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Sample records for chemical entities modern

  1. Beyond new chemical entities

    PubMed Central

    Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C; Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-type agents (i.e., antibodies and derivatives thereof) may be produced as clinically valuable antidotes, which conceivably could be developed in tandem with prospective new pharmaceutical products so as to render the risks of clinical trials more acceptable from a regulatory standpoint. Yet, this is but a relatively narrow view of the full potential utility associated with antibody-type agents, the significance of which is appreciated upon reconsidering key aspects of early modern biomedical research (notably major contributions thereto by Nobel Laureate Paul Ehrlich) in light of much more recent advances (e.g., application of immunity-oriented approaches to diseases in general, epitope-specific targeting, abzyme-mediated catalysis, antibody-mediated sustained-release buffering of unbound-ligand concentrations, and enhanced thermal and metabolic stability of deuterated chemical species via the kinetic isotope effect), as conditioned by health-related concerns (e.g., current and anticipated epidemiologic transitions vis-a-vis environmental changes) especially with regard to sustainable development (e.g., emphasizing more efficient resource utilization toward increased global resilience based on greater independence from high-maintenance technological infrastructure). The broader view that thus emerges highlights the urgent need to rebalance the health-research agenda, which presently reflect an overemphasis on small-molecule candidate-drug discovery, in order to advance health based on a comprehensive fundamental synthesis of immunity and pharmacology. PMID:24632567

  2. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine- ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The 'Yin and Yang' theory and the fundamentals of the 'five elements' applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng's bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson's disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng mainly due to its

  3. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine— Ginseng (II): Collected Chemical Entities, Modern Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications Emanated from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2009-01-01

    This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The ‘Yin and Yang’ theory and the fundamentals of the ‘five elements’ applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng’s bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng

  4. Chemical Entities of Biological Interest: an update.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Paula; Alcántara, Rafael; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Turner, Steve; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. This article reports on new features in ChEBI since the last NAR report in 2007, including substructure and similarity searching, a submission tool for authoring of ChEBI datasets by the community and a 30-fold increase in the number of chemical structures stored in ChEBI. PMID:19854951

  5. Chemical Entities of Biological Interest: an update

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Paula; Alcántara, Rafael; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Turner, Steve; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on ‘small’ chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. This article reports on new features in ChEBI since the last NAR report in 2007, including substructure and similarity searching, a submission tool for authoring of ChEBI datasets by the community and a 30-fold increase in the number of chemical structures stored in ChEBI. PMID:19854951

  6. "New drug" designations for new therapeutic entities: new active substance, new chemical entity, new biological entity, new molecular entity.

    PubMed

    Branch, Sarah K; Agranat, Israel

    2014-11-13

    This Perspective addresses ambiguities in designations of "new drugs" intended as new therapeutic entities (NTEs). Designation of an NTE as a new drug is significant, as it may confer regulatory exclusivity, an important incentive for development of novel compounds. Such designations differ between jurisdictions according to their drug laws and drug regulations. Chemical, biological, and innovative drugs are addressed in turn. The terms new chemical entity (NCE), new molecular entity (NME), new active substance (NAS), and new biological entity (NBE) as applied in worldwide jurisdictions are clarified. Differences between them are explored through case studies showing why new drugs have different periods of exclusivity in different jurisdictions or none at all. Finally, this Perspective recommends that in future, for the purpose of new drug compilations, NME is used for a new chemical drug, NBE for a new biological drug, and the combined designation NTE should refer to either an NME or an NBE. PMID:25188028

  7. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined. PMID:26188793

  8. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 14-18 for the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content concentrates on the background needed to understand the periodic table; names of inorganic compounds; structures, names and classes of common organic material; chemistry and…

  12. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  13. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  14. Cascaded classifiers for confidence-based chemical named entity recognition

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Peter; Copestake, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Background Chemical named entities represent an important facet of biomedical text. Results We have developed a system to use character-based n-grams, Maximum Entropy Markov Models and rescoring to recognise chemical names and other such entities, and to make confidence estimates for the extracted entities. An adjustable threshold allows the system to be tuned to high precision or high recall. At a threshold set for balanced precision and recall, we were able to extract named entities at an F score of 80.7% from chemistry papers and 83.2% from PubMed abstracts. Furthermore, we were able to achieve 57.6% and 60.3% recall at 95% precision, and 58.9% and 49.1% precision at 90% recall. Conclusion These results show that chemical named entities can be extracted with good performance, and that the properties of the extraction can be tuned to suit the demands of the task. PMID:19025690

  15. Identifying interactions between chemical entities in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Lamurias, Andre; Ferreira, João D; Couto, Francisco M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between chemical compounds described in biomedical text can be of great importance to drug discovery and design, as well as pharmacovigilance. We developed a novel system, \\"Identifying Interactions between Chemical Entities\\" (IICE), to identify chemical interactions described in text. Kernel-based Support Vector Machines first identify the interactions and then an ensemble classifier validates and classifies the type of each interaction. This relation extraction module was evaluated with the corpus released for the DDI Extraction task of SemEval 2013, obtaining results comparable to state-of-the-art methods for this type of task. We integrated this module with our chemical named entity recognition module and made the whole system available as a web tool at www.lasige.di.fc.ul.pt/webtools/iice. PMID:25339081

  16. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  17. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  18. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  19. Rotigotine: the first new chemical entity for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Donald A; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-11-01

    Rotigotine is the first, and to date, the only new chemical entity to be formulated for transdermal delivery. Although first approved for the management of Parkinson's disease in Europe in 2007 and Restless Leg Syndrome in 2008, the story of rotigotine began more than twenty years earlier. In this review we outline the historical development of this molecule and its route to licensed medicine status. It has very favourable physicochemical properties for transdermal delivery but it took a significant period to develop from concept to market. The stability problems which led to the temporary withdrawal of the patch are examined and the major clinical studies demonstrating efficacy and safety are outlined. Alternative new therapeutic modalities are also considered. PMID:25173087

  20. ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest.

    PubMed

    Degtyarenko, Kirill; de Matos, Paula; Ennis, Marcus; Hastings, Janna; Zbinden, Martin; McNaught, Alan; Alcántara, Rafael; Darsow, Michael; Guedj, Mickaël; Ashburner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/ PMID:17932057

  1. ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest

    PubMed Central

    Degtyarenko, Kirill; de Matos, Paula; Ennis, Marcus; Hastings, Janna; Zbinden, Martin; McNaught, Alan; Alcántara, Rafael; Darsow, Michael; Guedj, Mickaël; Ashburner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on ‘small’ chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/ PMID:17932057

  2. tmChem: a high performance approach for chemical named entity recognition and normalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical compounds and drugs are an important class of entities in biomedical research with great potential in a wide range of applications, including clinical medicine. Locating chemical named entities in the literature is a useful step in chemical text mining pipelines for identifying the chemical mentions, their properties, and their relationships as discussed in the literature. We introduce the tmChem system, a chemical named entity recognizer created by combining two independent machine learning models in an ensemble. We use the corpus released as part of the recent CHEMDNER task to develop and evaluate tmChem, achieving a micro-averaged f-measure of 0.8739 on the CEM subtask (mention-level evaluation) and 0.8745 f-measure on the CDI subtask (abstract-level evaluation). We also report a high-recall combination (0.9212 for CEM and 0.9224 for CDI). tmChem achieved the highest f-measure reported in the CHEMDNER task for the CEM subtask, and the high recall variant achieved the highest recall on both the CEM and CDI tasks. We report that tmChem is a state-of-the-art tool for chemical named entity recognition and that performance for chemical named entity recognition has now tied (or exceeded) the performance previously reported for genes and diseases. Future research should focus on tighter integration between the named entity recognition and normalization steps for improved performance. The source code and a trained model for both models of tmChem is available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmChem. The results of running tmChem (Model 2) on PubMed are available in PubTator: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/PubTator PMID:25810774

  3. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  4. Optimising chemical named entity recognition with pre-processing analytics, knowledge-rich features and heuristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of robust methods for chemical named entity recognition, a challenging natural language processing task, was previously hindered by the lack of publicly available, large-scale, gold standard corpora. The recent public release of a large chemical entity-annotated corpus as a resource for the CHEMDNER track of the Fourth BioCreative Challenge Evaluation (BioCreative IV) workshop greatly alleviated this problem and allowed us to develop a conditional random fields-based chemical entity recogniser. In order to optimise its performance, we introduced customisations in various aspects of our solution. These include the selection of specialised pre-processing analytics, the incorporation of chemistry knowledge-rich features in the training and application of the statistical model, and the addition of post-processing rules. Results Our evaluation shows that optimal performance is obtained when our customisations are integrated into the chemical entity recogniser. When its performance is compared with that of state-of-the-art methods, under comparable experimental settings, our solution achieves competitive advantage. We also show that our recogniser that uses a model trained on the CHEMDNER corpus is suitable for recognising names in a wide range of corpora, consistently outperforming two popular chemical NER tools. Conclusion The contributions resulting from this work are two-fold. Firstly, we present the details of a chemical entity recognition methodology that has demonstrated performance at a competitive, if not superior, level as that of state-of-the-art methods. Secondly, the developed suite of solutions has been made publicly available as a configurable workflow in the interoperable text mining workbench Argo. This allows interested users to conveniently apply and evaluate our solutions in the context of other chemical text mining tasks. PMID:25810777

  5. Microwave assisted total synthesis of a benzothiophene-based new chemical entity (NCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical scientists are required to generate diverse arrays of complex targets in short span of time, which can now be achieved by microwave-assisted organic synthesis. New chemical entities (NCE) can be built in a fraction of the time using this technique. However, there a...

  6. Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    •Sustainable synthesis of chemical entities by microwave heating with nano-catalysis in water •CRADA’s with the private companies, CEM corporation and VeruTEK Technologies •Green Chemistry principles are accommodated via multi-faceted approach. Learning from nature- using na...

  7. A document processing pipeline for annotating chemical entities in scientific documents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The recognition of drugs and chemical entities in text is a very important task within the field of biomedical information extraction, given the rapid growth in the amount of published texts (scientific papers, patents, patient records) and the relevance of these and other related concepts. If done effectively, this could allow exploiting such textual resources to automatically extract or infer relevant information, such as drug profiles, relations and similarities between drugs, or associations between drugs and potential drug targets. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a document processing and information extraction pipeline for the identification of chemical entity mentions in text. Results We used the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER task data to train and evaluate a machine-learning based entity recognition system. Using a combination of two conditional random field models, a selected set of features, and a post-processing stage, we achieved F-measure results of 87.48% in the chemical entity mention recognition task and 87.75% in the chemical document indexing task. Conclusions We present a machine learning-based solution for automatic recognition of chemical and drug names in scientific documents. The proposed approach applies a rich feature set, including linguistic, orthographic, morphological, dictionary matching and local context features. Post-processing modules are also integrated, performing parentheses correction, abbreviation resolution and filtering erroneous mentions using an exclusion list derived from the training data. The developed methods were implemented as a document annotation tool and web service, freely available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/becas-chemicals/. PMID:25810778

  8. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents. PMID:27141091

  9. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Hettne, Kristina M.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small. Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents PMID:27141091

  10. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task. The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and a F-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  11. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  12. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named

  13. Drug discovery alliances in India--indications, targets, and new chemical entities.

    PubMed

    Differding, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    Global pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have been building increasingly on the skills and services offered by Indian biotech companies through strategic collaborative partnerships and alliances to fuel their in-house discovery and development pipelines. With the exception of generic press releases, however, very little has been published on the process and progress of drug discovery itself, such as the targets or modes of action involved, nor on the scientific output of such collaborations, and therefore on new chemical entities coming out of India through research collaborations. This Essay provides an analytical review of recent patents, patent applications, and peer-reviewed publications of major research alliances. It aims at highlighting their scientific output as well as the considerable bandwidth of targets and therapeutic areas involved. PMID:24136820

  14. A CRF-based system for recognizing chemical entity mentions (CEMs) in biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to improve information access on chemical compounds and drugs (chemical entities) described in text repositories, it is very crucial to be able to identify chemical entity mentions (CEMs) automatically within text. The CHEMDNER challenge in BioCreative IV was specially designed to promote the implementation of corresponding systems that are able to detect mentions of chemical compounds and drugs, which has two subtasks: CDI (Chemical Document Indexing) and CEM. Results Our system processing pipeline consists of three major components: pre-processing (sentence detection, tokenization), recognition (CRF-based approach), and post-processing (rule-based approach and format conversion). In our post-challenge system, the cost parameter in CRF model was optimized by 10-fold cross validation with grid search, and word representations feature induced by Brown clustering method was introduced. For the CEM subtask, our official runs were ranked in top position by obtaining maximum 88.79% precision, 69.08% recall and 77.70% balanced F-measure, which were improved further to 88.43% precision, 76.48% recall and 82.02% balanced F-measure in our post-challenge system. Conclusions In our system, instead of extracting a CEM as a whole, we regarded it as a sequence labeling problem. Though our current system has much room for improvement, our system is valuable in showing that the performance in term of balanced F-measure can be improved largely by utilizing large amounts of relatively inexpensive un-annotated PubMed abstracts and optimizing the cost parameter in CRF model. From our practice and lessons, if one directly utilizes some open-source natural language processing (NLP) toolkits, such as OpenNLP, Standford CoreNLP, false positive (FP) rate may be very high. It is better to develop some additional rules to minimize the FP rate if one does not want to re-train the related models. Our CEM recognition system is available at: http

  15. Improving chemical entity recognition through h-index based semantic similarity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Our approach to the BioCreative IV challenge of recognition and classification of drug names (CHEMDNER task) aimed at achieving high levels of precision by applying semantic similarity validation techniques to Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) mappings. Our assumption is that the chemical entities mentioned in the same fragment of text should share some semantic relation. This validation method was further improved by adapting the semantic similarity measure to take into account the h-index of each ancestor. We applied this method in two measures, simUI and simGIC, and validated the results obtained for the competition, comparing each adapted measure to its original version. Results For the competition, we trained a Random Forest classifier that uses various scores provided by our system, including semantic similarity, which improved the F-measure obtained with the Conditional Random Fields classifiers by 4.6%. Using a notion of concept relevance based on the h-index measure, we were able to enhance our validation process so that for a fixed recall, we increased precision by excluding from the results a higher amount of false positives. We plotted precision and recall values for a range of validation thresholds using different similarity measures, obtaining higher precision values for the same recall with the measures based on the h-index. Conclusions The semantic similarity measure we introduced was more efficient at validating text mining results from machine learning classifiers than other measures. We improved the results we obtained for the CHEMDNER task by maintaining high precision values while improving the recall and F-measure. PMID:25810770

  16. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  17. The value of nature's natural product library for the discovery of New Chemical Entities: the discovery of ingenol mebutate.

    PubMed

    Ogbourne, Steven M; Parsons, Peter G

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, 'Big Pharma' has invested billions of dollars into ingenious and innovative strategies designed to develop drugs using high throughput screening of small molecule libraries generated on the laboratory bench. Within the same time frame, screening of natural products by pharmaceutical companies has suffered an equally significant reduction. This is despite the fact that the complexity, functional diversity and druggability of nature's natural product library are considered by many to be superior to any library any team of scientists can prepare. It is therefore no coincidence that the number of New Chemical Entities reaching the market has also suffered a substantial decrease, leading to a productivity crisis within the pharmaceutical sector. In fact, the current dearth of New Chemical Entities reaching the market in recent decades might be a direct consequence of the strategic decision to move away from screening of natural products. Nearly 700 novel drugs derived from natural product New Chemical Entities were approved between 1981 and 2010; more than 60% of all approved drugs over the same time. In this review, we use the example of ingenol mebutate, a natural product identified from Euphorbia peplus and later approved as a therapy for actinic keratosis, as why nature's natural product library remains the most valuable library for discovery of New Chemical Entities and of novel drug candidates. PMID:25016953

  18. Modern procedures for chemical cleaning of corroded carbon steel equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plonski, Ileana-Hania; Spiridon, Stefania-Floriana; Robu, Maria; Doman, Carmen; Tudorache, Mariana; Bobu, Mihaela; Mateescu, Emilian; Schneider, Frank

    2000-02-01

    Modern procedures have been elaborated taking into account the laboratory findings and developments of the past two decades concerning the factors increasing the solubility of iron oxides in the cleaning agent and conditioning improving the characteristics of the protective layer, both having in mind the present state of corrosion in romanian power energetic plants. The basic reagent formulae consists in citric acid, hydro-chloric acid, ferrous sulfate as dissolution activator and a corrosion inhibitor, operating at T 80-85 degrees C. The removal of thick corrosion deposits is achieved in a basic step-by-step procedure, the number of steps depending on the layer thickness and on the degree of damage of the underlying base metal. After chemical cleaning, a passive magnetic film will be formed under special conditioning of water with long-chained amines.

  19. ChemTok: A New Rule Based Tokenizer for Chemical Named Entity Recognition.

    PubMed

    Akkasi, Abbas; Varoğlu, Ekrem; Dimililer, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) from text constitutes the first step in many text mining applications. The most important preliminary step for NER systems using machine learning approaches is tokenization where raw text is segmented into tokens. This study proposes an enhanced rule based tokenizer, ChemTok, which utilizes rules extracted mainly from the train data set. The main novelty of ChemTok is the use of the extracted rules in order to merge the tokens split in the previous steps, thus producing longer and more discriminative tokens. ChemTok is compared to the tokenization methods utilized by ChemSpot and tmChem. Support Vector Machines and Conditional Random Fields are employed as the learning algorithms. The experimental results show that the classifiers trained on the output of ChemTok outperforms all classifiers trained on the output of the other two tokenizers in terms of classification performance, and the number of incorrectly segmented entities. PMID:26942193

  20. ChemTok: A New Rule Based Tokenizer for Chemical Named Entity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Akkasi, Abbas; Varoğlu, Ekrem; Dimililer, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) from text constitutes the first step in many text mining applications. The most important preliminary step for NER systems using machine learning approaches is tokenization where raw text is segmented into tokens. This study proposes an enhanced rule based tokenizer, ChemTok, which utilizes rules extracted mainly from the train data set. The main novelty of ChemTok is the use of the extracted rules in order to merge the tokens split in the previous steps, thus producing longer and more discriminative tokens. ChemTok is compared to the tokenization methods utilized by ChemSpot and tmChem. Support Vector Machines and Conditional Random Fields are employed as the learning algorithms. The experimental results show that the classifiers trained on the output of ChemTok outperforms all classifiers trained on the output of the other two tokenizers in terms of classification performance, and the number of incorrectly segmented entities. PMID:26942193

  1. Recently disclosed chemical entities as potential candidates for management of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Stec, Jozef; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide. The drug discovery process of novel, safe and effective agents to combat TB involves identification of new molecular targets and novel chemical scaffolds. The current anti-TB drug pipeline includes several small molecules with more to follow as new candidates are disclosed. This review highlights the most significant findings described in 78 international, European and US patents for chemically diverse compounds as prospective anti-TB medications. Main points of emphasis include chemical classification, in vitro and in vivo activity, ADME/Tox profile and mycobacterial target as described in each patent. The collective mass of compounds disclosed in the reviewed patents introduces new candidates as potential therapeutic agents for TB infections. PMID:26174569

  2. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  3. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. PMID:22520182

  4. Combining galantamine and memantine in multitargeted, new chemical entities potentially useful in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Elena; Daniele, Simona; Bottegoni, Giovanni; Pizzirani, Daniela; Trincavelli, Maria L; Goldoni, Luca; Tarozzo, Glauco; Reggiani, Angelo; Martini, Claudia; Piomelli, Daniele; Melchiorre, Carlo; Rosini, Michela; Cavalli, Andrea

    2012-11-26

    Herein we report on a novel series of multitargeted compounds obtained by linking together galantamine and memantine. The compounds were designed by taking advantage of the crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in complex with galantamine derivatives. Sixteen novel derivatives were synthesized, using spacers of different lengths and chemical composition. The molecules were then tested as inhibitors of AChE and as binders of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR). Some of the new compounds were nanomolar inhibitors of AChE and showed micromolar affinities for NMDAR. All compounds were also tested for selectivity toward NMDAR containing the 2B subunit (NR2B). Some of the new derivatives showed a micromolar affinity for NR2B. Finally, selected compounds were tested using a cell-based assay to measure their neuroprotective activity. Three of them showed a remarkable neuroprotective profile, inhibiting the NMDA-induced neurotoxicity at subnanomolar concentrations (e.g., 5, named memagal, IC(50) = 0.28 nM). PMID:23033965

  5. Causes of genome instability: the effect of low dose chemical exposures in modern society

    PubMed Central

    Langie, Sabine A.S.; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Azqueta, Amaya; Bisson, William H.; Brown, Dustin; Brunborg, Gunnar; Charles, Amelia K.; Chen, Tao; Colacci, Annamaria; Darroudi, Firouz; Forte, Stefano; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Hamid, Roslida A.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Leyns, Luc; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Mothersill, Carmel; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Pavanello, Sofia; Raju, Jayadev; Rojas, Emilio; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Valverde, Mahara; Woodrick, Jordan; Zhang, Luoping; van Larebeke, Nik; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Collins, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome’s integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, telomere length), acrylamide (DNA repair, chromosome segregation), bisphenol A (epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation), benomyl (chromosome segregation), quinones (epigenetic modification) and nano-sized particles (epigenetic pathways, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make scientists aware of the increasing need to unravel the underlying mechanisms via which chemicals at low doses can induce genome instability and thus promote carcinogenesis. PMID:26106144

  6. Causes of genome instability: the effect of low dose chemical exposures in modern society.

    PubMed

    Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Azqueta, Amaya; Bisson, William H; Brown, Dustin G; Brunborg, Gunnar; Charles, Amelia K; Chen, Tao; Colacci, Annamaria; Darroudi, Firouz; Forte, Stefano; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Hamid, Roslida A; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Leyns, Luc; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Mothersill, Carmel; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Pavanello, Sofia; Raju, Jayadev; Rojas, Emilio; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Van Schooten, Frederik J; Valverde, Mahara; Woodrick, Jordan; Zhang, Luoping; van Larebeke, Nik; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Collins, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, telomere length), acrylamide (DNA repair, chromosome segregation), bisphenol A (epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation), benomyl (chromosome segregation), quinones (epigenetic modification) and nano-sized particles (epigenetic pathways, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make scientists aware of the increasing need to unravel the underlying mechanisms via which chemicals at low doses can induce genome instability and thus promote carcinogenesis. PMID:26106144

  7. Physical and chemical weathering in modern and Permian proximal fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Leslie Jo

    Chapter 1 Inferring paleoclimate from ancient fluvial strata can be challenging, and conflicting interpretations for a given system are common in the literature. This research uses a combination of physical and chemical weathering signals in an attempt to better define the paleoclimatic interpretations for the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, Colorado (Chapter 3) and the Post Oak Conglomerate in the Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma (Chapter 4), both Permian units. Chapter 4 includes a comparison of weathering signals from modern sediments in the Wichita Mountains. A methodology for pretreatment techniques used for grain-size analysis was evaluated during the course of the research and is the topic of Chapter 2. This dissertation is organized as three stand-alone manuscripts and a brief summary of each is presented below. Chapter 2 Pretreatment drying of mud-sized sediment (<63 im) resulted in clayrich (>39%) samples exhibiting more sensitivity to drying techniques than clay-poor (<39%) samples. This demonstrates an influence of the drying technique on the granulometric results. Employing freeze drying for sample drying yielded the most consistent results. However, for samples with <39% clay-sized material, all drying techniques are equally effective, and no apparent need exists for the extra effort (and expense) that accompanies freeze drying. Chapter 3 Scanning Electron Microscopy is a useful tool in the study of quartz grain microtextures. Microtextures on quartz grains from the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, CO were documented for the presence/absence of 18 distinct microtextures. Averaging of presence/absence data for the samples provided a means to use more quantitative techniques than previously employed for SEM microtextural analysis. These continuous quantitative variables were utilized for non-metric multidimensional scaling, a purely quantitative technique that does not rely on initial assumptions of what environments produce specific

  8. Identifying the macromolecular targets of de novo-designed chemical entities through self-organizing map consensus

    PubMed Central

    Reker, Daniel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-01-01

    De novo molecular design and in silico prediction of polypharmacological profiles are emerging research topics that will profoundly affect the future of drug discovery and chemical biology. The goal is to identify the macromolecular targets of new chemical agents. Although several computational tools for predicting such targets are publicly available, none of these methods was explicitly designed to predict target engagement by de novo-designed molecules. Here we present the development and practical application of a unique technique, self-organizing map–based prediction of drug equivalence relationships (SPiDER), that merges the concepts of self-organizing maps, consensus scoring, and statistical analysis to successfully identify targets for both known drugs and computer-generated molecular scaffolds. We discovered a potential off-target liability of fenofibrate-related compounds, and in a comprehensive prospective application, we identified a multitarget-modulating profile of de novo designed molecules. These results demonstrate that SPiDER may be used to identify innovative compounds in chemical biology and in the early stages of drug discovery, and help investigate the potential side effects of drugs and their repurposing options. PMID:24591595

  9. Identifying the macromolecular targets of de novo-designed chemical entities through self-organizing map consensus.

    PubMed

    Reker, Daniel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-03-18

    De novo molecular design and in silico prediction of polypharmacological profiles are emerging research topics that will profoundly affect the future of drug discovery and chemical biology. The goal is to identify the macromolecular targets of new chemical agents. Although several computational tools for predicting such targets are publicly available, none of these methods was explicitly designed to predict target engagement by de novo-designed molecules. Here we present the development and practical application of a unique technique, self-organizing map-based prediction of drug equivalence relationships (SPiDER), that merges the concepts of self-organizing maps, consensus scoring, and statistical analysis to successfully identify targets for both known drugs and computer-generated molecular scaffolds. We discovered a potential off-target liability of fenofibrate-related compounds, and in a comprehensive prospective application, we identified a multitarget-modulating profile of de novo designed molecules. These results demonstrate that SPiDER may be used to identify innovative compounds in chemical biology and in the early stages of drug discovery, and help investigate the potential side effects of drugs and their repurposing options. PMID:24591595

  10. The Markyt visualisation, prediction and benchmark platform for chemical and gene entity recognition at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Rabal, Obdulia; Vazquez, Miguel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Valencia, Alfonso; Krallinger, Martin; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical text mining methods and technologies have improved significantly in the last decade. Considerable efforts have been invested in understanding the main challenges of biomedical literature retrieval and extraction and proposing solutions to problems of practical interest. Most notably, community-oriented initiatives such as the BioCreative challenge have enabled controlled environments for the comparison of automatic systems while pursuing practical biomedical tasks. Under this scenario, the present work describes the Markyt Web-based document curation platform, which has been implemented to support the visualisation, prediction and benchmark of chemical and gene mention annotations at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge. Creating this platform is an important step for the systematic and public evaluation of automatic prediction systems and the reusability of the knowledge compiled for the challenge. Markyt was not only critical to support the manual annotation and annotation revision process but also facilitated the comparative visualisation of automated results against the manually generated Gold Standard annotations and comparative assessment of generated results. We expect that future biomedical text mining challenges and the text mining community may benefit from the Markyt platform to better explore and interpret annotations and improve automatic system predictions.Database URL: http://www.markyt.org, https://github.com/sing-group/Markyt. PMID:27542845

  11. Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

    2011-12-01

    Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in δ13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This

  12. Necessity of chemical edge bead removal in modern-day lithographic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekauc, Igor; Watt, Michael; Hornsmith, Trip; Tiffany, Jason

    2004-05-01

    Some form of edge bead removal (EBR) is one of the standard requirements for a lithographic process. Without any intervention, resist may accumulate at the edge of the wafer at up to several times the nominal thickness of the resist. In addition to this edge bead, the resist is likely to wrap around the wafer contaminating the backside of the wafer as well. It"s needless to say that such a condition would present a significant contamination risk not only for the resist track and the exposure tool but for process equipment outside of lithography as well. Two not necessarily exclusive strategies have been used in the past for edge bead removal. One is topside chemical EBR where solvent is dispensed on the edge of the wafer as the wafer is rotated immediately after coating, and the other method is where a ring of exposed resist is formed by subjecting the resist on the outer edges of the wafer to a broadband exposure; also know as wafer-edge exposure (WEE). The advantage of the chemical method is that it will remove the photo resist but also the organic anti-reflective coating (ARC), which is not photosensitive. The disadvantage of this method is obvious as any latitude in tool tolerances or imperfections on the wafer will result in solvent dispense to the undesirable areas of the wafer. While the optical method is much cleaner, its main disadvantage is that it will not remove ARC. As the feature size and die size shrink, there is less and less repairable redundancy on modern semiconductor chips. An observed effect in our manufacturing facility has been an increased sensitivity to tool imperfections and a quantifiable level of yield loss due to solvent splashing for the 140nm generation. Accounting for the fact that the ARC layer is generally an order of magnitude thinner than the resist layer, yield-maximizing setup of edge bead removal for one lithographic layer and complete removal of topside chemical EBR is discussed in detail in this paper as well as the

  13. Discovery of New Chemical Entities for Old Targets: Insights on the Lead Optimization of Chromone-Based Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana; Cagide, Fernando; Chavarria, Daniel; Silva, Tiago; Fernandes, Carlos; Gaspar, Alexandra; Uriarte, Eugenio; Remião, Fernando; Alcaro, Stefano; Ortuso, Francesco; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-06-23

    The discovery of new chemical entities endowed with potent, selective, and reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitory activity is a clinically relevant subject. Therefore, a small library of chromone derivatives was synthesized and screened toward human monoamine oxidase isoforms (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). The structure-activity relationships studies strengthen the importance of the amide spacer and the direct linkage of carbonyl group to the γ-pyrone ring, along with the presence of meta and para substituents in the exocyclic ring. The most potent MAO-B inhibitors were N-(3'-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carboxamide (20) (IC50 = 403 pM) and N-(3',4'-dimethylphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carboxamide (27) (IC50 = 669 pM), acting as competitive and noncompetitive reversible inhibitors, respectively. Computational docking studies provided insights into enzyme-inhibitor interactions and a rationale for the observed selectivity and potency. Compound 27 stands out due to its favorable toxicological profile and physicochemical properties, which pointed toward blood-brain barrier permeability, thus being a valid candidate for subsequent animal studies. PMID:27244485

  14. Influence of kidney disease on drug disposition: An assessment of industry studies submitted to the FDA for new chemical entities 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Gary R; Dowling, Thomas C; Marks, Samantha A; Murphy, John E

    2016-04-01

    In 1998, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the first guidance for industry regarding pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in renally impaired patients. This study aimed to determine if the FDA renal PK guidance influenced the frequency and rigor of renal studies conducted for new chemical entities (NCEs). FDA-approved package inserts (APIs) and clinical pharmacology review documents were analyzed for 194 NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010. Renal studies were conducted in 71.6% of NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010, a significant increase over the 56.3% conducted from 1996 to 1997 (P = .0242). Renal studies were more likely to be completed in highly renally excreted drugs (fe ≥ 30%) compared with drugs with low renal excretion, fe < 30% (89.6% vs 65.8%, P = .0015). PK studies to assess the impact of dialysis were conducted for 31.7% of NCEs that had a renal study: a greater proportion of high fe NCEs were studied (44.2% vs 26.0%, P = .0335). No significant change in frequency or rigor of PK studies was detected over time. The majority of NCEs (76.3%) with a renal study provided specific dosing recommendations in the API. The adoption of the 1998 FDA guidance has resulted in improved availability of PK and drug-dosing recommendations, particularly for high fe drugs. PMID:26238947

  15. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  16. Alginate based 3D hydrogels as an in vitro co-culture model platform for the toxicity screening of new chemical entities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Starly, Binil

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of human response to potential therapeutic drugs is through conventional methods of in vitro cell culture assays and expensive in vivo animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing require sophisticated in vitro model systems that must replicate in vivo like function for reliable testing applications. Advancements in biomaterials have enabled the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell encapsulated hydrogels as in vitro drug screening tissue model systems. In this study, we have developed an in vitro platform to enable high density 3D culture of liver cells combined with a monolayer growth of target breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in a static environment as a representative example of screening drug compounds for hepatotoxicity and drug efficacy. Alginate hydrogels encapsulated with serial cell densities of HepG2 cells (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} cells/ml) are supported by a porous poly-carbonate disc platform and co-cultured with MCF-7 cells within standard cell culture plates during a 3 day study period. The clearance rates of drug transformation by HepG2 cells are measured using a coumarin based pro-drug. The platform was used to test for HepG2 cytotoxicity 50% (CT{sub 50}) using commercially available drugs which further correlated well with published in vivo LD{sub 50} values. The developed test platform allowed us to evaluate drug dose concentrations to predict hepatotoxicity and its effect on the target cells. The in vitro 3D co-culture platform provides a scalable and flexible approach to test multiple-cell types in a hybrid setting within standard cell culture plates which may open up novel 3D in vitro culture techniques to screen new chemical entity compounds. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > A porous support disc design to support the culture of desired cells in 3D hydrogels. > Demonstrated the co-culture of two cell types within standard cell-culture plates. > A scalable, low cost approach to toxicity screening involving

  17. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  18. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  19. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  20. Preparing and Presenting Chemical Genealogies Using Modern Methods. The Case of the University of Massachusetts Amherst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, David L.; Tambouret, Yann

    2004-06-01

    This article describes the chemical genealogy of the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass Amherst) and the methods used in its construction and presentation. These methods have changed dramatically since the last article on chemical genealogy was published in the Journal in 1979. The availability of computer technology and the Internet for search and display capabilities has made the process and results more accurate and accessible. This enhanced accessibility, along with the accompanying reduced time commitment in preparing a genealogy, has engendered a resurgence of interest in the genealogies of chemistry departments around the country. This interest, as manifested in the several departmental genealogies developed over the past two decades, is documented. The article provides assistance to, and incentive for, those people wishing to compile their own individual or departmental genealogies. Alumni, department faculty, and graduate and undergraduate students have all responded positively to the genealogy. Genealogies find use in recognition of departmental faculty relationships, departmental histories, history of chemistry courses, and the human desire to know of one's background and origins.

  1. [The development of chemical narcotic and related anesthetic techniques in modern times].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yan-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Before the 19(th) century, ether and nitrous oxide were synthesized. However, they were just used as a kind of enjoyable things at night gatherings for their hypnotic and analgesic effect. In the 19(th) century, ether and nitrous oxide came into use in clinical anesthesia. Thereafter, more and more chemical narcotics were synthesized and applied to clinical anesthesia. In 1872, chloroform was injected into man's vein for anesthesia. In the 20(th) century, along with many kinds of barbiturates being synthesized, intravenous anesthesia got much development and application. At the same time, related techniques of anesthesia also improved. In the early 19(th) century, open inhalation anesthesia was often used. In 1900, there came a new anesthesia method by blowing into the windpipe through the cut of throat. Later on, the technique of endotracheal anesthesia and artificial respiration anesthesia (1908), the anesthetic instrument of endotracheal intubation and laryngeal mask and laryngoscope were invented. In the mid 19(th) century, the appearance of injection syringe and cocaine made local anesthesia possible. In 1880, local anesthesia also became successful. Thereafter, a variety of local anesthetic drugs were synthesized and applied, companying with various techniques of local anesthesia such as subarachnoid anesthesia (1900), sacral anesthesia (1901), epidural block (1903), plexus block (1902) and so on. In order to control the depth of anesthesia and respiration effectively, people attempted a lot so that anesthesia machine (1910), improved endotracheal anesthesia (1921), cryogenic technique (1902), controlled hypotension (1940s) and artificial hibernation (1950) came into being. PMID:23363851

  2. Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

  3. Modern marine sediments as a natural analog to the chemically stressed environment of a landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, M.J.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical reactions that occur in landfills are analogous to those reactions that occur in marine sediments. Lateral zonation of C, N, S, O, H, Fe and Mn species in landfills is similar to the vertical zonation of these species in marine sediments and results from the following reaction sequence: (1) oxidation of C, N and S species in the presence of dissolved free oxygen to HCO3-, NO3- and SO2-4; (2) after consumption of molecular oxygen, then NO3- is reduced, and Fe and Mn are solubilized; (3) SO2-4 is reduced to sulfide; and (4) organic compounds become the source of oxygen, and CH4 and NH4+ are formed as fermentation products. In a landfill in Delaware the oxidation potential increases downgradient and the redox zones in the reducing plume are characterized by: CH4, NH4+, Fe2+. Mn2+, HCO3- and NO3-. Lack of SO2-4 at that landfill eliminates the sulfide zone. Although it has not been observed at landfills, mineral alteration should result in precipitation of pyrite and/or siderite downgradient. Controls on the pH of leachate are the relative rates of production of HCO3-, NH4+ and CH4. Production of methane by fermentation at landfills results in 13C isotope fractionation and the accumulation of isotopically heavy ??CO2 (+10 to +18??? PDB). Isotope measurements may be useful to determine the extent of CO2 reduction in landfills and extent of dilution downgradient. The boundaries of reaction zones in stressed aquifers are determined by head distribution and flow velocity. Thus, if the groundwater flow is rapid relative to reaction rates, redox zones will develop downgradient. Where groundwater flow velocities are low the zones will overlap to the extent that they may be indeterminate. ?? 1979.

  4. Information Sharing among Untrustworthy Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    Most of current technologies that enable secure information sharing assume that entities that share information are mutually trustworthy. However, in recent applications this assumption is not realistic. As applications become sophisticated, information systems are required to share information securely even among untrustworthy entities. This paper discusses two kinds of problems about information sharing among untrustworthy entities, i.e. secure statistical data gathering and anonymous authentication, and proposes their solutions. The former is a problem to calculate statistics while ensuring that raw data are not disclosed to any entity including ones that calculate statistics, and the latter is a problem to authenticate entities while keeping their identities confidential.

  5. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    PubMed

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature. PMID:26829865

  6. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is

  7. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is

  8. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  9. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  10. [Fatal nanism: 3 different entities].

    PubMed

    Escrivá Tomás, P; Clemente Yago, F; López Peña, L F; Cidras Pidre, M; Orts Serrano, F; Serrano Martínez, J L; Jiménez Cobo, B

    1991-04-01

    Three cases of congenital dwarfism are presented. All of them are lethal and represent the three better known nonviable nosologic entities: Achondrogenesis I, Achondrogesis II and Thanatophoric dwarfism. According to clinical features and radiologic data it is possible to approach the diagnosis accurately. We comment genetic, clinic, radiologic and histologic aspects of these processes. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis as these entities have different genetic basis, what influences genetic counsel. PMID:2069281

  11. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain. PMID:25254099

  12. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

  13. Entity linking for biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Entity Linking (EL) task links entity mentions from an unstructured document to entities in a knowledge base. Although this problem is well-studied in news and social media, this problem has not received much attention in the life science domain. One outcome of tackling the EL problem in the life sciences domain is to enable scientists to build computational models of biological processes with more efficiency. However, simply applying a news-trained entity linker produces inadequate results. Methods Since existing supervised approaches require a large amount of manually-labeled training data, which is currently unavailable for the life science domain, we propose a novel unsupervised collective inference approach to link entities from unstructured full texts of biomedical literature to 300 ontologies. The approach leverages the rich semantic information and structures in ontologies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Results Without using any manual annotation, our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art supervised EL method (9% absolute gain in linking accuracy). Furthermore, the state-of-the-art supervised EL method requires 15,000 manually annotated entity mentions for training. These promising results establish a benchmark for the EL task in the life science domain. We also provide in depth analysis and discussion on both challenges and opportunities on automatic knowledge enrichment for scientific literature. Conclusions In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised collective inference approach to address the EL problem in a new domain. We show that our unsupervised approach is able to outperform a current state-of-the-art supervised approach that has been trained with a large amount of manually labeled data. Life science presents an underrepresented domain for applying EL techniques. By providing a small benchmark data set and identifying opportunities, we hope to stimulate discussions across natural language processing

  14. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  15. Entity resolution using cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Alex; Tauer, Gregory; Czerniejewski, Adam; Brown, Ryan M.; Hartloff, Jesse; Chaves, Jillian; Sudit, Moises

    2015-05-01

    Roles and capabilities of analysts are changing as the volume of data grows. Open-source content is abundant and users are becoming increasingly dependent on automated capabilities to sift and correlate information. Entity resolution is one such capability. It is an algorithm that links entities using an arbitrary number of criteria (e.g., identifiers, attributes) from multiple sources. This paper demonstrates a prototype capability, which identifies enriched attributes of individuals stored across multiple sources. Here, the system first completes its processing on a cloud-computing cluster. Then, in a data explorer role, the analyst evaluates whether automated results are correct and whether attribute enrichment improves knowledge discovery.

  16. Semantically linking molecular entities in literature through entity relationships

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Text mining tools have gained popularity to process the vast amount of available research articles in the biomedical literature. It is crucial that such tools extract information with a sufficient level of detail to be applicable in real life scenarios. Studies of mining non-causal molecular relations attribute to this goal by formally identifying the relations between genes, promoters, complexes and various other molecular entities found in text. More importantly, these studies help to enhance integration of text mining results with database facts. Results We describe, compare and evaluate two frameworks developed for the prediction of non-causal or 'entity' relations (REL) between gene symbols and domain terms. For the corresponding REL challenge of the BioNLP Shared Task of 2011, these systems ranked first (57.7% F-score) and second (41.6% F-score). In this paper, we investigate the performance discrepancy of 16 percentage points by benchmarking on a related and more extensive dataset, analysing the contribution of both the term detection and relation extraction modules. We further construct a hybrid system combining the two frameworks and experiment with intersection and union combinations, achieving respectively high-precision and high-recall results. Finally, we highlight extremely high-performance results (F-score >90%) obtained for the specific subclass of embedded entity relations that are essential for integrating text mining predictions with database facts. Conclusions The results from this study will enable us in the near future to annotate semantic relations between molecular entities in the entire scientific literature available through PubMed. The recent release of the EVEX dataset, containing biomolecular event predictions for millions of PubMed articles, is an interesting and exciting opportunity to overlay these entity relations with event predictions on a literature-wide scale. PMID:22759460

  17. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results. PMID:26425144

  18. 31 CFR 575.304 - Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity of the Government of Iraq... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.304 Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity. The term entity of the Government of Iraq or Iraqi Government entity includes: (a)...

  19. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nonprofit or public entity. 96.5 Section 96.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED... nonprofit or public entity. An accrediting entity must qualify as either: (a) An organization described in... administering standards for entities providing child welfare services; or (b) A public entity (other than...

  20. Entity- Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-13

    This package contains classes that capture high-level aspects of characters and vehicles. Vehicles manage seats and riders. Vehicles and characters now can be configured to compose different behaviors and have certain capabilities, by adding them through xml data. These behaviors and capabilities are not included in this package, but instead are part of other packages such as mobility behavior, path planning, sight, sound. Entity is not dependent on these other packages. This package also containsmore » the icons used for Umbra applications Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop and OpShed. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (EntityWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop, and OpShed, to incorporate this library.« less

  1. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying. PMID:22315867

  2. Entity- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Brian; Oppel, Fred; Rigdon, Brian; Whitfor, Gregg; Summers, Kenneth; Jungels, John

    2012-09-13

    This package contains classes that capture high-level aspects of characters and vehicles. Vehicles manage seats and riders. Vehicles and characters now can be configured to compose different behaviors and have certain capabilities, by adding them through xml data. These behaviors and capabilities are not included in this package, but instead are part of other packages such as mobility behavior, path planning, sight, sound. Entity is not dependent on these other packages. This package also contains the icons used for Umbra applications Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop and OpShed. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (EntityWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop, and OpShed, to incorporate this library.

  3. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher Mg

  4. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  5. GEM: The GAAIN Entity Mapper

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Peehoo; Ambite, Jose-Luis; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a software system solution that significantly simplifies data sharing of medical data. This system, called GEM (for the GAAIN Entity Mapper), harmonizes medical data. Harmonization is the process of unifying information across multiple disparate datasets needed to share and aggregate medical data. Specifically, our system automates the task of finding corresponding elements across different independently created (medical) datasets of related data. We present our overall approach, detailed technical architecture, and experimental evaluations demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26665184

  6. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provisions. (1) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and... small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has...

  7. 47 CFR 24.321 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for small business provisions. (1) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling... years. (2) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  8. 47 CFR 24.321 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for small business provisions. (1) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling... years. (2) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  9. Curatable Named-Entity Recognition Using Semantic Relations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Named-entity recognition (NER) plays an important role in the development of biomedical databases. However, the existing NER tools produce multifarious named-entities which may result in both curatable and non-curatable markers. To facilitate biocuration with a straightforward approach, classifying curatable named-entities is helpful with regard to accelerating the biocuration workflow. Co-occurrence Interaction Nexus with Named-entity Recognition (CoINNER) is a web-based tool that allows users to identify genes, chemicals, diseases, and action term mentions in the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD). To further discover interactions, CoINNER uses multiple advanced algorithms to recognize the mentions in the BioCreative IV CTD Track. CoINNER is developed based on a prototype system that annotated gene, chemical, and disease mentions in PubMed abstracts at BioCreative 2012 Track I (literature triage). We extended our previous system in developing CoINNER. The pre-tagging results of CoINNER were developed based on the state-of-the-art named entity recognition tools in BioCreative III. Next, a method based on conditional random fields (CRFs) is proposed to predict chemical and disease mentions in the articles. Finally, action term mentions were collected by latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). At the BioCreative IV CTD Track, the best F-measures reached for gene/protein, chemical/drug and disease NER were 54 percent while CoINNER achieved a 61.5 percent F-measure. System URL: http://ikmbio.csie.ncku.edu.tw/coinner/ introduction.htm. PMID:26357317

  10. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  11. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303 Entity. The term entity means a...

  12. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.212 Foreign entity. (a) The term foreign entity means any... corporation, or organization organized under the laws of a foreign state if either its principal place...

  13. 7 CFR 1738.16 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cooperative, nonprofit, limited dividend or mutual associations, limited liability companies, commercial... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible entities. 1738.16 Section 1738.16... Eligible entities. (a) RUS makes broadband loans to legally organized entities providing, or proposing...

  14. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.303 Entity. The term entity means...

  15. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.303 Entity. The term entity means...

  16. 14 CFR 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section Sec... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be... forth above. (c) The records for each required accounting entity shall be maintained with...

  17. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  18. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  19. Emerging Entities in Renal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rohit; Smith, Steven C; Divatia, Mukul; Amin, Mahul B

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews emerging entities in renal epithelial neoplasia, including tubulocystic carcinoma, clear-cell-papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), thyroid-like follicular RCC, ALK-related RCC, translocation RCC, acquired cystic disease-related RCC, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, and hereditary leiomyomatosis-RCC syndrome-associated RCC. Many of these rarer subtypes of RCC were recently studied in more depth and are included in the upcoming version of the World Health Organization classification of tumors. Emphasis is placed on common gross and morphologic features, differential diagnoses, use of ancillary studies for making accurate diagnoses, molecular alterations, and predicted biologic behavior based on previous studies. PMID:26612218

  20. Rasmussen's Aneurysm: A Forgotten Entity?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, A. N.; Costello, R.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-15

    We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports.

  1. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  2. Intelligent Entity Behavior Within Synthetic Environments. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Howells, P. B.; Siksik, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes some elements in the development of realistic performance and behavior in the synthetic entities (players) which support Modeling and Simulation (M&S) applications, particularly military training. Modern human-in-the-loop (virtual) training systems incorporate sophisticated synthetic environments, which provide: 1. The operational environment, including, for example, terrain databases; 2. Physical entity parameters which define performance in engineered systems, such as aircraft aerodynamics; 3. Platform/system characteristics such as acoustic, IR and radar signatures; 4. Behavioral entity parameters which define interactive performance, including knowledge/reasoning about terrain, tactics; and, 5. Doctrine, which combines knowledge and tactics into behavior rule sets. The resolution and fidelity of these model/database elements can vary substantially, but as synthetic environments are designed to be compose able, attributes may easily be added (e.g., adding a new radar to an aircraft) or enhanced (e.g. Amending or replacing missile seeker head/ Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) models to improve the realism of their interaction). To a human in the loop with synthetic entities, their observed veridicality is assessed via engagement responses (e.g. effect of countermeasures upon a closing missile), as seen on systems displays, and visual (image) behavior. The realism of visual models in a simulation (level of detail as well as motion fidelity) remains a challenge in realistic articulation of elements such as vehicle antennae and turrets, or, with human figures; posture, joint articulation, response to uneven ground. Currently the adequacy of visual representation is more dependant upon the quality and resolution of the physical models driving those entities than graphics processing power per Se. Synthetic entities in M&S applications traditionally have represented engineered systems (e.g. aircraft) with human-in-the-loop performance

  3. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  4. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  5. The Overview of Entity Relation Extraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xian-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Jin

    The Information extraction can be defined as the task of extracting information of specified events or facts, and then stored in a database for the users' querying. Only with the correct relationship between the various entities, the database can be correctly store in. Entity relation extraction becomes a key technology of information Extraction system. In this paper, we analyze the status of entity relation extraction method; propose several problems for this field to be solved.

  6. Entitymetrics: Measuring the Impact of Entities

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Song, Min; Han, Jia; Yu, Qi; Yan, Erjia; Lin, Lili; Chambers, Tamy

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes entitymetrics to measure the impact of knowledge units. Entitymetrics highlight the importance of entities embedded in scientific literature for further knowledge discovery. In this paper, we use Metformin, a drug for diabetes, as an example to form an entity-entity citation network based on literature related to Metformin. We then calculate the network features and compare the centrality ranks of biological entities with results from Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). The comparison demonstrates the usefulness of entitymetrics to detect most of the outstanding interactions manually curated in CTD. PMID:24009660

  7. Modern concepts in diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Danielle; Winter, Des C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a striking shift in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathology, and management of diverticular disease. Indeed, many of the guidelines published in the late nineties and early 2000s are now redundant. High-fiber diets, avoidance of nuts and seeds, antibiotic treatment for mild diverticulitis, elective resection after 2 attacks of diverticulitis, Hartmann's procedure (HP), and aggressive management of young patients are all open to question. The more we challenge our understanding of diverticulitis it becomes apparent how little we know about this disease entity. This review aims update the reader on current hypotheses and evidencebased modern management strategies in diverticular disease. PMID:25811113

  8. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  9. [The nosological entity bulimia nerviosa].

    PubMed

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J; Cervera Enguix, S

    1991-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are at the present moment, two well defined clinical entities among the group of the eating disorders. The psychopathological differentiation of both syndromes has a great importance for diagnosis and therapy. The authors make a phenomenological description, based on case histories of patients with diagnostics of anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and try to establish an approach to the essential symptomatology of those disorders. The presence of affective symptomatology--depressive, but not exclusively--in the eating behaviour disorders in general and particularly in bulimia nervosa, is nowadays interpreted as an unspecific emotional lability as a response to stressing situations. That is to say, it is a secondary depressive symptomatology, more than a primary mood disorder preceding or underlying bulimia. There is strong evidence in favour of a dysregulation of serotonin metabolism in patients with bulimia nervosa, in the sense of a reduced activity, which manifest itself clinically by binges with food with a high content in carbohydrates. High levels of 5-HT seem to induce increasing feelings of safety, fullness and lead to an interruption of eating. Fluoxetine and this active metabolite are selective inhibitors of the reuptake of 5-HT and their antibulimic effect could be mediated by this mechanism. PMID:1687234

  10. Entities on a Temporal Scale.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher M; Crother, Brian I

    2016-03-01

    Ontological understanding of biological units (i.e. what kinds of things are they) is crucial to their use in experimental design, analysis, and interpretation. Conceptualizing fundamental units in biology as individuals or classes is important for subsequent development of discovery operations. While the criteria for diagnosing individuals are acknowledged, temporal boundedness is often misinterpreted and temporal minima are applied to units in question. This results in misdiagnosis or abandonment of ontological interpretation altogether. Biological units such as areas of endemism in biogeography and species in evolutionary biology fall victim to such problems. Our goal here is to address the misconception that biological individuals such as species and areas of endemism have a temporal minimum. Areas of endemism can persist within small temporal boundaries in the context of metapopulation dynamics, island biogeography, and range expansion and contraction. Similarly, lineage reticulation illustrates examples of short-lived species. Here, examples of known entities are provided to illustrate their persistence on short time scales in attempt to rescue future interpretation of biological units from ontological misdiagnosis, elucidate the philosophical individuality of areas of endemism and species with short lifespans, and provide justification for the "snapshot in time" diagnostic approach. PMID:26342483

  11. Penoscrotal porokeratosis: A distinct entity

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajiv; Jadhav, Yatin

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with five months history of redness associated with itching and burning over the scrotum and shaft of the penis with a persistent rash on those sites. There had been no response to topical steroid and antifungal creams. Clinical examination revealed a large well-circumscribed erythematous plaque with a thready raised border with a tiny groove at its summit that involved almost two-thirds of the ventral part of the shaft of the penis. Ill-defined erythema with a granular surface was seen over the anterior scrotal skin. A 4 mm punch biopsy of the plaque on the penile shaft revealed multiple cornoid lamellae located adjacent to one another. The patient was treated with topical emollients. Follow up after four months revealed almost complete resolution of the plaque on the penile shaft. Penoscrotal porokeratosis appears to be a distinct entity in the family of porokeratotic diseases, described only in young males in their twenties with involvement of the penile shaft and anterior scrotum with severe burning and itching and histologically associated with multiple cornoid lamellae. It may represent an unusual epidermal porokeratotic reaction pattern and may be a self-resolving condition. PMID:26500866

  12. Penoscrotal porokeratosis: A distinct entity.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajiv; Jadhav, Yatin

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with five months history of redness associated with itching and burning over the scrotum and shaft of the penis with a persistent rash on those sites. There had been no response to topical steroid and antifungal creams. Clinical examination revealed a large well-circumscribed erythematous plaque with a thready raised border with a tiny groove at its summit that involved almost two-thirds of the ventral part of the shaft of the penis. Ill-defined erythema with a granular surface was seen over the anterior scrotal skin. A 4 mm punch biopsy of the plaque on the penile shaft revealed multiple cornoid lamellae located adjacent to one another. The patient was treated with topical emollients. Follow up after four months revealed almost complete resolution of the plaque on the penile shaft. Penoscrotal porokeratosis appears to be a distinct entity in the family of porokeratotic diseases, described only in young males in their twenties with involvement of the penile shaft and anterior scrotum with severe burning and itching and histologically associated with multiple cornoid lamellae. It may represent an unusual epidermal porokeratotic reaction pattern and may be a self-resolving condition. PMID:26500866

  13. [Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: a specific entity].

    PubMed

    Brondex, A; Arlès, F; Lipovac, A-S; Richecoeur, M; Bronstein, J-A

    2012-04-01

    Cirrhosis is a frequent and severe condition, which is the late stage of numerous chronic liver diseases. It is associated with major hemodynamic alterations characteristic of hyperdynamic circulation and with a series of structural, functional, electrophysiological and biological heart abnormalities termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is multifactorial. It is usually clinically latent or mild, likely because the peripheral vasodilatation significantly reduces the left ventricle afterload. However, sudden changes of hemodynamic state (vascular filling, surgical or transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunts, peritoneo-venous shunts and orthotopic liver transplantation) or myocardial contractility (introduction of beta-blocker therapy) can unmask its presence, and sometimes convert latent to overt heart failure. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may also contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome. This entity has been described recently, and its diagnostic criteria are still under debate. To date, current management recommendations are empirical, nonspecific measures. Recognition of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy depends on a high level of awareness for the presence of this syndrome, particularly in patients with advanced cirrhosis who undergo significant surgical, pharmacological or physiological stresses. PMID:22115174

  14. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 22.223 Section 22.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Competitive Bidding Procedures § 22.223 Designated entities. (a)...

  15. 31 CFR 552.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 552.303 Section 552.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 552.303 Entity....

  16. 31 CFR 552.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 552.303 Section 552.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 552.303 Entity....

  17. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average...

  18. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average...

  19. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the preceding three years. (2) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average...

  20. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  1. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  2. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  3. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  4. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  5. 43 CFR 426.10 - Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public entities. 426.10 Section 426.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.10 Public entities. (a) Application of the...

  6. 43 CFR 426.10 - Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public entities. 426.10 Section 426.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.10 Public entities. (a) Application of the...

  7. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  8. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  9. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  10. LeadMine: a grammar and dictionary driven approach to entity recognition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical entity recognition has traditionally been performed by machine learning approaches. Here we describe an approach using grammars and dictionaries. This approach has the advantage that the entities found can be directly related to a given grammar or dictionary, which allows the type of an entity to be known and, if an entity is misannotated, indicates which resource should be corrected. As recognition is driven by what is expected, if spelling errors occur, they can be corrected. Correcting such errors is highly useful when attempting to lookup an entity in a database or, in the case of chemical names, converting them to structures. Results Our system uses a mixture of expertly curated grammars and dictionaries, as well as dictionaries automatically derived from public resources. We show that the heuristics developed to filter our dictionary of trivial chemical names (from PubChem) yields a better performing dictionary than the previously published Jochem dictionary. Our final system performs post-processing steps to modify the boundaries of entities and to detect abbreviations. These steps are shown to significantly improve performance (2.6% and 4.0% F1-score respectively). Our complete system, with incremental post-BioCreative workshop improvements, achieves 89.9% precision and 85.4% recall (87.6% F1-score) on the CHEMDNER test set. Conclusions Grammar and dictionary approaches can produce results at least as good as the current state of the art in machine learning approaches. While machine learning approaches are commonly thought of as "black box" systems, our approach directly links the output entities to the input dictionaries and grammars. Our approach also allows correction of errors in detected entities, which can assist with entity resolution. PMID:25810776

  11. Evaluation and Cross-Comparison of Lexical Entities of Biological Interest (LexEBI)

    PubMed Central

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Yan, Ying; Dixit, Abhishek; Friteyre, Caroline; Hoehndorf, Robert; Backofen, Rolf; Lewin, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Biomedical entities, their identifiers and names, are essential in the representation of biomedical facts and knowledge. In the same way, the complete set of biomedical and chemical terms, i.e. the biomedical “term space” (the “Lexeome”), forms a key resource to achieve the full integration of the scientific literature with biomedical data resources: any identified named entity can immediately be normalized to the correct database entry. This goal does not only require that we are aware of all existing terms, but would also profit from knowing all their senses and their semantic interpretation (ambiguities, nestedness). Result This study compiles a resource for lexical terms of biomedical interest in a standard format (called “LexEBI”), determines the overall number of terms, their reuse in different resources and the nestedness of terms. LexEBI comprises references for protein and gene entries and their term variants and chemical entities amongst other terms. In addition, disease terms have been identified from Medline and PubmedCentral and added to LexEBI. Our analysis demonstrates that the baseforms of terms from the different semantic types show only little polysemous use. Nonetheless, the term variants of protein and gene names (PGNs) frequently contain species mentions, which should have been avoided according to protein annotation guidelines. Furthermore, the protein and gene entities as well as the chemical entities, both do comprise enzymes leading to hierarchical polysemy, and a large portion of PGNs make reference to a chemical entity. Altogether, according to our analysis based on the Medline distribution, 401,869 unique PGNs in the documents contain a reference to 25,022 chemical entities, 3,125 disease terms or 1,576 species mentions. Conclusion LexEBI delivers the complete biomedical and chemical Lexeome in a standardized representation (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/LexEBI/). The resource provides the disease terms as open

  12. Semantic Entity Pairing for Improved Data Validation and Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yanning; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Narock, Tom; Groman, Robert; Rauch, Shannon

    2014-05-01

    One of the central incentives for linked data implementations is the opportunity to leverage the rich logic inherent in structured data. The logic embedded in semantic models can strengthen capabilities for data discovery and data validation when pairing entities from distinct, contextually-related datasets. The creation of links between the two datasets broadens data discovery by using the semantic logic to help machines compare similar entities and properties that exist on different levels of granularity. This semantic capability enables appropriate entity pairing without making inaccurate assertions as to the nature of the relationship. Entity pairing also provides a context to accurately validate the correctness of an entity's property values - an exercise highly valued by data management practices who seek to ensure the quality and correctness of their data. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) semantically models metadata surrounding oceanographic researchcruises, but other sources outside of BCO-DMO exist that also model metadata about these same cruises. For BCO-DMO, the process of successfully pairing its entities to these sources begins by selecting sources that are decidedly trustworthy and authoritative for the modeled concepts. In this case, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has a well-respected reputation among the oceanographic research community, presents a data context that is uniquely different and valuable, and semantically models its cruise metadata. Where BCO-DMO exposes the processed, analyzed data products generated by researchers, R2R exposes the raw shipboard data that was collected on the same research cruises. Interlinking these cruise entities expands data discovery capabilities but also allows for validating the contextual correctness of both BCO-DMO's and R2R's cruise metadata. Assessing the potential for a link between two datasets for a similar entity consists of aligning like

  13. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).

    PubMed

    Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-06-24

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

  14. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit...

  15. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit...

  16. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit...

  17. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit...

  18. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and controlling...) Together with its affiliates and controlling interests has average gross revenues that are not more...

  19. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and controlling...) Together with its affiliates and controlling interests has average gross revenues that are not more...

  20. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross revenues not exceeding $40 million for the preceding three years. (2) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  1. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and controlling...) Together with its affiliates and controlling interests has average gross revenues that are not more...

  2. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross revenues not exceeding $40 million for the preceding three years. (2) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  3. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and controlling...) Together with its affiliates and controlling interests has average gross revenues that are not more...

  4. SIGNOR: a database of causal relationships between biological entities.

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Livia; Briganti, Leonardo; Calderone, Alberto; Perpetuini, Andrea Cerquone; Iannuccelli, Marta; Langone, Francesca; Licata, Luana; Marinkovic, Milica; Mattioni, Anna; Pavlidou, Theodora; Peluso, Daniele; Petrilli, Lucia Lisa; Pirrò, Stefano; Posca, Daniela; Santonico, Elena; Silvestri, Alessandra; Spada, Filomena; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of large biochemical networks can be achieved by confronting new cell-specific experimental data with an interaction subspace constrained by prior literature evidence. The SIGnaling Network Open Resource, SIGNOR (available on line at http://signor.uniroma2.it), was developed to support such a strategy by providing a scaffold of prior experimental evidence of causal relationships between biological entities. The core of SIGNOR is a collection of approximately 12,000 manually-annotated causal relationships between over 2800 human proteins participating in signal transduction. Other entities annotated in SIGNOR are complexes, chemicals, phenotypes and stimuli. The information captured in SIGNOR can be represented as a signed directed graph illustrating the activation/inactivation relationships between signalling entities. Each entry is associated to the post-translational modifications that cause the activation/inactivation of the target proteins. More than 4900 modified residues causing a change in protein concentration or activity have been curated and linked to the modifying enzymes (about 351 human kinases and 94 phosphatases). Additional modifications such as ubiquitinations, sumoylations, acetylations and their effect on the modified target proteins are also annotated. This wealth of structured information can support experimental approaches based on multi-parametric analysis of cell systems after physiological or pathological perturbations and to assemble large logic models. PMID:26467481

  5. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water

  6. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  7. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  8. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  9. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  10. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  11. Functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetic nanoparticles with biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎgeruşan, Lidia; Mrówczyński, Radosław; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    New hybrid materials, obtained through introduction of cysteine, lysine and folic acid as biological entities into polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles, are reported. The syntheses are straight forward and various methods were applied for structural and morphological characterization of the resulting nanoparticles. XPS proved a very powerful tool for surface chemical analysis and it evidences the functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetite nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior and the high values of saturation magnetization recommend all products for further application where magnetism is important for targeting, separation, or heating by alternative magnetic fields.

  12. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  13. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher Mg

  14. The Chemical Information Ontology: Provenance and Disambiguation for Chemical Data on the Biological Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA). PMID:21991315

  15. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-03-01

    For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba

  16. 230Th and 231Pa on GEOTRACES GA03, the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect, and implications for modern and paleoceanographic chemical fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Christopher T.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Robinson, Laura F.; Lu, Yanbin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Moran, S. Bradley

    2015-06-01

    The long-lived uranium decay products 230Th and 231Pa are widely used as quantitative tracers of adsorption to sinking particles (scavenging) in the ocean by exploiting the principles of radioactive disequilibria. Because of their preservation in the Pleistocene sediment record and through largely untested assumptions about their chemical behavior in the water column, the two radionuclides have also been used as proxies for a variety of chemical fluxes in the past ocean. This includes the vertical flux of particulate matter to the seafloor, the lateral flux of insoluble elements to continental margins (boundary scavenging), and the southward flux of water out of the deep North Atlantic. In a section of unprecedented vertical and zonal resolution, the distributions of 230Th and 231Pa across the North Atlantic shed light on the marine cycling of these radionuclides and further inform their use as tracers of chemical flux. Enhanced scavenging intensities are observed in benthic layers of resuspended sediments on the eastern and western margins and in a hydrothermal plume emanating from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Boundary scavenging is clearly expressed in the water column along a transect between Mauritania and Cape Verde which is used to quantify a bias in sediment fluxes calculated using 230Th-normalization and to demonstrate enhanced 231Pa removal from the deep North Atlantic by this mechanism. The influence of deep ocean ventilation that leads to the southward export of 231Pa is apparent. The 231Pa/230Th ratio, however, predominantly reflects spatial variability in scavenging intensity, complicating its applicability as a proxy for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  17. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  18. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  19. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  20. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    PubMed Central

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2012-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) was successfully employed for predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with respect to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), drug transporters and their interplay. The major assumption of BDDCS is that the extent of metabolism (EoM) predicts high versus low intestinal permeability rate, and vice versa, at least when uptake transporters or paracellular transport are not involved. We recently published a collection of over 900 marketed drugs classified for BDDCS. We suggest that a reliable model for predicting BDDCS class, integrated with in vitro assays, could anticipate disposition and potential DDIs of new molecular entities (NMEs). Here we describe a computational procedure for predicting BDDCS class from molecular structures. The model was trained on a set of 300 oral drugs, and validated on an external set of 379 oral drugs, using 17 descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction the accuracy was 82% in training and 79% in external validation. The actual BDDCS class corresponded to the highest ranked calculated class for 55% of the validation molecules, and it was within the top two ranked more than 92% of the times. The unbalanced stratification of the dataset didn’t affect the prediction, which showed highest accuracy in predicting classes 2 and 3 with respect to the most populated class 1. For class 4 drugs a general lack of predictability was observed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirmed the degree of accuracy for the prediction of the different BDDCS classes is tied to the structure of the dataset. This model could routinely be used in early drug discovery to prioritize in vitro tests for NMEs (e.g., affinity to transporters

  1. S4MPLE--sampler for multiple protein-ligand entities: simultaneous docking of several entities.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Laurent; Horvath, Dragos

    2013-01-28

    S4MPLE is a conformational sampling tool, based on a hybrid genetic algorithm, simulating one (conformer enumeration) or more molecules (docking). Energy calculations are based on the AMBER force field [Cornell et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 5179.] for biological macromolecules and its generalized version GAFF [Wang et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2004 , 25, 1157.] for ligands. This paper describes more advanced, specific applications of S4MPLE to problems more complex than classical redocking of drug-like compounds [Hoffer et al. J. Mol. Graphics Modell. 2012, submitted for publication.]. Here, simultaneous docking of multiple entities is addressed in two different important contexts. First, simultaneous docking of two fragment-like ligands was attempted, as such ternary complexes are the basis of fragment-based drug design by linkage of the independent binders. As a preliminary, the capacity of S4MPLE to dock fragment-like compounds has been assessed, since this class of small probes used in fragment-based drug design covers a different chemical space than drug-like molecules. Herein reported success rates from fragments redocking are as good as classical benchmarking results on drug-like compounds (Astex Diverse Set [Hartshorn et al. J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 726.]). Then, S4MPLE is successfully challenged to predict locations of fragments involved in ternary complexes by means of multientity docking. Second, the key problem of predicting water-mediated interaction is addressed by considering explicit water molecules as additional entities to be docked in the presence of the "main" ligand. Blind prediction of solvent molecule positions, reproducing relevant ligand-water-site mediated interactions, is achieved in 76% cases over saved poses. S4MPLE was also successful to predict crystallographic water displacement by a therefore tailored functional group in the optimized ligand. However, water localization is an extremely delicate issue in terms of weighing of

  2. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

  3. Modern Messaging for Distributed Sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoni, L.

    2015-05-01

    Modern software applications rarely live in isolation and nowadays it is common practice to rely on services or consume information provided by remote entities. In such a distributed architecture, integration is key. Messaging, for more than a decade, is the reference solution to tackle challenges of a distributed nature, such as network unreliability, strong-coupling of producers and consumers and the heterogeneity of applications. Thanks to a strong community and a common effort towards standards and consolidation, message brokers are today the transport layer building blocks in many projects and services, both within the physics community and outside. Moreover, in recent years, a new generation of messaging services has appeared, with a focus on low-latency and high-performance use cases, pushing the boundaries of messaging applications. This paper will present messaging solutions for distributed applications going through an overview of the main concepts, technologies and services.

  4. 31 CFR 589.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 589.303 Section 589.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UKRAINE RELATED SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. 31 CFR 544.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 544.303 Section 544.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 539.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 539.303 Section 539.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 544.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 544.303 Section 544.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 539.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 539.303 Section 539.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 544.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 544.303 Section 544.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 544.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 544.303 Section 544.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 539.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 539.303 Section 539.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 544.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 544.303 Section 544.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 539.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 539.303 Section 539.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 539.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 539.303 Section 539.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 576.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 576.304 Section 576.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 558.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 558.303 Section 558.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 558.303...

  20. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  4. 31 CFR 587.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 587.303 Section 587.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO)...

  5. 31 CFR 586.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 586.303 Section 586.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO...

  6. 31 CFR 545.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 545.303 Section 545.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not... winning bid on any of the licenses in this subpart. (3) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs, may use a bidding credit of 15...

  8. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter....

  9. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its... credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(i) of this chapter. A...

  10. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  11. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  12. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  13. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  14. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  15. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  16. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  17. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 43 CFR 426.10 - Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public entities. 426.10 Section 426.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... limitation provisions of Federal reclamation law with respect to land that Reclamation determines...

  3. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  4. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  6. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  7. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  8. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  9. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  10. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its... credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(i) of this chapter. A...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter....

  12. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  13. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  14. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  15. 47 CFR 22.882 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... business is an entity that, together with its affiliates, its controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the... controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are...

  16. 47 CFR 22.882 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... business is an entity that, together with its affiliates, its controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the... controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are...

  17. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross revenues not exceeding $3 million for the preceding... controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross revenues not exceeding $15 million for the preceding three years. (3) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  18. 47 CFR 22.882 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business is an entity that, together with its affiliates, its controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the... controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are...

  19. 47 CFR 22.882 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... business is an entity that, together with its affiliates, its controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the... controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are...

  20. 47 CFR 22.882 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... business is an entity that, together with its affiliates, its controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are not more than $40 million for the... controlling interests and the affiliates of its controlling interests, has average gross revenues that are...

  1. 31 CFR 593.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 593.303 Section 593.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 593.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 593.303 Section 593.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Covered entities. 46.5 Section 46.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT PUBLIC UTILITY FILING REQUIREMENTS AND FILING...

  4. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  5. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  6. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  7. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  8. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  9. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  10. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  11. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  12. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  13. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4)...

  14. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4)...

  15. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4)...

  16. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4)...

  17. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4)...

  18. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, C.N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. δ56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ≈ 0. These near-zero bulk δ56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero δ56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (δ56Fe ≈ -1.5 to -0.5‰) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2‰. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-δ56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  19. Primary Gingival Melanoma: An Important Entity.

    PubMed

    Ben Kridis, Wala; Feki, Jihène; Ayedi, Lobna; Khanfir, Afef; Toumi, Nabil; Abdelmoula, Mohamed; Boudawra, Tahia; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir

    2016-07-01

    Primary melanoma of the mandibular gingiva is extremely rare. It is often misinterpreted as a benign pigmented process. The prognosis of this entity is very poor. We report here the first case of primary gingival melanoma described in the Tunisian literature about a 55-year-old smoker having cerebral and pulmonary metastases from gingival melanoma at diagnosis. Our patient underwent brain radiotherapy at a dose of 18 Gy in three sessions but he died with a decline of 3 months before starting systemic therapy. Therefore, each new case should be illustrated to make clinicians aware about the importance of the early diagnosis to improve the poor diagnosis of this entity. PMID:27408455

  20. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  1. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  2. Solitary Pouch Ulcer: A New Clinical Entity?

    PubMed

    Pricolo, Victor E

    2016-07-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, likely secondary to a defecatory dysfunction. In patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy with ileoanal reservoir, it is conceivable that a similar pathophysiology may lead to "solitary pouch ulcer," but such a syndrome has not been reported to date. This article reports 2 such cases and clinical success with lasting symptomatic relief through local therapy and behavior modification rather than anti-inflammatory. PMID:26859123

  3. Microrobotic navigable entities for Magnetic Resonance Targeting.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Targeting (MRT) uses MRI for gathering tracking data to determine the position of microscale entities with the goal of guiding them towards a specific target in the body accessible through the vascular network. At full capabilities, a MRT platform designed to treat a human would consist of a clinical MRI scanner running special algorithms and upgraded to provide propulsion gradient up to approximately 400mT/m to enable entities as small as a few tens of micrometers in diameter and containing magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to be steered at vessel bifurcations based on tracking information. Indeed, using a clinical MRI system, we showed that such single entity with a diameter as small as 15microm is detectable in gradient-echo scans. Among many potential interventions, targeted cancer therapy is a good initial application for such new microrobotic approach since secondary toxicity for the patient could be reduced while increasing therapeutic efficacy using lower dosages. Although many types of such entities are needed to provide a larger set of tools, here, only three initial types designed with different functionalities and for different types of cancer are briefly described. Initially designed for targeted chemo-embolization of liver tumors, the first type known as Therapeutic Magnetic Micro-Carriers (TMMC) consists in its present form of approximately 50 microm PLGA microparticles containing therapeutics and approximately 180 nm FeCo MNP. For the second type, MNP are not only used for propulsion and tracking, but also actuation based on a local elevation of the temperature. In its simplest form, it consists of approxiamtely 20 nm MNP embedded in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel known as PNIPA, allowing additional functionalities such as computer triggered drug release and targeted hyperthermia. The third type initially considered to target colorectal tumors, consists of 1-2 microm MR-trackable and controllable MC-1 Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB) with

  4. PERSISTENT PLACOID MACULOPATHY: A NEW CLINICAL ENTITY

    PubMed Central

    Golchet, Pamela R.; Jampol, Lee M.; Wilson, David; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Ober, Michael; Stroh, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe a previously unreported clinical entity superficially resembling macular serpiginous choroiditis but with a distinct presentation and clinical course. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records of five patients, aged 50 to 68 years, exhibiting this entity seen at five different centers from 1999 to 2006. Results The lesions in the patients in this study are in some respects similar to those of acute macular serpiginous choroiditis. The patients had well-delineated whitish plaque-like lesions involving the macula and sparing the peripapillary areas of both eyes. In contrast to serpiginous choroiditis, visual acuity remained good despite early involvement of the fovea until complications related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or pigmentary mottling developed. The angiographic characteristics and the clinical course were also atypical. Fluorescein angiography revealed well-defined early hypofluorescent areas, which partially filled-in in the late phase. Indocyanine green angiography showed the hypofluorescence to be persistent. Unlike serpiginous choroiditis, the white macular lesions faded over a period of months to years, but the characteristic angiographic findings often persisted longer. CNV developed in nine of 10 eyes with subsequent conversion to disciform macular scars in seven of 10 eyes. Unlike serpiginous choroiditis, none of the eyes showed chorioretinal scar formation unless related to CNV. Conclusion Persistent placoid maculopathy has features resembling macular serpiginous choroiditis but differs in its clinical course and effect on visual acuity. It appears to be a new entity. The majority of eyes develop CNV, which results in loss of central vision. PMID:17471331

  5. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  6. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  7. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  8. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  9. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  10. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  11. 17 CFR 202.8 - Small entity compliance guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Small entity compliance guides... OTHER PROCEDURES § 202.8 Small entity compliance guides. The following small entity compliance guides...: Small Business and the SEC. 1 1 These items are also available on the Securities and Exchange...

  12. 17 CFR 202.8 - Small entity compliance guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small entity compliance guides... OTHER PROCEDURES § 202.8 Small entity compliance guides. The following small entity compliance guides...: Small Business and the SEC. 1 1 These items are also available on the Securities and Exchange...

  13. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1107) Issuing entities....1107 (Item 1107) Issuing entities. Provide the following information about the issuing entity: (a... functions, provide the information required by Items 401, 402, 403 404 and 407(a), (c)(3), (d)(4),...

  14. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1107) Issuing entities....1107 (Item 1107) Issuing entities. Provide the following information about the issuing entity: (a... functions, provide the information required by Items 401, 402, 403 404 and 407(a), (c)(3), (d)(4),...

  15. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1107) Issuing entities....1107 (Item 1107) Issuing entities. Provide the following information about the issuing entity: (a... functions, provide the information required by Items 401, 402, 403 404 and 407(a), (c)(3), (d)(4),...

  16. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1107) Issuing entities....1107 (Item 1107) Issuing entities. Provide the following information about the issuing entity: (a... functions, provide the information required by Items 401, 402, 403 404 and 407(a), (c)(3), (d)(4),...

  17. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1107) Issuing entities....1107 (Item 1107) Issuing entities. Provide the following information about the issuing entity: (a... functions, provide the information required by Items 401, 402, 403 404 and 407(a), (c)(3), (d)(4),...

  18. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  19. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  20. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  1. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  2. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  3. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  4. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  5. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  6. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  7. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... separate reporting entity as described in Appendix A to 17 CFR Part 420. The above named entity also... pursuant to 31 CFR Part 356 is also recognized as a separate reporting entity without the need to request... Appendix A of 31 CFR Part 356....

  8. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities...

  9. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring...

  10. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  11. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  12. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  13. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring...

  14. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring...

  15. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring...

  16. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring...

  17. PHILOSOPHICAL PRESUPPOSITIONS OF AYURVEDA AND MODERN MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of Ayurveda rests on the concepts of matter, vital principle, mind, and pure consciousness. It is a holistic theory of medicine, which aims at restoration of physical and mental health, and spiritual well-being in a sick person, so that he may self-actualize himself, and eventually, realize his nature as pure consciousness. Modern Western medicine tries to reduce consciousness, and vital principle to biochemical entities. It is a value-neutral science, and considers the aim of therapy as removal of pathological symptoms. Its theoretical position is weak. Interface between medical and value science is urgently needed. PMID:22557392

  18. Modern Techniques for Searching the Chemical Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Bart E.

    The chemists' information needs are for current awareness, selective dissemination, and retrospective search services, of research, development, engineering, production, and marketing information located internally or externally, and contained in journals, patents, theses, reports, data files, information services, and from people. This paper is…

  19. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. PMID:22216106

  20. 76 FR 28503 - Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13566

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities... Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the names of three entities identified... Transactions Related to Libya.'' DATES: The identification by the Director of OFAC of the three...

  1. Semantic modeling of the structural and process entities during plastic deformation of crystals and rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita

    2016-04-01

    We are semantically modeling the structural and dynamic process components of the plastic deformation of minerals and rocks in the Plastic Deformation Ontology (PDO). Applying the Ontology of Physics in Biology, the PDO classifies the spatial entities that participate in the diverse processes of plastic deformation into the Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity and Nonphysical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity classes. The Material_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes things such as microstructures, lattice defects, atoms, liquid, and grain boundaries, and the Immaterial_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes vacancies in crystals and voids along mineral grain boundaries. The objects under the many subclasses of these classes (e.g., crystal, lattice defect, layering) have spatial parts that are related to each other through taxonomic (e.g., Line_Defect isA Lattice_Defect), structural (mereological, e.g., Twin_Plane partOf Twin), spatial-topological (e.g., Vacancy adjacentTo Atom, Fluid locatedAlong Grain_Boundary), and domain specific (e.g., displaces, Fluid crystallizes Dissolved_Ion, Void existsAlong Grain_Boundary) relationships. The dynamic aspect of the plastic deformation is modeled under the dynamical Process_Entity class that subsumes classes such as Recrystallization and Pressure_Solution that define the flow of energy amongst the physical entities. The values of the dynamical state properties of the physical entities (e.g., Chemical_Potential, Temperature, Particle_Velocity) change while they take part in the deformational processes such as Diffusion and Dislocation_Glide. The process entities have temporal parts (phases) that are related to each other through temporal relations such as precedes, isSubprocessOf, and overlaps. The properties of the physical entities, defined under the Physical_Property class, change as they participate in the plastic deformational processes. The properties are categorized into dynamical, constitutive

  2. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  3. [Cutaneous lymphomas: new entities and rare variants].

    PubMed

    Kempf, W; Mitteldorf, C

    2015-02-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are the second most common group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recently several new variants and entities have been described but have not yet become part of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. These forms include the granulomatous form of mycosis fungoides, which is associated with a poorer prognosis, as well as indolent CD8+ lymphoproliferations on the head and at acral localizations. Within the group of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, new histological types of lymphomatoid papulosis have been identified, such as type D (CD8+ epidermotropic) and type E (angioinvasive) which simulate aggressive lymphomas. Cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a prognostically heterogeneous group of cutaneous lymphomas. The cutaneous CD8+ aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma are very aggressive neoplasms, whereas cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-sized T-cell lymphoma in its solitary or localized form represents an indolent lymphoproliferation: the terminology, histogenesis and differentiation from nodular T-cell pseudolymphoma are still a matter of debate. Among B-cell lymphomas, disorders associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed focusing on EBV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly and EBV-associated mucocutaneous ulcer. This review describes the clinical, histological and immunophenotypic features of new and rare entities and variants of cutaneous lymphomas and highlights the impact of the clinicopathological correlation in the diagnostic process. PMID:25589355

  4. Unstable solar lentigo: A defined separate entity.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Lisa; Barksdale, Sarah; Weedon, David; Muir, Jim

    2016-08-01

    An unstable solar lentigo is a solar lentigo with areas of melanocytic hyperplasia not extending past the margin of the lesion. They are discrete, macular, pigmented lesions arising on sun-damaged skin and a subset of typical solar lentigos. Clinically they differ from usual solar lentigines in often being solitary or larger and darker than adjacent solar lentigines. These lesions are of clinical importance as they can arise in close proximity to lentigo maligna and in a single lesion there can be demonstrated changes of solar lentigo, unstable solar lentigo and lentigo maligna. These observations led us to conjecture that unstable solar lentigos could be a precursor lesion to lentigo maligna. In this article we examine the possibility that lentigo maligna can arise within a solar lentigo through an intermediate lesion, the unstable solar lentigo. We propose that the histopathological recognition of this entity will allow for future research into its behaviour and thus management. We review difficulties in the diagnosis of single cell predominant melanocytic proliferations and the concept of unstable lentigo in view of the literature and clinical experience supporting the proposal of its recognition as a separate entity. PMID:26832231

  5. 'Early terminal sedation' is a distinct entity.

    PubMed

    Cellarius, Victor

    2011-01-01

    There has been much discussion regarding the acceptable use of sedation for palliation. A particularly contentious practice concerns deep, continuous sedation given to patients who are not imminently dying and given without provision of hydration or nutrition, with the end result that death is hastened. This has been called 'early terminal sedation'. Early terminal sedation is a practice composed of two legally and ethically accepted treatment options. Under certain conditions, patients have the right to reject hydration and nutrition, even if these are life-sustaining. Patients are also entitled to sedation as palliation for intolerable, intractable suffering. Though early terminal sedation is thought to be rare at present, the changing nature of palliative medicine suggests its use will increase. Arguments regarding early terminal sedation have failed to recognize early terminal sedation as a distinct legal and ethical entity. It can be seen as both the simple sum of treatment refusal and sedation for palliation, analogous to terminal sedation. It can also be seen as an indivisible palliative treatment, more analogous to assisted suicide or euthanasia. But ultimately, it is wholly analogous neither to terminal sedation given when death is imminent, nor to assisted suicide or euthanasia. This paper contends that early terminal sedation should be considered as a distinct entity. Such a reconception promises to provide a way forward in the debate, practice and policy regarding this contentious area of palliative medicine. PMID:19659853

  6. Leveraging Pattern Semantics for Extracting Entities in Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Fangbo; Zhao, Bo; Fuxman, Ariel; Li, Yang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity Extraction is a process of identifying meaningful entities from text documents. In enterprises, extracting entities improves enterprise efficiency by facilitating numerous applications, including search, recommendation, etc. However, the problem is particularly challenging on enterprise domains due to several reasons. First, the lack of redundancy of enterprise entities makes previous web-based systems like NELL and OpenIE not effective, since using only high-precision/low-recall patterns like those systems would miss the majority of sparse enterprise entities, while using more low-precision patterns in sparse setting also introduces noise drastically. Second, semantic drift is common in enterprises (“Blue” refers to “Windows Blue”), such that public signals from the web cannot be directly applied on entities. Moreover, many internal entities never appear on the web. Sparse internal signals are the only source for discovering them. To address these challenges, we propose an end-to-end framework for extracting entities in enterprises, taking the input of enterprise corpus and limited seeds to generate a high-quality entity collection as output. We introduce the novel concept of Semantic Pattern Graph to leverage public signals to understand the underlying semantics of lexical patterns, reinforce pattern evaluation using mined semantics, and yield more accurate and complete entities. Experiments on Microsoft enterprise data show the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26705540

  7. 40 CFR 33.205 - How does an entity become certified by EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... entity. Interview the principal officers of the entity and review their resumes and/or work histories... entity; (iii) Analyze the bonding and financial capacity of the entity; (iv) Determine the work...

  8. [New entities and the criteria of FTLD].

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical entity hitherto, the pivotal clinical symptoms of FTLD (frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and an introduction for the revised criteria for bvFTD (behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia): FTDC (International Behavioral Variant FTD Criteria Consortium) presented by Rascovsky et al(2011), and the classification criteria for PPA(primary progressive aphasia) heralded by Gorno-Tempini et al (2011). According to the former criteria, bvFTD can be diagnosed by the clinical symptoms as having possible bvFTD or probable bvFTD, and the pathological findings could lead definite bvFTD. In the latter classification criteria of PPA, two types are implicated in FTLD: one is the non-fluent/agrammatic variant PPA(PNFA/nfvPPA/naPPA), and the other is semantic variant PPA(SD/svPPA). PMID:27025087

  9. Linear atrophoderma of Moulin: an underrecognized entity.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Niaki, Omid; Sissons, Wendy; Nguyen, Van-Hung; Zargham, Ramin; Jafarian, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Linear atrophoderma of Moulin (LAM) is an acquired skin condition that manifests in early childhood and adolescence. It likely represents a form of cutaneous mosaicism that presents with linear, hyperpigmented and atrophic lesions appearing on the trunk and limbs. Its clinical appearance varies and may closely resemble that of atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini (APP) and linear scleroderma. LAM usually follows a benign course and no effective treatment options exist. We present a case of a young and healthy patient that developed such lesions on her upper and lower extremities over 5 years. The initial clinical impression of linear scleroderma was reviewed in favor of LAM following histological examination of the lesions which revealed no significant inflammatory changes. LAM remains a rare and possibly under recognized entity with reports confined only to the dermatologic literature. This case highlights the importance of recognizing LAM and distinguishing it from linear scleroderma given the significant differences in management and prognosis. PMID:26438123

  10. Cardiac Pseudoaneurysm- A Death Defying Entity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saryu

    2016-01-01

    A pseudoaneurysm refers to a contained rupture of the myocardium with a tenuous pericardium walling off the leak. It needs to be differentiated from a true aneurysm by the fact that there is lack of myocardial tissue in the wall of a pseudoaneurysm. The differentiation between the two is pertinent as true aneurysms can be treated medically while pseudoaneurysms require urgent surgical treatment. Untreated pseudoaneurysms carry a high risk of rupture and mortality. We report a case of cardiac pseudoaneurysm developing in a 46-year-old male who had suffered myocardial infarction four months back. The patient now presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. CECT chest revealed a partially thrombosed large pseudoaneurysm arising from the posterior wall of left ventricle. While the clinical diagnosis of this entity is difficult, CECT plays a pivotal role in the non-invasive detection of pseudoaneurysms. PMID:27504379

  11. ADD psychosis as a separate entity.

    PubMed

    Bellak, L

    1985-01-01

    "Attention deficit disorder (ADD) psychosis" merits delineation as a separate entity. It constitutes the end result of the effects of a certain particular neurological deficit (ADD) on personality organization. It is my belief that about 10 percent of psychoses currently diagnosed most often schizophrenic and sometimes affective psychosis must best be considered a separate organic psychosis, i.e., an ADD psychosis. This ADD psychosis, then, is not merely a subgroup of schizophrenia, as I once thought. It merits a separate designation because its etiology, pathogenesis, and life history are different from those of the schizophrenic syndrome. The family histories are also different, as are the psychological findings. The treatment response is so different that it merits urgent consideration. Prognosis, both short range and long range, also seems different from those of the other psychoses. PMID:4081648

  12. [Schizoaffective disorder: An arguable diagnostic entity].

    PubMed

    Garyfallos, G D

    2008-07-01

    Seventy-five years ago, J. Kasanin introduced the term "schizoaffective disorder" to refer to a disorder with symptoms of both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Since then, schizoaffective disorder has raised a considerable amount of discussion about its definition and position as a variant of schizophrenia, a variant of mood disorder or as an entity in between. This ambiguity is reflected on the definition of diagnostic criteria of the disorder in the taxonomic systems, which are practically too complex. Furthermore, there are essential differences between DSM-IV and ICD-10 regarding schizoaffective definition. Finally, the disorder has a very low inter-rater reliability and a very low longitudinal diagnostic stability. All the above have even led to proposals of elimination of schizoaffective disorder as a separate diagnostic entity. The prevalence of the disorder varies between 0.3% and 0.8%. Schizoaf fective disorder is more common in women than in men, a dif ference that is mostly attributed to increased incidence among women of the depressive type. The bipolar type of the disorder is more often found in young adults, whereas the depressive type is commoner in older adults. With regards to other variables such as educational level, marital status, prognosis, occupational level and social adjustment, schizoaffective disorder has more favourable characteristics than schizophrenia and less favourable than mood disorders. Age at onset is earlier than mood disorders and later than schizophrenia. The above epidemiologic and clinical data, as well as data from family, twin, genetic and neuroimaging studies, indicate that schizoaffective disorder can be best viewed as a mid-point on a continuum between schizophrenia and mood disorders and represents the most prominent paradigm challenging the so-called "Kraepelinian dichotomy" of major psychiatric disorders. Though schizoaffective disorder is a nosological nuisance, it is also a clinical reality and it is not

  13. Cough hypersensitivity syndrome: a distinct clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Morice, A H; Faruqi, S; Wright, C E; Thompson, R; Bland, J M

    2011-02-01

    We postulate that most patients with chronic cough have a single discrete clinical entity: cough hypersensitivity syndrome. We constructed a questionnaire that elicits the major components of the syndrome. Here we describe the validation of this questionnaire. Following iterative development, the Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ) was administered to patients and normal volunteers. It is self-administered and comprises 14 items with a maximum score of 70. Unselected patients were recruited sequentially from the Hull Cough Clinic. Preclinic questionnaires were compared with those obtained at the clinic. Responsiveness was assessed 2 months after the clinic visit. One hundred eighty-five patients and 70 normal volunteers were included in this study. There was a marked difference in HARQ scores between patients with chronic cough and normal volunteers. The sensitivity (94%) and specificity (95%) of the HARQ was high, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. All items of the scale significantly correlated positively with others in the scale and with the total score. On repeatability testing using Cohen's kappa with quadratic weights, significant agreement was noted for all items. Good correlation was observed between the total scores (r = 0.78). The questionnaire was also responsive to treatment; the minimum clinically significant change was estimated to be 16 points. We have demonstrated the HARQ to have good construct and criterion validity. It is both reproducible and responsive to change. It can be used as a diagnostic instrument and demonstrates that chronic cough represents a single coherent entity: cough hypersensitivity syndrome. PMID:21240613

  14. Primary Peritonitis—A Forgotten Entity

    PubMed Central

    Khilji, Muhammad Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Primary peritonitis is a rare phenomenon in modern antibiotic era. A case of pediatric primary peritonitis is presented here, in which a child presented with complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting for one day. Abdominal examination showed marked tenderness and guarding, diagnosis of appendicitis was made and laparoscopic appendectomy done. Later, ascitic fluid analysis and appendix histopathology proved it to be a case of primary peritonitis. PMID:26171311

  15. Context and Domain Knowledge Enhanced Entity Spotting in Informal Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhl, Daniel; Nagarajan, Meena; Pieper, Jan; Robson, Christine; Sheth, Amit

    This paper explores the application of restricted relationship graphs (RDF) and statistical NLP techniques to improve named entity annotation in challenging Informal English domains. We validate our approach using on-line forums discussing popular music. Named entity annotation is particularly difficult in this domain because it is characterized by a large number of ambiguous entities, such as the Madonna album "Music" or Lilly Allen's pop hit "Smile".

  16. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  17. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  18. Central nervous system injury in utero: selected entities.

    PubMed

    Naidich, Thomas P; Griffiths, Paul D; Rosenbloom, Lorne

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the syndrome of amnionic bands, anencephaly, schizencephaly and hydranencephaly, four entities whose pathogenesis includes significant injury to the fetus in utero. PMID:26346151

  19. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…

  20. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  1. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  2. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  3. Macrophagic myofasciitis in childhood: a controversial entity.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Eloy; Gómez-Arnáiz, Mercedes; Ricoy, Jose R; Mateos, Fernando; Simón, Rogelio; García-Peñas, Juan J; Garcia-Silva, Maria T; Martín, Elena; Vázquez, María; Ferreiro, Ana; Cabello, Ana

    2005-11-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis is an unusual inflammatory myopathy, which has been almost exclusively reported in French adults with diffuse arthromyalgias and asthenia. It is characterized by an infiltrate of densely packed macrophages, with granular periodic-acid-Schiff positive content, on muscle biopsies at the site of vaccination. The presence of aluminum inclusions in these macrophages points to an inappropriate reaction to aluminum used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. Although in adults this entity is well defined, less than 15 cases have been reported in children. This study describes seven children, younger than 3 years of age, with typical lesions of macrophagic myofasciitis on quadriceps muscle biopsy. In five cases, biopsies were performed to exclude mitochondrial pathology. All the children developed hypotonia and motor or psychomotor delay, associated with others symptoms. Abnormal neuroimaging was evident in six cases. Spectrometry studies detected elevated levels of aluminum in muscle in three of four cases tested. Despite the wide use of vaccines in childhood, macrophagic myofasciitis was rarely observed in children and its characteristic histologic pattern could not be correlated with a distinctive clinical syndrome. PMID:16243223

  4. Building entity models through observation and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Richard; Kania, Robert; Fields, MaryAnne; Barnes, Laura

    2011-05-01

    To support the missions and tasks of mixed robotic/human teams, future robotic systems will need to adapt to the dynamic behavior of both teammates and opponents. One of the basic elements of this adaptation is the ability to exploit both long and short-term temporal data. This adaptation allows robotic systems to predict/anticipate, as well as influence, future behavior for both opponents and teammates and will afford the system the ability to adjust its own behavior in order to optimize its ability to achieve the mission goals. This work is a preliminary step in the effort to develop online entity behavior models through a combination of learning techniques and observations. As knowledge is extracted from the system through sensor and temporal feedback, agents within the multi-agent system attempt to develop and exploit a basic movement model of an opponent. For the purpose of this work, extraction and exploitation is performed through the use of a discretized two-dimensional game. The game consists of a predetermined number of sentries attempting to keep an unknown intruder agent from penetrating their territory. The sentries utilize temporal data coupled with past opponent observations to hypothesize the probable locations of the opponent and thus optimize their guarding locations.

  5. Monitoring named entity recognition: the League Table

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Named entity recognition (NER) is an essential step in automatic text processing pipelines. A number of solutions have been presented and evaluated against gold standard corpora (GSC). The benchmarking against GSCs is crucial, but left to the individual researcher. Herewith we present a League Table web site, which benchmarks NER solutions against selected public GSCs, maintains a ranked list and archives the annotated corpus for future comparisons. Results The web site enables access to the different GSCs in a standardized format (IeXML). Upon submission of the annotated corpus the user has to describe the specification of the used solution and then uploads the annotated corpus for evaluation. The performance of the system is measured against one or more GSCs and the results are then added to the web site (“League Table”). It displays currently the results from publicly available NER solutions from the Whatizit infrastructure for future comparisons. Conclusion The League Table enables the evaluation of NER solutions in a standardized infrastructure and monitors the results long-term. For access please go to http://wwwdev.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/calbc/assessmentGSC/. Contact: rebholz@ifi.uzh.ch. PMID:24034148

  6. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of public broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity....

  7. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of public broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity....

  8. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of public broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity....

  9. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of public broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity....

  10. 12 CFR 607.4 - Assessment of other System entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment of other System entities. 607.4... for the next fiscal year. A proportional amount of FCA indirect expenses will be allocated to each... section) for the fiscal year covered by the assessment. (2) Assessments of other System entities...

  11. 12 CFR 607.4 - Assessment of other System entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment of other System entities. 607.4 Section 607.4 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES § 607.4 Assessment of other System entities. (a)(1) Unless...

  12. 24 CFR 578.69 - Cooperation among entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperation among entities. 578.69 Section 578.69 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Cooperation among entities. An HPC must cooperate with HUD in distributing information about its...

  13. 24 CFR 578.69 - Cooperation among entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Cooperation among entities. 578.69 Section 578.69 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Cooperation among entities. An HPC must cooperate with HUD in distributing information about its...

  14. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  15. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  16. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  17. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  18. 78 FR 22270 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... correction to the OIG Federal Register ] notice published on March 29, 2012 (78 FR 19271), on our recently issued Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities. Specifically, the Special Fraud Alert addressed... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY:...

  19. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity. (a)-(a)(2) ....

  20. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  1. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  2. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  3. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  4. When Depression Mediates the Relationship between Entity Beliefs and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Cury, Francois; Santos, Andreia; Payen, Vincent; Bounoua, Lenda; Brisswalter, Jeannick; Rufo, Marcel; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether depression can explain the negative relationship between academic performance and the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, i.e., entity belief. A sample of 353 French volunteer adolescents (age 11-16) completed questionnaires assessing entity theory and depressive symptoms (Children Depression…

  5. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political entities and public... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.88 Political..., city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  6. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to...

  7. 76 FR 44776 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... part 40 Provisions Common to Registered Entities, 75 FR 67282 (Nov. 2, 2010). The Commission's final... mandatory clearing; 75 FR 67277 (Nov. 2, 2010)). Paragraph (j)(2)(ii) refers to `` otional amounts, quantity... Registered Entities, 75 FR 57282 (Nov. 2, 2010). In this regard, the Commission continues to view its...

  8. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  9. [The glandular odontogenic cyst--a rare entity].

    PubMed

    Brauer, H U; Manegold-Brauer, G

    2014-05-01

    In this short communication, the very rare glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is presented as an independent entity. The GOC is a jawbone cyst of the maxilla and mandible. The typical radiological and histopathological characteristics of the GOC are described. Furthermore, differential diagnoses, current treatment options and the recurrence rates of this of entity are discussed. PMID:24633391

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  13. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  14. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ..., 622, 623, and 630 published on May 28, 2013 (78 FR 31822) is effective July 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER..., 612, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, and 630 RIN 3052-AC65 Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date... institutions' use of unincorporated business entities organized under State law for certain business...

  15. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign government entities. 140.6 Section 140... Enforcement § 140.6 Foreign government entities. (a) Determination Procedures. (1) The Country Narcotics... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  16. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... change in the operations or boundaries of the small emitter, or every five years, whichever occurs...

  17. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... change in the operations or boundaries of the small emitter, or every five years, whichever occurs...

  18. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... change in the operations or boundaries of the small emitter, or every five years, whichever occurs...

  19. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... change in the operations or boundaries of the small emitter, or every five years, whichever occurs...

  20. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... change in the operations or boundaries of the small emitter, or every five years, whichever occurs...

  1. 78 FR 75458 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; Amendment of Entity List Entries; and Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... on the Entity List since May 2001 (see 66 FR 24266). As a result of its inclusion on the Entity List... BIS's Denied Persons List since 2008. See 78 FR 48138 (August 7, 2008). Pursuant to Sec. 744.11(b)(4... CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78 FR...

  2. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043434

  3. Facility Modernization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  4. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  5. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Donglei

    transport charged Au nanowires with length longer than 4 mum. The surface of Au nanowires has been chemical functionalized by either positive or negative charges. High frequency AC electric field has been applied to align and fix the orientation of the charged nanowires, though not to induce any motions, whereas a small DC voltage causes linear motion. The velocity of nanowires increases linearly with the DC electric field. The moving direction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nanowires. Nanowires modified with different charges behave differently due to the electroosmosis flow induced by the DC electric field on the negatively charged quartz substrate. The zeta potential of quartz surface and the ratio of Stokes coefficients for longitudinal nano-entities suspended in a low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5) has been determined. Due to the small size of the nanowires, the nanowires suspended in liquids such as DI water are in extremely low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5). Manipulation due to DEP and EP forces are versatile and precise. Nanowires have been set into motion with prescribed tracks, such as squares and zigzags. The manipulation is also so precise that oppositely charged nanowires with radius of 150 nm have been moved to contact and connected end to end. A nanowire clipper have been assembled by this technique and set into oscillation. This method is not only applicable to nanowires, it has been successfully applied to multiwall carbon nanotubes as well. To demonstrate the complete control and flexibility of manipulating nanoparticles by E field, we have programmed nanowires to dance with music by Mozart with regard to clearly demonstrating the versatility of manipulating small entities of metallic, semiconductor, and biological materials. This work has been conducted under the guidance of the author's thesis advisors, Prof. Robert C. Cammarata, chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Johns Hopkins University

  6. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  8. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Sung, Kang; Chang-Ho, Hong; Jino, Heo; Jong-In, Lim; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Korea University.

  9. [Gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: A distinct entity].

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Rouquette, Alexandre; Brezault, Catherine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRC) is a distinct entity. Their incidence is increasing. The pathologist plays a central role in the identification of this entity. Diagnosis is based on an adenocarcinoma containing a majority of signet ring cells (above 50 %). The prognosis of GSRC is the same as gastric adenocarcinoma while GSRC appeared more aggressive. Signet ring cells present a low sensitivity to chemotherapy. This review aimed to discuss the histological, the prognostic and the therapeutic aspect of this entity. PMID:24440764

  10. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  11. 7 CFR 760.908 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dissolved entity must be provided. (c) If a participant is now a dissolved general partnership or joint venture, all members of the general partnership or joint venture at the time of dissolution or their...

  12. 7 CFR 760.908 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dissolved entity must be provided. (c) If a participant is now a dissolved general partnership or joint venture, all members of the general partnership or joint venture at the time of dissolution or their...

  13. 78 FR 21603 - Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards..., notice is hereby given that the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board is seeking input on...

  14. 2 CFR 25.330 - Foreign public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., which is an organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288-288f); (c) An entity owned...

  15. Urethral cavernous hemangioma in a female patient: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Yüzüncü, Kubilay; Akdeniz, Ekrem; Demirdoven, Ayse Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Genitourinary hemangiomas are rare entities of the urinary system. We reported a female patient who suffered dyspareunia and intermitant hematuria that was proved as urethral cavernous hemangioma. Despite its benign nature, hemangiomas may recur due to incomplet excision. PMID:26985270

  16. Data Base Design Using Entity-Relationship Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathi Hogshead

    1983-01-01

    The entity-relationship (ER) approach to database design is defined, and a specific example of an ER model (personnel-payroll) is examined. The requirements for converting ER models into specific database management systems are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  17. Pseudomembranous Trigonitis: A Common but Underrecognized Urological Entity

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, M.; Papatsoris, A. G.; Konstantinidis, C.; Chrisofos, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomembranous trigonitis is the term used to describe squamous metaplastic changes of the bladder trigone, which affect nearly 40% of adult females. We present the characteristics of this underrecognized clinical entity and encourage further relevant research.

  18. Expanding the modern synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2010-10-01

    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis formalizes the role of variation, heredity, differential reproduction and mutation in population genetics. Here we explore a mathematical structure, based on the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory, that instantiates the punctuated dynamic relations of organisms with their embedding environments, including the possibility of the transfer of heritage information between different classes of organism. The approach applies a standard coevolutionary argument to genes, environment, and gene expression reconfigured as interacting information sources. In essence, we provide something of a formal roadmap for the modernization of the Modern Synthesis, making applications to both relatively rapid evolutionary punctuated equilibrium and to the conservation of ecological interactions across deep evolutionary time. PMID:20965439

  19. The nanosilica hazard: another variable entity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are produced on an industrial scale and are an addition to a growing number of commercial products. SNPs also have great potential for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medicine. Contrary to the well-studied crystalline micron-sized silica, relatively little information exists on the toxicity of its amorphous and nano-size forms. Because nanoparticles possess novel properties, kinetics and unusual bioactivity, their potential biological effects may differ greatly from those of micron-size bulk materials. In this review, we summarize the physico-chemical properties of the different nano-sized silica materials that can affect their interaction with biological systems, with a specific emphasis on inhalation exposure. We discuss recent in vitro and in vivo investigations into the toxicity of nanosilica, both crystalline and amorphous. Most of the in vitro studies of SNPs report results of cellular uptake, size- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity, increased reactive oxygen species levels and pro-inflammatory stimulation. Evidence from a limited number of in vivo studies demonstrates largely reversible lung inflammation, granuloma formation and focal emphysema, with no progressive lung fibrosis. Clearly, more research with standardized materials is needed to enable comparison of experimental data for the different forms of nanosilicas and to establish which physico-chemical properties are responsible for the observed toxicity of SNPs. PMID:21126379

  20. SimConcept: a hybrid approach for simplifying composite named entities in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    One particular challenge in biomedical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization is the identification and resolution of composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept (e.g., BRCA1/2). Previous NER and normalization studies have either ignored composite mentions, used simple ad hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, making a robust approach for handling multitype composite mentions greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid method integrating a machine-learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the individual components of each composite mention. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first to systematically handle many types of composite mentions. The technique achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three key biological entities: genes (90.42% in F-measure), diseases (86.47% in F-measure), and chemicals (86.05% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that using our SimConcept method can subsequently improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization. SimConcept is available for download at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/SimConcept/. PMID:25879978

  1. Using Workflows to Explore and Optimise Named Entity Recognition for Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Hawizy, Lezan; Murray-Rust, Peter; Tsujii, Junichi; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry text mining tools should be interoperable and adaptable regardless of system-level implementation, installation or even programming issues. We aim to abstract the functionality of these tools from the underlying implementation via reconfigurable workflows for automatically identifying chemical names. To achieve this, we refactored an established named entity recogniser (in the chemistry domain), OSCAR and studied the impact of each component on the net performance. We developed two reconfigurable workflows from OSCAR using an interoperable text mining framework, U-Compare. These workflows can be altered using the drag-&-drop mechanism of the graphical user interface of U-Compare. These workflows also provide a platform to study the relationship between text mining components such as tokenisation and named entity recognition (using maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM) and pattern recognition based classifiers). Results indicate that, for chemistry in particular, eliminating noise generated by tokenisation techniques lead to a slightly better performance than others, in terms of named entity recognition (NER) accuracy. Poor tokenisation translates into poorer input to the classifier components which in turn leads to an increase in Type I or Type II errors, thus, lowering the overall performance. On the Sciborg corpus, the workflow based system, which uses a new tokeniser whilst retaining the same MEMM component, increases the F-score from 82.35% to 84.44%. On the PubMed corpus, it recorded an F-score of 84.84% as against 84.23% by OSCAR. PMID:21633495

  2. SimConcept: A Hybrid Approach for Simplifying Composite Named Entities in Biomedical Text

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    One particular challenge in biomedical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization is the identification and resolution of composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept (e.g., BRCA1/2). Previous NER and normalization studies have either ignored composite mentions, used simple ad-hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, making a robust approach for handling multi-type composite mentions greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid method integrating a machine-learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the individual components of each composite mention. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first to systematically handle many types of composite mentions. The technique achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three key biological entities: genes (90.42% in F-measure), diseases (86.47% in F-measure) and chemicals (86.05% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that using our SimConcept method can subsequently improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization. PMID:25879978

  3. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  4. 'Small change of the universal': beyond modernity?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Sarat

    2010-09-01

    The paper is a sounding of Ulrich Beck's and Edgar Grande's conceptual map of the varieties of second modernity - Western and Non-Western, European and beyond - that makes up today's world. Their mapping is examined in the light of two, striking analytical perspectives associated with Ulrich Beck: everyday 'cosmopolitization' and his call for a methodological cosmopolitanism. A line of inquiry explores whether contemporary modernities are essentially expressions of a single, underlying modernization drive or whether they are utterly disparate entities. The implications of treating them as 'variants and variations' are unpacked with reference to musical models and how they generate difference. The probe into methodological cosmopolitanism touches on 'de-provincialization' that is somewhat at odds with the postcolonial project of 'provincializing' Europe. It looks at the attempt to go beyond 'nation-bound' sociological dualisms in determining the appropriate 'unit of analysis' for our ever-morphing current reality. Does this imply engaging with 'singularity'- with a mode of conceptualization that sidesteps the universal/particular couple and related either/or thinking? References to the making of the 'first modernity' under unequal centre/periphery relations of colonial power are aired for possible lessons in mappings of the second. Ulrich Beck's 'impure, really-existing cosmopolitanism'- in contrast to its speculative counterpart derived from the realm of pure ideas - springs from humdrum global economic and political links and institutions that span out across, above and beyond the 'container of the national space'. With the inadvertent cosmopolitical impact of the migrations it amounts in practice to a functioning 'cosmopolitan realpolitik'. Is there room for it to develop or will it stall as a mere front for national, tribal-territorial interests - going the way of 'multiculturalism and diversity' that seem increasingly to serve as governmental ideologies for

  5. Difficult Decisions: Chemical Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Miller, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history and chemistry of modern day chemical warfare from World War I to the present. Provides discussion questions to stimulate deeper thinking on the issue. Contains a discussion activity called "Can New Chemical Weapons Lead to Humane Warfare?" (CW)

  6. 78 FR 3317 - Removal of Persons From the Entity List Based on Removal Request; Implementation of Entity List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Certain Persons to the Entity List'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 61249). This rule amends the Entity... CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002), as extended by the Notice of August 15, 2012, 77 FR 49699 (August 16.... 7201 et seq.; 22 ] U.S.C. 7210; E.O. 12058, 43 FR 20947, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 179; E.O. 12851, 58...

  7. Pattern formation in Dictyostelium via the dynamics of cooperative biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    1993-12-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum exhibits a variety of spatial patterns as it aggregates to form a multicellular slug. These patterns arise via the interaction of the aggregating amoebae, either via contact or as mediated by chemical signals involving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). We model this system as a set of reaction-diffusion equations coupled to dynamical biological entities (bions), each of which is endowed with signal receptors and response rules. Simulations of our model reveal a close correspondence with the observed structures. Also, the general framework we propose should be suitable for modeling other biological pattern-forming processes.

  8. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  9. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  10. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  11. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  12. Modern splinting bandages.

    PubMed

    Wytch, R; Ashcroft, G P; Ledingham, W M; Wardlaw, D; Ritchie, I K

    1991-01-01

    We have assessed the current range of synthetic splinting bandages, using physical and mechanical tests and the subjective opinions of patients, volunteers and orthopaedic staff. Modern bandages have some better properties than standard plaster bandage but do not conform as well, are more expensive, and potentially more hazardous. PMID:1991785

  13. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  14. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  15. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  16. [Modern wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

  17. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  18. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  19. Physical Properties of Biological Entities: An Introduction to the Ontology of Physics for Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel L.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities—molecules, cells, organs—are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties—energies, volumes, flow rates—of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. PMID:22216106

  20. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  1. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets. PMID

  2. 2D-3D MIGRATION AND CONFORMATIONAL MULTIPLICATION OF CHEMICALS IN LARGE CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical interactions are three-dimensional (3D) in nature and require modeling chemicals as 3D entities. In turn, using 3D models of chemicals leads to the realization that a single 2D structure can have hundreds of different conformations, and the electronic properties of these...

  3. Cystic renal tumors: new entities and novel concepts.

    PubMed

    Moch, Holger

    2010-05-01

    Cystic renal neoplasms and renal epithelial stromal tumors are diagnostically challenging and represent some novel tumor entities. In this article, clinical and pathologic features of established and novel entities are discussed. Predominantly cystic renal tumors include cystic nephroma/mixed epithelial and stromal tumor, synovial sarcoma, and multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma. These entities are own tumor entities of the 2004 WHO classification of renal tumors. Tubulocystic carcinoma and acquired cystic disease-associated renal cell carcinoma are neoplasms with an intrinsically cystic growth pattern. Both tumor types should be included in a future WHO classification as novel entities owing to their characteristic features. Cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma frequently coexist within the kidneys of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas often contain cysts, usually as a minor component. Some clear cell renal cell carcinomas have prominent cysts, and multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma is composed almost exclusively of cysts. Recent molecular findings suggest that clear cell renal cancer may develop through cyst-dependent and cyst-independent molecular pathways. PMID:20418675

  4. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents. PMID:21468321

  5. Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

  6. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org. PMID:24951798

  7. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  8. Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-01-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

  9. Standard reference exergies of chemical elements in the oceanic reference medium. I. Consideration of modern hydrochemical data on the concentrations of elements in the oceanic medium and the deviation of their reactivity from the neutral one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaev, G. F.

    2006-09-01

    A system (set) of standard reference exergies of chemical elements, called the Ocean-2 system, is presented. It includes refined exergies of nine atmospheric elements and 79 elements dissolved in the oceanic water with S = 35‰, pH 7.905, a standard temperature of 298.15 K, and a standard pressure of 101.325 kPa. These exergies were calculated in a simplified chemical approximation with the use of a unique representative species for each element, selected by thermodynamic sifting. The suggestion has been made that the Ocean-2 system of standard reference exergies is close to the lithospheric system.

  10. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    PubMed

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  11. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug–drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called ‘AnnSim’ that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1–1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  12. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind (whisk; Imai and Gentner, 1997). Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin-speakers and English-speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's (1999) hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object-kind rather than substance-kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind. PMID:19230873

  13. Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.

    PubMed

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind. PMID:19230873

  14. The sky entities as represented in African literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Evelyn N.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical observations used by the ancient people of Africa were developed out of the people's desire to have concrete manifestations of their gods and religious beliefs as well as for time-keeping - day, night and calendar for agricultural and festive seasons. The sky entities (the solar and stellar systems) observed become part of the lives and events here on Earth and so are also part of the context of African literature. This paper examines the ways in which different African peoples have reflected on the role of the sky entities in their literature.

  15. Recreation of the 28-entity IGES test file using the ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    An Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) test file is called the 28 Entity IGES Test File. This file contains 28 geometric and annotation entities which are considered the basic entities that an IGES translator for any CAD system should support. The main purpose was to determine how the IGES preprocessor supports the 28 entities through recreation of the 28 Entity IGES Test File on the ComputerVision CADDS 4X. Test procedure is described and test results are presented.

  16. Business Entity Selection: Why It Matters to Healthcare Practitioners. Part II--Corporations, Limited Liability Companies, and Professional Entities.

    PubMed

    Nithman, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Labor statistics indicates only a 50% four-year survivability rate among businesses classified as "education and health services." Gaining knowledge of IRS business entities can result in cost savings, operational efficiency, reduced liability, and enhanced sustainability. Each entity has unique disadvantages, depending on size, diversity of ownership, desire to expand, and profitability. Business structures should be compatible with organizational mission or vision statements, services and products, and professional codes of ethics. Healthcare reform will require greater business acumen. We have an ethical duty to disseminate and acquire the knowledge to properly establish and manage healthcare practices to ensure sustainable services that protect and serve the community. PMID:26182701

  17. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today. PMID:17397761

  18. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  19. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  20. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 45.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SWAP DATA... legal entity identifier is compatible with existing automated systems of financial market... by the automated systems of the swap data repository, which shall be unique with respect to all...

  1. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 45.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA... legal entity identifier is compatible with existing automated systems of financial market... by the automated systems of the swap data repository, which shall be unique with respect to all...

  2. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 45.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA... legal entity identifier is compatible with existing automated systems of financial market... by the automated systems of the swap data repository, which shall be unique with respect to all...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entity List No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp....

  4. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  5. Principles and tools for collaborative entity-based intelligence analysis.

    PubMed

    Bier, Eric A; Card, Stuart K; Bodnar, John W

    2010-01-01

    Software tools that make it easier for analysts to collaborate as a natural part of their work will lead to better analysis that is informed by more perspectives. We are interested to know if software tools can be designed that support collaboration even as they allow analysts to find documents and organize information (including evidence, schemas, and hypotheses). We have modified the Entity Workspace system, described previously, to test such designs. We have evaluated the resulting design in both a laboratory study and a study where it is situated with an analysis team. In both cases, effects on collaboration appear to be positive. Key aspects of the design include an evidence notebook optimized for organizing entities (rather than text characters), information structures that can be collapsed and expanded, visualization of evidence that emphasizes events and documents (rather than emphasizing the entity graph), and a notification system that finds entities of mutual interest to multiple analysts. Long-term tests suggest that this approach can support both top-down and bottom-up styles of analysis. PMID:20075480

  6. 78 FR 19271 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Venture Arrangements (August 1989), reprinted at 59 FR 65,372, 65,374 (Dec. 19, 1994). \\3\\ Letter from... financial considerations on the physician's medical judgment. See 64 FR 63,518, 63,536 (Nov. 19, 1999... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY:...

  7. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entity List No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp....

  9. 42 CFR 417.484 - Requirement applicable to related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement applicable to related entities. 417.484 Section 417.484 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS,...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entity List No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp....

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entity List No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp....

  12. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  13. New entity for conducting group practice offers new potential.

    PubMed

    Rich, H I

    1994-01-01

    A new form of entity, the limited liability company (LLC), may be used by physicians to conduct group practices with the tax advantages of a partnership and insulation from liability for copractitioner's acts. The author reviews the New Jersey Limited Liability Company Act. PMID:8115063

  14. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  15. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  16. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  17. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  18. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  19. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  20. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  1. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  2. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  3. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  4. 18 CFR 39.8 - Delegation to a Regional Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... application pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section must state: (1) Whether the Commission's Dispute Resolution Service, or other alternative dispute resolution procedures were used, or why these procedures were not used; and (2) Whether the Regional Entity believes that alternative dispute resolution...

  5. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... improvement program that focuses on maximizing outcomes by improving patient safety and quality of care. The... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quality standards for deemed entities. 410.144... protect the health and safety of all patients and that meets all applicable fire protection and...

  6. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... improvement program that focuses on maximizing outcomes by improving patient safety and quality of care. The... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quality standards for deemed entities. 410.144... protect the health and safety of all patients and that meets all applicable fire protection and...

  7. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... improvement program that focuses on maximizing outcomes by improving patient safety and quality of care. The... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quality standards for deemed entities. 410.144... protect the health and safety of all patients and that meets all applicable fire protection and...

  8. For-Profit Entities and Continuing Education: A Nursing Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Jane

    1994-01-01

    Is it ethical to allow biomedical industries to fund nursing continuing education? The history of for-profit entities' relationship to organized medicine shows that nursing should make its voice heard in boardrooms and preserve its patient advocacy role when cooperating with industry. (SK)

  9. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of public broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES USE OF CERTAIN COPYRIGHTED WORKS IN...

  10. 77 FR 66566 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ..., FHFA published for comment in the Federal Register a proposed rule, and invited comments. See 77 FR...; ] FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1238 RIN 2590-AA47 Stress Testing of Regulated Entities AGENCY... notice of proposed rulemaking for public comment concerning stress testing of the Federal...

  11. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  12. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  13. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  14. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  15. GASB's New Standard on Reporting Entity for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, W. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Explains the impact on school district financial reporting of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 14, "The Financial Reporting Entity." One of Statement 14's objectives is for financial report users to be able to distinguish between the primary government and its component units. (MLF)

  16. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  17. 77 FR 24587 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Entity List person (76 FR 37632, 6/28/2011). Therefore, pursuant to Section 744.11(b)(5) of the EAR, the... List on September 22, 2008 (73 FR 54507). BIS first included IKCO as a listed person under General... CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002), as extended by the Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR 50661 (August...

  18. Design and Construction of an Entity Resolution System that Supports Entity Identity Information Management and Asserted Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eric Derrand

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and construction of an open source, entity resolution system that enables users to assign and maintain persistent identifiers for master data items. Two key features of this system that are not available in current ER systems and that make persistent identification possible are (1) The capture and management of…

  19. 37 CFR 1.28 - Refunds when small entity status is later established; how errors in small entity status are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... patent is involved, separate submissions of deficiency payments (e.g., checks) and itemizations are..., Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF... information: (A) Each particular type of fee that was erroneously paid as a small entity, (e.g.,...

  20. Preclinical imaging: an essential ally in modern biosciences.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Lídia; Horvath, Ildiko; Ferreira, Sara; Lemos, Joana; Costa, Pedro; Vieira, Domingos; Veres, Dániel S; Szigeti, Krisztián; Summavielle, Teresa; Máthé, Domokos; Metello, Luís F

    2014-04-01

    continue to broaden the horizons of research in such key areas as infection, oncology, cardiology, and neurology, contributing not only to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease, but also providing efficient and unique tools for evaluating new chemical entities and candidate drugs. The added value of small-animal imaging techniques has driven their increasing use by pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations, and research institutions. PMID:24146172

  1. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  2. Similitude in modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z

    1999-07-01

    The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the human body using pharmacological compendia and recent scientific works, confirming the mechanism of the homeopathic medicines' action through the verification of the primary action of the drugs and the consequent secondary reaction of the organism in hundreds of pharmaceutical agents. Treatment exploiting the "rebound" effect (curative vital reaction) may also be observed. This work suggests a research methodology to scientifically base the therapeutic principle of similitude. PMID:10449051

  3. Modern carbonate environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

  4. [Modernization of ophthalmoscopic techniques].

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, O; Vallat, M

    1987-01-01

    The great principles of ophthalmoscopy have been known for many decades. This paper intends show the new possibilities allowed by modern technology, especially in two fields. First of all, it is possible, even in keeping basic principles, to improve previous machines with, for example, better magnification, new ophthalmoscopic lens, or to create new materials as telescopes for clinical practice or intra-ocular surgery, wide angle or high magnification fundus cameras for posterior pole examination. Secondary, by revolutionary principles, it is possible to introduce laser in the ophthalmoscopic field and to imagine new ophthalmoscopes: SLO i.e. Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope or SLM i.e. Scanning Laser Microscope, which opens a window on the future. PMID:3598060

  5. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  6. Breazeale Reactor Modernization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, C. C.

    2003-04-16

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor is the longest operating licensed research reactor in the nation. The facility has played a key role in educating scientists, engineers and in providing facilities and services to researchers in many different disciplines. In order to remain a viable and effective research and educational institution, a multi-phase modernization project was proposed. Phase I was the replacement of the 25-year old reactor control and safety system along with associated wiring and hardware. This phase was fully funded by non-federal funds. Tasks identified in Phases II-V expand upon and complement the work done in Phase I to strategically implement state-of-the-art technologies focusing on identified national needs and priorities of the future.

  7. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  8. Modern operative hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Centini, Gabriele; Troia, Libera; Lazzeri, Lucia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is an endoscopic surgical procedure that has become an important tool to evaluate intrauterine pathology. It offers a direct visualization of the entire uterine cavity and provides the possibility of performing biopsy of suspected lesions that can be missed by dilatation and curettage (D&C). In most cases, the intrauterine pathologies can be diagnosed and treated at the same setting as office hysteroscopy ("see and treat approach"). For example, endometrial polyps can be diagnosed and removed; similarly, intrauterine adhesions can be liberated in the outpatient setting without the need for an operating theatre. Today, many hysteroscopic procedures can be performed in the office or outpatient setting. This is due to the feasibility of operative hysteroscopy using saline as a distending medium, the vaginoscopic approach of hysteroscopy and the availability of mini-hysteroscopic endoscopes. There is good evidence to suggest that hysteroscopy in an ambulatory setting is preferable for the patient, and that it avoids complications, allows a quicker recovery time and lowers cost. Advances in technology have led to miniaturization of high-definition hysteroscopes without compromising optical performance, thereby making hysteroscopy a simple, safe and well-tolerated office procedure. The new surgical technology such as bipolar electrosurgery, endometrial ablation devices, hysteroscopic sterilization, and morcellators has revolutionized this surgical modality. The modern development of hysteroscopy completely transformed the approach to the uterine intracavitary pathologies moving from a blind procedure under general anesthesia to an outpatient procedure performed under direct visualization, offering therapeutic and irreplaceable possibilities of treatment that should belong to every modern gynecologist. PMID:26930389

  9. COMPUTING THERAPY FOR PRECISION MEDICINE: COLLABORATIVE FILTERING INTEGRATES AND PREDICTS MULTI-ENTITY INTERACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Regenbogen, Sam; Wilkins, Angela D; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Biomedicine produces copious information it cannot fully exploit. Specifically, there is considerable need to integrate knowledge from disparate studies to discover connections across domains. Here, we used a Collaborative Filtering approach, inspired by online recommendation algorithms, in which non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) predicts interactions among chemicals, genes, and diseases only from pairwise information about their interactions. Our approach, applied to matrices derived from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, successfully recovered Chemical-Disease, Chemical-Gene, and Disease-Gene networks in 10-fold cross-validation experiments. Additionally, we could predict each of these interaction matrices from the other two. Integrating all three CTD interaction matrices with NMF led to good predictions of STRING, an independent, external network of protein-protein interactions. Finally, this approach could integrate the CTD and STRING interaction data to improve Chemical-Gene cross-validation performance significantly, and, in a time-stamped study, it predicted information added to CTD after a given date, using only data prior to that date. We conclude that collaborative filtering can integrate information across multiple types of biological entities, and that as a first step towards precision medicine it can compute drug repurposing hypotheses. PMID:26776170

  10. COMPUTING THERAPY FOR PRECISION MEDICINE: COLLABORATIVE FILTERING INTEGRATES AND PREDICTS MULTI-ENTITY INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    REGENBOGEN, SAM; WILKINS, ANGELA D.; LICHTARGE, OLIVIER

    2015-01-01

    Biomedicine produces copious information it cannot fully exploit. Specifically, there is considerable need to integrate knowledge from disparate studies to discover connections across domains. Here, we used a Collaborative Filtering approach, inspired by online recommendation algorithms, in which non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) predicts interactions among chemicals, genes, and diseases only from pairwise information about their interactions. Our approach, applied to matrices derived from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, successfully recovered Chemical-Disease, Chemical-Gene, and Disease-Gene networks in 10-fold cross-validation experiments. Additionally, we could predict each of these interaction matrices from the other two. Integrating all three CTD interaction matrices with NMF led to good predictions of STRING, an independent, external network of protein-protein interactions. Finally, this approach could integrate the CTD and STRING interaction data to improve Chemical-Gene cross-validation performance significantly, and, in a time-stamped study, it predicted information added to CTD after a given date, using only data prior to that date. We conclude that collaborative filtering can integrate information across multiple types of biological entities, and that as a first step towards precision medicine it can compute drug repurposing hypotheses. PMID:26776170

  11. [Modern disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Müller-Ladner, U; Richter, K; Tarner, I H

    2015-03-01

    The term modern disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) includes not only the constantly growing family of DMARDs for chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases but also the repositioning of established drugs in updated and novel algorithms of the different entities. The usual precursor for these developments is rheumatoid arthritis for which completely revised and updated guidelines have been published not only in Germany but also on the European level. In addition, label extensions to existing drugs have been granted for connective tissue diseases and vasculitides, e.g. anti-CD20 antibodies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides and belimumab for systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, several novel drugs, especially of the biologics class, have been either introduced in clinical rheumatology or are close to being licensed and include ustekinumab for psoriatic arthritis, granulocyte growth inhibitors and janus kinase inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis and atacicept for systemic lupus erythematosus. With the termination of the patent for several biologics, a new momentum also took place: the approval of the so-called biosimilars which has already initiated intensive discussions not only with respect to "similar" effects and side effects but also with respect to their potential impact on economical aspects. PMID:25700648

  12. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  13. Entity-Centric Abstraction and Modeling Framework for Transportation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewe, Jung-Ho; DeLaurentis, Daniel A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive framework for representing transpportation architectures is presented. After discussing a series of preceding perspectives and formulations, the intellectual underpinning of the novel framework using an entity-centric abstraction of transportation is described. The entities include endogenous and exogenous factors and functional expressions are offered that relate these and their evolution. The end result is a Transportation Architecture Field which permits analysis of future concepts under the holistic perspective. A simulation model which stems from the framework is presented and exercised producing results which quantify improvements in air transportation due to advanced aircraft technologies. Finally, a modeling hypothesis and its accompanying criteria are proposed to test further use of the framework for evaluating new transportation solutions.

  14. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Of Pubic Ramus: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ashith; Samant, Prakash D; Varshneya, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Aneurysmal bone cyst is an expansile, lytic, multiloculated, fluid filled cavities which usually occurs in the metaphysis of the long bones. ABC of the pubic ramus is a rare entity.. Case Report: We present a case of a 21 year old male who presented with a swelling of the right inguinal region which was gradually progressive. Radiologically, there was a lytic expansile lesion of the superior pubic ramus. A contrast computed tomography revealed multiloculated cystic cavities and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of ABC. Surgical excision of the complete tumor by anterior approach was done. Till date (2 years since surgery) patient has no recurrence. Conclusion: ABC of pubic ramus is a rare entity and other differentials should always be kept in mind with confirmation of diagnosis by histopathology. Treatment with surgical curettage and bone grafting the defect is curative in selective cases but in this case due to size and location excision is the choice of treatment. PMID:27298931

  15. Strategic bidding for load serving entity in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlZahrani, Hashim A.

    The objective of this thesis is to study different options of load serving entities (LSEs) in electricity markets. Two models of pool-based electricity market have been studied. The difference between them is in the effect of transmission constraints. Transmission Constraints are neglected in the first model. Various bidding scenarios are presented in the first model to study the effect of retail, interruptible, and bidding prices on the profit of single LSE utilizing Monte Carlo simulation method. Genetic algorithm optimization tool is used to get the optimal bidding. In the second model, a new approach is presented to study the impact of transmission constraints (TCs) on the profit of LSE and its bidding strategy utilizing IEEE 30 bus system. Different pricing settlements then tested the effects of TCs to investigate the best pricing option. It has been shown that the first rejected bid settlement is the best selection for load serving entity.

  16. Scrotal Dermatitis - Can we Consider it as a Separate Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ajay; Kar, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Scrotal dermatitis is a very common condition that has been easily overlooked by most dermatologists and treating physicians. The condition is easily mistaken for the common skin disorders affecting the area, like fungal infections. Scrotal dermatitis is not considered a separate disease entity and is usually considered a condition similar to the contact dermatitis occurring elsewhere. This article attempts to classify the condition as a separate disease entity and explains the various etiological factors and the pathogenesis of the condition. The various stages of the condition are also explained in detail. Newer treatment modalities like the use of narrow band UVB for the management of scrotal dermatitis is also highlighted in this article. PMID:24044054

  17. Noncholesteatomatous Cyst of the Tympanic Membrane: A Nonpublished Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; Salas, Isabel; Trinidad, Almudena; Villarreal, Ithzel Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The presence of a serous cyst in the tympanic membrane implies the description of a new or unpublished entity based on our knowledge whose origin may be very unlikely explained on actual embryologic and anatomic background. Clinical Case. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with progressing right hearing loss. Physical examination revealed a whitish, round-shaped malformation in the posterior-inferior quadrant of the right tympanic membrane. The cyst was removed with a transcanal tympanoplasty. Discussion. A thorough PubMed search that involved the terms tympanic membrane gland, epithelial inclusion cysts, mucous-secreting cyst, and tympanic cyst has shown no positive results. The first description of an unknown entity, such as a tympanic membrane serous cyst, may be the key for clinicians to start paying attention to patients who suffer from similar pathologies and may pass unnoticed because of their rarity or peculiarity. PMID:26442163

  18. Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst (OOC) of Condylar Head: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Managutti, Anil; Managutti, Sunita; Patel, Harsh; Menat, Shailesh

    2016-07-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental jaw cyst, considered as distinct entity from odontogenic keratocysts as it exhibits a less aggressive behaviour and a very low rate of recurrence. Most commonly occurs in mandibular molar and ramus region, rarely seen in maxilla and mandibular premolar area. But till now never reported in condyle, this article describes a case of OOC involving the mandibular condylar head in a 41-year-old male. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as TMD based on the clinical features, but radiographic evaluation revealed osteolytic lesion in right side condylar head. Condylotomy was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. We report a rare entity in this article with its management. PMID:27408460

  19. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D.…

  20. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

  1. Teaching Modern Literature: Poetry and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damashek, Richard

    This monograph, part of a series for language arts teachers, discusses the essential components for teaching modern poetry and modern fiction. The section on modern poetry considers traditional versus modern poetry, modernism in poetry, imagism, the function of poetry in modern times, social change in poetry, and offers a brief list of recommended…

  2. Relevance of ancient Indian wisdom to modern mental health – A few examples

    PubMed Central

    Shamasundar, C.

    2008-01-01

    The ancient Indian concepts and paradigms relating to mental health are holistic and cover aspects that have been neglected by the modern mental health literature. The latter can borrow, study, and incorporate them in their text books to advantage. The current trend in mental health research is heavily biased in favour of biological aspects of psychological phenomena neglecting the basic entity, the mind. Correction of this partisan tilt is urgently needed. PMID:19742213

  3. A continuous function model for path prediction of entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, S.; Pray, R.

    2007-04-01

    As militaries across the world continue to evolve, the roles of humans in various theatres of operation are being increasingly targeted by military planners for substitution with automation. Forward observation and direction of supporting arms to neutralize threats from dynamic adversaries is one such example. However, contemporary tracking and targeting systems are incapable of serving autonomously for they do not embody the sophisticated algorithms necessary to predict the future positions of adversaries with the accuracy offered by the cognitive and analytical abilities of human operators. The need for these systems to incorporate methods characterizing such intelligence is therefore compelling. In this paper, we present a novel technique to achieve this goal by modeling the path of an entity as a continuous polynomial function of multiple variables expressed as a Taylor series with a finite number of terms. We demonstrate the method for evaluating the coefficient of each term to define this function unambiguously for any given entity, and illustrate its use to determine the entity's position at any point in time in the future.

  4. Unsupervised entity and relation extraction from clinical records in Italian.

    PubMed

    Alicante, Anita; Corazza, Anna; Isgrò, Francesco; Silvestri, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes and discusses the use of text mining techniques for the extraction of information from clinical records written in Italian. However, as it is very difficult and expensive to obtain annotated material for languages different from English, we only consider unsupervised approaches, where no annotated training set is necessary. We therefore propose a complete system that is structured in two steps. In the first one domain entities are extracted from the clinical records by means of a metathesaurus and standard natural language processing tools. The second step attempts to discover relations between the entity pairs extracted from the whole set of clinical records. For this last step we investigate the performance of unsupervised methods such as clustering in the space of entity pairs, represented by an ad hoc feature vector. The resulting clusters are then automatically labelled by using the most significant features. The system has been tested on a fairly large data set of clinical records in Italian, investigating the variation in the performance adopting different similarity measures in the feature space. The results of our experiments show that the unsupervised approach proposed is promising and well suited for a semi-automatic labelling of the extracted relations. PMID:26851833

  5. Modeling discrete and continuous entities with fractions and decimals.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Monica; Bassok, Miriam; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-03-01

    When people use mathematics to model real-life situations, their use of mathematical expressions is often mediated by semantic alignment (Bassok, Chase, & Martin, 1998): The entities in a problem situation evoke semantic relations (e.g., tulips and vases evoke the functionally asymmetric "contain" relation), which people align with analogous mathematical relations (e.g., the noncommutative division operation, tulips/vases). Here we investigate the possibility that semantic alignment is also involved in the comprehension and use of rational numbers (fractions and decimals). A textbook analysis and results from two experiments revealed that both mathematic educators and college students tend to align the discreteness versus continuity of the entities in word problems (e.g., marbles vs. distance) with distinct symbolic representations of rational numbers--fractions versus decimals, respectively. In addition, fractions and decimals tend to be used with nonmetric units and metric units, respectively. We discuss the importance of the ontological distinction between continuous and discrete entities to mathematical cognition, the role of symbolic notations, and possible implications of our findings for the teaching of rational numbers. PMID:25401267

  6. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-10-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  7. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-08-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  8. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  9. Field emission chemical sensor for receptor/binder, such as antigen/antibody

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  10. Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-11-01

    This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects to regional and national levels. The

  11. The Effect of Realistic Contexts on Ontological Judgments of Novel Entities

    PubMed Central

    Van Reet, Jennifer; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2014-01-01

    Although a great deal of research has focused on ontological judgments in preschoolers, very little has examined ontological judgments in older children. The present study asked 10-year-olds and adults (N = 94) to judge the reality status of known real, known imagined, and novel entities presented in simple and elaborate contexts and to explain their judgments. Although judgments were generally apt, participants were more likely to endorse imagined and novel entities when the entities were presented in elaborate contexts. When asked to explain their reasoning, participants at both ages cited firsthand experience for real entities and general knowledge for imagined entities. For novel entities, participants referred most to indirect experiences when entities were presented in simple contexts and to general knowledge when those entities were presented in elaborate contexts. These results suggest that rich contextual information continues to be an important influence on ontological judgments past the preschool years. PMID:25914442

  12. 40 CFR 33.205 - How does an entity become certified by EPA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards of this subpart. (2) Entities seeking MBE or WBE certification shall cooperate fully with requests.... Perform an on-site visit to local job sites if there are such sites on which the entity is working at...

  13. 78 FR 64234 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... Responsibilities. OMB Approval Number: 2506-0087. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection..., ``Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities'' requires units...

  14. 76 FR 47593 - Guidance for Small Business Entities on Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... a guidance for small business entities entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice... entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP); Small Entity Compliance Guide.'' This... Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  15. 22 CFR 96.78 - Accrediting entity procedures to terminate adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accrediting entity that the deficiencies that led to the adverse action have been corrected. The accrediting... demonstrates to the satisfaction of the accrediting entity that the specific deficiencies that led to...

  16. 22 CFR 96.78 - Accrediting entity procedures to terminate adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accrediting entity that the deficiencies that led to the adverse action have been corrected. The accrediting... demonstrates to the satisfaction of the accrediting entity that the specific deficiencies that led to...

  17. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  18. IGISOL control system modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  19. Modern Written Arabic, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.

    This second volume of Modern Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the modern Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…

  20. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  1. When and What to Modernize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D. Dana

    After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

  2. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. 26.713 Section 26.713 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 26.713 Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. (a) Each licensee and other entity who is...

  3. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. 26.713 Section 26.713 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 26.713 Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. (a) Each licensee and other entity who is...

  4. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. 26.713 Section 26.713 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 26.713 Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. (a) Each licensee and other entity who is...

  5. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. 26.713 Section 26.713 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 26.713 Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. (a) Each licensee and other entity who is...

  6. 42 CFR 405.1885 - Reopening an intermediary determination or reviewing entity decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reviewing entity decision. 405.1885 Section 405.1885 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... reviewing entity decision. (a) General. (1) A Secretary determination, an intermediary determination, or a decision by a reviewing entity (as described in § 405.1801(a) of this subpart) may be reopened,...

  7. 49 CFR 37.41 - Construction of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... public entities. 37.41 Section 37.41 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... transportation facilities by public entities. (a) A public entity shall construct any new facility to be used in providing designated public transportation services so that the facility is readily accessible to and...

  8. 49 CFR 37.41 - Construction of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... public entities. 37.41 Section 37.41 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... transportation facilities by public entities. (a) A public entity shall construct any new facility to be used in providing designated public transportation services so that the facility is readily accessible to and...

  9. 49 CFR 37.41 - Construction of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... public entities. 37.41 Section 37.41 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... transportation facilities by public entities. (a) A public entity shall construct any new facility to be used in providing designated public transportation services so that the facility is readily accessible to and...

  10. 49 CFR 37.41 - Construction of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... public entities. 37.41 Section 37.41 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... transportation facilities by public entities. (a) A public entity shall construct any new facility to be used in providing designated public transportation services so that the facility is readily accessible to and...

  11. 49 CFR 37.163 - Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition: Public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Keeping vehicle lifts in operative condition... lifts in operative condition: Public entities. (a) This section applies only to public entities with respect to lifts in non-rail vehicles. (b) The entity shall establish a system of regular and...

  12. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  13. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  14. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  15. 77 FR 61658 - Designation of Two Entities Pursuant to Executive Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Two Entities Pursuant to Executive Orders AGENCY: Office... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the names of two entities whose property and interests in... Director of OFAC of the two entities named in this notice, pursuant to Executive Order 13619 and...

  16. 78 FR 13761 - Designation of One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13448

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13448 AGENCY... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the name of one entity whose property and interests in... of OFAC of the one entity named in this notice, pursuant to E.O. 13448 is effective February 22,...

  17. 77 FR 25233 - Supplemental Identification Information for One Entity Designated Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Supplemental Identification Information for One Entity Designated... information for one entity whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to Executive Order... the Director of OFAC of the one entity in this notice, pursuant to Executive Order 13224, is...

  18. 75 FR 69742 - Designation of Three Individuals and One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Three Individuals and One Entity Pursuant to Executive... entity and three newly-designated individuals whose property and interests in property are blocked... forth in subsections 1(b), 1(c) or 1(d) of the Order, one entity and three individuals whose...

  19. 37 CFR 201.9 - Recordation of agreements between copyright owners and public broadcasting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... between copyright owners and public broadcasting entities. 201.9 Section 201.9 Patents, Trademarks, and... Recordation of agreements between copyright owners and public broadcasting entities. (a) License agreements... published pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, and one or more public broadcasting entities, and...

  20. 12 CFR 1207.22 - Regulated entity and Office of Finance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated entity and Office of Finance reports. 1207.22 Section 1207.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS... Entities and the Office of Finance § 1207.22 Regulated entity and Office of Finance reports. (a)...