. Mixtures that reproduced the composition of self-assembled samples were prepared by mixing the solid individual fractions in the exact proportions that they were present in the original material. The original humic acids or their corresponding mixtures were added as the sole carbon source in separate aerobic cultures containing a microbial consortium isolated from a mineral soil. After incubation for 125 days mineralization of the self-assembled samples was shown to be higher by as much as 70% compared to their corresponding physical mixtures. The extent of mineralization of the self-assembled samples was not correlated to the material's chemical composition or hydrophobicity index obtained from their 13C solid-state NMR spectra. In contrast, mineralization of the physical mixtures and the individual fractions did vary with chemical composition and was accompanied by preferential mineralization of alkyl carbon. These results suggest the microbial mineralization of humic acids is related to their self-assembly.

  20. Chemical Composition of Additives That Spontaneously Form Cathode Interlayers in OPVs.

    PubMed

    Deckman, Igal; Obuchovsky, Stas; Moshonov, Moshe; Frey, Gitti L

    2015-06-23

    Interlayers between the active layer and the electrodes in organic devices are known to modify the electrode work function and enhance carrier extraction/injection, consequently improving device performance. It was recently demonstrated that chemical interactions between the evaporated electrode and interlayer additive can induce additive migration toward the metal/organic interface to spontaneously form the interlayer. In this work we used P3HT:PEG blends as a research platform to investigate the driving force for additive migration to the organic/metal interface and the source of the work function modification in OPVs. For this purpose PEG derivatives with different end groups were blended with P3HT or deposited on top of P3HT layer, topped with Al or Au evaporated electrodes. The correlation between the additive chemical structure, the Voc of corresponding devices, and the metal/organic interface composition determined by XPS revealed that the driving force for additive migration toward the blend/metal interface is the chemical interaction between the additives' end group and the deposited metal atoms. Replacing the PEG additives with alkyl additives bearing the same end groups has shown that the Al work function is actually modulated by the PEG backbone. Hence, in this work we have identified and separated between structural features controlling the migration of the interlayer additive to the organic/metal interface and those responsible for the modification of the metal work function. PMID:25996286

  1. The impact of infield biomass burning on PM levels and its chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Dambruoso, P; de Gennaro, G; Di Gilio, A; Palmisani, J; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In the South of Italy, it is common for farmers to burn pruning waste from olive trees in spring. In order to evaluate the impact of the biomass burning source on the physical and chemical characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) emitted by these fires, a PM monitoring campaign was carried out in an olive grove. Daily PM10 samples were collected for 1 week, when there were no open fires, and when biomass was being burned, and at two different distances from the fires. Moreover, an optical particle counter and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analyzer were used to measure the high time-resolved dimensional distribution of particles emitted and total PAHs concentrations, respectively. Chemical analysis of PM10 samples identified organic and inorganic components such as PAHs, ions, elements, and carbonaceous fractions (OC, EC). Analysis of the collected data showed the usefulness of organic and inorganic tracer species and of PAH diagnostic ratios for interpreting the impact of biomass fires on PM levels and on its chemical composition. Finally, high time-resolved monitoring of particle numbers and PAH concentrations was performed before, during, and after biomass burning, and these concentrations were seen to be very dependent on factors such as weather conditions, combustion efficiency, and temperature (smoldering versus flaming conditions), and moisture content of the wood burned. PMID:24310905

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2014-06-02

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of oxides that ranged from about 98 to 101.5 wt % for the study glasses, indicating excellent recovery of all the components in the chemical composition analyses. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions indicated that, in general, the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations. Exceptions were Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The measured values for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} were somewhat low when compared to the targeted values for all of the study glasses targeting Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations above 0.5 wt %. Many of the measured MgO and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} values were below the targeted values for those glasses that contained these components. Two of the study glasses exhibited differences from the targeted compositions that may indicate a batching error. Glasses EWG-HAI-Centroid-2 and EWG-OL-1672 had measured values for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} that were lower than the targeted values, and measured values for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} that were higher than the targeted values. Glass EWG-HAI-Centroid-2 also had a measured value for Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} that was lower than the targeted value. A review of the PCT data, including standards and blanks, revealed no issues with the performance of the tests. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Comparisons of the normalized PCT results for both the quenched and Canister Centerline Cooled versions of the study glasses are made with the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass for reference.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Chemical Composition of Calcine at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Frazee; J. D. Christian

    2004-02-01

    To send calcine produced at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Yucca Mountain Project for disposal, characterization information will be required. To sample calcine from its existing storage location would require extensive personnel exposure. Sufficient analyses of the chemical composition of the calcine would be extremely difficult and very expensive. In support of characterization development, the chemical composition of calcine from Bin 3 of Calcine Solid Storage Facility II was thermodynamic modeled. This calcine was produced in the Waste Calcination Facility during its second processing campaign, operating with indirect heating at 400 C and 0.744 bar (0.734 atm) during processing of aluminum high-level liquid waste (first cycle extraction raffinate from reprocessing aluminum-clad fuels) from tanks WM-180 and -182 from December 27, 1966 through August 26, 1967. The current modeling effort documents the input compositional data (liquid feed and calciner off-gas) for Batches 300 - 620 and a methodology for estimating the calcine chemical composition. The results, along with assumptions and limitations of the thermodynamic calculations, will serve as a basis for benchmarking subsequent calculations. This will be done by comparing the predictions against extensive analytical results that are currently being obtained on representative samples of the modeled calcine. A commercial free-energy minimization program and database, HSC 5.1, was used to perform the thermodynamic calculations. Currently available experimental data and process information on the calcine were used to make judgments about specific phases and compounds to include and eliminate in the thermodynamic calculations. Some off-gas species were eliminated based on kinetics restrictions evidenced by experimental data and other estimates, and some calcine components and off-gas compounds were eliminated as improbable species (unreliable thermodynamic data). The current Yucca Mountain Project level of concern is 0.1 wt % of individual cations in the waste package. Chemical composition of the individual calcine components was calculated down to 0.02 mol % and 0.09 wt % of metal components of the calcine. The results reproduce closely existing experimental information on calcine chemical and phase composition. This paper discusses specific conditions accepted for the final calculations. The major calcine components, exceeding 0.15 mol % and 0.65 wt %, are: amorphous Al2O3 (85.30 mol %, 81.20 wt %); amorphous NaNO3 (8.23 mol %, 6.53 wt %); dolomite – CaMg 0.9235 (CO3)1.9235 (1.66 mol %, 2.75 wt %); amorphous HgO (0.99 mol %, 2.00 wt %); CaSO4 (0.64 mol %, 0.82 wt %); amorphous KNO3 (0.63 mol %, 0.59 wt %); amorphous Al4B2O9 (0.54 mol %, 1.37 wt %); and amorphous Al18B4O33 (0.16 mol %, 1.57 wt %). Na is present 99.8 % as NaNO3, 99.9 % of K is present as KNO3, and 53 % NOx is NO2(g), showing that the kinetics limiting effects have been empirically accounted for in the modeling. Approximately 87 % of the mercury is in calcine.

  4. A Methodology for the Prediction of the Chemical Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barley, M.; Topping, D.; McFiggans, G.; Jenkin, M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in their recent reports (IPCC, 2007) as a key influence on climate change, but as also an influence about which we have minimal understanding. Atmospheric aerosols can contain a wide range of components but most are believed to be mainly composed of an inorganic part, an organic part and associated water. The inorganic component is relatively well understood and is composed of a limited number of ionic species. However, the organic component is much more complex as any of the thousands of organic compounds found in the atmosphere can potentially condense into the aerosol. A major contributor to the organic aerosol is believed to be from chemicals formed by atmospheric processes. Volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources (primary emissions), undergo progressive oxidation in the atmosphere and the products of these atmospheric reactions may contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles. The oxidation process leads to increased functionalization of the VOC with a resulting increase in polarity and decrease in volatility. The less volatile components in this mixture may condense to form SOA particles by nucleation or by condensation onto particles (such as involatile primary emissions, or polymerised water soluble material) already present in the atmosphere. There is much speculation about the composition of SOA particles as complete analyses are not available. One approach is to model the formation of SOA using an explicit atmospheric chemistry scheme coupled to a condensation/absorption model. We will report on the use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM:- see http://mcm.leeds.ac.uk/MCM/) with a modified version of the Pankow absorption model to predict the chemical composition of SOA particles formed under a range of conditions. The MCM provided the atmospheric abundances of 3700 non-radical atmospheric chemical species in a trajectory model of a heavily polluted air parcel that arrived at Writtle (Essex) in the south of England at 18:00 on August 6th 2003 during the TORCH campaign. A similar set of abundances were simulated for an air-parcel arriving on August 12th with high concentrations of VOC's from biological sources. These two sets of atmospheric concentrations formed the inputs for the calculation of the chemical composition of anthropogenically dominated and biogenically dominated SOA respectively. The condensation of the oxidised VOC's were modelled using the following methodology:- 1) The model used was a modified version of the Pankow absorption model. 2) Estimated vapour pressures were used for all components and liquid phase ideality was assumed. 3) It was assumed that water condensed into the SOA alongside the organic components. 4) As liquid phase water is expected to be present the acid anhydrides predicted to be present in the atmosphere are expected to hydrolyse to their corresponding acids. 5) The presence of an involatile core onto which the organics can condense is assumed. Formation of SOA by condensation was modelled for both the anthropogenic and biogenic case over a range of temperatures, relative humidity and target mass (=core mass+SOA mass). This provided a range of SOA masses- particularly for the anthropogenic case where it was clear that the chemical composition of the SOA was strongly affected by the mass of SOA predicted. The results showed that anthropogenic SOA contained significant dicarboxylic acids derived from the hydrolysis of cyclic anhydrides while the biogenic SOA contained pinic acid (another dicarboxylic acid) and a range of multifunctional compounds dominated by hydroxyl and hydroperoxide groups.

  5. Influence of aqueous chemistry on the chemical composition of fog water and interstitial aerosol in Fresno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Ge, Xinlei; Collier, Sonya; Xu, Jianzhong; Sun, Yele; Wang, Youliang; Herckes, Pierre; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    A measurement study was conducted in the Central Valley (Fresno) of California in January 2010, during which radiation fog events were frequently observed. Fog plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry by scavenging aerosol particles and trace gases and serving as a medium for various aqueous-phase reactions. Understanding the effects of fog on the microphysical and chemical processing of aerosol particles requires detailed information on their chemical composition. In this study, we characterized the chemical composition of fog water and interstitial aerosol particles to study the effects of fog processing on aerosol properties. Fog water samples were collected during the 2010 Fresno campaigns with a Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC) while interstitial submicron aerosols were characterized in real time with an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The fog water samples were later analyzed using the HR-ToF-AMS, ion chromatography, and a total carbon analyzer. The chemical composition and characteristics of interstitial particles during the fog events were compared to those of dissolved inorganic and organic matter in fog waters. Compared to interstitial aerosols, fog water is composed of a higher fraction of ammonium nitrate and oxygenated organics, due to aqueous formation of secondary aerosol species as well as enhanced gas-to-particle partitioning of water soluble species under water rich conditions. Sulfate is formed most efficiently in fog water although its contribution to total dissolved mass is relatively low. The HR-ToF-AMS mass spectra of organic matter in fog water (FOM) are very similar to that of oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA) derived from positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the HR-ToF-AMS spectra of ambient aerosol (r2 = 0.96), but FOM appears to contain a large fraction of acidic functional groups than OOA. FOM is also enriched of organic nitrogen compounds, with an average N/C ratio ~3.8 times that of OOA. Most strikingly is the enhancement of the CxHyN2+ family ions in FOM spectra, indicating the presence of imidazole compounds, which commonly result from the aqueous phase reactions of tropospheric aldehyde such as glyoxal, formaldehyde or acetaldehyde with amino compounds. The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous phase reactions in fog water lead to the formation of some oxidized and nitrogen-containing compounds. Details and the environmental implications of results will be discussed.

  6. Interspecies differences in the empty body chemical composition of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Maeno, H; Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2013-07-01

    Domestication of animals has resulted in phenotypic changes by means of natural and human-directed selection. Body composition is important for farm animals because it reflects the status of energy reserves. Thus, there is the possibility that farm animals as providers of food have been more affected by human-directed selection for body composition than laboratory animals. In this study, an analysis was conducted to determine what similarities and differences in body composition occur between farm and laboratory animals using literature data obtained from seven comparative slaughter studies (n = 136 observations). Farm animals from four species (cattle, goats, pigs and sheep) were all castrated males, whereas laboratory animals from three species (dogs, mice and rats) comprised males and/or females. All animals were fed ad libitum. The allometric equation, Y = aX b , was used to determine the influence of species on the accretion rates of chemical components (Y, kg) relative to the growth of the empty body, fat-free empty body or protein weights (X, kg). There were differences between farm and laboratory animals in terms of the allometric growth coefficients for chemical components relative to the empty BW and fat-free empty BW (P < 0.01); farm animals had more rapid accretion rates of fat (P < 0.01) but laboratory animals had more rapid accretion rates of protein, water and ash (P < 0.01). In contrast, there was no difference in terms of the allometric growth coefficients for protein and water within farm animals (P > 0.2). The allometric growth coefficients for ash weight relative to protein weight for six species except sheep were not different from a value of 1 (P > 0.1), whereas that of sheep was smaller than 1 (P < 0.01). When compared at the same fat content of the empty body, the rate of change in water content (%) per unit change in fat content (%) was not different (P > 0.05) across farm animal species and similar ash-to-protein ratios were obtained except for dogs. The fraction of empty body energy gain retained as fat increased in a curvilinear manner, and there was little variation among farm animals at the same fat content of the empty body. These findings may provide the opportunity to develop a general model to predict empty body composition across farm animal species. In contrast, there were considerable differences of chemical body composition between farm and laboratory animals. PMID:23438510

  7. Chemical taxonomy of the hinge-ligament proteins of bivalves according to their amino acid compositions.

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Y; Tamiya, N

    1987-01-01

    The proteins in the hinge ligaments of molluscan bivalves were subjected to chemotaxonomic studies according to their amino acid compositions. The hinge-ligament protein is a new class of structure proteins, and this is the first attempt to introduce chemical taxonomy into the systematics of bivalves. The hinge-ligament proteins from morphologically close species, namely mactra (superfamily Mactracea) or scallop (family Pectinidae) species, showed high intraspecific homology in their compositions. On the other hand, inconsistent results were obtained with two types of ligament proteins in pearl oyster species (genus Pinctada). The results of our chemotaxonomic analyses were sometimes in good agreement with the morphological classifications and sometimes inconsistent, implying a complicated phylogenetic relationship among the species. PMID:3593265

  8. The Chemical Composition and Nitrogen Distribution of Chinese Yak (Maiwa) Milk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haimei; Ma, Ying; Li, Qiming; Wang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Jinju; Xue, Jun; Shi, John

    2011-01-01

    The paper surveyed the chemical composition and nitrogen distribution of Maiwa yak milk, and compared the results with reference composition of cow milk. Compared to cow milk, yak milk was richer in protein (especially whey protein), essential amino acids, fat, lactose and minerals (except phosphorus). The contents of some nutrients (total protein, lactose, essential amino acids and casein) were higher in the warm season than in the cold season. Higher ratios of total essential amino acids/total amino acids (TEAA/TAA) and total essential amino acids/total non essential amino acids (TEAA/TNEAA) were found in the yak milk from the warm season. However its annual average ratio of EAA/TAA and that of EAA/NEAA were similar to those of cow milk. Yak milk was rich in calcium and iron (p < 0.05), and thus may serve as a nutritional ingredient with a potential application in industrial processing. PMID:21954332

  9. Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Lactarius sp. mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Estevinho, Letícia M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2007-10-17

    The effects of fruiting body maturity on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the wild mushrooms, Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius piperatus, were evaluated. Immature and mature samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, carbohydrates), nutritional value, and individual composition in fatty acids and sugars. Protein content, MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids), and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) percentages increased with the fruiting body maturity stage, while carbohydrate and SFA (saturated fatty acids) content decreased. The maturity stage did not significantly affect the individual sugar profile. The antimicrobial activity of the mushrooms was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi, and correlated to the amounts of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, and lycopene present in the immature and mature fruiting bodies. Mature fruiting bodies with mature spores presented lower antimicrobial activity, which was in agreement with the bioactive compound content found in those samples. PMID:17927152

  10. Chemical taxonomy of the hinge-ligament proteins of bivalves according to their amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Y; Tamiya, N

    1987-03-01

    The proteins in the hinge ligaments of molluscan bivalves were subjected to chemotaxonomic studies according to their amino acid compositions. The hinge-ligament protein is a new class of structure proteins, and this is the first attempt to introduce chemical taxonomy into the systematics of bivalves. The hinge-ligament proteins from morphologically close species, namely mactra (superfamily Mactracea) or scallop (family Pectinidae) species, showed high intraspecific homology in their compositions. On the other hand, inconsistent results were obtained with two types of ligament proteins in pearl oyster species (genus Pinctada). The results of our chemotaxonomic analyses were sometimes in good agreement with the morphological classifications and sometimes inconsistent, implying a complicated phylogenetic relationship among the species. PMID:3593265

  11. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Baccouri, Olfa; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Bechir; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Lercker, Giovanni; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud Ben Miled, Douja

    2008-08-15

    The chemical composition of virgin olive oil may be influenced by genotype and different agronomic (i.e. fruit ripeness degree, water supply) and technological factors. This article reports the evaluation of the influence of the olive ripening stage on the quality indices, the major and the minor components and the oxidative stability of the two main monovarietal Tunisian cultivars (cvv. Chétoui and Chemlali) virgin olive oils. Moreover, the olives cv. Chétoui were tested in a rain-fed control and an irrigation regime. The oils sampled at five different ripeness stages were submitted to liquid chromatographic determination (HPLC-DAD/MSD) of their quali-quantitative phenolic and tocopherolic profiles. Moreover, the triacylglycerol and fatty acid compositions, and minor components such as squalene, pigments and their relation with the oil oxidative stability were evaluated. The tested oils showed very good correlation between the oxidative stability and the concentrations of total phenols, practically secoiridoids and ?-tocopherol. PMID:26049987

  12. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.

    PubMed

    Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:19425185

  13. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm-1 (ICOM), 1473 cm-1 (ICOD), 961 cm-1 (IHAP) and 1282 cm-1 (IUA) were used.

  14. Gas-to-Dust Mass Ratio and Chemical Composition of the Diffuse ISM near the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Understanding elemental abundances in the interstellar medium (ISM) is an elusive problem, complicated by the inability to observe many ionization states, inadequate data, difficulties in interpreting saturated absorption lines in high column density sightlines, radiative transfer effects in low column density sightlines, and component blending in nearly all sightlines. Radiative transfer models of the nearby ISM (less than 50 pc), constrained with observations of the ISM in stars close to the solar system and inside of the heliosphere, provide a new look at the abundances in diffuse interstellar clouds and allow determination of the gas-to-dust mass ratio providing the ISM reference abundance pattern is known (Slavin and Frisch 2002, Frisch and Slavin 2003). The implications of these models for the chemical composition of the diffuse ISM is discussed, along with the grain models and compositions implied by these data.

  15. Tying Biological Activity to Changes in Sea Spray Aerosol Chemical Composition via Single Particle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Collins, D. B.; Axson, J. L.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In remote marine environments, sea spray aerosols (SSA) often represent the greatest aerosol burden, thus having significant impacts on direct radiative interactions and cloud processes. Previous studies have shown that SSA is a complex mixture of inorganic salts and an array of dissolved and particulate organic components. Enrichment of SSA organic content is often correlated to seawater chlorophyll concentrations, a measure of oceanic biological activity. As the physical and chemical properties of aerosols control their radiative effects, recent studies conducted by the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment have endeavored to further elucidate the ties between marine biological activity and primary SSA chemical composition using highly time resolved single particle analyses. A series of experiments performed in the recently developed Marine Aerosol Reference Tank evaluated the effect of changing marine microbial populations on SSA chemical composition, which was monitored via an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a variety of offline spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Each experiment was initiated using unfiltered and untreated seawater, thus maintaining a high level of biogeochemical complexity. This study is the first of its kind to capture daily changes in the primary SSA mixing state over the growth and death of a natural phytoplankton bloom. Increases in organic aerosol types (0.4-3 ?m), internally and externally mixed with sea salt, could not be correlated to chlorophyll concentrations. Maximum production of these populations occurred two to four days after the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence peaked in intensity. This work is in contrast to the current paradigm of correlating SSA organic content to seawater chlorophyll concentration.

  16. On the Morphology and Chemical Composition of the HR 4796A Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Stark, Christopher C.; Weinberger, Alycia; Debes, John H.; Hinz, Philip M.; Close, Laird; Chen, Christine; Smith, Paul S.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Puglisi, Alfio; Follette, Katherine B.; Morzinski, Katie; Wu, Ya-Lin; Briguglio, Runa; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Riccardi, Armando; Schneider, Glenn; Xompero, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present resolved images of the HR 4796A debris disk using the Magellan adaptive optics system paired with Clio-2 and VisAO. We detect the disk at 0.77 ?m, 0.91 ?m, 0.99 ?m, 2.15 ?m, 3.1 ?m, 3.3 ?m, and 3.8 ?m. We find that the deprojected center of the ring is offset from the star by 4.76 ± 1.6 AU and that the deprojected eccentricity is 0.06 ± 0.02, in general agreement with previous studies. We find that the average width of the ring is 14+3-2% (11.1+2.4-1.6 AU), also comparable to previous measurements. Combining our new scattered light data with archival Hubble Space Telescope images at ~0.5-2 ?m, along with previously unpublished Spitzer/MIPS thermal emission data and all other literature thermal data, we set out to constrain the chemical composition of the dust grains. After testing 19 individual root compositions and more than 8400 unique mixtures of these compositions, we find that good fits to the scattered light alone and thermal emission alone are discrepant, suggesting that caution should be exercised if fitting to only one or the other. When we fit to both data sets simultaneously, we find that silicates and organics are generally the most favored, while large abundances of water ice are usually not favored. These results suggest the HR 4796A dust grains are similar to interstellar dust and solar system comets, though improved modeling is necessary to place better constraints on the exact chemical composition of the dust. This paper includes data obtained at the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  17. Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, Miloš; Ambroži?, Bojan; Mirti?, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Å turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

    2014-10-01

    The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

  18. Concentration and chemical composition of PM 2.5 in Shanghai for a 1-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Boming; Ji, Xueli; Yang, Haizhen; Yao, Xiaohong; Chan, Chak K.; Cadle, Steven H.; Chan, Tai; Mulawa, Patricia A.

    Weekly PM 2.5 samples were collected in Shanghai, China at two sites, Tongji University and Hainan Road. Sampling started in March 1999 and was conducted for 1 year. The ambient mass concentration and chemical composition of the PM 2.5 were determined. Chemical analyses included elemental composition, water-soluble ions, and organic and elemental carbon. Weekly PM 2.5 mass concentrations ranged from 21 to 147 ?g/m 3, with annual average concentrations of 57.9 and 61.4 ?g/m 3 at the two sites, respectively. Seasonal variation of PM 2.5 concentrations was significant, with the highest concentrations observed from mid-November through December and the lowest from June through September. Ammonium sulfate and nitrate accounted for 41.6% of the PM 2.5 mass with sulfate alone accounting for 23.4% of the PM 2.5 mass. Carbonaceous material accounted for 41.4% of the PM 2.5 mass, with 73% of that mass being organic, as defined by the TOR analysis method. Crustal components averaged 9.6% of the PM 2.5 mass. Potassium, which was 95% water soluble, accounted for 2.7% of the PM 2.5 mass.

  19. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from the sporophores and cultured products of Armillaria mellea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Yan, Lihua; Zhang, Qiwei; Zhu, Jingjing; Huang, Na; Wang, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Armillaria mellea is a traditional Chinese medicinal and edible mushroom. Many cultured products of A. mellea have been used to develop commercial medicines in recent years. The chemical composition and activities of the major bioactive chemical components-polysaccharides-may be different because of differences in the raw materials used. Four polysaccharides (SP, CMP, CFBP and CFMP) were obtained from wild sporophores and cultured products (including mycelia, fermentation broth and fermentation mixture) of A. mellea. Their yields, carbohydrate contents, monosaccharide compositions, FT-IR spectra, NMR spectroscopy and antioxidant activities were investigated. All of the polysaccharides were composed of xylose, glucose and galactose without protein. Glucose was the dominant monosaccharide in SP, CMP and CFMP, whereas galactose was the dominant monosaccharide in CFBP. SP and CMP showed higher scavenging DPPH• and ABTS•+ activities and reducing power among four polysaccharides. The carbohydrate content and corresponding glucose percentage were positive influences on the antioxidant activities, whereas the corresponding xylose and galactose percentage were negative influences. A. mellea polysaccharides are potential natural antioxidants. Polysaccharides from cultured products, especially mycelia, are good substitutes for SP and are also potential sources for both dietary supplements and food industries. PMID:25838171

  20. Seasonal variation, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Brazilian propolis samples.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Erica Weinstein; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Antonio; Stringheta, Paulo César

    2010-09-01

    Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil) were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being ?- and ?-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis. PMID:18955317

  1. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Érica Weinstein; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina; Stringheta, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil) were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being ?- and ?-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis. PMID:18955317

  2. Chemical composition of essential oils of Litsea cubeba harvested from its distribution areas in China.

    PubMed

    Si, Linlin; Chen, Yicun; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhan, Zhiyong; Tian, Shengping; Cui, Qinqin; Wang, Yangdong

    2012-01-01

    Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. is a promising industrial crop with fruits rich in essential oils. The chemical composition of essential oils of L. cubeba (EOLC) were determined for fruits harvested from eight regions in China. The overall essential oil content, obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), ranged from 3.04% to 4.56%. In total, 59 compounds were identified, the dominant components being monoterpenes (94.4-98.4%), represented mainly by neral and geranial (78.7-87.4%). D-Limonene was unexpectedly a lesser constituent (0.7-5.3%) in fruits, which differed from previous reports (6.0-14.6%). Several components were only detected in certain regions and compounds such as o-cymene and eremophilene have never before been reported in EOLC. These results demonstrate significant regional variation in the chemical composition of EOLC. This investigation provides important information with regard to the bioactivity, breeding work and industrial applications of L. cubeba. PMID:22683894

  3. Quantitative imaging of chemical composition using dual-energy, dual-source CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Primak, Andrew N.; Yu, Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Morin, Richard L.

    2008-03-01

    Dual-energy x-ray material decomposition has been proposed as a noninvasive quantitative imaging technique for more than 20 years. In this paper, we summarize previously developed dual-energy material decomposition methods and propose a simple yet accurate method for quantitatively measuring chemical composition in vivo. In order to take advantage of the newly developed dual-source CT, the proposed method is based upon post reconstruction (image space) data. Different from other post reconstruction methods, this method is designed to directly measure element composition (mass fraction) in a tissue by a simple table lookup procedure. The method has been tested in phantom studies and also applied to a clinical case. The results showed that this method is capable of accurately measuring elemental concentrations, such as iron in tissue, under low noise imaging conditions. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and fast processing times. We believe that this method can be applied clinically to measure the mass fraction of any chemical element in a two-material object, such as to quantify the iron overload in the liver (hemochromatosis). Further investigations on de-noising techniques, as well as clinical validation, are merited.

  4. Chemical composition analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activity evaluation of essential oil of Atalantia monophylla Correa

    PubMed Central

    Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Gunasekar, Ramya; Gogulramnath, Madhusudhanan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atalantia monophylla Correa. a small tree belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is distributed throughout India and in Tamil Nadu the species is commonly seen in foothills of dry vegetation. Objective: The aim was to hydrodistillate and analyze the chemical composition of essential oil from the fresh leaves of A. monophylla Correa. collected in two different seasons (December, 2013 and May, 2014) and to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of isolated essential oil. Materials and Methods: Chemical composition of isolated essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of oil was assessed using five different antioxidant test systems. Antibacterial activity of oil was tested against six pathogenic bacteria by broth dilution method. Results: Essential oil obtained from the leaves collected during May, 2014 had shown more compounds. Antioxidant activity of oil was moderate when compared with positive control. Minimum inhibitory concentration value of oil was ranges between 139.32 ± 0.001 and 541.11 ± 0.003 µg/mL against all the tested bacteria. Conclusion: Result clearly indicates essential oil collected during May, 2014 showed more bioactive compounds. PMID:26109788

  5. Chemical composition of core samples from Newark Basin, a potential carbon sequestration site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzer, A. M.; Yang, Q.; Goldberg, D.

    2012-12-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into deep saline aquifers has been identified as a promising mitigation option of greenhouse gases, the successful management of which is considered to be one of the most urgent and important challenges. Given the high energy production in the New York metropolitan area, the Newark Basin region is considered to be a potential future sequestration site. However, the risk of an upward leak of sequestered CO2, especially to a shallow drinking water aquifer, is a key concern facing geological sequestration as a safe and viable mitigation option. In this study, we measured the chemical composition of 25 cores from various depths throughout Newark Basin as a precursor for an ex situ incubation experiment using these rock samples and aquifer water to simulate a leak event. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of microwave-assisted digested rock powders and X-ray fluorescence analysis of the rock powders were conducted to obtain the concentrations of major and trace elements. Most of the major and trace elements show wide concentration ranges at one to two orders of magnitude. Understanding the chemical composition of these Newark Basin core samples is important not only for characterizing materials used for the later lab incubation, but also for gaining a broader understanding of the chemistry of the Newark Basin and profiling the region according to the varying risks associated with a leak of sequestered CO2 to a drinking water aquifer.

  6. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V. [ICSM, CEA CNRS UM2 ENSCM, UMR 5257, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France)

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ? 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  7. Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of selected thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-seven thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah were sampled for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. The springs issue sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters of near neutral (6.2) to alkaline (9.2) pH. High concentrations of fluoride, more than 8 milligrams per liter, occur in Arizona in waters from Gillard Hot Springs, Castle Hot Springs, and the unnamed spring of Eagle Creek, and in New Mexico from springs along the Gila River. Deuterium compositions of the thermal waters cover the same range as those expected for meteoric waters in the respective areas. The chemical compositions of the thermal waters indicate that Thermo Hot Springs in Utah and Gillard Hot Springs in Arizona represent hydrothermal systems which are at temperatures higher than 125 deg C. Estimates of subsurface temperature based on the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometer differ by up to 60 deg C for Monroe, Joseph, Red Hill, and Crater hot springs in Utah. Similar conflicting estimates of aquifer temperature occur for Verde Hot Springs, the springs near Clifton and Coolidge Dam, in Arizona; and the warm springs near San Ysidro, Radium Hot Springs, and San Francisco Hot Springs, in New Mexico. Such disparities could result from mixing, precipitation of calcium carbonate, or perhaps appreciable concentrations of magnesium. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. The Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Alcoholic extract of Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Proença da Cunha; Odete L. R. Roque

    1989-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme) was investigated by means of gas chromatography. This analysis was compared with that of an aqueous alcoholic extract of the juniper berries of similar origin. The qualitative composition of the oil and the alcoholic extract was found to be very similar. The major

  9. Thermal Characterization and Flammability of Structural Epoxy Adhesive and Carbon\\/Epoxy Composite with Environmental and Chemical Degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Campbell; Brent M. Pickett; Valeria La Saponara; Douglas Dierdorf

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the thermal degradation and flammability properties of structural epoxy adhesive and carbon\\/epoxy composite subject to environmental and chemical agents typical of aerospace operations: water, jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, fuel additive (not mixed in jet fuel), at three conditioning temperatures similar to those experienced by an aerospace composite structure during its operation. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric

  10. Chemical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  11. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles. PMID:3558505

  12. Chemical Composition, and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil of Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) From Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdullah I. Hussain; Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Shahid; Muhammad Ashraf; Roman Przybylski

    2010-01-01

    Chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) were investigated. The oil content was found to be 1.2%. A total of 19 chemical constituents were identified in the spearmint oil using GC and GC\\/MS. The main components were carvone (51.7%) and cis-carveol (24.3%), followed by limonene (5.3%), 1,8

  13. Comparison of the chemical compositions and nutritive values of various pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae) species and parts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Young-Nam; Choi, Changsun

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkins have considerable variation in nutrient contents depending on the cultivation environment, species, or part. In this study, the general chemical compositions and some bioactive components, such as tocopherols, carotenoids, and ?-sitosterol, were analyzed in three major species of pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae pepo, C. moschata, and C. maxima) grown in Korea and also in three parts (peel, flesh, and seed) of each pumpkin species. C. maxima had significantly more carbohydrate, protein, fat, and fiber than C. pepo or C. moschata (P < 0.05). The moisture content as well as the amino acid and arginine contents in all parts of the pumpkin was highest in C. pepo. The major fatty acids in the seeds were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. C. pepo and C. moschata seeds had significantly more ?-tocopherol than C. maxima, whose seeds had the highest ?-carotene content. C. pepo seeds had significantly more ?-sitosterol than the others. Nutrient compositions differed considerably among the pumpkin species and parts. These results will be useful in updating the nutrient compositions of pumpkin in the Korean food composition database. Additional analyses of various pumpkins grown in different years and in different areas of Korea are needed. PMID:22413037

  14. Transport-induced shifts in condensate dew-point and composition in multicomponent systems with chemical reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Nagarajan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Partial heterogeneous condensation phenomena in multicomponent reacting systems are analyzed taking into consideration the chemical element transport phenomena. It is demonstrated that the dew-point surface temperature in chemically reactive systems is not a purely thermodynamic quantity, but is influenced by the multicomponent diffusion and Soret-mass diffusion phenomena. Several distinct dew-points are shown to exist in such systems and, as a result of transport constraints, the 'sharp' locus between two chemically distinct condensates is systematically moved to a difference mainstream composition.

  15. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 ?g m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 ?g m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 ?g m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 ?g m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 ?g m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  16. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Oxidation Products from Biogenic Sources in the Southeast US during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Massoli, P.; Thompson, S.; Yatavelli, L. R.; Mohr, C.; Brophy, P.; Murschell, T.; Hu, W.; Canagaratna, M.; Krechmer, J.; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J. P.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Ortega, A. M.; Kimmel, J.; Cubison, M.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Thornton, J. A.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E.; Farmer, D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reduced species emitted to the atmosphere are chemically transformed by atmospheric oxidants. The measurement of the large number of resulting oxidized compounds is crucial to understand and quantify these transformation processes. We analyzed datasets from four high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometers (HRToF-CIMS) during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in June and July 2013 at the Alabama Supersite in the Southeast U.S. These datasets allow specification and quantification of the multiple gas-phase compounds produced by chemical oxidation. The mass spectrometers used different reagent ions, nitrate (NO3-), acetate (CH3COO-), and iodide (I-). In this study, we will present the chemical composition of isoprene and terpene oxidation products as measured by the different techniques. When comparing the concentration and composition at different conditions (e.g., time of day, NOx levels, aerosol loading, RH), differences in gas-phase composition provide indications of both the changes in chemical processing arising from the different conditions as well as different sensitivities of the reagent ions. We will discuss these differences in terms of bulk chemical parameters such as carbon oxidation state, carbon number and oxygen-to-carbon ratio.

  17. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOEpatents

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1993-07-06

    Coatings and sensors are described having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon composite thin films for porous low-k dielectrics

    E-print Network

    Ross, April Denise, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has produced organosilicon thin films with the potential use as low dielectric constant interconnect materials in microelectronic circuits. Both diethylsilane and ...

  19. CHEMICAL PACEMAKERS

    PubMed Central

    Hadidian, Zareh; Hoagland, Hudson

    1939-01-01

    1. Iron spicules found in the brains of general paretic patients are formed from endogenous brain iron normally present in another form. This supports our earlier view that the µ value of 16,000 obtained in advanced paretics for alpha brain wave frequencies as a measure of cortical respiration comes about from the slowing of an iron catalyzed link in cortical respiration such as would result from the reduction of available cytochrome and its oxidase, thus making this step a chemical pacemaker. 2. To test the basic theory of chemical pacemakers, a study was made of the succinate-fumarate enzyme system containing succino-dehydrogenase and cytochrome-cytochrome oxidase acting sequentially. 3. The µ value for the unpoisoned system is 11,200 ± 200 calories. 4. According to theory, the addition of a critical amount of cyanide known to be a specific poison of the cytochrome-cytochrome oxidase system (and not of the dehydrogenase) should shift the µ cleanly to 16,000 calories, and it does. 5. According to theory, selenite, a specific poison for the dehydrogenase, should stop all respiration without shifting the µ. This also is found to be the case. 6. The theory also predicts that if the µ is shifted from 11,000 ± to 16,000 ± by cyanide, the subsequent addition of a critical amount of selenite should shift the µ back again to 11,000 ± calories, and this is found to occur. 7. It is concluded that approximately 11,000 calories is the energy of activation of the succino-dehydrogenase-catalyzed step and 16,000 calories is that for the cytochrome-cytochrome oxidase-catalyzed step. These two values are encountered more frequently than any others in physiological systems. It is to be recalled that a shift of µ for alpha brain wave frequencies from 11,000 to 16,000 calories occurs in the course of advancing syphilitic brain infection and is accompanied by a change in form of brain iron. PMID:19873142

  20. Tracing the evolution of NGC 6397 through the chemical composition of its stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, K.; Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Primas, F.; Grundahl, F.; Asplund, M.

    2011-03-01

    Context. The chemical compositions of globular clusters provide important information on the star formation that occurred at very early times in the Galaxy. In particular the abundance patterns of elements with atomic number z ? 13 may shed light on the properties of stars that early on enriched parts of the star-forming gas with the rest-products of hydrogen-burning at high temperatures. Aims: We analyse and discuss the chemical compositions of a large number of elements in 21 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397. We compare the derived abundance patterns with theoretical predictions in the framework of the "wind of fast rotating massive star"-scenario. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FLAMES/UVES spectrograph on the VLT. We determined non-LTE abundances of Na, and LTE abundances for the remaining 21 elements, including O (from the [OI] line at 630 nm), Mg, Al, ?, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements, many of which had not been previously analysed for this cluster. We also considered the influence of possible He enrichment in the analysis of stellar spectra. Results: We find that the Na abundances of evolved, as well as unevolved, stars in NGC 6397 show a distinct bimodality, which is indicative of two stellar populations: one primordial stellar generation of composition similar to field stars, and a second generation that is polluted with material processed during hydrogen-burning, i.e., enriched in Na and Al and depleted in O and Mg. The red giant branch exhibits a similar bimodal distribution in the Strömgren colour index cy = c1 - (b - y), implying that there are also large differences in the N abundance. The two populations have the same composition for all analysed elements heavier than Al, within the measurement uncertainty of the analysis, with the possible exception of [Y/Fe]. Using two stars with almost identical stellar parameters, one from each generation, we estimate the difference in He content, ?Y = 0.01 ± 0.06, given the assumption that the mass fraction of iron is the same for the stars. Conclusions: NGC 6397 hosts two stellar populations that have different chemical compositions of N, O, Na, Mg, and probably Al. The cluster is dominated (75%) by the second generation. We show that massive stars of the first generation can be held responsible for the abundance patterns observed in the second generation long-lived stars of NGC 6397. We estimate that the initial mass of this globular cluster is at least ten times higher than its present-day value. Based on data collected at European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, under program IDs 077.A-0018(A) and 281.D-5028(A), as well as data collected with the Danish 1.54 m at European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla.Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTwo tables with line equivalent widths, chemical abundances, and stellar parameters are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/527/A148

  1. Chemical composition of melanosomes, lipofuscin and melanolipofuscin granules of human RPE tissues.

    PubMed

    Biesemeier, Antje; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Eibl, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Energy-filtered analytical transmission electron microscopy was used to image the ultrastructure and determine quantitatively the chemical composition of pigment granules of the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium of two healthy human donors, aged 68 and 85 years. The electron microscopy preparation procedure did not affect the autofluorescence of melanolipofuscin and lipofuscin granules, since staining was omitted during sample preparation. Oval melanosomes, melanolipofuscin and lipofuscin granules were observed, having sizes of about 1.5 ?m×0.5 ?m, and were analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Up to now, these pigments could only be identified by scattering contrast in bright field images, with melanosomes having dark contrast and lipofuscin being much brighter. High-precision energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of pigment granules (>15,000 integrated counts in the oxygen K(?) peak) yielded minimum detectable mole fractions of about 0.02 at% for copper and zinc. For the first time, quantitative analytical electron microscopy yielded the chemical composition of the different pigments without prior isolation from the tissue. This is important to better understand physical and chemical properties of the pigments and their metabolism and turnover. The composition of melanosomes and lipofuscin can clearly be distinguished by the applied methods. Melanosomes were the pigments with largest oxygen (about 5 at%) and nitrogen (about 10 at%) mole fractions. The S/N ratio determination demonstrated a high pheomelanin content of the melanosomes. Lipofuscin had a significantly smaller oxygen mole fraction (about 4 at%) and nitrogen was found to be only slightly above the limit of detection (0.4 at%). For comparison, the cytoplasm contained oxygen and nitrogen mole fractions of 3 at% and 0.8 at%. Bright field images showed melanolipofuscin granules having a core-shell structure with a dark inner and a bright outer fraction. The dark fraction had a chemical composition close to the melanosomes and the composition of the bright fraction could be distinguished from that of lipofuscin due to a significantly increased nitrogen mole fraction in the melanolipofuscin granule. For all pigments observed the oxygen mole fraction yielded a positive correlation with the calcium mole fraction as previously established for melanosomes. Only lipofuscin contained measurable phosphorus mole fractions, which also correlated positively with oxygen. In lipofuscin, mole fractions of nitrogen were significantly smaller than in melanosomes and only indicated a small fraction of proteins. In contrast, the phosphorus mole fraction was significantly larger indicating the presence of significant amounts of phospholipids. Copper and zinc mole fractions were larger than 0.1at% in the melanosomes, but were below the detection limit in the lipofuscin granules. Compared to melanosomes of monkeys and rats analyzed beforehand, human retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes contained the highest amount of zinc, which even exceeded the calcium mole fraction. Trace elements like zinc are of great importance for metabolism and anti-oxidative mechanisms and also play a role in the progression of age related macular degeneration. They can now be investigated by quantitative analytical electron microscopy. PMID:21524648

  2. Chemical compositions of past soluble aerosols reconstructed from NEEM (Greenland) and Dome C (Antarctica) ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Fischer, Hubertus; Schüpbach, Simon; Gfeller, Gideon; Mulvaney, Robert; Hansson, Margareta

    2015-04-01

    Polar ice core preserve past atmospheric aerosols, which is a useful proxy for understanding the interaction between climate changes and atmospheric aerosols. One useful technique for reconstructing past soluble aerosols from ice core is the determination of dissolved ion species. However, since salts and acids melt into ions, chemical compositions of soluble aerosols in the ice cores have not been cleared. To clarify the temporal variations in the chemical compositions of past soluble aerosols, this study investigated chemical compositions of soluble particles preserved in the NEEM (Greenland) and Dome C (Antarctica) ice cores using new method 'ice-sublimation method'. The ice-sublimation method can extract soluble salts particles as a solid state without melting. The ice core samples are selected from the sections from the last termination (the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Holocene) of Dome C (inland Antarctica) and NEEM ice cores. Using ice-sublimation method, soluble salts particles were extracted. Chemical components of extracted particles were analysed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The major components of soluble salts particles in the Dome C ice core are CaSO4, Na2SO4 and NaCl. The CaSO4 and NaCl fractions were high in the first half of the last termination, whereas the Na2SO4 fraction is high in the latter half of the last termination. The major components of soluble salts particles in the NEEM ice core are CaCO3, CaSO4, NaCl and Na2SO4. The fractions of CaCO3, CaSO4 and NaCl were high in LGM, whereas those of NaCl and Na2SO4 were high in Holocene. The changes in the salts compositions in Dome C ice core are mainly controlled by concentration of terrestrial material (Ca2+). In the first half of the last termination, most of the terrestrial material (CaCO3) reacted with H2SO4 but some of sea-salt (NaCl) was not reacted with H2SO4 due to high Ca2+ concentration. As a result, the CaSO4 and NaCl fractions were high in this period. In the latter half of the last termination, reaction of NaCl with H2SO4 enhanced due to decreased in the Ca2+ concentration. As a result, Na2SO4 fraction increased. The changes in the salts compositions in NEEM ice core are also mainly controlled by Ca2+ concentration. In the LGM, some of CaCO3 was reacted but some of CaCO3 and most of NaCl were not reacted with H2SO4 due to too high Ca2+ concentration. As a result, CaCO3, CaSO4 and NaCl fractions were high in LGM. In the Holocene, NaCl sulfatization increased due to reduction of Ca2+ concentration. However, some of NaCl was not sulfatized due to different seasonality of NaCl and H2SO4, and increased in the NH4+ inputs originate from vegetation.

  3. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was highly susceptible to all the other essential oils at the diagnostic dose. Conclusions C. citratus, E. tereticornis, E. citriodora, C. ambrosioides and C. schoenanthus are potential promising plant sources for alternative compounds to pyrethroids, for the control of the Anopheles malaria vector in Benin. The efficacy of their essential oils is possibly based on their chemical compositions in which major and/or minor compounds have reported insecticidal activities on various pests and disease vectors such as Anopheles. PMID:24298981

  4. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, C. W.; Holdren, M. W.; Riggin, R. M.; Lyon, T. F.

    1994-10-01

    Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi) on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  5. The puzzling chemical composition of GJ 436B'S atmosphere: Influence of tidal heating on the chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Selsis, Franck [Univ. Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Venot, Olivia [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Iro, Nicolas, E-mail: Marcelino.Agundez@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr [Theoretical Meteorology group, Klimacampus, University of Hamburg, Grindelberg 5, D-20144 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    The dissipation of the tidal energy deposited on eccentric planets may induce a heating of the planet that affects its atmospheric thermal structure. Here we study the influence of tidal heating on the atmospheric composition of the eccentric (e = 0.16) 'hot Neptune' GJ 436b, for which inconclusive chemical abundances are retrieved from multiwavelength photometric observations carried out during primary transit and secondary eclipse. We build up a one-dimensional model of GJ 436b's atmosphere in the vertical direction and compute the pressure-temperature and molecular abundances profiles for various plausible internal temperatures of the planet (up to 560 K) and metallicities (from solar to 100 times solar), using a radiative-convective model and a chemical model which includes thermochemical kinetics, vertical mixing, and photochemistry. We find that the CO/CH{sub 4} abundance ratio increases with metallicity and tidal heating, and ranges from 1/20 to 1000 within the ranges of metallicity and internal temperature explored. Water vapor locks most of the oxygen and reaches a very high abundance, whatever the metallicity and internal temperature of the planet. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O abundance ratio increases dramatically with metallicity, and takes values between 10{sup –5}-10{sup –4} with solar elemental abundances and ?0.1 for a metallicity 100 times solar. None of the atmospheric models based on solid physical and chemical grounds provide a fully satisfactory agreement with available observational data, although the comparison of calculated spectra and observations seems to point to models with a high metallicity and efficient tidal heating, in which high CO/CH{sub 4} abundance ratios and warm temperatures in the dayside atmosphere are favored.

  6. Spectroscopy of southern Galactic disk planetary nebulae. Notes on chemical composition and emission-line stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górny, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: We present low resolution spectroscopic observations for a sample of 53 planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the southern sky between Vela and Norma constellations and pertaining to the Galactic disk with expected Galactocentric distance range of 5 to 10 kpc. Methods: We derive nebular chemical composition and plasma parameters with the classical empirical method. For most of the observed objects, this has been done for the first time. We compare our results to published data for PNe of the Galactic bulge and PNe in the inner-disk region with expected typical Galactocentric distance of about 3 kpc. We use the spectra to search for emission-line central stars in the observed sample. Results: The distributions of the chemical abundances of the observed disk sample are generally indistinguishable from Galactic bulge and inner-disk PNe populations. The exceptions are possible differences in the He/H distribution, as compared to bulge PNe and Ne/Ar, as compared to the inner-disk PNe sample. The derived O/H ratios for the observed disk PNe fit to the concept of flattening of the chemical gradient in the inner parts of the Milky Way. Investigating the spectra, we found six new emission-line central stars comprising examples of all known types: WEL, VL, and [WR]. We confirm that these types represent three evolutionary unconnected forms of enhanced mass-loss in the central stars of PNe. We note on the problem of high ionisation PNe with nebular C IV emission that can mimic the presence of WEL central stars in 1D spectra. Based on observations made at the South African Astronomical Observatory.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni. PMID:25586611

  8. Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties associated with the radiative forcing of atmospheric dust particles is highest, owing to lack of region-specific dust morphology (particle shape, size) and mineralogy (chemical composition) database, needed for modeling their optical properties (Mishra and Tripathi, 2008). To fill this gap for the Indian region, we collected atmospheric particles (with aerodynamic size <5um, PM5 and a few bulk particles; TSP) from seven sites of Jaipur and nearby locales (semi-arid region, in the vicinity of Thar Desert of Rajasthan) at varying altitude, during late winters of ca. 2012. PM5 particles were collected on Teflon filters (for bulk chemical analyses), while pure Tin substrates (~1×1 mm2) were used for investigating individual particle morphology. Using Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X ray (SEM-EDX) facility at NPL, images of individual particles were recorded and the morphological parameters (e.g. Aspect ratio; AR, Circulatory parameter; CIR.) were retrieved following Okada et al. (2001), whereas chemical compositions of individual particles were determined by EDX and bulk samples by X ray fluorescence (XRF). The geometrical size distributions of atmospheric particles were generated for each site. Based on NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology, USA) morphology database, the site-specific individual particle shapes reveal predominance of "Layered" (calcite and quartz rich), "Angular" structures (quartz rich) and "Flattened" particles over all the sites. Particles were found to be highly non-spherical with irregular shapes (CIR varying from 1 to 0.22 with median value ~0.76; AR varying from 1 to 5.4 with median value ~1.64). Noteworthy to mention, that unit values of AR and CIR represent spherical particles. Chemical analyses of PM5 particles revealed dominance of crustal elements e.g. Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, in general. Particles over Kukas Hill (27.027° N, 75.919° E; ~800 MAGL) showed highest Fe mass fractions (~43%), i.e. a key element (in form of hematite; Fe2O3) for solar (visible) energy absorption and thus heating the atmosphere. The retrieved morphological parameters help to construct particle shape and number size distribution that are highly useful to reduce the uncertainty in radiative forcing of dust particles appreciably when combined with particle chemical composition as suggested by Kalashnikova and Sokolik (2004). References : Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23201, 19 PP., doi:10.1029/2008JD010048. Okada, K., J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin (2001), Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3123-3126 Kalashnikova OV, Sokolik IN. (2004) Modeling the radiative properties of nonspherical soil-derived mineral aerosols, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 87, 137-66.

  9. How to link the relative abundances of gas species in coma of comets to their initial chemical composition ?

    E-print Network

    Marboeuf, Ulysse

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of comets is frequently assumed to be directly provided by the observations of the abundances of volatile molecules in the coma. The present work aims to determine the relationship between the chemical composition of the coma, the outgassing profile of volatile molecules and the internal chemical composition, and water ice structure of the nucleus, and physical assumptions on comets. To do this, we have developed a quasi 3D model of a cometary nucleus which takes into account all phase changes and water ice structures (amorphous, crystalline, clathrate, and a mixture of them); we have applied this model to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta mission. We find that the outgassing profile of volatile molecules is a strong indicator of the physical and thermal properties (water ice structure, thermal inertia, abundances, distribution, physical differentiation) of the solid nucleus. Day/night variations of the rate of production of species helps to distinguish th...

  10. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW(CP)); the equation was as follows: BW(CP) = 14.38 + 0.24 × CPR (n = 240; R(2) = 0.59; MSE = 1.06). A sex effect was found for body water content (BW(W)); the equations were as follows: BW(W) = 38.31 + 0.33 × WR - 1.09 × VF + 0.50 × OV for BU; BW(W) = 45.67 + 0.25 × WR - 1.89 × VF + 0.50 × OV for STR; and BW(W) = 31.61 + 0.47 × WR - 1.06 × VF + 0.50 × OV for HF (n = 241; R(2) = 0.81; MSE = 3.84). The physical carcass composition indicated a breed effect on all components and a sex effect for fat in the carcass. We conclude that body and carcass compositions can be estimated with rib(9-11) for purebred and crossbred NEL animals, but specific equations have to be developed for different groups of animals. PMID:22147483

  11. Determining the chemical composition of cloud condensation nuclei. Third progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.; Rothert, J.E.; McClure, K.E. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Alofs, D.J.; Hagen, D.E.; Schmitt, J.; White, D.R.; Hopkins, A.R.; Trueblood, M.B. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Science Lab.

    1992-12-01

    This third progress report describes the status of our efforts to develop the instrumentation to collect cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in amounts sufficient for chemical analysis. During the fall of 1992 we started collecting filter samples of CCN with the laboratory version of the apparatus at Rolla -MO. The mobile version of the apparatus is in the latter stages of construction. This report includes a fairly rigorous discussion of the operation of the CCN sampling system. A statistical model of the operation of the system is presented to show the ability of the system to collect CCN in the two different size ranges for which we plan to determine the chemical composition. A question is raised by the model results about the operation of one of the virtual impactors. It appears to pass a small percent of particles larger than its cut-point that has the potential of contaminating the smallest CCN sample with larger CCN material. Further tests are necessary, but it may be necessary to redesign that impactor. The appendices of the report show pictures of both the laboratory version and the mobile version of the CCN sampling system. The major hardware has been completed, and the mobile version will be in operation within a few weeks.

  12. The effects of space radiation on a chemically modified graphite-epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, S. M.; Herakovich, C. T.; Sykes, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the space environment on the engineering properties and chemistry of a chemically modified T300/934 graphite-epoxy composite system are characterized. The material was subjected to 1.0 x 10 to the 10th power rads of 1.0 MeV electron irradiation under vacuum to simulate 30 years in geosynchronous earth orbit. Monotonic tension tests were performed at room temperature (75 F/24 C) and elevated temperature (250 F/121 C) on 4-ply unidirectional laminates. From these tests, inplane engineering and strength properties (E sub 1, E sub 2, Nu sub 12, G sub 12, X sub T, Y sub T) were determined. Cyclic tests were also performed to characterize energy dissipation changes due to irradiation and elevated temperature. Large diameter graphite fibers were tested to determine the effects of radiation on their stiffness and strength. No significant changes were observed. Dynamic-mechanical analysis demonstrated that the glass transition temperature was reduced by 50 F(28 C) after irradiation. Thermomechanical analysis showed the occurrence of volatile products generated upon heating of the irradiated material. The chemical modification of the epoxy did not aid in producing a material which was more radiation resistant than the standard T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. Irradiation was found to cause crosslinking and chain scission in the polymer. The latter produced low molecular weight products which plasticize the material at elevated temperatures and cause apparent material stiffening at low stresses at room temperature.

  13. Correlating Titania Morphology and Chemical Composition with Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Santulli, A.C.; Wong, S.; Koenigsmann, C.; Tiano, A.L., DeRosa, D.

    2011-04-20

    We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO{sub 2} as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO{sub 2} material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

  14. Mumijo traditional medicine: fossil deposits from antarctica (chemical composition and beneficial bioactivity).

    PubMed

    Aiello, Anna; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Menna, Marialuisa; Vitalone, Rocco; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-01-01

    Mumijo is a widely used traditional medicine, especially in Russia, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Iran Kasachstan and in Kirgistan. Mumijo preparations have been successfully used for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases; they display immune-stimulating and antiallergic activity as well. In the present study, we investigate the chemical composition and the biomedical potential of a Mumijo(-related) product collected from the Antarctica. The yellow material originates from the snow petrels, Pagodroma nivea. Extensive purification and chemical analysis revealed that the fossil samples are a mixture of glycerol derivatives. In vitro experiments showed that the Mumijo extract caused in cortical neurons a strong neuroprotective effect against the apoptosis-inducing amyloid peptide fragment ?-fragment 25-35 (A?25-35). In addition, the fraction rich in glycerol ethers/wax esters displayed a significant growth-promoting activity in permanent neuronal PC12 cells. It is concluded that this new Mumijo preparation has distinct and marked neuroprotective activity, very likely due to the content of glycerol ether derivatives. PMID:18996940

  15. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antifungal Activity Screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bagiu, Radu Vasile; Vlaicu, Brigitha; Butnariu, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson) and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently identified. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that these compounds were sulfur constituents, with a characteristic absorbance at 250 nm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses allowed the chemical structures of the isolated constituents to be postulated. We adopted the same methods to identify the health-giving profiling of ramsons and the effects are thought to be primarily derived from the presence and breakdown of the alk(en)ylcysteine sulphoxide, alliin and its subsequent breakdown to allicin (sulfur-compounds of ramson) in connection with antifungal action. The aim of the study was the characterization of the chemical composition of ramsons and the testing of the action of the in vitro extracts, on different strains of Candida albicans. The main goal was to highlight the most efficient extracts of Allium ursinum that can provide long-term antifungal activity without remissions. The extracts from Allium ursinum plants, inhibited growth of Candida spp. cells at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, while that of adherent cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to > 4.0 mg/mL, depending on the yeast and plant species. PMID:22408399

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2005-12-28

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

  17. Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: a review and comprehensive database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Lane-Bostwick, Candice M.

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive database of chemical and mineralogical properties for ferromanganese crusts collected throughout the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and has been assembled from published and unpublished sources which provide collection and analytical information for these samples. These crusts, their chemical compositions and natural distribution, have been a topic of interest to scientific research, as well as to industrial and military applications. Unlike abyssal ferromanganese nodules, which form in areas of low disturbance and high sediment accumulation, crusts have been found to contain three to five times more cobalt than these nodules, and can be found on harder, steeper substrates which can be too steep for permanent sediment accumulation. They have also been documented on seamounts and plateaus within the U.S. exclusive economic zone in both Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and these are therefore of strategic importance to the United States Government, as well as to civilian mining and metallurgical industries. The data tables provided in this report have been digitized and previously uploaded to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Geophysical Data Center in 1991 for online distribution, and were provided in plain text format. The 2014 update to the original U.S. Geological Survey open-file report published in 1989 provides these data tables in a slightly reformatted version to make them easier to ingest into geographic information system software, converted to shapefiles, and have completed metadata written and associated with them.

  18. Ion transport in a chemically prepared polypyrrole/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.; Pickup, P.G.

    1999-11-18

    The electrochemistry of a chemically prepared polypyrrole/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) powder has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in a variety of aqueous electrolytes. The facile p-doping/undoping of thick layers of the polymer composite is shown to be due to the high ionic conductivity imparted by electrolyte solution in pores. As a consequence, the ionic conductivities of the polymer layers are strongly dependent on the concentration and conductivity of the electrolyte solution used but relatively insensitive to the doping level of the polymer. In contrast, electrochemically prepared polypyrrole/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) films show much lower ionic conductivities with a pronounced dependence on doping level. It is concluded that layers of the chemically prepared material are approximately 10 times more porous than the electrochemically prepared films. High ionic conductivities previously obtained for polypyrrole/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) layers bonded to Nafion membranes have been shown to be due to HNO{sub 3} generated in pores by ion exchange of residual Fe{sup 3+} with H{sup +} in the Nafion.

  19. Chemical composition of Eucalyptus spp. essential oils and their insecticidal effects on Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Silva, R A; Barros, R S; Sousa, R N; Sousa, L C; Brito, E S; Souza-Neto, M A

    2010-01-20

    The chemical composition of essential oils from three species of plants belonging to the Eucalyptus genus was determined and, their insecticidal effects on egg, larva and adult phases of Lutzomyia longipalpis were assessed. The insects were collected in the municipality of Sobral in the State of Ceará, Brazil. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed along with two negative controls, distilled water and Tween 80 (3%), and a positive control, cypermethrin (0.196mg/ml). The tests were carried out in plastic pots internally coated with sterile plaster and filled with a substrate made of rabbit feces and crushed cassava leaves. The eggs, larvae and adults were sprayed with the oils. The hatched larvae were counted for 10 consecutive days and observed until pupation. Insect mortality was observed after 24, 48 and 72h. E. staigeriana oil was the most effective on all three phases of the insect, followed by E. citriodora and E. globulus oils, respectively. The major constituents of the oils were Z-citral and alpha-citral (E. staigeriana), citronellal (E. citriodora) and 1,8-cineole (E. globulus). The Eucalyptus essential oils constitute alternative natural products for the control of L. longipalpis since the median effective concentration (EC(50)) values revealed relevant action as compared with other natural products, some of their chemical constituents are already known for their insecticidal activity and these oils are produced in commercial scale in Brazil. PMID:19896276

  20. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.; Spencer, N. W.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe.

  1. Structure Chemical Composition And Reactivity Correlations during the In Situ Oxidation of 2-Propanol

    SciTech Connect

    K Paredis; L Ono; S Mostafa; L Li; Z Zhang; J Yang; L Barrio; A Frenkel; B Roldan Cuenya

    2011-12-31

    Unraveling the complex interaction between catalysts and reactants under operando conditions is a key step toward gaining fundamental insight in catalysis. We report the evolution of the structure and chemical composition of size-selected micellar Pt nanoparticles ({approx}1 nm) supported on nanocrystalline {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} during the catalytic oxidation of 2-propanol using X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. Platinum oxides were found to be the active species for the partial oxidation of 2-propanol (<140 C), while the complete oxidation (>140 C) is initially catalyzed by oxygen-covered metallic Pt nanoparticles, which were found to regrow a thin surface oxide layer above 200 C. The intermediate reaction regime, where the partial and complete oxidation pathways coexist, is characterized by the decomposition of the Pt oxide species due to the production of reducing intermediates and the blocking of O{sub 2} adsorption sites on the nanoparticle surface. The high catalytic activity and low onset reaction temperature displayed by our small Pt particles for the oxidation of 2-propanol is attributed to the large amount of edge and corner sites available, which facilitate the formation of reactive surface oxides. Our findings highlight the decisive role of the nanoparticle structure and chemical state in oxidation catalytic reactions.

  2. Chemical composition of the Howardite Parent Body deduced from Kapoeta primary 'mafic' magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. R.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical data are presented for three 'mafic' clasts extracted from the Kapoeta howardite. Bulk compositions and petrologic observations suggest that two of these lithic clasts represent olivine-plagioclase bearing orthopyroxenites. Chondrite-relative refractory large ion lithophile abundances of two of the clasts are inferred to represent primary Mg-rich magmas produced by extensive (greater than about 70%) partial melting of a source composition indistinguishable from the silicate fraction of average CH-CL ordinary chondrites, with the exception of the depletion of the alkalis Na and K by a factor of 13 + or - 1 in the source composition. A metal-free and volatile depleted Kapoeta Parent Body (KPB) is subsequently deduced and is shown to compare very well with other similarly derived Achondrite Parent Body and Howardite Parent Body estimates but not to parent body estimates derived from inferences based on eucrite phase equilibrium studies. Other implications suggest that the KPB is heterogeneous with respect to Fe/Mg ratios.

  3. Low power, lightweight vapor sensing using arrays of conducting polymer composite chemically-sensitive resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Lewis, N. S.

    2001-01-01

    Arrays of broadly responsive vapor detectors can be used to detect, identify, and quantify vapors and vapor mixtures. One implementation of this strategy involves the use of arrays of chemically-sensitive resistors made from conducting polymer composites. Sorption of an analyte into the polymer composite detector leads to swelling of the film material. The swelling is in turn transduced into a change in electrical resistance because the detector films consist of polymers filled with conducting particles such as carbon black. The differential sorption, and thus differential swelling, of an analyte into each polymer composite in the array produces a unique pattern for each different analyte of interest, Pattern recognition algorithms are then used to analyze the multivariate data arising from the responses of such a detector array. Chiral detector films can provide differential detection of the presence of certain chiral organic vapor analytes. Aspects of the spaceflight qualification and deployment of such a detector array, along with its performance for certain analytes of interest in manned life support applications, are reviewed and summarized in this article.

  4. Particle emissions from a marine engine: chemical composition and aromatic emission profiles under various operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

    2014-10-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation. PMID:25202837

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of different polysaccharides from the roots of Angelica dahurica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi-Fang; Ye, Yi-Ping; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Feng-Yang

    2011-06-01

    The total crude polysaccharides (CADPs), isolated from the roots of Angelica dahurica by H(2) O extraction, EtOH precipitation, and dialysis, and the four fractions ADP1, ADP2, ADP3, and ADP4, obtained by gel filtration of the CADPs, were analyzed to characterize their composition and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using different in vitro tests such as the malondialdehyde (MDA)-production, the ferrous ion (Fe(2+) )-chelating, and the HO(.) radical-scavenging assays. The predominant neutral monosaccharides in the four fractions were identified as arabinose, galactose, and glucose, while the composition and ratio of the monosaccharides were different between the fractions. The CADPs and its fractions were found to significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation, chelate Fe(2+) , and scavenge HO(.) radicals, indicating that these polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity. Among the four fractions, ADP4 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, which was stronger than that of the control antioxidant vitamin E (Vit E). Taken together, the chemical composition of these polysaccharides might affect their antioxidant activity, and ADP4 could be explored as a source of potential novel natural antioxidants for food and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:21674784

  6. A model for studying the composition and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R.P.; Jacobson, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    We developed polynomial expressions for the temperature dependence of the mean binary and water activity coefficients for H2SO4 and HNO3 solutions. These activities were used in an equilibrium model to predict the composition of stratospheric aerosols under a wide range of environmental conditions. For typical concentrations of H2O, H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, HBr, HF, and HOCl in the lower stratosphere, the aerosol composition is estimated as a function of the local temperature and the ambient relative humidity. For temperatures below 200 K, our results indicate that (1) HNO3 contributes a significant mass fraction to stratospheric aerosols, and (2) HCl solubility is considerably affected by HNO3 dissolution into sulfate aerosols. We also show that, in volcanically disturbed periods, changes in stratospheric aerosol composition can significantly alter the microphysics that leads to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The effects caused by HNO3 dissolution on the physical and chemical properties of stratospheric aerosols are discussed.

  7. Formation of Lipid-Based Nanodiscs and Their Dependence of Temperature and Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Yongkun; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Phospholipid mixtures composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (sodium salt)(DPPG) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (ammonium salt) (PEGylated DSPE) and cholestrol were found to form nanodiscs (bicelles) in both non-ionic and phosphate buffer solutions . The structure of the aggregates is resolved using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering. The effects of temperature and chemical composition (e.g., PEGylated DSPE and cholesterol) on the structural variation and polydispersity will be discussed in this presentation. These nanodiscs have the potential of serving as a model delivery carrier for hydrophobic molecules for their biological compatibility and capability of incorporating with targeting molecules.

  8. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of essential oil from Atriplex undulata.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Silvana A; Murray, Ana P

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts (stems and leaves) of Atriplex undulata (Moq) D. Dietr. (Chenopodiaceae) has been studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity. The chemical composition of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation was determined by GC and GC-MS. The major constituents were p-acetanisole (28.1%), beta-damascenone (9.3%), beta-ionone (5.1%), viridiflorene (4.7%) and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol (2.2%). The antioxidant activity of the oil was determined by two methods: Crocin bleaching inhibition (Krel = 0.72 +/- 0.15) and scavenging of the DPPH radical (IC50 = 36.2 +/- 1.6 microg/mL). The presence of active compounds like p-acetanisole, carvone, vanillin, 4-vinylguaiacol, guaiacol, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol could explain the antioxidant activity observed for this oil. PMID:21213996

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of the essential oils of Bocageopsis pleiosperma Maas.

    PubMed

    Soares, Elzalina R; da Silva, Felipe M A; de Almeida, Richardson A; de Lima, Bruna R; Koolen, Hector H F; Lourenço, Caroline C; Salvador, Marcos J; Flach, Adriana; da Costa, Luiz Antonio M A; de Souza, Antonia Q L; Pinheiro, Maria L B; de Souza, Afonso D L

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils from the leaves, twigs and barks of Bocageopsis pleiosperma Maas were obtained by using hydrodistillation and analysed by using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Several compounds (51) were detected and identified, being ?-bisabolene the main component in all aerial parts of the plant, with higher concentration in the leaves (55.77%), followed by barks (38.53%) and twigs (34.37%). In order to increase the biological knowledge about the essential oil of Bocageopsis species, antimicrobial activities were evaluated against the microorganisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Candida tropicalis, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. The essential oil obtained from the barks exhibited a moderate effect against S. epidermidis ATCC 1228 (MIC = 250 ?g/mL), while the other oils did not exhibit antimicrobial activity. These results represent the first report about the chemical composition of B. pleiosperma and the first antimicrobial evaluation with a Bocageopsis species. PMID:25562370

  10. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Anredera cordifolia grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucéia Fátima; de Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 19 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil; hydrocarbons were the main constituents (67.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. At 1.25 microg/mL and 0.625 microg/mL, the oil significantly promoted the germination of S. arvensis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230514

  11. Chemical composition of rainwater collected at two sampling sites in the city of Rijeka.

    PubMed

    Alebi?-Jureti?, A; Sojat, V

    1998-09-01

    This study compares the chemical composition of rainwater samples collected at two sampling sites, the first situated in the Rijeka city centre and the second in a suburban site 120 m above the sea level. The rainwater samples were analysed for precipitation weighted average concentrations of hydrogen, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The results suggest that the local washout of the atmosphere enhanced the rainwater acidity in the city centre which also received significant marine contributions of sulphate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium content. Rainwater in the suburban site was affected by soil dust and/or fertilizers used in the nearby gardens, resulting in partial neutralization with rising of pH value. While the content of S-SO4 was practically equal at both sites, the quantities of N-NO3 and N-NH4 nearly doubled at the suburban site. PMID:10376356

  12. Radium isotopes in the Polish Outer Carpathian mineral waters of various chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Lucyna, Rajchel; Jakub, Nowak; Pawe?, Jod?owski

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra) and chemical compositions of above 70 mineral water samples collected from several dozens of springs and boreholes localized in the Polish Outer Carpathians. The activity concentrations of both radium isotopes clearly increase with the increase of water TDS, but decrease when the SO(4)(2-) content increases. These concentrations vary in the broad interval from a few to near 1000 mBq/L. The coefficient of the linear correlation between concentrations of these isotopes amounts to 0.85, and the activity ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra is >1 for chloride-sodium waters, being ?1 for hydrogen-carbonate and <1 for the sulfate ones. PMID:22507354

  13. More insight into the chemical composition of Greek propolis; differences and similarities with Turkish propolis.

    PubMed

    Celemli, Omür G; Hatjina, Fani; Charistos, Leonidas; Schiesser, Aygün; Ozkirim, Asli

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the differences and similarities between Greek and Turkish propolis with respect to their chemical composition given that the two countries have many similarities in floral biodiversity. We observed that: a) Greek propolis is different from the European-type propolis, having a high terpene content; therefore we can definitely characterize it as a Mediterranean type; b) the Turkish propolis collected along the coast line of the Aegean Sea is similiar to the examined Greek propolis; c) the remaining Turkish samples, originating from the European part of Turkey, were found to be similiar to the European-type propolis, having a high flavonoid content. Finally, especially two compounds, beta-elemene and totarol, were found in Greek samples in quite high amounts that are thought to have important biological properties. PMID:24601080

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial action of the essential oils of Salvia desoleana and S. sclarea.

    PubMed

    Peana, A T; Moretti, M D; Juliano, C

    1999-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia desoleana Atzei & Picci and Salvia sclarea L. from Sardinia (Italy) was analysed by GC and GC/MS. S. desoleana oil had a high content of monoterpenic esters (linalyl acetate and alpha-terpinyl acetate) and a lower amount of the corresponding alcohols while S. sclarea oil was characterised by a higher content of alcohols and lower quantity of esters. We studied the antimicrobial activity of these oils concerning their use in pharmaceutical preparations for local application. Only weak microbiostatic inhibitory activity was seen against S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis and C. albicans, but since inhibition increased progressively with contact time, better results could be obtained by using these oils in bioadhesive formulations that would also have anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic action at a local level, as demonstrated in experimental animals following systemic application. PMID:10630121

  15. Chemical composition and antiphytoviral activity of essential oil of Micromeria graeca.

    PubMed

    Vuko, Elma; Dunki?, Valerija; Bezi?, Nada; Rusci?, Mirko; Kremer, Dario

    2012-09-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the essential oils of Micromeria graeca (L.) Rchb from Vis and Komiza on the island of Vis (Croatia) showed them to have a similar chemical composition. The oxygenated sesquiterpene alpha-bisabolol was a major component of both oils with percentages of 13.9% in the oil from Vis and 15.5% in the oil from Komiza. A comparison of the mean number of lesions on the essential oil-treated Chenopodium quinoa plants infected with satellite-associated cucumber mosaic virus (satCMV) with the corresponding control showed that the oil from Vis caused delay in the development and reduction of the number of lesions by 59.3%. The essential oil of M. graeca from Komiza was not effective in the reduction of satCMV infection. PMID:23074916

  16. Stable isotope and chemical compositions of European and Australasian ciders as a guide to authenticity.

    PubMed

    Carter, James F; Yates, Hans S A; Tinggi, Ujang

    2015-01-28

    This paper presents a data set derived from the analysis of bottled and canned ciders that may be used for comparison with suspected counterfeit or substitute products. Isotopic analysis of the solid residues from ciders (predominantly sugar) provided a means to determine the addition of C4 plant sugars. The added sugars were found to comprise cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, glucose, or combinations. The majority of ciders from Australia and New Zealand were found to contain significant amounts of added sugar, which provided a limited means to distinguish these ciders from European ciders. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole ciders (predominantly water) were shown to be controlled by two factors, the water available to the parent plant and evaporation. Analysis of data derived from both isotopic and chemical analysis of ciders provided a means to discriminate between regions and countries of manufacture. PMID:25536876

  17. Heat, Moisture and Chemical Resistant Polyimide Compositions and Methods for Making and Using Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Polyimides having a desired combination of high thermo-oxidative stability, low moisture absorption and excellent chemical and corrosion resistance are prepared by reacting a mixture of compounds including (a) 3,3',4,4'- benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA), (b) 3,4'- oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), and (c) 5-norbornene-2,3- dicarboxylic anhydride (NA) in a high boiling, aprotic solvent to give 5 to 35% by weight of polyamic acid solution. The ratio of (a), (b), and (c) is selected to afford a family of polyimides having different molecular weights and properties. The mixture first forms a polyamic acid precursor. Upon heating at or above 300 C, the polyamic acids form polyimides, which are particularly suitable for use as a high temperature coating, adhesive, thin film, or composite matrix resin.

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Gül, Süleyman; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Akpulat, H A?kin; Aksu, Pinar

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-?-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells. PMID:22310841

  19. In vitro antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of Santolina chamaecyparissus essential oil from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Djeddi, Samah; Djebile, Khadidja; Hadjbourega, Ghania; Achour, Zoubida; Argyropoulou, Catherine; Skaltsa, Helen

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Santolina chamaecyparissus L., growing in Algeria, was investigated by GC-MS analyses. A total of 36 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.7% of the essential oil obtained. Camphor (31.1%) and cubenol (17.0%) were the predominant compounds. The potential of the antimicrobial activity was also investigated and the tested sample proved to be very active against Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans (34.1 +/- 0.02 mm and 35.0 +/- 0.01 mm, respectively). Transverse sections of the leaf and stem of the plant suggest that the essential oil is localized in endogenous and exogenous sites. PMID:22908587

  20. Preparation of functional composite materials based on chemically derived graphene using solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Hyun, W. J.; Mun, S. C.; Park, O. O.

    2015-04-01

    Chemically derived graphenes were assembled into functional composite materials using solution process from stable solvent dispersion. We have developed foldable electronic circuits on paper substrates using vacuum filtration of graphene nanoplates dispersion and a selective transfer process without need for special equipment. The electronic circuits on paper substrates revealed only a small change in conductance under various folding angles and maintained an electronic path after repetitive folding and unfolding. We also prepared flexible. binder-free graphene paper-like materials by addition of graphene oxide as a film stabilizer. This graphene papers showed outstanding electrical conductivity up to 26,000 S/m and high charge capacity as an anode in lithium-ion battery without any post-treatments. For last case, multi-functional thin film structures of graphene nanoplates were fabricated by using layer-by-layer assembly technique, showing optical transparency, electrical conductivity and enhanced gas barrier property.

  1. Spectral Analysis by XANES Reveals that GPNMB Influences the Chemical Composition of Intact Melanosomes

    SciTech Connect

    T Haraszti; C Trantow; A Hedberg-Buenz; M Grunze; M Anderson

    2011-12-31

    GPNMB is a unique melanosomal protein. Unlike many melanosomal proteins, GPNMB has not been associated with any forms of albinism, and it is unclear whether GPNMB has any direct influence on melanosomes. Here, melanosomes from congenic strains of C57BL/6J mice mutant for Gpnmb are compared to strain-matched controls using standard transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis (XANES). Whereas electron microscopy did not detect any ultrastructural changes in melanosomes lacking functional GPNMB, XANES uncovered multiple spectral phenotypes. These results directly demonstrate that GPNMB influences the chemical composition of melanosomes and more broadly illustrate the potential for using genetic approaches in combination with nano-imaging technologies to study organelle biology.

  2. Chemical composition of selected core samples, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Cecil, L.D.; Wood, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents chemical compositions determined from 84 subsamples and 5 quality-assurance split subsamples of basalt core from the eastern Snake River Plain. The 84 subsamples were collected at selected depths from 5 coreholes located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. This report was jointly prepared by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company and the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. Ten major elements and as many as 32 trace elements were determined for each subsample either by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, or by both methods. Descriptive statistics for each element were calculated and tabulated by analytical method for each corehole.

  3. Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for fabrication of carbon nanotube/Al composite powders

    SciTech Connect

    He, C.N., E-mail: cnhe1981@yahoo.com.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, N.Q., E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Shi, C.S.; Song, S.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In order to optimize the chemical vapor deposition process for fabrication of carbon nanotube/Al composite powders, the effect of different reaction conditions (such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and reaction gas ratio) on the morphological and structural development of the powder and dispersion of CNTs in Al powder was investigated using transmission electron microscope. The results showed that low temperatures (500-550 {sup o}C) give rise to herringbone-type carbon nanofibers and high temperatures (600-630 {sup o}C) lead to multi-walled CNTs. Long reaction times broaden the CNT size distribution and increase the CNT yield. Appropriate nitrogen flow is preferred for CNT growth, but high and low nitrogen flow result in carbon nanospheres and CNTs with coarse surfaces, respectively. Above results show that appropriate parameters are effective in dispersing the nanotubes in the Al powder which simultaneously protects the nanotubes from damage.

  4. General method and thermodynamic tables for computation of equilibrium composition and temperature of chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Vearl N; Gordon, Sanford; Morrell, Virginia E

    1951-01-01

    A rapidly convergent successive approximation process is described that simultaneously determines both composition and temperature resulting from a chemical reaction. This method is suitable for use with any set of reactants over the complete range of mixture ratios as long as the products of reaction are ideal gases. An approximate treatment of limited amounts of liquids and solids is also included. This method is particularly suited to problems having a large number of products of reaction and to problems that require determination of such properties as specific heat or velocity of sound of a dissociating mixture. The method presented is applicable to a wide variety of problems that include (1) combustion at constant pressure or volume; and (2) isentropic expansion to an assigned pressure, temperature, or Mach number. Tables of thermodynamic functions needed with this method are included for 42 substances for convenience in numerical computations.

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of selected essential oils and some of their main compounds.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

    2010-09-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils of cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus Allemao, Fabaceae) from Brazil, cedarwood (Juniperus ashei, Cupressaceae) from Texas, Juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) and myrrh (Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., Burseraceae) were analyzed using GC/FID and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils and some of their main compounds were tested against eleven different strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by using agar diffusion and agar serial dilution methods. Animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria were selected. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all tested organisms, except Pseudomonas, using both test methods. Higher activity was observed against Gram-positive strains in comparison with Gram-negative bacteria. Cabreuva oil from Brazil showed similar results, but in comparison with the other oils tested, only when higher concentrations of oil were used. PMID:20922991

  6. Verification of chemical composition of commercially available propolis extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Czy?ewska, Urszula; Kono?czuk, Joanna; Teul, Joanna; Dr?gowski, Pawe?; Pawlak-Morka, Renata; Sura?y?ski, Arkadiusz; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2015-05-01

    Propolis is a resin that is collected by honeybees from various plant sources. Due to its pharmacological properties, it is used in commercial production of nutritional supplements in pharmaceutical industry. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied for quality control analysis of the three commercial specimens containing aqueous-alcoholic extracts of bee propolis. More than 230 constituents were detected in analyzed products, including flavonoids, chalcones, cinnamic acids and their esters, phenylpropenoid glycerides, and phenylpropenoid sesquiterpenoids. An allergenic benzyl cinnamate ester was also identified in all tested samples. This analytical method allows to evaluate biological activity and potential allergenic components of bee glue simultaneously. Studies on chemical composition of propolis samples may provide new approach to quality and safety control analysis in production of propolis supplementary specimens. PMID:25198412

  7. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of three Tunisian Cistus: Cistus monspeliensis, Cistus villosus and Cistus libanotis.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Toniolo, Chiara; Venditti, Alessandro; Bruno, Maurizio; Ben Jemia, Mariem

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of three rockrose Cistus species, Cistus monspeliensis, Cistus libanotis and Cistus villosus, collected in Tunisia, was studied by HPTLC, focusing on the terpenes and phenols constituents. Diterpenes of Cistus are important as the main constituents of the leaf sticky aromatic resin, known as labdanum, which are highly appreciated in perfumery. Polyphenols in the methanolic extracts of each species were identified, quantified as total and as flavonoids and tannins, and tested for antioxidant activity. Diterpenes were evident in C. libanotis and C. monspeliensis, whereas they were practically absent in C. villosus; C. libanotis had higher phenolic amount, whereas antioxidant activities were important, but different according to the following tests: DPPH radical scavenging, conversion of the Fe(3+/)ferricyanide complex and inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching. The reported data confirm the validity of utilisation of Cistus sp. in marketed herbal products, as well as the relevant presence of diterpenes in species actually not used for labdanum production. PMID:25116860

  8. Effect of sample compositions on chemical analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schriemer, D.; Dai, Y.; Li, L. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is an effective ionization technique for mass spectrometry. It takes advantages of some unique properties of certain organic chemicals to provide entrapment, isolation, vaporization, and ionization of the analyte of interest. While the main application of the MALDI technique is currently in the area of biological molecule analysis, it is possible to use this technique for monitoring polymer chemistry such as degradation processes. This is potentially important for studying and developing environmentally degradable polymers. Direct analysis of the analyte in real-world samples is possible with MALDI. However, there is a significant effect of the overall composition of a sample on the detectability and performance of MALDI. Two examples are given to illustrate the positive and negative effects of buffers, salts, and additives on the MALDI sample preparation.

  9. Chemical Composition of Wildland and Agricultural Biomass Burning Particles Measured Downwind During BBOP Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, E.; Onasch, T. B.; Shilling, J.; Pekour, M. S.; Kleinman, L. I.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Worsnop, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study, measured wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest and prescribed agricultural burns in the Central Southeastern US from the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft platform over a four month period in 2013. The chemical composition of the emitted particulate emissions were characterized using an Aerodyne Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) and will be presented in the context of the fire location and source. The SP-AMS was operated with both laser and resistively heated tungsten vaporizers, alternatively turning the laser vaporizer on and off. With the laser vaporizer off, the instrument operated as a standard HR-AMS. Under these sampling conditions, the non-refractory chemical composition of the biomass burning particles will be characterized as a function of the fuel type burned and the observed modified combustion efficiency and observed changes during downwind transport. Specific attention will focus on the level of oxidation (i.e., O:C, H:C, and OM:OC ratios), anhydrosugar, and aromatic content. With the laser vaporizer on, the SP-AMS was also sensitive to the refractory black carbon content, in addition to the non-refractory components, and will be presented within the context of technique-specific collection efficiencies. Under these sampling conditions, addition information on the mass of black carbon, the OM/BC ratio, and the RBC(coat-to-core) ratio will be examined, with a focus on correlating with the simultaneous optical measurements.

  10. Chemical composition of the giant red sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, commercially harvested in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Peter J; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Demir, Necla; Smiley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Giant red sea cucumbers, Parastichopus californicus, are commercially harvested in the U.S. Pacific Northwest; however, the nutritional and chemical properties of its edible muscle bands and body wall have not been fully elucidated. In particular are the fatty acid profiles of P. californicus tissues, which have not been documented. Sea cucumbers were delivered live and muscle bands and body wall freeze dried, vacuum packed, and stored at –30°C until analyzed. Proximate composition of freeze-dried tissues varied greatly with muscle bands being composed of 68% protein, 12% ash, 9% carbohydrate, and 5% lipids, while the body wall was composed of 47% protein, 26% ash, 15% carbohydrate, and 8% lipids. The hydroxyproline, proline, and glycine contents of the body wall were much higher than those in muscle bands, consistent with the larger amount of connective tissue. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and iron contents were higher in the body wall than those in muscle bands, whereas the opposite was observed for zinc content. Total long-chain n-3 fatty acid contents were 19% and 32% of total fatty acids in body wall and muscle bands, respectively. Muscle bands had higher content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) than body wall at 22.6% and 12.3%, respectively. High content of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was recorded in both body wall (7.1%) and muscle bands (9.9%). Overall, the fatty acid profiles of body wall and muscle bands of P. californicus resemble those described for other species; however, the distribution and occurrence of certain fatty acids is unique to P. californicus, being representative of the fatty acid composition of temperate-polar marine organisms. The chemical characterization of freeze-dried edible tissues from P. californicus demonstrated that these products have valuable nutritional properties. The body wall, a food product of lower market value than muscle bands, could be better utilized for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:24804015

  11. Relation between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and antihypertensive activity for six essential oils.

    PubMed

    Yvon, Yan; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Razafindrazaka, René; Randriantsoa, Adolphe; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chabir, Naziha; Mkaddem, Mounira Guedri; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2012-08-01

    Six essential oils (EOs), Juniperus phoenicea (leaves and berries), Thymus capitatus, Lauris nobilis, Melaleuca armillaris, and Eucalyptus gracilis, were screened for their antioxidant and antihypertensive activity as well as their chemical compositions. We identified and quantified 24 compounds (representing 99.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea leaves, 14 compounds (representing 98.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea berries, 11 compounds (representing 99.6% of total oil) for T. capitatus, 32 compounds (representing 98.9% of total oil) for L. nobilis, 32 compounds (representing 98.7% of total oil) for M. armillaris, and 26 compounds (representing 99.3% of total oil) for E. gracilis. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 0.59 to 2183.6 mg/L, whereas T. capitatus (1.24 ± 0.05 mg/L) gave the best activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated by testing the vasorelaxing capacity of EOs on rat aorta precontracted by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). T. capitatus and L. nobilis were most active for an antihypertensive activity (29 ± 3 and 59 ± 2 mg/L, respectively). Correlations between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and/or antihypertensive activity were studied. Significant correlation has been found for antihypertensive activity and p-cymene (R(2) = 0.86), ?-elemene (R(2) = 0.90), and ?-myrcene (R(2) = 0.76). A good correlation has been found between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (R(2) = 0.98). Antioxidant activity can contribute to the prevention of the increase of the blood pressure. According to the literature, no study has been reported until now of correlation between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity. Natural EOs can find its interest and application in a medicinal area. PMID:22860587

  12. High-resolution chemical composition of geothermal scalings from Hungary: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, Ronny; Dietzel, Martin; Deák, József; Leis, Albrecht; Mindszenty, Andrea; Demeny, Attila

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal fluids originating from several hundreds to thousands meters depth mostly hold a high potential for secondary mineral precipitation (scaling) due to high total dissolved solid contents at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The precipitation of e.g. carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and silica has shown to cause severe problems in geothermal heat and electric power production, when clogging of drill-holes, downhole pumps, pipes and heat exchangers occurs (e.g. deep geothermal doublet systems). Ongoing scaling reduces the efficiency in energy extraction and might even question the abandonment of installations in worst cases. In an attempt to study scaling processes both temporally and spatially we collected mineral precipitates from selected sites in Hungary (Bükfürdo, Szechenyi, Szentes, Igal, Hajduszoboszlo). The samples of up to 8 cm thickness were recovered from different positions of the geothermal systems and precipitated from waters of various temperatures (40-120 °C) and variable overall chemical composition. Most of these scalings show fine lamination patterns representing mineral deposition from weeks up to 45 years at our study sites. Solid-fluid interaction over time captured in the samples are investigated applying high-resolution analytical techniques such as laser-ablation mass-spectrometry and electron microprobe, micromill-sampling for stable isotope analysis, and micro-XRD combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. A detailed investigation of the processes determining the formation and growth of precipitates can help to elucidate the short-term versus long-term geothermal performance with regard to anthropogenic and natural reservoir and production dynamics. Changes in fluid chemistry, temperature, pressure, pH, degassing rate (CO2) and flow rate are reflected by the mineralogical, chemical and isotopic composition of the precipitates. Consequently, this high-resolution approach is intended as a contribution to decipher the environmental conditions during the formation of the investigated scalings and to increase our knowledge on retarding and preventive measures of scaling for geothermal applications.

  13. Chemical composition and RT[sub NDT] determinations for Midland weld WF-70

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.; Swain, R.L.; Miller, M.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Heavy-Section Steal Irradiation Program Tenth Irradiation Series has the objective to investigate the affects of radiation on the fracture toughness of the low-upper-shelf submerged-arc welds (B W designation WF-70) in the reactor pressure vessel of the canceled Midland Unit 1 nuclear plant. This report discusses determination of variations in chemical composition And reference temperature (RT[sub NDT]) throughout the welds. Specimens were machined from different sections and through thickness locations in both the beltline and nozzle course welds. The nil-ductility transition temperatures ranged from [minus]40 to [minus]60[degrees]C ([minus]40 and [minus]76[degrees]F) while the RT[sub NDT]S, controlled by the Charpy behavior, varied from [minus]20 to 37[degrees]C ([minus]4 to 99[degrees]F). The upper-shelf energies varied from 77 to 108 J (57 to 80 ft-lb). The combined data revealed a mean 41-J (30-ft-lb) temperature of [minus]8[degrees]C (17[degrees]F) with a mean upper-shelf energy of 88 J (65 ft-lb). The copper contents range from 0.21 to 0.34 wt % in the beltline weld and from 0.37 to 0.46 wt % in the nozzle course weld. Atom probe field ion microscope analyses indicated substantial depletion of copper in the matrix but no evidence of copper clustering. Statistical analyses of the Charpy and chemical composition results as well as interpretation of the ASME procedures for RT[sub NDT] determination are discussed.

  14. Pineapple fruit: morphological characteristics, chemical composition and sensory analysis of red Spanish and Smooth Cayenne cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana P. Bartolomé; Pilar Rupérez; Carmen Fúster

    1995-01-01

    Some physical (weight, size, shape, texture and colour), physico-chemical (pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids), chemical (soluble sugars and organic acids) and biochemical (total dietary fibre, peroxidase activity and soluble protein) characteristics and sensorial attributes (appearance, flavour, odour, colour, firmness and acceptability) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) fruit were studied, in order to assess nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of

  15. Primary and secondary particles chemical composition of marine emissions from Mediterranean seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Meme, Aurelie; Rmili, Badr; Pey, Jorge; Marchand, Nicolas; Schwier, Allison; Sellegri, Karine; Charriere, Bruno; Sempere, Richard; Mas, Sebastien; Parin, David

    2015-04-01

    Marine emissions are among the largest source of both primary particles and do highly contribute secondary organic aerosols (SOA) at a global scale. Whereas physical processes control the primary production of marine aerosols, biological activity is responsible for most of the organic fraction released from marine sources, potentially transformed into SOA when exposed to atmospheric oxidants. The Mediterranean atmosphere displays important concentrations of SOA, especially in summer, when atmospheric oxidants and photochemical activity are at their maximum. The origin of these elevated concentrations of SOA remain unclear. Here we present the results from a mesocosms study in a remote location in Corsica and a chamber study (using fresh sea water from Western Mediterranean) as part of the Source of marine Aerosol particles in the Mediterranean atmosphere (SAM) project. The mesocosm study was conducted at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO (Corsica) in May 2013. One mesocosm was used as a control (with no enrichment) and the other two were enriched with nitrate and phosphate respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16) in order to produce a bloom of biological activity. Physical and chemical properties of the enclosed water samples together with their surrounding atmosphere were monitored during 20 days by a multi-instrumental high-time resolution set-up. In parallel, numerous additional measurements were conducted including water temperature, incident light, pH, conductivity, chemical and biological analyses, fluorescence of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen concentration. The chamber studies were performed in a Teflon chamber of 1. 5m3 that accommodates a pyrex-container for the fresh sea-water samples. After injection of sea-water in the pyrex-container, the system is allowed to stabilize to 20-30 minutes, then it was exposed to 60-100ppbv of ozone and/or UV-A irradiation. Aerosol concentrations and their physical characteristics were followed by means of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers; clusters concentration was monitored using a Particle Size Magnifyer (PSM); the gas-phase composition of volatile organic compounds was determined by using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer and cartridges. Aerosol chemical composition was investigated using High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, filters analysis and TEM-EDX microscopy. Results evidence a complex nature of the primary emitted aerosol which is not clearly associated to the biological bloom (ex. cholrophyll), VOCs emission was observed during high biological activity periods. Formation of new particles was observed in the chamber and seemed to be related to iodine species (in the absence of any macroalgea population).

  16. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  17. Investigation of the detailed chemical composition of organic aerosol in a South East Asian Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Jacqueline; Ward, Martyn; Rami Alfarra, M.; Lewis, Alastair; McFiggans, Gordon; Robinson, Niall

    2010-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in tropical regions is a key uncertainty in quantifying the effect of man made emissions on the climate. Large quantities of volatile organic compounds are emitted from natural biogenic sources in the tropics, including isoprene, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes. There are very few studies of the detailed chemical composition of organic aerosols in tropical rainforest regions, but these would provide information on the importance of primary versus secondary organic aerosols, the key VOC precursors, oxidation state and volatility. Particle samples were collected in a tropical rainforest at Danum Valley in Borneo as part of the OP3 field campaign in 2008. Twenty four hour filter samples were collected at the Global Atmospheric Watch station at a height of around 10 m and shipped back to the laboratory (below -4 °C) for offline analysis. The OA composition was studied using multiple high resolution chromatographic techniques including comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GCXGC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). The composition was directly compared to chamber generated SOA (as part of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earths System , ACES, experiment) to determine SOA tracers. A biogenic SOA tracer MS fragmentation library was constructed and a number of SOA components from limonene, linalool and ?-pinene were identified in the rainforest OA. Very high resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance FTICR-MS) allowed the O:C and H:C ratios to be determined and these will be compared to those obtained by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS). In addition, the OA composition from the rainforest will be compared to other locations.

  18. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites by Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Zhan Jun [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Yang, Ying Chao [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Li, Kai Yuan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Tao, Xin Yong [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Zhang, Li Tong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China; Li, Xiao Dong [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Pan, Zhengwei [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Owing to their exceptional stiffness and strength1 4, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have long been considered to be an ideal reinforcement for light-weight, high-strength, and high-temperature-resistant ceramic matrix composites (CMCs)5 10. However, the research and development in CNT-reinforced CMCs have been greatly hindered due to the challenges related to manufacturing including poor dispersion, damages during dispersion, surface modification, densification and sintering, weak tube/matrix interfaces, and agglomeration of tubes at the matrix grain boundaries5,11. Here we report the fabrication of high-quality aligned CNT/SiC composites by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI), a technique that is being widely used to fabricate commercial continuous-filament CMCs12 15. Using the CVI technique most of the challenges previously encountered in the fabrication of CNT composites were readily overcome. Nanotube pullouts, an important toughening mechanism for CMCs, were consistently observed on all fractured CNT/SiC samples. Indeed, three-point bending tests conducted on individual CNT/SiC nanowires (diameters: 50 200 nm) using an atomic force microscope show that the CNT-reinforced SiC nanowires are about an order of magnitude tougher than the bulk SiC. The tube/matrix interface is so intimate and the SiC matrix is so dense that a ~50-nm-thick SiC coating can effectively protect the inside nanotubes from being oxidized at 1600 C in air. The CVI method may be extended to produce nanotube composites from a variety of matrix

  19. Modern Chemical Technology, Guidebook for Chemical Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is a part of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum that is developed for chemical technicians. It is intended as a handbook that will be used throughout the instruction. Safety is stressed in eight of the ten chapters under the headings: safety in the chemical laboratory, personal protective equipment, fire safety…

  20. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  1. CHEMICAL SAFETY ALERTS-

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Safety Alerts are short publications which explain specific hazards that have become evident through chemical accident investigation efforts. EPA has produced over a dozen Alerts to date. This year's Alert: Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards...

  2. CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals in Progress Bulletin is a quarterly newsletter which highlights regulatory and program activities of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Regular features and news items include the existing chemicals program, new chemicals program, pollution prevention activi...

  3. [Studies on the changes in rice straw composition in relay treatment of chemical-microbial process by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Shen, Qi-rong; Zhong, Zeng-tao; Chen, Xiang-huai

    2004-09-01

    Direct burning of crop straw in the field has given or is giving rise to a serious pollution of atmosphere. The difficult decomposing of the crop straw by soil microorganisms is one of the reasons the crop straw is not popularly used in agriculture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the changes in straw composition during the relay treatment of chemical-microbial process. The results showed that the method of FTIR spectra could indicate the changes in straw composition during the treatment processes. After the relay treatment of chemical-microbial process, the contents of cellulose, semi-cellulose, and silicon, and C/N ratio were decreased significantly, while the water soluble substances were increased, which was in accordance with the results of chemical analysis. The method to treat crop straw proposed in this paper could provide a practicable way in agricultural utilization of crop straw. PMID:15762520

  4. Direct aerosol chemical composition measurements to evaluate the physicochemical differences between controlled sea spray aerosol generation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. B.; Zhao, D. F.; Ruppel, M. J.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Modini, R. L.; Stokes, M. D.; Russell, L. M.; Bertram, T. H.; Grassian, V. H.; Deane, G. B.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-11-01

    Controlled laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of sea spray aerosol (SSA) must be under-pinned by a physically and chemically accurate representation of the bubble-mediated production of nascent SSA particles. Bubble bursting is sensitive to the physico-chemical properties of seawater. For a sample of seawater, any important differences in the SSA production mechanism are projected into the composition of the aerosol particles produced. Using direct chemical measurements of SSA at the single-particle level, this study presents an intercomparison of three laboratory-based, bubble-mediated SSA production schemes: gas forced through submerged sintered glass filters ("frits"), a pulsed plunging-waterfall apparatus, and breaking waves in a wave channel filled with natural seawater. The size-resolved chemical composition of SSA particles produced by breaking waves is more similar to particles produced by the plunging waterfall than those produced by sintered glass filters. Aerosol generated by disintegrating foam produced by sintered glass filters contained a larger fraction of organic-enriched particles and a different size-resolved elemental composition, especially in the 0.8-2 ?m dry diameter range. Interestingly, chemical differences between the methods only emerged when the particles were chemically analyzed at the single-particle level as a function of size; averaging the elemental composition of all particles across all sizes masked the differences between the SSA samples. When dried, SSA generated by the sintered glass filters had the highest fraction of particles with spherical morphology compared to the more cubic structure expected for pure NaCl particles produced when the particle contains relatively little organic carbon. In addition to an intercomparison of three SSA production methods, the role of the episodic or "pulsed" nature of the waterfall method on SSA composition was under-taken. In organic-enriched seawater, the continuous operation of the plunging waterfall resulted in the accumulation of surface foam and an over-expression of organic matter in SSA particles compared to those produced by a pulsed plunging waterfall. Throughout this set of experiments, comparative differences in the SSA number size distribution were coincident with differences in aerosol particle composition, indicating that the production mechanism of SSA exerts important controls on both the physical and chemical properties of the resulting aerosol with respect to both the internal and external mixing state of particles. This study provides insight into the inextricable physicochemical differences between each of the bubble-mediated SSA generation mechanisms tested and the aerosol particles that they produce, and also serves as a guideline for future laboratory studies of SSA particles.

  5. Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cupressus arizonica Greene essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amri; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Hamrouni, Lamia; Hanana, Mohsen; Jamoussi, Bassem; Gargouri, Samia; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, and female cones of Cupressus arizonica Greene, grown in Tunisia, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 62 compounds were identified, 62 in the leaf oil, 19 in the cone oil, and 24 in the stem oil. The cone and stem oils were mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (96.6 and 85.2%, resp.). In the leaf oil, the total sesquiterpene fraction constituted 36.1% and that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 33.8% of the total oil composition. The three oils were evaluated for their in vitro herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of the four weed species Sinapis arvensis L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Trifolium campestre Schreb., and Phalaris canariensis L. At the highest doses tested (0.8 and 1.0?mg/ml), the leaf essential oil inhibited either totally or almost completely the seed germination and the shoot and root growth of S. arvensis and T. campestre. The oils were also tested for their antifungal activity; however, their effects on the fungal growth were statistically not significant. PMID:24443435

  6. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Senatore, Federica; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Grulova, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Snoussi, Mejdi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6-165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals. PMID:26140436

  7. The effects of physico-chemical interactions and polymer grafting on interfacial adhesion in thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, Venkat Krishna

    The effects of physico-chemical interactions between the carbon fiber and Bisphenol-A polycarbonate matrix was investigated to understand the factors governing the interfacial adhesion in thermoplastic matrix composites. It was found that, the changes in the amount of oxygen functionality achieved through electrochemical oxidative surface treatment of the carbon fibers didn't affect the level of adhesion, indicating negligible polar and hydrogen bond formation. Composites fabricated from these fibers that were subsequently passivated through thermal hydrogenation up to 1000°C, which removed all the oxygen functionality without affecting the fiber topography, indicated that the mechanical interlocking between the fiber and the matrix didn't have a strong influence on the interfacial adhesion. Grafting low molecular weight BPA-PC and high molecular weight PMMA on to the fiber surface improved the interfacial adhesion. However, the level of improvement was observed to be independent of the fiber surface treatment and the molecular weight of the grafted chains. These results are consistent with the cohesive zone models proposed for the chain pull out and chain scission observed in block copolymers.

  8. Changes to the chemical composition of soot from heterogeneous oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Browne, Eleanor C; Franklin, Jonathan P; Canagaratna, Manjula R; Massoli, Paola; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Worsnop, Douglas R; Wilson, Kevin R; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-02-19

    The atmospheric aging of soot particles, in which various atmospheric processes alter the particles' chemical and physical properties, is poorly understood and consequently is not well-represented in models. In this work, soot aging via heterogeneous oxidation by OH and ozone is investigated using an aerosol flow reactor coupled to a new high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometric technique that utilizes infrared vaporization and single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization. This analytical technique simultaneously measures the elemental and organic carbon components of soot, allowing for the composition of both fractions to be monitored. At oxidant exposures relevant to the particles' atmospheric lifetimes (the equivalent of several days of oxidation), the elemental carbon portion of the soot, which makes up the majority of the particle mass, undergoes no discernible changes in mass or composition. In contrast, the organic carbon (which in the case of methane flame soot is dominated by aliphatic species) is highly reactive, undergoing first the addition of oxygen-containing functional groups and ultimately the loss of organic carbon mass from fragmentation reactions that form volatile products. These changes occur on time scales comparable to those of other nonoxidative aging processes such as condensation, suggesting that further research into the combined effects of heterogeneous and condensational aging is needed to improve our ability to accurately predict the climate and health impacts of soot particles. PMID:25654760

  9. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of volatiles from three Opuntia species growing in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bergaoui, Afifa; Boughalleb, Naima; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Shiric, F; El Mahjoub, Mohamed; Mighri, Zine

    2007-08-01

    The chemical composition of the volatiles isolated by steam distillation from leaves, flowers and fruits of Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis L. Benson, leaves and flowers of Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm and leaves of Opuntia microdasys (Lehmann) gathered in the sea cliff of Monastir town (Tunisia), has been studied by GC and GC-MS. Remarkable differences were noted between the composition and the constituent percentage of the different studied organs. The most important compounds found in leaves, flowers and fruits of Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis were tetradecanoic acid (3.15-13.57%), hexadecanoic acid (8.5-17.33%), butyl tetradecanoate (8.05-21.47%) and (E)-3-Butyldiene phthalide (6.92-15.77%). In the flowers volatile extract of Opuntia macrorhiza, the main compound found was Butyl tetradecanoate (21.14%). The volatile extract from Opuntia microdasys leaves was mainly rich in hexadecanoic acid (13.13%), (E)-3-Butyldiene phthalide (21.4%) and butyl tetradecanoate (5.91%). Volatile components extracts were tested against the fungi Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani f. sp cucurbitae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. The strongest inhibitory effect of the all volatile extracts was observed against PMID:19070119

  10. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  11. Chemical composition and variability of the waters of the Edwards Plateau, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, A.W.; Gustafson, J.J. [Southwest Texas State Univ., San Marcos, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The surface waters of the karstic Edwards Plateau, southcentral Texas, are quite similar in many of their chemical characteristics. The ionic composition of the water was dominated by calcium and alkalinity (mostly bicarbonate) acquired through limestone weathering, and the ionic composition (in equivalents) was Ca>Mg>Na>K and alkalinity >Cl and SO{sub 4}. The median specific conductance and total dissolved solids ranged from 394 to 535 {mu}S cm{sup {minus}1} and 220 and 327 mg L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The streams were always near or at supersaturation with respect to calcium carbonate, and the dynamics of calcium carbonate dissolution and precipitation tended to maintain the dissolved substances at a fairly constant level. This may have been enhanced by the intimate contact of water and bedrock characteristic of karst drainages. Specific conductance, Ca, and alkalinity all decreased at higher summer temperatures. Many of the streams on the plateau maintained a constant level or actually increased concentrations of total dissolved substances at increased flow rates. These waters acquired significant quantities of solute as they flow through the confine Edwards Aquifer, including alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, and NO{sub 3}.

  12. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  13. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  14. Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.

    PubMed

    Juan, Felipe San; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2012-05-23

    The aroma chemical composition of three sets of Spanish red wines belonging to three different price categories was studied by using an array of gas chromatographic methods. Significant differences were found in the levels of 72 aroma compounds. Expensive wines are richest in wood-related compounds, ethyl phenols, cysteinil-derived mercaptans, volatile sulfur compounds, ethyl esters of branched acids, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde and are poorest in linear and branched fatty acids, fusel alcohols, terpenols, norisoprenoids, fusel alcohol acetates, and ethyl esters of the linear fatty acids; inexpensive wines show exactly the opposite profile, being richest in E-2-nonenal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, acetoin, and ethyl lactate. Satisfactory models relating quality to odorant composition could be built exclusively for expensive and medium-price wines but not for the lower-price sample set in which in-mouth attributes had to be included. The models for quality reveal a common structure, but they are characteristic of a given sample set. PMID:22480297

  15. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  16. All-year-round aerosol chemical composition at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Frosini, Daniele; Galli, Gaia; Ghedini, Costanza; Rugi, Francesco; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita

    2010-05-01

    Since 2005, continuous, all-year-round aerosol sampling was carried out at Dome C (Central East Antarctica, 3233 m a.s.l., about 1100 km far from the coastline), in the framework of "Station Concordia" project, an Italian PNRA - French IPEV joint program. Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in summer and winter periods by using different low- and medium-volume systems, including pre-selected cut-off samplers (with PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 cut-off heads) and multi-stage (Andersen 8-stage and Dekati 4-stage) impactors. Sampling resolution and volumes ranged from 1 day to 1 month and from 2.3 to 12 m3/h, respectively. Aerosol study at Dome C is expected improving our knowledge on present-day source intensity, transport efficiency and pathways (including stratosphere-troposphere interchanges) of particles reaching internal sites of Antarctica. Besides, more detailed information on atmosphere-snow interactions, including depositional and post-depositional processes, as well as the effect of sublimation/condensation processes on snow surface, will be used for improving the reconstruction of past atmosphere composition from ice core chemical stratigraphies (EPICA Dome C ice core). Here we report major results from the chemical composition of the Antarctic background aerosol reaching Dome C, pointing out the seasonal pattern and the temporal trend of some ionic components used as tracers of sea spray, marine biogenic and crustal emissions. Oxidised sulfur compounds are assumed to affect the climate system by influencing the Earth's radiative budget, both directly (solar light scattering) and indirectly (acting as cloud condensation nuclei). Among these compounds, methanesulphonic acid (MSA) and H2SO4 (arising from the atmospheric oxidation of phytoplanktonic dimethylsulphide - DMS), are considered the best tracers of marine productivity. Their use as reliable markers of oceanic biogenic emissions is hindered by poorly known mechanisms (temperature and photochemistry induced) controlling the MSA-H2SO4 ratio from DMS. Since, in summer, DMS in route toward central Antarctica is subjected to larger atmospheric concentrations of OH (and/or BrO) radical, lower temperatures and lower humidity, all conditions promoting the preferential H2SO4 formation, non-sea-salt sulphate is assumed to be the most reliable biogenic marker at Dome C. A further insight from ice-core stratigraphies is concerning the sea salt sodium (ssNa) content in snow precipitation as a reliable marker of sea-ice extent, via frost-flower formation at the pack-ice seasonal growth. This interpretation faces with the classical view that consider higher sea-spray production as caused by an increase in zonal wind intensity. Sea spray originated from frost flowers can be distinguished from sea spray coming from bulk sea-water by the lower sulphate/sodium ratio (caused by mirabilite - Na2SO4 10H20 - precipitation occurring when sea-ice temperature falls below -8°C). High resolution aerosol measurement can allow to identify different sea-spray sources and quantify frost flowers contribution to the annual ssNa budget. Finally, dust recorded in ice cores can be used as a valuable proxy for changes in hydrological cycles in the dust source areas and transport processes (pathways and scavenging). The geochemical characterization of dust in the present-day aerosol, compared with chemical composition of soils collected in South America and Australia, allows identifying the major dust source area (South America) and reconstructing pathways of atmospheric circulation. South America role in feeding dust aerosol at Dome C was supported also by comparing aerosol composition with satellite observations (dust plumes on the source sites) and back-trajectory analysis (air masses reaching Antarctica) during massive dust-storm events.

  17. Estimation of Equilibrium Liquid from the Pyroxene Chemical Compositions of Monomict and Polymict Cumulate Eucrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, K.; Takeda, H.

    1993-07-01

    Cumulate eucrites have bulk compositions between diogenites and ordinary (noncumulate) eucrites (OE). The study of polymict eucrite Y791439 shows that ordinary to cumulate eucrites are located adjacent to each other in the parent body crust, and shows that there are four stages in the crystallization sequence of pyroxene, including two types of cumulate eucrite [1]. In this study we calculate the activities of some elements in the liquid equilibrated with pyroxenes in Y791439 and some cumulate eucrites by single element partition coefficients for the better understanding of the liquid evolution on the HED parent body's crust. Polished thin sections (PTS) of Y791439,51 and Y791195,92-1 were supplied from the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) in Japan. Medanitos was supplied from the British Museum of Natural History. A PTS of ALH85001 was made from a chip supplied from Meteorite Working Group (MWG) in the U.S. These PTSs were investigated by SEM (JEOL840A) equipped with a chemical mapping system (PXQUAD system) originally constructed by us and the chemical compositions of pyroxenes were obtained by EPMA (JEOL 733 mark II). Y791439 is composed of four types of pyroxene; JV (Juvinas), MC (Moore County), BD (Binda), and D (Diogenite)-type in order from Fe-rich to Mg-rich. The activities of some network-modifier elements (e.g., Fe, Mg, and Ca) in the liquid equilibrated with the pyroxenes in Y791439 are calculated and plotted in the Ca/Fe vs. Mg/Fe (atomic ratio) diagram. For the calculation we adopted the modified Bottinga-Weill two-lattice melt model [2] and single "M"-site pyroxene model and applied Nielsen-Drake partition coefficients [3]. The bulk chemical composition of Y7308 is taken from Ikeda and Takeda (1985) and those of the other meteorites are taken from BVSP (1981). The bulk of Y7308 is one of the probable candidates for the parental liquid that crystallized diogenites and eucrites and the bulks of OE are candidates for the most evolved liquid compositions. The tendency of liquid evolution is roughly estimated as Path 1 in Fig. 1. The liquid equilibrated with the D-type pyroxene corresponds to OEs. There is a high possibility that the D-type pyroxenes crystallized from the liquid, which would solidify as scarf of an OE such as the JV type. The liquids equilibrated with Fe-rich pyroxenes (JV and MC type of Y791439 and Y791195) are more evolved magmas than the OE bulk. Such Fe-rich materials, however, have not been found. We propose that some cumulate eucrites especially Fe-rich ones may not be cumulus, but slightly evolved liquid, themselves solidified slowly under an OE scarf. Based on its major element chemistries (mg# = 45) and non-preferred orientation texture, Y791195 is a good candidate for such a kind of noncumulate eucrite. Medanitos may be cumulus from an Fe-rich liquid like Nuevo Laredo or may be slightly evolved liquid itself. Y791195 and Medanitos show finer exsolution textures than Moore County. This work is supported by Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Japanese Junior Scientists. References: [1] Saiki K. et al (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 284. [2] Bottinga Y. and Weill D. F. (1972) AJS, 272, 438-475. [3] Nielsen R. L. and Drake M. J. (1979) GCA, 43, 1259-1272. Figure 1, which appears in the hard copy, shows hypothetical liquids on the HED parent body.

  18. Algal Sensory Chemical Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Amsler

    Sensory chemical ecology is the branch of chemical ecology that focuses on chemical communications between organisms and chemical\\u000a sensing of the environment by organisms. Algae are well known to have numerous physiological responses to variations in their\\u000a chemical environment, particularly with respect to nutrients (Lobban and Harrison 1994). However, with respect to environmental\\u000a sensing it is typical for “chemical ecology”

  19. Designing heterogeneous chemical composition on hierarchical structured copper substrates for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongjun; Hou, Rui; Du, Ying; Lai, Hua; Fu, Kewei; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2013-09-11

    Controlling water adhesion is important for superhydrophobic surfaces in many applications. Compared with numerous researches about the effect of microstructures on the surface adhesion, research relating to the influence of surface chemical composition on the surface adhesion is extremely rare. Herein, a new strategy for preparation of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces through designing heterogeneous chemical composition (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) on the rough substrate is reported, and the influence of surface chemical composition on the surface adhesion are examined. The surfaces were prepared through self-assembling of mixed thiol (containing both HS(CH2)9CH3 and HS(CH2)11OH) on the hierarchical structured copper substrates. By simply controlling the concentration of HS(CH2)11OH in the modified solution, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces can be obtained. The adhesive force of the surfaces can be increased from extreme low (about 8 ?N) to very high (about 65 ?N). The following two reasons can be used to explain the tunable effect: one is the number of hydrogen bond for the variation of surface chemical composition; and the other is the variation of contact area between the water droplet and surface because of the capillary effect that results from the combined effect of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups and microstructures on the surface. Noticeably, water droplets with different pH (2-12) have similar contact angles and adhesive forces on the surfaces, indicating that these surfaces are chemical resistant to acid and alkali. Moreover, the as-prepared surfaces were also used as the reaction substrates and applied in the droplet-based microreactor for the detection of vitamin C. This report provides a new method for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion, which could not only help us further understand the principle for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, but also potentially be used in many important applications, such as microfluidic devices and chemical microreactors. PMID:23919678

  20. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)\\/(III) composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radek Zboril; Marek Andrle; Frantisek Oplustil; Libor Machala; Jiri Tucek; Jan Filip; Zdenek Marusak; Virender K. Sharma

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical